WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology gender equity

  1. Missing Links: Gender Equity in Science and Technology for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In this landmark book, the UN-commissioned Gender Working Group outlines its policy proposals for national science and technology programs. Its goal is to ensure that women and men have equal access to and benefit equally from science and technology. The proposals are supported by essays written by distinguished ...

  2. New Technologies and Gender Equity: New Bottles with Old Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    Educational practice is influenced, in part, by the constant visualization of gender stereotypes throughout society in various forms, in both the old and new technologies. The imagery of computer technology as male turf has been carried into the World Wide Web through graphic advertisements. Male administrators make decisions about school practice…

  3. Gender, equity, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Although equity theory has served as a theoretical framework applying to most individuals in most situations, empirical research suggests that gender may affect the utility of equity theory in explaining organizational behaviors. Studies have indicat...

  4. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  5. Gender Equity On-line: Messages Portrayed with and about the New Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson; And Others

    This paper examines gender messages within advertisements and informational, technology-focused materials that are targeted toward a general population of consumers. The pattern of gender bias in visual messages and stereotyping which prevails in advertising appears to be carrying the same messages from print to television and into the newest…

  6. Gender equity & human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepa, Swarna S

    2007-10-01

    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context.

  7. Taxes and gender equity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brenda Battisti

    questions through an analysis of personal income and consumption taxes in eight countries at different levels of ... Implicit gender biases are also found in consumption taxes, given that males and females have different expenditure patterns. ... and Social Protection in Developing Countries.” The project profile is available at.

  8. Taxation and Gender Equity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Her research areas are macroeconomic issues in public finance, fiscal decentralization, gender budgeting, and human development. ...... Taxes are imposed on gasoline and diesel for transportation and industrial use to compensate for the reduction in tax revenue generated by the production and export of crude oil.

  9. Gender DiVisions Across Technology Advertisements and the WWW: Implications for Educational Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    1998-01-01

    Examines images and patterns of gender stereotypes within mediated and electronic advertisements that reach students online or when viewing computer software and educational television and questions decisions made in the construction of these images. The paper explains the importance of teachers, parents, and the community working together to…

  10. PARTNERSHIPS FOR GENDER EQUITY IN NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    benefits. Higher education institutions, which experience the widest gender equity gaps in education programming have drawn grave attention and various responses being ... Owing to the importance of gender equality in sustainable development, more efforts are ... education in transforming individual lives and societies.

  11. Addressing Gender Equity in Nonfaculty Salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukoushian, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses methodology of gender equity studies on noninstructional employees of colleges and universities, including variable selection in the multiple regression model and alternative approaches for measuring wage gaps. Analysis of staff data at one institution finds that experience and market differences account for 80 percent of gender pay…

  12. Rethinking Gender Equity, Democratic Governance and Millennium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examine the possibility of attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) without gender equity in Nigeria as a society bearing in mind that most of the MDGs are women centered or put differently, they affects mostly the women than the men counterparts. The paper concluded that women are badly treated ...

  13. Gender Equity in Advertising on the World-Wide Web: Can it be Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kevin M.; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    Recent attention to gender equity in computer environments, as well as in print-based and televised advertising for technological products, suggests that gender bias in the computer environment continues. This study examined gender messages within World Wide Web advertisements, specifically the type and number of visual images used in Web banner…

  14. Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2010 ... Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries. Couverture du livre Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes. Directeur(s) : Caren Grown et Imraan Valodia. Maison(s) d'édition : Routledge ...

  15. Need for integration of gender equity in family planning services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh

    2014-11-01

    The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is 'cafeteria approach' in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success.

  16. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  17. Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus Rockett

    2008-12-01

    At the request of the University Materials Council, a national workshop was convened to examine 'Gender Equity Issues in Materials Science and Engineering.' The workshop considered causes of the historic underrepresentation of women in materials science and engineering (MSE), with a goal of developing strategies to increase the gender diversity of the discipline in universities and national laboratories. Specific workshop objectives were to examine efforts to level the playing field, understand implicit biases, develop methods to minimize bias in all aspects of training and employment, and create the means to implement a broadly inclusive, family-friendly work environment in MSE departments. Held May 18-20, 2008, at the Conference Center at the University of Maryland, the workshop included heads and chairs of university MSE departments and representatives of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (DOE-BES), and the national laboratories. The following recommendations are made based on the outcomes of the discussions at the workshop. Many or all of these apply equally well to universities and national laboratories and should be considered in context of industrial environments as well. First, there should be a follow-up process by which the University Materials Council (UMC) reviews the status of women in the field of MSE on a periodic basis and determines what additional changes should be made to accelerate progress in gender equity. Second, all departments should strengthen documentation and enforcement of departmental procedures such that hiring, promotion, compensation, and tenure decisions are more transparent, that the reasons why a candidate was not selected or promoted are clear, and that faculty are less able to apply their biases to personnel decisions. Third, all departments should strengthen mentoring of junior faculty. Fourth, all departments must raise awareness of gender biases

  18. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Mills

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in relation to fertility remains surprisingly sparse. This paper first provides a brief review of previous research that has examined gender roles and fertility followed by a comparison of six promin...

  19. Stimulating Gender Equity Through Female Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Tanzania, like many other countries in Africa, has for a long time suffered from cultural-related gender inequality syndrome where females did not receive the same share of opportunity as males in many aspects of socioeconomic development, notably in education, politics, administration, science and technology.

  20. Education on Risk Management with Gender Equity: Experiences in United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) courses using on-site education and synchronous technologies for distance education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, J.; Marroquín, W.; Villar, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The experiences in two Risk Management courses organised by the Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas" (UCA) and the "América Latina Genera" project of the BCPR-UNDP (Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery of the United Nations Development Programme) are presented focusing on the design of teaching material and the selection and use of information-communication technologies (ICT) during the learning process. The organisation of these courses has posed three main challenges: the integration of a gender-equity approach in a subject that has traditionally lacked of it, the preparation of specialised teaching material for an audience with varied backgrounds and experience, and a widespread distribution of students and lecturers in different countries and with significant differences in ICT resources. These courses have combined tutorials, video-conferences, forums, chats, a media centre with video and podcast, and other resources to allow a close follow-up of the students' progress and strengthen the learning process. A specialised database of information within the "América Latina Genera" project has also been used intensively. Even though the building of capacity has been important, the emphasis of the courses has been on the practical application of projects in the students' work environment and in other real situations. The first course took place between June and December 2008 and consisted of a combination of on-site and distance education. The 15 students that registered the course included officials of local and central government institutions, private consultants, university staff and members of non-governmental organisations. Lecturers from the United States Geological Survey and the International Centre for Geohazards broadcasted videoconferences from the United States and Norway, respectively. The second course started in November 2008 and is scheduled to finish in February 2009. This course has been fully developed using distance education

  1. Gender Blind, Gender-Lite: A Critique of Gender Equity Approaches in the South African Department of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieltiens, Veerle; Unterhalter, Elaine; Letsatsi, Setungoane; North, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Gender equity is one of the foundational principles of the national Department of Education, but there is not a shared understanding of its meaning. Based on interviews conducted in 2008 with officials in the Department of Education, we argue that there are two basic approaches to gender equity. The first, which we term "gender blind",…

  2. Gender Equity and Renewable Energies : Thematic Background Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Oparaocha, Sheila; Roehr, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review existing evidence on the role of renewable energies in bringing gender equity. The paper first explores the evolution of thinking on gender and energy, in particular that practitioners no longer specifically focus on women and stoves (often referred to as

  3. Gender Roles, Gender (Inequality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Mills

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (inequality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in relation to fertility remains surprisingly sparse. This paper first provides a brief review of previous research that has examined gender roles and fertility followed by a comparison of six prominent gender equality indices: Gender-related Development Index (GDI, Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM, Gender Gap Index (GGI, Gender Equality Index (GEI, the European Union Gender Equality Index (EU-GEI and the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI. The paper then tests how five of these indices impact fertility intentions and behaviour using a series of multilevel (random-coefficient logistic regression models, applying the European Social Survey (2004/5. The GDI, with its emphasis on human development, adjusted for gender, has the strongest and significant effect on fertility intentions. The EU-GEI, which focuses on the universal caregiver model, uncovers that more equity significantly lowers fertility intentions, but only for women. The remaining indicators show no significant impact. The paper concludes with a reflection and suggestions for future research.

  4. Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toglia, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…

  5. Gender Equality a case study of Sweden : Gender Equality Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal.

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Tipu

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses Gender Equality, Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal as a case study of Sweden. The aim of paper is see the gender equality, gender equity, discrimination against women at workplace and to describe the policies combating inequality in the welfare state of Sweden. This work highlights the gender equality in terms of institutionalizing gender equality, gender equity, gender and pay gap, parental leave, gender and the pensi...

  6. Cultural value orientation and gender equity: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, gender issues have grabbed substantial attention from social scientists, activists and academic fraternity. Right from family to workplace to society at large, attempts have been initiated to advocate equal rights for women in different spheres of life. Despite social activists and policy makers striving hard towards gender sensitization, gender discrimination still persists in various domains of life. Therefore, there is a strong need to identify the factors that potentially determine people’s attitude towards gender equity. With this very objective, the current study examines existing literature on gender discrimination and its association with Hofstede’s (1980 cultural values. Following the “Gender-Organization-System Approach”, the present study postulates that gender equality or inequality results from a complex interaction of individual, organizational and societal factors and that it cannot be explained in isolation from the broader socio-cultural milieu. Extensive review of literature indicates that cultural values are significant predictors of people’s attitude towards gender equity and that the extent to which people conform to existing gender roles determine how much people support the idea of gender equality. The study has significant practical implications since, by means of detecting such “causal factors”, more positive attitudinal changes can be brought about and gender egalitarian attitudes can be cultivated.

  7. Gender and Equity in e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Coldwell

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature to date suggests contrary indicators of acceptance of the use of technology to support learning by females. With the increasing adoption of information technology to support teaching and learning, it is imperative that factors which may impede student learning are identified. The research reported here is of a large-scale survey of the perceptions of university students about eLearning and their use of the online learning environment. The aim of the survey was to gather data to inform about online learning practices at the University. The results were explored, amongst other factors, by gender. Findings include no significant differences between the female and male students with respect to being able to use the online learning environment confidently and effectively. In general the female students were more willing to participate in online discussions. However, there was no difference between the female and male students regarding their willingness to voice their opinions online. An unexpected result was the greater value placed by female students on using the online environment for communicating and collaborating with students of diverse background.

  8. Bite Like a Flea and Keep Them Scratching: Steps to Gender Equity in America's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Sara W.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses gender issues in U.S. schools, focusing on gender equity at the college level; harassment as a barrier to equity; gender equity at the K-12 level; and what can be done (e.g., interpreting state content standards through a feminist reform perspective, addressing the importance of classroom community and the tendency of many educators to…

  9. Curriculum implications for gender equity in human rights education /|cShan Simmonds.

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, Shan Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The Gender Equity Task Team’s (1997) report, Gender Equity in Education, recommends that further research be done to identify the practices perpetuating inequitable gender relations in classrooms and to provide guidelines for teachers and learners to understand the meaning of the gender issues presented in the curriculum (South Africa, 1997:14&16). This research study echoes some of the desires of The Gender Equity Task Team through an exploration that engages with the extent to which gender ...

  10. Diverting the flow : gender equity and water in South Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Ahmed, S.; Gautam, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    Across the South Asian region, water determines livelihoods and in some cases even survival. However, water also creates exclusions. Access to water, and its social organization, are intimately tied up with power relations. This book provides an overview of gender, equity and water issues relevant

  11. Trade, Gender and Equity in Latin America : Knowledge for Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ongoing trade reforms and economic restructuring in Latin America have implications for gender equity. Trade reforms often trigger or reinforce women's participation in paid labour markets. At the same time, governments often attempt to achieve macroeconomic stability by pulling back from public services, including ...

  12. Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in learning primary science: let's try cooperative small group instructional mode. ... The study investigated the effect of cooperative small group instructional mode on the cognitive achievement of boys and girls in primary science. Eighty-two pupils (41 girls and ...

  13. An Empirical Study about China: Gender Equity in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.

    A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…

  14. Gender Equity: Educational Problems and Possibilities for Female Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Cheryl G.; Schnorr, Donna L.

    Although most women are now working outside the home, gender equity in the labor force has not been achieved. Women are still concentrated in low-paying, traditionally female-dominated occupations (such as clerical and retail sales), while most jobs in the higher paying, more prestigious professions are held by men. Despite attempts to reduce…

  15. Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms : Continuity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couverture du livre Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms: Continuity and Change in South Asia. Author(s):. Swapna Mukhopadhyay et Ratna M. ... Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming therapeutic resistance in high fatality cancers. The world-class research teams will direct their focus ...

  16. Gender Equity in Two-Year Athletic Departments: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staurowsky, Ellen J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the role that female athletes at the community college level played, it is interesting to note that there is little in the way of a comprehensive history of women's college sports at two-year institutions. To situate the current state of gender equity in athletic programs in two-year institutions in context, this article presents a brief…

  17. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.

  18. Australia's Research Quality Framework and Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents quantitative evidence that shows that the introduction of a research assessment scheme similar to the proposed Research Quality Framework (RQF) is likely to exacerbate gender inequity in the Australian university sector. It contributes new measures of gender differences in the publications records of Australian academics. It…

  19. The International Instruments on Gender Pay Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Cher Weixia

    2008-01-01

    Today in the world women are earning around 78% of what men are earning. Gender pay gap ironically is still one major feature of the modern labor market, despite the fact that the right to equal pay is one of the founding principles recognized by the 1945 ILO constitution amendment. Since 1919 the right to equal pay was discussed during the preparation for the ILO constitution, scholars have been constantly making efforts to explore the potential solutions to gender pay differentials...

  20. Gender Equity in the Classroom: An Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jeanne; Hart, Betty L.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that sexist communication (including gender doublespeak and sex role stereotyping) perpetuates social and educational injustices. Discusses classroom communication patterns, how to remove sexist language, and how to become aware of classroom prejudices. Offers techniques to help improve communication skills. (PRA)

  1. Improving Climate and Gender Equity in Physics Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennello, Sherry

    2010-02-01

    We need to open the door of science to women and minorities. We need to invite them in and encourage them to succeed. We need to teach them the secret handshake and transfer all the writing on the men's room walls and all-white country clubs into accessible places. We need to promote them to positions of national prominence. We need to do this out of respect to our mothers and the pioneering scientists who have come before us. We need to do this for our daughters and sons, so that our grandchildren may only know this discrimination as a piece of history. We need to do this now -- for the sake of our country, our science, our technical workforce, our economy and because it is the right thing to do. The Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP) has been helping physics departments improve their climate as a means to enhance gender equity. The CSWP site visit program has been giving departments valuable feedback on their climate for many years. In May 2007, a workshop on ``Gender Equity: Enhancing the Physics Enterprise in Universities and National Laboratories'' was held to address the issue of underrepresentation of women in physics by engaging the stake holders. This fall a new ``Conversation on Gender Equity'' has begun. Successful strategies for improving the climate and increasing the representation of women in physics will be presented. )

  2. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Tanturri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty in explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women's increased labour market participation, to gender equity as the essential link to understand this phenomenon. The increase in women's labour market participation did not prompt an increase in men's domestic duties, which is often referred to women's 'dual burden' or 'second shift'. Institutions and policies within countries also facilitate or constrain the combination of women's employment with fertility. This paper provides an empirical test of gender equity theory by examining whether the unequal division of household labour leads to lower fertility intentions of women in different institutional contexts. Italy constitutes a case of high gender inequity, low female labour market participation and the lowest-low fertility. The Netherlands has moderate to low gender inequity, high part-time female labour market participation and comparatively higher fertility. Using data from the 2003 Italian Multipurpose Survey - Family and Social Actors and the 2004/5 Dutch sample from the European Social Survey, a series of logistic regression models test this theory. A central finding is that the unequal division of household labour only has a significant impact on women's fertility intentions when they already carry the load of high paid work hours or children, a finding that is particularly significant for working women in Italy.

  3. Ethical reflections of gender equality and equity in adolescence medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, P; Caenazzo, L

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences, in both clinical and research environment, exist also in a particular category of patients, adolescents, who constitute a vulnerable group with respect to healthcare decisions. In clinical context, the main ethical issues that may be identified within gender medicine for adolescent patients are related to the information given to the patient and its parents, the adolescent's capacity of understanding considering his/her maturity, vulnerability and autonomy, the consent to medical treatment in relation to the different possible approaches to their different efficacy and possible side effects. Also, with regard to the research context, ethical issues may arise from the participation of female minors in clinical trials. Ethical concerns may also arise in the field of resource allocation in health policies, such as the equitable distribution and access to resources, considering the young age of the subjects involved. A bioethical reflection, which takes into account not only the differences biologically and epidemiologically relevant, but also the main determinants of health in adolescence, might find a role in structured education for diversity and gender equity. Given the magnitude of the problem, to encourage the pursuit of gender equity in health and, in some situations, also to promote the full recognition of the right to health of women are some of the most effective and direct ways to reduce inequalities and to ensure a rational and efficient use of available resources, including through a bioethical reflection on the topic. The Authors show the necessity to differentiate the various aspects of gender differences in adolescence medicine, providing arguments in support of the fact that interventions for health prevention and promotion should be modulated in relation to the gender of the recipients, emphasizing the most important aspects for each group of individuals. This approach could implement personalized medicine, even and especially

  4. Empowerment evaluation of a Swedish gender equity plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gavriilidis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empowerment is essential for gender equity and health. The city of Malmö, Sweden, has formulated a development plan for gender equity integration (GEIDP. A ‘Policy Empowerment Index’ (PEI was previously developed to assess the empowerment potential of policies. Objectives: To pilot-evaluate the GEIDP's potential for empowerment and to test the PEI for future policy evaluations. Design: The GEIDP was analyzed and scored according to electronically retrieved evidence on constituent opinion, participation, capacity development, evaluation–adaptation, and impact. Results: The plan's PEI score was 64% (CI: 48–78 and was classified as ‘enabling’, ranging between ‘enabling’ and ‘supportive’. The plan's strengths were: 1 constituent knowledge and concern; 2 peripheral implementation; 3 protection of vulnerable groups; and 4 evaluation/adaptation procedures. It scored average on: 1 policy agenda setting; 2 planning; 3 provisions for education; 4 network formation; 5 resource mobilization. The weakest point was regarding promotion of employment and entrepreneurship. Conclusions: The PEI evaluation highlighted the plan's potential of constituency empowerment and proposed how it could be augmented.

  5. "Kairos" and the Time of Gender Equity Policy in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago the Australian government released "Gender Equity: A Framework for Australian Schools" (1997). It was adopted by all states but almost immediately disappeared from sight after a conservative change of government. This was followed by the dismantling of gender equity units in each state, and a turn to boys' education…

  6. Gender Equality and Equity at the University of Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the approaches and initiatives for gender equality and equity at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). It argues that these approaches and initiatives are a reflection and a follow-up of gender equality and equity initiatives and strategies undertaken at global, regional, and national levels. However ...

  7. Barbie Against Superman: Gender Stereotypes and Gender Equity in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü AKSU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this age of mass media, we are surrounded with images that promote certain genderroles. These hidden forces shape us and our world view, often without us being aware thatthey are doing so. Gender stereotypes occur when generic attributes, opinions or roles havebeen applied toward either gender and the results are apparent everywhere in our society.From the point of view of education, it is important to use and/or to refuse genderstereotypes in the classroom.Since education is a significant social area where gender segregation and the reproductionof gender stereotypes are generated, there is, without doubt, much can be done in this areato prevent this phenomenon. As gender equity, is prevalent part of our society, teachersmust help their students identify where it exists in the classroom and school environment.

  8. Examining Faculty Awards for Gender Equity and Evolving Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbuhl, Stephanie; Bristol, Mirar N.; Ashfaq, Hera; Scott, Patricia; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Cappola, Anne R.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Awards given to medical school faculty are one important mechanism for recognizing what is valued in academic medicine. There have been concerns expressed about the gender distribution of awards, and there is also a growing appreciation for the evolving accomplishments and talents that define academic excellence in the 21st century and that should be considered worthy of award recognition. OBJECTIVE Examine faculty awards at our institution for gender equity and evolving values. METHODS Recipient data were collected on awards from 1996 to 2007 inclusively at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (SOM). Descriptions of each award also were collected. The female-to-male ratio of award recipients over the time span was reviewed for changes and trends. The title and text of each award announcement were reviewed to determine if the award represented a traditional or a newer concept of excellence in academic medicine. MAIN RESULTS There were 21 annual awards given to a total of 59 clinical award recipients, 60 research award recipients, and 154 teaching award recipients. Women received 28% of research awards, 29% of teaching awards and 10% of clinical awards. Gender distribution of total awards was similar to that of SOM full-time faculty except in the clinical awards category. Only one award reflected a shift in the culture of individual achievement to one of collaboration and team performance. CONCLUSION Examining both the recipients and content of awards is important to assure they reflect the current composition of diverse faculty and the evolving ideals of leadership and excellence in academic medicine. PMID:19727968

  9. International Year of the Family 1994: Family and Gender Equity in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1994-01-01

    Advances 14 general propositions on family and gender equity that seek to promote gender equality; an end to female genital mutilation; an awareness of sexually transmitted diseases; responsible parenthood and parent education; healthy gender relations; compulsory education for both sexes; and acceptance of unmarried or divorced adults, single…

  10. Inquiry learning for gender equity using History of Science in Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is the selection and integration of objectives and methods of education for gender equity within the Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments in the current portuguese frameworks of middle and high school. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting gender equity, mainly focusing in relevant 20th century women-scientists with a huge contribute to the History of Science. The hands-on and minds-on activities proposed for high scholl students of Life and Earth Sciences onstitute a learnig environment enriched in features of science by focusing on the work of two scientists: Lynn Margulis (1938-2011  and her endosymbiosis theory of the origin of life on Earth and Inge Leehman (1888-1993 responsible for a breakthrough regarding the internal structure of Earth, by caracterizing a discontinuity within the nucleus, contributing to the current geophysical model. For middle scholl students the learning environment includes Inge Leehman and Mary Tharp (1920-2006 and her first world map of the ocean floor. My strategy includes features of science, such as: theory-laden nature of scientific knowledge, models, values and socio-scientific issues, technology contributes to science and feminism.  In conclusion, I consider that this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by other teachers, of active inquiry strategies focused on features of science within a framework of social responsibility of science, as well as the basis for future research.

  11. Unfinished Business: Re-Positioning Gender on the Education Equity Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Judith; Tranter, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The long-standing relationship between social disadvantage and poor educational outcomes continues to preoccupy educational policy-makers, with teachers at the front line of the ongoing struggle. Across the range of equity concerns, gender may be noted as either qualifying disadvantage or compounding it, but the meaning of gender as a simple…

  12. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  13. Promoting Gender Equity in Middle Level and Secondary School Sports Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Laurie; Summerfield, Liane M.

    1995-01-01

    Recent Title IX lawsuits have highlighted colleges' and universities' vulnerability to claims of gender discrimination in intercollegiate athletics. Middle and secondary schools are equally vulnerable. Gender equity encompasses accommodation of athletic interests, funding, equipment and supplies, scheduling, coaching opportunities, coach salaries…

  14. Linkages between gender equity and intimate partner violence among urban Brazilian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S; Moracco, Kathryn E

    2011-10-01

    Gender inequity is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), although there is little research on this relationship that focuses on youth or males. Using survey data collected from 240 male and 198 female youth aged 15-24 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we explore the association between individual-level support for gender equity and IPV experiences in the past 6 months and describe responses to and motivations for IPV. Factor analysis was used to construct gender equity scales for males and females. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between gender equity and IPV. About half of female youth reported some form of recent IPV, including any victimization (32%), any perpetration (40%), and both victimization and perpetration (22%). A total of 18% of male youth reported recently perpetrating IPV. In logistic regression models, support for gender equity had a protective effect against any female IPV victimization and any male IPV perpetration and was not associated with female IPV perpetration. Female victims reported leaving the abusive partner, but later returning to him as the most frequent response to IPV. Male perpetrators said the most common response of their victims was to retaliate with violence. Jealousy was the most frequently reported motivation of females perpetrating IPV. Gender equity is an important predictor of IPV among youth. Examining the gendered context of IPV will be useful in the development of targeted interventions to promote gender equity and healthy relationships and to help reduce IPV among youth. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender and the Perceived Equity - Perceived Organizational Support Link in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hossameldin KHALIFA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the relationships between perceived internal and external salary equities as independent variables, and perceived organizational support (POS as a dependent variable among Egyptian employees. Another objective was to investigate the moderation effect of gender on the aforementioned relationships. Data was obtained using a direct survey of 115 Egyptian employees drawn from a variety of industries. Findings suggest that both facets of perceived salary equity (internal and external have positive relationships with POS. Findings further suggest that the relationship between perceived internal salary equity and POS is stronger among males. Theoretical contributions, study limitations, as well as recommendations for future research are discussed.

  16. Perceived Equity in the Gendered Division of Household Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Michael; Lewin-Epstein, Noah; Stier, Haya; Baumgartner, Miriam K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite huge imbalances in the division of housework between women and men, previous studies have found perceptions of equity on the part of women to be much more frequent than feelings of injustice. Taking a comparative perspective on the basis of International Social Survey Program (ISSP) 2002 data (N = 8,556), we find that, on the individual…

  17. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  18. Organizational climate with gender equity and burnout among university academics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taka, Fumiaki; Nomura, Kyoko; Horie, Saki; Takemoto, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Masumi; Takenoshita, Shinichi; Murakami, Aya; Hiraike, Haruko; Okinaga, Hiroko; Smith, Derek R

    2016-12-07

    We investigated relationships between the perception of organizational climate with gender equity and psychological health among 94 women and 211 men in a Japanese private university in 2015 using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (i.e., personal, work-related and student-related burnout). Perceptions of organizational climate with respect to gender equity were measured with two scales including organizational engagement with a gender equal society in the workplace (consisting of three domains of 'Women utilization', 'Organizational promotion of gender equal society' and 'Consultation service'); and a gender inequality in academia scale that had been previously developed. Multivariable linear models demonstrated significant statistical interactions between gender and perceptions of organizational climate; 'Women utilization' or lack of 'Inequality in academia' alleviated burnout only in women. In consequence of this gender difference, when 'Women utilization' was at a lower level, both personal (p=.038) and work-related (p=.010) burnout scores were higher in women, and the student-related burnout score was lower in women when they perceived less inequality in academia than in men (p=.030). As such, it is suggested organizational fairness for gender equity may be a useful tool to help mitigate psychological burnout among women in academia.

  19. Impact of a workplace intervention on attitudes and practices related to gender equity in Bengaluru, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Gambhir, Shalini; Luecke, Ellen; Jagannathan, Latha

    2016-10-01

    We describe the evaluation of a participatory, garment factory-based intervention to promote gender equity. The intervention comprised four campaigns focused on gender and violence against women, alcoholism, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV/AIDS, which were implemented using information displays (standees and posters) and interactive methods (street play, one-to-one interactions, experience-sharing, and health camps). Each campaign lasted six days and the entire intervention was implemented over 10 months. We evaluated the intervention using a quasi-experimental design in which one factory served as the intervention site and a second as a delayed control. Two mobile-phone-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and 12 months with separate systematic random samples of employees from each site. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and attitudes related to gender equity, intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use were assessed, and differences in these variables associated with the intervention were examined using difference-in-difference estimation. Analyses of data from 835 respondents revealed substantial, statistically significant improvements in attitudes related to gender equity, unacceptability of IPV, and awareness of IPV and alcohol-related support services. In conclusion, our study offers compelling evidence on the effectiveness of workplace-based interventions in advancing gender equity.

  20. A Sociological Framework to Address Gender Equity in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mary Anne

    2017-04-01

    Lack of equity in the science workforce is a sociological problem; those wishing to seek its amelioration can benefit by viewing the issue with a sociological lens (and a sociologist). One useful framework that we have used to think strategically about how to lower barriers to equity is Barbara Risman's (2004): this framework views barriers to equity as individual, interpersonal ("interactional"), and institutional. Any given barrier may fit into one or more of these frames. Individual barriers include those intrinsic to an individual and may include: lack of access to vital networks and mentors, lack of preparation, etc. Such barriers can be addressed through mentoring programs and attention to building networks (e.g., through professional society memberships). Interpersonal or "interactional" barriers are those that arise from how we perceive and treat one another. Implicit bias underlies many of these barriers, including whether we perceive women as scientists, as competent, as dedicated (etc) as men. Such barriers can be reduced through implicit bias awareness. Institutional barriers arise from the structure and history of the academy itself, from its policies and procedures. Many such policies and procedures have a differential impact on men or women, generally without that intention. Policies that reduce equity barriers include family leave, childcare facilities, search committee training, clearly articulated practices for evaluation of applications and personnel reviews, equal starting pay and startup packages, equable canvassing for names to consider for nominations for honors and awards, to name a few. By viewing the issue through such a framework, the appropriate response can be generated for a more effective result.

  1. The Administration of Feminism in Education: Revisiting and Remembering Narratives of Gender Equity and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Julie

    2017-01-01

    This article examines challenges in writing histories of feminist reforms in schooling and educational administration. The focus is gender equity reforms in Australian schools since the 1970s, looking at how those earlier interventions are now remembered, represented and forgotten, in policy memory and collective narratives. Such feminist…

  2. Gender Equity in College Athletics: How Far Have We Really Come in Twenty Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Julie Dunn; Strope, John L.

    1996-01-01

    Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in educational institutions receiving any federal funds. Until 1988, college athletics were exempt from compliance. Examines the results of some recent court cases to see how the law was interpreted and concludes what schools should do to be proactive in the struggle for gender equity in collegiate sports. (72…

  3. California State U. Campuses Struggle to Comply with Gender-Equity Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selingo, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Almost three years after the California State University System settled a sex-discrimination lawsuit by acceding to the strictest gender-equity standards in college sports, only 2 of the 19 institutions sponsoring athletic programs have met the agreement's terms. Some feel the agreement, based on proportionality of participation and funding for…

  4. UCI Computer Arts: Building Gender Equity while Meeting ISTE NETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Kimberly Bisbee

    Multimedia computer learning activities, when designed according to what is known about children's preferences, may help close the gender gap in attitudes about computer usage in schools. This paper includes: a brief overview of gender-gap research; a description of one response--the UCI (University of California Irvine) Computer Arts program,…

  5. Gender Equity and Empowerment in Nigeria: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the tremendous efforts by the Nigeria government over the past three decades to increase educational opportunities for males and females, gender challenges still lie ahead if the goal of Education for All is to be achieved. The paper, therefore, set to discuss the significant persistent gender gap in the educational ...

  6. Partnerships for Gender Equity in Nigerian Universities: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growing salience of gender in African political and intellectual landscapes has had impacts in the education sector. Education, identified as one most important single factor, for closing the wide gender gap, has been targeted to it political and socio-economic benefits. Higher education institutions, which experience the ...

  7. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2010 ... This book makes a substantial contribution to this new awareness by emphasizing the important role that gender, like other social stratifications such as race ... This book presents original research on the gender dimensions of personal income taxes, value-added excise and fuel taxes in Argentina, Ghana, ...

  8. 302 Gender Equity and Empowerment in Nigeria: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... gender sensitive. Gender relationship is a vital practice that influences the lives of men and women in any society. It is so important that it affects the ... knowledgeable enough to become self- reliant, self-sufficient and develop the .... greater emphasis on collaboration, cooperation and other 'feminine'.

  9. Perception of gender equity in the classroom among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education plays a major role in the preparation of young people for full participation in the society. Over the past few decades, gender equality in access to education has improved. However, there is still great inequality in the representation of the genders in certain educational fields and occupations. The study investigated ...

