WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology gender equity

  1. The Role of Technological Change in Increasing Gender Equity with a Focus on Information and Communications Technologyy

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the potential role of various transformative general-purpose technologies in affecting gender equity. The particular technologies considered at length and contrasted are four network technologies: electricity and water provision on the one hand, and the newer information and communications technologies of the Internet and mobile phones on the other. Available evidence on the effects of transformative technologies, both historically and in recent developing country context...

  2. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  3. The Information Age vs. Gender Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Considers gender equity in libraries and library education, particularly the identification of men with information science experience involving computers. Discusses the history of gender imbalance in library education; computers and gender; changes in library education; demographic implications of curriculum changes; the use of adjuncts; library…

  4. (Never) Mind the Gap!: Gender Equity in Social Studies Research on Technology in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret S.; Cramer, Judith; Meier, Ellen B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Focusing on gender as an aspect of diversity, the purpose of this paper is to review social studies research on technology, and suggest a new direction, with gender redefined from a gap to be eliminated to a difference to be explored. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a literature review of research on gender, technology, and…

  5. Gender DiVisions Across Technology Advertisements and the WWW: Implications for Educational Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    1998-01-01

    Examines images and patterns of gender stereotypes within mediated and electronic advertisements that reach students online or when viewing computer software and educational television and questions decisions made in the construction of these images. The paper explains the importance of teachers, parents, and the community working together to…

  6. Addressing Gender Equity in Nonfaculty Salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukoushian, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses methodology of gender equity studies on noninstructional employees of colleges and universities, including variable selection in the multiple regression model and alternative approaches for measuring wage gaps. Analysis of staff data at one institution finds that experience and market differences account for 80 percent of gender pay…

  7. Addressing Gender Equity in Nonfaculty Salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukoushian, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses methodology of gender equity studies on noninstructional employees of colleges and universities, including variable selection in the multiple regression model and alternative approaches for measuring wage gaps. Analysis of staff data at one institution finds that experience and market differences account for 80 percent of gender pay…

  8. Gender Equity and Mass Communication's Female Student Majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombisky, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the history and politics of gender equity to make problematic the phrase "gender equity," to introduce the gender equity in education literature, and to outline some issues relevant to mass communication. Suggests that equal access represents a sex-blind approach dependent on a male standard. (SG)

  9. PARTNERSHIPS FOR GENDER EQUITY IN NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    responsibilities, attitudes and behaviour of men as well as women and new and active roles for men in the .... In addition, northern compared to southern states have lower female ..... The journey to gender equity and equality in our universities ...

  10. Gender equity in health: debates and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyal, L

    2000-09-01

    Gender equity is increasingly cited as a goal of health policy but there is considerable confusion about what this could mean either in theory or in practice. If policies for the promotion of gender equity are to be realisable their goal must be the equitable distribution of health related resources. This requires careful identification of the similarities and differences in the health needs of men and women. It also necessitates an analysis of the gendered obstacles that currently prevent men and women from realising their potential for health. This article explores the impact of gender divisions on the health and the health care of both women and men and draws out some of the policy implications of this analysis. It outlines a three point agenda for change. This includes policies to ensure universal access to reproductive health care, to reduce gender inequalities in access to resources and to relax the constraints of rigidly defined gender roles. The article concludes with a brief overview of the practical and political dilemmas that the implementation of such policies would impose.

  11. Gender Equity in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Johanna R.

    2011-01-01

    The dearth of females in high-level science courses and professions is a well-documented phenomenon in modern society. Inequality in science instruction is a crucial component to the under representation of females in science. This paper provides a review of current literature published concerning gender inequality in K-12 science instruction.…

  12. A Confucian defense of gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelly James; Wang, Robin R

    2004-01-01

    The oppression of Chinese women is typically blamed on Confucianism. We present a version of Confucianism that relies on the metaphysics of the I Ching, one of the "canonical" Confucian texts, and on more characteristic Confucian doctrines. These metaphysical, anthropological, and ethical beliefs would, if fully implemented, replace the early Confucian hierarchy based partly on gender with a hierarchy based on virtue. This would in turn legitimate the full participation of women in society. Through the "canonical" Confucian texts we reconstruct the philosophical grounds for a Confucian vision of gender equity as grounded in a Confucian view of human nature and human excellence.

  13. Photovoltaics as a renewable energy technology in Bangladesh and its potential for increasing welfare, gender equity, and environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sarwat

    Situated in the northeast corner of the South Asian sub-continent, Bangladesh is a developing country with high population density, low life expectancy, low rate of literacy and extremely low access to modern energy sources. Lack of access to electrification remains a major constraint to the country's economic development. In this context, as in other countries, Bangladeshi development practitioners have tended to pursue outputs that rely on new technologies as a means to leapfrog to higher levels of development. However, independent analysis of such efforts, in terms of achieving sustainable development outcomes, remains lacking. The full potential of renewable energy technologies in Bangladesh has yet to attract widespread recognition from policy makers. In this thesis, I review solar PV technology since it has already been attempted as a rural off-grid electrification option in Bangladesh. I argue that the applications of technology should follow, and not precede, considerations for human well-being. It is also important to have a more holistic perspective on human welfare, which should include the basic dimensions of choice and opportunities, and not just income levels. The Government of Bangladesh and its development partners need to expand support to renewable energy technologies and so redirect the focus of policy formulation and implementation to sustainable human development. I emphasize that people-centered public policy has a key role to play in the introduction of a technology such as the solar photovoltaics pioneered by Grameen Shakti, a not-for-profit company in Bangladesh. While equity in terms of a fair distribution of wealth and income may continue to be an illusion, innovations such as solar PV are indeed promising with respect to opening up opportunities and possible benefits for women, the environment and---more generally---human well-being. This thesis is based on work in rural areas complementary to various professional responsibilities that I

  14. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility : An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  15. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility : An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  16. Technology--The New Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, Janice; Cain, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the gender gap in computer science and discusses results from a new report, "Gender Gaps," by the American Association of University Women. Examines technology's impact on gender equity and the importance of teacher education. Notes the increased enrollment of girls in math and science and calls for new programs to increase…

  17. Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus Rockett

    2008-12-01

    At the request of the University Materials Council, a national workshop was convened to examine 'Gender Equity Issues in Materials Science and Engineering.' The workshop considered causes of the historic underrepresentation of women in materials science and engineering (MSE), with a goal of developing strategies to increase the gender diversity of the discipline in universities and national laboratories. Specific workshop objectives were to examine efforts to level the playing field, understand implicit biases, develop methods to minimize bias in all aspects of training and employment, and create the means to implement a broadly inclusive, family-friendly work environment in MSE departments. Held May 18-20, 2008, at the Conference Center at the University of Maryland, the workshop included heads and chairs of university MSE departments and representatives of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (DOE-BES), and the national laboratories. The following recommendations are made based on the outcomes of the discussions at the workshop. Many or all of these apply equally well to universities and national laboratories and should be considered in context of industrial environments as well. First, there should be a follow-up process by which the University Materials Council (UMC) reviews the status of women in the field of MSE on a periodic basis and determines what additional changes should be made to accelerate progress in gender equity. Second, all departments should strengthen documentation and enforcement of departmental procedures such that hiring, promotion, compensation, and tenure decisions are more transparent, that the reasons why a candidate was not selected or promoted are clear, and that faculty are less able to apply their biases to personnel decisions. Third, all departments should strengthen mentoring of junior faculty. Fourth, all departments must raise awareness of gender biases

  18. Three Approaches to Gender Equity in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Sinnes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I use feminist critique of science as a point of departure to discuss different understandingsof how sex/gender impacts on pupils’ approaches to science education. I construct a theoreticalframework that shows three different approaches to increase gender equity in science education. Eachapproach is grounded in a distinct understanding of how sex/gender impacts pupils’ engagementin science education. The analytical frame that is developed thereby represents descriptions of threealternative ways to address gender inequity in science education. The framework shows how differentunderstandings of how sex/gender impact on pupils’ engagement in science education require distinctinitiatives to increase gender equity. The framework can be used in the planning and analysis ofhow gender initiatives work to address gender inequity in science education.

  19. Gender Equity and Renewable Energies : Thematic Background Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy; Oparaocha, Sheila; Roehr, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review existing evidence on the role of renewable energies in bringing gender equity. The paper first explores the evolution of thinking on gender and energy, in particular that practitioners no longer specifically focus on women and stoves (often referred to as “househol

  20. Gender Equity in the American Classroom: Where Are the Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a sampling of gender discriminating behaviors in the classroom, a look at the psychological data collected by Carol Gilligan and her associates, and strategies and tactics to bring about gender equity in the classroom. Documents the falling self-esteem of school-age girls and the domineering behavior of school-age boys. (TB)

  1. Education on Risk Management with Gender Equity: Experiences in United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) courses using on-site education and synchronous technologies for distance education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, J.; Marroquín, W.; Villar, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The experiences in two Risk Management courses organised by the Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas" (UCA) and the "América Latina Genera" project of the BCPR-UNDP (Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery of the United Nations Development Programme) are presented focusing on the design of teaching material and the selection and use of information-communication technologies (ICT) during the learning process. The organisation of these courses has posed three main challenges: the integration of a gender-equity approach in a subject that has traditionally lacked of it, the preparation of specialised teaching material for an audience with varied backgrounds and experience, and a widespread distribution of students and lecturers in different countries and with significant differences in ICT resources. These courses have combined tutorials, video-conferences, forums, chats, a media centre with video and podcast, and other resources to allow a close follow-up of the students' progress and strengthen the learning process. A specialised database of information within the "América Latina Genera" project has also been used intensively. Even though the building of capacity has been important, the emphasis of the courses has been on the practical application of projects in the students' work environment and in other real situations. The first course took place between June and December 2008 and consisted of a combination of on-site and distance education. The 15 students that registered the course included officials of local and central government institutions, private consultants, university staff and members of non-governmental organisations. Lecturers from the United States Geological Survey and the International Centre for Geohazards broadcasted videoconferences from the United States and Norway, respectively. The second course started in November 2008 and is scheduled to finish in February 2009. This course has been fully developed using distance education

  2. Naughty or Nice?: Equity, Gender and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Pamela Ray; Steelman, Lala Carr; Mulkey, Lynn; Catsambis, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    We review the debate over behavior, gender and classroom placement in ability groups for kindergartners. Using vignettes we vary children's gender in three ways; male, female, or unspecified gender and also describe them as behaving well, average, or misbehaving. Our aim is to probe how much gender and behavior matter with respect to mock reading…

  3. [Nursing education: integrating gender equity consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Shih, Hsin-Hsin; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Gender sensitivity influences the way a nurse handles the nursing process and can influence both patient care and public perception of the nursing profession. Nurses unaware of the influences of gender are unable to perform holistic nursing, the practice of which centers on patient-centered care. Education is essential to promote gender consciousness. Providing scenario-based education to apply gender consciousness can help nursing students integrate gender and nursing care concepts and improve nursing care quality. In addition to raising attention to this important issue, this article makes comprehensive suggestions on how to apply gender concepts in nursing education. These suggestions include requiring instructors to consider and assess their own gender consciousness in order to enhance positive gender consciousness; reviewing teaching materials to identify and remove content tainted by sexual discrimination, and emphasizing gender education in the nursing education curriculum.

  4. Efforts Towards Gender Equity in Academic and Employment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efforts Towards Gender Equity in Academic and Employment Opportunities in The Open University ... The paper starts by highlighting the roles of education as a means of ... It is high time that a study be carried out on how to improve increased ...

  5. Engendering Gender Equity: Using Literature to Teach and Learn Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraver, Jeraldine R.

    2007-01-01

    The question of how "teachers and students [can] connect their learning to the broader society" drives Jeraldine R. Kraver's search for ways to use critical pedagogy in secondary school and university classrooms. Focusing on the topic of gender equity, she shows how teachers can use literature to create critical classrooms. In addition, she offers…

  6. Gender and Equity in e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Coldwell

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature to date suggests contrary indicators of acceptance of the use of technology to support learning by females. With the increasing adoption of information technology to support teaching and learning, it is imperative that factors which may impede student learning are identified. The research reported here is of a large-scale survey of the perceptions of university students about eLearning and their use of the online learning environment. The aim of the survey was to gather data to inform about online learning practices at the University. The results were explored, amongst other factors, by gender. Findings include no significant differences between the female and male students with respect to being able to use the online learning environment confidently and effectively. In general the female students were more willing to participate in online discussions. However, there was no difference between the female and male students regarding their willingness to voice their opinions online. An unexpected result was the greater value placed by female students on using the online environment for communicating and collaborating with students of diverse background.

  7. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.

  8. Gender Equity for Mathematics and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennema, Elizabeth

    Research has provided rich documentation of knowledge on variables that are related to gender and mathematics. Moderate change in what has happened with females in mathematics education has occurred partly because of this scholarship. This paper discusses the research on mathematics and gender and the need to continue research that documents the…

  9. An Integrated Framework for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westring, Alyssa; McDonald, Jennifer M; Carr, Phyllis; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, the National Institutes of Health funded 14 R01 grants to study causal factors that promote and support women's biomedical careers. The Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers, a multi-institutional collaboration of the investigators, is one product of this initiative.A comprehensive framework is needed to address change at many levels-department, institution, academic community, and beyond-and enable gender equity in the development of successful biomedical careers. The authors suggest four distinct but interrelated aspects of culture conducive to gender equity: equal access to resources and opportunities, minimizing unconscious gender bias, enhancing work-life balance, and leadership engagement. They review the collection of eight articles in this issue, which each address one or more of the four dimensions of culture. The articles suggest that improving mentor-mentee fit, coaching grant reviewers on unconscious bias, and providing equal compensation and adequate resources for career development will contribute positively to gender equity in academic medicine.Academic medicine must adopt an integrated perspective on culture for women and acknowledge the multiple facets essential to gender equity. To effect change, culture must be addressed both within and beyond academic health centers (AHCs). Leaders within AHCs must examine their institutions' processes, resources, and assessment for fairness and transparency; mobilize personnel and financial resources to implement evidence-based initiatives; and assign accountability for providing transparent progress assessments. Beyond AHCs, organizations must examine their operations and implement change to ensure parity of funding, research, and leadership opportunities as well as transparency of assessment and accreditation.

  10. Improving Climate and Gender Equity in Physics Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennello, Sherry

    2010-02-01

    We need to open the door of science to women and minorities. We need to invite them in and encourage them to succeed. We need to teach them the secret handshake and transfer all the writing on the men's room walls and all-white country clubs into accessible places. We need to promote them to positions of national prominence. We need to do this out of respect to our mothers and the pioneering scientists who have come before us. We need to do this for our daughters and sons, so that our grandchildren may only know this discrimination as a piece of history. We need to do this now -- for the sake of our country, our science, our technical workforce, our economy and because it is the right thing to do. The Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP) has been helping physics departments improve their climate as a means to enhance gender equity. The CSWP site visit program has been giving departments valuable feedback on their climate for many years. In May 2007, a workshop on ``Gender Equity: Enhancing the Physics Enterprise in Universities and National Laboratories'' was held to address the issue of underrepresentation of women in physics by engaging the stake holders. This fall a new ``Conversation on Gender Equity'' has begun. Successful strategies for improving the climate and increasing the representation of women in physics will be presented. )

  11. The Economic and Human Development Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghaida, Dina; Klasen, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic…

  12. Ethical reflections of gender equality and equity in adolescence medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, P; Caenazzo, L

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences, in both clinical and research environment, exist also in a particular category of patients, adolescents, who constitute a vulnerable group with respect to healthcare decisions. In clinical context, the main ethical issues that may be identified within gender medicine for adolescent patients are related to the information given to the patient and its parents, the adolescent's capacity of understanding considering his/her maturity, vulnerability and autonomy, the consent to medical treatment in relation to the different possible approaches to their different efficacy and possible side effects. Also, with regard to the research context, ethical issues may arise from the participation of female minors in clinical trials. Ethical concerns may also arise in the field of resource allocation in health policies, such as the equitable distribution and access to resources, considering the young age of the subjects involved. A bioethical reflection, which takes into account not only the differences biologically and epidemiologically relevant, but also the main determinants of health in adolescence, might find a role in structured education for diversity and gender equity. Given the magnitude of the problem, to encourage the pursuit of gender equity in health and, in some situations, also to promote the full recognition of the right to health of women are some of the most effective and direct ways to reduce inequalities and to ensure a rational and efficient use of available resources, including through a bioethical reflection on the topic. The Authors show the necessity to differentiate the various aspects of gender differences in adolescence medicine, providing arguments in support of the fact that interventions for health prevention and promotion should be modulated in relation to the gender of the recipients, emphasizing the most important aspects for each group of individuals. This approach could implement personalized medicine, even and especially

  13. Empowerment evaluation of a Swedish gender equity plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gavriilidis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empowerment is essential for gender equity and health. The city of Malmö, Sweden, has formulated a development plan for gender equity integration (GEIDP. A ‘Policy Empowerment Index’ (PEI was previously developed to assess the empowerment potential of policies. Objectives: To pilot-evaluate the GEIDP's potential for empowerment and to test the PEI for future policy evaluations. Design: The GEIDP was analyzed and scored according to electronically retrieved evidence on constituent opinion, participation, capacity development, evaluation–adaptation, and impact. Results: The plan's PEI score was 64% (CI: 48–78 and was classified as ‘enabling’, ranging between ‘enabling’ and ‘supportive’. The plan's strengths were: 1 constituent knowledge and concern; 2 peripheral implementation; 3 protection of vulnerable groups; and 4 evaluation/adaptation procedures. It scored average on: 1 policy agenda setting; 2 planning; 3 provisions for education; 4 network formation; 5 resource mobilization. The weakest point was regarding promotion of employment and entrepreneurship. Conclusions: The PEI evaluation highlighted the plan's potential of constituency empowerment and proposed how it could be augmented.

  14. Barbie Against Superman: Gender Stereotypes and Gender Equity in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü AKSU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this age of mass media, we are surrounded with images that promote certain genderroles. These hidden forces shape us and our world view, often without us being aware thatthey are doing so. Gender stereotypes occur when generic attributes, opinions or roles havebeen applied toward either gender and the results are apparent everywhere in our society.From the point of view of education, it is important to use and/or to refuse genderstereotypes in the classroom.Since education is a significant social area where gender segregation and the reproductionof gender stereotypes are generated, there is, without doubt, much can be done in this areato prevent this phenomenon. As gender equity, is prevalent part of our society, teachersmust help their students identify where it exists in the classroom and school environment.

  15. Guidelines for Promoting Gender Equity in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Papers on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroiu, Mihaela

    This book provides a practically oriented reflection on gender equity in higher education and offers insights on how to achieve such equity. Equity, rather than "equality," is the focus of the discussion, which refines the discussion of gender and higher education to go beyond traditional ideas of equal provision and the mathematical…

  16. State Gender Equity Law & Athletic Participation among Community Colleges in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Horton, David, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of partial tuition waivers for athletic participation among community colleges in Washington State and its implications for state and federal gender equity policy and legislation. Using a mixed-methods approach, this article presents findings from Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act data, document analysis, and…

  17. National Gender Equity and Schooling Policy in Australia: Struggles for a Non-Identitarian Feminist Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    This paper tracks the development of gender equity and schooling policy in Australia from the "National Policy on the Education of Girls in 1987", to current policy concerns with boys' educational underperformance. The paper's key focus is on the ways in which feminist informed equity policy has been undermined by broader imperatives of economic…

  18. Strategies for Promoting Gender Equity in Developing Countries: Lessons, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Elizabeth, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several decades a number of strategies have emerged and evolved to promote gender equity in development efforts. Yet debates regarding the relative efficacy of these strategies remain. On Thursday, April 26, 2007, the Woodrow Wilson Center convened a group of experts on gender and development to address the issue of gender inequality…

  19. International Year of the Family 1994: Family and Gender Equity in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1994-01-01

    Advances 14 general propositions on family and gender equity that seek to promote gender equality; an end to female genital mutilation; an awareness of sexually transmitted diseases; responsible parenthood and parent education; healthy gender relations; compulsory education for both sexes; and acceptance of unmarried or divorced adults, single…

  20. Inquiry learning for gender equity using History of Science in Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is the selection and integration of objectives and methods of education for gender equity within the Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments in the current portuguese frameworks of middle and high school. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting gender equity, mainly focusing in relevant 20th century women-scientists with a huge contribute to the History of Science. The hands-on and minds-on activities proposed for high scholl students of Life and Earth Sciences onstitute a learnig environment enriched in features of science by focusing on the work of two scientists: Lynn Margulis (1938-2011  and her endosymbiosis theory of the origin of life on Earth and Inge Leehman (1888-1993 responsible for a breakthrough regarding the internal structure of Earth, by caracterizing a discontinuity within the nucleus, contributing to the current geophysical model. For middle scholl students the learning environment includes Inge Leehman and Mary Tharp (1920-2006 and her first world map of the ocean floor. My strategy includes features of science, such as: theory-laden nature of scientific knowledge, models, values and socio-scientific issues, technology contributes to science and feminism.  In conclusion, I consider that this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by other teachers, of active inquiry strategies focused on features of science within a framework of social responsibility of science, as well as the basis for future research.

  1. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  2. Unfinished Business: Re-Positioning Gender on the Education Equity Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Judith; Tranter, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The long-standing relationship between social disadvantage and poor educational outcomes continues to preoccupy educational policy-makers, with teachers at the front line of the ongoing struggle. Across the range of equity concerns, gender may be noted as either qualifying disadvantage or compounding it, but the meaning of gender as a simple…

  3. Linkages between gender equity and intimate partner violence among urban Brazilian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S; Moracco, Kathryn E

    2011-10-01

    Gender inequity is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), although there is little research on this relationship that focuses on youth or males. Using survey data collected from 240 male and 198 female youth aged 15-24 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we explore the association between individual-level support for gender equity and IPV experiences in the past 6 months and describe responses to and motivations for IPV. Factor analysis was used to construct gender equity scales for males and females. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between gender equity and IPV. About half of female youth reported some form of recent IPV, including any victimization (32%), any perpetration (40%), and both victimization and perpetration (22%). A total of 18% of male youth reported recently perpetrating IPV. In logistic regression models, support for gender equity had a protective effect against any female IPV victimization and any male IPV perpetration and was not associated with female IPV perpetration. Female victims reported leaving the abusive partner, but later returning to him as the most frequent response to IPV. Male perpetrators said the most common response of their victims was to retaliate with violence. Jealousy was the most frequently reported motivation of females perpetrating IPV. Gender equity is an important predictor of IPV among youth. Examining the gendered context of IPV will be useful in the development of targeted interventions to promote gender equity and healthy relationships and to help reduce IPV among youth. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An assessment of Regional and Gender equity in healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    struggling with universal healthcare coverage, adopt and implement the principle of health .... Northern, Upper East and Upper West (See Figure 1). In terms of ...... Health Policies in Ghana – Implication for Equity: A Policy and Literature.

  5. The Political Is Personal: Measurement and Application of Nation-Level Indicators of Gender Equity in Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Grabe, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the dictum, "the personal is political," feminist scholars have maintained that gender equity in security, access to education, economic opportunity, and property ownership are central to women's well-being. Empirical research evaluating this thesis can include nation-level indicators of gender equity, such as the United Nation…

  6. Organizational climate with gender equity and burnout among university academics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taka, Fumiaki; Nomura, Kyoko; Horie, Saki; Takemoto, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Masumi; Takenoshita, Shinichi; Murakami, Aya; Hiraike, Haruko; Okinaga, Hiroko; Smith, Derek R

    2016-12-07

    We investigated relationships between the perception of organizational climate with gender equity and psychological health among 94 women and 211 men in a Japanese private university in 2015 using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (i.e., personal, work-related and student-related burnout). Perceptions of organizational climate with respect to gender equity were measured with two scales including organizational engagement with a gender equal society in the workplace (consisting of three domains of 'Women utilization', 'Organizational promotion of gender equal society' and 'Consultation service'); and a gender inequality in academia scale that had been previously developed. Multivariable linear models demonstrated significant statistical interactions between gender and perceptions of organizational climate; 'Women utilization' or lack of 'Inequality in academia' alleviated burnout only in women. In consequence of this gender difference, when 'Women utilization' was at a lower level, both personal (p=.038) and work-related (p=.010) burnout scores were higher in women, and the student-related burnout score was lower in women when they perceived less inequality in academia than in men (p=.030). As such, it is suggested organizational fairness for gender equity may be a useful tool to help mitigate psychological burnout among women in academia.