  10. Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms: Continuity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By expanding the existing set of indicators to include gender-related stress, anxiety, and violence, this book introduces a new framework for gender research. The viability of this new approach is demonstrated through a coordinated set of household surveys, carried out in Export Processing Zones and Export Processing ...

  11. The challenges of achieving gender equity in a government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, both managers and non-managers agree that transformational leadership should be considered in addressing gender issues. The study recommends open and better communication of policies that spell out criteria for advancement, support programmes as well as coaching and mentoring. Keywords: Gender ...

  12. Achieving Speaker Gender Equity at the American Society for Microbiology General Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-08-04

    In 2015, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) General Meeting essentially achieved gender equity, with 48.5% of the oral presentations being given by women. The mechanisms associated with increased female participation were (i) making the Program Committee aware of gender statistics, (ii) increasing female representation among session convener teams, and (iii) direct instruction to try to avoid all-male sessions. The experience with the ASM General Meeting shows that it is possible to increase the participation of female speakers in a relatively short time and suggests concrete steps that may be taken to achieve this at other meetings. Public speaking is very important for academic advancement in science. Historically women have been underrepresented as speakers in many scientific meetings. This article describes concrete steps that were associated with achieving gender equity at a major meeting. Copyright © 2015 Casadevall.

  13. Gender Equity: Womens Political Empowerment In South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Opportunity Act (1987) and the Gender Discrimination Prevention and Relief Act (1999), designed to bring equality between sexes .64 In Korea...Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is “used in advocating for women’s equal political participation in Asia -Pacific...Male Superiority, and Korean Women in Politics: Changing Gender Relations in a “patriarchal Democracy.”“ Sex Roles 28, no. 1–2 (1993): 74. 48

  14. Looking twice at the gender equity index for public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sáez, José; Ruiz-Cantero, Maria Teresa; Guijarro-Garví, Marta; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Roca-Pérez, Victoria; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2013-07-16

    It has been shown that gender equity has a positive impact on the everyday activities of people (decision making, income allocation, application and observance of norms/rules) which affect their health. Gender equity is also a crucial determinant of health inequalities at national level; thus, monitoring is important for surveillance of women's and men's health as well as for future health policy initiatives. The Gender Equity Index (GEI) was designed to show inequity solely towards women. Given that the value under scrutiny is equity, in this paper a modified version of the GEI is proposed, the MGEI, which highlights the inequities affecting both sexes. Rather than calculating gender gaps by means of a quotient of proportions, gaps in the MGEI are expressed in absolute terms (differences in proportions). The Spearman's rank coefficient, calculated from country rankings obtained according to both indexes, was used to evaluate the level of concordance between both classifications. To compare the degree of sensitivity and obtain the inequity by the two methods, the variation coefficient of the GEI and MGEI values was calculated. Country rankings according to GEI and MGEI values showed a high correlation (rank coef. = 0.95). The MGEI presented greater dispersion (43.8%) than the GEI (19.27%). Inequity towards men was identified in the education gap (rank coef. = 0.36) when using the MGEI. According to this method, many countries shared the same absolute value for education but with opposite signs, for example Azerbaijan (-0.022) and Belgium (0.022), reflecting inequity towards women and men, respectively. This also occurred in the empowerment gap with the technical and professional job component (Brunei:-0.120 vs. Australia, Canada Iceland and the U.S.A.: 0.120). The MGEI identifies and highlights the different areas of inequities between gender groups. It thus overcomes the shortcomings of the GEI related to the aim for which this latter was created, namely measuring

  15. Gendered Universities and the Wage Gap: Case Study of a Pay Equity Audit in an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Jan; Hill, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    Studies worldwide have found that women's pay lags behind men's in academia. This article describes pay equity policies in Australia and overseas and the use of a pay equity audit as a strategic tool to reduce gender inequities at The University of Western Australia (UWA). As a research-intensive university, UWA resembles similar universities…

  16. The gender gap in sport performance: equity influences equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Halson, Shona; Myburgh, Kathryn H; Ogasawara, Etsuko; Millard-Stafford, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Sport is recognized as playing a relevant societal role to promote education, health, intercultural dialogue, and the individual development, regardless of an individual's gender, race, age, ability, religion, political affiliation, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic background. Yet, it was not until the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London that every country's delegation included a female competitor. The gender gap in sport, although closing, remains, due to biological differences affecting performance, but it is also influenced by reduced opportunity and sociopolitical factors that influence full female participation across a range of sports around the world. Until the cultural environment is equitable, scientific discussion related to physiological differences using methods that examine progression in male and female world-record performances is limited. This commentary is intended to provide a forum to discuss issues underlying gender differences in sport performance from a global perspective and acknowledge the influence of cultural and sociopolitical factors that continue to ultimately affect female performance.

  17. Role of civil society, people's participation and gender equity in food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the views of an Australian demographer on the role of civil society, community participation, and gender equity in food security as a chief conference discussant. Professor Jones stated that sufficient food supplies did not assure equitable food accessibility. Food insecurity was greatest among poor and marginalized groups. Access to food was limited by limited purchasing power of populations, uneven income distribution, and inadequate storage and transportation systems. Food security was tied to the degree of political participation of a population in processes and plans that affected their lives. Cohesiveness of a society was related to the vulnerability of the poor during times of food scarcity. The greatest threats to socioeconomic development and to food security were from civil disorder or unrest. Governments are becoming aware of women's role in food production. This role in the past was obscured by data that were not aggregated by sex and that understated the importance of women's role. Women's invisible role in food production resulted in women's exclusion from cultural extension programs, credit schemes, and knowledge about improved technology. Women's participation in credit programs was linked with women's general level of empowerment and community participation. Research findings indicate that increases in women's status were associated with more even access to educational opportunities for women. Increased educational level was associated with improved family nutrition, higher economic productivity, and lower fertility, and consequently, better food security.

  18. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-06-10

    Jun 10, 2010 ... This book presents original research on the gender dimensions of personal income taxes, value-added excise and fuel taxes in Argentina, Ghana, India, Mexico, Morocco, South Africa, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. It will be of interest to postgraduates and researchers studying public finance, ...

  19. Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immediately after attaining independence in 1980, Zimbabwe, like most developing countries, alluded to the eradication of all forms of inequalities in its society, including gender inequalities in education. Such imbalances were caused mainly by the patriarchal family system as well as the colonial policies. This paper is an ...

  20. Education Policies for Gender Equity: Probing into State Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of non-discriminatory sex legislation provides theoretical and empirical grounds to examine responses by the state to gender equality. Tracing the trajectory of one such law in the U.S.--Title IX--over a period of 40 years, this study analyzes the extent to which the state: (1) acted as a unitary body, and (2) functioned to…

  1. Gender-Equity and Reproductive Behaviour in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the impact of gender differences on couples' reproductive behaviour. The study was conducted in Ikeja, Ojo, Epe respectively representing urban, semi-urban and rural local government areas of Lagos State. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multi-stage sampling procedure was ...

  2. Opinions of Women in School Administration on Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    Research points to a current and growing shortage of school leaders, yet qualified women are still under represented in school administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of female principals in the state of Missouri regarding gender bias. Data were collected using a 20 question survey sent electronically to all 980…

  3. Using decision trees for measuring gender equity in the timing of angiography in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a novel approach to equity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Arlene S; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Levinton, Carey M

    2015-12-23

    Methods to measure or quantify equity in health care remain scarce, if not difficult to interpret. A novel method to measure health equity is presented, applied to gender health equity, and illustrated with an example of timing of angiography in patients following a hospital admission for an acute coronary syndrome. Linked administrative hospital discharge and survey data was used to identify a retrospective cohort of patients hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) between 2002 and 2008 who also responded to the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), was analyzed using decision trees to determine whether gender impacted the delay to angiography following an ACS. Defining a delay to angiography as 1 day or more, resulted in a non-significant difference in an equity score of 0.14 for women and 0.12 for men, where 0 and 1 represents perfect equity and inequity respectively. Using 2 and 3 day delays as a secondary outcome resulted in women and men producing scores of 0.19 and 0.17 for a 2 day delay and 0.22 and 0.23 for a 3 day delay. A technique developed expressly for measuring equity suggests that men and women in Ontario receive equitable care in access to angiography with respect to timeliness following an ACS.

  4. Pile sorting innovations: exploring gender norms, power and equity in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourey, Christine; Stephenson, Rob; Bartel, Doris; Rubardt, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    Understanding gender norms, power and equity is important for developing successful sexual and reproductive health interventions. However, little attention has been given to how to capture the gender ideals and imbalances that inform these relationships in low resource settings. Pile sorting exercises were conducted in four gender-segregated focus groups in Ethiopia and Kenya. Each group received cards illustrated with a man, woman and man and woman together and cards labelled with duties and decisions. Participants discussed and decided together whether men, women or both performed each duty and decision and assigned the cards accordingly. Participants then reflected on and physically manipulated the piles to challenge gender norms, investigate role flexibility and identify agents of social change. Data collected included photographs of the pile sorts and recordings of the discussions. Conducting pile sorting within focus group discussions enabled comparative analyses of gender norms, while enriching data by focusing discussions and encouraging consensus building. Innovative applications facilitated participants' abilities to engage abstract concepts, reflecting on issues of gender norms, power and equity.

  5. Gender equity in physical education: The use of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar del Castillo Andrés

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed Spanish teachers' behavior and the transmission of gender stereotypes. We observed 48 physical education lessons given by four Spanish teachers (two men and two women. Descriptive codes, which were generated iteratively, were clustered, categorized, integrated, recoded, and re-categorized. They allowed us to identify four major themes related to the transmission of gender stereotypes of teachers: male generics, stereotyped expressions, nominative attention, and priority order. We used a coding sheet as well as audio and video recordings to register the categories. The Kruskal-Wallis test produced significance levels lower than .05, resulting in the rejection of the null hypothesis. Sexist behavior was found in the male generics, nominative attention, and priority order. However, we found no difference in stereotyped expressions.

  6. Promoting Gender Equity in STEM: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    This presentation will begin by briefly reviewing data on the current status of women in STEM disciplines: degrees earned, careers pursued, obstacles encountered. Next, it will draw on social science research to illuminate a variety of underlying causes for gender disparities in STEM. These, in turn, will be shown to suggest an array of concrete actions that individual scientists, group leaders, and institutions can take to improve gender diversity; a few that the speaker has found especially effective in her role as a college dean will be noted. While the primary focus of the talk will be on women in physics, some of the broader issues encountered by sexual and gender minorities in STEM will also be discussed. In the remainder of the presentation, two particular interventions in which the speaker has been involved for the past several years will be covered in more detail: one aimed at building career skills of women physicists in developing nations and the other aimed at improving the climate for LGBT physicists here in the United States. These illustrate the wide array of opportunities open to all of us for making our field more inclusive.

  7. Gender equity: women’s political empowerment in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Sila

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited South Korea has undergone many drastic transformations from the time the state formally emerged in 1948 until now, becoming a thriving democracy and the world’s 12th-largest economy. Women in South Korea have enjoyed many aspects of this recovery and rise. According to the 2013 World Economic Forum’s Annual Gender Gap Index, South Korea’s women today have the highest literacy and healthy life expectancy rates in the world. Yet accordin...

  8. Religious and cultural issues in gender equity: implication for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development as unfounded as facts on ground revealed that a lot of women have excelled in different sciences and technology oriented disciplines and have displayed such skills at different national and international fora. It is also the view of this paper ...

  9. Teaching Cell and Molecular Biology for Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sible, Jill C.; Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social…

  10. Religious and cultural issues in gender equity: implication for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education and Culture of any country determine its developmental rate. Culture affects the way women participate in social, physical and psychologically oriented functions. This paper reviews the status of women in science and technology education, discusses the religious and cultural impediments on women in science ...

  11. religious and cultural issues in gender equity: implication for science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    status of women in science and technology education, discusses the religious and cultural impediments .... strong, brave and rough, staying away from home more and being more interested in sport. There are also cultural differences and attitudes towards male and ... It changes overtime, reflecting social realities in a.

  12. Gender Equity in Physics Practice: The Indian Context & the Social Impact of Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Prajval

    2015-04-01

    The gender gap in the physics profession that is seen world-wide has been attributed to multiple factors. The applicability of these factors is explored in the context of physics practice in India, using available empirical investigations and theoretical insights from gender studies. Indications are that girls are as interested in science as boys at the high-school level. In the profession, however, there is a significant gender gap. Data show that it is caused not only by the discriminatory familial responsibilities that women encounter in their personal lives, but also by gender-discriminatory attitudes in the scientific workplace. Although the Government of India, which is the major funder of scientific research and higher education, has acknowledged the gender disparity and initiated several measures to address it, these measures also come from a gendered perspective, and are therefore likely to be limited in their long-term effectiveness. Policy measures must address the gender discrimination in the workplace as well in order to achieve gender equity.

  13. Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms : Continuity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Swapna Mukhopadhyay est directrice de projet du Réseau sur les genres et, depuis 1984, directrice de l'Institute of Social Studies Trust (ISST) à New Delhi, en Inde. Elle détient un doctorat en économie du Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), et a fait des études approfondies sur la pauvreté, les genres et le ...

  14. Opening the Gender Diversity Black Box: Causality of Perceived Gender Equity & Locus of Control and Mediation of Work Engagement in Employee Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha R. Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout. Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalising the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity.

  15. Opening the gender diversity black box: causality of perceived gender equity and locus of control and mediation of work engagement in employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radha R; Sharma, Neha P

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalizing the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity.

  16. Observing the gender condition during technology transfer of solar oven training in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herliyani Suharta; Abdullah, K.

    2006-01-01

    Indonesian Sun Cooking via skill-training Technology Transfer of Solar Cooker has been undertaken since 1995. This community educational approach is expected could raise the local awareness on the need of gender equity for a better sustainable development. Quantitative survey with a multiple choices system is selected. Questionnaire was designed to investigate in depth the attitude of the participants. This questionnaire comes up with a positive result on gender equity. Therefore, it is proposed to disseminate this training as widely as possible as a vehicle for changing people ideas about their conventional role

  17. Gender and Education for All: Progress and Problems in Achieving Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisamya, Grace; DeJaeghere, Joan; Kendall, Nancy; Khan, Marufa Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of rapid increases in gender parity in primary schooling in Bangladesh and Malawi on gender inequities in schools and communities. Based on an analysis of comparative case studies of marginalized communities, we argue that educational initiatives focused on achieving gender parity provide limited evidence that girls'…

  18. Sex and Gender Equity in Research: rationale for the SAGER guidelines and recommended use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shirin; Babor, Thomas F; De Castro, Paola; Tort, Sera; Curno, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men. This article describes the rationale for an international set of guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines. A panel of 13 experts representing nine countries developed the guidelines through a series of teleconferences, conference presentations and a 2-day workshop. An internet survey of 716 journal editors, scientists and other members of the international publishing community was conducted as well as a literature search on sex and gender policies in scientific publishing. The Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines are a comprehensive procedure for reporting of sex and gender information in study design, data analyses, results and interpretation of findings. The SAGER guidelines are designed primarily to guide authors in preparing their manuscripts, but they are also useful for editors, as gatekeepers of science, to integrate assessment of sex and gender into all manuscripts as an integral part of the editorial process.

  19. [Sex and Gender Equity in Research: rationale for the SAGER guidelines and recommended use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shirin; Babor, Thomas F; Castro, Paola De; Tort, Sera; Curno, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men. This article describes the rationale for an international set of guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines. A panel of 13 experts representing nine countries developed the guidelines through a series of teleconferences, conference presentations and a 2-day workshop. An internet survey of 716 journal editors, scientists and other members of the international publishing community was conducted as well as a literature search on sex and gender policies in scientific publishing. The Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines are a comprehensive procedure for reporting of sex and gender information in study design, data analyses, results and interpretation of findings. The SAGER guidelines are designed primarily to guide authors in preparing their manuscripts, but they are also useful for editors, as gatekeepers of science, to integrate assessment of sex and gender into all manuscripts as an integral part of the editorial process.

  20. Examining gender equity in health policies in a low- (Peru), middle- (Colombia), and high- (Canada) income country in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donna E; Dorado, Linda M; Diaz-Granados, Natalia; Rondon, Marta; Saavedra, Javier; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda

    2009-12-01

    Gender inequities in health prevail in most countries despite ongoing attempts to eliminate them. Assessment of gender-sensitive health policies can be used to identify country specific progress as well as gaps and issues that need to be addressed to meet health equity goals. This study selected and measured the existence of gender-sensitive health policies in a low- (Peru), middle- (Colombia), and high (Canada)-income country in the Americas. Investigators selected 10 of 20 gender-sensitive health policy indicators and found eight to be feasible to measure in all three countries, although the wording and scope varied. The results from this study inform policy makers and program planners who aim to develop, improve, implement, and monitor national gender-sensitive health policies. Future studies should assess the implementation of policy indicators within countries and assess their performance in increasing gender equity.

  1. Gender Equity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Discipline WHY and HO. Discipline. WHY and HO points presentation is a ing numerical problems are solved! p will be necessary but ecific to sectors and ... Sciences tribution of fellowship. : Men Percentage. 1002 6.8%. 60. 23%. 60. 23%. 60 23%. 78. 7%. 78. 7%. 187. 3%. 187. 3%. 161. 1%. 161. 1%. 161. 1%. 161. 1%.

  2. Gender, sexuality and the discursive representation of access and equity in health services literature: implications for LGBT communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonnell Judith A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1 to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2 to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. Results A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1 multicultural discourse, and 2 diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3 social determinants of health (SDOH discourse; 4 anti-oppression (AOP discourse; and 5 citizen/social rights discourse. Conclusions The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress

  3. Gender, sexuality and the discursive representation of access and equity in health services literature: implications for LGBT communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Andrea E; Macdonnell, Judith A

    2011-09-29

    This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1) to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2) to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1) multicultural discourse, and 2) diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3) social determinants of health (SDOH) discourse; 4) anti-oppression (AOP) discourse; and 5) citizen/social rights discourse. The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress organizational assumptions about, and ideological commitments to

  4. Gender, sexuality and the discursive representation of access and equity in health services literature: implications for LGBT communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1) to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2) to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. Results A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1) multicultural discourse, and 2) diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3) social determinants of health (SDOH) discourse; 4) anti-oppression (AOP) discourse; and 5) citizen/social rights discourse. Conclusions The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress organizational assumptions

  5. Assisted reproductive technologies and equity of access issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M M

    2005-05-01

    In Australia and other countries, certain groups of women have traditionally been denied access to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). These typically are single heterosexual women, lesbians, poor women, and those whose ability to rear children is questioned, particularly women with certain disabilities or who are older. The arguments used to justify selection of women for ARTs are most often based on issues such as scarcity of resources, and absence of infertility (in lesbians and single women), or on social concerns: that it "goes against nature"; particular women might not make good mothers; unconventional families are not socially acceptable; or that children of older mothers might be orphaned at an early age. The social, medical, legal, and ethical reasoning that has traditionally promoted this lack of equity in access to ARTs, and whether the criteria used for client deselection are ethically appropriate in any particular case, are explored by this review. In addition, the issues of distribution and just "gatekeeping" practices associated with these sensitive medical services are examined.

  6. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  7. Gender equity issues in astronomy: facts, fiction, and what the adaptive optics community can do to close the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orgeville, Céline; Rigaut, François; Maddison, Sarah; Masciadri, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Gender equality in modern societies is a topic that never fails to raise passion and controversy, in spite of the large body of research material and studies currently available to inform the general public and scientists alike. This paper brings the gender equity and equality discussion on the Adaptive Optics community doorstep. Its aim is threefold: (1) Raising awareness about the gender gap in science and astronomy in general, and in Adaptive Optics in particular; (2) Providing a snapshot of real and/or perceived causes for the gender gap existing in science and engineering; and (3) Presenting a range of practical solutions which have been or are being implemented at various institutions in order to bridge this gap and increase female participation at all levels of the scientific enterprise. Actual data will be presented to support aim (1), including existing gender data in science, engineering and astronomy, as well as original data specific to the Adaptive Optics community to be gathered in time for presentation at this conference. (2) will explore the often complex causes converging to explain gender equity issues that are deeply rooted in our male-dominated culture, including: conscious and unconscious gender biases in perceptions and attitudes, worklife balance, n-body problem, fewer numbers of female leaders and role models, etc. Finally, (3) will offer examples of conscious and pro-active gender equity measures which are helping to bring the female to male ratio closer to its desirable 50/50 target in science and astronomy.

  8. Gender, Technology, and Instructional Design: Balancing the Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    1999-01-01

    Examines the pervasive messages of gender stereotypes and their influence on instructional design, schooling, and society. Topics discussed include: society and gender-role construction; gender stereotypes; culture, groups, and schooling; images of males and females; and increasing equity through good instructional design. Contains 41 references.…

  9. The health of women and girls: how can we address gender equality and gender equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the health of women and girls, and the role of addressing gender inequalities experienced by women and girls. The health of both males and females is influenced by sex, or biological factors, and gender, or socially constructed influences, including gender differences in the distribution and impact of social determinants of health, access to health promoting resources, health behaviors and gender discourse, and the ways in which health systems are organized and financed, and how they deliver care. Various strategies to address the health of women and girls have been developed at intergovernmental, regional, and national level, and by international nongovernmental organizations. These include vertical programs which aim to target specific health risks and deliver services to meet women and girl's needs, and more cross-cutting approaches which aim at "gender" policy making. Much of this work has developed following the adoption of gender mainstreaming principles across different policy arenas and scales of policy making, and this article reviews some of these strategies and the evidence for their success, before concluding with a consideration of future directions in global policy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Gender equity and equality on Korean student scientists: A life history narrative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Changsoo

    Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators

  11. Equity and spatial reasoning: reducing the mathematical achievement gap in gender and social disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2018-03-01

    Since the early 70s, there has been recognition that there are specific differences in achievement based on variables, such as gender and socio-economic background, in terms of mathematics performance. However, these differences are not unilateral but rather quite specific and relate strongly to spatial reasoning. This early work has paved the way for thinking critically about who achieves in mathematics and why. This project innovatively combines the strengths of the two Chief Investigators—Lowrie's work in spatial reasoning and Jorgensen's work in equity. The assumptions, the approach and theoretical framing used in the study unite quite disparate areas of mathematics education into a cogent research program that seeks to challenge some of the long-held views in the field of mathematics education.

  12. The Gendered Nature of Student Affairs: Issues of Gender Equity in Student Affairs Professional Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Evelyn LaVette

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gendered nature of the student affairs profession by investigating how three student affairs professional associations, the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA), ACPA: College Student Educators International, and the Association of College and University Housing Officers International (ACUHO-I)…

  13. Striving for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine Careers: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Carol; Gordon, Lynn; Travis, Elizabeth; Chatterjee, Archana; Chaudron, Linda; Fivush, Barbara; Gulati, Martha; Jagsi, Reshma; Sharma, Poonam; Gillis, Marin; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Grover, Amelia; Lautenberger, Diana; Moses, Ashleigh

    2016-08-01

    Women represent approximately half of students entering medical schools and more than half of those entering PhD programs. When advancing through the academic and professional fields, however, women continually face barriers that men do not. In this Commentary, the authors offer ideas for coordinating the efforts of organizations, academic institutions, and leaders throughout the scientific and medical professions to reduce barriers that result in inequities and, instead, strive for gender parity. Specific areas of focus outlined by the authors include facilitating women's access to formal and informal professional networks, acknowledging and addressing the gender pay gap as well as the lack of research funding awarded to women in the field, and updating workplace policies that have not evolved to accommodate women's lifestyles. As academic institutions seek access to top talent and the means to develop those individuals capable of generating the change medicine and science needs, the authors urge leaders and change agents within academic medicine to address the systemic barriers to gender equity that impede us from achieving the mission to improve the health of all.

  14. Gender equity and socioeconomic inequality: a framework for the patterning of women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Nancy E

    2002-03-01

    This paper explores the interrelationship of gender equity and socioeconomic inequality and how they affect women's health at the macro- (country) and micro- (household and individual) levels. An integrated framework draws theoretical perspectives from both approaches and from public health. Determinants of women's health in the geopolitical environment include country-specific history and geography, policies and services, legal rights, organizations and institutions, and structures that shape gender and economic inequality. Culture, norms and sanctions at the country and community level, and sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level, influence women's productive and reproductive roles in the household and workplace. Social capital, roles, psychosocial stresses and resources. health services, and behaviors mediate social, economic and cultural effects on health outcomes. Inequality between and within households contributes to the patterning of women's health. Within the framework, relationships may vary depending upon women's lifestage and cohort experience. Examples of other relevant theoretical frameworks are discussed. The conclusion suggests strategies to improve data, influence policy, and extend research to better understand the effect of gender and socioeconomic inequality on women's health.

  15. Exploring Social Equity Aspects in Integrating Technology in Primary Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2014-01-01

    This research focus on aspects of equity related to the introduction of using technology in classrooms. Technology has the potential to support mathematics pedagogy with visual representations and offer modelling and simulation facilities, increasing the creativity of the learning and teaching processes (Kaput, Ness, & Hoyles, 2008; Stoilescu…

  16. Can a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Men Change Their Gender Ideology? Results from the CHARM Intervention in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Silverman, Jay; Ghule, Mohan; Ritter, Julie; Battala, Madhusudana; Velhal, Gajanan; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Donta, Balaiah; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2018-03-01

    We assess the effect of CHARM, a gender equity and family planning counseling intervention for husbands in rural India, on men's gender ideology. We used a two-armed cluster randomized control trial design and collected survey data from husbands (n=1081) at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months. We used a continuous measure of support for gender equity and a dichotomous measure of equitable attitudes toward women's role in household decision-making. To assess differences on these outcomes, we used generalized linear mixed models. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, men who received the CHARM intervention were significantly more likely than men in the control group to have equitable attitudes toward household decision-making at 9-months follow-up; there was a non-significant difference between the groups for the measure of support for gender equity. For household decision-making, differences were not sustained at 18-months follow-up. Given the role of husbands' gender ideology in women's contraceptive use, the CHARM intervention represents a promising approach for challenging root causes of women's unmet need for contraception. © 2018 The Population Council, Inc.

  17. Gender equity and health: evaluating the impact of Millennium Development Goal Three on women's health in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Im, Dana D; Katzelnick, Leah; Franco, Oscar H

    2013-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the progress of Millennium Development Goal Three, which promotes gender equity and empowering women, by assessing the targets for education, employment, and government, and their relation to women's health in South Asia. Researchers obtained data from the United Nations, Inter-Parliamentary Union, International Labor Organization, World Bank, and World Health Organization. First, they performed a literature review including manuscripts that quantified a Millenium Development Goal Three outcome in South Asia and were published after 1991. They derived women's health outcomes from World Health Organization databases. Spearman's rank test was used to evaluate the relationship between change in gender parity and change in women's health outcomes. South Asia's average primary education Gender Parity Index (defined as the ratio of girls to boys enrolled in primary, secondary, and tertiary education and expressed as a value between 0 and 1.0) improved from 0.73 (SD 0.34) to 0.92 (SD 0.13) between 2000 and 2008. Secondary and tertiary education had a lower Gender Parity Index (average 2008 Gender Parity Index 0.87 (SD 0.21) and 0.59 (SD 0.23), respectively), but had also improved from 2000 (average Gender Parity Index = 0.77, SD 0.38) to 2008 (average Gender Parity Index = 0.52, SD 0.11). An average proportion of 22.1% (SD 12.58) of women participated in waged, non-agricultural employment and 16.6% (SD 10.3) in national parliaments. No clear association was found between change in gender equity and women's health in South Asia between 2000 and 2008. Some progress has been made toward gender equity in South Asia, although the results have been mixed and inequities persist, especially in employment and government. While gender equity does not appear to have been related to female health outcomes, both must be addressed simultaneously as priority development targets and remain prerequisites to achieving the overall Millennium Development Goals

  18. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Equity Patterns in Illinois High School Career and Technical Education Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Asia Fuller; Malin, Joel; Hackmann, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed high school Career and Technical Education (CTE) enrollments in Illinois, with comparisons to national data when possible, by career cluster and pathway and with respect to gender and racial/ethnic makeup of students. Enrollment patterns in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) CTE programming were emphasized.…

  19. Missing Links: Gender Equity in Science and Technology for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Réduction des pertes de fruits en Inde et au Sri Lanka grâce à la nanotechnologie (FCRSAI). L'Inde et le Sri Lanka sont d'importants producteurs de légumes et de fruits tropicaux, mais ils enregistrent chaque année des pertes après récolte atteignant de 35 % à 40 % qui sont... Voir davantageRéduction des pertes de fruits ...

  20. Gender equity and sexual and reproductive health in Eastern and Southern Africa: a critical overview of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor E. MacPherson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender inequalities are important social determinants of health. We set out to critically review the literature relating to gender equity and sexual and reproductive health (SRH in Eastern and Southern Africa with the aim of identifying priorities for action. Design: During November 2011, we identified studies relating to SRH and gender equity through a comprehensive literature search. Results: We found gender inequalities to be common across a range of health issues relating to SRH with women being particularly disadvantaged. Social and biological determinants combined to increase women's vulnerability to maternal mortality, HIV, and gender-based violence. Health systems significantly disadvantaged women in terms of access to care. Men fared worse in relation to HIV testing and care with social norms leading to men presenting later for treatment. Conclusions: Gender inequity in SRH requires multiple complementary approaches to address the structural drivers of unequal health outcomes. These could include interventions that alter the structural environment in which ill-health is created. Interventions are required both within and beyond the health system.

  1. 77 FR 74520 - Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation; Order Withdrawing Trading Suspension as to Extensions, Inc. December 12...

  2. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sridharan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design: A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. Results: GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Conclusions: Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations.

  3. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Shirodkar, Apurva; Richardson, Emma; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations.

  4. Gender equity in STEM: The role of dual enrollment science courses in selecting a college major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Christopher Andrew

    A disproportionately low number of women, despite rigorous high school preparation and evidenced interest in STEM through voluntary participation in additional coursework, declare a STEM-related college major. The result of this drop in participation in STEM-related college majors is a job market flooded with men and the support of an incorrect stereotype: STEM is for men. This research seeks to assess the effects, if any, that Dual Enrollment (DE) science courses have on students' self-identified intent to declare a STEM-related college major as well as the respective perceptions of both male and female students. Self-Determination Theory and Gender Equity Framework were used respectively as the theoretical frames. High school students from six schools in two district participated in an online survey and focus groups in this mixed methods study. The results of the research identified the role the DE course played in their choice of college major, possible interventions to correct the underrepresentation, and societal causes for the stereotype.

  5. Gender stereotypes among women engineering and technology students in the UK: lessons from career choice narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from E&T students at a UK university, this paper examines the gendered nature of career choice narratives. It finds that women often maintain contradictory views; upholding gendered stereotypes about women's suitability for the so-called masculine work, yet also subscribing to ideals that the sector is accessible to all who wish to work in it. This is explained using an individualist framework in which women construct an autonomous sense of self, yet are also shaped by a gendered self. Women's discourse around career choice, therefore, reveals the problematic nature of gender norms for achieving gender equity in E&T.

  6. Sex And Gender Equity in Research (SAGER): reporting guidelines as a framework of innovation for an equitable approach to gender medicine. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Paola; Heidari, Shirin; Babor, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Sex and gender are important determinants of health and influence research findings in a variety of ways, yet they are often overlooked and underreported. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice. The objective of this paper is to point out how journal editors can influence better reporting of sex and gender in research by establishing a methodological framework directly addressing authors of scientific publications, as well as referees, and indirectly affecting all the stakeholders in the research cycle, from funders to policy-makers and citizens. Such a framework is represented by the Sex And Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines, developed by the European Association of Science Editors (EASE) to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines. The paper includes the rationale and basic principles of the SAGER guidelines.

  7. Evolutionary psychology is compatible with equity feminism, but not with gender feminism: a reply to Eagly and Wood (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhle, Barry X

    2012-01-11

    I comment on Eagly and Wood's biosocial constructionist evolutionary theory (2011; DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-9949-9). Although this gender feminist theory allows for evolved physical differences between men and women and evolved psychological similarities for men and women, it fails to consider evolutionary accounts of psychological sex differences. I hypothesize that gender feminists' reluctance to acknowledge that evolution has left different fingerprints on men's and women's bodies and brains stems from two common misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology: the myth of immutability and the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude that although evolutionary psychology is eminently compatible with equity feminism, evolutionary psychology and feminist psychology will conflict as long as the latter adheres to gender feminism and its unwillingness to acknowledge the evidence for evolved psychological sex differences.  Gender feminism's dualistic view of evolution hinders the search for and understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes of inequality. Feminist psychology needs to evolve by embracing equity feminism, which has no a priori stance on the origin or existence of differences between the sexes.

  8. Evolutionary Psychology is Compatible with Equity Feminism, but Not with Gender Feminism: A Reply to Eagly and Wood (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry X. Kuhle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I comment on Eagly and Wood's biosocial constructionist evolutionary theory (2011; DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-9949-9. Although this gender feminist theory allows for evolved physical differences between men and women and evolved psychological similarities for men and women, it fails to consider evolutionary accounts of psychological sex differences. I hypothesize that gender feminists' reluctance to acknowledge that evolution has left different fingerprints on men's and women's bodies and brains stems from two common misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology: the myth of immutability and the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude that although evolutionary psychology is eminently compatible with equity feminism, evolutionary psychology and feminist psychology will conflict as long as the latter adheres to gender feminism and its unwillingness to acknowledge the evidence for evolved psychological sex differences. Gender feminism's dualistic view of evolution hinders the search for and understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes of inequality. Feminist psychology needs to evolve by embracing equity feminism, which has no a priori stance on the origin or existence of differences between the sexes.

  9. Progress without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Don; Veliz, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This first-of-its-kind report on gender and high school sports participation, "Progress Without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06," flows from an analysis of high schools that is unprecedented in its national and historical scope. It uses merged data from the Civil…

  10. Technology, gender, and power in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The interactive relationship between technology transfer and gender factors is explored using case studies and examples from the development literature on ...... The support of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and CIDA for a special issue of Development: Seeds of Change (SID 1984) is an ...

  11. Digital technologies for population health and health equity gains: the perspective of public health associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, James; Perera, Yoshith; Clarke, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Digital technology (DT) plays an increasingly important role in the health sector. This study explores how national public health associations (PHAs) use DT to achieve their mandate. The World Federation of Public Health Associations canvassed and conducted a semi-structured interview with its national public health association members about their use of DT, the challenges they encounter in using it, and their experiences and thoughts as to how to assess its impact, both organizationally as well as on population health and health equity. The study found that digital technology plays an important role in some PHAs, principally those in higher income countries. PHAs want to broaden their use within PHAs and to assess how DT enables PHAs to achieve their organizational mandates and goals, including improved public health and health equity.

  12. Gender-Based Motivational Differences in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Sonja; Räikkönen, Eija; Ikonen, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    Because of a deeply gendered history of craft education in Finland, technology education has a strong gender-related dependence. In order to motivate girls into pursuing technological studies and to enable them to see their own potential in technology, gender sensitive approaches should be developed in technology education. This study explores…

  13. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-07

    Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs--the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London--through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007-2012 and 2012-2017) will be carried out. The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas' National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  14. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs—the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London—through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007–2012 and 2012–2017) will be carried out. Ethics and dissemination The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas’ National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26743702

  15. Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoae Lucia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender segregation of occupations, which typically assigns caring/nurturing jobs to women and technical/managerial jobs to men, has been recognized as a major source of inequality worldwide with implications for the development of robust health workforces. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequalities are particularly acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving (90% of which is provided in the home, where women and girls make up the informal (and mostly unpaid workforce. Men's and boy's entry into HIV/AIDS caregiving in greater numbers would both increase the equity and sustainability of national and community-level HIV/AIDS caregiving and mitigate health workforce shortages, but notions of gender essentialism and male primacy make this far from inevitable. In 2008 the Capacity Project partnered with the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in a study of the gender dynamics of HIV/AIDS caregiving in three districts of Lesotho to account for men's absence in HIV/AIDS caregiving and investigate ways in which they might be recruited into the community and home-based care (CHBC workforce. Methods The study used qualitative methods, including 25 key informant interviews with village chiefs, nurse clinicians, and hospital administrators and 31 focus group discussions with community health workers, community members, ex-miners, and HIV-positive men and women. Results Study participants uniformly perceived a need to increase the number of CHBC providers to deal with the heavy workload from increasing numbers of patients and insufficient new entries. HIV/AIDS caregiving is a gender-segregated job, at the core of which lie stereotypes and beliefs about the appropriate work of men and women. This results in an inequitable, unsustainable burden on women and girls. Strategies are analyzed for their potential effectiveness in increasing equity in caregiving. Conclusions HIV/AIDS and human resources stakeholders must address occupational segregation

  16. Brief report: parent-adolescent child concordance in social norms related to gender equity in marriage - findings from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl's marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n = 113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n = 227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K = .25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls' right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls' right to choose when (K = .22, slight) and who (K = .20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K = .53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parent-Adolescent Child Concordance in Social Norms related to Gender Equity in Marriage- Findings from Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl’s marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n=113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n=227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen’s unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K=.25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls’ right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls’ right to choose when (K=.22, slight) and who (K=.20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K=.53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. PMID:25173179

  18. Using Queer Theory to Rethink Gender Equity in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy; Taylor, Affrica

    2012-01-01

    Queer theory is a new theory about gender. It is relevant to early childhood educators who wish to find new ways of understanding and challenging persistent gender stereotypes. The theory links gender stereotypes to the norms of heterosexuality. It is definitely "not" a theory about gay and lesbian identity. Queer theory is "queer" because it…

  19. The Quest for Gender Equity in America's Schools: From Preschool and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen-Noe, Mary K.; Hall, Lynne Degler

    1996-01-01

    Reviews research studies on gender inequity in schools, finding problems in teachers' practices, unequal access to entire curriculums as early as the preschool years, and gender inequities in participation in after-school activities. Calls for teachers, teacher educators, and administrators to make gender fairness a priority in the total education…

  20. The Quality of Equity? Reframing Gender, Development and Education in the Post-2020 Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Supriya; Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015 marks the twentieth anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, with a goal to contribute to gender equality globally. As scholars continue in their quest to "take stock" of the ways in which gender and education work in tandem to achieve greater gender equality, we observe a revival in interest…

  1. Integrating Gender and Equity in Health Research and Policy in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In India, researchers and policymakers have only partially succeeded in incorporating gender concerns in health research, policy and programs. There is need for a more indepth and nuanced gender analysis on women's health. And, gaps still exist in the issues covered, such as the intersection of gender with caste and ...

  2. Beyond equity and equality: voices of fear about gender advocacy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The students had fears that gender is associated with feminism. They also claimed that there was too much emphasis on girls and women to the neglect of boys and men in gender courses. The main purpose of the study is to provide some insights into teaching gender in tertiary institutions in an African country. It also seeks ...

  3. The Relationship of Gender Equity to Compensation, Career Advancement and Leadership in Selected Colleges of Business in Finland, Jamaica and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Hewlett Steve

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of gender equity to faculty compensation, career advancement, and access to leadership roles in colleges of business in Finland, Jamaica and the United States. This quantitative study, anchored by feminist, human capital and socialization theories supported the emergence of a conceptual…

  4. Perceived Gender Based Stereotypes in Educational Technology Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Doris U.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers point out gender differences in the adoption and use of technology. Men tend to be the early adopters of computer technologies, whereas women are thought of as laggards. Several writings exist that identified ads in the media as gender biased. Thomas and Treiber, who examined race, gender, and status in popular magazines, indicate that…

  5. Tanzanian Couples' Perspectives on Gender Equity, Relationship Power, and Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the RESPECT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Vohra, Divya; de Walque, Damien; Medlin, Carol; Nathan, Rose; Dow, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely prevalent in Tanzania. Inequitable gender norms manifest in men's and women's attitudes about power and decision making in intimate relationships and are likely to play an important role in determining the prevalence of IPV. We used data from the RESPECT study, a randomized controlled trial that evaluated an intervention to prevent sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of young Tanzanian men and women, to examine the relationship between couples' attitudes about IPV, relationship power, and sexual decision making, concordance on these issues, and women's reports of IPV over 12 months. Women expressed less equitable attitudes than men at baseline. Over time, participants' attitudes tended to become more equitable and women's reports of IPV declined substantially. Multivariable logistic regression analyses suggested that inequitable attitudes and couple discordance were associated with higher risk of IPV. Our findings point to the need for a better understanding of the role that perceived or actual imbalances in relationship power have in heightening IPV risk. The decline in women's reports of IPV and the trend towards gender-equitable attitudes indicate that concerted efforts to reduce IPV and promote gender equity have the potential to make a positive difference in the relatively short term. PMID:23320151

  6. Equality or Equity: Gender Awareness Issues in Secondary Schools in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Anjum

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender awareness issues as a dimension of addressing the wider issue of the quality of education in Pakistan from the perspective of social justice. In Pakistan classrooms, boys and girls learn separately and therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender issues once access is achieved and the learners…

  7. Beyond equity and equality: voices of fear about gender advocacy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, internationalization of the women's movement brought together feminists and women researchers and activists from both north and south (the sisterhood) such that the roots of gender as a discipline are more or less found in feminism. Furthermore, the political context of gender studies, research and advocacy in ...

  8. Is there a gender equity for women farmers? Reflections on public policy and social CONPES 161/2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Marin Hermann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic roles ( reproductive and productive Colombian rural women are different and are marked by the dynamics of their own territories , but also developed in the areas of public and private unevenly and unfairly compared to men rural sector. Considering the above, raises feminist economics "care economy" as an effort to validate and make visible the contribution of women to the economy. But this trend can go further, can contribute to the transformation of reproductive and productive roles, encouraging participation and democracy for women. Considering this, the equitable use of the time in the private ( family enters debate. Women no longer want and seek only equality in public but do not want to share your time at home on an unequal footing . Public policies are needed to contribute to these disparities disappear. To this extent it is possible to ask yourself the current Public Policy Of Gender Equity for Women ( SOCIAL CONPES 161/2013 , can guarantee the full enjoyment of the rights of Colombian women applying the principles of equality and non-discrimination? This reflection tries to do, from a gender perspective, an analytical reading of the impact of public policy on the transformation of the reality of the Colombian rural women.

  9. The influence of students' gender on equity in Peer Physical Examination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnuk, Anna K; Wearn, Andy; Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-08-01

    Peer Physical Examination (PPE) is an educational tool used globally for learning early clinical skills and anatomy. In quantitative research, there are differences in students' preferences and actual participation in PPE by gender. This novel study qualitatively explores the effect that gender has on medical students' experiences of learning physical examination through PPE. We employ an interpretative approach to uncover the PPE experiences of students from a European, graduate-entry medical school. Volunteers participated in either individual or group interviews. The data were transcribed, de-identified and analysed using thematic analysis. There was evidence of gender inequity in PPE, with students describing significant imbalances in participation. Male students adopted roles that generated significant personal discomfort and led to fewer experiences as examiners. Assumptions were made by tutors and students about gender roles: male students' ready acceptance of exposure to be examined and female students' need to be protected from particular examinations. In contrast with the first assumption, male students did feel coerced or obliged to be examined. Students described their experiences of taking action to break down the gender barrier. Importantly, students reported that tutors played a role in perpetuating inequities. These findings, whilst relating to one university, have implications for all settings where PPE is used. Educators should be vigilant about gender issues and the effect that they may have on students' participation in PPE to ensure that students are not disadvantaged in their learning.

  10. 77 FR 71846 - In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [ File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc... concerning the securities of Encore Clean Energy, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  11. 77 FR 61620 - Privacy Act of 1974; Home Equity Reverse Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT)-Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... electronic records are granted by user ID and password to users who have a need to know such records. In... Insurance Program Records) and Appendix 21(Financial Management Information Systems. Paper records are not... Equity Reverse Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT)--Notice of Modification to, and Deletion of HUD...

  12. From blockchain technology to global health equity: can cryptocurrencies finance universal health coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Brian M; Peters, Alexander W; Afshar, Salim; Meara, John

    2017-01-01

    Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies could remake global health financing and usher in an era global health equity and universal health coverage. We outline and provide examples for at least four important ways in which this potential disruption of traditional global health funding mechanisms could occur: universal access to financing through direct transactions without third parties; novel new multilateral financing mechanisms; increased security and reduced fraud and corruption; and the opportunity for open markets for healthcare data that drive discovery and innovation. We see these issues as a paramount to the delivery of healthcare worldwide and relevant for payers and providers of healthcare at state, national and global levels; for government and non-governmental organisations; and for global aid organisations, including the WHO, International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group.

  13. From blockchain technology to global health equity: can cryptocurrencies finance universal health coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Brian M; Peters, Alexander W; Afshar, Salim; Meara, John G

    2017-01-01

    Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies could remake global health financing and usher in an era global health equity and universal health coverage. We outline and provide examples for at least four important ways in which this potential disruption of traditional global health funding mechanisms could occur: universal access to financing through direct transactions without third parties; novel new multilateral financing mechanisms; increased security and reduced fraud and corruption; and the opportunity for open markets for healthcare data that drive discovery and innovation. We see these issues as a paramount to the delivery of healthcare worldwide and relevant for payers and providers of healthcare at state, national and global levels; for government and non-governmental organisations; and for global aid organisations, including the WHO, International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group. PMID:29177101

  14. Approaching Gender Equity in Academic Chemistry: Lessons Learned from Successful Female Chemists in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Friedmann, Jaimie; Childs, Ann; Hillier, Judith

    2018-01-01

    The internationally acknowledged gender gap in science continues to be an unrelenting concern to science educators; aggregate data in the UK show that both recruitment and retention of women in academic science remain relatively low. Most published research focuses on women in the broad field of science, generates correlations or predictions, or…

  15. Equity and Spatial Reasoning: Reducing the Mathematical Achievement Gap in Gender and Social Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2018-01-01

    Since the early 70s, there has been recognition that there are specific differences in achievement based on variables, such as gender and socio-economic background, in terms of mathematics performance. However, these differences are not unilateral but rather quite specific and relate strongly to spatial reasoning. This early work has paved the way…

  16. Gender Equity in High School World History Curriculum: Support for a Balanced Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, Kirianne

    2008-01-01

    We are providing our secondary students with an unbalanced, inaccurate view of world history, this can lead to greater social injustice. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) examine the reasons for and issues with providing a gender balanced view of history in order to lead to a more well rounded illustration of history; and (2) demonstrate…

  17. What Do Women Students Want? (And Need!). Strategies and Solutions for Gender Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Carole

    This paper argues that sexism and gender discrimination remain a significant problem in elementary, secondary, and higher education, and offers specific educational strategies and solutions to help overcome such inequalities. The paper explores female socialization and stereotyping, along with the real physiological and psychological differences…

  18. Gender Equity in Australian Universities: The Many Paradoxes of Securing Senior Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    To date western feminist scholarship on gender and work has primarily focused on women providing valuable information as to their discrimination and invisibility, especially in the echelons of power and in senior decision-making positions. Feminist scholars have needed to explore women's under representation in senior leadership positions because…

  19. Gender by ethnic equity issues as they pertain to success in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jan David

    Science is traditionally a white-male dominated field. This trend has foundations in beliefs and practices accepted before the Enlightenment period. Sixteenth and seventeenth century writers further promoted perceptions that women lacked intellectual capacity to indulge in science. A similar viewpoint was applied to non-white ethnic groups during the 19th and 20th centuries. Questions over Eurocentric and androcentric aspects of science were first raised publicly in 1869, yet significant change in the proportions of women and minorities in science-related fields remains disproportionately low. Public awareness of this situation extends to education where students demonstrate beliefs that opportunities in science are primarily for white males. This commonly shared belief typically produces negative effects on success rates in science education for females and minorities. The purpose of this study was to determine if gender-by-ethnic factors are culturally specific. Do members of one gender/ethnic subgroup experience deterrents to success in science education not common in other ethnic groups? Contrariwise, are negative factors shared across ethnic groups? An effort is made to identify potential gender/ethnic-related barriers that serve to reduce success rates and potentially generate negative attitudes for students about science. A 74-item Likert scale was developed to reveal students' perceptions of issues relative to science education. This instrument was administered to 30 female and 30 male high school students in each of four ethnic groups (African American, Mexican American, American Indian, and Euro American) from public or tribal schools in a large southwestern (United States) urban community. Randomly selected participants from each subgroup were then interviewed to expound upon relevant issues. A reoccurring pattern of reduced interest and experiences in science activities was noted among male American Indians. These participants most often differed with

  20. Gender Perspectives in Language | Nelson | Science, Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender is multi-faceted, always changing, but often contested. It is embedded in our institutions, our actions, our beliefs, and our desires, that it appears to us to be completely natural. Gender is, after all, a system of meaning -- a way of construing notions of male and female – and language is the primary means through ...

  1. Study about the relation of gender equity and human development in northeastern Mexico, 1995- 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Zamudio Sánchez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of indexes taken from easily measurable variables, this paper takes a look at both the gains and setbacks of Mexican society in its fight for gender equality and its relation to human development. The object of this paper is to show the possible future tendencies in this context, insofar as opportunities arise for both men and women to both fully develop their capacities and to take advantage of the same within their surroundings. The case study focuses on the municipalities of the northeast region of Mexico, formed by the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. A reduction in the inequality gap in health, education and income is observed, although the condition of women is still far from being on a par with that of men, especially where resources for a dignified life are concerned. The most noticeable gap between men and women is related precisely to the limited access and control of resources that allow women to make their own decisions regarding their lives and consequently, their empowerment is marginal.

  2. Gender Equity in Transplantation: A Report from the Women in Transplantation Workshop of The Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Karen M; Clark, Carolyn J; MacDonald, Kelli; Paraskeva, Miranda A; Rogers, Natasha; Ryan, Jessica; Webster, Angela C; Wong, Germaine

    2017-10-01

    The exponential growth of young talented women choosing science and medicine as their professional career over the past decade is substantial. Currently, more than half of the Australian medical doctoral graduates and early career researchers are comprised of women, but less than 20% of all academic professorial staff are women. The loss of female talent in the hierarchical ladder of Australian academia is a considerable waste of government investment, productivity, and scientific innovation. Gender disparity in the professional workforce composition is even more striking within the field of transplantation. Women are grossly underrepresented in leadership roles, with currently no female heads of unit in any of the Australian and New Zealand transplanting centers. At the same time, there is also gender segregation with a greater concentration of women in lower-status academic position compared with their male counterparts. Given the extent and magnitude of the disparity, the Women in Transplantation Committee, a subcommittee of The Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand established a workshop comprising 8 female clinicians/scientists in transplantation. The key objectives were to (i) identify potential gender equity issues within the transplantation workforce; (ii) devise and implement potential strategies and interventions to address some of these challenges at a societal level; (iii) set realistic and achievable goals to enhance and facility gender equality, equity, and diversity in transplantation.

  3. Taylor revisited: Gender segregation and division of labour in the ICT - sector (information and communication technology)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Else

    2001-01-01

    Information and communication technology, division of labour, gender segregation, working conditions......Information and communication technology, division of labour, gender segregation, working conditions...

  4. Governance, technology, and equity: An integrated policy framework for energy efficient housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubchikov, Oleg; Deda, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Transforming the housing stock to a low energy performance is a key priority in the context of sustainable development and a post-carbon transition. However, in terms of its practical implementation it, firstly, faces a number of complex institutional barriers, while, secondly, involves a risk of being dominated by a narrow technocratic agenda for energy/carbon reduction that may overtake the socially progressive pursuits of housing policy. Energy efficiency strategies for the residential sector must, therefore, be multidimensional, fully synergised with housing policy, and incorporating the principles of equity, access and a balanced geographical development. This paper discusses a strategic policy framework, which was designed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) to address those important needs in international policy. The document – Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE Region – outlines a number of goals, targets and actions structured at three dimensions: (i) governance and finance, (ii) technological advancement, and (iii) access and affordability. The Action Plan provides a comprehensive and integrated framework, based on which governments can shape their own pathways towards a sustainable low-energy residential sector. - Highlights: ► Residential sector has a large potential for energy and carbon reduction. ► Energy efficiency for housing must be reconciled with socially oriented housing policy. ► Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE region is presented. ► The Plan offers an integrated framework for sustainable transition to low-energy housing. ► Governance, technology, and equitable access are three key elements of the framework.

  5. Translating Latin American/US Latina frameworks and methods in gender and health equity: linking women's health education and participatory social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Ester R

    This article applies transdisciplinary approaches to critical health education for gender equity by analyzing textual and political strategies translating/culturally adapting the U.S. feminist health text, Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS), for Latin American/Caribbean and U.S. Latina women. The resulting text, Nuestros Cuerpos, Nuestras Vidas (NCNV), was revised at multiple levels to reflect different cultural\\sociopolitical assumptions connecting individual knowledge, community-based and transnational activist organizations, and strategic social change. Translation/cultural adaptation decisions were designed to ensure that gender-equitable health promotion education crossed cultural borders, conveying personal knowledge and motivating individual actions while also inspiring participation in partnerships for change. Transdisciplinary approaches integrating critical ecosystemic frameworks and participatory methods can help design health promotion education mobilizing engaged, gender-equitable health citizenship supporting both personal and societal change.

  6. Gender, Technology, and the History of Technical Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durack, Katherine T.

    1997-01-01

    Considers why women have been absent from the history of technical communication. Discusses research from the history of technology suggesting that notions of "technology,""work," and "workplace" may be gendered terms. Concludes with several suggestions for defining technical communication so that significant works of…

  7. Gender Difference of Confidence in Using Technology for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have found male students to have more confidence in using technology for learning than do female students. Males tend to have more positive attitudes about the use of technology for learning than do females. According to the Women's Foundation (2006), few studies examined gender relevant research in Hong Kong. It also appears that no…

  8. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  9. Locked in or true love: Branding among banks : A qualitative study of technologies, brand equity, switching barriers, choice criteria and future strategies in the context of retail banking

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to increase the knowledge about technology based services affection of the ability of retail banks to build customer based brand equity among students. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual model has been developed from theories regarding customer based brand equity, switching barriers and choice criteria. Based on this conceptual model, seven in depth interviews including several brand elicitation techniques were conducted. Findings – The findings ...

  10. Gender designs IT construction and deconstruction of information society technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zorn, Isabel; Rommes, Els; Schirmer, Carola; Schelhowe, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    How can information technology (IT) paradigms and design processes be studied from a gender perspective? What does IT design look like when its construction is informed by gender research? Though gender research and computing science seem like two separate worlds, this book proves how inspirational a confrontation and combination of those worlds can be.A deconstructive analysis of advanced fields of computing shows the multiple ways in which software design is gendered and how gendering effects are produced by its use. Concepts and assumptions underlying research and development, along with design tools and IT products, teaching methods and materials are studied.The book not only offers a gender analysis of information society technologies, it also shows practical examples of how IT can be different. A gender perspective on IT design can serve as an eye-opener for what tends to be overlooked and left out. It yields innovative ideas and high quality software systems that may empower a large diversity of user...

  11. Gender Equity Requires Higher Education Equity: A Discussion with African Women about the Barriers They Face to Participation as Students, Faculty, and in Academic Leadership Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerrer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Although women outnumber men in higher education participation in many regions, there is still a gender gap in Sub-Saharan Africa, with far fewer females enrolling than males. This is true even with affirmative action policies in place in many university settings. Not surprisingly, there is a corresponding dearth of female leadership in African…

  12. La Igualdad de Genero para Educadores, Padres, y la Comunidad (Gender Equity for Educators, Parents, and the Community). Equity in Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. WEEA Dissemination Center.

    Classification of people according to gender begins in infancy. This booklet aims to remove some old ways of thinking that limit expectations for girls and boys. It also clarifies for educators, parents, and the community specific elements of the federal legislation called Title IX. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 was the first…

  13. Gender-typing, Performance and Achievement-related Behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-related equity and quality in mathematics, science and technology (MST) education is concerned with creating equal opportunity for both sexes to access quality education in these areas. But the level of equity and quality in MST education are both group as well as individual variables. In other words, even if they ...

  14. Differences in socioeconomic and gender inequalities in tobacco smoking in Denmark and Sweden; a cross sectional comparison of the equity effect of different public health policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eek, Frida; Ôstergren, Per-Olof; Diderichsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    information regarding the impact of health policy and -promotion in the two countries. Methods Cross-sectional comparisons of socioeconomic and gender differences in smoking behaviour among 6 995 Danish and 13 604 Swedish persons aged 18-80 years. Results The prevalence of smoking was higher in Denmark......, these differences were modified by gender and age. As a general pattern, socioeconomic differences in Sweden tended to contribute more to the total burden of this habit among women, especially in the younger age groups. In men, the patterns were much more similar between the two countries. Regarding continued......-smoking policy and/or implemented measures have been less effective in a health equity perspective among the younger generation of women, but more effective among men, compared to Danish policy implementation. The results also raises the more general issue regarding the possible need for a trade-off principle...

  15. Can optimism about technology stocks be good for welfare? Positive spillovers vs. equity market losses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tinn, K.; Vourvachaki, Evangelia

    -, č. 383 (2009), s. 1-51 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : equity mispricing * R&D growth * welfare Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp383.pdf

  16. Negotiating Equity in UK Universities.

    OpenAIRE

    Deem, R.; Morley, L; Tlili, A

    2005-01-01

    Description of the project The research involved six case studies of higher education institutions across England, Scotland and Wales. The project aims were:to explore staff experiences of equity issues and institutional equity policies. Participants were drawn from different occupational backgrounds and a variety of socio-cultural groups paying attention also to gender, sexual orientation, ‘race’/ethnicity, disability, age and religio to conduct a critical discourse analysis of equity polici...

  17. The Redistributive Equity of Affirmative Action: Exploring the Role of Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Gender in College Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew M.; Tannuri-Pianto, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to research on affirmative action by examining issues of equity in the context of racial quotas in Brazil. We study the experience of the University of Brasilia, which established racial quotas in 2004 reserving 20% of available admissions slots for students who self-identified as black. Based on university admissions data…

  18. On Gendered Technologies and Cyborg Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Rehn, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Since Hélène Cixous introduced it in 1975, the notion of a specifically feminine writing — écriture féminine — has been discussed as a provocative and potentially disruptive form of representation that breaks with masculine and authoritarian modes thereof. However, in this paper we will discuss how......, as the writer — when writing/publishing — is always already embedded in the technologies of the publishing machine, turning (academic) writing into something akin to cyborg writing. We further suggest that an understanding of the cyborg nature of writing can introduce a parallel mode of inquiry, which holds...

  19. The Challenge of Gender Gap in Science and Technology Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the challenges of university education in Nigeria is the issue of gender imbalance in the choice of pure science and technology courses. While private universities have contributed immensely in narrowing the gap between male and female students in over all admission, much is yet to be achieved in the area of pure ...

  20. Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Learning Oral Skills Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Jibrel; Abu Bakar, Nadzrah; Krish, Pramela

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a quantitative study on gender differences in attitudes when learning oral skills via technology. The study was conducted at Tafila Technical University, Jordan, with 70 female and 30 male students, to find out if female students are better and faster in learning a language than male. Specifically, it seeks to investigate…

  1. Gender Impacts on Adoption of New Technologies: Evidence from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tanellari, Eftila; Kostandini, Genti; Bonabana-Wabbi, Jackline

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of gender on the adoption of new technologies of peanut production in Eastern Uganda. The findings suggest that females adopt improved varieties at a lower rate compared to males. In addition, females in female-headed households are less likely to adopt.

  2. Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household food security in western province of Kenya. ... The problems that face women farmers are more distinct due to socio-cultural constraints that affect their access to and control over essential assets necessary for improving their livelihoods and those of their ...

  3. An Assessment of Information Technology and the Gender Question ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing the impact of knowledge of information technology on gender discrimination in the Nigeria's civil service work, 1200 civil servants with varied demographic characteristics randomly selected from 6 states capitals across the country participated in this study. The mean age for males and females ...

  4. Issues of doing gender and doing technology - Music as an innovative theme for technology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, A.; Zorn, I.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the concept and results of the research project 'Engineer Your Sound!' (2008-2009). It aimed at exploring whether interdisciplinary, innovative teaching/learning settings in the fields of technology and digital media can be used to give pupils the opportunities to experiment and discover their technical potential, skills, interests and talents and if music technology could offer such an appealing context. The paper explains how technology and why gender need to be addressed when planning to raise young people's interest in technology but questions if interest in technology is mainly influenced by gender. The paper explores through ethnographic research how pupils' technological competencies and interests have developed during the course of a technology-related project. Results of the analysis explain how music technology can serve as a suitable theme with the potential to increase both males' and females' interest in technology.

  5. Women Technology Leaders: Gender Issues in Higher Education Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Women working in higher education information technology (IT) organizations and those seeking leadership positions in these organizations face a double challenge in overcoming the traditionally male-dominated environments of higher education and IT. Three women higher education chief information officers (CIOs) provided their perspectives,…

  6. Making the continuum of care work for mothers and infants: Does gender equity matter? Findings from a quasi-experimental study in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Lotus; Atmavilas, Yamini; Hay, Katherine; Silverman, Jay G; Tarigopula, Usha K; Raj, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in continuum of care (CoC) utilization are needed to address inadequate reductions in neonatal and infant mortality in India and elsewhere. This study examines the effect of Ananya, a health system training and community outreach intervention, on reproductive, maternal and newborn health continuum of care (RMNH CoC) utilization in Bihar, India, and explores whether that effect is moderated by gender equity factors (child marriage, restricted mobility and low decision-making control). A two-armed quasi-experimental design compared districts in Bihar that did/did not implement Ananya. Cross-sections of married women aged 15-49 with a 0-5 month old child were surveyed at baseline and two year follow-up (baseline n = 7191 and follow-up n = 6143; response rates 88.9% and 90.7%, respectively). Difference-in-difference analyses assessed program impact on RMNH CoC co-coverage, defined by 9 health services/behaviors for the index pregnancy (e.g., antenatal care, skin-to-skin care). Three-way interactions assessed gender equity as a moderator of Ananya's impact. Participants reported low RMNH CoC co-coverage at baseline (on average 3.2 and 3.0 of the 9 RMNH services/behaviors for Ananya and control groups, respectively). The Ananya group showed a significantly greater increase in RMNH CoC co-coverage (.41 services) compared with the control group over time (pChild marriage attenuated Ananya's impact on utilization of key health services and behaviors. Supporting the health system with training and community outreach can be beneficial to RMNH CoC utilization; additional support is needed to adequately address the unique issues faced by women married as minors.