  7. Critical Fusion--Technology and Equity in Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magolda, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the first year of a formative, external program evaluation of the Critical Fusion Initiative (CFI), which involved a higher education institution, a public high school, a corporation, and two nonprofit organizations. The initiative fused technology and education to address the issue of equity by assisting 16 high school…

  8. Impact of a workplace intervention on attitudes and practices related to gender equity in Bengaluru, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Gambhir, Shalini; Luecke, Ellen; Jagannathan, Latha

    2016-10-01

    We describe the evaluation of a participatory, garment factory-based intervention to promote gender equity. The intervention comprised four campaigns focused on gender and violence against women, alcoholism, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV/AIDS, which were implemented using information displays (standees and posters) and interactive methods (street play, one-to-one interactions, experience-sharing, and health camps). Each campaign lasted six days and the entire intervention was implemented over 10 months. We evaluated the intervention using a quasi-experimental design in which one factory served as the intervention site and a second as a delayed control. Two mobile-phone-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and 12 months with separate systematic random samples of employees from each site. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and attitudes related to gender equity, intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use were assessed, and differences in these variables associated with the intervention were examined using difference-in-difference estimation. Analyses of data from 835 respondents revealed substantial, statistically significant improvements in attitudes related to gender equity, unacceptability of IPV, and awareness of IPV and alcohol-related support services. In conclusion, our study offers compelling evidence on the effectiveness of workplace-based interventions in advancing gender equity.

  9. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  10. The Administration of Feminism in Education: Revisiting and Remembering Narratives of Gender Equity and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Julie

    2017-01-01

    This article examines challenges in writing histories of feminist reforms in schooling and educational administration. The focus is gender equity reforms in Australian schools since the 1970s, looking at how those earlier interventions are now remembered, represented and forgotten, in policy memory and collective narratives. Such feminist…

  11. Globalisation and the Politics of Accountability: Issues and Dilemmas for Gender Equity in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Miriam

    2001-01-01

    Discusses issues of accountability for gender reform in education given changing politics accompanying globalization processes. Argues that globalization processes work in contradictory ways. While market liberal ideologies and practices underpinning globalization threaten to undermine gains in educational equity, there may be possibilities for a…

  12. [Gender equity in health sector reform policies in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Elsa Gómez

    2002-01-01

    Gender equity is increasingly being acknowledged as an essential aspect of sustainable development and more specifically, of health development. The Pan American Health Organization's Program for Women, Health, and Development has been piloting for a year now a project known as Equidad de género en las políticas de reforma del sector de salud, whose objective is to promote gender equity in the health sector reform efforts in the Region. The first stage of the project is being conducted in Chile and Peru, along with some activities throughout the Region. The core of the project is the production and use of information as a tool for introducing changes geared toward achieving greater gender equity in health, particularly in connection with malefemale disparities that are unnecessary, avoidable, and unfair in health status, access to health care, and participation in decision-making within the health system. We expect that in three years the project will have brought about changes in the production of information and knowledge, advocacy, and information dissemination, as well as in the development, appropriation, and identification of intersectoral mechanisms that will make it possible for key figures in government and civil society to work together in setting and surveying policy on gender equity in health.

  13. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include...

  14. A Sociological Framework to Address Gender Equity in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mary Anne

    2017-04-01

    Lack of equity in the science workforce is a sociological problem; those wishing to seek its amelioration can benefit by viewing the issue with a sociological lens (and a sociologist). One useful framework that we have used to think strategically about how to lower barriers to equity is Barbara Risman's (2004): this framework views barriers to equity as individual, interpersonal ("interactional"), and institutional. Any given barrier may fit into one or more of these frames. Individual barriers include those intrinsic to an individual and may include: lack of access to vital networks and mentors, lack of preparation, etc. Such barriers can be addressed through mentoring programs and attention to building networks (e.g., through professional society memberships). Interpersonal or "interactional" barriers are those that arise from how we perceive and treat one another. Implicit bias underlies many of these barriers, including whether we perceive women as scientists, as competent, as dedicated (etc) as men. Such barriers can be reduced through implicit bias awareness. Institutional barriers arise from the structure and history of the academy itself, from its policies and procedures. Many such policies and procedures have a differential impact on men or women, generally without that intention. Policies that reduce equity barriers include family leave, childcare facilities, search committee training, clearly articulated practices for evaluation of applications and personnel reviews, equal starting pay and startup packages, equable canvassing for names to consider for nominations for honors and awards, to name a few. By viewing the issue through such a framework, the appropriate response can be generated for a more effective result.

  15. Computer technology in education and issues of power and equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Kesten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use ‘techniques of power’ classified (based on Foucault’s work by Gore in order to illustrate power relations between supporters (or non-supporters of computer technology and teachers. For this purpose, six out of eight techniques of power (surveillance, normalization, exclusion, classification, distribution and regulation is used in formulating thoughts about computer technology and issues of power and equity. In this study, these techniques of power were discussed more detailed both to exemplify how supporters (or non-supporters of computer technology exercise power over teachers (preservice or inservice by using of major techniques of power and to show how they are related to the issue of equity.

  16. Achieving Speaker Gender Equity at the American Society for Microbiology General Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-08-04

    In 2015, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) General Meeting essentially achieved gender equity, with 48.5% of the oral presentations being given by women. The mechanisms associated with increased female participation were (i) making the Program Committee aware of gender statistics, (ii) increasing female representation among session convener teams, and (iii) direct instruction to try to avoid all-male sessions. The experience with the ASM General Meeting shows that it is possible to increase the participation of female speakers in a relatively short time and suggests concrete steps that may be taken to achieve this at other meetings. Public speaking is very important for academic advancement in science. Historically women have been underrepresented as speakers in many scientific meetings. This article describes concrete steps that were associated with achieving gender equity at a major meeting. Copyright © 2015 Casadevall.

  17. Gendered Universities and the Wage Gap: Case Study of a Pay Equity Audit in an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Jan; Hill, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    Studies worldwide have found that women's pay lags behind men's in academia. This article describes pay equity policies in Australia and overseas and the use of a pay equity audit as a strategic tool to reduce gender inequities at The University of Western Australia (UWA). As a research-intensive university, UWA resembles similar universities…

  18. Gender equity in physical education: The use of language

    OpenAIRE

    Óscar del Castillo Andrés; Santiago Romero Granados; Teresa González Ramírez; María del Carmen Campos Mesa

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed Spanish teachers' behavior and the transmission of gender stereotypes. We observed 48 physical education lessons given by four Spanish teachers (two men and two women). Descriptive codes, which were generated iteratively, were clustered, categorized, integrated, recoded, and recategorized. They allowed us to identify four major themes related to the transmission of gender stereotypes of teachers: male generics, stereotyped expressions, nominative attention, and priority or...

  19. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    OpenAIRE

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Richardson, Emma; Shirodkar, Apurva; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design: A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact...

  20. Education Policies for Gender Equity: Probing into State Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of non-discriminatory sex legislation provides theoretical and empirical grounds to examine responses by the state to gender equality. Tracing the trajectory of one such law in the U.S.--Title IX--over a period of 40 years, this study analyzes the extent to which the state: (1) acted as a unitary body, and (2) functioned to…

  1. Gender equity in physical education: The use of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar del Castillo Andrés

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed Spanish teachers' behavior and the transmission of gender stereotypes. We observed 48 physical education lessons given by four Spanish teachers (two men and two women. Descriptive codes, which were generated iteratively, were clustered, categorized, integrated, recoded, and re-categorized. They allowed us to identify four major themes related to the transmission of gender stereotypes of teachers: male generics, stereotyped expressions, nominative attention, and priority order. We used a coding sheet as well as audio and video recordings to register the categories. The Kruskal-Wallis test produced significance levels lower than .05, resulting in the rejection of the null hypothesis. Sexist behavior was found in the male generics, nominative attention, and priority order. However, we found no difference in stereotyped expressions.

  2. Promoting Gender Equity in STEM: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    This presentation will begin by briefly reviewing data on the current status of women in STEM disciplines: degrees earned, careers pursued, obstacles encountered. Next, it will draw on social science research to illuminate a variety of underlying causes for gender disparities in STEM. These, in turn, will be shown to suggest an array of concrete actions that individual scientists, group leaders, and institutions can take to improve gender diversity; a few that the speaker has found especially effective in her role as a college dean will be noted. While the primary focus of the talk will be on women in physics, some of the broader issues encountered by sexual and gender minorities in STEM will also be discussed. In the remainder of the presentation, two particular interventions in which the speaker has been involved for the past several years will be covered in more detail: one aimed at building career skills of women physicists in developing nations and the other aimed at improving the climate for LGBT physicists here in the United States. These illustrate the wide array of opportunities open to all of us for making our field more inclusive.

  3. Gender equity: women’s political empowerment in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Sila

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited South Korea has undergone many drastic transformations from the time the state formally emerged in 1948 until now, becoming a thriving democracy and the world’s 12th-largest economy. Women in South Korea have enjoyed many aspects of this recovery and rise. According to the 2013 World Economic Forum’s Annual Gender Gap Index, South Korea’s women today have the highest literacy and healthy life expectancy rates in the world. Yet accordin...

  4. Gender Equity in Physics Practice: The Indian Context & the Social Impact of Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Prajval

    2015-04-01

    The gender gap in the physics profession that is seen world-wide has been attributed to multiple factors. The applicability of these factors is explored in the context of physics practice in India, using available empirical investigations and theoretical insights from gender studies. Indications are that girls are as interested in science as boys at the high-school level. In the profession, however, there is a significant gender gap. Data show that it is caused not only by the discriminatory familial responsibilities that women encounter in their personal lives, but also by gender-discriminatory attitudes in the scientific workplace. Although the Government of India, which is the major funder of scientific research and higher education, has acknowledged the gender disparity and initiated several measures to address it, these measures also come from a gendered perspective, and are therefore likely to be limited in their long-term effectiveness. Policy measures must address the gender discrimination in the workplace as well in order to achieve gender equity.

  5. Women and heart transplantation: an issue of gender equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lynne; Little, Maureen

    2004-05-01

    Heart transplantation (HT) is increasingly commonplace in countries with advanced health care systems. A review of the family and HT literature points to a gender inequity in the field: Men are more likely to be heart transplant recipients; women are more likely to contribute as their caregivers. In this critique, we argue that there are not only physiological but also social and economic issues that contribute to inequitable access to HT for women. Further, we point out that another invisible inequity in the heart transplant field is the lack of acknowledgment of, and support for, women whose contributions as family caregivers to the heart transplant process often ensure the success of heart transplant procedures. The authors call for recognition of these inequities and the development of policies that have the potential to ensure that women have equitable access to cardiovascular care in general and HT in particular, and that woman are recognized for, and supported in, their role as caregivers.

  6. Opening the gender diversity black box: causality of perceived gender equity and locus of control and mediation of work engagement in employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radha R; Sharma, Neha P

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalizing the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity.

  7. Opening the Gender Diversity Black Box: Causality of Perceived Gender Equity & Locus of Control and Mediation of Work Engagement in Employee Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha R. Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout. Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalising the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity.

  8. Opening the gender diversity black box: causality of perceived gender equity and locus of control and mediation of work engagement in employee well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radha R.; Sharma, Neha P.

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalizing the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity. PMID:26500566

  9. Teaching Cell and Molecular Biology for Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sible, Jill C.; Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social…

  10. Teaching Cell and Molecular Biology for Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sible, Jill C.; Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social…

  11. Gender and Equity: Experience of the Working Women's Forum, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Nandini

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates how poor women were able to move out of poverty and dehumanization through a process of mobilization and organization. The process was catalyzed by the intervention of a non-governmental organization, the Working Women's Forum. Outlines the Forum's program of economic, social, and technological empowerment. (MJP)

  12. Assuring gender equity in recruitment standards for police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J; Bonneau, Jean

    2002-06-01

    Human Rights Tribunals require application of non-discriminatory fitness standards in the hiring, promotion, and retention of employees. This issue has become controversial for public safety officers such as police, where differences in average levels of absolute fitness between men and women cause a high proportion of female applicants to fail many entrance tests. The present review summarizes the impact on physical working capacity of commonly encountered gender differences in size, body composition, haemoglobin levels, and muscular strength. The principles applied in designing content- and construct-validity occupational fitness tests are described, and Human Rights policies are reviewed in the light of the Meiorin judgment. Criteria are indicated for establishing a bona-fide occupational fitness requirement, and description is given of the approach used in developing standards that satisfy these criteria. Requirements are based on the task to be accomplished. The potential training response of female applicants is likely at least to match that of their male peers, and the needs of female police recruits are thus best accommodated by providing every opportunity to augment fitness to the required minimum level. The main weakness of any current requirement is that most police forces do not yet apply an equivalent criterion to older incumbent officers, where similar issues may arise.

  13. Gender equity and HIV/AIDS prevention: comparing gender differences in sexual practice and beliefs among Zimbabwe university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E; Mhloyi, Marvelous; Masvaure, Tsitsi B; Adlis, Susan A

    We assess gender differences in HIV prevention knowledge, attitudes and practices with a focus on cultural, sociological, and economic variables. A randomized cross-sectional study was used in order to achieve high participation and broad comparative assessment. An eight-page questionnaire was administered to 933 randomly selected students at the University of Zimbabwe. Survey items addressed sexual decision-making, condom use, limiting sexual partners, cultural power dynamics and access to HIV testing. We found marked gender differences with men reporting beliefs of entitlement to dominate women, an assumed leadership in decision-making concerning condom use and an attitude that when a woman says "no" to sex, really, "it depends." Women acknowledged gender-based cultural attitudes but are much more likely to support women's rights to sexual expression. A multi-faceted approach to gender equity training is needed to challenge men and women to change attitudes and increase social awareness that respects cultural traditions while still inspiring both men and women to champion justice and equality between genders.

  14. Gender and Education for All: Progress and Problems in Achieving Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisamya, Grace; DeJaeghere, Joan; Kendall, Nancy; Khan, Marufa Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of rapid increases in gender parity in primary schooling in Bangladesh and Malawi on gender inequities in schools and communities. Based on an analysis of comparative case studies of marginalized communities, we argue that educational initiatives focused on achieving gender parity provide limited evidence that girls'…

  15. Gender and Education for All: Progress and Problems in Achieving Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisamya, Grace; DeJaeghere, Joan; Kendall, Nancy; Khan, Marufa Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of rapid increases in gender parity in primary schooling in Bangladesh and Malawi on gender inequities in schools and communities. Based on an analysis of comparative case studies of marginalized communities, we argue that educational initiatives focused on achieving gender parity provide limited evidence that girls'…

  16. Teaching cell and molecular biology for gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sible, Jill C; Wilhelm, Dayna E; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social studies of science into science education may be the necessary first step in helping female students persist in STEM disciplines. In 2003 and 2004, a sophomore Cell and Molecular Biology course at Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, VA) was taught integrating social studies of science with standard material. The course was successfully implemented, teaching students factual content while increasing awareness of the cultures of science and their self-confidence in engaging with the subject. Course evaluation data indicated that females in particular perceived greater gains in logical thinking and problem-solving abilities than females in a traditional cell biology course. Consistent with K-12 studies, males in this class were likely to view scientists as male only, whereas females viewed scientists as male and female. This pilot project demonstrates that social studies can be integrated successfully in a cell biology course. Longitudinal studies of this cohort of students will indicate whether this approach contributes to the retention of women in the field.

  17. Gender, sexuality and the discursive representation of access and equity in health services literature: implications for LGBT communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1) to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2) to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. Results A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1) multicultural discourse, and 2) diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3) social determinants of health (SDOH) discourse; 4) anti-oppression (AOP) discourse; and 5) citizen/social rights discourse. Conclusions The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress organizational assumptions

  18. Gender, sexuality and the discursive representation of access and equity in health services literature: implications for LGBT communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Andrea E; Macdonnell, Judith A

    2011-09-29

    This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1) to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2) to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1) multicultural discourse, and 2) diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3) social determinants of health (SDOH) discourse; 4) anti-oppression (AOP) discourse; and 5) citizen/social rights discourse. The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress organizational assumptions about, and ideological commitments to

  19. Gender, sexuality and the discursive representation of access and equity in health services literature: implications for LGBT communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonnell Judith A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1 to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2 to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. Results A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1 multicultural discourse, and 2 diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3 social determinants of health (SDOH discourse; 4 anti-oppression (AOP discourse; and 5 citizen/social rights discourse. Conclusions The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress

  20. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  1. Duality of Educational Policy as Global and Local: The Case of the Gender Equity Agenda in National Principles and State Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Seung-Hwan; Paine, Lynn W.; Cha, Yun-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study provides cross-national empirical evidence that substantiates the dialectic relationship between global and local contexts with regard to educational gender equity both as a national principle and as a priority for state action. Cross-national data on educational gender equity policies across 160 countries were gathered from…

  2. Approaches to Gender Equity in Science Education: Two Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa Seen Through A Lens Derived From Feminist Critique of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Tonette Sinnes

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, I explore whether feminist critique of science can shed new light on how gender equity in science education can be achieved. Drawing on feminist theory, I develop a theoretical framework that I use to analyse how two science education initiatives work towards increased gender equity in science education in sub-Saharan Africa. All studies and initiatives addressing gender issues in science education reflect perceptions of how sex/gender1 impacts pupils’ engagement in scientific...

  3. Barbie Against Superman: Gender Stereotypes and Gender Equity in the Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Aksu, Bengü

    2005-01-01

    In this age of mass media, we are surrounded with images that promote certain gender roles. These hidden forces shape us and our world view, often without us being aware that they are doing so. Gender stereotypes occur when generic attributes, opinions or roles have been applied toward either gender and the results are apparent everywhere in our society. From the point of view of education, it is important to use and/or to refuse gender stereotypes in the classroom. Since education is a signi...

  4. Gender equity issues in astronomy: facts, fiction, and what the adaptive optics community can do to close the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orgeville, Céline; Rigaut, François; Maddison, Sarah; Masciadri, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Gender equality in modern societies is a topic that never fails to raise passion and controversy, in spite of the large body of research material and studies currently available to inform the general public and scientists alike. This paper brings the gender equity and equality discussion on the Adaptive Optics community doorstep. Its aim is threefold: (1) Raising awareness about the gender gap in science and astronomy in general, and in Adaptive Optics in particular; (2) Providing a snapshot of real and/or perceived causes for the gender gap existing in science and engineering; and (3) Presenting a range of practical solutions which have been or are being implemented at various institutions in order to bridge this gap and increase female participation at all levels of the scientific enterprise. Actual data will be presented to support aim (1), including existing gender data in science, engineering and astronomy, as well as original data specific to the Adaptive Optics community to be gathered in time for presentation at this conference. (2) will explore the often complex causes converging to explain gender equity issues that are deeply rooted in our male-dominated culture, including: conscious and unconscious gender biases in perceptions and attitudes, worklife balance, n-body problem, fewer numbers of female leaders and role models, etc. Finally, (3) will offer examples of conscious and pro-active gender equity measures which are helping to bring the female to male ratio closer to its desirable 50/50 target in science and astronomy.

  5. Gender, Technology, and Instructional Design: Balancing the Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    1999-01-01

    Examines the pervasive messages of gender stereotypes and their influence on instructional design, schooling, and society. Topics discussed include: society and gender-role construction; gender stereotypes; culture, groups, and schooling; images of males and females; and increasing equity through good instructional design. Contains 41 references.…

  6. An evaluation of gender equity in different models of primary care practices in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Grant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization calls for more work evaluating the effect of health care reforms on gender equity in developed countries. We performed this evaluation in Ontario, Canada where primary care models resulting from reforms co-exist. Methods This cross sectional study of primary care practices uses data collected in 2005-2006. Healthcare service models included in the study consist of fee for service (FFS based, salaried, and capitation based. We compared the quality of care delivered to women and men in practices of each model. We performed multi-level, multivariate regressions adjusting for patient socio-demographic and economic factors to evaluate vertical equity, and adjusting for these and health factors in evaluating horizontal equity. We measured seven dimensions of health service delivery (e.g. accessibility and continuity and three dimensions of quality of care using patient surveys (n = 5,361 and chart abstractions (n = 4,108. Results Health service delivery measures were comparable in women and men, with differences ≤ 2.2% in all seven dimensions and in all models. Significant gender differences in the health promotion subjects addressed were observed. Female specific preventive manoeuvres were more likely to be performed than other preventive care. Men attending FFS practices were more likely to receive influenza immunization than women (Adjusted odds ratio: 1.75, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.05, 2.92. There was no difference in the other three prevention indicators. FFS practices were also more likely to provide recommended care for chronic diseases to men than women (Adjusted difference of -11.2%, CI -21.7, -0.8. A similar trend was observed in Community Health Centers (CHC. Conclusions The observed differences in the type of health promotion subjects discussed are likely an appropriate response to the differential healthcare needs between genders. Chronic disease care is non equitable in FFS but

  7. Gender equity and equality on Korean student scientists: A life history narrative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Changsoo

    Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators

  8. The health of women and girls: how can we address gender equality and gender equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the health of women and girls, and the role of addressing gender inequalities experienced by women and girls. The health of both males and females is influenced by sex, or biological factors, and gender, or socially constructed influences, including gender differences in the distribution and impact of social determinants of health, access to health promoting resources, health behaviors and gender discourse, and the ways in which health systems are organized and financed, and how they deliver care. Various strategies to address the health of women and girls have been developed at intergovernmental, regional, and national level, and by international nongovernmental organizations. These include vertical programs which aim to target specific health risks and deliver services to meet women and girl's needs, and more cross-cutting approaches which aim at "gender" policy making. Much of this work has developed following the adoption of gender mainstreaming principles across different policy arenas and scales of policy making, and this article reviews some of these strategies and the evidence for their success, before concluding with a consideration of future directions in global policy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Gender equity and socioeconomic inequality: a framework for the patterning of women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Nancy E

    2002-03-01

    This paper explores the interrelationship of gender equity and socioeconomic inequality and how they affect women's health at the macro- (country) and micro- (household and individual) levels. An integrated framework draws theoretical perspectives from both approaches and from public health. Determinants of women's health in the geopolitical environment include country-specific history and geography, policies and services, legal rights, organizations and institutions, and structures that shape gender and economic inequality. Culture, norms and sanctions at the country and community level, and sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level, influence women's productive and reproductive roles in the household and workplace. Social capital, roles, psychosocial stresses and resources. health services, and behaviors mediate social, economic and cultural effects on health outcomes. Inequality between and within households contributes to the patterning of women's health. Within the framework, relationships may vary depending upon women's lifestage and cohort experience. Examples of other relevant theoretical frameworks are discussed. The conclusion suggests strategies to improve data, influence policy, and extend research to better understand the effect of gender and socioeconomic inequality on women's health.

  10. Equity and spatial reasoning: reducing the mathematical achievement gap in gender and social disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2017-06-01

    Since the early 70s, there has been recognition that there are specific differences in achievement based on variables, such as gender and socio-economic background, in terms of mathematics performance. However, these differences are not unilateral but rather quite specific and relate strongly to spatial reasoning. This early work has paved the way for thinking critically about who achieves in mathematics and why. This project innovatively combines the strengths of the two Chief Investigators—Lowrie's work in spatial reasoning and Jorgensen's work in equity. The assumptions, the approach and theoretical framing used in the study unite quite disparate areas of mathematics education into a cogent research program that seeks to challenge some of the long-held views in the field of mathematics education.