  7. CHARM, a gender equity and family planning intervention for men and couples in rural India: protocol for the cluster randomized controlled trial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Jennifer; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusadana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Raj, Anita

    2016-02-20

    Globally, 41% of all pregnancies are unintended, increasing risk for unsafe abortion, miscarriage and maternal and child morbidities and mortality. One in four pregnancies in India (3.3 million pregnancies, annually) are unintended; 2/3 of these occur in the context of no modern contraceptive use. In addition, no contraceptive use until desired number and sex composition of children is achieved remains a norm in India. Research shows that globally and in India, the youngest and most newly married wives are least likely to use contraception and most likely to report husband's exclusive family planning decision-making control, suggesting that male engagement and family planning support is important for this group. Thus, the Counseling Husbands to Achieve Reproductive Health and Marital Equity (CHARM) intervention was developed in recognition of the need for more male engagement family planning models that include gender equity counseling and focus on spacing contraception use in rural India. For this study, a multi-session intervention delivered to men but inclusive of their wives was developed and evaluated as a two-armed cluster randomized controlled design study conducted across 50 mapped clusters in rural Maharashtra, India. Eligible rural young husbands and their wives (N = 1081) participated in a three session gender-equity focused family planning program delivered to the men (Sessions 1 and 2) and their wives (Session 3) by village health providers in rural India. Survey assessments were conducted at baseline and 9&18 month follow-ups with eligible men and their wives, and pregnancy tests were obtained from wives at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Additional in-depth understanding of how intervention impact occurred was assessed via in-depth interviews at 18 month follow-up with VHPs and a subsample of couples (n = 50, 2 couples per intervention cluster). Process evaluation was conducted to collect feedback from husbands, wives, and VHPs on program

  8. The Gendered and Heterosexist Evolution of the Teacher Exemplar in the United States: Equity Implications for LGBTQ and Gender Nonconforming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michele; Gorski, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Challenges confront lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and transgender public school teachers or those who are perceived as such or who desire to be open about their sexual orientations or gender identities or expression. Teachers who do not conform to gender and sexual orientation norms currently are and historically have been the subject of…

  9. Assessing equity in the distribution of high-technology medical equipment in Guangxi: evidence from an ethnic minority region in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Gu, Hai; Wen, Qiulin; Luo, Hongye

    2017-05-16

    High-technology medical equipment (HTME) are important health resources. However, there is unequal distribution of these equipment in favor of metropolis and well equipped health facilities. This study sought to examine the equity gaps in the distribution of HTME in Guangxi. The results of this study could shed light on the future HTME allocation in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Data related to HTME was sourced from a general investigation of all the hospitals of Guangxi. Concentration index was used to assess the equity status of HTME in Guangxi. Over all, the total amount of HTME in Guangxi had been increasing from 2011 to 2015, and the per million population HTME of five kinds were all increased at the same time. Meanwhile, the concentration indices ranged between 0.1020 and 0.4617. The five medical equipment were all concentrated among the rich. The possession of SPECT per million population in Guangxi is lower than the national average level while it is superior to the national average level for CT, MRI, DSA and LA. The equity status in the distribution of the five medical equipment has deteriorated since 2011. In 2015, the equity status of CT was the best, while the equity status of MRI was the worst. Meanwhile, 45.1% of HTME were concentrated in Nanning, Guilin, and Liuzhou.

  10. Gendered Education in a Gendered World: Looking beyond Cosmetic Solutions to the Gender Gap in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education…

  11. Evolutionary Psychology is Compatible with Equity Feminism, but Not with Gender Feminism: A Reply to Eagly and Wood (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Barry X. Kuhle

    2012-01-01

    I comment on Eagly and Wood's biosocial constructionist evolutionary theory (2011; DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-9949-9). Although this gender feminist theory allows for evolved physical differences between men and women and evolved psychological similarities for men and women, it fails to consider evolutionary accounts of psychological sex differences. I hypothesize that gender feminists' reluctance to acknowledge that evolution has left different fingerprints on men's and women's bodies and brain...

  12. Normative changes and gender equity. From electoral quotas to parity in Latin America: the cases of Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida ARCHENTI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, aimed at analyzing the impact of institutional factors on the efficacy of gender parity policy in Latinamerica. It compares regulatory changes and electoral results in Bolivia and Ecuador, the only two countries in Latinamerica that have implemented parity on national elections. These data demonstrate the persistence of obstacles for gender political parity effectiveness derived from electoral systems and from party aligned strategies channeled by electoral rationality.

  13. Mainstreaming Gender into Schools in the Taiwan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Gender mainstreaming and gender equity education are specific practices for creating a gender-equitable society. Gender mainstreaming tools can be used to help educational institutions engage in more thorough consideration when implementing gender equity education. This article addresses gender mainstreaming, gender equity education, and the…

  14. Embodied harms: gender, shame, and technology-facilitated sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  16. Gender Differences in the Use and Benefit of Advanced Learning Technologies for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Ivon; Burleson, Winslow; Tai, Minghui; Muldner, Kasia; Woolf, Beverly Park

    2013-01-01

    We provide evidence of persistent gender effects for students using advanced adaptive technology while learning mathematics. This technology improves each gender's learning and affective predispositions toward mathematics, but specific features in the software help either female or male students. Gender differences were seen in the students' style…

  17. Policies and Practices on a Slippery Terrain: Lessons from Latin America and Africa in Educational Gender Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    This paper compares and contrasts educational and gender experiences in Latin America and Africa. It provides a brief background for each area and addresses some commonly recognized issues, such as access to schooling and dropping out. The article discusses educational policies and examines some less-commonly recognized issues in higher education,…

  18. Is It Really Gender? An Empirical Investigation Into Gender Effects In Technology Adoption Through The Examination Of Individual Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel I. Aguirre-Urreta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent development in the technology acceptance literature is the inclusion of gender as a moderator of the relationships between intention and its antecedents, such that some are stronger for men than women, and vice versa. While the effects have been well established, the mechanisms by which they operate, that is, which specific gender differences are in operation and how they affect intention to adopt, have not been thoroughly explored. In this research, psychological constructs with established gender differences, such as core self-evaluations, computer self-efficacy and anxiety, psychological gender-role, and risk-taking propensity, are examined. In addition, this research introduces a novel context for the study of technology adoption in that more than a single alternative is offered to participants, thus requiring a choice among technologies. Results indicate that gender effects are more complex than previously thought, with potentially multiple influences from different facets operating simultaneously.

  19. Digital Equity in Cultural Context: Exploring the Influence of Confucian Heritage Culture on Hong Kong Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Allan H.; Park, Jae Hyung; Chen, Lu; Cheng, Miaoting

    2017-01-01

    Our study examines digital equity in a cultural context. Many studies have used classic analytical variables such as socioeconomic status and gender to investigate the problem of unequal access to, and more recently differences in the use of, information and communication technology (ICT). The few studies that have explored cultural variables have…

  20. Building Bridges between Psychological Science and Education: Cultural Stereotypes, STEM, and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    There is a gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This presents a worldwide problem of inequity. Sociocultural stereotypes associating STEM with males act as barriers that prevent girls from developing interests in STEM. This article aims to show that we can increase equity and enhance outcomes for a…

  1. Assessing equity in the distribution of high-technology medical equipment in Guangxi: evidence from an ethnic minority region in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jian; Gu, Hai; Wen, Qiulin; Luo, Hongye

    2017-01-01

    Background High-technology medical equipment (HTME) are important health resources. However, there is unequal distribution of these equipment in favor of metropolis and well equipped health facilities. This study sought to examine the equity gaps in the distribution of HTME in Guangxi. The results of this study could shed light on the future HTME allocation in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Methods Data related to HTME was sourced from a general investigation of all the hospitals of Guangx...

  2. Exploring gender differences in perceptions of 3D telepresence collaboration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurin, Hanna; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Cairns, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences and collaboration technology illustrate the need to investigate gender issues as early as possible in the development cycle in order to avoid any negative consequences the technology may impose. Therefore we are investigating the potential of 3D telepresence....... The results show several gender differences that imply male paramedics may inherently receive more benefits from use of the 3D telepresence technology than female paramedics....

  3. Population health-based approaches to utilizing digital technology: a strategy for equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth N; Ostrowski, MaryLynn; Sabina, Alyse B

    2016-11-01

    Health care disparities and high chronic disease rates burden many communities and disproportionally impact racial/ethnic populations in the United States. These disparities vary geographically, increase health care expenses, and result in shortened lifespans. Digital technologies may be one tool for addressing health disparities and improving population health by increasing individuals' access to health information-especially as most low-income U.S. residents gain access to smartphones. The Aetna Foundation partners with organizations to use digital technologies, including mobile applications, data collection, and related platforms, for learning and sharing. Projects range from the broad-childhood education, lifestyle modification, health IT training, and nutrition education, to the specific-local healthy foods, stroke rehabilitation, and collection of city-level data. We describe our approaches to grantmaking and discuss lessons learned and their implications. When combined with sound policy strategies, emerging, scalable, digital technologies will likely become powerful allies for improving health and reducing health disparities.

  4. Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

    2015-08-01

    In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

  5. Gender, infertility, motherhood, and assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinoglu, Serap; Buken, Nuket Ornek

    2010-01-01

    In Turkey, as in many other countries, infertility is generally regarded as a negative phenomenon in a woman's life and is associated with a lot of stigma by society. In other words, female infertility and having a baby using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) have to be taken into consideration with respect to gender motherhood, social factors, religion and law. Yet if a woman chooses to use ART she has to deal with the consequences of her decision, such as being ostracized by society. Other types of procedures in this area, such as sperm and ova donation or surrogate motherhood, are not permitted in law. However; both before and after the development of this techonology, society has been finding its own solutions which are rarely questioned and are still performed This article will discuss what these practices are and try to reach some pragmatic conclusions concerning female infertility, the concept of motherhood and some traditional practices in Turkey.

  6. International cooperation for science and technology development: a way forward for equity in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Priscila Almeida; Carvalho, Denise Bomtempo Birche de

    2015-01-01

    Since 1990, international organizations have been increasingly involved in building an international sub-regime for research, development and innovation in health. This article analyzes the priorities of developing countries in health since the 1990s. It is a descriptive and analytical study that investigates the literature and contributions of key informants. Calling for the end of global inequities in the support for science and technology in health, international organizations recommend that developing countries focus their efforts on neglected diseases and operational research, an insufficient agenda for science and technology cooperation to effectively overcome the vulnerabilities between countries.

  7. Computer Technology and Educational Equity. ERIC/CUE Urban Diversity Series, Number 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Edmund W.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    The impact of the technological revolution on education is examined in this monograph, which focuses primarily on computers. First, the history of the educational uses of a variety of media (film, radio, television, teaching machines, and videodisc systems) is traced and assessed. As instructional aids, it is said, the media economize teachers'…

  8. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  9. Career Advancement Outcomes in Academic Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): Gender, Mentoring Resources, and Homophily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement…

  10. Bits of Homeland: Generational and Gender Transformations of Moroccan-Dutch Youth using digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, K.H.A.; Ponzanesi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Generational and gendered specificities of digital technology use within migrant families remain understudied and undertheorized (Green & Kabir, 2012). Digital technologies are used among descendants of migrants to sustain and update networks while simultaneously they allow the younger generation to

  11. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  12. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  13. Equity-oriented toolkit for health technology assessment and knowledge translation: application to scaling up of training and education for health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human resources for health are in crisis worldwide, especially in economically disadvantaged areas and areas with high rates of HIV/AIDS in both health workers and patients. International organizations such as the Global Health Workforce Alliance have been established to address this crisis. A technical working group within the Global Health Workforce Alliance developed recommendations for scaling up education and training of health workers. The paper will illustrate how decision-makers can use evidence and tools from an equity-oriented toolkit to scale up training and education of health workers, following five recommendations of the technical working group. The Equity-Oriented Toolkit, developed by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Knowledge Translation and Health Technology Assessment in Health Equity, has four major steps: (1 burden of illness; (2 community effectiveness; (3 economic evaluation; and (4 knowledge translation/implementation. Relevant tools from each of these steps will be matched with the appropriate recommendation from the technical working group.

  14. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Married Men and Couples in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Ritter, Julie; Battala, Madhusudana; Gajanan, Velhal; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Despite ongoing recommendations to increase male engagement and gender-equity (GE) counseling in family planning (FP) services, few such programs have been implemented and rigorously evaluated. This study evaluates the impact of CHARM, a three-session GE+FP counseling intervention delivered by male health care providers to married men, alone (sessions 1&2) and with their wives (session 3) in India. A two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with young married couples (N = 1081 couples) recruited from 50 geographic clusters (25 clusters randomized to CHARM and a control condition, respectively) in rural Maharashtra, India. Couples were surveyed on demographics, contraceptive behaviors, and intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes and behaviors at baseline and 9 &18-month follow-ups, with pregnancy testing at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Outcome effects on contraceptive use and incident pregnancy, and secondarily, on contraceptive communication and men's IPV attitudes and behaviors, were assessed using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Most men recruited from CHARM communities (91.3%) received at least one CHARM intervention session; 52.5% received the couple's session with their wife. Findings document that women from the CHARM condition, relative to controls, were more likely to report contraceptive communication at 9-month follow-up (AOR = 1.77, p = 0.04) and modern contraceptive use at 9 and 18-month follow-ups (AORs = 1.57-1.58, p = 0.05), and they were less likely to report sexual IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.48, p = 0.01). Men in the CHARM condition were less likely than those in the control clusters to report attitudes accepting of sexual IPV at 9-month (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.03) and 18-month (AOR = 0.51, p = 0.004) follow-up, and attitudes accepting of physical IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.02). No significant effect on pregnancy was seen. Findings demonstrate that men can be engaged in FP programming in rural

  15. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Married Men and Couples in Rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Raj

    Full Text Available Despite ongoing recommendations to increase male engagement and gender-equity (GE counseling in family planning (FP services, few such programs have been implemented and rigorously evaluated. This study evaluates the impact of CHARM, a three-session GE+FP counseling intervention delivered by male health care providers to married men, alone (sessions 1&2 and with their wives (session 3 in India.A two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with young married couples (N = 1081 couples recruited from 50 geographic clusters (25 clusters randomized to CHARM and a control condition, respectively in rural Maharashtra, India. Couples were surveyed on demographics, contraceptive behaviors, and intimate partner violence (IPV attitudes and behaviors at baseline and 9 &18-month follow-ups, with pregnancy testing at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Outcome effects on contraceptive use and incident pregnancy, and secondarily, on contraceptive communication and men's IPV attitudes and behaviors, were assessed using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Most men recruited from CHARM communities (91.3% received at least one CHARM intervention session; 52.5% received the couple's session with their wife. Findings document that women from the CHARM condition, relative to controls, were more likely to report contraceptive communication at 9-month follow-up (AOR = 1.77, p = 0.04 and modern contraceptive use at 9 and 18-month follow-ups (AORs = 1.57-1.58, p = 0.05, and they were less likely to report sexual IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.48, p = 0.01. Men in the CHARM condition were less likely than those in the control clusters to report attitudes accepting of sexual IPV at 9-month (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.03 and 18-month (AOR = 0.51, p = 0.004 follow-up, and attitudes accepting of physical IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.02. No significant effect on pregnancy was seen.Findings demonstrate that men can be engaged in FP programming in

  16. Gender equity and women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This article focuses on the improvements in women's status in China. The trend started as early as in the 1950s, when the Chinese Constitution declared that women should enjoy equal rights with men in political, economic, cultural, social and family life, and the legitimate rights of women and children are protected by law. This principle is also reflected in other laws and regulations such as Marriage Law and Law on Health of Mother and Infant. In addition, the Law on Protection of Rights and Interests of Women, which came into effect in 1992, marked a new stage of legislation on women's rights. Over the past few years, women have participated in political affairs, in which they accounted for 16.8% of the total number of representatives in the 15th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, 21.8% in the ninth National People's Congress, and 15.5% in the ninth Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. However, this does not mean that women have gained an equal right of participation with their male counterparts. Moreover, although the women's education level is rising constantly, it still compares unfavorably with men. Another indicator of enhanced women's status is the great number of women in the workforce, and in their increasing capacity to participate in household decision-making.

  17. Gender Equity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 bans discrimination in schools receiving federal financial assistance with regard to both academics and athletics. The law has helped ensure that women have access to both academic and athletic opportunities at most higher education institutions in the United States, dramatically increasing the range…

  18. Gender Equity and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Judith H.

    These instructional materials focus on federal laws and executive orders that prohibit sex discrimination in employment and education. The materials consist of the following: (1) a list of some of the legislation covered; (2) a list of relevant materials and resources; (3) a list of 14 instructional activities, each described by one or a few…

  19. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  20. Impact of Gender on Patient Preferences for Technology-Based Behavioral Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Technology-based interventions offer an opportunity to address high-risk behaviors in the emergency department (ED. Prior studies suggest behavioral health strategies are more effective when gender differences are considered. However, the role of gender in ED patient preferences for technology-based interventions has not been examined. The objective was to assess whether patient preferences for technology-based interventions varies by gender. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from a systematic survey of adult (18 years of age, English-speaking patients in a large urban academic ED. Subjects were randomly selected during a purposive sample of shifts. The iPad survey included questions on access to technology, preferences for receiving health information, and demographics. We defined ‘‘technology-based’’ as web, text message, e-mail, social networking, or DVD; ‘‘non-technology-based’’ was defined as in-person, written materials, or landline. We calculated descriptive statistics and used univariate tests to compare men and women. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between other demographic factors (age, race, ethnicity, income and technology-based preferences for information on specific risky behaviors. Results: Of 417 participants, 45.1% were male. There were no significant demographic differences between men and women. Women were more likely to use computers (90.8% versus 81.9%; p¼0.03, Internet (66.8% versus 59.0%; p¼0.03, and social networks (53.3% versus 42.6%; p¼0.01. 89% of men and 90% of women preferred technology-based formats for at least type of health information; interest in technology-based for individual health topics did not vary by gender. Concern about confidentiality was the most common barrier to technology-based use for both genders. Multivariate analysis showed that for smoking, depression, drug/alcohol use, and injury

  1. Impact of gender on patient preferences for technology-based behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David J; Choo, Esther K; Ranney, Megan L

    2014-08-01

    Technology-based interventions offer an opportunity to address high-risk behaviors in the emergency department (ED). Prior studies suggest behavioral health strategies are more effective when gender differences are considered. However, the role of gender in ED patient preferences for technology-based interventions has not been examined. The objective was to assess whether patient preferences for technology-based interventions varies by gender. This was a secondary analysis of data from a systematic survey of adult (≥18 years of age), English-speaking patients in a large urban academic ED. Subjects were randomly selected during a purposive sample of shifts. The iPad survey included questions on access to technology, preferences for receiving health information, and demographics. We defined "technology-based" as web, text message, e-mail, social networking, or DVD; "non-technology-based" was defined as in-person, written materials, or landline. We calculated descriptive statistics and used univariate tests to compare men and women. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between other demographic factors (age, race, ethnicity, income) and technology-based preferences for information on specific risky behaviors. Of 417 participants, 45.1% were male. There were no significant demographic differences between men and women. Women were more likely to use computers (90.8% versus 81.9%; p=0.03), Internet (66.8% versus 59.0%; p=0.03), and social networks (53.3% versus 42.6%; p=0.01). 89% of men and 90% of women preferred technology-based formats for at least type of health information; interest in technology-based for individual health topics did not vary by gender. Concern about confidentiality was the most common barrier to technology-based use for both genders. Multivariate analysis showed that for smoking, depression, drug/alcohol use, and injury prevention, gender modified the relationship between other demographic

  2. Are Gender Differences in Perceived and Demonstrated Technology Literacy Significant? It Depends on the Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender differences related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy using two valid and internally consistent measures with eighth grade students (N = 1,513) from Florida public schools. The results of t test statistical analyses, which examined only gender differences in demonstrated and perceived ICT skills,…

  3. Psycho-Social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnachi, N. O.; Okpube, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on the "Psycho-social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)". The females were found to be underrepresented in STEM fields. The under-representation results from gender stereotype, differences in spatial skills, hierarchical and territorial segregations and…

  4. The CFE v. MHSAA Decision: A Case Study of Gender Equity in High School Athletic Scheduling and Policy Ramifications for the WIAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardo, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The Communities For Equity was a group of Michigan mothers who filed a Title IX discrimination suit against the Michigan High School Athletic Association due to its athletic scheduling practices. The 10-year court battle went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. This case study reviewed the policy decisions of the Wisconsin Interscholastic…

  5. Using Technology to Break Gender Barriers: Gender Differences in Teachers' Information and Communication Technology Use in Saudi Arabian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Al-bakr, Fawziah; Davidson, Petrina M.; Bruce, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    How does teachers' gender influence their information and communication technology-based instruction in Saudi Arabian government schools? Using unique data collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2014, the analyses presented here show that male and female teachers in intermediate school classrooms differently use information and communication…

  6. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    -coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  7. Information technology and gender equality: A contradiction in terminis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Reinen, I.A.M.; Plomp, T.

    1997-01-01

    Using the data source of the Computers in Education (Comped) study, carried out under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), the status of gender and computer use in education in a number of countries has been investigated. The findings in

  8. Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 sept. 2016 ... The chapters draw on diverse theoretical perspectives, including transformative learning, feminist theory, deliberative democracy, and technology adoption. As a result, they add important conceptual and empirical material to a growing literature on the challenges of gender equity in food production.

  9. Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-29

    Sep 29, 2016 ... The chapters draw on diverse theoretical perspectives, including transformative learning, feminist theory, deliberative democracy, and technology adoption. As a result, they add important conceptual and empirical material to a growing literature on the challenges of gender equity in food production.

  10. Information and Communication Technology: Gender Issues in Developing Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Betz Leahy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As Developing Nations seek to leverage scarce resources toward the goal of achieving a developed status they must reevaluate past practices and explore available and affordable technologies. Where in-formation and communication infrastructures are weak, use of low-cost, easily distributed technologies have proven effective. Still, many developing nations have failed to incorporate a resource in great abundance, their women, to use these new technologies to greatest advantage. This paper will address the implications of women's lack of economic and educational parity, and offer examples of how the education of women through the use of information and communication technology can enhance a nation's gross domestic product (GDP.

  11. Making Women Count: Gender-Typing, Technology and Path Dependencies in Dutch Statistical Data Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ende, Jan; van Oost, Elizabeth C.J.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a longitudinal analysis of the relation between gendered labour divisions and new data processing technologies at the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Following social-constructivist and evolutionary economic approaches, the authors hold that the relation between technology

  12. Calibrating a Measure of Gender Differences in Motivation for Learning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Young Suk; Fisher, William; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the theory, design, and calibration of an instrument for measuring gender difference in motivation for learning technology. The content of the instrument was developed based upon the motivational theories of Eccles and others. More specifically, the learners' self-concept of ability, perception of technology, perception of…

  13. Closing the Gender Gap in the Technology Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Laura; Clark, Ulku; Patterson, Laurie; Pence, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Technology makes up our daily lives and is a part of everything we do. The tech job market is expanding with more and more jobs needing to be filled by those with the necessary qualifications. Students are realizing the vast opportunities a career in technology can offer them and many are making the conscience decision to major in a technical…

  14. African Women and ICTs: Investigating Technology, Gender and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    Apr 15, 2009 ... Graça Machel By providing a deeply researched investigation of the role of African women in the society and in the specific sphere of information technologies, the ... This important book celebrates their remarkable achievements, and explores how technology both enriches and complicates African society.

  15. Career Advancement Outcomes in Academic Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): Gender, Mentoring Resources, and Homophily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun

    This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement outcomes at early career stages. Female academic scientists have disadvantages in the career progress in the academic STEM. They tend to fall behind throughout their career paths and to leave the field compared to their male colleagues. Researchers have found that gender differences in the career advancement are shaped by gender-biased evaluations derived from gender stereotypes. Other studies demonstrate the positive impacts of mentoring and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads. To add greater insights to the current findings of female academic scientists' career disadvantages, this dissertation investigates comprehensive effects of gender, mentoring, and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on female scientists' career advancement outcomes in academic science. Based on the Status Characteristics Theory, the concept of mentoring, Social Capital Theory, and Ingroup Bias Theory, causal path models are developed to test direct and indirect effects of gender, mentoring resources, and gender homophily on STEM faculty's career advancement. The research models were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) with data collected from a national survey, funded by the National Science Foundation, completed in 2011 by tenured and tenure-track academic STEM faculty from higher education institutions in the United States. Findings suggest that there is no gender difference in career advancement controlling for mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads and other factors including research productivity and domestic caregiving responsibilities. Findings also show that the positive relationship between

  16. La vigilance des enseignant-e-s d’éducation physique et sportive relative à l’égalité des filles et des garçons Physical education teachers' vigilance towards gender equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Cogerino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches en Éducation Physique et Sportive (EPS montrent des enseignant-e-s très majoritairement favorables à la mixité, mais elles mettent à jour des mécanismes discriminatoires laissant supposer que ces dernier(es seraient sans conscience des inégalités qu’ils/elles provoquent. Le choix d’une étude s’appuyant sur la psychophénoménologie permet de documenter les logiques intrinsèques à l’origine des discriminations : 24 entretiens d’explicitation ont été réalisés auprès d’enseignant-e-s d’EPS afin de leur faire décrire leurs expériences vécues de cours mixtes. Nos résultats montrent que la mixité est toujours subjectivement située : sa forme, choisie par l’enseignant-e, implique en retour des décisions de justice ainsi qu’une vigilance plus ou moins forte du point de vue de l’équité sexuée. Deux études de cas permettront d’illustrer les facteurs subjectifs qui jouent sur cette vigilance.Researches show that physical education (PE teachers are overwhelmingly in favor of coeducation. But they update discriminatory mechanisms suggesting that they are unaware of the inequities they cause. A study based on psychophenomenology allows to document the intrinsic logics behind discrimination: 24 explanatory interviews were carried out with PE teachers to let them describe their lived experiences in coeducational classes. Our results show that coeducation is always subjectively located: its form, chosen by the teacher, calls in return for justice decisions and for a more or less strong vigilance concerning gender equity. Two case studies illustrate the subjective factors that influence alertness toward the gender equity.

  17. Gender Equality in the Interface Organisations between Science, Technology and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Vehviläinen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the practices of gender equality in the sector of science, technology and innovation through a qualitative empirical study of five intermediary organisations such as science parks, including interviews with women experts, collected in the Finnish subproject of the Women in Innovation, Science and Technology (WIST project. It describes work practices of science parks as future oriented knowledge work and service work, which highlights networks and the recognition of potential future partners. Intermediary work between science, technology and innovations maintains the typical gender segregation and the segregation further intertwines with the networks and the practices of recognition. Practices of gender equality found in the study cover – in addition to the public care services and the organisation level actions – practices that pay special attention to networking and recognition

  18. Gender, technology change and globalization: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Zhao, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of women workers in China while the country's economy is changing into a globalized, technologically advanced one. New computer-based technology is increasingly acknowledged as a powerful and pervasive force that can shape or, at least in many ways, affect employment. It is hailed for opening up fresh employment opportunities and reducing the physical stress involved in work. However, the possibilities of redundancies or intensification of workload also exist. By focusing on changes in women's work, the article reveals the contradictions inherent in following a development path based on ever-higher levels of technology in the context of an intensive mode of production, to which productivity is the core value. The economy is bolstered and some workers gain employment in expanding industries. However, workers, who lack access to training and who are reliant on the dwindling state support for their reproductive responsibilities, are marginalized and seek employment in the growing informal economy.

  19. Technology, Gender, and Power in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Part III identifies issues and inter-relations that have not been addressed in previous research and suggests promising ways to frame future research on women and technology in Africa. The social, economic,and technical empowerment of women at the community level is seen as vital to effective development efforts.

  20. Gendered Perceptions of Cultural and Skill Alignment in Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison T. Wynn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research documents how stereotypes discourage young women from choosing and attaining technology jobs. We build off this research and ask whether (and how stereotypes continue to affect men and women once they enter the technology workforce. Using a novel survey of technical employees from seven Silicon Valley firms and new measures of what we call “cultural” and “skill” alignment, we show that men are more likely than women to believe they possess the stereotypical traits and skills of a successful tech employee. We find that cultural alignment is especially important: because women are less likely than men to believe they match the cultural image of successful tech workers, they are less likely to identify with the tech profession, less likely to report positive supervisor treatment, and more likely to consider switching career fields. This paper is the first to use unique and independent measures of cultural and skill alignment comparing employees’ perceptions of themselves to their perceptions of an ideal successful worker. By allowing cultural and skill alignment to operate separately, we are able to determine which work outcomes are most strongly related to each form of alignment. Our results imply that if we can broaden the cultural image of a successful tech worker, women may be more likely to feel like they belong in technology environments, ultimately increasing their retention in tech jobs.

  1. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  2. Gender Differences in the Field of Information Security Technology Management: A Qualitative, Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of…

  3. How diversity gets lost: Age and gender in design practices of information and communication technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article

  4. Rhetoric and the Death of a Top Gun: Technology, Gender, and the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Tori

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the author's ongoing research analyzing several sites of discourse related to a military training accident that resulted in the death of the first female military pilot assigned to a combat position. Contributes to scholarship discussing interactions of technology, gender, and military culture. Explores how language influences…

  5. Examining the Effect of Gender Identity on the Use of Social Media Technology: A Higher Education Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Efi Nisiforou; Andrew Laghos

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines, elaborates and presents data around gender issues relating to social networks use by higher education students as a medium to understand the effects of gender identity on the use of technology. The statistic outputs of 252 students declare that no significant gender-related differences are found towards the actual usage of social networking sites. Moreover, the outcome demonstrates the old gender gap shrinkage being subsumed, at least in specific areas of SNS use by some ...

  6. EBRD equity investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The EBRD is the largest investor in private equity funds, mainly focusing on growth and expansion in countries of operation. The significant support to its private equity fund managers accelerates the development and institutionalisation of the private equity industry in the region. For EBRD, equity investments are made indirectly through regional and sector funds. These funds are created by groups of investors, mostly private, to which the EBRD participates with capital.

  7. Horizontal Equity, Once More

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Reconsiders the proposition that vertical equity is the primary norm for tax design, with horizontal equity a mere derivative therefrom. In the case of limited policy options, vertical and horizontal equity goals may conflict so that a trade-off will be needed. Independent values must then be assigned to each, confirming the standing of a horizontal as well as vertical equity as a primary norm.

  8. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    health equity: 1) Include health equity as an outcome; 2) Consider patient-important outcomes relevant to health equity; 3) Assess differences in the relative effect size of the treatment; 4) Assess differences in baseline risk and the differing impacts on absolute effects; and 5) Assess indirectness...

  9. Customer Equity von KMUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemel, Friedhelm W.; Henseler, Jörg; Meyer, Jorn-Axel

    2003-01-01

    Customer relationships are most important assets of many SMEs. Customer Equity is the sum of the values of all customer relationships. Customer Equity will not be found in any balance sheet, nevertheless it has strategic importance. Even if companies do not want to publish their Customer Equity for

  10. Self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race, and information technology use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A; Zhao, Yong; Witt, Edward A; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; von Eye, Alexander; Harold, Rena

    2009-08-01

    This research addressed two fundamental questions regarding self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race, and information technology use. First, is technology use related to dimensions of self-concept and/or to self-esteem? Second, are there gender and/or race differences in self-concept, self-esteem, and technology use? Five hundred youth, average age 12 years old, one third African American and two thirds Caucasian American, completed multidimensional measures of self-concept, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and measures of frequency of Internet use, Internet use for communication (e-mail and instant messaging), video game playing, and cell phone use. Findings indicated that technology use predicted dimensions of self-concept and self-esteem, with video game playing having a negative influence and Internet use having a positive influence on self-concept dimensions. Gender differences were observed on several self-concept dimensions, but contrary to expectations, girls did not score higher than boys in social self-concept. Only one race difference was observed: African Americans had lower behavioral self-concept than did Caucasian Americans. Implications of the benefits and liabilities of youth's current and projected technology use are discussed.

  11. How diversity gets lost: Age and gender in design practices of information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways.

  12. Examining the Effect of Gender Identity on the Use of Social Media Technology: A Higher Education Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Nisiforou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, elaborates and presents data around gender issues relating to social networks use by higher education students as a medium to understand the effects of gender identity on the use of technology. The statistic outputs of 252 students declare that no significant gender-related differences are found towards the actual usage of social networking sites. Moreover, the outcome demonstrates the old gender gap shrinkage being subsumed, at least in specific areas of SNS use by some students and outlines the potential of students' social networking for education. Although the unequal gender percentage of the sample strongly supported gender inequality, the results however clearly revealed that the evolution of social networks in students’ lives is oriented towards gender-equality. Additionally, the paper gives an added value in the literature of social media and gender issues, and it shapes future directions for research on this trend.

  13. Gender analysis of technology utilisation among small scale oil palm fruits processors in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koledoye Gbenga F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the types of improved technologies utilised, tracked gender involvement at the various stages of oil palm fruits processing activities with a view to highlighting differences in the utilisation of these technologies among male and female processors. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 240 (120 males and 120 females oil palm fruits processors using structured interview schedule. Focus Group Discussion (FGD and Gender Mapping (GM were used to elicit qualitative data. Data collected were summarised with the aid of descriptive statistics while t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Results showed that sterilizer, digester and hydraulic hand press were utilised by both male and female processors. Results of t-test revealed that at P ≤ 0.01, significant differences were found between male and female processors level of utilisation of oil palm processing technologies with male having a higher mean score than the female. The study concluded that gender differences exited in the level of utilisation of oil palm processing technologies among male and female processors in Ondo State, Nigeria.

  14. Blog and social networks: an analysis from the governmentality technologies and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Remondino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the explosion of personal blogs, social networking and other devices and software show how certain practices that were considered exclusives of intimate and private spheres, are now enrolled in the public space of the screen. Based on this scene, in this article we consider that these technologies work as technologies of the self and as control technologies, in the sense proposed by Foucault (1990. They mediate forms of self government in their public presentation modes, while play as control technologies of the others. Technological conditions also are imposed on the possible interactions and contribute to different modes of governance of feelings and specific forms of gender performativización. In this paper we analyze these categories and share some reflections from a case of study with young women consumers of blogs and social networks in the city of Córdoba.

  15. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    sources (RES) in the supply sector and energy efficiency in the demand sector. Much less attention has been given to potential changes in life style and to alternative economic and social systems. This chapter will focus on non-technological strategies for mitigation of global warming including...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  16. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not

  17. Pescadoras e pescadores: a questão da equidade de gênero em uma reserva extrativista marinha Fishermen and fisherwomen: gender equity in a marine extractive reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Di Ciommo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A Reserva Extrativista Marinha da Ponta do Corumbau está localizada em uma região de rica biodiversidade, no Sul do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Foi criada atendendo a reivindicações dos pescadores artesanais, com o objetivo de alcançar a sustentabilidade dos estoques de pesca e da economia das famílias locais, além de proteger a área marinha colocando limites à pesca industrial predatória. Através do Diagnóstico Participativo com Enfoque de Gênero, investigou-se como é realizada a divisão do trabalho, como ocorre o uso, o acesso e controle dos recursos e benefícios, além das condições que limitam a participação e mobilidade das mulheres. Fomentar a participação das mulheres no Plano de Manejo poderá contribuir para o planejamento das políticas sociais e ambientais, que devem considerar a eqüidade entre os gêneros como garantia para a conservação e a sustentabilidade.The Marine Extractive Reserve of Corumbau is located in a region of rich biodiversity, in the south of Bahia, in Brazil. It was created on demand of the artisanal fishworkers in the area and as a means to promote sustainability of its fishing resources and local economy, besides protecting the area and imposing limits to the predatory industrial fishing. Through the Participative Appraisal with Gender Focus we have investigated how the work division takes place, as well as the use, access and control of resources and benefits, and also the conditions that limit women's participation and mobility. Inducing women participation in the Management Plan may contribute to the planning of social and environmental policies which take into account gender equity to guarantee conservation and sustainability.

  18. Género, equidad y acceso a los servicios de salud: una aproximación empírica Gender, equity, and access to health services: an empirical approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gómez Gómez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe el marco conceptual y los objetivos que orientaron la iniciativa regional de investigación "Género, equidad y acceso a servicios de salud", patrocinada en 2001 por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS. Su propósito no es resumir los resultados de los estudios desarrollados, algunos de los cuales no han concluido la etapa de análisis, sino discutir los fundamentos de tal iniciativa y servir como introducción general a los estudios de país. Los países participantes fueron Barbados/Jamaica, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. El objetivo central de la iniciativa fue estimular la utilización de información cuantitativa ya existente en los países, con el fin de iniciar un proceso de documentación sistemática de las desigualdades injustas, innecesarias y evitables entre hombres y mujeres en el acceso a la atención de la salud, así como de la interacción entre estas desigualdades y otros factores socioeconómicos. El concepto de equidad de género que orientó el examen de la atención de la salud no fue el que frecuentemente se asocia con la igualdad en la distribución de recursos, sino el que designa que los recursos se asignen y reciban diferencialmente según las necesidades particulares de cada sexo y que los servicios se paguen según la capacidad económica de las personas, y no su nivel riesgo. Se partió de la hipótesis de que las inequidades de género en la utilización y el financiamiento de la atención son producto de las asimetrías de género en los niveles macroeconómico y microeconómico de distribución de los recursos. Se concluye que el logro de metas de equidad en el acceso a la atención exige mayor comprensión de las necesidades y barreras de género ligadas a la estructura social y al sistema de salud.This piece describes the conceptual framework and the objectives that guided a research initiative in the Region of the Americas that was called "Gender, Equity

  19. Marketing assets: relating brand equity and customer equity

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Jaime; Yagüe, María J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Brand equity and customer equity are inextricably linked. Some authors propose that marketing activities build these intangible assets simultaneously. In contrast, others suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity. In this research, we aim to shed light about the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, by empirically testing these two alternative explanations. Design/methodology/approach: We propose four research models that reflect these two alte...

  20. Teknologi Informasi Dalam Membentuk Atribut Brand Equity Suatu Produk

    OpenAIRE

    Damayanti, Kristiana Asih

    2004-01-01

    Product is known from its merk and Customer will choice and buy product which havegood and famous merk. For it, Company have to built good merk which can describe fromBrand Equity. Brand Equity has five atributes: Brand Assosiation, Brand Awareness,Perceived Quality, Brand Loyalty, and other atributes.This paper has a goal to make a model how Information Technology in built everyatributes of Brand Equity.

  1. Gender Equality in Public Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egne, Robsan Margo

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring gender equality in higher education system is high on the agenda worldwide particularly in science disciplines. This study explores the problems and prospects of gender equality in public higher education institutions of Ethiopia, especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Descriptive survey and analytical research…

  2. The Gender-Equality Paradox in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Geary, David C

    2018-04-01

    The underrepresentation of girls and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a continual concern for social scientists and policymakers. Using an international database on adolescent achievement in science, mathematics, and reading ( N = 472,242), we showed that girls performed similarly to or better than boys in science in two of every three countries, and in nearly all countries, more girls appeared capable of college-level STEM study than had enrolled. Paradoxically, the sex differences in the magnitude of relative academic strengths and pursuit of STEM degrees rose with increases in national gender equality. The gap between boys' science achievement and girls' reading achievement relative to their mean academic performance was near universal. These sex differences in academic strengths and attitudes toward science correlated with the STEM graduation gap. A mediation analysis suggested that life-quality pressures in less gender-equal countries promote girls' and women's engagement with STEM subjects.

  3. Gendered by Design? Information Technology and Office Systems. Gender and Society: Feminist Perspectives on the Past and Present Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eileen; And Others

    This international collection of essays brings together two important and growing areas of research and debate: the sociology of gender relations in the workplace and the expanding body of interdisciplinary research into the design of computer systems. Feminists, computer scientists, and sociologists explore the impact of gender relations upon…

  4. Gender compatibility, math-gender stereotypes, and self-concepts in math and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.

  5. Health care and equity in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarajan, Y; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-02-05

    In India, despite improvements in access to health care, inequalities are related to socioeconomic status, geography, and gender, and are compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with more than three-quarters of the increasing financial burden of health care being met by households. Health-care expenditures exacerbate poverty, with about 39 million additional people falling into poverty every year as a result of such expenditures. We identify key challenges for the achievement of equity in service provision, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These challenges include an imbalance in resource allocation, inadequate physical access to high-quality health services and human resources for health, high out-of-pocket health expenditures, inflation in health spending, and behavioural factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Use of equity metrics in monitoring, assessment, and strategic planning; investment in development of a rigorous knowledge base of health-systems research; development of a refined equity-focused process of deliberative decision making in health reform; and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors are needed to try to achieve equity in health care in India. The implementation of these principles with strengthened public health and primary-care services will help to ensure a more equitable health care for India's population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender differences in technology acceptance in selected South African companies: Implications for electronic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie T. Chinyamurindi

    2010-11-01

    Research: The objective of this study was to investigate trainees’ acceptance of electronic coursework as an instruction and learning technique in various industries in the South African context. Motivation for the study: A persistent gender imbalance in the South African work-place has been noted to exist chiefly in the Science, Engineering and Technology (SET sectors, areas that have an important bearing on South Africa’s global competitiveness. This study explores how gender imbalance manifests in terms of trainee acceptance of electronic coursework. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. A survey was conducted amongst 191 employees in the SET sector. The measuring instrument used was the Technology Acceptance Instrument (TAI and included measures of Computer Self-Efficacy (CSE, Perceived Ease of Use (PEU, Perceived Usefulness (PU and Behavioural Intention to Use (BI. Main findings: Women ratings of the TAI to use the electronic coursework were slightly higher than men’s ratings. Multiple regression analyses were also carried out to measure the variation in the level of influence with gender as a predictor variable. The results showed that compared to women, men had a lower salient effect of elements of the TAI, notably, CSE–PU; PU–BI and BI–PEU. However, compared to men, women had a higher salient effect in terms of the relationship between CSE–PU and PU–PEU. Practical implications: The implication of the results is that interventions that focus on the human resources development of employees using electronic coursework (namely, CSE, PEU, PU and BI are worth considering as they influence the acceptance of the interventions. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to existing knowledge about the conditions that precede employee acceptance of an electronic coursework intervention within the South African context. The study shows the important role dimensions of the Technology Acceptance Instrument

  7. Equity prices, productivity growth and 'The New Economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Davis, E. Philip

    2006-01-01

    The sharp increase in equity prices over the 1990s was widely attributed to permanently higher productivity growth derived from the New Economy. This article establishes a rational expectations model of technology innovations and equity prices, which shows that under plausible assumptions...

  8. Public Value Mapping of Equity in Emerging Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Catherine P.

    2011-01-01

    Public values failure occurs when the market and the public sector fail to provide goods and services required to achieve the core values of society such as equity (Bozeman 2007). That public policy for emerging health technologies should address intrinsic societal values such as equity is not a novel concept. However, the ways that the public…

  9. Gender differences in information technology usage: a U.S.-Japan comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Ono; Madeline Zavodny

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether there are differences in men’s and women’s use of computers and the Internet in the United States and Japan and how any such gender gaps have changed over time. The authors focus on these two countries because information technology is widely used in both, but there are substantial differences in institutions and social organizations. They use microdata from several surveys during the 1997–2001 period to examine differences and trends in computer and Internet usage...

  10. What drives the gender gap in STEM? The SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL) as a new approach to linking indicators to STI policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Schaaper, M.; Bello, A.

    2016-07-01

    There is a large imbalance in the participation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields across all of Latin American countries despite the fact that the region has one of the highest proportions of female researchers worldwide (44% according to UIS statistics). Female researchers face persisting institutional and cultural barriers, which limit the development of their careers and constrains their access to decision-making positions. In this framework, UNESCO has launched the STEM and Gender Advancement (SAGA) project, which has for objective to address the gender gap in STEM fields in all countries at all levels of education and research as well as to promote women’s participation in science. SAGA is a global UNESCO project with the support of the Swedish Government through the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). One of the outcomes of this project is the SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL), which is an innovative tool that aids in the identification of gaps in the policy mix. Additionally, the STI GOL configures the conceptual backbone of the SAGA project, by linking gender equality STI policy instruments with indicators. By using the STI GOL, and identifying the gender gaps, policy-makers will be able to implement evidence-based policies in STEM fields. The SAGA STI GOL is a new and innovative way of contributing to the development of effective gender sensitive policies in STI fields, both in education and in the workplace. Likewise, it enables the categorization of STI policies and instruments, with the objective of identifying gaps in the policy mix and aid in the creation and design of evidence-based public policies to promote gender equality. (Author)

  11. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  12. Challenges of Ensuring Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    outcomes and benefits such as of pro-poor development, biodiversity conservation and improved governance, there is also a risk of negative outcomes to the local participating communities. For instance, equity concerns in REDD+ are evident, in particular in terms of the distribution of costs and benefits....... Are the objectives of REDD+ being effective, efficient and equitable realistic at local and national level? 4. Is the need for knowledge on climate change balanced by the supply of knowledge? The four articles of the thesis address these research questions through an equity lens drawing on Political Ecology...... focus on global solutions and effectiveness, as opposed to local concerns about equity. When considering society as a whole, these findings raise concerns about equity in REDD+ and about the balance in the global supply of and collective need for knowledge on REDD+ and broader climate change issues...

  13. Young, southern women's perceptions of STEM careers: Examining science, technology, engineering & mathematics as a gendered construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth

    Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in

  14. Financing Strategies of New Technology-Based Firms: A Comparison by Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Robb

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Technology-based firms have been and will continue to be important contributors to the U.S. economy. For the past two decades, technology firms have been a major source of innovation, business development and growth, and new jobs. Securing funding for new technology-based firms is particularly problematic, however, whether they are owned by women or men. Many such firms are built upon intellectual capital rather than on physical assets, so it is difficult to determine the value and prospects of the firm. The problem of asymmetric or incomplete information is especially acute (Brierley, 2001, often resulting in a shortage of capital or capital that can only be obtained under unfavorable terms and conditions. A number of researchers contend that one of the primary reasons women-owned firms tend to be smaller than firms owned by men is that women tend to concentrate in low-growth retail and service lines of business (Rosa et al., 1996; Du Rietz & Henrekson, 2000. These businesses have a higher risk of failure (Robb, 2002; Fairlie & Robb, 2008; Watson, 2003 combined with a higher level of difficulty in attracting sources of capital due to their limited prospects for growth and profitability (Menzies et al., 2004; Sabarwal & Terrell, 2008. More recently, however, some researchers have begun to attack the “myth” that women do not want high-growth businesses (Brush et al., 2001. They contend that a new generation of women entrepreneurs is willing to “go boldly where no one has gone before” by starting firms in the fields of technology and bioscience, where there are opportunities for significant growth and profits. In this paper we will examine the financing sources and strategies, by gender, for new technology-based firms using the Kauffman Firm Survey data. We identify not only sources of financing, but also financing gaps which may impede the ability of women to launch and grow technology-based firms.

  15. Brands and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays brands have become significant drivers for product purchasing and usage decisions. Thus, they constitute a substantial intangible asset for most companies. In order to gain customers and make them become loyal, firms have to establish the equity of the brand and present it in a clear and visible way to their target market. Therefore the topic of brand equity plays a major role in the creation and development of product and company brand strategy. The paper focuses on some general inf...

  16. Unstable identity compatibility: how gender rejection sensitivity undermines the success of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist, Sheana; London, Bonita; Rosenthal, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Although the perceived compatibility between one's gender and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) identities (gender-STEM compatibility) has been linked to women's success in STEM fields, no work to date has examined how the stability of identity over time contributes to subjective and objective STEM success. In the present study, 146 undergraduate female STEM majors rated their gender-STEM compatibility weekly during their freshman spring semester. STEM women higher in gender rejection sensitivity, or gender RS, a social-cognitive measure assessing the tendency to perceive social-identity threat, experienced larger fluctuations in gender-STEM compatibility across their second semester of college. Fluctuations in compatibility predicted impaired outcomes the following school year, including lower STEM engagement and lower academic performance in STEM (but not non-STEM) classes, and significantly mediated the relationship between gender RS and STEM engagement and achievement in the 2nd year of college. The week-to-week changes in gender-STEM compatibility occurred in response to negative academic (but not social) experiences.

  17. Equidad de género en la adherencia al tratamiento de adicciones: Representaciones y prácticas de profesionales y pacientes en un servicio de internación de un hospital público Gender equity within adherence to treatment of addictions: Social representations and practices of professionals and patients in an inpatient service of a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Jeifetz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo central de este proyecto1 es explorar la equidad de género relativa a la adherencia al tratamiento en un servicio de internación de un hospital público, que atiende pacientes adictos/as a las drogas, así como identificar los modos en los cuales las diferencias entre los géneros se transforman en inequidad en salud. El propósito del proyecto es contribuir en el avance de la equidad de género en el tratamiento de las adicciones a las drogas, visibilizando las inequidades que se presenten, asi como las necesidades en la atención y los modos de enfermar de cada género. Del mismo modo, promoviendo la inclusión de la perspectiva de género en las prácticas de los profesionales, en aras de mejorar los modelos de atención. Se trata de una investigación de carácter exploratorio-descriptivo, en la que se utiliza metodología cualitativa para la recolección y el análisis de la información.The central objective of this project is to explore gender equity in adherence to treatment of an inpatient service of a public hospital, which serves patients addicted to drugs and to identify ways in which gender differences are transformed into health inequities. The project aim's is to contribute to gender equity in the treatment of addictions to drugs, make visible inequities that arise, promote the inclusion of gender in the practices of professionals and manifest the needs and modes of each gender in pursuit of improved models of care. It is an exploratory and descriptive research, which used qualitative methodology to collect and analyze information.

  18. Gender difference towards information and communication technology awareness in Indian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Chaman; Dahiya, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, information and communication technology is major backbone of Indian education system. To support E-learning in Universities, information and communication technology (ICT) plays a momentous job. Several experts discussed about ICT awareness among students, teachers, and research scholars to take it into their learning and teaching methodology. Many of Universities either government or private are supporting the utilization of various ICT tools in teaching and learning practice. There is wide need to determine educator's behaviour towards ICT adoption to promote and enhance their learning skills. Students and faculty must confess that ICT awareness is key rod to access the technological services. This paper focuses on ICT awareness among students and faculty residing in Indian Universities. The concerned paper is describing the attitude of students and faculty towards ICT awareness in relation to their gender using statistical tools. More than nine hundred samples have been gathered from six Indian universities. The findings of this paper will help to Indian Universities administration to get aware about current scenario of ICT involvement in education system therein.

  19. The Psychosocial Implications of Managing Work and Family Caregiving Roles: Gender Differences Among Information Technology Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, Nicole; Polenick, Courtney A; Davis, Kelly D; Moen, Phyllis; Hammer, Leslie B; Almeida, David M

    2017-08-01

    An increasing number of adults, both men and women, are simultaneously managing work and family caregiving roles. Guided by the stress process model, we investigate whether 823 employees occupying diverse family caregiving roles (child caregiving only, elder caregiving only, and both child caregiving and elder caregiving, or "sandwiched" caregiving) and their noncaregiving counterparts in the information technology division of a white-collar organization differ on several indicators of psychosocial stress along with gender differences in stress exposure. Compared with noncaregivers, child caregivers reported more perceived stress and partner strain whereas elder caregivers reported greater perceived stress and psychological distress. With the exception of work-to-family conflict, sandwiched caregivers reported poorer overall psychosocial functioning. Additionally, sandwiched women reported more family-to-work conflict and less partner support than their male counterparts. Further research on the implications of combining a white-collar employment role with different family caregiving roles is warranted.

  20. Gender Equity in Education: A Data Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This data snapshot highlights several differences in educational opportunities between males and females from prekindergarten through higher education. The information herein, gathered from a variety of education data sources, shows that--despite the enormous progress made in ensuring equal educational opportunities since the passage of Title IX…

  1. Mathematics, Science, and Technology in Secondary Schools: Do Gender and Region Make a Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines possible interaction effects of gender and region (urban vs. rural on student beliefs about women in math and science, their attitudes towards math and science, and their confidence in the use of technology. A secondary purpose of this study is to examine possible differences in confidence of using technology between high school students who consider math-related or science-related careers and those who do not. The data collected from an anonymous survey of 450 secondary students were analyzed. The results showed interaction effects of gender and region on student beliefs and attitudes. First, the gender differences in students’ beliefs about women in math and science changes significantly depending on the location of the school. Second, when region was considered, significant effects on students’ choice of mathematics- and science-related careers were identified. Urban students, regardless of their gender, were more likely to consider careers related requiring knowledge of science or mathematics than rural students. Résumé : Cette étude examine les effets d’interaction possibles du genre et de la région (la ville ou la banlieue sur les croyances des étudiants à propos des femmes dans le domaine des mathématiques et des sciences, leurs attitudes envers les mathématiques et les sciences et leur confiance en l’utilisation de la technologie. Un objet secondaire de cette étude consiste à examiner les différences possibles en la confiance en l’utilisation des technologies entre les étudiants du secondaire qui envisagent des carrières dans le domaine des mathématiques ou des sciences et entre les étudiants pour qui ce n’est pas le cas. Nous avons analysé les données recueillies dans le cadre d’un sondage anonyme effectué auprès de 450 étudiants du secondaire. Les résultats ont indiqué des effets d’interaction du genre et de la région sur les croyances et les attitudes des étudiants. Tout d

  2. Health equity impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povall, Susan L; Haigh, Fiona A; Abrahams, Debbie; Scott-Samuel, Alex

    2014-12-01

    The World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health has called for 'health equity impact assessments' of all economic agreements, market regulation and public policies. We carried out an international study to clarify if existing health impact assessment (HIA) methods are adequate for the task of global health equity assessments. We triangulated data from a scoping review of the international literature, in-depth interviews with health equity and HIA experts and an international stakeholder workshop. We found that equity is not addressed adequately in HIAs for a variety of reasons, including inadequate guidance, absence of definitions, poor data and evidence, perceived lack of methods and tools and practitioner unwillingness or inability to address values like fairness and social justice. Current methods can address immediate, 'downstream' factors, but not the root causes of inequity. Extending HIAs to cover macro policy and global equity issues will require new tools to address macroeconomic policies, historical roots of inequities and upstream causes like power imbalances. More sensitive, participatory methods are also required. There is, however, no need for the development of a completely new methodology. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Equity and extramarital sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walster, E; Traupmann, J; Walster, G W

    1978-03-01

    Equity theory has recently been found to be a useful framework for understanding the effects of imbalances in intimate "contractual" relationships such as marriage. Equitable couples seem to be happier, more satisfied with their relationship, and more confident that it will last than are their more mismatched, i.e., inequitable, counterparts. Furthermore, inequitable couples predictably act to "set things right" in their marriage. They either restore actual equity to the relationship or psychologically set their relationship in balance. If neither works, they may "leave the field." Extramarital sex may be viewed as an equity restoration mechanism in that (1) it may be used by the deprived partner to achieve actual equity, (2) it may indicate a partner's readiness to leave the relationship because he feels he can "do better," or (3) it may represent a desire to achieve equity in an alternative relationship(s) when inequity pervades the primary one. The hypothesis that the inequitable/underbenefited group should be more likely than the equitable group or the inequitable/overbenefited group to have engaged in extramarital sex was tested using data from a large-scale Psychology Today questionnaire. The results indicated that men and women in inequitable/underbenefited relationships had more extramarital affairs and began their extramarital activities earlier than did men and women in equitable and inequitable/overbenefited relationships. Alternative explanations of this finding, sex-role demands and length of the relationship, are explored and discarded as untenable.

  4. Gender and engineering aptitude: Is the color of science, technology, engineering, and math materials related to children's performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Miller, Bridget; Rizzardi, Victoria

    2017-08-01

    To investigate gender stereotypes, demonstrated engineering aptitude, and attitudes, children (N=105) solved an engineering problem using either pastel-colored or primary-colored materials. Participants also evaluated the acceptability of denial of access to engineering materials based on gender and counter-stereotypic preferences (i.e., a boy who prefers pastel-colored materials). Whereas material color was not related to differences in female participants' performance, younger boys assigned to pastel materials demonstrated lower engineering aptitude than did other participants. In addition, results documented age- and gender-related differences; younger participants, and sometimes boys, exhibited less flexibility regarding gender stereotypes than did older and female participants. The findings suggest that attempts to enhance STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) engagement or performance through the color of STEM materials may have unintended consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards a gender inclusive information and communications technology curriculum: a perspective from graduates in the workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppi, Tony; Sheard, Judy; Naghdy, Fazel; Edwards, Sylvia L.; Brookes, Wayne

    2010-12-01

    An online survey was conducted of recent information and communications technology (ICT) graduates from 21 Australian universities. A range of abilities including personal/interpersonal, cognitive, business and technical were examined in relation to importance in the workplace and university preparation of those abilities. In addition, a set of six open-ended text-response questions concerned with the curriculum and other workplace preparation were asked. Quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed a range of responses that were significantly different according to gender. Amongst the significant findings are that females are more concerned than males with interpersonal communication, the development of people-skills and the people side of ICT. Implications for the ICT curriculum are that it should have more than a narrow male-centred technological focus and include the involvement of people and the effects of ICT on society in general. This broad inclusive pedagogical approach would satisfy the needs expressed by all respondents and contribute to increasing the enrolments of both female and male students in ICT.

  6. Gender Gap in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Current Knowledge, Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences…

  7. Between Identification and Subjectification: Affective Technologies of Expertise and Temporality in the Contemporary Cultural Representation of Gendered Childhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Erica

    2012-01-01

    This article explores political ambiguities surrounding the mutual implication between technology and subjectivity, through the analysis of recent cultural texts about childhood. These ambiguities are shown to rely upon the mobilisation of memory and assume specific gendered forms. The appeal to the past figured by the child is also shown to…

  8. Gene Technology: Also a Gender Issue. Views of Dutch Informed Women on Genetic Screening and Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkel, Dymphie; Klinge, Ineke

    1997-01-01

    The views of Dutch women on the implications of the analysis of the human genome were studied by questionnaire and interview. Although a serious lack of knowledge about the topic was found, interviews produced a broad range of problematic issues. Attention to gender implications of gene technology is needed. (Author/EMK)

  9. Marketing assets: Relating brand equity and customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Brand equity and customer equity are inextricably linked. Some authors propose that marketing activities build these intangible assets simultaneously. In contrast, others suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity. In this research, we aim to shed light about the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, by empirically testing these two alternative explanations. Design/methodology/approach: We propose four research models that reflect these two alternatives explanations regarding the link between brand equity and customer equity. In order to estimate these models we employ Structural Equations Modelling. We measure model variables using data collected through a survey to marketing managers of services companies that operate in Spain. We compare these four research models in terms of explanatory power and goodness of fit. Findings: Our results indicate that the models that correspond to the simultaneity approach have a higher explanatory power and goodness of fit than the models that suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity, thus supporting that these intangible assets are built by marketing activities at the same time. Research limitations/implications: Our results recommend caution when interpreting previous research about the effects of brand (customer equity, as they might indeed correspond to customer (brand management. Similarly, future research focusing on customer and brand management need to take into account both managerial areas in their studies. Practical implications: From a practitioners’ point of view, our findings suggest adopting a brand-customer portfolio approach to enhance company profitability. Similarly, we derive implications for firm valuation processes, which incorporate brand equity and customer equity in their calculations. Originality/value: We empirically study the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, while previous research has analyzed

  10. Private Equity and Industry Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...

  11. Health care and equity in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-01-01

    India’s health system faces the ongoing challenge of responding to the needs of the most disadvantaged members of Indian society. Despite progress in improving access to health care, inequalities by socioeconomic status, geography and gender continue to persist. This is compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with the rising financial burden of health care falling overwhelming on private households, which account for more than three-quarter of health spending in India. Health expenditures are responsible for more than half of Indian households falling into poverty; the impact of this has been increasing pushing around 39 million Indians into poverty each year. In this paper, we identify key challenges to equity in service delivery, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These include imbalanced resource allocation, limited physical access to quality health services and inadequate human resources for health; high out-of-pocket health expenditures, health spending inflation, and behavioral factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Complementing other paper in this Series, we argue for the application of certain principles in the pursuit of equity in health care in India. These are the adoption of equity metrics in monitoring, evaluation and strategic planning, investment in developing a rigorous knowledge-base of health systems research; development of more equity-focused process of deliberative decision-making in health reform, and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors. The implementation of these principles, together with strengthening of public health and primary care services, provide an approach for ensuring more equitable health care for India’s population. PMID:21227492

  12. Equity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMartino, Joseph; Miles, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss three reform strategies designed to produce educational equity. The first strategy, heterogeneous grouping, does away with the controversial practice of placing students in different tracks based on their ability, which can polarize the student population into pro- and anti-school camps, create a "caste system"…

  13. Valuing Private Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity....

  14. Socio-economic and Environmental Impacts of Technological Change in Bangladesh Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, S

    1998-01-01

    Widespread controversies exist on the delayed consequences of technological change or ‘Green Revolution’ technology in agriculture largely due to the approach utilized in the evaluation process and the extent of issues covered. Early evaluations, focussing on issues of production, employment, and income only, failed to account for the delayed consequences of technological change on regional variations, gender equity, poverty and the environment. The present study employed a holistic approach ...

  15. School-to-Work Jump-Start Equity Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.

    This starter kit is a resource for state and local school-to-work (STW) directors, educators, parents, students, business and community, and economic development organizations serving all students through STW. The kit begins with four articles: "STW and Gender Equity: Opportunity for or Barrier to Economic Parity?" (Katherine Hanson, Joyce…

  16. Teachers, Equity, and Computers for Secondary Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The findings presented in this article were derived from a 3-year study aimed at examining issues associated with the use of computers for secondary mathematics learning in Victorian (Australia) schools. Gender and other equity factors were of particular interest. In this article, the focus is on the participating mathematics teachers. Data on…

  17. Closing the Gaps: Health Equity Research Initiative in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India's rapid economic progress has its costs. There has been a significant increase in social and economic inequalities by class, caste, ethnicity, gender, and location. ... Most of the studies fail to examine the combination of factors, pathways, and frameworks that influence how health equity issues are conceptualized, ...

  18. A multi-level analysis of the effects of age and gender stereotypes on trust in anthropomorphic technology by younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Richard; McLaughlin, Anne Collins; Bass, Brock

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that gender stereotypes, elicited by the appearance of the anthropomorphic technology, can alter perceptions of system reliability. The current study examined whether stereotypes about the perceived age and gender of anthropomorphic technology interacted with reliability to affect trust in such technology. Participants included a cross-section of younger and older adults. Through a factorial survey, participants responded to health-related vignettes containing anthropomorphic technology with a specific age, gender, and level of past reliability by rating their trust in the system. Trust in the technology was affected by the age and gender of the user as well as its appearance and reliability. Perceptions of anthropomorphic technology can be affected by pre-existing stereotypes about the capability of a specific age or gender. The perceived age and gender of automation can alter perceptions of the anthropomorphic technology such as trust. Thus, designers of automation should design anthropomorphic interfaces with an awareness that the perceived age and gender will interact with the user’s age and gender

  19. PRINSIP KESETARAAN GENDER DALAM ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermagusti Ermagusti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Islam has given a clear and a distinct concept about the principles of gender equity. Islam does not distinguish a person of gender and social roles both at home or in society. Different roles does not mean that subordinated women over men, but complementary in order to create good cooperation within families and communities.Keywords : Equity, Gender and IslamCopyright © 2011 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v1i2.78

  20. Mermaids and Spirit Spouses: Rituals as Technologies of Gender in Transnational African Pentecostal Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Rey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to approach the construction of gender in transnational spacesby focusing on the ritual practice of African Pentecostal migrants in Europeand in Africa. One dimension of African Pentecostalism is its insistence on thepractice of exorcism called ‘deliverance’ where malevolent spirits are expelledfrom one’s body. Within the Pentecostal demonology, several categories ofspirits carry implications for how gender is constructed. This article will analyseeffects of the appearance of these spirits on the construction of genderamong Ghanaian and Congolese Pentecostal churches in Geneva and in Accra.It will show that variations in the appearance of spirits within rituals can beinterpreted as a negotiation of gender roles in a migratory context. Shifts inPentecostal demonology can therefore be interpreted as a response to thereconfiguration of gender roles associated with the broader gender contextand work opportunities in Europe.