  11. Gender equity and health: evaluating the impact of Millennium Development Goal Three on women's health in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Im, Dana D; Katzelnick, Leah; Franco, Oscar H

    2013-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the progress of Millennium Development Goal Three, which promotes gender equity and empowering women, by assessing the targets for education, employment, and government, and their relation to women's health in South Asia. Researchers obtained data from the United Nations, Inter-Parliamentary Union, International Labor Organization, World Bank, and World Health Organization. First, they performed a literature review including manuscripts that quantified a Millenium Development Goal Three outcome in South Asia and were published after 1991. They derived women's health outcomes from World Health Organization databases. Spearman's rank test was used to evaluate the relationship between change in gender parity and change in women's health outcomes. South Asia's average primary education Gender Parity Index (defined as the ratio of girls to boys enrolled in primary, secondary, and tertiary education and expressed as a value between 0 and 1.0) improved from 0.73 (SD 0.34) to 0.92 (SD 0.13) between 2000 and 2008. Secondary and tertiary education had a lower Gender Parity Index (average 2008 Gender Parity Index 0.87 (SD 0.21) and 0.59 (SD 0.23), respectively), but had also improved from 2000 (average Gender Parity Index = 0.77, SD 0.38) to 2008 (average Gender Parity Index = 0.52, SD 0.11). An average proportion of 22.1% (SD 12.58) of women participated in waged, non-agricultural employment and 16.6% (SD 10.3) in national parliaments. No clear association was found between change in gender equity and women's health in South Asia between 2000 and 2008. Some progress has been made toward gender equity in South Asia, although the results have been mixed and inequities persist, especially in employment and government. While gender equity does not appear to have been related to female health outcomes, both must be addressed simultaneously as priority development targets and remain prerequisites to achieving the overall Millennium Development Goals

  12. Using Gender Schema Theory to Examine Gender Equity in Computing: a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E.

    Women continue to constitute a minority of computer science majors in the United States and Canada. One possible contributing factor is that most Web sites, CD-ROMs, and other digital resources do not reflect girls' design and content preferences. This article describes a pilot study that considered whether gender schema theory can serve as a framework for investigating girls' Web site design and content preferences. Eleven 14- and 15-year-old girls participated in the study. The methodology included the administration of the Children's Sex-Role Inventory (CSRI), Web-surfing sessions, interviews, and data analysis using iterative pattern coding. On the basis of their CSRI scores, the participants were divided into feminine-high (FH) and masculine-high (MH) groups. Data analysis uncovered significant differences in the criteria the groups used to evaluate Web sites. The FH group favored evaluation criteria relating to graphic and multimedia design, whereas the MH group favored evaluation criteria relating to subject content. Models of the two groups' evaluation criteria are presented, and the implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Gender equity and sexual and reproductive health in Eastern and Southern Africa: a critical overview of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor E. MacPherson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender inequalities are important social determinants of health. We set out to critically review the literature relating to gender equity and sexual and reproductive health (SRH in Eastern and Southern Africa with the aim of identifying priorities for action. Design: During November 2011, we identified studies relating to SRH and gender equity through a comprehensive literature search. Results: We found gender inequalities to be common across a range of health issues relating to SRH with women being particularly disadvantaged. Social and biological determinants combined to increase women's vulnerability to maternal mortality, HIV, and gender-based violence. Health systems significantly disadvantaged women in terms of access to care. Men fared worse in relation to HIV testing and care with social norms leading to men presenting later for treatment. Conclusions: Gender inequity in SRH requires multiple complementary approaches to address the structural drivers of unequal health outcomes. These could include interventions that alter the structural environment in which ill-health is created. Interventions are required both within and beyond the health system.

  14. Exploring Social Equity Aspects in Integrating Technology in Primary Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2014-01-01

    This research focus on aspects of equity related to the introduction of using technology in classrooms. Technology has the potential to support mathematics pedagogy with visual representations and offer modelling and simulation facilities, increasing the creativity of the learning and teaching processes (Kaput, Ness, & Hoyles, 2008; Stoilescu…

  15. Gender stereotypes among women engineering and technology students in the UK: lessons from career choice narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from E&T students at a UK university, this paper examines the gendered nature of career choice narratives. It finds that women often maintain contradictory views; upholding gendered stereotypes about women's suitability for the so-called masculine work, yet also subscribing to ideals that the sector is accessible to all who wish to work in it. This is explained using an individualist framework in which women construct an autonomous sense of self, yet are also shaped by a gendered self. Women's discourse around career choice, therefore, reveals the problematic nature of gender norms for achieving gender equity in E&T.

  16. Collaboration on contentious issues: research partnerships for gender equity in Nicaragua's Fair Trade coffee cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lori; Terstappen, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the use of collaborative and partnership approaches in health and agricultural research has flourished. Such approaches are frequently adopted to ensure more successful research uptake and to contribute to community empowerment through participatory research practices. At the same time that interest in research partnerships has been growing, publications on methods, models, and guidelines for building these partnerships have proliferated. However, partnership development is not necessarily as straightforward or linear a process as such literature makes it appear, particularly when the research involves divisive or contentious issues. This paper explores prevailing views on research partnerships, and also questions the applicability of partnership models using an emerging research program around gender equity and health in Fair Trade coffee cooperatives in Nicaragua as an example. Moreover, the paper introduces some of the complicated issues facing the authors as they attempt to develop and expand partnerships in this research area. The paper culminates with a series of strategies that the authors plan to use that offer alternative ways of thinking about building research partnerships concerning controversial or complex issues in the field of community health and development.

  17. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Shirodkar, Apurva; Richardson, Emma; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations.

  18. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Shirodkar, Apurva; Richardson, Emma; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Background Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. Results GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations. PMID:27606968

  19. Gender equity in STEM: The role of dual enrollment science courses in selecting a college major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Christopher Andrew

    A disproportionately low number of women, despite rigorous high school preparation and evidenced interest in STEM through voluntary participation in additional coursework, declare a STEM-related college major. The result of this drop in participation in STEM-related college majors is a job market flooded with men and the support of an incorrect stereotype: STEM is for men. This research seeks to assess the effects, if any, that Dual Enrollment (DE) science courses have on students' self-identified intent to declare a STEM-related college major as well as the respective perceptions of both male and female students. Self-Determination Theory and Gender Equity Framework were used respectively as the theoretical frames. High school students from six schools in two district participated in an online survey and focus groups in this mixed methods study. The results of the research identified the role the DE course played in their choice of college major, possible interventions to correct the underrepresentation, and societal causes for the stereotype.

  20. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sridharan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design: A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. Results: GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Conclusions: Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations.

  1. CIRDAP -- the British Council Regional Workshop. Towards Gender Equity: Poverty, Rights, and Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This article describes a February 1998, regional workshop entitled "Towards Gender Equity: Poverty, Rights, and Participation," which was organized by the Center on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP) and the British Council. Participants included about 60 high-level representatives of governments, nongovernmental organizations, academicians, and activists from CIRDAP, the UK, and Bangladesh. The aim was to identify ways to monitor the implementation of the Beijing Platform of Action (BPOA)in CIRDAP member countries and advocate continual compliance with the BPOA. The agenda included five issue-based working sessions, plenaries, group discussions, adoption of group resolutions, and closure. Participants visited urban schools run by the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee and the Gono Shahajjo Sangstha that provided education for low income, disadvantaged children. Press conferences were held pre-post workshop. Each participant at the workshop end identified at least one issue or recommendation that they would follow-up on after the workshop. Subthemes were access to income for women (access to and control of resources, microcredit, and small enterprises); rights (land rights, inheritance of property, and legal rights); political participation (good governance, community participation); economic reforms and sustainable development (structural adjustment, liberalization, and globalization), and BPOA. Under each subtheme are lists of issues or problems and recommendations.

  2. Sex And Gender Equity in Research (SAGER): reporting guidelines as a framework of innovation for an equitable approach to gender medicine. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Paola; Heidari, Shirin; Babor, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Sex and gender are important determinants of health and influence research findings in a variety of ways, yet they are often overlooked and underreported. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice. The objective of this paper is to point out how journal editors can influence better reporting of sex and gender in research by establishing a methodological framework directly addressing authors of scientific publications, as well as referees, and indirectly affecting all the stakeholders in the research cycle, from funders to policy-makers and citizens. Such a framework is represented by the Sex And Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines, developed by the European Association of Science Editors (EASE) to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines. The paper includes the rationale and basic principles of the SAGER guidelines.

  3. Evolutionary Psychology is Compatible with Equity Feminism, but Not with Gender Feminism: A Reply to Eagly and Wood (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry X. Kuhle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I comment on Eagly and Wood's biosocial constructionist evolutionary theory (2011; DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-9949-9. Although this gender feminist theory allows for evolved physical differences between men and women and evolved psychological similarities for men and women, it fails to consider evolutionary accounts of psychological sex differences. I hypothesize that gender feminists' reluctance to acknowledge that evolution has left different fingerprints on men's and women's bodies and brains stems from two common misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology: the myth of immutability and the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude that although evolutionary psychology is eminently compatible with equity feminism, evolutionary psychology and feminist psychology will conflict as long as the latter adheres to gender feminism and its unwillingness to acknowledge the evidence for evolved psychological sex differences. Gender feminism's dualistic view of evolution hinders the search for and understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes of inequality. Feminist psychology needs to evolve by embracing equity feminism, which has no a priori stance on the origin or existence of differences between the sexes.

  4. Evolutionary psychology is compatible with equity feminism, but not with gender feminism: a reply to Eagly and Wood (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhle, Barry X

    2012-01-11

    I comment on Eagly and Wood's biosocial constructionist evolutionary theory (2011; DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-9949-9). Although this gender feminist theory allows for evolved physical differences between men and women and evolved psychological similarities for men and women, it fails to consider evolutionary accounts of psychological sex differences. I hypothesize that gender feminists' reluctance to acknowledge that evolution has left different fingerprints on men's and women's bodies and brains stems from two common misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology: the myth of immutability and the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude that although evolutionary psychology is eminently compatible with equity feminism, evolutionary psychology and feminist psychology will conflict as long as the latter adheres to gender feminism and its unwillingness to acknowledge the evidence for evolved psychological sex differences.  Gender feminism's dualistic view of evolution hinders the search for and understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes of inequality. Feminist psychology needs to evolve by embracing equity feminism, which has no a priori stance on the origin or existence of differences between the sexes.

  5. 77 FR 74520 - Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation; Order Withdrawing...

  6. 78 FR 57921 - Municipal Mortgage & Equity LLC, Prolink Holdings Corp., RPM Technologies, Inc., SARS Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Municipal Mortgage & Equity LLC, Prolink Holdings Corp., RPM Technologies, Inc., SARS Corp... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of SARS Corp. because it has not...

  7. Gender-Based Motivational Differences in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Sonja; Räikkönen, Eija; Ikonen, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    Because of a deeply gendered history of craft education in Finland, technology education has a strong gender-related dependence. In order to motivate girls into pursuing technological studies and to enable them to see their own potential in technology, gender sensitive approaches should be developed in technology education. This study explores…

  8. Towards an integrated approach for the analysis of gender equity in policies supporting paid work and care responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Saraceno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for analysing the degree to which public policies support gender equity in paid work and care. Combining the distinction between commodification and decommodification and the distinction between defamilialisation, supported familialism, and familialism by default our study identifies a number of relevant policies, ranging from services, leave entitlements, income support measures, and fiscal instruments to forms of acknowledgement of care work in pension systems. Although our main objective is conceptual, we offer a comparative overview of these policies for all of the EU countries, plus Norway. Thus, we provide a preliminary typology of policy approaches.

  9. Smart Order Routing Technology in the New European Equity Trading Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ende, Bartholomäus; Gomber, Peter; Lutat, Marco

    In Europe, fragmentation of execution venues has been triggered by increasing competition among markets and a new regulatory environment set up by MiFID. Against this background, IT-based sophisticated order routing systems (Smart Order Routing systems) promise to assure efficiency despite fragmented markets. This raises the question on the relevance and economic value of this technology in European equity trading. Based on order book data for EURO STOXX 50 securities of ten European electronic execution venues, this paper assesses the potential of Smart Order Routing technology by measuring the performance of actual executions in European order book trading relative to a Smart Order Router implementation that detects and accesses best European prices. We identify 6.71% full trade troughs and 6.45% partial trade-throughs in our dataset enabling for significant absolute and relative savings. This indicates that Smart Order Routing technology can provide business value by improving order executions in European cross-tradable equities.

  10. Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoae Lucia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender segregation of occupations, which typically assigns caring/nurturing jobs to women and technical/managerial jobs to men, has been recognized as a major source of inequality worldwide with implications for the development of robust health workforces. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequalities are particularly acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving (90% of which is provided in the home, where women and girls make up the informal (and mostly unpaid workforce. Men's and boy's entry into HIV/AIDS caregiving in greater numbers would both increase the equity and sustainability of national and community-level HIV/AIDS caregiving and mitigate health workforce shortages, but notions of gender essentialism and male primacy make this far from inevitable. In 2008 the Capacity Project partnered with the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in a study of the gender dynamics of HIV/AIDS caregiving in three districts of Lesotho to account for men's absence in HIV/AIDS caregiving and investigate ways in which they might be recruited into the community and home-based care (CHBC workforce. Methods The study used qualitative methods, including 25 key informant interviews with village chiefs, nurse clinicians, and hospital administrators and 31 focus group discussions with community health workers, community members, ex-miners, and HIV-positive men and women. Results Study participants uniformly perceived a need to increase the number of CHBC providers to deal with the heavy workload from increasing numbers of patients and insufficient new entries. HIV/AIDS caregiving is a gender-segregated job, at the core of which lie stereotypes and beliefs about the appropriate work of men and women. This results in an inequitable, unsustainable burden on women and girls. Strategies are analyzed for their potential effectiveness in increasing equity in caregiving. Conclusions HIV/AIDS and human resources stakeholders must address occupational segregation

  11. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs—the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London—through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007–2012 and 2012–2017) will be carried out. Ethics and dissemination The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas’ National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26743702

  12. Brief report: parent-adolescent child concordance in social norms related to gender equity in marriage - findings from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl's marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n = 113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n = 227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K = .25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls' right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls' right to choose when (K = .22, slight) and who (K = .20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K = .53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital technologies for population health and health equity gains: the perspective of public health associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, James; Perera, Yoshith; Clarke, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Digital technology (DT) plays an increasingly important role in the health sector. This study explores how national public health associations (PHAs) use DT to achieve their mandate. The World Federation of Public Health Associations canvassed and conducted a semi-structured interview with its national public health association members about their use of DT, the challenges they encounter in using it, and their experiences and thoughts as to how to assess its impact, both organizationally as well as on population health and health equity. The study found that digital technology plays an important role in some PHAs, principally those in higher income countries. PHAs want to broaden their use within PHAs and to assess how DT enables PHAs to achieve their organizational mandates and goals, including improved public health and health equity.

  14. Achieving Gender Equity in Science Class: Shift from Competition to Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiobu, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to verify the impact of cooperative learning as an intervention strategy towards the achievement of peace, equality and equity in the science classroom as part of the democratic process necessary for sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: The study sample comprised 56 SSS 2 students in one public…

  15. Process evaluation of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James; Hatcher, Abigail; Strange, Vicki; Phetla, Godfrey; Busza, Joanna; Kim, Julia; Watts, Charlotte; Morison, Linda; Porter, John; Pronyk, Paul; Bonell, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    The Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) combines microfinance, gender/HIV training and community mobilization (CM) in South Africa. A trial found reduced intimate partner violence among clients but less evidence for impact on sexual behaviour among clients' households or communities. This process evaluation examined how feasible IMAGE was to deliver and how accessible and acceptable it was to intended beneficiaries during a trial and subsequent scale-up. Data came from attendance registers, financial records, observations, structured questionnaires (378) and focus group discussions and interviews (128) with clients and staff. Gender/HIV training and CM were managed initially by an academic unit ('linked' model) and later by the microfinance institution (MFI) ('parallel' model). Microfinance and gender/HIV training were feasible to deliver and accessible and acceptable to most clients. Though participation in CM was high for some clients, others experienced barriers to collective action, a finding which may help explain lack of intervention effects among household/community members. Delivery was feasible in the short term but both models were considered unsustainable in the longer term. A linked model involving a MFI and a non-academic partner agency may be more sustainable and is being tried. Feasible models for delivering microfinance and health promotion require further investigation.

  16. Perceived Gender Based Stereotypes in Educational Technology Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Doris U.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers point out gender differences in the adoption and use of technology. Men tend to be the early adopters of computer technologies, whereas women are thought of as laggards. Several writings exist that identified ads in the media as gender biased. Thomas and Treiber, who examined race, gender, and status in popular magazines, indicate that…

  17. Tanzanian Couples’ Perspectives on Gender Equity, Relationship Power, and Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the RESPECT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneeta Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV is widely prevalent in Tanzania. Inequitable gender norms manifest in men’s and women’s attitudes about power and decision making in intimate relationships and are likely to play an important role in determining the prevalence of IPV. We used data from the RESPECT study, a randomized controlled trial that evaluated an intervention to prevent sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of young Tanzanian men and women, to examine the relationship between couples’ attitudes about IPV, relationship power, and sexual decision making, concordance on these issues, and women’s reports of IPV over 12 months. Women expressed less equitable attitudes than men at baseline. Over time, participants’ attitudes tended to become more equitable and women’s reports of IPV declined substantially. Multivariable logistic regression analyses suggested that inequitable attitudes and couple discordance were associated with higher risk of IPV. Our findings point to the need for a better understanding of the role that perceived or actual imbalances in relationship power have in heightening IPV risk. The decline in women’s reports of IPV and the trend towards gender-equitable attitudes indicate that concerted efforts to reduce IPV and promote gender equity have the potential to make a positive difference in the relatively short term.

  18. Whose Freedom and Equity in Public Relations? The Gender Balance Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elizabeth Lance

    Unequal treatment, unequal value and unequal power are three aspects of the gender balance argument in public relations. The few models describing how public relations is practiced do not distinguish the component parts on the basis of gender. Such models do not consider the men and women in the intra-institutional processes as processors of…

  19. Is there a gender equity for women farmers? Reflections on public policy and social CONPES 161/2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Marin Hermann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic roles ( reproductive and productive Colombian rural women are different and are marked by the dynamics of their own territories , but also developed in the areas of public and private unevenly and unfairly compared to men rural sector. Considering the above, raises feminist economics "care economy" as an effort to validate and make visible the contribution of women to the economy. But this trend can go further, can contribute to the transformation of reproductive and productive roles, encouraging participation and democracy for women. Considering this, the equitable use of the time in the private ( family enters debate. Women no longer want and seek only equality in public but do not want to share your time at home on an unequal footing . Public policies are needed to contribute to these disparities disappear. To this extent it is possible to ask yourself the current Public Policy Of Gender Equity for Women ( SOCIAL CONPES 161/2013 , can guarantee the full enjoyment of the rights of Colombian women applying the principles of equality and non-discrimination? This reflection tries to do, from a gender perspective, an analytical reading of the impact of public policy on the transformation of the reality of the Colombian rural women.

  20. Gender and Space: Analysis of Factors Conditioning Equity in the Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Paramo Bernal, Pablo; Universidad Pedagógica Nacional; Burbano Arroyo, Andrea Milena; Universidad Piloto de Colombia

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses gender research in urban public space through three different perspectives: the social representations and differentiated uses of space, the division of roles in public and private spaces, and urban planning of public space. The paper gathers and analyses some studies that complement the state of art and literature on women and space giving evidence on how women have been segregated from public space and are victim of gender inequalities. Public space does not exist abs...

  1. Towards gender equity in physics in India: Initiatives, investigations, and questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, P.; Kurup, A.; Resmi, L.; Ramaswamy, R.; Ubale, S.; Bagchi, S.; Rao, S.; Narasimhan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Initiatives towards gender parity in the sciences in India have occurred both at national, governmental levels and at local, institutional levels. A gender gap persists in physics, but data suggest that this gap is due neither to lack of interest in science nor to a lack of career goals in science among girls. We outline investigations that are important to pursue and recommendations that build on the existing science interest and the impact of initiatives so far.

  2. The influence of students' gender on equity in Peer Physical Examination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnuk, Anna K; Wearn, Andy; Rees, Charlotte E

    2016-07-19

    Peer Physical Examination (PPE) is an educational tool used globally for learning early clinical skills and anatomy. In quantitative research, there are differences in students' preferences and actual participation in PPE by gender. This novel study qualitatively explores the effect that gender has on medical students' experiences of learning physical examination through PPE. We employ an interpretative approach to uncover the PPE experiences of students from a European, graduate-entry medical school. Volunteers participated in either individual or group interviews. The data were transcribed, de-identified and analysed using thematic analysis. There was evidence of gender inequity in PPE, with students describing significant imbalances in participation. Male students adopted roles that generated significant personal discomfort and led to fewer experiences as examiners. Assumptions were made by tutors and students about gender roles: male students' ready acceptance of exposure to be examined and female students' need to be protected from particular examinations. In contrast with the first assumption, male students did feel coerced or obliged to be examined. Students described their experiences of taking action to break down the gender barrier. Importantly, students reported that tutors played a role in perpetuating inequities. These findings, whilst relating to one university, have implications for all settings where PPE is used. Educators should be vigilant about gender issues and the effect that they may have on students' participation in PPE to ensure that students are not disadvantaged in their learning.

  3. Gender and Space: Analysis of Factors Conditioning Equity in the Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Paramo Bernal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses gender research in urban public space through three different perspectives: the social representations and differentiated uses of space, the division of roles in public and private spaces, and urban planning of public space. The paper gathers and analyses some studies that complement the state of art and literature on women and space giving evidence on how women have been segregated from public space and are victim of gender inequalities. Public space does not exist absolutely nor gender; instead both are socially constructed by social order and reproduced by social practices. Finally, some suggestions for urban planning and research are given in order to respond women’s needs in public space.

  4. Girls Are Not Dodo Birds! Exploring Gender Equity Issues in the Language Arts Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett-Simpson, Mary; Masland, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Examines what children's own stories reveal about the attributes they assign to females. Discusses the different ways elementary school boys and girls orally completed an unfinished story about a girl wanting to play baseball. Proposes how teachers can help move their students toward a more gender-fair classroom environment by using instructional…

  5. Nation-Level Indicators of Gender Equity in Psychological Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2012-01-01

    Power and inequality are central concepts in feminist theory and practice. Yet, with a few notable exceptions, there is relatively little empirical research on gender and power within feminist psychology. A search of PsycINFO for articles published in "Psychology of Women Quarterly" for the years 2000-2011 yielded only 14 empirical articles with…

  6. Employment equity practices in three South African information technology organisations: A systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This research explored the systems psychodynamic behaviour manifesting in the context of employment equity practices within three South African information technology organisations. In-depth interviews with the human resources practitioners involved, elicited seven themes around fantasies of power/opportunities, splits and defences, projective identification, paranoia, idealisation/competence, envy/guilt and coping styles. It was hypothesised that the experience around employment equity in these organisations got stuck in the paranoid-schizoid position, that the system was unconsciously colluding to keep the status quo, and that idealisation was projected on the white subgroup while denigration was projected on previously disadvantages employees and candidates. Recommendations for more optimal coping with these behaviours were formulated. Opsomming Hierdie navorsing het die sistemies psigodinamiese gedrag ondersoek wat gemanifesteer het in die konteks van gelyke indiensneming in drie Suid-Afrikaanse inligtingstegnologie organisasies. Indiepte onderhoude met die betrokke menslike hulpbron praktisyns het sewe temas na vore gebring wat insluit fantasieë oor mag/geleenthede, spleet en verdedigings, projektiewe identifikasie, paranoia, idealisering/kompetensie, afguns/skuld en coping style. Die hipotese is geformuleer dat die ervaring rondom gelyke indiensneming in hierdie organisasies vasgehak het in die paranoïde-skisoïde posisie, dat die stelsel onbewustelik saamsweer om die status quo te handhaaf, en dat idealisering geprojekteer word op die wit subgroep terwyl swartsmeerdery geprojekteer word op die voorheen benadeelde werknemers en kandidate. Aanbevelings oor meer optimale coping met hierdie gedrag is geformuleer.

  7. Closing The Gender Gap Girls, Technological Fluency, And PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Diane

    2004-01-01

    Recently I read the book Ghosts in the Machine: Women?s Voices in Research with Technology, and I was drawn into thinking about the well-known gender gap in the use of technology. I hadn?t looked at gender in technology use very closely in several years because in my own research, I had observed that girls like to use the new multimedia tools just…

  8. 77 FR 71846 - In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Encore Clean...