  1. Women in STEM disciplines the Yfactor 2016 global report on gender in science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmuck, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the findings of a survey that analyzes a unique set of data in science and technolog and provides a clear and simple synthesis of heterogeneous databases on the gender gap in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) setting, helping readers understand key trends and developments. The need for more women in innovative fields, particularly with regard to STEM-based innovations, has now been broadly recognized. The book provides insights into both the education and employment of women in STEM. It investigates how the gender gap has evolved among STEM graduates and professionals around the world, drawing on specific data from public and private databases. As such, the book provides readers an understanding of how the so-called ‘leaky pipeline’ operates, and of how more women than men drop out of STEM studies and jobs by geographical area.

  2. Exploring Issues of Implementation, Equity, and Student Achievement With Educational Software in the DC Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Ahn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present analyses from a researcher-practitioner partnership in the District of Columbia Public Schools, where we are exploring the impact of educational software on students’ academic achievement. We analyze a unique data set that combines student-level information from the district with data of student usage of a mathematics game platform: First in Math (FIM. These data offer a window into long-standing issues in the educational technology literature around implementation, equity, and student achievement. We show that time spent in FIM was correlated with improved future performance on standardized math assessments for students in Grades 4–8. However, student time spent using FIM was highly related to factors such as race, gender, and prior achievement. Such observations from data are helpful for school districts and researchers to inform equitable implementation of new technologies and maximize benefits to learners.

  3. Securing energy equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare

    2011-01-01

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: → Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. → A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. → Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  4. Toward Ensuring Health Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. METHODS......: The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool......, the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group...

  5. Outside Equity Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart C. Myers

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the necessary conditions for outside equity financing when insiders, that is managers or entrepreneurs, are self-interested and cash flows are not verifiable. Two control mechanisms are contrasted: a partnership,' in which outside investors can commit assets for a specified period, and a corporation,' in which assets are committed for an indefinite period but insiders can be ejected at any time. The paper also shows how going public to reduce outsiders' power can be effici...

  6. Designing Modern Equity Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2011-01-01

    This aim of this paper is to describe possible ways of investing in equity; choosing the right stocks(among small-cap, large-cap, value, growth, and foreign) using fundamental analysis, defining their appropriate mix in the portfolios according to the desired return-risk profiles based on Markowitz?s modern portfolio theory, and using technical analysis to buy and sell them.

  7. Investment Taxes and Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Sialm

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates whether investors are compensated for the tax burden of equity securities. Effective tax rates on equity securities vary due to frequent tax reforms and due to persistent differences in propensities to pay dividends. The paper finds an economically and statistically significant relationship between risk-adjusted stock returns and effective personal tax rates using a new data set covering tax burdens on a cross-section of equity securities between 1927 and 2004. Consist...

  8. Customer equity of Pakistani fast food restaurant: A study of attitudinal customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Customer Equity is true representative of relationship marketing. There are two major approach-es to measure Customer Equity: Transaction/sales based approach and Attitudinal Approach. This research is an effort to check customer equity of fast food restaurants of Pakistan by using attitudinal approach. Transactional customer equity is treated as criterion for attitudinal customer equity. Three drivers of Customer Equity are Value Equity, Brand equity and Relationship equity are taken as independent variables in this research. Convenient sampling technique was used and sample size was 393 respondents. The results show that attitudinal customer equity had strong association with transactional equity. Brand equity, value equity and relationship equity show positive associations with attitudinal customer equity.

  9. [Gender relations in the nursing workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ling-Fang

    2011-12-01

    This article is framed on the model of gender relations analysis suggested by sociologist Raewyn Connell, which considers the four gendered dimensions of power relations, division of labor, emotional relations, and symbolism, culture and discourse. Using personal observations and literature references, I discuss gender relations in the nursing workplace. I hope this article will be a useful tool for nurses to analyze gender issues encountered and develop strategies to improve the gender equity in the workplace.

  10. Influence of Social Cognitive and Gender Variables on Technological Academic Interest among Spanish High-School Students: Testing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª

    2016-01-01

    This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…

  11. Equity Gauge Zambia : Enhancing Governance, Equity and Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Throughout the program, national health care budget monitoring will ensure that health care financing is in keeping with current policies in support of equity and ... Human resources for health in Zambia : equity and health system strengthening; some local perspectives (IDRC lunch hour discussion, Ottawa, 22 Mar. 2006).

  12. Equity Versus Non-Equity International Strategic Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globerman, Steven; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    A substantial literature has evolved focusing on the ownership structure of international strategic alliances (ISAs). Most of the relevant studies are theoretical in nature and concentrate on the conceptual factors that influence the choice between equity and non-equity structures. A smaller number...

  13. Ruta crítica de la salud de las mujeres: integralidad y equidad de género en las prácticas de salud de las mujeres en la ciudad de Buenos Aires - 2da parte Critical Road Of Women's Health: Integrality And Gender Equity In Health Practices Among Women In Buenos Aires City - 2nd Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Tajer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este proyecto es continuación de investigaciones UBACyT anteriores, realizadas por el mismo equipo acerca de la equidad de género en la calidad de atención de pacientes cardiovasculares (2000-3 y de la relación entre los modos de subjetivación de género y la construcción de la vulnerabilidad coronaria en varones y en mujeres (1998-2000. El proyecto actual releva los grados de integralidad y equidad de género en las prácticas de salud de las mujeres en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, detectando necesidades, significaciones y prácticas realizadas a la población asistida, y a los/as profesionales de la salud que atienden. Analiza, así mismo, los programas existentes. El diseño es de tipo exploratorio descriptivo, utiliza metodología cualitativa en la recolección y análisis de información y técnicas de investigación acción participante para relevar obstáculos y colaborar en construir un modelo integral dirigido a la promoción y atención de la salud de las mujeres con perspectiva de género. Incluye una mirada de las necesidades en salud de cada etapa etaria y un enfoque preventivo hacia los problemas de las etapas siguientes, como componente de ampliación de capacidades de los/as sujetos/as de vivir una vida mas saludable y con mayores grados de ciudadanía.This project is a continuation of previous UBACyT research projects about gender equity in cardiovascular patients health care (2000-3 and the way of gender subjectivity contributes to coronary risk construction both in men and women (1998-2000 The aim of this work is studying the degree of integrality and gender equity in health care practices among women in the City of Buenos Aires. Detecting needs, signifi- cations and health care practices in population, practitioners and programmes. It is an exploratory-descriptive project that uses qualitative methodology in data recollection and analysis. Action participant techniques are used to assess obstacles and to collaborate in

  14. How equity markets view heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisch, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Factors that influence the equity market in investment decisions vis-a-vis the oil sands/heavy oil industry were reviewed. The importance of financing methods (debt, royalty trusts, common equity), liquidity of investments, absolute vs. relative performance, comparative economics vis-a-vis conventional oil producers, oil prices, operating cost drivers (technology, natural gas costs, cost/availability of diluent), transportation and refining capacity, were summarized. In the final analysis, consistent economic success on a large scale, combined with an assessment of available alternatives, were considered to be the most likely motivators for portfolio managers. As a cautionary note, it was noted that traditionally, oil and gas investors have not been known to be in the forefront to invest in research and development

  15. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  16. UBUNTU: A NEW AFRICAN EQUITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pjj

    for those who had committed politically motivated offences. The question was whether victims were to be given a voice in this special dispensation or not. ..... As the latter quote indicates, the history of equity in English law had a close connection with good conscience. In fact, courts of equity were originally presided over by ...

  17. Overcoming cross-gender differences and challenges in Le Fort-based, craniomaxillofacial transplantation with enhanced computer-assisted technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chad R; Swanson, Edward W; Susarla, Srinivas M; Coon, Devin; Rada, Erin; Rakan, Mohammed Al; Santiago, Gabriel F; Shores, Jaimie T; Bonawitz, Steven C; Fishman, Elliot K; Murphy, Ryan; Armand, Mehran; Liacouras, Peter; Grant, Gerald T; Brandacher, Gerald; Lee, Wei-Ping Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Sex-specific anthropometrics, skin texture/adnexae mismatch, and social apprehension have prevented cross-gender facial transplantation from evolving. However, the scarce donor pool and extreme waitlist times are currently suboptimal. Our objective was to (1) perform and assess cadaveric facial transplantation for each sex-mismatched scenario using virtual planning with cutting guide fabrication and (2) review the advantages/disadvantages of cross-gender facial transplantation. Cross-gender facial transplantation feasibility was evaluated through 2 mock, double-jaw, Le Fort-based cadaveric allotransplants, including female donor-to-male recipient and male donor-to-female recipient. Hybrid facial-skeletal relationships were investigated using cephalometric measurements, including sellion-nasion-A point and sellion-nasion-B point angles, and lower-anterior-facial-height to total-anterior-facial-height ratio. Donor and recipient cutting guides were designed with virtual planning based on our team's experience in swine dissections and used to optimize the results. Skeletal proportions and facial-aesthetic harmony of the transplants (n = 2) were found to be equivalent to all reported experimental/clinical sex-matched cases by using custom guides and Mimics technology. Cephalometric measurements relative to Eastman Normal Values are shown. On the basis of our results, we believe that cross-gender facial transplantation can offer equivalent, anatomical skeletal outcomes to those of sex-matched pairs using preoperative planning and custom guides for execution. Lack of literature discussion of cross-gender facial transplantation highlights the general stigmata encompassing the subject. We hypothesize that concerns over sex-specific anthropometrics, skin texture/adnexae disparity, and increased immunological resistance have prevented full acceptance thus far. Advantages include an increased donor pool with expedited reconstruction, as well as size-matched donors.

  18. 'Should you turn this into a complete gender matter?' Gender mainstreaming in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne; de Haes, Hanneke; Mans, Linda; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of a gender perspective in medical education aims toward better health, gender equity, and a better health care for both men and women. In this article, participants' responses to a Dutch gender awareness-raising project in medical education are discussed. Eighteen semi-structured

  19. "Should You Turn This into a Complete Gender Matter?" Gender Mainstreaming in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne; de Haes, Hanneke; Mans, Linda; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of a gender perspective in medical education aims toward better health, gender equity, and a better health care for both men and women. In this article, participants' responses to a Dutch gender awareness-raising project in medical education are discussed. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were held with education directors and…

  20. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  1. Gender involvement in manual material handling (mmh) tasks in agriculture and technology intervention to mitigate the resulting musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suman; Sinwal, Neelima; Rathore, Hemu

    2012-01-01

    The lifting and carrying of loads in agriculture on small landholdings are unavoidable. Rural communities often lack access to appropriate technologies which may result in various health hazards. The objective was to study gender participation in agricultural activities involving manual material handling tasks, to assess MSDs experienced in various MMH tasks and to evaluate traditional method and designed technology. The study was conducted on 100 agricultural workers. Data on gender participation in MMH tasks in household, animal husbandry and agriculture and resulting MSDs was gathered. Pre and post assessment of technology intervention was done for NIOSH Lifting Index, QEC, and RPE. The results revealed greater susceptibility of females to musculoskeletal problems in most of the household and animal husbandry tasks. The hand trucks designed were pushing type with power grasp handle. The respondents were advised to carry 5 kg of weight per lift instead of lifting more weight in one lift/minute while filling the hand truck. By decreasing the weight and increasing the number of lifts per minute the respondents were seen falling in green zone indicating significant reduction in NIOSH lifting index. QEC scores concluded that for filling the hand truck 5 kg of weight should be carried to keep the exposure level low.

  2. The Influence of Gender on Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    TPACK is emerging as an influential framework for conceptualising teacher knowledge in regards to integrating ICT and is generating considerable international research interest. To date, the question of whether gender plays a role in how teachers self-assess their TPACK knowledge has not figured greatly in this research. This paper seeks to…

  3. Ruta Crítica de la Salud de las Mujeres: Integralidad y equidad de Género en las prácticas de Salud de las Mujeres en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. 4ta parte Critical Road of Women's Health: Integrality and Gender equity in Health practices among Women in Buenos Aires City. 4th part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Tajer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que aquí se presenta es un insumo producido como parte de un proyecto de investigación en curso. El mismo consiste en una escala que fue construida por el equipo de investigación con el fin de medir la integralidad y equidad de género de los discursos y prácticas de profesionales y usuarios/as de programas del "ámbito de la salud" (La Rosa, 2004 en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires estudiados, cuyos resultados parciales han sido paulatinamente publicados (Tajer y otros, 2007, 2008, 2009. Se ha decidido, en este trabajo, presentar la escala por separado, ya que esta puede resultar una herramienta de gran utilidad para otros problemas de atención en salud no abarcados en la investigación, donde la perspectiva de género aún no se encuentra lo suficientemente incluida, tanto en las conceptualizaciones como en las prácticas de los/as profesionales y de los/as usuarios/as que concurren a los servicios. En aras a contribuir, con este instrumento, a la evaluación de Políticas Públicas en Salud (Tajer, 2004 (Sen G, Östlin P y col, 2009. Con tal objeto, se presenta la descripción de esta escala, compuesta por cuatro indicadores: Integralidad, Equidad de género, Autonomía y Ciudadanía y sus respectivos valores: Integral, Semi-Integral, Transicional y Asistencial.The work presented here is tool developed in a research project that is still in course. It consists in a scale built by the research team in order to measure the integrality and gender equity in the discourses and practices of health care professionals and users of "health arena" (La Rosa, 2004 programs in Buenos Aires city studied by this research, whose middle term conclusions have been published (Tajer y otros, 2007, 2008, 2009. The decision, of publishing by separate the scale, was based on the assumption that can be a useful tool to be used in other health care problems not included in our research, where gender perspective is not yet sufficiently included. That concerns

  4. [Gender in view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women.

  5. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Boeckmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers.

  6. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers. PMID:27618121

  7. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-09-07

    Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers.

  8. 75 FR 48661 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. ACTION: Notice of Establishment of the Equity and Excellence Commission. SUMMARY: The U.S. Secretary of Education (Secretary) announces the establishment of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Equity Commission or...

  9. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Readiness: Ethno-linguistic and gender differences in high-school course selection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The study examines science-related course choices of high-school students in the culturally diverse schools of the province of British Columbia, Canada. The analysis employs K-12 provincial data and includes over 44,000 students born in 1990 who graduated from high school by 2009. The research sample reflects the presence of about 27% of students for whom English is not a first language. We construct an empirical model that examines ethno-linguistic and gender differences in Grade 12 course choices while accounting for personal and situational differences among students. The study employs a course selection typology that emphasizes readiness for science, technology, engineering and math fields of study. Findings indicate that math- and science-related course selection patterns are strongly associated with ethnicity, qualified not only by gender and prior math and science achievement but also by the individual's grade level at entry to the system and enrollment in English as a Second Language program. Students who are more likely to engage in math and science courses belong to Asian ethno-linguistic groups and entered the provincial school system during the senior high-school years. We suggest that ethnic diversity and broader academic exposure may play a crucial role in changing the gender composition of science classrooms, university fields of study and science-related occupations.

  10. Beneath the numbers: A review of gender disparities in undergraduate education across science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This focused collection explores inequalities in the experiences of women in physics. Yet, it is important for researchers to also be aware of and draw insights from common patterns in the experiences of women across science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Here, we review studies on gender disparities across college STEM on measures that have been correlated with retention. These include disparities in academic performance, engagement, self-efficacy, belonging, and identity. We argue that observable factors such as persistence, performance, and engagement can inform researchers about what populations are disadvantaged in a STEM classroom or program, but we need to measure underlying mechanisms to understand how these inequalities arise. We present a framework that helps connect larger sociocultural factors, including stereotypes and gendered socialization, to student affect and observable behaviors in STEM contexts. We highlight four mechanisms that demonstrate how sociocultural factors could impact women in STEM classrooms and majors. We end with a set of recommendations for how we can more holistically evaluate the experiences of women in STEM to help mitigate the underlying inequities instead of applying a quick fix.

  11. Beneath the numbers: A review of gender disparities in undergraduate education across science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Eddy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This focused collection explores inequalities in the experiences of women in physics. Yet, it is important for researchers to also be aware of and draw insights from common patterns in the experiences of women across science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM disciplines. Here, we review studies on gender disparities across college STEM on measures that have been correlated with retention. These include disparities in academic performance, engagement, self-efficacy, belonging, and identity. We argue that observable factors such as persistence, performance, and engagement can inform researchers about what populations are disadvantaged in a STEM classroom or program, but we need to measure underlying mechanisms to understand how these inequalities arise. We present a framework that helps connect larger sociocultural factors, including stereotypes and gendered socialization, to student affect and observable behaviors in STEM contexts. We highlight four mechanisms that demonstrate how sociocultural factors could impact women in STEM classrooms and majors. We end with a set of recommendations for how we can more holistically evaluate the experiences of women in STEM to help mitigate the underlying inequities instead of applying a quick fix.

  12. Monitoring equity in immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamonica, Enrique; Minujin, Alberto; Gulaid, Jama

    2005-05-01

    This paper analyses trends in coverage of three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT3) by wealth groups in selected countries. It discusses the depth of disparities in coverage by wealth and changes during the 1990s. Complete assessment of equity in income and its trends have been discussed in other papers, however issues related to children's well-being have often been brushed aside because the comparable data needed to fully understand and rectify inequalities is lacking. A focal point of this paper pertains to gathering any and all information recorded about the immunization of children and then transcribing these data so that it is applicable to all countries. We analyse the technical difficulties and methodological solutions that would enable comparisons to be made between various measures of inequity taken from different surveys at two or three points in time among a variety of subpopulations in order to obtain disaggregated data. This paper argues for a simultaneous analysis of changes in averages and disparities in immunization coverage along variables of interest, such as wealth, gender and place of residence in order to achieve a better understanding of trends. We also focus on measurement issues and describe trends in immunization by wealth. We conclude with a brief discussion of issues related to monitoring equitable outcomes and offer suggestions for further research. In addition, the paper presents some lessons that can be drawn about monitoring and policies. We hope that this analysis of patterns of disparities will help policy-makers in devising, proposing and executing efficient policies and interventions.

  13. Gender differences on the job satisfaction in the phase of implementing advanced manufacturing technology in the Chinese manufacturing firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Na; Shen, Li Ming; Lewark, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    This research gave an effort to study on gender differences in the job satisfaction for technological innovation at Chinese manufacturing firm. The exploratory study was conducted in four Chinese furniture manufacturing firms, which are all in the phases of introducing advanced manufacturing system. The results of statistical analysis show that general satisfaction of female employees to their jobs is significantly higher than male employees. In addition, supervisory satisfaction of female employees is significantly higher than male employees. The findings of the study reveal that activities are suggested to be carried out to increase the job satisfaction of male employees, especially improve communication and relationship between the managerial and the non-managerial levels in the innovation process. In addition, the higher job satisfaction of female employees could be considered a positive factor for the successful implementation of AMT in the technological innovation, although male employees are still dominated work force in the case study firms.

  14. Music technology, gender, and class: Digitization, educational and social change in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Born, Georgina; Devine, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Music technology undergraduate degree programmes are a relatively new phenomenon in British higher education, situated at the intersection of music, digital technologies, and sound art. Such degrees have exploded in popularity over the past fifteen years. Yet the social and cultural ramifications of this development have not yet been analysed. In looking comparatively at the demographics of both traditional music and music technology degrees, we highlight a striking bifurcation: traditional m...

  15. Is Teacher Professional Development an Effective Way to Mitigate Teachers' Gender Differences in Technology? Result from a Statewide Teacher Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a statewide professional development (PD) program to investigate whether gender difference towards technology usage was mitigated after participation in the program. Teachers responded to pre- and post-questionnaires regarding their perceptions and use of technology before and after participating in PD courses.…

  16. Social Security and the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Olovsson, Conny

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that social security may be an important factor in explaining the equity premium puzzle. In the absence of shortselling constraints, the young shortsell bonds to the middle-aged and buy equity. Social security reduces the bond demand of the middle-aged, thereby restricting the possibilities of the young to finance their equity purchases. Their equity demand increases as does the average return to equity. Social security also increases the covariance between future consumption...

  17. Gender and Technology in Free Play in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Jonas; Elvstrand, Helene; Hellberg, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In the new Swedish curriculum for the preschool (2010) technology education is emphasized as one of the most significant pedagogical areas to work with. The aim of this article is to investigate how girls and boys explore and learn technology as well as how their teachers frame this in free play in two Swedish preschools. The study is inspired by…

  18. Perception by French Students of the Gendered Nature of Material Artifacts Studied in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colette, Andreucci; Marjolaine, Chatoney

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the socio-cultural factors that lead girls to desert scientific and technological courses. Over a long period, the contents of the French technology education (TE) college curricula may well have contributed to strengthening the feeling among girls that this discipline was better suited to boys. The choice…

  19. Enterprise Social Networking: Technology Acceptance Related to Personality, Age, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, the researcher examined and added to the body of knowledge within the project change management field of technology implementation. The rationale behind the study was to evaluate technology acceptance of Enterprise Social Networking (ESN), which has been widely implemented across over 90% of the "Fortune" 500…

  20. Gender inclusiveness in educational technology and learning experiences of girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, I.; ten Dam, G.; Volman, M.; Admiraal, W.

    2009-01-01

    The use of technology (information and communication technology, ICT) in secondary education is an important aspect of the current curriculum and of teachers' pedagogy. Learning supported by computers is supposed to be motivating for students and is, therefore, assumed to have positive effects on

  1. Gender inclusiveness in educational technology and experiences of girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, I.; ten Dam, G.; Volman, M.L.L.; Admiraal, W.

    2009-01-01

    The use of technology (information and communication technology, ICT) in secondary education is an important aspect of the current curriculum and of teachers’ pedagogy. Learning supported by computers is supposed to be motivating for students and is, therefore, assumed to have positive effects on

  2. Use of Computer Technology for English Language Learning: Do Learning Styles, Gender, and Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…

  3. Keynes, population, and equity prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarascio, V J

    1985-01-01

    important determinant of longrun movements in real per capita income (given the state of technology, the real rate of interest, the age structure of the population, and the size share of income). So the focus is on population and its effects on economic growth. Due to the fact that the stock market presumably discounts longrun economic conditions as reflected in equity prices, it would seem that if Keynes were correct in his theoretical speculations, longterm equity price movements should relate to population change. In this sense, the paper may be regarded as an empirical test of a proposition of Keynes. More generally, the paper is suggestive in several ways. The relationship between business cycles and stock market cycles has been understood to the point of being rather obvious, but the effects of population on both has been less clear. It does appear on the basis of the evidence presented that the malaise of the stock market during the past 16 years, especially in real terms, may be due to factors more fundamental than those often perceived.

  4. Shifting the balance: equity and sustainable consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Garside, Ben; De Morais, Gabriela Weber

    2009-01-15

    On our finite planet, the dictates of ecology and technology limit growth. Yet a key element of this issue – consumption – has until recently hardly figured on policy agendas. Now there is growing recognition that transformation towards a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy means tackling consumption as well as production. Governments and businesses are beginning to make concerted, if uncoordinated, efforts to reduce energy and resource use. Rethinking consumption could, however, drive an even bigger wedge between rich and poor. Any new agenda for consumption needs to factor in equity as well as environmental benefit.

  5. Housing equity withdrawal in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, R.; Jefferson, T.; Austen, S.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Wood, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    More Australian home owners are using housing equity withdrawal to unlock financial resources to fund living expenses, especially in retirement. Policy is needed to address potential adverse consequences of these strategies.

  6. Sustainability : Intergeneration Equity and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    Regarding intergenerational equity as prerequisite for sustainability, we derive an optimal investment rule for intergenerational equity from an optimization model allowing for capital accumulation and pollution. This rule provides a condition for intergenerational equity such that an economy maintains constant net value of investment the difference between the physical capital investment value and the environmental resource depletion(pollution) value. This rule is more generalized condition for intergenerational equity than the 'keep capital intact' rule suggested by Hartwick(1977) and Solow(1999), in a sense that this rule includes their condition as a special. Also, we expect this rule to offer an empirical measure of sustainability. In addition, we discuss a variety of recent environmental issues in practice, especially associated with the implications from the rule. (author). 13 refs.

  7. Brexit, Private Equity and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, M.; Wilson, N.; Gilligan, J.; Bacon, N.; Amess, K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the expected impact of Brexit on private equity and its implications for management research. Specifically, we explore the implications for PE funds and funding, and at the portfolio firm level with respect to employment and performance.

  8. Social equity, mobility, and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report discusses how transportation policies can aggravate or alleviate social equity problems. Current transit systems : (Detroit, Atlanta, Cleveland, Denver, and St. Louis) were studied with respect to their strategies and relative success in ...

  9. EQUITY AND INCOME TAX REDISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    PALTINEAN LUMINITA; SCHIAU LAURA LIANA; MOGA AURA CARMEN; TULAI CONSTANTIN

    2010-01-01

    Two issues are covered by this study: 1) critical analysis and systematization of equity controversies and 2) attempts of finding technical solutions for measuring fiscal inequality, closely related to the redistributive role of income tax.

  10. An Evaluation of Program M in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: An Analysis of Change in Self-Efficacy in Interpersonal Relationships, Gender Equity, and Self-Reported Risky Behaviors among Women in Two Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study examined whether Program M, an intervention targeting young women in a low-income community in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, promoted changes in gender equitable attitudes and self-efficacy in interpersonal relationships among program participants. Further, it investigated whether the program influenced these young…

  11. The need for equity in resource allocation in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the need for equity in resource allocation in the Nigerian educational system and its implication for technology education. It observes that the secondary education level is a very important stage in the educational system and as such resources required to make the system functional should be put in ...

  12. 75 FR 3593 - Concept Release on Equity Market Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... composed of multiple competing markets that are linked through technology. In particular, Congress found... Concept Release'') (``[A]lthough the objectives of vigorous competition on price and fair market center... Part III Securities and Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 242 Concept Release on Equity Market...

  13. Issues of Power, Masculinity, and Gender Justice: Sally's Story of Teaching Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Despite calls for a more nuanced approach to issues of gender and equity that recognizes how broader relations of gender and power continue to produce injustices for many females, essentialized accounts expressing concern about boys' poor educational performance remain the most common refrain in dominant equity discourses across Western contexts.…

  14. Negotiating and Enabling Spaces for Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Through feminist informed understandings of injustice, this paper draws on significant research to re-articulate prevailing issues of gender inequity within and beyond the contexts of education in Australia. Following a location of the unconvincing but pervasive warrant for boys' issues to dominate the gender equity scene, the paper turns to a…

  15. EQUITY IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lepeš

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity in the education is a very complex concept; it has social, political and also economical relations. I would like to interpret this phenomenon, from the schools point of view. School maturity is the starting line of the lifelong learning. Successful learning process depends on many factors, for example it is very important that the children must be developed enough biologically, socially and psychologically by the time they start school. Our research was conducted with 5-6 years old children in kindergarten. It was assumed that the motor performance (mainly coordination abilities of school maturity. I am not going to overlook the fact that the physical and mental development of the ways retrieve for gaps caused by lack of attention and responsibility of the home environment. Thus to handle them as factual information. A given skilful performance might as well be due to genetic factors, proper and stimulating environment or participation in any kind of sport activity or dance training or work-out classes.

  16. Using the Job-Demands-Resources model to predict turnover in the information technology workforce – General effects and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hoonakker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High employee turnover has always been a major issue for Information Technology (IT. In particular, turnover of women is very high. In this study, we used the Job Demand/Resources (JD-R model to examine the relationship between job demands and job resources, stress/burnout and job satisfaction/commitment, and turnover intention and tested the model for gender differences. Data were collected in five IT companies. A sample of 624 respondents (return rate: 56%; 54% males; mean age: 39.7 years was available for statistical analyses. Results of our study show that relationships between job demands and turnover intention are mediated by emotional exhaustion (burnout and relationships between job resources and turnover intention are mediated by job satisfaction. We found noticeable gender differences in these relationships, which can explain differences in turnover intention between male and female employees. The results of our study have consequences for organizational retention strategies to keep men and women in the IT work force.

  17. Examining Equity Theory across Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Hatfield

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand culture’s role between perceived equity in one’s romantic relationship and relationship satisfaction, we sampled two groups from different cultural backgrounds and attempted to answer the question of whether culture would impact the relationship between equity and relationship satisfaction. We interviewed men and women from the University of Hawai’i (UH, a relatively individualist culture, and from the University of the West Indians in Jamaica (UWI, considered a more collectivistic culture. We had them fill out surveys detailing how equitable they saw their relationship, how important they considered equity to be in their relationship, and how satisfied they were in their relationship. A significant interaction was found between culture and equity in predicting relationship satisfaction. As predicted, in both countries participants considered equity to be of critical importance in romantic relationships. However, men and women in Hawai’i generally considered their relationships to be (slightly more equitable and far more satisfying than did people in Jamaica. There were also cultural differences in how people reacted to existing inequities. The UH sample was more satisfied in their romantic relationships, especially when the relationship was equitable. However, the UWI sample found their relationships to be most satisfying when they were overbenefitting from their relationships. We posit that the collectivist culture of our UWI participants affected the relationship between equity and relationship satisfaction. Considering the emphasis placed on roles and familial kin support in Jamaica, we can deduce that equity may be of less importance in affecting relationship satisfaction.

  18. Equity Effects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986

    OpenAIRE

    Jane G. Gravelle

    1992-01-01

    The major goals of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 included an increase in the equity of the tax system. We will consider the effects of the tax reform on vertical equity, horizontal equity, and intergenerational equity.

  19. Technologizing Feminist Pedagogy: Using Blog Activism in the Gender Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ashley A.; Ryalls, Rmily

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on teaching focuses on integrating technology into the classroom (Chick and Hassel 197; Eisen 350; Eudey 233; Richards 6-7; Sargent and Corse 242; Schweitzer 188). In particular, instructors have developed online class spaces using social networking sites (e.g., blogs, YouTube, Twitter). Online spaces not only challenge the notion…

  20. Investigating the Role of Identity and Gender in Technology Mediated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yujong

    2010-01-01

    Instructors and trainers are increasingly using online education and technology-mediated learning (TML) to supplement or replace traditional approaches to classroom teaching. Because mandatory involvement requirements may not intrinsically motivate learners to achieve high quality learning, social factors with commitment, such as identification…

  1. Towards a Gender Inclusive Information and Communications Technology Curriculum: A Perspective from Graduates in the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppi, Tony; Sheard, Judy; Naghdy, Fazel; Edwards, Sylvia L.; Brookes, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    An online survey was conducted of recent information and communications technology (ICT) graduates from 21 Australian universities. A range of abilities including personal/interpersonal, cognitive, business and technical were examined in relation to importance in the workplace and university preparation of those abilities. In addition, a set of…

  2. Gender Stereotypes among Women Engineering and Technology Students in the UK: Lessons from Career Choice Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating…

  3. Narrowing the Gender Gap: Enduring Changes in Middle School Students' Attitude toward Math, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naizer, Gilbert; Hawthorne, Melissa J.; Henley, Tracy B.