  9. Gender by ethnic equity issues as they pertain to success in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jan David

    Science is traditionally a white-male dominated field. This trend has foundations in beliefs and practices accepted before the Enlightenment period. Sixteenth and seventeenth century writers further promoted perceptions that women lacked intellectual capacity to indulge in science. A similar viewpoint was applied to non-white ethnic groups during the 19th and 20th centuries. Questions over Eurocentric and androcentric aspects of science were first raised publicly in 1869, yet significant change in the proportions of women and minorities in science-related fields remains disproportionately low. Public awareness of this situation extends to education where students demonstrate beliefs that opportunities in science are primarily for white males. This commonly shared belief typically produces negative effects on success rates in science education for females and minorities. The purpose of this study was to determine if gender-by-ethnic factors are culturally specific. Do members of one gender/ethnic subgroup experience deterrents to success in science education not common in other ethnic groups? Contrariwise, are negative factors shared across ethnic groups? An effort is made to identify potential gender/ethnic-related barriers that serve to reduce success rates and potentially generate negative attitudes for students about science. A 74-item Likert scale was developed to reveal students' perceptions of issues relative to science education. This instrument was administered to 30 female and 30 male high school students in each of four ethnic groups (African American, Mexican American, American Indian, and Euro American) from public or tribal schools in a large southwestern (United States) urban community. Randomly selected participants from each subgroup were then interviewed to expound upon relevant issues. A reoccurring pattern of reduced interest and experiences in science activities was noted among male American Indians. These participants most often differed with

  10. Gender in health technology assessment: pilot study on agency approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, Dimitra; Zentner, Annette; Storz-Pfennig, Philipp; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-07-01

    Gender as a social construct is a recognized health determinant. Because best practice in reporting health technology assessment (HTA) clearly specifies the need to appraise a technology's social impact within the target population, the extent to which gender issues are taken into account in HTA production is of interest, not only in light of equitable practices but also for reasons of effectiveness. The aim of this study is to provide a first assessment of the degree of gender sensitivity shown by HTA agencies around the world today. The Web sites of sixty HTA agencies were analyzed. The consideration of gender aspects was specifically looked for in each agency's general mission statement, its priority setting process, and its methodological approach. Additionally, specific gender-oriented initiatives not belonging to any of the aforementioned categories were identified. Of the sixty agencies, less than half mention a commitment to addressing the social implication of health technologies. Only fifteen institutions make information on their priority setting principles available on their Web sites and gender was an issue in two of those cases. Data on methodology were obtainable online from 18 agencies, two of which mentioned gender issues explicitly. Finally, gender-oriented initiatives were identified by thirteen agencies. A gender-sensitive approach is apparently rarely adopted in current HTA production. Exceptional practices and relevant tools do exist and could serve as examples to be promoted by international collaborative networks.

  11. Taylor revisited: Gender segregation and division of labour in the ICT - sector (information and communication technology)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Else

    2001-01-01

    Information and communication technology, division of labour, gender segregation, working conditions......Information and communication technology, division of labour, gender segregation, working conditions...

  12. Gender Equity in Transplantation: A Report from the Women in Transplantation Workshop of The Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Karen M; Clark, Carolyn J; MacDonald, Kelli; Paraskeva, Miranda A; Rogers, Natasha; Ryan, Jessica; Webster, Angela C; Wong, Germaine

    2017-10-01

    The exponential growth of young talented women choosing science and medicine as their professional career over the past decade is substantial. Currently, more than half of the Australian medical doctoral graduates and early career researchers are comprised of women, but less than 20% of all academic professorial staff are women. The loss of female talent in the hierarchical ladder of Australian academia is a considerable waste of government investment, productivity, and scientific innovation. Gender disparity in the professional workforce composition is even more striking within the field of transplantation. Women are grossly underrepresented in leadership roles, with currently no female heads of unit in any of the Australian and New Zealand transplanting centers. At the same time, there is also gender segregation with a greater concentration of women in lower-status academic position compared with their male counterparts. Given the extent and magnitude of the disparity, the Women in Transplantation Committee, a subcommittee of The Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand established a workshop comprising 8 female clinicians/scientists in transplantation. The key objectives were to (i) identify potential gender equity issues within the transplantation workforce; (ii) devise and implement potential strategies and interventions to address some of these challenges at a societal level; (iii) set realistic and achievable goals to enhance and facility gender equality, equity, and diversity in transplantation.

  13. Study about the relation of gender equity and human development in northeastern Mexico, 1995- 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Zamudio Sánchez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of indexes taken from easily measurable variables, this paper takes a look at both the gains and setbacks of Mexican society in its fight for gender equality and its relation to human development. The object of this paper is to show the possible future tendencies in this context, insofar as opportunities arise for both men and women to both fully develop their capacities and to take advantage of the same within their surroundings. The case study focuses on the municipalities of the northeast region of Mexico, formed by the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. A reduction in the inequality gap in health, education and income is observed, although the condition of women is still far from being on a par with that of men, especially where resources for a dignified life are concerned. The most noticeable gap between men and women is related precisely to the limited access and control of resources that allow women to make their own decisions regarding their lives and consequently, their empowerment is marginal.

  14. Translating Latin American/US Latina frameworks and methods in gender and health equity: linking women's health education and participatory social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Ester R

    This article applies transdisciplinary approaches to critical health education for gender equity by analyzing textual and political strategies translating/culturally adapting the U.S. feminist health text, Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS), for Latin American/Caribbean and U.S. Latina women. The resulting text, Nuestros Cuerpos, Nuestras Vidas (NCNV), was revised at multiple levels to reflect different cultural\\sociopolitical assumptions connecting individual knowledge, community-based and transnational activist organizations, and strategic social change. Translation/cultural adaptation decisions were designed to ensure that gender-equitable health promotion education crossed cultural borders, conveying personal knowledge and motivating individual actions while also inspiring participation in partnerships for change. Transdisciplinary approaches integrating critical ecosystemic frameworks and participatory methods can help design health promotion education mobilizing engaged, gender-equitable health citizenship supporting both personal and societal change.

  15. Technology Acceptance among Pre-Service Teachers: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined possible gender differences in pre-service teachers' perceived acceptance of technology in their professional work under the framework of the technology acceptance model (TAM). Based on a sample of pre-service teachers, a series of progressively more stringent measurement invariance tests (configural, metric, and scalar…

  16. Gender designs IT construction and deconstruction of information society technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zorn, Isabel; Rommes, Els; Schirmer, Carola; Schelhowe, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    How can information technology (IT) paradigms and design processes be studied from a gender perspective? What does IT design look like when its construction is informed by gender research? Though gender research and computing science seem like two separate worlds, this book proves how inspirational a confrontation and combination of those worlds can be.A deconstructive analysis of advanced fields of computing shows the multiple ways in which software design is gendered and how gendering effects are produced by its use. Concepts and assumptions underlying research and development, along with design tools and IT products, teaching methods and materials are studied.The book not only offers a gender analysis of information society technologies, it also shows practical examples of how IT can be different. A gender perspective on IT design can serve as an eye-opener for what tends to be overlooked and left out. It yields innovative ideas and high quality software systems that may empower a large diversity of user...

  17. La Igualdad de Genero para Educadores, Padres, y la Comunidad (Gender Equity for Educators, Parents, and the Community). Equity in Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. WEEA Dissemination Center.

    Classification of people according to gender begins in infancy. This booklet aims to remove some old ways of thinking that limit expectations for girls and boys. It also clarifies for educators, parents, and the community specific elements of the federal legislation called Title IX. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 was the first…

  18. The Redistributive Equity of Affirmative Action: Exploring the Role of Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Gender in College Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew M.; Tannuri-Pianto, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to research on affirmative action by examining issues of equity in the context of racial quotas in Brazil. We study the experience of the University of Brasilia, which established racial quotas in 2004 reserving 20% of available admissions slots for students who self-identified as black. Based on university admissions data…

  19. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  20. Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Learning Oral Skills Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Jibrel; Abu Bakar, Nadzrah; Krish, Pramela

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a quantitative study on gender differences in attitudes when learning oral skills via technology. The study was conducted at Tafila Technical University, Jordan, with 70 female and 30 male students, to find out if female students are better and faster in learning a language than male. Specifically, it seeks to investigate…

  1. Making the continuum of care work for mothers and infants: Does gender equity matter? Findings from a quasi-experimental study in Bihar, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Lotus; Atmavilas, Yamini; Hay, Katherine; Silverman, Jay G.; Tarigopula, Usha K.; Raj, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Background Improvements in continuum of care (CoC) utilization are needed to address inadequate reductions in neonatal and infant mortality in India and elsewhere. This study examines the effect of Ananya, a health system training and community outreach intervention, on reproductive, maternal and newborn health continuum of care (RMNH CoC) utilization in Bihar, India, and explores whether that effect is moderated by gender equity factors (child marriage, restricted mobility and low decision-making control). Methods A two-armed quasi-experimental design compared districts in Bihar that did/did not implement Ananya. Cross-sections of married women aged 15–49 with a 0–5 month old child were surveyed at baseline and two year follow-up (baseline n = 7191 and follow-up n = 6143; response rates 88.9% and 90.7%, respectively). Difference-in-difference analyses assessed program impact on RMNH CoC co-coverage, defined by 9 health services/behaviors for the index pregnancy (e.g., antenatal care, skin-to-skin care). Three-way interactions assessed gender equity as a moderator of Ananya’s impact. Findings Participants reported low RMNH CoC co-coverage at baseline (on average 3.2 and 3.0 of the 9 RMNH services/behaviors for Ananya and control groups, respectively). The Ananya group showed a significantly greater increase in RMNH CoC co-coverage (.41 services) compared with the control group over time (p<0.001), with the primary drivers being increases in clean cord care, skin-to-skin care and postpartum contraceptive use. Gender equity interaction analyses revealed diminished intervention effects on antenatal care, skilled birth attendance and exclusive breastfeeding for women married as minors. Conclusion Ananya improved RMNH CoC co-coverage among these recent mothers, largely through positive health behavior changes. Child marriage attenuated Ananya’s impact on utilization of key health services and behaviors. Supporting the health system with training and community

  2. Mainstreaming Gender into Schools in the Taiwan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Gender mainstreaming and gender equity education are specific practices for creating a gender-equitable society. Gender mainstreaming tools can be used to help educational institutions engage in more thorough consideration when implementing gender equity education. This article addresses gender mainstreaming, gender equity education, and the…

  3. Mainstreaming Gender into Schools in the Taiwan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Gender mainstreaming and gender equity education are specific practices for creating a gender-equitable society. Gender mainstreaming tools can be used to help educational institutions engage in more thorough consideration when implementing gender equity education. This article addresses gender mainstreaming, gender equity education, and the…

  4. Issues of doing gender and doing technology - Music as an innovative theme for technology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, A.; Zorn, I.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the concept and results of the research project 'Engineer Your Sound!' (2008-2009). It aimed at exploring whether interdisciplinary, innovative teaching/learning settings in the fields of technology and digital media can be used to give pupils the opportunities to experiment and discover their technical potential, skills, interests and talents and if music technology could offer such an appealing context. The paper explains how technology and why gender need to be addressed when planning to raise young people's interest in technology but questions if interest in technology is mainly influenced by gender. The paper explores through ethnographic research how pupils' technological competencies and interests have developed during the course of a technology-related project. Results of the analysis explain how music technology can serve as a suitable theme with the potential to increase both males' and females' interest in technology.

  5. Gender issues in computer-supported learning: what we can learn from the gender; science and technology literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwyneth Hughes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a response to the article, 'Gender issues in computer-supported learning', in ALT-J 10 (1. I argue that the studies presented in the original paper could be enhanced by a more rigorous approach to gender that avoids universalizing identity, recognizes gender as a construction and which builds on previous research from gender, science and technology studies.

  6. Gendered Education in a Gendered World: Looking beyond Cosmetic Solutions to the Gender Gap in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education…

  7. Gender technologies, masculinities and imprisonment in criminal enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Helena Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study articulates the relations of power / knowledge in the production of crime and operationalization of the law, the subtle way in which technologies of gender naturalize actions and reactions in relationships, partnerships and daily struggles between staff and prisoners and the processes of subjectivity in contemporaneity . This study has as epistemological matrix the genealogy proposed by Michel Foucault, who has allowed diverse pathways as document reviews, semi-structured interviews, performance groups and courses. The interweaving of the forces and discourses has engendered the impact of technologies on gender, especially masculinity, in the present relations between staff and prisoners. The impact of this relationship puts on display the modulations of subjectivity in a continuum of oscillation between normalizing and singularizing modes of subjectification.

  8. Women Technology Leaders: Gender Issues in Higher Education Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Women working in higher education information technology (IT) organizations and those seeking leadership positions in these organizations face a double challenge in overcoming the traditionally male-dominated environments of higher education and IT. Three women higher education chief information officers (CIOs) provided their perspectives,…

  9. Normative changes and gender equity. From electoral quotas to parity in Latin America: the cases of Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida ARCHENTI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, aimed at analyzing the impact of institutional factors on the efficacy of gender parity policy in Latinamerica. It compares regulatory changes and electoral results in Bolivia and Ecuador, the only two countries in Latinamerica that have implemented parity on national elections. These data demonstrate the persistence of obstacles for gender political parity effectiveness derived from electoral systems and from party aligned strategies channeled by electoral rationality.

  10. Race, gender, and information technology use: the new digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A; Zhao, Yong; Kolenic, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Harold, Rena; Von Eye, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    This research examined race and gender differences in the intensity and nature of IT use and whether IT use predicted academic performance. A sample of 515 children (172 African Americans and 343 Caucasian Americans), average age 12 years old, completed surveys as part of their participation in the Children and Technology Project. Findings indicated race and gender differences in the intensity of IT use; African American males were the least intense users of computers and the Internet, and African American females were the most intense users of the Internet. Males, regardless of race, were the most intense videogame players, and females, regardless of race, were the most intense cell phone users. IT use predicted children's academic performance. Length of time using computers and the Internet was a positive predictor of academic performance, whereas amount of time spent playing videogames was a negative predictor. Implications of the findings for bringing IT to African American males and bringing African American males to IT are discussed.

  11. Increasing Elementary School Teachers' Awareness of Gender Inequity in Student Computer Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to increase gender equity awareness in elementary school teachers with respect to student computer and technology usage. Using professional development methods with a group of teachers, the writer attempted to help them become more aware of gender bias in technology instruction. An analysis of the data revealed that…

  12. Is It Really Gender? An Empirical Investigation Into Gender Effects In Technology Adoption Through The Examination Of Individual Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel I. Aguirre-Urreta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent development in the technology acceptance literature is the inclusion of gender as a moderator of the relationships between intention and its antecedents, such that some are stronger for men than women, and vice versa. While the effects have been well established, the mechanisms by which they operate, that is, which specific gender differences are in operation and how they affect intention to adopt, have not been thoroughly explored. In this research, psychological constructs with established gender differences, such as core self-evaluations, computer self-efficacy and anxiety, psychological gender-role, and risk-taking propensity, are examined. In addition, this research introduces a novel context for the study of technology adoption in that more than a single alternative is offered to participants, thus requiring a choice among technologies. Results indicate that gender effects are more complex than previously thought, with potentially multiple influences from different facets operating simultaneously.

  13. Embodied harms: gender, shame, and technology-facilitated sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  15. Building Bridges between Psychological Science and Education: Cultural Stereotypes, STEM, and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    There is a gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This presents a worldwide problem of inequity. Sociocultural stereotypes associating STEM with males act as barriers that prevent girls from developing interests in STEM. This article aims to show that we can increase equity and enhance outcomes for a…

  16. Digital Equity in Cultural Context: Exploring the Influence of Confucian Heritage Culture on Hong Kong Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Allan H.; Park, Jae Hyung; Chen, Lu; Cheng, Miaoting

    2017-01-01

    Our study examines digital equity in a cultural context. Many studies have used classic analytical variables such as socioeconomic status and gender to investigate the problem of unequal access to, and more recently differences in the use of, information and communication technology (ICT). The few studies that have explored cultural variables have…

  17. Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

    2015-08-01

    In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

  18. Bits of Homeland: Generational and Gender Transformations of Moroccan-Dutch Youth using digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, K.H.A.; Ponzanesi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Generational and gendered specificities of digital technology use within migrant families remain understudied and undertheorized (Green & Kabir, 2012). Digital technologies are used among descendants of migrants to sustain and update networks while simultaneously they allow the younger generation to

  19. Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  20. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  1. Workshop I: Gender Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  2. Population health-based approaches to utilizing digital technology: a strategy for equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth N; Ostrowski, MaryLynn; Sabina, Alyse B

    2016-11-01

    Health care disparities and high chronic disease rates burden many communities and disproportionally impact racial/ethnic populations in the United States. These disparities vary geographically, increase health care expenses, and result in shortened lifespans. Digital technologies may be one tool for addressing health disparities and improving population health by increasing individuals' access to health information-especially as most low-income U.S. residents gain access to smartphones. The Aetna Foundation partners with organizations to use digital technologies, including mobile applications, data collection, and related platforms, for learning and sharing. Projects range from the broad-childhood education, lifestyle modification, health IT training, and nutrition education, to the specific-local healthy foods, stroke rehabilitation, and collection of city-level data. We describe our approaches to grantmaking and discuss lessons learned and their implications. When combined with sound policy strategies, emerging, scalable, digital technologies will likely become powerful allies for improving health and reducing health disparities.

  3. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Married Men and Couples in Rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Raj

    Full Text Available Despite ongoing recommendations to increase male engagement and gender-equity (GE counseling in family planning (FP services, few such programs have been implemented and rigorously evaluated. This study evaluates the impact of CHARM, a three-session GE+FP counseling intervention delivered by male health care providers to married men, alone (sessions 1&2 and with their wives (session 3 in India.A two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with young married couples (N = 1081 couples recruited from 50 geographic clusters (25 clusters randomized to CHARM and a control condition, respectively in rural Maharashtra, India. Couples were surveyed on demographics, contraceptive behaviors, and intimate partner violence (IPV attitudes and behaviors at baseline and 9 &18-month follow-ups, with pregnancy testing at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Outcome effects on contraceptive use and incident pregnancy, and secondarily, on contraceptive communication and men's IPV attitudes and behaviors, were assessed using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Most men recruited from CHARM communities (91.3% received at least one CHARM intervention session; 52.5% received the couple's session with their wife. Findings document that women from the CHARM condition, relative to controls, were more likely to report contraceptive communication at 9-month follow-up (AOR = 1.77, p = 0.04 and modern contraceptive use at 9 and 18-month follow-ups (AORs = 1.57-1.58, p = 0.05, and they were less likely to report sexual IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.48, p = 0.01. Men in the CHARM condition were less likely than those in the control clusters to report attitudes accepting of sexual IPV at 9-month (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.03 and 18-month (AOR = 0.51, p = 0.004 follow-up, and attitudes accepting of physical IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.02. No significant effect on pregnancy was seen.Findings demonstrate that men can be engaged in FP programming in

  4. Impact of Gender on Patient Preferences for Technology-Based Behavioral Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Technology-based interventions offer an opportunity to address high-risk behaviors in the emergency department (ED. Prior studies suggest behavioral health strategies are more effective when gender differences are considered. However, the role of gender in ED patient preferences for technology-based interventions has not been examined. The objective was to assess whether patient preferences for technology-based interventions varies by gender. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from a systematic survey of adult (18 years of age, English-speaking patients in a large urban academic ED. Subjects were randomly selected during a purposive sample of shifts. The iPad survey included questions on access to technology, preferences for receiving health information, and demographics. We defined ‘‘technology-based’’ as web, text message, e-mail, social networking, or DVD; ‘‘non-technology-based’’ was defined as in-person, written materials, or landline. We calculated descriptive statistics and used univariate tests to compare men and women. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between other demographic factors (age, race, ethnicity, income and technology-based preferences for information on specific risky behaviors. Results: Of 417 participants, 45.1% were male. There were no significant demographic differences between men and women. Women were more likely to use computers (90.8% versus 81.9%; p¼0.03, Internet (66.8% versus 59.0%; p¼0.03, and social networks (53.3% versus 42.6%; p¼0.01. 89% of men and 90% of women preferred technology-based formats for at least type of health information; interest in technology-based for individual health topics did not vary by gender. Concern about confidentiality was the most common barrier to technology-based use for both genders. Multivariate analysis showed that for smoking, depression, drug/alcohol use, and injury

  5. Psycho-Social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnachi, N. O.; Okpube, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on the "Psycho-social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)". The females were found to be underrepresented in STEM fields. The under-representation results from gender stereotype, differences in spatial skills, hierarchical and territorial segregations and…

  6. Equity-oriented toolkit for health technology assessment and knowledge translation: application to scaling up of training and education for health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human resources for health are in crisis worldwide, especially in economically disadvantaged areas and areas with high rates of HIV/AIDS in both health workers and patients. International organizations such as the Global Health Workforce Alliance have been established to address this crisis. A technical working group within the Global Health Workforce Alliance developed recommendations for scaling up education and training of health workers. The paper will illustrate how decision-makers can use evidence and tools from an equity-oriented toolkit to scale up training and education of health workers, following five recommendations of the technical working group. The Equity-Oriented Toolkit, developed by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Knowledge Translation and Health Technology Assessment in Health Equity, has four major steps: (1 burden of illness; (2 community effectiveness; (3 economic evaluation; and (4 knowledge translation/implementation. Relevant tools from each of these steps will be matched with the appropriate recommendation from the technical working group.

  7. Development of Gender-Specific Technologies. Evidence from China, Poland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Bo; Rolfstam, Max

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the gender aspects of technology use in the innovation system. The generic question is: to what extent is it necessary to distinguish between women and men in the use of technology? A second question is: if gender-specific differences do exist, to what extent is the inno......This article investigates the gender aspects of technology use in the innovation system. The generic question is: to what extent is it necessary to distinguish between women and men in the use of technology? A second question is: if gender-specific differences do exist, to what extent...... is the innovation system capable of utilizing experiences from women as well? The article examines two sets of technologies—agricultural equipment for rural application and teleservices—in two transition economies, Poland and China, with Sweden as a point of reference. The empirical data presented here on women...

  8. Gender Equity: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Caryn McTighe

    2013-01-01

    After forty-one years in print, "On Campus with Women," the periodical publication of the Association of American Colleges and Universities' Program on the Status and Education of Women (PSEW), has come to the end of its run. Caryn Musil writes that over the summer she has been preparing copies of all the issues published during her…

  9. The CFE v. MHSAA Decision: A Case Study of Gender Equity in High School Athletic Scheduling and Policy Ramifications for the WIAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardo, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The Communities For Equity was a group of Michigan mothers who filed a Title IX discrimination suit against the Michigan High School Athletic Association due to its athletic scheduling practices. The 10-year court battle went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. This case study reviewed the policy decisions of the Wisconsin Interscholastic…

  10. Information technology and gender equality: a contradiction in terminis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Reinen, Ingeborg; Plomp, Tjeerd

    1997-01-01

    Using the data source of the Computers in Education (Comped) study, carried out under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), the status of gender and computer use in education in a number of countries has been investigated. The findings in

  11. assessment of post-harvest technologies and gender relations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    gendered maize post–harvest management in order to revitalize the agricultural sector. ... important factor for increased production ... The construction materials ... Responses of stakeholders on the ..... development activities is a key to successful ... farmer/practitioner as a coordinator hinder ... An international perspective.

  12. Information technology and gender equality: A contradiction in terminis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Reinen, I.A.M.; Plomp, T.

    1997-01-01

    Using the data source of the Computers in Education (Comped) study, carried out under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), the status of gender and computer use in education in a number of countries has been investigated. The findings in

  13. Gender-Based Preferences toward Technology Education Content, Activities, and Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Katherine; Custer, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    Prominent U.S. economists and educational leaders have argued that citizens must become technologically literate to maintain economic growth (Bybee, 2003; Colaianne, 2000; Greenspan, 1997). All students of both genders need to acquire the skills necessary to become consumers capable of critically assessing the technologies they use, resulting in…

  14. Calibrating a Measure of Gender Differences in Motivation for Learning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Young Suk; Fisher, William; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the theory, design, and calibration of an instrument for measuring gender difference in motivation for learning technology. The content of the instrument was developed based upon the motivational theories of Eccles and others. More specifically, the learners' self-concept of ability, perception of technology, perception of…

  15. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  16. Perceived Playfulness, Gender Differences and Technology Acceptance Model in a Blended Learning Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Melendez, Antonio; del Aguila-Obra, Ana Rosa; Garrido-Moreno, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    The importance of technology for education is increasing year-by-year at all educational levels and particularly for Universities. This paper reexamines one important determinant of technology acceptance and use, such as perceived playfulness in the context of a blended learning setting and reveals existing gender differences. After a literature…

  17. Information and Communication Technology: Gender Issues in Developing Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Betz Leahy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As Developing Nations seek to leverage scarce resources toward the goal of achieving a developed status they must reevaluate past practices and explore available and affordable technologies. Where in-formation and communication infrastructures are weak, use of low-cost, easily distributed technologies have proven effective. Still, many developing nations have failed to incorporate a resource in great abundance, their women, to use these new technologies to greatest advantage. This paper will address the implications of women's lack of economic and educational parity, and offer examples of how the education of women through the use of information and communication technology can enhance a nation's gross domestic product (GDP.

  18. The Role of Information Systems and Technology Competencies for Accounting Education from the Gender Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Liege Moraes do Carmo; Monica Zaidan Gomes; Marcelo Alvaro da Silva Macedo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the importance of obtaining skills in Information Systems (IS) and Information Technology (IT) for undergraduate students in Accounting from the gender perspective. The sample consisted of undergraduate students in Accounting of six Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, divided by gender (male and female). The data collection instrument chosen was the questionnaire, which was distributed between November and December 2014...

  19. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    -coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  20. TECHNOLOGY USAGE AMONG CONSTRUCTION STUDENTS THE MODERATING ROLE OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramayah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on the extent of personal computer (PC usage among a group of undergraduates at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It also looks at the moderating role of gender in the above said relationship. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 244 students responded to the survey. Results showed that perceived ease of use (β = 0.309, p < 0.01 was positively related to PC usage. A surprising finding of this study was that perceived usefulness was not a significant predictor of PC usage whereas perceived ease of use was. This can be explained in the context of mandated use where the usefulness is no longer an issue and ease of use becomes the primary concern. Gender was not a moderator in the above said relationship but was a significant independent predictor of usage. Males exhibited higher usage of the PC compared to the female students.

  1. Gender, technology change and globalization: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Zhao, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of women workers in China while the country's economy is changing into a globalized, technologically advanced one. New computer-based technology is increasingly acknowledged as a powerful and pervasive force that can shape or, at least in many ways, affect employment. It is hailed for opening up fresh employment opportunities and reducing the physical stress involved in work. However, the possibilities of redundancies or intensification of workload also exist. By focusing on changes in women's work, the article reveals the contradictions inherent in following a development path based on ever-higher levels of technology in the context of an intensive mode of production, to which productivity is the core value. The economy is bolstered and some workers gain employment in expanding industries. However, workers, who lack access to training and who are reliant on the dwindling state support for their reproductive responsibilities, are marginalized and seek employment in the growing informal economy.

  2. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Science and Technology among Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the…

  3. Gender issues in US science and technology policy: equality of what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzens, Susan E

    2008-09-01

    Fairness in evaluation processes for women in science and engineering is only one of a set of issues that need to be addressed to reach gender equality. This article uses concepts from Amartya Sen's work on inequality to frame gender issues in science and technology policy. Programs that focus on increasing the number of women in science and engineering careers have not generally addressed a broader set of circumstances that intersect with gender at various economic levels and stages of life. The agendas in research and innovation policies also need to reflect these issues, and fair allocation of resources within both science and technology needs to be on the agenda. Getting women into high-level positions is not enough. Articulating the full research and innovation agendas for women will require broader participatory processes.

  4. Gendered Perceptions of Cultural and Skill Alignment in Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison T. Wynn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research documents how stereotypes discourage young women from choosing and attaining technology jobs. We build off this research and ask whether (and how stereotypes continue to affect men and women once they enter the technology workforce. Using a novel survey of technical employees from seven Silicon Valley firms and new measures of what we call “cultural” and “skill” alignment, we show that men are more likely than women to believe they possess the stereotypical traits and skills of a successful tech employee. We find that cultural alignment is especially important: because women are less likely than men to believe they match the cultural image of successful tech workers, they are less likely to identify with the tech profession, less likely to report positive supervisor treatment, and more likely to consider switching career fields. This paper is the first to use unique and independent measures of cultural and skill alignment comparing employees’ perceptions of themselves to their perceptions of an ideal successful worker. By allowing cultural and skill alignment to operate separately, we are able to determine which work outcomes are most strongly related to each form of alignment. Our results imply that if we can broaden the cultural image of a successful tech worker, women may be more likely to feel like they belong in technology environments, ultimately increasing their retention in tech jobs.

  5. Rhetoric and the Death of a Top Gun: Technology, Gender, and the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Tori

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the author's ongoing research analyzing several sites of discourse related to a military training accident that resulted in the death of the first female military pilot assigned to a combat position. Contributes to scholarship discussing interactions of technology, gender, and military culture. Explores how language influences…

  6. Gender Differences in the Field of Information Security Technology Management: A Qualitative, Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of…

  7. Science, Mathematics and Technology Teachers' Perception of School Environment: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odogwu, Helen; Adeyemo, S. A.; Jimoh, J. A.; Yewonde, R. O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to examine gender differences amongst science, mathematics and technology (SMT) teachers with regards to nine school environment variables as well as the association of these variables with teachers' professional background and school characteristics. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was used to collect data…

  8. Gender Differences in the Field of Information Security Technology Management: A Qualitative, Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of…

  9. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Haes, J.C.J.M. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was ‘gender blind’ by not

  10. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Verdonk; Y.W.M. Benschop; H.C.J.M. de Haes; T.L.M. Lagro-Janssen

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not

  11. Digital equity in education: A Multilevel examination of differences in and relationships between computer access, computer use and state-level technology policies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Becker

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP state assessment and a survey of state-level technology policies, this study examined digital equity in education as a multilevel organizational phenomenon with data from 70,382 students in 3,479 schools and 40 states. Students in rural schools or schools with higher percentages of African American students were likely to have less access to computers. With respect to computer use, girls and students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch were more likely to use computers more frequently when computers are available in the classroom. With respect to relationships between computer access and computer use, having computers available in a lab increases the likelihood of higher levels of computer use. The results suggested that no more than 5% of the variance in computer access can be attributed to state factors, and less than 1% of the variance in computer use was between states. The findings suggested that where student technology standards are integrated into subject-area standards, computer use was likely lower than in other states. In states where pre-service teachers must meet technology-related requirements to receive their teaching credential and states where funds earmarked for technology are distributed as competitive grants, computer use was likely to be higher.

  12. Gender difference in work-family conflict among Japanese information technology engineers with preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watai, Izumi; Nishikido, Noriko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2008-01-01

    Since the Family Policy Act, which requires companies to develop action plans to support their employees who have children in an attempt to reverse the declining birthrate in Japan, was enacted in 2003, many Japanese organizations and occupational health staff have become interested in work-family conflict (WFC), especially WFC in employees with young children. A cross-sectional survey of regularly employed information technology (IT) engineers with preschool children in Japan was conducted to examine the gender difference in WFC, relationship of WFC with outcomes, and predictors of WFC by gender. Data from 78 male and 102 female respondents were analyzed. There was no significant gender difference in total level of WFC. However, the level of work interference with family (WIF) was significantly higher in males than in females and the level of family interference with work (FIW) was significantly higher in females. Regarding outcomes, WIF was significantly related to depression and fatigue in both genders. Moreover, different predictors were related to WIF and FIW by gender. A family-friendly culture in the company was related to WIF only in males. To prevent depression and cumulative fatigue in employees with young children, occupational practitioners have to pay attention to not only employees' work stress but also their family stress or amount of family role in both genders.

  13. Self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race, and information technology use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A; Zhao, Yong; Witt, Edward A; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; von Eye, Alexander; Harold, Rena

    2009-08-01

    This research addressed two fundamental questions regarding self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race, and information technology use. First, is technology use related to dimensions of self-concept and/or to self-esteem? Second, are there gender and/or race differences in self-concept, self-esteem, and technology use? Five hundred youth, average age 12 years old, one third African American and two thirds Caucasian American, completed multidimensional measures of self-concept, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and measures of frequency of Internet use, Internet use for communication (e-mail and instant messaging), video game playing, and cell phone use. Findings indicated that technology use predicted dimensions of self-concept and self-esteem, with video game playing having a negative influence and Internet use having a positive influence on self-concept dimensions. Gender differences were observed on several self-concept dimensions, but contrary to expectations, girls did not score higher than boys in social self-concept. Only one race difference was observed: African Americans had lower behavioral self-concept than did Caucasian Americans. Implications of the benefits and liabilities of youth's current and projected technology use are discussed.

  14. How diversity gets lost: Age and gender in design practices of information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways.

  15. Exploring gender differences in perceptions of 3D telepresence collaboration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurin, Hanna; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Cairns, Bruce;

    2006-01-01

    technology now when only a proof-of-concept demonstration of the technology exists. We conducted a controlled lab study using a post-test design in which male and female paramedics diagnosed and treated a trauma victim (a computerized mannequin) in collaboration with a physician via 2D video or a 3D proxy....... The results show several gender differences that imply male paramedics may inherently receive more benefits from use of the 3D telepresence technology than female paramedics. Copyright 2006 ACM....

  16. EBRD equity investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The EBRD is the largest investor in private equity funds, mainly focusing on growth and expansion in countries of operation. The significant support to its private equity fund managers accelerates the development and institutionalisation of the private equity industry in the region. For EBRD, equity investments are made indirectly through regional and sector funds. These funds are created by groups of investors, mostly private, to which the EBRD participates with capital.

  17. Moving Away from "Failing Boys" and "Passive Girls": Gender Meta-Narratives in Gender Equity Policies for Australian Schools and Why Micro-Narratives Provide a Better Policy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Denis

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the move towards devolved modes of educational governance provides significant opportunities for feminist and pro-feminist constructionist research to impact on the types of "gender work" used by schools. Research-based understandings of gender in schools have been on the defensive in Australia and elsewhere for a…

  18. Gender analysis of technology utilisation among small scale oil palm fruits processors in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koledoye Gbenga F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the types of improved technologies utilised, tracked gender involvement at the various stages of oil palm fruits processing activities with a view to highlighting differences in the utilisation of these technologies among male and female processors. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 240 (120 males and 120 females oil palm fruits processors using structured interview schedule. Focus Group Discussion (FGD and Gender Mapping (GM were used to elicit qualitative data. Data collected were summarised with the aid of descriptive statistics while t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Results showed that sterilizer, digester and hydraulic hand press were utilised by both male and female processors. Results of t-test revealed that at P ≤ 0.01, significant differences were found between male and female processors level of utilisation of oil palm processing technologies with male having a higher mean score than the female. The study concluded that gender differences exited in the level of utilisation of oil palm processing technologies among male and female processors in Ondo State, Nigeria.

  19. Information and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievrouw, Leah A.; Farb, Sharon E.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent studies from various disciplines on information and social equity and on the digital divide in order to outline a basic conceptual framework for considering information equity. Highlights include equity versus equality; vertical and horizontal perspectives; social capital and public goods; and intellectual property.…

  20. Blog and social networks: an analysis from the governmentality technologies and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Remondino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the explosion of personal blogs, social networking and other devices and software show how certain practices that were considered exclusives of intimate and private spheres, are now enrolled in the public space of the screen. Based on this scene, in this article we consider that these technologies work as technologies of the self and as control technologies, in the sense proposed by Foucault (1990. They mediate forms of self government in their public presentation modes, while play as control technologies of the others. Technological conditions also are imposed on the possible interactions and contribute to different modes of governance of feelings and specific forms of gender performativización. In this paper we analyze these categories and share some reflections from a case of study with young women consumers of blogs and social networks in the city of Córdoba.

  1. Gender compatibility, math-gender stereotypes, and self-concepts in math and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.

  2. Pay Equity Act, 17 May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1988 Pay Equity Act of Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Nova Scotia enacted similar legislation in 1988.) This act defines "female-dominated class" or "male-dominated class" as a class with 60% or more female or male incumbents, respectively. The objective of this act is to achieve pay equity among public sector employers and employees by identifying systemic gender discrimination through a comparison of the relative wages and value of the work performed by female- and male-dominated classes. The value of work is to be determined by considering the skill, effort, and responsibility required by the work as well as the conditions under which it is performed. A difference in wages between a female- and male-dominated class performing work of equal or comparable value can be justified by a formal performance appraisal system or formal seniority system that does not discriminate on the basis of gender or by a skills shortage which requires a temporary inflation in wages to attract workers for a certain position. No wages shall be reduced to implement pay equity. Implementation of pay equity will include the work of bargaining agents to achieve agreement on salient points. Pay equity may be implemented in four stages over a period of 24 months.

  3. Differences in socioeconomic and gender inequalities in tobacco smoking in Denmark and Sweden; a cross sectional comparison of the equity effect of different public health policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eek, Frida; Ôstergren, Per-Olof; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Denmark and Sweden are considered to be countries of rather similar socio-political type, but public health policies and smoking habits differ considerably between the two neighbours. A study comparing mechanisms behind socioeconomic inequalities in tobacco smoking, could yield...... information regarding the impact of health policy and -promotion in the two countries. Methods Cross-sectional comparisons of socioeconomic and gender differences in smoking behaviour among 6 995 Danish and 13 604 Swedish persons aged 18-80 years. Results The prevalence of smoking was higher in Denmark......, these differences were modified by gender and age. As a general pattern, socioeconomic differences in Sweden tended to contribute more to the total burden of this habit among women, especially in the younger age groups. In men, the patterns were much more similar between the two countries. Regarding continued...

  4. Equity Prices, Productivity Growth, and the 'New Economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Davis, E. Philip

    The sharp increase in equity prices over the 1990s was widely attributed to permanently higher productivity growth derived from the New Economy. This paper establishes a rational expectations model of technology innovations and equity prices, which shows that under plausible assumptions, producti......The sharp increase in equity prices over the 1990s was widely attributed to permanently higher productivity growth derived from the New Economy. This paper establishes a rational expectations model of technology innovations and equity prices, which shows that under plausible assumptions...

  5. Her Own Boss: Gender and the Pursuit of Incompetent Play

    OpenAIRE

    Jenson, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines gender and computer game playing, in particular questions of identity, access and playful engagement with these technologies. Because computer-based media are not only central tools for learning and work, and because games are increasingly being recruited as educational and instructional genres, it is likewise exceedingly important, from an educational equity standpoint to examine the ways in which rapidly evolving computer game-based learning initiatives threaten to compo...

  6. Editorial: Boxed In or Coming Out? On the Treatment of Science, Technology, and Gender in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Flis; Miller, Katrina

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue examines the treatment of science, technology, and gender in educational research, presenting perspectives from mainland Europe, the United States, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Articles focus on mainstreaming gender equality in science, interrogating the masculinist and heteronormative nature of elementary school science,…

  7. Gender Equality in Public Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egne, Robsan Margo

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring gender equality in higher education system is high on the agenda worldwide particularly in science disciplines. This study explores the problems and prospects of gender equality in public higher education institutions of Ethiopia, especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Descriptive survey and analytical research…

  8. Gender Equality in Public Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egne, Robsan Margo

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring gender equality in higher education system is high on the agenda worldwide particularly in science disciplines. This study explores the problems and prospects of gender equality in public higher education institutions of Ethiopia, especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Descriptive survey and analytical research…

  9. Cross-national patterns of gender differences in mathematics: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Linn, Marcia C

    2010-01-01

    A gender gap in mathematics achievement persists in some nations but not in others. In light of the underrepresentation of women in careers in science, technology, mathematics, and engineering, increasing research attention is being devoted to understanding gender differences in mathematics achievement, attitudes, and affect. The gender stratification hypothesis maintains that such gender differences are closely related to cultural variations in opportunity structures for girls and women. We meta-analyzed 2 major international data sets, the 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study and the Programme for International Student Assessment, representing 493,495 students 14-16 years of age, to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in mathematics achievement, attitudes, and affect across 69 nations throughout the world. Consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis, all of the mean effect sizes in mathematics achievement were very small (d < 0.15); however, national effect sizes showed considerable variability (ds = -0.42 to 0.40). Despite gender similarities in achievement, boys reported more positive math attitudes and affect (ds = 0.10 to 0.33); national effect sizes ranged from d = -0.61 to 0.89. In contrast to those of previous tests of the gender stratification hypothesis, our results point to specific domains of gender equity responsible for gender gaps in math. Gender equity in school enrollment, women's share of research jobs, and women's parliamentary representation were the most powerful predictors of cross-national variability in gender gaps in math. Results are situated within the context of existing research demonstrating apparently paradoxical effects of societal gender equity and highlight the significance of increasing girls' and women's agency cross-nationally.

  10. What drives the gender gap in STEM? The SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL) as a new approach to linking indicators to STI policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Schaaper, M.; Bello, A.

    2016-07-01

    There is a large imbalance in the participation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields across all of Latin American countries despite the fact that the region has one of the highest proportions of female researchers worldwide (44% according to UIS statistics). Female researchers face persisting institutional and cultural barriers, which limit the development of their careers and constrains their access to decision-making positions. In this framework, UNESCO has launched the STEM and Gender Advancement (SAGA) project, which has for objective to address the gender gap in STEM fields in all countries at all levels of education and research as well as to promote women’s participation in science. SAGA is a global UNESCO project with the support of the Swedish Government through the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). One of the outcomes of this project is the SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL), which is an innovative tool that aids in the identification of gaps in the policy mix. Additionally, the STI GOL configures the conceptual backbone of the SAGA project, by linking gender equality STI policy instruments with indicators. By using the STI GOL, and identifying the gender gaps, policy-makers will be able to implement evidence-based policies in STEM fields. The SAGA STI GOL is a new and innovative way of contributing to the development of effective gender sensitive policies in STI fields, both in education and in the workplace. Likewise, it enables the categorization of STI policies and instruments, with the objective of identifying gaps in the policy mix and aid in the creation and design of evidence-based public policies to promote gender equality. (Author)

  11. Gender differences in information technology usage: a U.S.-Japan comparison

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether there are differences in men’s and women’s use of computers and the Internet in the United States and Japan and how any such gender gaps have changed over time. The authors focus on these two countries because information technology is widely used in both, but there are substantial differences in institutions and social organizations. They use microdata from several surveys during the 1997–2001 period to examine differences and trends in computer and Internet usage...

  12. Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Address Health Equity Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard; Mirelman, Andrew J; Griffin, Susan; Asaria, Miqdad; Dawkins, Bryony; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Verguet, Stéphane; J Culyer, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    This articles serves as a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to address health equity concerns. We first introduce the "equity impact plane," a tool for considering trade-offs between improving total health-the objective underpinning conventional CEA-and equity objectives, such as reducing social inequality in health or prioritizing the severely ill. Improving total health may clash with reducing social inequality in health, for example, when effective delivery of services to disadvantaged communities requires additional costs. Who gains and who loses from a cost-increasing health program depends on differences among people in terms of health risks, uptake, quality, adherence, capacity to benefit, and-crucially-who bears the opportunity costs of diverting scarce resources from other uses. We describe two main ways of using CEA to address health equity concerns: 1) equity impact analysis, which quantifies the distribution of costs and effects by equity-relevant variables, such as socioeconomic status, location, ethnicity, sex, and severity of illness; and 2) equity trade-off analysis, which quantifies trade-offs between improving total health and other equity objectives. One way to analyze equity trade-offs is to count the cost of fairer but less cost-effective options in terms of health forgone. Another method is to explore how much concern for equity is required to choose fairer but less cost-effective options using equity weights or parameters. We hope this article will help the health technology assessment community navigate the practical options now available for conducting equity-informative CEA that gives policymakers a better understanding of equity impacts and trade-offs.

  13. The Role of Information Systems and Technology Competencies for Accounting Education from the Gender Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liege Moraes do Carmo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the importance of obtaining skills in Information Systems (IS and Information Technology (IT for undergraduate students in Accounting from the gender perspective. The sample consisted of undergraduate students in Accounting of six Higher Education Institutions (HEIs located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, divided by gender (male and female. The data collection instrument chosen was the questionnaire, which was distributed between November and December 2014 and was based on the Model Accounting Curriculum Revised (MACR proposed for accountants UN / UNCTAD / ISAR. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney test. It has been found that the students from the HEIs surveyed realize the high importance that the possession of skills related to SI and IT has to his academic training regardless of gender issues. In contrast, it appears that female respondents attributed higher levels of importance to obtain knowledge about communications softwares and about softwares that are for generally use while the males turn to more specific softwares applied to business solutions.

  14. Public Value Mapping of Equity in Emerging Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Catherine P.

    2011-01-01

    Public values failure occurs when the market and the public sector fail to provide goods and services required to achieve the core values of society such as equity (Bozeman 2007). That public policy for emerging health technologies should address intrinsic societal values such as equity is not a novel concept. However, the ways that the public…

  15. Equity prices, productivity growth and 'The New Economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Davis, E. Philip

    2006-01-01

    The sharp increase in equity prices over the 1990s was widely attributed to permanently higher productivity growth derived from the New Economy. This article establishes a rational expectations model of technology innovations and equity prices, which shows that under plausible assumptions...

  16. Equity Prices, Productivity Growth, and the 'New Economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Davis, E. Philip

    The sharp increase in equity prices over the 1990s was widely attributed to permanently higher productivity growth derived from the New Economy. This paper establishes a rational expectations model of technology innovations and equity prices, which shows that under plausible assumptions...

  17. Issues of Doing Gender and Doing Technology--Music as an Innovative Theme for Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, A.; Zorn, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and results of the research project "Engineer Your Sound!" (2008-2009). It aimed at exploring whether interdisciplinary, innovative teaching/learning settings in the fields of technology and digital media can be used to give pupils the opportunities to experiment and discover their technical potential, skills,…

  18. Breaking the gender digital divide. Involved factors in the choice of a technological career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Sánchez Vadillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, only 17% of computer science students are women, a dramatically low tax, yet similar to the ones in the other western countries. This research analyses how some girls manage to overcome the gender digital divide, participating actively in a strongly masculinized world. To understand this process three young computer students girls technological life stories are analyzed. This research method allowed identifying the social practices surrounding the exceptional technological trajectories of these women. The results indicate that these girls have a high sense of technological competence; use self-learning strategies, scorning ICT formal education; and, have a developed taste for mathematics and logical processes. These factors may come from: a a favorable family environment, in which the absence of brothers which could compete for computers and consoles use appears as a one striking factor; and, b a fondness for videogames, that are, as literature signals, an important gateway to new technologies, which increase educational and professional opportunities. Finally, the research puts in evidence that, if a family environment favorable to technology exists, formal education processes can generate counteractive effects when comparing to fostering vocations capacity of informal learning.

  19. Gender differences in technology acceptance in selected South African companies: Implications for electronic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie T. Chinyamurindi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Technology enhanced training is becoming popular as a means for the training of soft skills, especially in work-related environments. Men and women who use this type of training encounter some challenges with regard to their usage.Research: The objective of this study was to investigate trainees’ acceptance of electronic coursework as an instruction and learning technique in various industries in the South African context.Motivation for the study: A persistent gender imbalance in the South African work-place has been noted to exist chiefly in the Science, Engineering and Technology (SET sectors, areas that have an important bearing on South Africa’s global competitiveness. This study explores how gender imbalance manifests in terms of trainee acceptance of electronic coursework.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. A survey was conducted amongst 191 employees in the SET sector. The measuring instrument used was the Technology Acceptance Instrument (TAI and included measures of Computer Self-Efficacy (CSE, Perceived Ease of Use (PEU, Perceived Usefulness (PU and Behavioural Intention to Use (BI.Main findings: Women ratings of the TAI to use the electronic coursework were slightly higher than men’s ratings. Multiple regression analyses were also carried out to measure the variation in the level of influence with gender as a predictor variable. The results showed that compared to women, men had a lower salient effect of elements of the TAI, notably, CSE–PU; PU–BI and BI–PEU. However, compared to men, women had a higher salient effect in terms of the relationship between CSE–PU and PU–PEU.Practical implications: The implication of the results is that interventions that focus on the human resources development of employees using electronic coursework (namely, CSE, PEU, PU and BI are worth considering as they influence the acceptance of the interventions.Contribution/value-add: The

  20. THE COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AND WOMEN: CAN THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES DISRUPT THE GENDER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly P. Stromquist

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ICT has become a referent that has changed the World in which we areliving. Globalization, the big flow of people, from South to North, the flexibility providedby the technologies, which allows a quick and fast communication, all of them areelements that characterizes our World. In this article we present some thoughts aboutthe role played by ICTs in the social change during the last decades. We analyze severalsocial movements and their impact on the democratic participation. We also explore thenew possibilities open to women in this new context, and we present some options ofdevelopment that could help them to overcome exclusion.