    2014-01-01

    Middle School students from rural school districts participated in a Summer STEM program with academic year follow-up requirements. Both males and females showed increased interest and confidence regarding math science, technology, and problem-solving. Furthermore, these gains continued beyond the immediate impact of Summer program participation…

  4. Gendered Narratives of Innovation through Competition: Lessons from Science and Technology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Scout

    2013-01-01

    Library and information science is a technologically intensive profession with a high percentage of women, unlike computer science and other male-dominated fields. On the occasion of the 2011 ALISE conference, this essay analyzes the theme "Competitiveness and Innovation" through a review of social psychology and science and technology…

  5. Gender Issues in Technology Education: A Quasi-Ethnographic Interview Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, W. J., III

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with 12 female technology education practitioners revealed that they felt accepted in the profession but sometimes felt isolated, patronized, or minimized by a minority of male colleagues. More women in the profession as role models and mentors would help improve the climate. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  6. Rightist Education and Godly Technology: Cultural Politics, Gender, and the Work of Home Schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Apple

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The secularity of the state is seen by 'authoritarian populist' religious conservatives as imposing a world-view that is out of touch with the deep religious commitments that guide their lives. In the process, authoritarian populists have taken on subaltern identities and claimed that they are the last truly dispossessed groups. To demonstrate their increasing power in educational and social policy, I situate a specific set of technologies-the Internet-within the social context of its use in this community. I focus on the growing home-schooling movement and suggest that to understand the societal meaning and uses of these technologies, we need to examine the social movement that provides the context for their use. I also argue that we need to analyze critically the kind of labor that is required in home schooling, who is engaged in such labor, and how such labor is interpreted by the actors who perform it.

  7. USAID Policy: Gender equality and female empowerment policy

    OpenAIRE

    United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

    2012-01-01

    Metadata only record This report is an update on USAID's progress towards gender equity and female empowerment since 1982. This policy strives towards positive development that is beneficial to men, women, and children. The goals are to reduce gender disparity in access to resources, reduce gender-based violence, and increase women's agency, leadership, and decision-making.

  8. The Gender-Equality Paradox in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoet, G; Geary, DC

    2018-01-01

    The underrepresentation of girls and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a continual concern for social scientists and policymakers. Using an international database on adolescent achievement in science, mathematics, and reading ( N = 472,242), we showed that girls performed similarly to or better than boys in science in two of every three countries, and in nearly all countries, more girls appeared capable of college-level STEM study than had enrolled. P...

  9. Pobreza, desigualdade e eqüidade em saúde: considerações a partir de uma perspectiva de gênero transversal Poverty, inequality, and equity in health: considerations based on a transversal gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Giffin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda a atualização das desigualdades de gênero que ocorrem no Brasil nas últimas duas décadas, sob a hegemonia das políticas macroeconômicas de cunho neoliberal. No centro desta análise, um conceito de gênero transversal é aplicado a questões da saúde reprodutiva (contracepção e aborto, parto e pré-natal, gravidez na adolescência, mortalidade materna e reprodutiva, DST/AIDS e violência, entre outras permitindo relacionar os gêneros e comparar mulheres de diferentes classes sociais. A história do PAISM (Programa de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher, por outro lado, revela a complexa articulação entre uma política pública nacional que foi fortemente influenciada pelo movimento de mulheres, mas permeável a interesses heterogêneos no contexto internacional. Serve como exemplo da apropriação e esvaziamento de propostas e princípios advindos deste movimento social, mas rearticulados para encobrir o aprofundamento das desigualdades de classe e de gênero.This article discusses the modernization of gender inequalities which has occurred in Brazil in the last 20 years under the hegemony of neo-liberal macro-economic policies. A concept of gender as transversal is applied to questions of reproductive health (contraception and abortion, prenatal care and birthing, adolescent pregnancy, maternal and reproductive mortality, STIs/AIDS, and violence, among others, permitting analysis by both gender and social class. The history of the PAISM (Program for Integral Health Care for Women, on the other hand, reveals the complex articulation of this national public health program which, although strongly influenced by the Brazilian women's movement, has been infiltrated by heterogeneous interests in the international context. PAISM serves as an example of the appropriation of proposals and principles that were generated by this social movement, but re-articulated to gloss over the process of deepening gender and class

  10. Food sovereignty, food security and health equity: a meta-narrative mapping exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Anelyse M.; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity—i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced—and food systems, where the concepts of ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a ‘meta-narrative synthesis’ on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1—Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2—Occupational Exposures; 3—Environmental Change; 4—Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5—Intake of Contaminants; 6—Nutrition; 7—Social Determinants of Health and 8—Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to

  11. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...... or if there might be other reasons for the concept to work so well there. The conclusion is that major cultural, economic, and political differences between the U.S. and the Nordic countries make it difficult to apply American theories and empirical findings to the Nordic region....

  12. Gender Studies Course at UG/PG Levels and Gender Awareness Training to Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Moly

    2014-01-01

    While the UGC is committed to the cause of promoting gender equity through higher education and is in the process of reviewing the existing arrangements in the campuses of higher learning to ensure the freedom, safety and security of girls and women, the proactive role of teachers in solving the problems of gender based violence and other…

  13. Gender perceptions of smoking and cessation via technology, incentives and virtual communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D; Smith, Amber A

    2011-01-01

    There are many studies that have tried to evaluate some of the determining factors in smoking cessation, but with limited success. In particular, the present study deals with these concerns within the context of the current global recession and the roles of technology and social networking as moderating variables in the examination of smoking working professionals' relationships between people's background experiences with smoking, their self-reported perceptions about health, economic, and social aspects of smoking, and their perspectives on quitting. The empirical section examines current opinions of smoking analogues as alternatives to cessation and identify whether these opinions were influenced by negative perspectives of smoking in general. Several hypotheses and factor analyses related to smoking cessation statistically evaluated assumptions that economic and social considerations had more effects on quitting than health concerns; personal experience with smoking leads to less confidence in cold turkey quitting; and that technology-based solutions and virtual communities can gain wide acceptance despite the chemical addictiveness of tobacco-related products.

  14. Gendered study choice: a literature review. A review of theory and research into the unequal representation of male and female students in mathematics, science, and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazilitas, D.; Yazilitas, D.; Svensson, Jorgen S.; de Vries, Geert; Saharso, Sawitri

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the recent literature on gendered patterns of academic choice in mathematics, science, and technology. It distinguishes in this literature micro-level, macro-level, and institutional explanations. Micro-level explanations focus primarily on psychological

  15. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to

  16. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  17. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
    understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
    society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
    changes for women farmers. The

  18. Gender Rationales in Selecting a Major in Information Technology at the Undergraduate Level of a University Program: A Focus Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sushma; Draus, Peter; Caputo, Donald; Leone, Gregory; Kohun, Frederick; Repack, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Previous research studies of women applying to, enrolling and completing computing degrees at the undergraduate collegiate level suggest a significant underrepresentation of females in the Information Technology domain in the past decade. This study employs a focus group approach to the gender gap that encompasses forays into the qualitative…

  19. GENDER MAINSTREAMING POLICY IN ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN INDONESIA: STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS ON GENDER ROLES IN ISLAMIC PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Azisah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government has made a strong commitment to eliminate gender discrimination. To achieve greater gender equality and equity, President Abdurrahman Wahid issued the Presidential Instruction Number 9 Year 2000 to promote gender mainstreaming with the objective of achieving gender equality and equity in all sectors of life. This paper investigates gender perspec-tives of the students in three Islamic Primary schools: one state school and two private schools in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The data were gathered by using a number of techniques: group interviews, student drawings, listing famous people and selecting favorite person from their lists of famous people. Three main points emerged from the study: 1 the majority of students had gender-neutral views on sports/games, employment and a range of other social activities; 2 persistent gender stereotyping of some roles by students; and 3 the students from the three schools had divergent views on gender roles and gender identities.

  20. The Economics of Private Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe development of theory about private equity during the last decades follows the pattern of economic development. While buyouts have found their origin in restructuring we observe more recently a trend of facilitating growth, where the firm and financier follow a path of acquisitions.

  1. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  2. Consumer Learning and Brand Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); J.W. Alba (Joseph)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA series of experiments illustrates a learning process that enhances brand equity at the expense of quality-determining attributes. When the relationship between brand name and product quality is learned prior to the relationship between product attributes and quality, inhibition of the

  3. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  4. Breaking Gender Stereotypes: Encouraging more Women to Study Science, Technology and Mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, G.

    2015-01-01

    Why aren’t there more women working in the Nuclear field? OECD data can reveal some of the answers: when students are asked about the kind of career they expect to pursue as young adults even those girls who envision pursuing scientific careers expect to work in fields that are different from boys. Girls are over-represented among students who expect to work in the health and social fields; boys are over-represented among 15-year olds who expect to work as engineers or computer scientists, despite the fact that girls and boys show similar performance in science at school. Parents are also much more likely to expect their sons rather than their daughters to pursue these careers, even when their performance in mathematics is equally good. This has direct consequences: 14% of young women who entered university for the first time in 2012 chose science related fields, including engineering, manufacturing and construction. By contrast, 39% of young men who entered university that year chose to pursue one of those fields of study. These findings have serious implications not only for higher education, where young women are already under-represented in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields of study, but also later on, when these young women enter the labour market. (author

  5. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Principal component analysis of equity options on Dow-Jones firms reveals a strong factor structure. The first principal component explains 77% of the variation in the equity volatility level, 77% of the variation in the equity option skew, and 60% of the implied volatility term structure across...... equities. Furthermore, the first principal component has a 92% correlation with S&P500 index option volatility, a 64% correlation with the index option skew, and a 80% correlation with the index option term structure. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure...... on a large set of index and equity option data on which the model provides a good fit. The equity option data support the cross-sectional implications of the estimated model....

  6. "I Love Barbies … I Am a Boy": Gender Happiness for Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Karleen Pendleton

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from a two-year study of gender and gender transgression among school children and youth in rural Ontario, Canada conducted while running gender equity workshops for students aged 8-18 years, in which I asked participants to document what gender looked and felt like. Through writing prompts, pictures, discussion and…

  7. Gender Equality in Science--Who Cares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lewyn

    2002-04-01

    In this article, I address three questions: first, and most important, why scientists at all levels should care about gender equity in research; second, why there are so few women in science, from graduate school all the way to top-level research in academia and industry; and finally, what can be done to redress the imbalance. I argue that we should strive for gender equity because of a sense of justice, a desire to advance scientific knowledge, and a wish to improve the public image of science. I also make specific proposals that would make scientific research friendlier toward women, especially in graduate education.

  8. Gender training: creating change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun-selka, P

    1997-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) has developed a training program concerning gender policies and practices; it includes a curriculum, "Gender and Development," and a handbook, "Gender Equity: Concepts and Tools for Development." Gender training focuses on increasing individual awareness of gender issues and incorporating gender practices in programs. CEDPA has expanded its programs to include projects promoting increased decision-making power for women regarding their own lives. Family planning and reproductive health projects now include programs designed to increase "women's literacy, credit and income-generation opportunities, and participation in civil society and the political process." Projects address reproductive and human rights, land distribution, economic expansion, credit and savings, and violence against women. Youth programs focus on the changing nature of gender roles, the equal rights of women and girls, and the shared responsibility and mutual respect of the sexes. In the Better Life Options projects, youth of both sexes attend family life and sex education programs. The curriculum "Choose a Future" provides life skills training for young women; a version for young men will be provided in the future. Including men (community health workers and supervisors, educators, trainers, leaders, fathers, and husbands) in the CEDPA programs is essential for the empowerment of women.

  9. The Shadow Report for the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)" with Topics on Gender Diversity Education, Sex Education, and Female Participation in Exercise and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang; Yu-Hsien, Tseng; Keng-Yu, Cho; Cheng-Ting, Wu; Yi-Chia, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This report primarily responds to the content of the Articles 10 and 12 regarding gender equity education in the governmental report made by the Taiwanese government in 2014 for CEDAW. In order to observe the obstacles and challenges facing gender equity education in our nation today, this report focuses on three aspects: gender diversity…

  10. Equity Index in the School Systems of Selected OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmusul, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analysis the equity in the school systems of selected OECD countries. For this purpose, the international data for selected OECD countries was analyzed in terms of four dimensions of equity as learning equity, school resource equity, participating in education, and digital equity. When analyzing data, the equity…

  11. Equity valuation of Tesco Plc.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation aimed to value the British retailer Tesco Plc. The objective was to determine a target price for the company and as a consequence determine a buy or sell recommendation when comparing it to the current market price. After the state of the art of literature regarding equity valuation has been assessed, the retail industry as well as Tesco have been analysed in more detail. Based on this, the retail business of Tesco has been valued using the Adjusted Present Va...

  12. Monitoring equity in immunization coverage.

    OpenAIRE

    Delamonica, Enrique; Minujin, Alberto; Gulaid, Jama

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses trends in coverage of three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT3) by wealth groups in selected countries. It discusses the depth of disparities in coverage by wealth and changes during the 1990s. Complete assessment of equity in income and its trends have been discussed in other papers, however issues related to children's well-being have often been brushed aside because the comparable data needed to fully understand and rectify inequalities is lacking. A fo...

  13. The case of Geely acquiring Volvo Car : A study on low brand equity acquiring high brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xiaoshu; Shi, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Much previous research has studied high brand equity acquiring high brand equity or high brand equity acquiring low brand equity. However, very little research has been conducted to understand how that low brand equity acquiring high brand equity changes the low brand equity especially in China. This paper is on the case of Geely Group acquiring Volvo Car which was a typical acquisition of a high brand equity company by a low brand equity company. The aim of the paper is to verify whether thi...

  14. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta.......We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...

  15. The gendered division of housework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, M A; Escorial, Sergio; Privado, Jesús

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the verifiable achievements obtained in gender equity, one wonders if they still exist in our societies gendered activities (roles) at the household level. This study states an affirmative prediction. Gender role is here organized in four different nuclei: instrumentality inside and outside home for men; expressiveness and instrumentality inside home for women, pertaining to two clearly different domains (household activities for men and household activities for women). 98 women and 86 men completed the Gender Roles Questionnaire (GRQ). Obtained results showed that: (a) men and women do not do certain household activities (roles) with the same frequency; (b) the four-dimensional approach fits the data better than the one-dimensional and even better than the two-dimensional approach (household gender roles for men and women separately). Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for both research and education.

  16. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  17. Preliminary results of the investigation “Women and Men Entrepreneurs in Science and Technology in Costa Rica: a contrast of gender realities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ferreto-Gutiérrez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The project is an investigation that seeks to demons­trate the contrasts of gender entrepreneurship on companies focused in Science and Technology in Costa Rica. By consulting secondary sources and experts on the topic, and deepen the field of Science and Technology. We have found a lack of documented information to take appropriate actions to guide the various actors involved at the level of Government, private sector and academia. In 2010, the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Commerce (MEIC launches two public policy of promoting SMEs and other enterprises to which state the issue of gender as a crosscutting issue. In addition, the Institute Tecnolológico Costa Rica (ITCR has defined support for SMEs and entre­preneurship as an institutional policy and transverse axis of its academic work (Institutional III Congress, which motivates venture into this line of research. Based on the above, this research proposal pretend at laying the foundations to make a gender contrast in entrepreneurs and their initiatives in science and technology and determine whether the differences or similarities impact on the performance of their companies.

  18. Reviewing the Concept of Brand Equity and Evaluating Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Farjam; Xu Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of brand equity and discuss its different perspectives, we try to review existing literature of brand equity and evaluate various Customer-based brand equity models to provide a collection from well-known databases for further research in this area.Classification-JEL: M00

  19. Evoking equity as a rationale for solar geoengineering research? Scrutinizing emerging expert visions of equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flegal, Jane A.; Gupta, A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines how notions of equity are being evoked by expert advocates of more research into solar geoengineering. We trace how specific understandings of equity figure centrally—although not always explicitly—in these expert visions. We find that understandings of equity in such “vanguard

  20. Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Stone, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize and integrate some of the latest developmental science research on gender stereotypes and discrimination in childhood and adolescence. We focus on five forms of sexism: (a) stereotypes and discrimination against boys regarding their school behaviors and disciplinary actions; (b) stereotypes and discrimination against girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains; (c) stereotypes and discrimination in sports; (d) peer gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and teasing because of gender atypicality or nonconformity; and (e) sexualized gender stereotypes that sexually objectify girls and assume boys are sexually voracious. First, we document each type of sexism and examine children's awareness and perceptions of that bias, including their own self-reports and attributions. We examine the implications of this sexism for children and adolescents' developmental health (i.e., social, academic, and psychological well-being). We then draw connections between these various areas of research, focusing on how these different forms of sexism interact to reduce equity and justice among children and negatively impact positive developmental outcomes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The pervasive triad of food security, gender inequity and women's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study was designed to explore the interactions between food securing activities, health and gender equity from the perspective of rural east African women. The specific objectives were to document the critical interaction among these three issues—food security, gender inequity, women's health within the ...

  2. Considering Transgender People in Education: A Gender-Complex Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, Kathleen E.

    2009-01-01

    Schools serve as a setting in which students come to understand gender, but transgender students (those who transgress societal gender norms) are largely left out of discussions of education. The high level of harassment that transgender students face poses sizable obstacles to school success. If the field of education is committed to equity and…

  3. Gender difference of knowledge and attitude of primary health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saadoon F. Alazmy

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... Knowledge;. Attitude gender difference. Abstract Background: Cultural and traditional norms in the community can have an impact on gender equity. This can be ... manipulative behavior, and physical and sexual assault, to rape and even ..... Malaysia: a survey on the primary health care providers. Asia.

  4. Women's participation and gender issues in local governance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, in the absence of a gender policy, planning and budgeting did not target gender equity goals and women's rights and empowerment programmes were hardly implemented at the local level. Given the devolved nature of governance in Nigeria, the paper concludes that local government represents an important political ...

  5. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  6. Gender Differences and Mathematics Achievement of Rural Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the mathematics achievement of rural male and female students in Cross River State, Nigeria; ...

  7. Gender and Values: What Is the Impact on Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Stephen M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Linkages among gender, decision making, and values related to moral development and equity/equality are studied for 54 graduate and 186 undergraduate business school students (48 percent females) attending a Southern urban university. Results illustrate gender-related differences in value systems, weights of decision issues, and decisions. Future…

  8. Gender and professionalisation in the Danish ECE workforce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Baagøe

    to practice. The research highlights the importance of reflecting gender aspects at an important step of vocational carreers. ECE research, practice and policy have to regard gender equity as a basic aspect of diversity and equality in ECE. The research explores and sheds light on the parallel difficulties...

  9. Gender Representation in Notable Children's Picture Books: 1995-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Angela M.; Gooden, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed 83 Notable Books for Children regarding the gender of the main character, illustrations, and title. Results reveal that steps toward equity have advanced based on the increase in females represented as the main character. Though female representation has shown signs of significant improvement since the 1970s, gender stereotypes are still…

  10. Gender bias and citizenship rights to political participation in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper therefore is to examine the issue of gender equity and citizenship rights to political participation and the challenges for democratic consolidation and economic development. The methodological approach used in writing this paper is content analysis. The paper observes that gender bias in any society ...

  11. Answering Damarin's Call: How iOS Apps Approach Diversity, Equity, and Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Todd; Fegely, Alex

    2018-01-01

    In 1998, Suzanne Damarin put forward a call for technologists and multicultural educators to work together to create technologies that promote inclusiveness and equity for students. As significant technological advancements have happened along with major changes in educational policy over the past 20 years, this study set out to examine if…

  12. Gender Bias Affects Forests Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Elias

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure, forest spaces, division of labor, and ecological knowledge. Each emerges across geographic regions in the northern and southern hemisphere and reflects inequities in women’s and men’s ability to make decisions about and benefit from trees, forests, and their products. Women’s ability to participate in community-based forest governance is typically less than men’s, causing concern for social equity and forest stewardship. Women’s access to trees and their products is commonly more limited than men’s, and mediated by their relationship with their male counterparts. Spatial patterns of forest use reflect gender norms and taboos, and men’s greater access to transportation. The division of labor results in gender specialization in the collection of forest products, with variations in gender roles across regions. All these gender differences result in ecological knowledge that is distinct but also complementary and shifting across the genders. The ways gender plays out in relation to each theme may vary across cultures and contexts, but the influence of gender, which intersects with other factors of social differentiation in shaping forest landscapes, is global.

  13. Equity investigation of attitudinal shifts in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Traxler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on seven years of attitudinal data using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey from University Modeling Instruction (UMI sections of introductory physics at Florida International University. University Modeling Instruction is a curricular and pedagogical transformation of introductory university physics that engages students in building and testing conceptual models in an integrated lab and lecture learning environment. This work expands upon previous studies that reported consistently positive attitude shifts in UMI courses; here, we disaggregate the data by gender and ethnicity to look for any disparities in the pattern of favorable shifts. We find that women and students from statistically underrepresented ethnic groups have gains that are comparable to those of men and students from well-represented ethnic groups on this attitudinal measure, and that this result holds even when interaction effects of gender and ethnicity are included. We conclude with suggestions for future work in UMI courses and for attitudinal equity investigations generally. We encourage researchers to expand their scope beyond simple performance gaps when considering equity concerns, and to avoid relying on a single measure to evaluate student success. Finally, we conjecture that students’ social and academic networks are one means by which attitudinal and efficacy beliefs about the course are propagated.

  14. Equity investigation of attitudinal shifts in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Adrienne; Brewe, Eric

    2015-12-01

    We report on seven years of attitudinal data using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey from University Modeling Instruction (UMI) sections of introductory physics at Florida International University. University Modeling Instruction is a curricular and pedagogical transformation of introductory university physics that engages students in building and testing conceptual models in an integrated lab and lecture learning environment. This work expands upon previous studies that reported consistently positive attitude shifts in UMI courses; here, we disaggregate the data by gender and ethnicity to look for any disparities in the pattern of favorable shifts. We find that women and students from statistically underrepresented ethnic groups have gains that are comparable to those of men and students from well-represented ethnic groups on this attitudinal measure, and that this result holds even when interaction effects of gender and ethnicity are included. We conclude with suggestions for future work in UMI courses and for attitudinal equity investigations generally. We encourage researchers to expand their scope beyond simple performance gaps when considering equity concerns, and to avoid relying on a single measure to evaluate student success. Finally, we conjecture that students' social and academic networks are one means by which attitudinal and efficacy beliefs about the course are propagated.

  15. Venture capital and private equity investment preferences in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dziekoński

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources of capital to finance companies in the SME sector is one of the basic conditions for the functioning and development of enterprises, especially in the early phase of their development. Increasingly popular is the use of capital market instruments, Private Equity, Venture Capital, Business Angels or Mezzanine. Funding of this kind can finance risky investments in return for a higher expected rate of return on capital. Access to financial resources and the conditions under which entrepreneurs can use them can determine the introduction of new technology, new products and services, expand distribution channels, implement changes that may lead to the growth in competitiveness and above all, innovation, thus the growth of the company. The paper presents results of statistical analysis of the venture capital and private equity funds investment strategies in selected countries. As a result investment profiles are created.

  16. Influence of Information and Communication Technologies on the Resilience and Coping of Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in the United States and Canada (Project #Queery): Mixed Methods Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Shelley L; McInroy, Lauren B; D'Souza, Sandra A; Austin, Ashley; McCready, Lance T; Eaton, Andrew D; Shade, Leslie R; Wagaman, M Alex

    2017-09-28

    Sexual and gender minority youth are a population in peril, exemplified by their disproportionate risk of negative experiences and outcomes. Sexual and gender minority youth may be particularly active users of information and communication technologies (ICTs), and it is important to identify the potential contributions of ICTs to their resilience and well-being. Our aim was to (1) investigate the use of ICTs by sexual and gender minority youth, (2) identify the ways that ICTs influence the resilience and coping of sexual and gender minority youth, focusing on promotion of well-being through self-guided support-seeking (particularly using mobile devices), (3) develop a contextually relevant theoretical conceptualization of resilience incorporating minority stress and ecological approaches, (4) generate best practices and materials that are accessible to multiple interested groups, and (5) identify whether video narratives are a viable alternative to collect qualitative responses in Web-based surveys for youth. Mixed methods, cross-sectional data (N=6309) were collected via a Web-based survey from across the United States and Canada from March-July 2016. The sample was generated using a multipronged, targeted recruitment approach using Web-based strategies and consists of self-identified English-speaking sexual and gender minority youth aged 14-29 with technological literacy sufficient to complete the Web-based survey. The survey was divided into eight sections: (1) essential demographics, (2) ICT usage, (3) health and mental health, (4) coping and resilience, (5) sexual and gender minority youth identities and engagement, (6) fandom communities, (7) nonessential demographics, and (8) a video submission (optional, n=108). The option of a 3-5 minute video submission represents a new research innovation in Web-based survey research. Data collection is complete (N=6309), and analyses are ongoing. Proposed analyses include (1) structural equation modeling of quantitative

  17. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  18. Equity in the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enbar, M.

    1984-01-01

    This review suggests that many social scientists and philosophers are increasingly sensitive to the ethical and moral dimensions of analytic endeavors and of normative policymaking, in particular to the fact that no purely technical fix exists for problems whose solutions impinge upon the political process. The presence of equity issues widens the scope of the decision making process, requiring the consideration of a broader field of options and consequences and an awareness of the institutional and social fabrics from which solutions to previous analogous problems were fashioned. Current policy must reflect greater sensitivity to the distributional outcomes of major collective decisions and to the moral and ethical foundations which underlie them. 85 references

  19. Explaining the performance of Chinese equity funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Shi, Qiqiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of Chinese equity fund performance measured by market benchmark adjusted returns and risk adjusted return (Jensen’s Alpha). The sample covers 193 equity funds from January 2006 to December 2011, including both bear (2008 and 2011) and bull (2006, 2007, 2009, and

  20. Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

  1. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Equity options display a strong factor structure. The first principal components of the equity volatility levels, skews, and term structures explain a substantial fraction of the cross-sectional variation. Furthermore, these principal components are highly correlated with the S&P500 index option ...

  2. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    2018-01-01

    Equity options display a strong factor structure. The first principal components of the equity volatility levels, skews, and term structures explain a substantial fraction of the crosssectional variation. Furthermore, these principal components are highly correlated with the S&P 500 index option ...

  3. Women of Color and Pay Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Marguerite; Mitchell, Denise

    Pay equity is the most important issue affecting all women (but especially women of color) seeking economic equity in the workplace. Over the last two decades, the earnings of White women as a percentage of the earnings of White men have remained constant at about 60%. The wages of women of color, on the other hand, increased dramatically (as a…

  4. 76 FR 27034 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION... upcoming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of the Commission. Notice of this meeting is required by section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory...

  5. 77 FR 484 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of the Commission. Notice of this meeting is required by section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory...

  6. 77 FR 18798 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education. ACTION: Notice; Advisory Committee... of the Equity and Excellence Commission scheduled for March 29, 2012 and announced in the Federal... Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20202. Email...

  7. PNG Education System: Equity Trends and Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheret, Michael

    This paper identifies and discusses inequities in the educational system of Papua New Guinea (PNG). It begins by explaining the use of the Gini coefficient as an equity index, and then discusses inequities and equity trends in four concern areas: geographic distribution of formal education between provinces; educational achievement; distribution…

  8. 76 FR 6774 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational resources and further ] student... meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of... broad public input regarding how the Federal government can increase educational opportunity by...

  9. 76 FR 41233 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... restructuring school finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational resources and further... meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of... issues, and obtain broad public input regarding how the Federal government can increase educational...

  10. 77 FR 31605 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... educational opportunity by improving school funding equity. The Commission will also make recommendations for restructuring school finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational resources and further... functions of the Commission. Notice of this meeting is required by section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory...

  11. 7 CFR 1980.391 - Equity sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the appreciation in property value between the closing date of the loan and the date the account is... of title, or when the borrower ceases to occupy the property. The calculation of shared equity when... amount of original equity the borrower has in the property, and the value of capital improvements to the...

  12. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.

  13. Employers' Guide to the Employment Equity Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Katz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Employers' Guide to the Employment Equity Act is aimed, according to the author, at assisting those in the labour arena (employers, managers, labour relations practitioners, union officials, and students to develop a practical understanding of the Employment Equity Act (hereafter, the Act.

  14. Tuition Tax Credits: Issues of Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterall, James S.

    To examine equity issues involving proposed Federal income tax credits for private school tuition, the author uses data from the Bureau of the Census and other governmental sources to estimate the effects of tuition tax credit (TTC) plans. After discussing equity and educational policy, he compares would-be TTC recipients--private school families…

  15. Equity in HTA: what doesn't get measured, gets marginalised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard; Mirelman, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    When making recommendations about the public funding of new health technologies, policy makers typically pay close attention to quantitative evidence about the comparative effectiveness, cost effectiveness and budget impact of those technologies - what we might call "efficiency" criteria. Less attention is paid, however, to quantitative evidence about who gains and who loses from these public expenditure decisions, and whether those who gain are better or worse off than the rest of the population in terms of their health - what we might call "equity" criteria. Two studies recently published in this journal by Shmueli and colleagues suggest that this efficiency-oriented imbalance in the use of quantitative evidence may have unfortunate consequences - as the old adage goes: "what gets measured, gets done". The first study, by Shmueli, Golan, Paolucci and Mentzakis, found that health policy makers in Israel think equity considerations are just as important as efficiency considerations - at least when it comes to making hypothetical technology funding decisions in a survey. By contrast, the second study - by Shmueli alone - found that efficiency rules the roost when it comes to making real decisions about health technology funding in Israel. Both studies have limitations and potential biases, and more research is needed using qualitative methods and more nuanced survey designs to determine precisely which kinds of equity consideration decision makers think are most important and why these considerations do not appear to be given much weight in decision making. However, the basic overall finding from the two studies seems plausible and important. It suggests that health technology funding bodies need to pay closer attention to equity considerations, and to start making equity a quantitative endpoint of health technology assessment using the methods of equity-informative economic evaluation that are now available.

  16. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  17. Sexual Harassment in Tertiary Science: Implications for Gender Equity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on the incidence of sexual harassment in tertiary science education and its attendant effects on students and academics. Data from a survey of six higher institutions comprising two universities, two colleges of education and two polytechnics was used. Results indicate high rate of sexual harassment of ...

  18. Gender-Equity and Reproductive Behaviour in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Disciplinary Journal, ... which communities and societies ascribe as appropriate for one sex or the other. Although the status of women was ... evidence supports the notion that men take major decisions in homes, and especially in the areas of pregnancy ...

  19. Reconstructing the Study of World War II for Gender Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergrift, Kay E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a list of feminist writings in American History with an emphasis on World War II, as well as resources on the World Wide Web dealing with women and the war. These range from personal narratives to analyses of particular people or events to bibliographies and teaching plans. (AEF)

  20. Gender Equity and the Role of Women in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In 1920 AAUW's predecessor, the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, helped raise $100,000 for Polish scientist Marie Curie to purchase a gram of radium. Members honored Curie in New York City as she kicked off her triumphant 1921 fundraising tour of the United States, which allowed her to continue her relentless work and eventually establish the…

  1. Efforts Towards Gender Equity in Academic and Employment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job-opportunities specify educational levels, types and quality, which an applicant must have to secure the job opportunity. As such ... in narrowing down the gap between female and male university students' enrolment in academic programmes and academics, technical and administrative staff in employment opportunities.