  1. Young, southern women's perceptions of STEM careers: Examining science, technology, engineering & mathematics as a gendered construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth

    Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in

  2. Unstable identity compatibility: how gender rejection sensitivity undermines the success of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist, Sheana; London, Bonita; Rosenthal, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Although the perceived compatibility between one's gender and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) identities (gender-STEM compatibility) has been linked to women's success in STEM fields, no work to date has examined how the stability of identity over time contributes to subjective and objective STEM success. In the present study, 146 undergraduate female STEM majors rated their gender-STEM compatibility weekly during their freshman spring semester. STEM women higher in gender rejection sensitivity, or gender RS, a social-cognitive measure assessing the tendency to perceive social-identity threat, experienced larger fluctuations in gender-STEM compatibility across their second semester of college. Fluctuations in compatibility predicted impaired outcomes the following school year, including lower STEM engagement and lower academic performance in STEM (but not non-STEM) classes, and significantly mediated the relationship between gender RS and STEM engagement and achievement in the 2nd year of college. The week-to-week changes in gender-STEM compatibility occurred in response to negative academic (but not social) experiences.

  3. Equidad de género en la adherencia al tratamiento de adicciones: Representaciones y prácticas de profesionales y pacientes en un servicio de internación de un hospital público Gender equity within adherence to treatment of addictions: Social representations and practices of professionals and patients in an inpatient service of a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Jeifetz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo central de este proyecto1 es explorar la equidad de género relativa a la adherencia al tratamiento en un servicio de internación de un hospital público, que atiende pacientes adictos/as a las drogas, así como identificar los modos en los cuales las diferencias entre los géneros se transforman en inequidad en salud. El propósito del proyecto es contribuir en el avance de la equidad de género en el tratamiento de las adicciones a las drogas, visibilizando las inequidades que se presenten, asi como las necesidades en la atención y los modos de enfermar de cada género. Del mismo modo, promoviendo la inclusión de la perspectiva de género en las prácticas de los profesionales, en aras de mejorar los modelos de atención. Se trata de una investigación de carácter exploratorio-descriptivo, en la que se utiliza metodología cualitativa para la recolección y el análisis de la información.The central objective of this project is to explore gender equity in adherence to treatment of an inpatient service of a public hospital, which serves patients addicted to drugs and to identify ways in which gender differences are transformed into health inequities. The project aim's is to contribute to gender equity in the treatment of addictions to drugs, make visible inequities that arise, promote the inclusion of gender in the practices of professionals and manifest the needs and modes of each gender in pursuit of improved models of care. It is an exploratory and descriptive research, which used qualitative methodology to collect and analyze information.

  4. Gender difference towards information and communication technology awareness in Indian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Chaman; Dahiya, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, information and communication technology is major backbone of Indian education system. To support E-learning in Universities, information and communication technology (ICT) plays a momentous job. Several experts discussed about ICT awareness among students, teachers, and research scholars to take it into their learning and teaching methodology. Many of Universities either government or private are supporting the utilization of various ICT tools in teaching and learning practice. There is wide need to determine educator's behaviour towards ICT adoption to promote and enhance their learning skills. Students and faculty must confess that ICT awareness is key rod to access the technological services. This paper focuses on ICT awareness among students and faculty residing in Indian Universities. The concerned paper is describing the attitude of students and faculty towards ICT awareness in relation to their gender using statistical tools. More than nine hundred samples have been gathered from six Indian universities. The findings of this paper will help to Indian Universities administration to get aware about current scenario of ICT involvement in education system therein.

  5. Energy and equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illich, I.

    1974-01-01

    Discussions of a seminar on traffic, which met at the Center for Intercultural Documentation in Cuernavaca, Mexico, are summarized in this book. Future social relationships of society will depend on the energy policies now being selected. In facing the reality of finite energy, it is important to cut through the language of crisis in order to understand that social relations as well as the physical environment are destroyed by high consumption of energy. In addition to the government policy options of tight controls or thermodynamic efficiency, there is the option of setting a ceiling on energy use. A slower speed of development and a low energy technology can be the choice. Traffic (the movement of people) illustrates the nature of energy equity--on foot people are nearly equal, but as speed and complexity increases, social relationships become less equal, with the individual becoming dependent on the transportation system to dictate his social space. Inequities in speed of motors allows the rich and powerful to exploit the poor. The bicycle illustrates the balance of production and equipment needed for an effective post-industrial society. (102 references) (DCK)

  6. Gender-Specific Election Violence: The Role of Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Bardall

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising influence of new information and communication technologies (ICTs has paralleled the rapid development of women’s political participation worldwide. For women entering political life or holding public positions, new ICTs are frequently used as tools of gender-specific electoral and political violence. There is evidence of ICTs being used to perpetrate a broad range of violent acts against women during elections, especially acts inflicting fear and psychological harm. Specific characteristics of ICTs are particularly adapted to misuse in this manner. Despite these significant challenges, ICTs also offer groundbreaking solutions for preventing and mitigating violence against women in elections (VAWE. Notably, ICTs combat VAWE through monitoring and documenting violence, via education and awareness-raising platforms and through empowerment and advocacy initiatives.

  7. The Informatics of the Equity Markets - A Collaborative Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claudiu, VINTE

    2009-01-01

    .... It is meant to offer a succinct introduction to the various technologies tailored to tackle the data transfer between the participants on an equity market, the architectural approaches regarding...

  8. Women's Participation and Gender Issues in Local Governance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    gender policy, planning and budgeting did not target gender equity goals and women's .... design of a biological sex, determined by the conception of tasks, functions and roles .... ensure participatory development that is inclusive of women.

  9. PRINSIP KESETARAAN GENDER DALAM ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermagusti Ermagusti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Islam has given a clear and a distinct concept about the principles of gender equity. Islam does not distinguish a person of gender and social roles both at home or in society. Different roles does not mean that subordinated women over men, but complementary in order to create good cooperation within families and communities.Keywords : Equity, Gender and IslamCopyright © 2011 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v1i2.78

  10. Equity, Technology, and Educational Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Marguerite Ross

    1984-01-01

    Argues that three key themes seem to define the Reagan administration's educational policy: (1) contraction of the public sphere and of the definition of what constitutes the legitimate public interest; (2) social triage; and (3) individualism and privatization of public life. (CMG)

  11. Gender Equity in Education: A Data Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This data snapshot highlights several differences in educational opportunities between males and females from prekindergarten through higher education. The information herein, gathered from a variety of education data sources, shows that--despite the enormous progress made in ensuring equal educational opportunities since the passage of Title IX…

  12. Self-Concept, Computer Anxiety, Gender and Attitude towards Interactive Computer Technologies: A Predictive Study among Nigerian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2010-01-01

    Interactive Computer Technologies (ICTs) have crept into education industry, thus dramatically causing transformation in instructional process. This study examined the relative and combined contributions of computer anxiety, self-concept and gender to teachers' attitude towards the use of ICT(s). 454 Nigerian teachers constituted the sample. Three…

  13. Gene Technology: Also a Gender Issue. Views of Dutch Informed Women on Genetic Screening and Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkel, Dymphie; Klinge, Ineke

    1997-01-01

    The views of Dutch women on the implications of the analysis of the human genome were studied by questionnaire and interview. Although a serious lack of knowledge about the topic was found, interviews produced a broad range of problematic issues. Attention to gender implications of gene technology is needed. (Author/EMK)

  14. The Impact of Teachers' Age, Gender and Experience on the Use of Information and Communication Technology in EFL Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Hassan Saleh; Al-Dera, Abdullah Sa'ad

    2013-01-01

    The integration of information and communication technology (ICT) into language teaching and learning depends on many factors. Some of these factors are associated with teachers. Teachers play a crucial role in the integration of ICT. This study investigates the impact of teacher's age, experience, and gender on the integration of ICT into…

  15. Influence of Gender and Computer Teaching Efficacy on Computer Acceptance among Malaysian Student Teachers: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Teo, Timothy; Russo, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the technology acceptance model (TAM) in an educational context and explore the role of gender and computer teaching efficacy as external variables. From the literature, it appeared that only limited studies had developed models to explain statistically the chain of influence of computer teaching efficacy…

  16. Towards a gender inclusive information and communications technology curriculum: a perspective from graduates in the workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppi, Tony; Sheard, Judy; Naghdy, Fazel; Edwards, Sylvia L.; Brookes, Wayne

    2010-12-01

    An online survey was conducted of recent information and communications technology (ICT) graduates from 21 Australian universities. A range of abilities including personal/interpersonal, cognitive, business and technical were examined in relation to importance in the workplace and university preparation of those abilities. In addition, a set of six open-ended text-response questions concerned with the curriculum and other workplace preparation were asked. Quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed a range of responses that were significantly different according to gender. Amongst the significant findings are that females are more concerned than males with interpersonal communication, the development of people-skills and the people side of ICT. Implications for the ICT curriculum are that it should have more than a narrow male-centred technological focus and include the involvement of people and the effects of ICT on society in general. This broad inclusive pedagogical approach would satisfy the needs expressed by all respondents and contribute to increasing the enrolments of both female and male students in ICT.

  17. Equity in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa-Salas, Virginia; Tricas-Sauras, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    It has long been known that a segment of the population enjoys distinctly better health status and higher quality of health care than others. To solve this problem, prioritization is unavoidable, and the question is how priorities should be set. Rational priority setting would seek equity amongst the whole population, the extent to which people receive equal care for equal needs. Equity in health care is an ethical imperative not only because of the intrinsic worth of good health, or the value that society places on good health, but because, without good health, people would be unable to enjoy life's other sources of happiness. This paper also argues the importance of the health care's efficiency, but at the same time, it highlights how any innovation and rationalization undertaken in the provision of the health system should be achieved from the consideration of human dignity, making the person prevail over economic criteria. Therefore, the underlying principles on which this health care equity paper is based are fundamental human rights. The main aim is to ensure the implementation of these essential rights by those carrying out public duties. Viewed from this angle, equity in health care means equality: equality in access to services and treatment, and equality in the quality of care provided. As a result, this paper attempts to address both human dignity and efficiency through the context of equity to reconcile them in the middle ground.

  18. School-to-Work Jump-Start Equity Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.

    This starter kit is a resource for state and local school-to-work (STW) directors, educators, parents, students, business and community, and economic development organizations serving all students through STW. The kit begins with four articles: "STW and Gender Equity: Opportunity for or Barrier to Economic Parity?" (Katherine Hanson, Joyce…

  19. Equity, Emotion, and Household Division of Labor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kathryn J.; Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Building upon insights generated by social psychological scholarship on equity, emotions, and identity, we use the General Social Survey (1996) Modules on Emotion and Gender and the National Survey of Family and Households (1992-1994) to investigate the relationship between perceived inequity in the household division of labor and emotion. These…

  20. The Impact Of gender On Atttitude Towards Computer Technology And E-Learning: An Exploratary Study of Punjab University,India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Gunamala Suri1 , Sneha Sharma2

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement has led to important changes in the way education is being imparted. Evolution of internet and advancement in computer technology has led to new approaches in learning and training which are referred to as e-Learning. This study aims to understand the relationship between gender and attitude towards e-learning. Literature shows that gender plays a key role in understanding the differences in perception towards usefulness of technology and ease of use but with regards to attitude and perception towards e-learning diverse views have been presented. This paper analyses the effect of gender on attitude towards computer technology and e-learning collectively

  1. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Consequences of global warming are appearing much faster than assumed just a few years ago and irreversible ”tipping points” are few years ahead [IPCC, James Hansen]. So far, strategies for mitigation of global warming have mostly been focusing on technological solutions e.g. renewable energy...... sources (RES) in the supply sector and energy efficiency in the demand sector. Much less attention has been given to potential changes in life style and to alternative economic and social systems. This chapter will focus on non-technological strategies for mitigation of global warming including...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  2. Marketing assets: Relating brand equity and customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Brand equity and customer equity are inextricably linked. Some authors propose that marketing activities build these intangible assets simultaneously. In contrast, others suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity. In this research, we aim to shed light about the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, by empirically testing these two alternative explanations. Design/methodology/approach: We propose four research models that reflect these two alternatives explanations regarding the link between brand equity and customer equity. In order to estimate these models we employ Structural Equations Modelling. We measure model variables using data collected through a survey to marketing managers of services companies that operate in Spain. We compare these four research models in terms of explanatory power and goodness of fit. Findings: Our results indicate that the models that correspond to the simultaneity approach have a higher explanatory power and goodness of fit than the models that suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity, thus supporting that these intangible assets are built by marketing activities at the same time. Research limitations/implications: Our results recommend caution when interpreting previous research about the effects of brand (customer equity, as they might indeed correspond to customer (brand management. Similarly, future research focusing on customer and brand management need to take into account both managerial areas in their studies. Practical implications: From a practitioners’ point of view, our findings suggest adopting a brand-customer portfolio approach to enhance company profitability. Similarly, we derive implications for firm valuation processes, which incorporate brand equity and customer equity in their calculations. Originality/value: We empirically study the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, while previous research has analyzed

  3. Individual Differences in Equity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmans, Joeri

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we (1) study whether people differ in the equity models they use, and (2) test whether individual differences in equity models relate to individual differences in equity sensitivity. To achieve this goal, an Information Integration experiment was performed in which participants were given information on the performance of two…

  4. Private Equity and Industry Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...

  5. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W M; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L M

    2009-03-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be 'male biased' because the largest body of knowledge on health and illness is about men and their health. Thirdly, gender role ideology negatively influences treatment and health outcomes. Finally, gender inequality has been overlooked as a determinant of health and illness. The uptake of gender issues in medical education brings about specific challenges for several reasons. For instance, the political-ideological connotations of gender issues create resistance especially in traditionalists in medical schools. Secondly, it is necessary to clarify which gender issues must be integrated in which domains. Also, some are interdisciplinary issues and as such more difficult to integrate. Finally, schools need assistance with implementation. The integration of psychosocial issues along with biomedical ones in clinical cases, the dissemination of literature and education material, staff education, and efforts towards structural embedding of gender in curricula are determining factors for successful implementation. Gender equity is not a spontaneous process. Medical education provides specific opportunities that may contribute to transformation for medical schools educate future doctors for future patients in future settings. Consequently, future benefits legitimize the integration of gender as a qualitative investment in medical education.

  6. Female Perceptions On Employment Equity: Is The Glass Ceiling Cracking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsi Van Zyl

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to assess if there were any perceptual differences between gender groups regarding employment equity practices. A sample of 4729 participants from different companies and industries completed the Employment Equity Questionnaire. Results from an ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences between gender groups, but only a small portion of the variance was explained by perceptual differences on employment equity practices. The instrument thus possesses some discriminant validity. Further analyses on an item level indicated that there were significant differences between gender groups, but these differences were not attributable to gender stereotypes. Specific employment equity practices were identified that need closer attention from management’s side to address gender discrimination. OpsommingDie primêre doelwit van hierdie studie was om vas te stel of daar enige perseptuele verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan ten opsigte van werkgelykheidspraktyke. ’n Steekproef van 4729 deelnemers uit verskillende ondernemings en bedrywe het die Employment Equity Questionnaire voltooi. Die resultate van ’n ANOVA het aangedui dat daar beduidende verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan, maar dat slegs ’n klein gedeelte van die variansie aan perseptuele verskille ten opsigte van werksgelykheidspraktyke toegeskryf kan word. Die instrument beskik dus ook ’n mate van diskriminante geldigheid. Verdere ontledings op itemvlak het aangedui dat daar betekenisvolle verskille tussen geslagsgroepe is, maar dat hierdie verskille nie aan geslagstereotipes toegeskryf kan word nie. Spesifieke werkgelykheidspraktyke is geïdentifiseer wat nadere aandag deur die bestuurskader verdien om geslagsdiskriminasie aan te spreek.

  7. Gender, Self-Efficacy and Achievement among South African Technology Teacher Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, James; Parkinson, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between gender and self-efficacy in teacher trainees engaged in an electricity-related design and construction task. Quantitative data (examination scores, task assessment, and questionnaire) and qualitative data (interviews and written student reflections) were collected. There is a gender bias in student…

  8. Women in STEM disciplines the Yfactor 2016 global report on gender in science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmuck, Claudine

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the findings of a survey that analyzes a unique set of data in science and technolog and provides a clear and simple synthesis of heterogeneous databases on the gender gap in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) setting, helping readers understand key trends and developments. The need for more women in innovative fields, particularly with regard to STEM-based innovations, has now been broadly recognized. The book provides insights into both the education and employment of women in STEM. It investigates how the gender gap has evolved among STEM graduates and professionals around the world, drawing on specific data from public and private databases. As such, the book provides readers an understanding of how the so-called ‘leaky pipeline’ operates, and of how more women than men drop out of STEM studies and jobs by geographical area.

  9. Mermaids and Spirit Spouses: Rituals as Technologies of Gender in Transnational African Pentecostal Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Rey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to approach the construction of gender in transnational spacesby focusing on the ritual practice of African Pentecostal migrants in Europeand in Africa. One dimension of African Pentecostalism is its insistence on thepractice of exorcism called ‘deliverance’ where malevolent spirits are expelledfrom one’s body. Within the Pentecostal demonology, several categories ofspirits carry implications for how gender is constructed. This article will analyseeffects of the appearance of these spirits on the construction of genderamong Ghanaian and Congolese Pentecostal churches in Geneva and in Accra.It will show that variations in the appearance of spirits within rituals can beinterpreted as a negotiation of gender roles in a migratory context. Shifts inPentecostal demonology can therefore be interpreted as a response to thereconfiguration of gender roles associated with the broader gender contextand work opportunities in Europe.

  10. Exploring Issues of Implementation, Equity, and Student Achievement With Educational Software in the DC Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Ahn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present analyses from a researcher-practitioner partnership in the District of Columbia Public Schools, where we are exploring the impact of educational software on students’ academic achievement. We analyze a unique data set that combines student-level information from the district with data of student usage of a mathematics game platform: First in Math (FIM. These data offer a window into long-standing issues in the educational technology literature around implementation, equity, and student achievement. We show that time spent in FIM was correlated with improved future performance on standardized math assessments for students in Grades 4–8. However, student time spent using FIM was highly related to factors such as race, gender, and prior achievement. Such observations from data are helpful for school districts and researchers to inform equitable implementation of new technologies and maximize benefits to learners.

  11. Equity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMartino, Joseph; Miles, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss three reform strategies designed to produce educational equity. The first strategy, heterogeneous grouping, does away with the controversial practice of placing students in different tracks based on their ability, which can polarize the student population into pro- and anti-school camps, create a "caste system"…

  12. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  13. Valuing Private Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees...

  14. Equity Literacy for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.; Swalwell, Katy

    2015-01-01

    If the authors have learned anything working with schools across the United States, they've learned this: When it comes to educational equity, the trouble is not a lack of multicultural programs or diversity initiatives in schools. Nor is it a lack of educators who appreciate and even champion diversity. The trouble lies in how so many diversity…

  15. Does Postsecondary Persistence in STEM Vary by Gender?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara King

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM is often explained by women’s greater likelihood to leave STEM at each key juncture from elementary school into the workforce. It is important to examine this more closely and look for points in the pipeline where gender equity exists. This study uses nationally representative data from a recent cohort of college students to investigate thoroughly gender differences in STEM persistence. Results indicate that no significant gender differences in persistence exist. This finding holds among those in computer science, engineering, mathematics, and physical science, and for those in life science. Additionally, the results are unchanged if the sample is limited to degree earners and are robust to the inclusion of individual and institutional variables. Although it is clear that women are less likely to choose certain STEM majors, those who do are no less likely to earn a STEM degree.

  16. 'Should you turn this into a complete gender matter?' Gender mainstreaming in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Verdonk; Y. Benschop; H. de Haes; L. Mans; T. Lagro-Janssen

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of a gender perspective in medical education aims toward better health, gender equity, and a better health care for both men and women. In this article, participants' responses to a Dutch gender awareness-raising project in medical education are discussed. Eighteen semi-structured

  17. "Should You Turn This into a Complete Gender Matter?" Gender Mainstreaming in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne; de Haes, Hanneke; Mans, Linda; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of a gender perspective in medical education aims toward better health, gender equity, and a better health care for both men and women. In this article, participants' responses to a Dutch gender awareness-raising project in medical education are discussed. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were held with education directors and…

  18. 7 CFR 1980.391 - Equity sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property. Shared equity will be the lesser of the interest assistance granted or the amount of value appreciation available for shared equity. Value appreciation available for shared equity means the market value... amount of shared equity. The RHS approval official will calculate shared equity when a borrower's...

  19. Influence of Social Cognitive and Gender Variables on Technological Academic Interest among Spanish High-School Students: Testing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª

    2016-01-01

    This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…

  20. [Gender in view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women.

  1. Pay Equity Act (No. 34 of 1987), 29 June 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of Ontario, Canada's 1987 Pay Equity Act. The Act seeks to redress systemic gender discrimination in compensation for work performed by employees in "female job classes" and applies to all private sector employers in Ontario with 10 or more employees, all public sector employers, and the employees of applicable employers. The Act continues to apply even if an employer subsequently reduces the number of employees below 10. The Act calls for identification of systemic gender discrimination in compensation through comparisons between female job classes and male job classes in terms of compensation and value of work performed, which is a composite of skill, effort, and responsibility normally required. Pay equity is deemed achieved when the job rate for the female job class is at least equal to the rate for a male job class in the same establishment. If there is no male job class to use for comparison, pay equity is achieved when the female job rate is at least equal to the job rate of a male job class in the same establishment that, at the time of comparison, had a higher job rate while performing work of lower value than the female job class. Differences in compensation between a female and a male job class are allowed if they result from a formal seniority system that does not discriminate on basis of gender, a temporary training or development assignment equally available to males and females, a specified merit compensation plan, actions taken as the result of a gender-neutral reevaluation process, or a skills shortage leading to a temporary inflation in compensation. Pay equity will not be achieved by reducing any employee's compensation. The Act establishes a Pay Equity Commission to oversee implementation.

  2. Ruta crítica de la salud de las mujeres: integralidad y equidad de género en las prácticas de salud de las mujeres en la ciudad de Buenos Aires - 2da parte Critical Road Of Women's Health: Integrality And Gender Equity In Health Practices Among Women In Buenos Aires City - 2nd Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Tajer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este proyecto es continuación de investigaciones UBACyT anteriores, realizadas por el mismo equipo acerca de la equidad de género en la calidad de atención de pacientes cardiovasculares (2000-3 y de la relación entre los modos de subjetivación de género y la construcción de la vulnerabilidad coronaria en varones y en mujeres (1998-2000. El proyecto actual releva los grados de integralidad y equidad de género en las prácticas de salud de las mujeres en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, detectando necesidades, significaciones y prácticas realizadas a la población asistida, y a los/as profesionales de la salud que atienden. Analiza, así mismo, los programas existentes. El diseño es de tipo exploratorio descriptivo, utiliza metodología cualitativa en la recolección y análisis de información y técnicas de investigación acción participante para relevar obstáculos y colaborar en construir un modelo integral dirigido a la promoción y atención de la salud de las mujeres con perspectiva de género. Incluye una mirada de las necesidades en salud de cada etapa etaria y un enfoque preventivo hacia los problemas de las etapas siguientes, como componente de ampliación de capacidades de los/as sujetos/as de vivir una vida mas saludable y con mayores grados de ciudadanía.This project is a continuation of previous UBACyT research projects about gender equity in cardiovascular patients health care (2000-3 and the way of gender subjectivity contributes to coronary risk construction both in men and women (1998-2000 The aim of this work is studying the degree of integrality and gender equity in health care practices among women in the City of Buenos Aires. Detecting needs, signifi- cations and health care practices in population, practitioners and programmes. It is an exploratory-descriptive project that uses qualitative methodology in data recollection and analysis. Action participant techniques are used to assess obstacles and to collaborate in

  3. Customer equity of Pakistani fast food restaurant: A study of attitudinal customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Customer Equity is true representative of relationship marketing. There are two major approach-es to measure Customer Equity: Transaction/sales based approach and Attitudinal Approach. This research is an effort to check customer equity of fast food restaurants of Pakistan by using attitudinal approach. Transactional customer equity is treated as criterion for attitudinal customer equity. Three drivers of Customer Equity are Value Equity, Brand equity and Relationship equity are taken as independent variables in this research. Convenient sampling technique was used and sample size was 393 respondents. The results show that attitudinal customer equity had strong association with transactional equity. Brand equity, value equity and relationship equity show positive associations with attitudinal customer equity.

  4. Equity and development

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    World Development Report 2006 analyzes the relationship between equity and development. The report documents the persistence of inequality traps by highlighting the interaction between different forms of inequality. It presents evidence that the inequality of opportunity that arises is wasteful and inimical to sustainable development and poverty reduction. It also derivespolicy implications that center on the broad concept of leveling the playing field-both politically and economically and in...

  5. Emerging Equity Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Geert Bekaert; Harvey, Campbell R.

    1995-01-01

    Returns in emerging capital markets are very different from returns in developed markets. While most previous research has focused on average returns, we analyze the volatility of the returns in emerging equity markets. We characterize the time-series of volatility in emerging markets and explore the distributional foundations of the variance process. Of particular interest is evidence of asymmetries in volatility and the evolution of the variance process after periods of capital market refor...

  6. Developing Agency for Equity-Minded Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Eric R.; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Hanson, Debbie; Gray, James; Klingsmith, Libby

    2015-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of the Equity Scorecard with the Community College of Aurora. The Equity Scorecard is a theory-based strategy that assists community colleges in embedding equity into their institutional norms, practices, and policies.

  7. Gender diversity in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2017-03-01

    There is a strong business case for the value of diversity. Research by the World Economic Forum shows a 36% higher return on equity (ROE) for companies having a workforce with strong gender diversity1. Also growth is influenced in a positive way: in 2009 - 2012 companies with a strong female leadership have increased their ROE by 10.1% as compared to an average of 7.4% for the rest. Diversity is not a problem but a solution!2

  8. Equity Versus Non-Equity International Strategic Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globerman, Steven; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    A substantial literature has evolved focusing on the ownership structure of international strategic alliances (ISAs). Most of the relevant studies are theoretical in nature and concentrate on the conceptual factors that influence the choice between equity and non-equity structures. A smaller number...

  9. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers. PMID:27618121

  10. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-09-07

    Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers.

  11. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Boeckmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers.

  12. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Readiness: Ethno-linguistic and gender differences in high-school course selection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The study examines science-related course choices of high-school students in the culturally diverse schools of the province of British Columbia, Canada. The analysis employs K-12 provincial data and includes over 44,000 students born in 1990 who graduated from high school by 2009. The research sample reflects the presence of about 27% of students for whom English is not a first language. We construct an empirical model that examines ethno-linguistic and gender differences in Grade 12 course choices while accounting for personal and situational differences among students. The study employs a course selection typology that emphasizes readiness for science, technology, engineering and math fields of study. Findings indicate that math- and science-related course selection patterns are strongly associated with ethnicity, qualified not only by gender and prior math and science achievement but also by the individual's grade level at entry to the system and enrollment in English as a Second Language program. Students who are more likely to engage in math and science courses belong to Asian ethno-linguistic groups and entered the provincial school system during the senior high-school years. We suggest that ethnic diversity and broader academic exposure may play a crucial role in changing the gender composition of science classrooms, university fields of study and science-related occupations.

  13. Marginalization of Socioscientific Material in Science-Technology-Society Science Curricula: Some Implications for Gender Inclusivity and Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gwyneth

    2000-05-01

    Science education reformers have argued that presenting science in the abstract is neither motivating nor inclusive of the majority of students. Science-technology-society (STS) curricula that give science an accessible social context have developed in response, but controversy surrounds the extent to which students should be introduced to socioscientific debate. Using material from a case study of Salters' Advanced Chemistry in the United Kingdom, this article demonstrates how socioscientific material is marginalized through the structures and language of syllabus texts and through classroom practices. This means students are unlikely to engage with socioscientific aspects in their course. Socioscientific content is gendered through association with social concerns and epistemological uncertainty, and because gender is asymmetric, socioscience is devalued with respect to the masculinity of abstract science. Teachers fear that extensive coverage of socioscience devalues the curriculum, alienates traditional science students and jeopardizes their own status as gatekeepers of scientific knowledge. Thus, although STS curricula such as Salters' offer potential for making science more accessible, the article concludes that greater awareness of, and challenges to, gender binaries could result in more effective STS curriculum reform.

  14. Beneath the numbers: A review of gender disparities in undergraduate education across science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This focused collection explores inequalities in the experiences of women in physics. Yet, it is important for researchers to also be aware of and draw insights from common patterns in the experiences of women across science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Here, we review studies on gender disparities across college STEM on measures that have been correlated with retention. These include disparities in academic performance, engagement, self-efficacy, belonging, and identity. We argue that observable factors such as persistence, performance, and engagement can inform researchers about what populations are disadvantaged in a STEM classroom or program, but we need to measure underlying mechanisms to understand how these inequalities arise. We present a framework that helps connect larger sociocultural factors, including stereotypes and gendered socialization, to student affect and observable behaviors in STEM contexts. We highlight four mechanisms that demonstrate how sociocultural factors could impact women in STEM classrooms and majors. We end with a set of recommendations for how we can more holistically evaluate the experiences of women in STEM to help mitigate the underlying inequities instead of applying a quick fix.

  15. Gender Gap in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Current Knowledge, Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L

    2017-03-01

    Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences in cognitive capacity and motivation are also influenced by broader sociocultural factors. After reviewing research from the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, and education over the past 30 years, we summarize six explanations for US women's underrepresentation in math-intensive STEM fields: (a) cognitive ability, (b) relative cognitive strengths, (c) occupational interests or preferences, (d) lifestyle values or work-family balance preferences, (e) field-specific ability beliefs, and (f) gender-related stereotypes and biases. We then describe the potential biological and sociocultural explanations for observed gender differences on cognitive and motivational factors and demonstrate the developmental period(s) during which each factor becomes most relevant. We then propose evidence-based recommendations for policy and practice to improve STEM diversity and recommendations for future research directions.

  16. Health equity in Lebanon: a microeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Firas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health sector in Lebanon suffers from high levels of spending and is acknowledged to be a source of fiscal waste. Lebanon initiated a series of health sector reforms which aim at containing the fiscal waste caused by high and inefficient public health expenditures. Yet these reforms do not address the issues of health equity in use and coverage of healthcare services, which appear to be acute. This paper takes a closer look at the micro-level inequities in the use of healthcare, in access, in ability to pay, and in some health outcomes. Methods We use data from the 2004/2005 Multi Purpose Survey of Households in Lebanon to conduct health equity analysis, including equity in need, access and outcomes. We briefly describe the data and explain some of its limitations. We examine, in turn, and using standardization techniques, the equity in health care utilization, the impact of catastrophic health payments on household wellbeing, the effect of health payment on household impoverishment, the equity implications of existing health financing methods, and health characteristics by geographical region. Results We find that the incidence of disability decreases steadily across expenditure quintiles, whereas the incidence of chronic disease shows the opposite pattern, which may be an indication of better diagnostics for higher quintiles. The presence of any health-related expenditure is regressive while the magnitude of out-of-pocket expenditures on health is progressive. Spending on health is found to be "normal" and income-elastic. Catastrophic health payments are likelier among disadvantaged groups (in terms of income, geography and gender. However, the cash amounts of catastrophic payments are progressive. Poverty is associated with lower insurance coverage for both private and public insurance. While the insured seem to spend an average of almost LL93,000 ($62 on health a year in excess of the uninsured, they devote a smaller

  17. The Informatics of the Equity Markets - A Collaborative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu VINTE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a high-level overview upon the information technology that supports the electronic transactions performed on the equity markets. It is meant to offer a succinct introduction to the various technologies tailored to tackle the data transfer between the participants on an equity market, the architectural approaches regarding trading system design, and the communication in a collaborative distributed computing environment. Our intention here is not to provide solutions, or to propose definitive designs, merely to scratch the surface of this vast domain, and open the path for subsequent researches.

  18. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...

  19. Preschool Student Teachers, Technology, and Gender: Positive Expectations Despite Mixed Experiences from Their Own School Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria; Gunnarsson, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The Swedish preschool curriculum emphasises preschool teachers' task to stimulate children's interest in science and technology. Technology education, however, has not always had a given place in Swedish early childhood education, and this has been associated with female preschool teachers' fear of technology. This qualitative study explores how…

  20. Gender and information and communication technologies (ICT) anxiety: male self-assurance and female hesitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broos, Agnetha

    2005-02-01

    This article presents the results of a quantitative study (n = 1,058) of the gender divide in ICT attitudes. In general, females had more negative attitudes towards computers and the Internet than did men. Results indicate a positive relationship between ICT experience and ICT attitudes. This experience is measured by period of time using a computer and self-perceived computer and Internet experience. Further analyses on the impact of gender on this correlation of ICT experience and ICT attitudes were conducted by means of a multivariate model. General Linear Model (GLM) analysis revealed that there was a significant effect of gender, computer use, and self-perceived computer experience on computer anxiety attitudes, as well as several significant interaction effects. Males were found to have less computer anxiety than females; respondents who have used computers for a longer period of time and respondents with a higher self-perception of experience also show less computer anxiety. However, the GLM plot shows that the influence of computer experience works in different ways for males and females. Computer experience has a positive impact on decreasing computer anxiety for men, but a similar effect was not found for women. The model was also tested for computer liking and Internet-liking factors.

  1. Does School Improve Equity? Some Key Findings from Portuguese Data

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas Lopes, Margarida; Medeiros, João; PINTO, AQUILES

    2005-01-01

    Does School Improve Equity? ABSTRACT Most school inequality research usually emphasize the role played by pupils' family social, cultural and economic condition, their parents' educational achievement, previous own school story and gender, among other factors. Despite also considering these same determinants, our main purpose in this paper had to do with assessing the specific role played both directly and indirectly by the "school effect" upon pupils' scholar trajectories; and thereby ...

  2. Exploring gender and forest, tree and agroforestry value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverhals, Merel; Ingram, V.J.; Elias, M.; Basnett, Bimbika Sijapati; Petersen, S.

    2016-01-01

    •This systematic review of literature on gender and value chains of forest, tree and agroforestry (FTA) products examined gender differences and inequalities in FTA value chains, factors that influence these differences, and interventions to foster greater gender equity.
    •There is limited inform

  3. “With the cell phone, 24 hours on air”: On gender relations and the appropriation of mobile technologies in low-income groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubia Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from an ethnographic approach, I analyze in this article the appropriation of cell phones in their intersections with gender relations. I discuss the ways by which technology is appropriated to reaffirm love ties, but also becomes the focus of surveillance, tension and conflict. In this sense, I argue that cell phones engender micropolitics of everyday life in which men and women interact in sociocultural dynamics that reflect gender hierarchies, but also subvert them.

  4. Food sovereignty, food security and health equity: a meta-narrative mapping exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Anelyse M; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M

    2015-10-01

    There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity--i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced--and food systems, where the concepts of 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a 'meta-narrative synthesis' on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1--Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2--Occupational Exposures; 3--Environmental Change; 4--Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5--Intake of Contaminants; 6--Nutrition; 7--Social Determinants of Health and 8--Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to strengthen both food

  5. The Principles to Be Followed about the Regulatory of Hidden Debt in Science and Technology Enterprises Stock Financing---Speaking from a case of equity merger cheating%科技型企业股权融资中隐形债务规制应遵循的原则--从一起股权并购失败案例说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 杨文硕

    2014-01-01

    The acquired company’s hidden debts often erode the economic interests of new shareholders in the equity merger of science and technology enterprises. But , The legal system on the regulation of the hidden debts in equity financing does not exist, at present. Because people can’t take advantage of equity acquisition system tools to protect their rights, many cases about stock financing that should have been finished from the perspective of economy are not finished. Therefore , the construction of the regulatory of hidden debt is provided with important significance for the promotion of the healthy development of equity investment , the improvement of the construction of the exit mechanism for equity investment funds and the maintenance of good order in the financial markets.%科技型企业股权并购中被收购企业的隐形债务常常侵蚀新股东的经济利益,而目前的法律制度在规制股权融资中隐形债务施虐问题上处于失范的状态。由于股权并购人无法利用制度工具保护自己权益,导致很多从经济上本该完成的股权收购事项没有完成。因此,建构公司隐形债务规制制度对于促进股权投资的健康发展,完善股权投资基金退出机制和维护金融市场的良好秩序具有至关重要的意义。

  6. Gender inclusiveness in educational technology and learning experiences of girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, I.; ten Dam, G.; Volman, M.; Admiraal, W.

    2009-01-01

    The use of technology (information and communication technology, ICT) in secondary education is an important aspect of the current curriculum and of teachers' pedagogy. Learning supported by computers is supposed to be motivating for students and is, therefore, assumed to have positive effects on

  7. Use of Computer Technology for English Language Learning: Do Learning Styles, Gender, and Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…

  8. Perception by French Students of the Gendered Nature of Material Artifacts Studied in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colette, Andreucci; Marjolaine, Chatoney

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the socio-cultural factors that lead girls to desert scientific and technological courses. Over a long period, the contents of the French technology education (TE) college curricula may well have contributed to strengthening the feeling among girls that this discipline was better suited to boys. The choice…

  9. Use of Computer Technology for English Language Learning: Do Learning Styles, Gender, and Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…

  10. An equity investigation of attitudinal shifts in introductory physics

    CERN Document Server

    Traxler, Adrienne L

    2014-01-01

    We report on seven years of attitudinal data using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey from University Modeling Instruction (UMI) sections of introductory physics at Florida International University. This work expands upon previous studies that reported consistently positive attitude shifts in UMI courses; here, we disaggregate the data by gender and ethnicity to look for any disparities in the pattern of favorable shifts. We find that women and students from statistically underrepresented ethnic groups are equally supported on this attitudinal measure, and that this result holds even when interaction effects of gender and ethnicity are included. We conclude with suggestions for future work in UMI courses and for attitudinal equity investigations generally.

  11. An Evaluation of Program M in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: An Analysis of Change in Self-Efficacy in Interpersonal Relationships, Gender Equity, and Self-Reported Risky Behaviors among Women in Two Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study examined whether Program M, an intervention targeting young women in a low-income community in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, promoted changes in gender equitable attitudes and self-efficacy in interpersonal relationships among program participants. Further, it investigated whether the program influenced these young…

  12. Gender Studies Course at UG/PG Levels and Gender Awareness Training to Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Moly

    2014-01-01

    While the UGC is committed to the cause of promoting gender equity through higher education and is in the process of reviewing the existing arrangements in the campuses of higher learning to ensure the freedom, safety and security of girls and women, the proactive role of teachers in solving the problems of gender based violence and other…

  13. Gender Studies Course at UG/PG Levels and Gender Awareness Training to Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Moly

    2014-01-01

    While the UGC is committed to the cause of promoting gender equity through higher education and is in the process of reviewing the existing arrangements in the campuses of higher learning to ensure the freedom, safety and security of girls and women, the proactive role of teachers in solving the problems of gender based violence and other…

  14. Challenges of Ensuring Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    and on a conceptual framework to examine equity in REDD+. Qualitative research with a case study in Cambodia provides the empirical foundation for the thesis, supplemented with a quantitative analysis of climate change research to address the fourth research question. Together, these articles and approaches...... these challenges, specific recomm ndations are summarized in the thesis, namely: better integration of qualitative methods in social assessments, greater emphasis on local inclusion and representativeness in relation to resource access and decision-making, more field research and cross...... of departure in a case study of REDD+ in the Oddar Meanchey province in Northern Cambodia, which hosts the country’s first REDD+ demonstration project, and in a publication analysis of climate change research. The thesis addresses the overall research questions and the four sub-questions To what extent is REDD...

  15. GENDER AND TECHNOLOGY USE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: EVIDENCE FROM FIRMS IN KENYA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nidhiya Menon

    2015-01-01

    .... Using a representative sample of industries, the exogenous component of technology use is isolated by using information on the presence of schools from colonial Kenya as well as a geographical...

  16. Shifting the balance: equity and sustainable consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Garside, Ben; De Morais, Gabriela Weber

    2009-01-15

    On our finite planet, the dictates of ecology and technology limit growth. Yet a key element of this issue – consumption – has until recently hardly figured on policy agendas. Now there is growing recognition that transformation towards a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy means tackling consumption as well as production. Governments and businesses are beginning to make concerted, if uncoordinated, efforts to reduce energy and resource use. Rethinking consumption could, however, drive an even bigger wedge between rich and poor. Any new agenda for consumption needs to factor in equity as well as environmental benefit.

  17. Connecting to Learn: Promoting Digital Equity among America's Hispanic Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Vikki S.; Levine, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    This brief combines original research and policy analysis to examine a key issue that is often overlooked in debates about the proliferation of new technologies, education, and equity: the potential for digital media investments to support a promising learning pathway for children in our nation's increasingly diverse, low-income families. A…

  18. Using the Job-Demands-Resources model to predict turnover in the information technology workforce – General effects and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hoonakker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High employee turnover has always been a major issue for Information Technology (IT. In particular, turnover of women is very high. In this study, we used the Job Demand/Resources (JD-R model to examine the relationship between job demands and job resources, stress/burnout and job satisfaction/commitment, and turnover intention and tested the model for gender differences. Data were collected in five IT companies. A sample of 624 respondents (return rate: 56%; 54% males; mean age: 39.7 years was available for statistical analyses. Results of our study show that relationships between job demands and turnover intention are mediated by emotional exhaustion (burnout and relationships between job resources and turnover intention are mediated by job satisfaction. We found noticeable gender differences in these relationships, which can explain differences in turnover intention between male and female employees. The results of our study have consequences for organizational retention strategies to keep men and women in the IT work force.

  19. Keynes, population, and equity prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarascio, V J

    1985-01-01

    important determinant of longrun movements in real per capita income (given the state of technology, the real rate of interest, the age structure of the population, and the size share of income). So the focus is on population and its effects on economic growth. Due to the fact that the stock market presumably discounts longrun economic conditions as reflected in equity prices, it would seem that if Keynes were correct in his theoretical speculations, longterm equity price movements should relate to population change. In this sense, the paper may be regarded as an empirical test of a proposition of Keynes. More generally, the paper is suggestive in several ways. The relationship between business cycles and stock market cycles has been understood to the point of being rather obvious, but the effects of population on both has been less clear. It does appear on the basis of the evidence presented that the malaise of the stock market during the past 16 years, especially in real terms, may be due to factors more fundamental than those often perceived.

  20. Sustainability : Intergeneration Equity and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    Regarding intergenerational equity as prerequisite for sustainability, we derive an optimal investment rule for intergenerational equity from an optimization model allowing for capital accumulation and pollution. This rule provides a condition for intergenerational equity such that an economy maintains constant net value of investment the difference between the physical capital investment value and the environmental resource depletion(pollution) value. This rule is more generalized condition for intergenerational equity than the 'keep capital intact' rule suggested by Hartwick(1977) and Solow(1999), in a sense that this rule includes their condition as a special. Also, we expect this rule to offer an empirical measure of sustainability. In addition, we discuss a variety of recent environmental issues in practice, especially associated with the implications from the rule. (author). 13 refs.

  1. Brand Policy and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio M. Brondoni

    2001-01-01

    A brand represents the awareness and the image that a product has managed with a segment of customers. In business terms, a brand can be defined as a specific relationship created within a given market for the promotion of a particular product. The specific existing relationship between a brand and a given market indicates the functional and symbolic values that demand attributes to the product through the brand. Brand equity expresses brand value in operating conditions. Brand equity shapes ...

  2. Gender, Conjugalities and assisted reproductive technologies: regulatory aspects and practices in different scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane da Costa Moás

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article focuses on the construction of the reproductive practices in the access to assisted reproduction in which the conjugal sexuality, family dynamics and regulatory instances are intertwined. Considering the cultural and symbolic dimension inherent to the production of bodies, the identity processes in the contemporary scene pose challenges to the realization of the desire for children both under the heterosexual and homosexual conjugalities. Regulations and decision-making issues regarding the use of reproductive technologies are addressed, as well as the elements present in the marital dynamic involving the desire for a "natural" reproduction via assisted technologies. Prescriptive medical and legal parameters that do not match the experience of couples and individuals who turn to assisted reproductive technologies were found in this work.

  3. Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and…

  4. "I Love Barbies … I Am a Boy": Gender Happiness for Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Karleen Pendleton

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from a two-year study of gender and gender transgression among school children and youth in rural Ontario, Canada conducted while running gender equity workshops for students aged 8-18 years, in which I asked participants to document what gender looked and felt like. Through writing prompts, pictures, discussion and…

  5. Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry…

  6. Assistive technology outcomes in post-secondary students with disabilities: the influence of diagnosis, gender, and class-level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Matt P; Roll, Marla C

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated how outcomes of assistive technology (AT) services for college students with disabilities are influenced by diagnosis, gender and class-level (e.g., Freshman). Students' pre- and post-intervention ratings of their performance and satisfaction of common academic tasks (using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, COPM) were analyzed, as well as students' responses on a survey about AT service provision, use, and preferences. Data from 455 students revealed "learning disability" to be the most prevalent diagnosis (38%), similar numbers of females and males served, and Freshmen (23.1%) as the largest class-level seeking AT services. For COPM data, each two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (grouping variable = diagnosis) revealed that pre-post change scores significantly improved for the entire sample, and that students with a mood disorder experienced the greatest changes compared to other diagnoses. COPM scores significantly and similarly improved for females and males, and across class levels. AT Survey ratings about timeliness of services and independent AT use were significantly lower for students with mobility deficits/pain and neurological damage, respectively. Gender and class-level variables did not significantly impact AT Survey ratings. The study results reveal that features of a college student's diagnosis may influence AT service outcomes, and student-perceptions of AT services ability to use AT. Implications for Rehabilitation College students who are Freshman and/or who have a learning disability are the most prevalent students referred for campus-based assistive technology services. While student ratings of academic task performance significantly increase across diagnostic groupings, these improvements were greatest for those with a mood disorder compared to other diagnostic groups. Service-providers should consider that features of certain diagnoses or disabilities may influence the student?s perception of AT service

  7. Towards a Gender Inclusive Information and Communications Technology Curriculum: A Perspective from Graduates in the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppi, Tony; Sheard, Judy; Naghdy, Fazel; Edwards, Sylvia L.; Brookes, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    An online survey was conducted of recent information and communications technology (ICT) graduates from 21 Australian universities. A range of abilities including personal/interpersonal, cognitive, business and technical were examined in relation to importance in the workplace and university preparation of those abilities. In addition, a set of…

  8. Towards a Gender Inclusive Information and Communications Technology Curriculum: A Perspective from Graduates in the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppi, Tony; Sheard, Judy; Naghdy, Fazel; Edwards, Sylvia L.; Brookes, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    An online survey was conducted of recent information and communications technology (ICT) graduates from 21 Australian universities. A range of abilities including personal/interpersonal, cognitive, business and technical were examined in relation to importance in the workplace and university preparation of those abilities. In addition, a set of…

  9. Gendered Narratives of Innovation through Competition: Lessons from Science and Technology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Scout

    2013-01-01

    Library and information science is a technologically intensive profession with a high percentage of women, unlike computer science and other male-dominated fields. On the occasion of the 2011 ALISE conference, this essay analyzes the theme "Competitiveness and Innovation" through a review of social psychology and science and technology…

  10. Gender Equality in Science--Who Cares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lewyn

    2002-04-01

    In this article, I address three questions: first, and most important, why scientists at all levels should care about gender equity in research; second, why there are so few women in science, from graduate school all the way to top-level research in academia and industry; and finally, what can be done to redress the imbalance. I argue that we should strive for gender equity because of a sense of justice, a desire to advance scientific knowledge, and a wish to improve the public image of science. I also make specific proposals that would make scientific research friendlier toward women, especially in graduate education.