  2. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda; Mencarini, Letizia; Tanturri, Maria Letizia; Begall, Katia

    2008-01-01

    Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women's increased labour

  3. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.; Mencarini, L.; Tanturri, M.L.; Begall, K.

    2008-01-01

    Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty in explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women’s increased

  4. Gender equity and food security: Lessons from Ozalla community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women. It has also become imperative to recognize women.s needs and contributions to society, most importantly in the sphere of agricultural and food security. Women.s role in food security cannot be over emphasized because about 80% of women in rural Nigeria are engaged in food crops production. This discrimination ...

  5. Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms: Continuity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ratna M. Sudarshan is currently Principal Economist in the Human Development Programme Area of the National Council of Applied Economic Research in New ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le ...

  6. Taxes and gender equity: Codes, behaviours, and (un)intended ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... An IDRC project[i] explored these questions through an analysis of personal income and consumption taxes in eight countries at different levels of ... Simulations that increase the Value Added Tax (VAT) rates on these items show that the greatest negative impact would in fact be on poor, female ...

  7. Review of the Linkages between Gender Equity and Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Review of the Linkages between Gender Equity and Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2010 ... Les questions d'équité retiennent de nouveau l'attention des universitaires et des analystes des politiques s'intéressant à la fiscalité. Ce livre constitue un apport considérable à cette nouvelle prise de conscience en soulignant le rôle déterminant que l'appartenance à un sexe, à l'instar d'autres ...

  10. An assessment of Regional and Gender equity in healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is therefore strongly recommended that other African countries, especially those struggling with universal healthcare coverage, adopt and implement the principle of health insurance for all, as it is currently done in Ghana. Keywords: Medicine, Health Insurance, GIS, Afrobarometer, NHIS, health-coverage ...

  11. Gender Equity Employment in Polytechnics in South East Zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    policies towards ensuring that all citizens, without discrimination, secure adequate means of livelihood as well as ... equal work without discrimination on the basis of sex or any other ground whatsoever. Section 42 of this ..... within the workplace, discrimination against certain social groups such as women still occurs, with ...

  12. Towards Achieving Gender Equality and Equity in the Provision of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to establish the challenges that inhibit the full participation of the girl child in accessing education in selected secondary schools in Gwanda District of Matabeleland South Province. The descriptive survey design was chosen for this qualitative study with a sample chosen through purposive sampling ...

  13. Gender Equity in Trade and Technical Careers Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocational Curriculum Resource Center of Maine, Fairfield.

    This curriculum guide contains task performance guides for eight duties to be taught to prospective and inservice trade and technical education teachers in Maine. The duties involve eliminating sex bias and sex discrimination in school, on the job, and in self-identification. The eight duties described in the guide are the following: eliminating…

  14. An assessment of Regional and Gender equity in healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insurance for universal coverage; and over the last twenty years, BRICS countries (Brazil, the. Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa) have been undertaking health-system reforms to make progress towards universal health coverage (Acharya et al., 2014; WHO,. 2014). The lack of financial resources is creating ...

  15. Gender Equity in Collegiate Sports: The Role of Athletic Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Lisa C.; Townsend, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of opportunities for females in college athletics at four-year institutions, including the impact of Title IX and subsequent court decisions. Analyzes the roles of various athletic associations. Examines Title IX initiatives implemented by dominant athletic associations. (MKA)

  16. Toward Bias-Free Teaching: Gender Equity in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    This paper discusses inequities and injustices toward women and advocates remedies through education. Practical suggestions based upon expectations theory and the Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement Test (TESA) program offer teachers ways to reduce discrimination and improve achievement in classrooms, especially for those denied an equal…

  17. THE BORROWER CHARACTERISTICS IN HOT EQUITY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIL DINCER KAYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examine the characteristics of U.S. corporate borrowers (public debt, private placement, and syndicated loan firms in HOT versus COLD equity markets. My main objective is to see the characteristics of firms that choose debt financing even when the equity market is HOT. HOT equity markets are defined as the top twenty percent of the months in terms of the de-trended number of equity offerings. I find that the HOT equity market borrowers generally have higher market-to-book ratios compared to the COLD market borrowers. Also, in HOT equity markets, the public debt firms (i.e. the corporate bond issuers tend to have fewer tangible assets, the private placement firms tend to be smaller and highly levered, and the syndicated loan firms tend to be smaller, more profitable, and less levered compared to the COLD market firms. When I look at the number of transactions in each market, I find that when the equity market is active (i.e. HOT, the syndicated loan market is even more active. During these periods, the public debt market is also active (although not as much as the equity or the syndicated loan markets. When I look at the sizes of the transactions in each market, I find that the private placements tend to be significantly larger in HOT markets compared to COLD markets. I conclude that while the equity, the public debt, and the syndicated loan markets move together in terms of market activity, the equity market and the private placement markets move together in terms of the size of the transaction.

  18. New Technologies Smart, or Harm Work-Family Boundaries Management? Gender Differences in Conflict and Enrichment Using the JD-R Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between technology-assisted supplemental work and well-being outcomes is a recent issue in scientific literature. Whether the use of technology for work purpose in off-work time may have a positive or negative impact on work-family balance remains an open question and the role of gender in this relationship is poorly understood. Aim: According to the JD-R theory, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between off-work hours technology assisted job demand (off-TAJD) and both work-family conflict (WFC) and work-family enrichment (WFE). Moreover, it considered two general job demands, workload and emotional dissonance, and one job resource, supervisory coaching. Method: The hypotheses were tested with a convenience sample of 671 workers. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS 23 and through multi-group structural equation model (SEM) (Mplus 7). Results: The estimated SEM [Chi-square (510) = 1041.29; p work-life interface by analyzing the association between off-TAJD and WFC and Enrichment. Our findings suggest it is important to pay attention to gender differences in the study of the impact of supplemental work carried out during off-work hours using technology on the work-life interface. In fact, employee perception of Company demands of being available during off-work time, with the use of technology, may have different consequences for men and women, indicating potential differences in the centrality of the working role. Practical implications, at both cultural and organizational levels, should address the use of technology during leisure time.

  19. Gender Discrimination in Educational Personnel: A Case Study of Gweru Urban District Secondary Schools, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matope, Nogget

    2012-01-01

    Gender discrimination in educational institutions persists, despite the vigorous pursuit of policies and programmes to reduce the varying degrees of gender inequity in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is a signatory to international agreements and conventions which promote gender equity with a thrust towards increased access to education for girls and females.…

  20. "We Understand Better Because We Have Been Mothers": Teaching, Maternalism, and Gender Equality in Bolivian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Julie A.; Miller, Amy Chasteen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Bolivian schoolteachers' attitudes and practices surrounding gender in the context of a national educational reform law that mandated gender equity. Teacher interviews and primary school classroom observations indicate teachers' discourses and practices reflect a sometimes paradoxical blend of advocacy for gender equality and…

  1. Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health

    OpenAIRE

    Elwér Sofia; Aléx Lena; Hammarström Anne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplace...

  2. Achieving Equity in an Evolving Healthcare System: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joni Strom; Walker, Rebekah J; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-01-01

    For decades, disparities in health have been well documented in the United States and regrettably, remain prevalent despite evidence and appeals for their elimination. Compared with the majority, racial and ethnic minorities continue to have poorer health status and health outcomes for most chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer and end-stage renal disease. Many factors, such as affordability, access and diversity in the healthcare system, influence care and outcomes, creating challenges that make the task of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity daunting and elusive. Novel strategies are needed to bring about much needed change in the complex and evolving United States healthcare system. Although not exhaustive, opportunities such as (1) developing standardized race measurements across health systems, (2) implementing effective interventions, (3) improving workforce diversity, (4) using technological advances and (5) adopting practices such as personalized medicine may serve as appropriate starting points for moving toward health equity. Over the past several decades, diversity in the U.S. population has increased significantly and is expected to increase exponentially in the near future. As the population becomes more diverse, it is important to recognize the possibilities of new and emerging disparities. It is imperative that steps are taken to eliminate the current gap in care and prevent new disparities from developing. Therefore, we present challenges and offer recommendations for facilitating the process of eliminating health disparities and achieving health equity across diverse populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Health systems and gender in post-conflict contexts: building back better?

    OpenAIRE

    Percival, V; Richards, E; MacLean, T; Theobald, S

    2014-01-01

    The post-conflict or post-crisis period provides the opportunity for wide-ranging public sector reforms: donors fund rebuilding and reform efforts, social norms are in a state of flux, and the political climate may be conducive to change. This reform period presents favourable circumstances for the promotion of gender equity in multiple social arenas, including the health system. As part of a larger research project that explores whether and how gender equity considerations are taken into acc...

  4. Information and Communication Technologies and the Impact of Gender on the Writing Performance of Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Georgia; Riga, Asimina; Papayiannis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the use of ICTs improves the writing performance of students with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). It also examines whether gender affects performance. A number of ADHD students were selected and were assessed for their use of a combination of distinct educational tools. Divided into two…

  5. Confronting the Equity "Learning Problem" through Practitioner Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Cheryl D.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how participation in an inquiry-based workshop on assessing course syllabi for equity-mindedness and cultural inclusivity fostered community college math faculty learning about racial/ethnic equity and equity-mindedness. Findings show that the workshop prompted reflection on what equity means and how participants' teaching…

  6. Time Management and Its Relation To Students’ Stress, Gender and Academic Achievement Among Sample of Students at Al Ain University of Science and Technology, UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Saleh Al Khatib

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between time management, perceived stress, gender and academic achievement among United Arab Emirates college students. The respondents were 352 college students from Al Ain University of Science and Technology. The sample was stratified by sex. Among the respondents, 52.5% were female students and 47.5% were male students. The mean age of the sample was 23.4 years ranging from 18 to 39. Time management was measured by Tim...

  7. Equity trees and graphs via information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harré, M.; Bossomaier, T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the similarities and differences between two measures of the relationship between equities traded in financial markets. Our measures are the correlation coefficients and the mutual information. In the context of financial markets correlation coefficients are well established whereas mutual information has not previously been as well studied despite its theoretically appealing properties. We show that asset trees which are derived from either the correlation coefficients or the mutual information have a mixture of both similarities and differences at the individual equity level and at the macroscopic level. We then extend our consideration from trees to graphs using the "genus 0" condition recently introduced in order to study the networks of equities.

  8. Banking Firm, Equity and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Broll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the interaction between the solvency probability of a banking firm and the diversification potential of its asset portfolio when determining optimal equity capital. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate value at risk (VaR into the firm-theoretical model of a banking firm facing the risk of asset return. Given the necessity to achieve a confidence level for solvency, we demonstrate that diversification reduces the amount of equity. Notably, the VaR concept excludes a separation of equity policy and asset-liability management.

  9. Equity in health and economic globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, C

    1999-11-01

    This article proposes that equity in health is inseparable from social equity in its broadest sense. An equitable system allows the lowest income sectors to have access to an acceptable level of basic goods and services. Equity in health thus entails decreasing the differences in access to, and use of all health services. Globalization, on the other hand, means the process by which economic power is expanding and increasingly concentrated in the hands of corporations that are progressively entering national economies worldwide through the international free-market ideology. Explored in this article were some ways in which globalization leads to inequities.

  10. Liquidity Risk and Distressed Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhat, Mamdouh

    I show theoretically and empirically that cash holdings can help rationalize the low returns to distressed equity. In my model, levered firms with financing constraints optimally choose their cash holdings to eliminate liquidity risk and optimally default when insolvent. Using data on solvency......, liquidity, and returns for US firms, I find evidence consistent with the model’s predictions: (1) In all solvency levels, the average firm holds enough liquid assets to cover its short-term liabilities; less solvent firms have (2) a higher fraction of their total assets in liquid assets and therefore (3......) lower conditional betas and (4) lower returns; (5) the profits of long-short solvency strategies are highest among firms with low liquidity; and (6) the profits of long-short liquidity strategies are highest among firms with low solvency....

  11. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter Ove

    2013-01-01

    Using a CCAPM-based risk-adjustment model consistent with general asset pricing theory, we perform yearly valuations of a large sample of stocks listed on NYSE, AMEX and NASDAQ over a thirty-year period. The model differs from standard valuation models in the sense that it adjusts forecasted...... residual income for risk in the numerator rather than through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk-adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare...... the performance of the model with several implementations of standard valuation models, both in terms of absolute valuation errors, and in terms of the returns on simple investment strategies based on the differences between model and market prices in the respective valuation models. The CCAPM-based valuation...

  12. Private Equity for Retail Investors : How to efficiently involve Finnish retail investors in private equity

    OpenAIRE

    Moita, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Private equity has been the best performing asset class for institutional investors. Meanwhile, retail investors have been left out from the asset class for several reasons, such as legislation and wealth profiling. This study aims at assessing the types of private equity vehicles that could be the most appropriate for Finnish retail investors. The study solely focuses on the investment opportunities, hence it does not cover investment behaviour. Private equity should not be a primary as...

  13. Advancing efforts to achieve health equity: equity metrics for health impact assessment practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jonathan; Givens, Marjory L; Yuen, Tina K; Gould, Solange; Jandu, Maria Benkhalti; Bourcier, Emily; Choi, Tim

    2014-10-24

    Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA) Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1) the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2) the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3) the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4) the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric.

  14. The equity dimension in evaluations of the quality and outcomes framework: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckxstaens, Pauline; Smedt, Delphine De; Maeseneer, Jan De; Annemans, Lieven; Willems, Sara

    2011-08-31

    Pay-for-performance systems raise concerns regarding inequity in health care because providers might select patients for whom targets can easily be reached. This paper aims to describe the evolution of pre-existing (in)equity in health care in the period after the introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) in the UK and to describe (in)equities in exception reporting. In this evaluation, a theory-based framework conceptualising equity in terms of equal access, equal treatment and equal treatment outcomes for people in equal need is used to guide the work. A systematic MEDLINE and Econlit search identified 317 studies. Of these, 290 were excluded because they were not related to the evaluation of QOF, they lacked an equity dimension in the evaluation, their qualitative research focused on experiences or on the nature of the consultation, or unsuitable methodology was used to pronounce upon equity after the introduction of QOF. None of the publications (n = 27) assessed equity in access to health care. Concerning equity in treatment and (intermediate) treatment outcomes, overall quality scores generally improved. For the majority of the observed indicators, all citizens benefit from this improvement, yet the extent to which different patient groups benefit tends to vary and to be highly dependent on the type and complexity of the indicator(s) under study, the observed patient group(s) and the characteristics of the study. In general, the introduction of QOF was favourable for the aged and for males. Total QOF scores did not seem to vary according to ethnicity. For deprivation, small but significant residual differences were observed after the introduction of QOF favouring less deprived groups. These differences are mainly due to differences at the practice level. The variance in exception reporting according to gender and socio-economic position is low. Although QOF seems not to be socially selective at first glance, this does not mean QOF does not

  15. ACCESS AND EQUITY: Challenges for Open and Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOJDE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available "The emergence of the system of open and distance education is an inevitable and phenomenal evolution in the history of educational developments internationally. While the formal system of education continues to be the mainstream of educational transaction, it has its inherent limitations with regard to expansion, provision of access and equity and cost-effectiveness. On the other hand, the growth of information and communication technologies has facilitated the expansion of distance mode of education. It is now possible to adopt flexible, constructivist, learner-friendly and multi-perspective approaches to teaching-learning, so essential for nurturing creativity, leadership, scholarship and integrated development of human personality.

  16. Infertility around the globe: new thinking on gender, reproductive technologies and global movements in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is estimated to affect as many as 186 million people worldwide. Although male infertility contributes to more than half of all cases of global childlessness, infertility remains a woman's social burden. Unfortunately, areas of the world with the highest rates of infertility are often those with poor access to assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). In such settings, women may be abandoned to their childless destinies. However, emerging data suggest that making ART accessible and affordable is an important gender intervention. To that end, this article presents an overview of what we know about global infertility, ART and changing gender relations, posing five key questions: (i) why is infertility an ongoing global reproductive health problem? (ii) What are the gender effects of infertility, and are they changing over time? (iii) What do we know about the globalization of ART to resource-poor settings? (iv) How are new global initiatives attempting to improve access to IVF? (v) Finally, what can be done to overcome infertility, help the infertile and enhance low-cost IVF (LCIVF) activism? An exhaustive literature review using MEDLINE, Google Scholar and the keyword search function provided through the Yale University Library (i.e. which scans multiple databases simultaneously) identified 103 peer-reviewed journal articles and 37 monographs, chapters and reports from the years 2000-2014 in the areas of: (i) infertility demography, (ii) ART in low-resource settings, (iii) gender and infertility in low-resource settings and (iv) the rise of LCIVF initiatives. International Federation of Fertility Societies Surveillance reports were particularly helpful in identifying important global trends in IVF clinic distribution between 2002 and 2010. Additionally, a series of articles published by scholars who are tracking global cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) trends, as well as others who are involved in the growing LCIVF movement, were invaluable. Recent

  17. Iranian nursing students' perspectives of educational equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Ghiyasvandian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Around the world there is a growing consensus that students' rights must be protected, regardless of race, creed, color, sex, religion, and socioeconomic status. One of these rights is the educational equity. However, little is known about these phenomena in nursing education. The aim of this study was to explore the educational equity from the perspective of nursing students. A qualitative study was conducted. Thus, we purposefully recruited for in-depth interviews 13 nursing students (8 female and 5 male. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis approach to identify categories and themes. Four main themes emerged from the data: Fair Educational Opportunity, fair evaluation, attempts to combat discrimination, and employing qualified teachers.  It is argued that educational equity should be developed in higher education. Principles of equity and students' rights may form the most basic rationale for all formal and informal efforts to extend the right of equal access to education.

  18. Iranian nursing students' perspectives of educational equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Alireza; Mohammadpour, Ali; Abbasi, Mahmoud; Javadi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Around the world there is a growing consensus that students' rights must be protected, regardless of race, creed, color, sex, religion, and socioeconomic status. One of these rights is the educational equity. However, little is known about these phenomena in nursing education. The aim of this study was to explore the educational equity from the perspective of nursing students. A qualitative study was conducted. Thus, we purposefully recruited for in-depth interviews 13 nursing students (8 female and 5 male). All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis approach to identify categories and themes. Four main themes emerged from the data: Fair Educational Opportunity, fair evaluation, attempts to combat discrimination, and employing qualified teachers.  It is argued that educational equity should be developed in higher education. Principles of equity and students' rights may form the most basic rationale for all formal and informal efforts to extend the right of equal access to education.

  19. Improvement of Educational Equity & Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational improvement for equity and professional teacher development are crucial issues concerning the essential right all students have of a good education. Firstly the article proposes a contextual reflection on improvement, some considerations related to well known traditions in the field and particularly the social justice and its relationships and implication for educational politics, curriculum, teaching, teacher and community. Secondly, it claims for the coherence of teacher professional development to educational equity. Different analysis and proposals are outlined related to policies and tasks the public administration should undertake and some dimensions of teacher education are considered attending educational equity criteria. Professional learning communities are described and valued as a hypothetical framework in order to improve equity and teacher education relationships.

  20. What Drives Private Equity Investments in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Precup Mihai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting the determinants of private equity investments in Romania over the period 2000 - 2013. Additionally, this paper presents the main highlights in terms of evolution, source of funding and activities in which the private equity funds invested during the crisis. Starting from the existing literature, this paper extends the analysis of private equity drivers to Romanian market by including variables such as: economic growth, market capitalization, interest rate, unemployment rate and public R&D expenditure which were already tested in previous papers. In addition, this paper introduces new variables such us productivity and corruption index which we consider important factors in explaining the evolution of private equity investments in Romania.

  1. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  2. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  3. Brand equity in the Pakistani hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq,Muhammad Ishtiaq; Hussain,Nazia; Asim,Ali Ijaz; Cheema,Luqman J.

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity is considered as the most important aspect of branding, which is a set of brands’ assets and liabilities, its symbol or name that subtracts from or adds the value provided by a product or service to a firm and customers. The current research endeavor was to identify the interrelationship of customer-based brand equity dimensions (brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand image, and service quality) in Pakistani hotel industry. Data was collected from 821 consumers who experienced the...

  4. Investing in Private Equity in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Marcos Duarte Junior; Luiz Carlos Barbosa Medeiros

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We consider the problem of selecting private equity funds for investment in Brazil. The proposed methodology is based on multi-criteria decision-making. Real data obtained from one of the largest pension funds in Brazil is used to illustrate a practical application of the methodology when selecting investments among eleven private equity funds available in the local financial market. The multi-criteria method TOPSIS is adopted with a total of twenty two criteria to order the investme...

  5. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  6. Connecting to Learn: Promoting Digital Equity among America's Hispanic Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Vikki S.; Levine, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    This brief combines original research and policy analysis to examine a key issue that is often overlooked in debates about the proliferation of new technologies, education, and equity: the potential for digital media investments to support a promising learning pathway for children in our nation's increasingly diverse, low-income families. A…

  7. Setting priorities for knowledge translation of Cochrane reviews for health equity: Evidence for Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugwell, Peter; Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Vincent, Jennifer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Churchill, Rachel; deSavigny, Don; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Pantoja, Tomas

    2017-12-02

    A focus on equity in health can be seen in many global development goals and reports, research and international declarations. With the development of a relevant framework and methods, the Campbell and Cochrane Equity Methods Group has encouraged the application of an 'equity lens' to systematic reviews, and many organizations publish reviews intended to address health equity. The purpose of the Evidence for Equity (E4E) project was to conduct a priority-setting exercise and apply an equity lens by developing a knowledge translation product comprising summaries of systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library. E4E translates evidence from systematic reviews into 'friendly front end' summaries for policy makers. The following topic areas with high burdens of disease globally, were selected for the pilot: diabetes/obesity, HIV/AIDS, malaria, nutrition, and mental health/depression. For each topic area, a "stakeholder panel" was assembled that included policymakers and researchers. A systematic search of Cochrane reviews was conducted for each area to identify equity-relevant interventions with a meaningful impact. Panel chairs developed a rating sheet which was used by all panels to rank the importance of these interventions by: 1) Ease of Implementation; 2) Health System Requirements; 3)Universality/Generalizability/Share of Burden; and 4) Impact on Inequities/Effect on equity. The ratings of panel members were averaged for each intervention and criterion, and interventions were ordered according to the average overall ratings. Stakeholder panels identified the top 10 interventions from their respective topic areas. The evidence on these interventions is being summarized with an equity focus and the results posted online, at http://methods.cochrane.org/equity/e4e-series . This method provides an explicit approach to setting priorities by systematic review groups and funders for providing decision makers with evidence for the most important equity

  8. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  9. New Technologies Smart, or Harm Work-Family Boundaries Management? Gender Differences in Conflict and Enrichment Using the JD-R Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ghislieri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between technology-assisted supplemental work and well-being outcomes is a recent issue in scientific literature. Whether the use of technology for work purpose in off-work time may have a positive or negative impact on work-family balance remains an open question and the role of gender in this relationship is poorly understood.Aim: According to the JD-R theory, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between off-work hours technology assisted job demand (off-TAJD and both work-family conflict (WFC and work-family enrichment (WFE. Moreover, it considered two general job demands, workload and emotional dissonance, and one job resource, supervisory coaching.Method: The hypotheses were tested with a convenience sample of 671 workers. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS 23 and through multi-group structural equation model (SEM (Mplus 7.Results: The estimated SEM [Chi-square (510 = 1041.29; p < 0.01; CFI = 0.95; TLI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.06 (0.05, 0.06; SRMR = 0.05. M = 319/F = 352] showed that off-TAJD was positively related to WFC in both subsamples; off-TAJD was positively related also to WFE only in the Male group. Workload was positively related to WFC in both Male and Female subsamples. Emotional dissonance was positively related to WFC in both subsamples and was negatively related to WFE. Supervisory coaching was strongly, positively related to WFE in both groups, and only in the Male subsample presented a low negative relationship with WFC.Conclusion: This study contributes to the literature on new challenges in work-life interface by analyzing the association between off-TAJD and WFC and Enrichment. Our findings suggest it is important to pay attention to gender differences in the study of the impact of supplemental work carried out during off-work hours using technology on the work-life interface. In fact, employee perception of Company demands of being available

  10. Obstoj vrzeli lastniškega kapitala v Sloveniji = Existence of an Equity Gap in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Vadnjal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital is an important factor in the development of entrepreneurship and in the establishment of new, knowledge-and-technology-based companies. In transition economies, the intensity of equity investing is far behind the developed market economies, making the EU and individual governments face the challenge of increasing this type of financing. Increasing the supply by publicly-financed funds is an intervention based on the assumption of an existing equity gap, which means that quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied. However, the dilemma here is whether the demand was evaluated realistically and whether a gap actually exists. If this is not the case, the increased supply will be inefficient and market equilibrium will be destroyed. This article aims to answer the question whether an equity gap really exists in Slovenia.

  11. Pricing of premiums for equity-linked life insurance based on joint mortality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaman; Parmikanti, K.; Irianingsih, I.; Supian, S.

    2018-03-01

    Life insurance equity - linked is a financial product that not only offers protection, but also investment. The calculation of equity-linked life insurance premiums generally uses mortality tables. Because of advances in medical technology and reduced birth rates, it appears that the use of mortality tables is less relevant in the calculation of premiums. To overcome this problem, we use a combination mortality model which in this study is determined based on Indonesian Mortality table 2011 to determine the chances of death and survival. In this research, we use the Combined Mortality Model of the Weibull, Inverse-Weibull, and Gompertz Mortality Model. After determining the Combined Mortality Model, simulators calculate the value of the claim to be given and the premium price numerically. By calculating equity-linked life insurance premiums well, it is expected that no party will be disadvantaged due to the inaccuracy of the calculation result

  12. Urban planning and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary Evelyn; Freeman, Lance

    2011-06-01

    Although the fields of urban planning and public health share a common origin in the efforts of reformers to tame the ravages of early industrialization in the 19th century, the 2 disciplines parted ways in the early 20th century as planners increasingly focused on the built environment while public health professionals narrowed in on biomedical causes of disease and disability. Among the unfortunate results of this divergence was a tendency to discount the public health implications of planning decisions. Given increasingly complex urban environments and grave health disparities in cities worldwide, urban planners and public health professionals have once again become convinced of the need for inclusive approaches to improve population health and achieve health equity. To make substantive progress, intersectoral collaboration utilizing ecological and systems science perspectives will be crucial as the solutions lie well beyond the control of any single authority. Grounded in the social determinants of health, and with a renewed sense of interconnectedness, dedicated and talented people in government agencies and communities who recognize that our future depends on cultivating local change and evaluating the results can come to grips with the enormous challenge that lies ahead to create more equitable, sustainable, and healthier cities worldwide.

  13. Slum Upgrading and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Sverdlik, Alice

    2017-03-24

    Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.

  14. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay-for-perfo......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay......-for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  15. Brand equity v kategorii jogurtů na českém trhu.

    OpenAIRE

    Flodrová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    Thesis deals with the subject of brand value / equity. In the application part equity of selected brands of yoghurts is measured using Equity Builder and Brand Power methodologies and recommendations for their brand equity growth are given.

  16. Gender, globalisation, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, S

    2000-03-01

    This article discusses the link between gender, globalization and democracy in relation to women¿s empowerment. Analyzing gender relations within the processes of development planning involves five approaches: 1) welfare, 2) equity, 3) anti-poverty, 4) efficiency, and 5) empowerment. In addition, a new approach, which combines efficiency and empowerment, must be added to highlight the problematic nature of the direction of causality assumed by traditional theory of development. The rise on women's representation in national parliament can be attributed to the increase of women's economic power and women's political struggles. However, promotion of globalization produces new opportunities for feminist politics, as well as difficulties, which include: the emergent position of productive engagement in which an efficient economy and democratic society are seen as interdependent; and increase in parliamentary representation correlates with increased paid employment for women. In conclusion, the author underscores that globalization is a gendered process which is restructuring social relations on a large scale and the challenges it bring provide opportunities for women in development.

  17. Intergenerational equity and long-term stewardship plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    For an untold number of contaminated sites throughout the world, stewardship will be inevitable. For many such sites, stewardship will be a reasonable approach because of the uncertainties associated with present and future site conditions and site contaminants, the limited performance of available technologies, the nonavailability of technologies, and the risk and cost associated with complete cleanup. Regardless of whether stewardship is a realistic approach to site situations or simply a convenient default, it could be required at most contaminated sites for multiple generations. Because the stewardship plan is required to protect the release of hazardous contaminants to the environment, some use restrictions will be put in place to provide that protection. These use restrictions will limit access to resources for as long as the protection is required. The intergenerational quality of long-term stewardship plans and their inherent limitations on resource use require that they be designed to achieve equity among the affected generations. Intergenerational equity, defined here as the fairness of access to resources across generations, could be achieved through a well-developed stewardship plan that provides future generations with the information they need to make wise decisions about resource use. Developing and implementing such a plan would take into account the failure mechanisms of the plan's components, feature short stewardship time blocks that would allow for periodic reassessments of the site and of the stewardship program's performance, and provide present and future generations with necessary site information

  18. Information and communication technologies and gender in climate change and green economy: Situating women’s opportunities and challenges in Zambian policies and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Namukombo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zambia’s 2012 report on the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (RIO +20 identifies existing opportunities on the country’s transitioning to green economy. The RIO +20 conference of 2012 has resulted in new momentum in addressing problems of sustainable development. However, this article argues that there are practical challenges that require paying attention to, especially those involving women. The article addressed one key question: To what extent can women participate in the transitioning process to green economy in Zambia and what opportunities and challenges exists? The study used document analysis to answer the above question. National policy documents were reviewed to understand interventions on environmental management. Whilst going through the documents, the study used gender analysis frameworks (education, skills, roles in family and society, access to infrastructure to bring out qualitative and quantitative information on women. Using suggested green economy interventions in the literature as benchmark, qualitative analysis was used to project possible participation of women in green economy activities and possible challenges to be faced. The study found that participation of women will be limited despite existing opportunities because of challenges of access to information and communication technology infrastructures, low educational levels and skills and financial constraints. As Zambia undergoes a transitioning process, these limitations should be addressed in planned green economy policies and interventions to maximise benefits. Keywords: Green economy; Gender; Policies; Strategies; ICT; Zambia

  19. Predictors of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics choice options: A meta-analytic path analysis of the social-cognitive choice model by gender and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Miller, Matthew J; Cusick, Megan E; Penn, Lee T; Truong, Nancy N

    2018-01-01

    We tested the interest and choice portion of social-cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in the context of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains. Data from 143 studies (including 196 independent samples) conducted over a 30-year period (1983 through 2013) were subjected to meta-analytic path analyses. The interest/choice model was found to fit the data well over all samples as well as within samples composed primarily of women and men and racial/ethnic minority and majority persons. The model also accounted for large portions of the variance in interests and choice goals within each path analysis. Despite the general predictive utility of SCCT across gender and racial/ethnic groups, we did find that several parameter estimates differed by group. We present both the group similarities and differences and consider their implications for future research, intervention, and theory refinement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Not lack of ability but more choice: individual and gender differences in choice of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Kenny, Sarah

    2013-05-01

    The pattern of gender differences in math and verbal ability may result in females having a wider choice of careers, in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and non-STEM fields, compared with males. The current study tested whether individuals with high math and high verbal ability in 12th grade were more or less likely to choose STEM occupations than those with high math and moderate verbal ability. The 1,490 subjects participated in two waves of a national longitudinal study; one wave was when the subjects were in 12th grade, and the other was when they were 33 years old. Results revealed that mathematically capable individuals who also had high verbal skills were less likely to pursue STEM careers than were individuals who had high math skills but moderate verbal skills. One notable finding was that the group with high math and high verbal ability included more females than males.