  11. Food sovereignty, food security and health equity: a meta-narrative mapping exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Anelyse M.; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity—i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced—and food systems, where the concepts of ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a ‘meta-narrative synthesis’ on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1—Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2—Occupational Exposures; 3—Environmental Change; 4—Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5—Intake of Contaminants; 6—Nutrition; 7—Social Determinants of Health and 8—Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to

  12. Pobreza, desigualdade e eqüidade em saúde: considerações a partir de uma perspectiva de gênero transversal Poverty, inequality, and equity in health: considerations based on a transversal gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Giffin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda a atualização das desigualdades de gênero que ocorrem no Brasil nas últimas duas décadas, sob a hegemonia das políticas macroeconômicas de cunho neoliberal. No centro desta análise, um conceito de gênero transversal é aplicado a questões da saúde reprodutiva (contracepção e aborto, parto e pré-natal, gravidez na adolescência, mortalidade materna e reprodutiva, DST/AIDS e violência, entre outras permitindo relacionar os gêneros e comparar mulheres de diferentes classes sociais. A história do PAISM (Programa de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher, por outro lado, revela a complexa articulação entre uma política pública nacional que foi fortemente influenciada pelo movimento de mulheres, mas permeável a interesses heterogêneos no contexto internacional. Serve como exemplo da apropriação e esvaziamento de propostas e princípios advindos deste movimento social, mas rearticulados para encobrir o aprofundamento das desigualdades de classe e de gênero.This article discusses the modernization of gender inequalities which has occurred in Brazil in the last 20 years under the hegemony of neo-liberal macro-economic policies. A concept of gender as transversal is applied to questions of reproductive health (contraception and abortion, prenatal care and birthing, adolescent pregnancy, maternal and reproductive mortality, STIs/AIDS, and violence, among others, permitting analysis by both gender and social class. The history of the PAISM (Program for Integral Health Care for Women, on the other hand, reveals the complex articulation of this national public health program which, although strongly influenced by the Brazilian women's movement, has been infiltrated by heterogeneous interests in the international context. PAISM serves as an example of the appropriation of proposals and principles that were generated by this social movement, but re-articulated to gloss over the process of deepening gender and class

  13. Rightist Education and Godly Technology: Cultural Politics, Gender, and the Work of Home Schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Apple

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The secularity of the state is seen by 'authoritarian populist' religious conservatives as imposing a world-view that is out of touch with the deep religious commitments that guide their lives. In the process, authoritarian populists have taken on subaltern identities and claimed that they are the last truly dispossessed groups. To demonstrate their increasing power in educational and social policy, I situate a specific set of technologies-the Internet-within the social context of its use in this community. I focus on the growing home-schooling movement and suggest that to understand the societal meaning and uses of these technologies, we need to examine the social movement that provides the context for their use. I also argue that we need to analyze critically the kind of labor that is required in home schooling, who is engaged in such labor, and how such labor is interpreted by the actors who perform it.

  14. Gendered bodies and new technologies rethinking embodiment in a cyber-era

    CERN Document Server

    Du Preez, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    In this era of ubiquitous information flow, heightened mobility and limitless consumer convenience, human interaction with new technologies has become increasingly seamless. In the process the human body is effectively and steadily reduced to just another interface or a "second life", so to speak. What is easily forgotten during this translucent transaction is that being human also necessarily implies being embodied. In other words, to constitute a body in its non-negotiable physicality is st...

  15. Gender Dynamics in Science and Technology :From the "Leaky Pipeline" to the "Vanish Box"

    OpenAIRE

    Etzkowitz, Henry; Ranga, Marina

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the “Vanish Box phenomenon” found among female scientists who migrate from academia to new occupations emerging at the intersection between science and business, like technology transfer. These occupations offer not only new career paths, but also more favourable work conditions in comparison to academic science and industrial research. The ‘Vanish Box’ refers to women scientists’ recoupment, rather than loss, through their reinsertion into an alternative context in which...

  16. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to

  17. Gender Effects on Curriculum Elements Based on Mathematics and Science and Technology Teachers' Opinions: A Meta-Analysis for Turkish Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüktepe, Seval Eminoglu; Yildiz, Nilgün

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the gender effect on elementary mathematics and science and technology teachers' opinions regarding curriculum elements which are objectives, content, learning situation and evaluation. Meta-analysis was used in order to analyze data. Two articles, 11 master and one doctorate thesis which were conducted…

  18. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to c

  19. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  20. The Shadow Report for the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)" with Topics on Gender Diversity Education, Sex Education, and Female Participation in Exercise and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang; Yu-Hsien, Tseng; Keng-Yu, Cho; Cheng-Ting, Wu; Yi-Chia, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This report primarily responds to the content of the Articles 10 and 12 regarding gender equity education in the governmental report made by the Taiwanese government in 2014 for CEDAW. In order to observe the obstacles and challenges facing gender equity education in our nation today, this report focuses on three aspects: gender diversity…

  1. The Shadow Report for the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)" with Topics on Gender Diversity Education, Sex Education, and Female Participation in Exercise and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang; Yu-Hsien, Tseng; Keng-Yu, Cho; Cheng-Ting, Wu; Yi-Chia, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This report primarily responds to the content of the Articles 10 and 12 regarding gender equity education in the governmental report made by the Taiwanese government in 2014 for CEDAW. In order to observe the obstacles and challenges facing gender equity education in our nation today, this report focuses on three aspects: gender diversity…

  2. The equity imperative in tertiary education: Promoting fairness and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Jamil; Bassett, Roberta Malee

    2014-06-01

    While the share of the tertiary education age cohort (19-25) which is being given the opportunity to study has increased worldwide over the past two decades, this does not in fact translate into reduced inequality. For many young people, especially in the developing world, major obstacles such as disparities in terms of gender, minority population membership or disabilities as well as academic and financial barriers are still standing in their way. The authors of this article propose a conceptual framework to analyse equity issues in tertiary education and document the scope, significance and consequences of disparities in tertiary education opportunities. They throw some light on the main determinants of these inequalities and offer suggestions about effective equity promotion policies directed towards widening participation and improving the chances of success of underprivileged youths in order to create societies which uphold humanistic values.

  3. Incorporating equity-efficiency interactions in cost-effectiveness analysis-three approaches applied to breast cancer control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, S.A.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Uyl-de Groot, C.A.; Bridges, J.; Niessen, L.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The past decade, medical technology assessment focused on cost-effectiveness analysis, yet there is an increasing need to consider equity implications of health interventions as well. This article addresses three equity-efficiency trade-off methods proposed in the literature. Moreover, i

  4. Intervention of gender friendly land preparation technologies for drudgery reduction of hill farm women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishtwaria, Jatinder; Rana, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    Inventory of all agricultural tasks depicted land preparation by women farmers as one of the most drudgery prone task with high energy cost, thereby, making it amenable to ergonomic interventions in terms of improved technologies (clod breaker, improved plough/'danella') to relieve women from high energy demands, time spent and associated drudgery. The study was conducted in two hill states of India viz. Himachal Pradesh (35 villages and 900 representative samples) and Uttrakhand (10 villages and 900 representative samples). Experimental data were conducted on representative sub sample of 60 hill farm women of both the states to assess physiological workload and musculo-skeletal problems both while working with traditional tools along with improved tools by employing selected parameters viz. physical fitness level, physiological parameters etc. The results showed that heart rate values were more than acceptable limits for task performed with the traditional tools as compared with improved tools. Significant reduction in the heart rate was observed while working with improved tools. Analysis of MSDs showed that the postural stress and severity of pain in various body parts was reduced by adopting new technology. Hence, the use of improved land preparation tools is recommended over the existing ones for drudgery reduction.

  5. Gender perceptions of smoking and cessation via technology, incentives and virtual communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D; Smith, Amber A

    2011-01-01

    There are many studies that have tried to evaluate some of the determining factors in smoking cessation, but with limited success. In particular, the present study deals with these concerns within the context of the current global recession and the roles of technology and social networking as moderating variables in the examination of smoking working professionals' relationships between people's background experiences with smoking, their self-reported perceptions about health, economic, and social aspects of smoking, and their perspectives on quitting. The empirical section examines current opinions of smoking analogues as alternatives to cessation and identify whether these opinions were influenced by negative perspectives of smoking in general. Several hypotheses and factor analyses related to smoking cessation statistically evaluated assumptions that economic and social considerations had more effects on quitting than health concerns; personal experience with smoking leads to less confidence in cold turkey quitting; and that technology-based solutions and virtual communities can gain wide acceptance despite the chemical addictiveness of tobacco-related products.

  6. Gender Choreography and Micro-Structures--Early Childhood Professionals' Understanding of Gender Roles and Gender Patterns in Outdoor Play and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlemalm-Hagser, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how pre-school professionals understand the notion of gender-equity work in a Swedish context, in particular play and learning in the pre-school playground. The study draws on socio-cultural and gender theories. Of the four participating pre-schools, three of them have programs that focus especially on…

  7. Paychecks: A Guide to Conducting Salary-Equity Studies for Higher Education Faculty. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haignere, Lois

    This guidebook is designed as a resource for those in the higher education community who want to conduct analyses of bias in faculty salaries or to understand and interpret the results of studies presented to them. This edition will help readers detect gender and face bias in current rank, select a salary-equity consultant, understand different…

  8. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...

  9. Reconciliation of economic concerns and health policy: illustration of an equity adjustment procedure using proportional shortfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Elly A; van Donselaar, Gijs; Brouwer, Werner B F; Busschbach, Jan J V

    2004-01-01

    Economic evaluations have become an important and much used tool in aiding decision makers in deciding on reimbursement or implementation of new healthcare technologies. Nevertheless, the impact of economic evaluations on reimbursement decisions has been modest; results of economic evaluations do not have a good record in predicting funding decisions. This is usually explained in terms of fairness; there is increasing awareness that valuations of QALYs may differ when the QALYs accrue to different patients. The problem, however, is that these equity concerns often remain implicit, and therefore frustrate explicitness and transparency in evidence-based decision making. It has been suggested that a so-called equity adjustment procedure may (partially) solve this problem. Typically this would involve the application of so-called equity weights, which can be used to recalculate the value of QALY gains for different patients. This paper explores such an equity adjustment procedure, using the equity concept of proportional shortfall. Proportional shortfall assumes that measurement of inequalities in health should concentrate on the fraction of QALYs that people lose relative to their remaining life expectancy, and not on the absolute number of QALYs lost or gained. It is the ratio of QALYs lost over the QALYs remaining. This equity concept combines elements of two popular but conflicting notions of equity: fair innings and severity-of-illness. We applied the concept of proportional shortfall to ten conditions and tentatively explored how an equity adjustment procedure using proportional shortfall might affect priority setting. Our equity adjustment procedure lowered the cost-effectiveness threshold when a condition was relatively mild. Because the proportional shortfall caused by the ten conditions differed considerably, the equity-adjustment procedure discriminated strongly between the ten conditions, and this experiment provided a good opportunity to explore the impact

  10. Shareowners' Equity at Campbell Soup: How Can Equity Be Negative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrman, Mary Beth; Stuerke, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an instructional case based on the 2001 annual report of the Campbell Soup Company (CPB). During that year, CPB's shareowners' equity went from a surplus of USD137 million to a deficit of USD247 million. The analysis will allow students to determine that the change resulted from borrowing to purchase treasury stock. Students…

  11. Shareowners' Equity at Campbell Soup: How Can Equity Be Negative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrman, Mary Beth; Stuerke, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an instructional case based on the 2001 annual report of the Campbell Soup Company (CPB). During that year, CPB's shareowners' equity went from a surplus of USD137 million to a deficit of USD247 million. The analysis will allow students to determine that the change resulted from borrowing to purchase treasury stock. Students…

  12. Making Way for Equity: Elementary Principals' Interpretations of Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Treating education as a socially transformative and morally conscious enterprise calls for educators to expose and improve social conditions related to oppression. These beliefs herald a different kind of practice for teachers and administrators in public schools, a practice that deals directly with dilemmas of equity and pluralism. Limited…

  13. Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Stone, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize and integrate some of the latest developmental science research on gender stereotypes and discrimination in childhood and adolescence. We focus on five forms of sexism: (a) stereotypes and discrimination against boys regarding their school behaviors and disciplinary actions; (b) stereotypes and discrimination against girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains; (c) stereotypes and discrimination in sports; (d) peer gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and teasing because of gender atypicality or nonconformity; and (e) sexualized gender stereotypes that sexually objectify girls and assume boys are sexually voracious. First, we document each type of sexism and examine children's awareness and perceptions of that bias, including their own self-reports and attributions. We examine the implications of this sexism for children and adolescents' developmental health (i.e., social, academic, and psychological well-being). We then draw connections between these various areas of research, focusing on how these different forms of sexism interact to reduce equity and justice among children and negatively impact positive developmental outcomes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research.

  14. Strategic operating indicators point to equity growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O

    1988-07-01

    As healthcare managers become more business-like in their behavior, they are becoming increasingly concerned with the equity growth rate of their organizations. Strong equity growth means a financially healthy organization. Equity growth can be expressed as a product of five financial ratios--the most important ratio being the operating margin. Improvements in operating margins will lead to improvements in equity growth. Thirty indicators, called strategic operating indicators, have been developed to monitor operating margins. These indicators, when compared with values from other peer groups, can help point to strategies for improvement of operating margins, and hence equity growth.

  15. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Principal component analysis of equity options on Dow-Jones firms reveals a strong factor structure. The first principal component explains 77% of the variation in the equity volatility level, 77% of the variation in the equity option skew, and 60% of the implied volatility term structure across...... equities. Furthermore, the first principal component has a 92% correlation with S&P500 index option volatility, a 64% correlation with the index option skew, and a 80% correlation with the index option term structure. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure...

  16. Gender and Values: What Is the Impact on Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Stephen M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Linkages among gender, decision making, and values related to moral development and equity/equality are studied for 54 graduate and 186 undergraduate business school students (48 percent females) attending a Southern urban university. Results illustrate gender-related differences in value systems, weights of decision issues, and decisions. Future…

  17. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  18. Gender and Values: What Is the Impact on Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Stephen M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Linkages among gender, decision making, and values related to moral development and equity/equality are studied for 54 graduate and 186 undergraduate business school students (48 percent females) attending a Southern urban university. Results illustrate gender-related differences in value systems, weights of decision issues, and decisions. Future…

  19. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  20. Considering Transgender People in Education: A Gender-Complex Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, Kathleen E.

    2009-01-01

    Schools serve as a setting in which students come to understand gender, but transgender students (those who transgress societal gender norms) are largely left out of discussions of education. The high level of harassment that transgender students face poses sizable obstacles to school success. If the field of education is committed to equity and…

  1. Gender, Migration and Remittances in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data were examined to establish the gender dimensions of migration and remittances. The ... developing world who face austere circumstances regarding their development financing. .... on the social dimension for justice and equity reasons. ... of Europe (2006) defines diaspora's social remittances as ideas, practices,.

  2. A Review of Innovation Systems Framework as a Tool for Gendering Agricultural Innovations: Exploring Gender Learning and System Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingiri, Ann N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To reflect on the opportunities that a systems understanding of innovation provides for addressing gender issues relevant to women, and to provide some insight on how these might be tackled. Approach: Review of literature relating to gender issues and how they relate to achieving, on the one hand, equity and efficiency goals, and on the…

  3. A Review of Innovation Systems Framework as a Tool for Gendering Agricultural Innovations: Exploring Gender Learning and System Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingiri, Ann N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To reflect on the opportunities that a systems understanding of innovation provides for addressing gender issues relevant to women, and to provide some insight on how these might be tackled. Approach: Review of literature relating to gender issues and how they relate to achieving, on the one hand, equity and efficiency goals, and on the…

  4. Digital Equity and Intercultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resta, Paul; Laferrière, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    Digital equity and intercultural education continue to be areas of concern in the emerging knowledge-based society. The digital divide is present across the globe as the result of a complex of factors such as the inequality in: access to hardware and connectivity; autonomy of use; digital and literacy skills; availability of technical and social…

  5. Mathematics Equity. A Resource Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Eddy; And Others

    Provided in this document is a brief summary of current research on equity in mathematics, readings on the topic, and lists of selected programs and resource materials. Readings presented include: "Teaching Mathematics in a Multicultural Setting: Some Considerations when Teachers and Students are of Differing Cultural Backgrounds"…

  6. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare the performance of the model with several...

  7. The Economics of Private Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe development of theory about private equity during the last decades follows the pattern of economic development. While buyouts have found their origin in restructuring we observe more recently a trend of facilitating growth, where the firm and financier follow a path of acquisitions.

  8. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Cumming; G. Fleming; A. Schwienbacher

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  9. Consumer Learning and Brand Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); J.W. Alba (Joseph)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA series of experiments illustrates a learning process that enhances brand equity at the expense of quality-determining attributes. When the relationship between brand name and product quality is learned prior to the relationship between product attributes and quality, inhibition of the

  10. "Gender-into-Teaching" at the Vienna University of Technology. Experiences and Reflections on an Austrian Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Bente; Ratzer, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    "Gender-into-teaching" is the first Austrian project to develop strategies on how to implement gender topics at a technical university. This project can really be qualified as a model for other universities and as unique in Austria. Up to now, there are many more males in higher-level positions in the university hierarchies. The--very…

  11. Gender Discrimination in Educational Personnel: A Case Study of Gweru Urban District Secondary Schools, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matope, Nogget

    2012-01-01

    Gender discrimination in educational institutions persists, despite the vigorous pursuit of policies and programmes to reduce the varying degrees of gender inequity in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is a signatory to international agreements and conventions which promote gender equity with a thrust towards increased access to education for girls and females.…

  12. "Dangerous Presumptions": How Single-Sex Schooling Reifies False Notions of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Janna

    2010-01-01

    Due to the recent changes in federal regulations about gender equity in education in the USA, some policy makers have resurrected single-sex public education. Because single-sex schooling ignores the complexity of sex, gender, and sexuality, it sets up a "separate but equal" system that is anything but. Discounting the ways in which gender is…

  13. "Dangerous Presumptions": How Single-Sex Schooling Reifies False Notions of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Janna

    2010-01-01

    Due to the recent changes in federal regulations about gender equity in education in the USA, some policy makers have resurrected single-sex public education. Because single-sex schooling ignores the complexity of sex, gender, and sexuality, it sets up a "separate but equal" system that is anything but. Discounting the ways in which gender is…

  14. "We Understand Better Because We Have Been Mothers": Teaching, Maternalism, and Gender Equality in Bolivian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Julie A.; Miller, Amy Chasteen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Bolivian schoolteachers' attitudes and practices surrounding gender in the context of a national educational reform law that mandated gender equity. Teacher interviews and primary school classroom observations indicate teachers' discourses and practices reflect a sometimes paradoxical blend of advocacy for gender equality and…

  15. Preliminary results of the investigation “Women and Men Entrepreneurs in Science and Technology in Costa Rica: a contrast of gender realities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ferreto-Gutiérrez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The project is an investigation that seeks to demons­trate the contrasts of gender entrepreneurship on companies focused in Science and Technology in Costa Rica. By consulting secondary sources and experts on the topic, and deepen the field of Science and Technology. We have found a lack of documented information to take appropriate actions to guide the various actors involved at the level of Government, private sector and academia. In 2010, the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Commerce (MEIC launches two public policy of promoting SMEs and other enterprises to which state the issue of gender as a crosscutting issue. In addition, the Institute Tecnolológico Costa Rica (ITCR has defined support for SMEs and entre­preneurship as an institutional policy and transverse axis of its academic work (Institutional III Congress, which motivates venture into this line of research. Based on the above, this research proposal pretend at laying the foundations to make a gender contrast in entrepreneurs and their initiatives in science and technology and determine whether the differences or similarities impact on the performance of their companies.

  16. Equity Index in the School Systems of Selected OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmusul, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analysis the equity in the school systems of selected OECD countries. For this purpose, the international data for selected OECD countries was analyzed in terms of four dimensions of equity as learning equity, school resource equity, participating in education, and digital equity. When analyzing data, the equity…

  17. A Racial Equity Toolkit for Midwifery Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Wendy M

    2016-11-01

    Midwifery associations are increasing awareness and commitment to racial equity in the profession and in the communities we serve. Moving these commitments from words into action may be facilitated by a racial equity toolkit to help guide midwifery organizations to consider all policies, initiatives, and actions with a racial equity lens. Racial equity impact analyses have been used in recent years by various governmental agencies in the United States and abroad with positive results, and emerging literature indicates that nonprofit organizations are having similarly positive results. This article proposes a framework for midwifery organizations to incorporate a racial equity toolkit, starting with explicit intentions of the organization with regard to racial equity in the profession. Indicators of success are elucidated as the next step, followed by the use of a racial equity impact analysis worksheet. This worksheet is applied by teams or committees when considering new policies or initiatives to examine those actions through a racial equity lens. An organizational change team and equity advisory groups are essential in assisting organizational leadership to forecast potential negative and positive impacts. Examples of the components of a midwifery-specific racial equity toolkit are included. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Analytical Strategy for Dealing with Neutrality Claims and Implicit Masculinity Constructions. Methodological Challenges for Gender Studies in Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Paulitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an empirical example, we offer in this article a methodological discussion of the challenges and pitfalls gender studies scholars face when analyzing how gender norms are attributed to epistemic cultures in science and engineering. Faced with actors who claim neutrality and objectivity for themselves and their work, the challenge is to analyze gender norms that are mostly implicit without reifying gender differences. Committed to the goal of opening this black box, we propose an analytical strategy for qualitative empirical research to unveil these subtle, highly normalized, discursive practices of attributing gender norms to the epistemic subjects, objects and activities in science and engineering, and exemplify it with reference to our own empirical study. By comparing the patterns of distinction with respect to epistemic boundaries and to gender differentiations, it is possible to trace connections between the symbolic gender order and epistemic cultures within the data. The allegedly neutral scientist as well as the engineering scholar is then shown to be the androcentric construction of a masculine coded epistemic subject. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1603138

  19. Equity Versus Non-Equity International Strategic Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globerman, Steven; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    A substantial literature has evolved focusing on the ownership structure of international strategic alliances (ISAs). Most of the relevant studies are theoretical in nature and concentrate on the conceptual factors that influence the choice between equity and non-equity structures. A smaller number...... of studies provide some empirical evidence on the importance of some of the conceptual factors. The theoretical literature highlights the potential influence of relational capital and transaction costs as determinants of ISA structure; however, there is little empirical evidence on the relative importance...... of these potential determinants. Moreover, there is only limited and indirect evidence bearing upon the impact of host country governance attributes on ISA ownership structure. In this study, we provide statistical evidence on the importance of potential determinants of governance mode choice for a sample of ISAs...

  20. The case of Geely acquiring Volvo Car : A study on low brand equity acquiring high brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xiaoshu; Shi, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Much previous research has studied high brand equity acquiring high brand equity or high brand equity acquiring low brand equity. However, very little research has been conducted to understand how that low brand equity acquiring high brand equity changes the low brand equity especially in China. This paper is on the case of Geely Group acquiring Volvo Car which was a typical acquisition of a high brand equity company by a low brand equity company. The aim of the paper is to verify whether thi...

  1. Effect of Gender on Computer Use and Attitudes of College Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Leah P.; Heafner, Tina L.

    Male and female students have historically had different computer attitudes and levels of computer use. These equity issues are of interest to researchers and practitioners who seek to understand why a digital divide exists between men and women. In this study, these questions were examined in an intensive computing environment in which all students at one university were issued identical laptop computers and used them extensively for 4 years. Self-reported computer use was examined for effects of gender. Attitudes toward computers were also assessed and compared for male and female students. The results indicated that when the technological environment was institutionally equalized for male and female students, many traditional findings of gender differences were not evident.

  2. Reducing the distance: equity issues in distance learning in public education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia B.; Storo, Jennifer

    1996-12-01

    Distance learning and educational equity both began with an emphasis on access, on providing underserved students with an increased access to education. Today definitions of equity have gone beyond simple access to include equal or equivalent treatment and outcomes while definitions of underserved students have expanded to include girls, children of color, children with limited English proficiency and children with disabilities. At the same time the definition of distance learning has expanded to include new technologies, new audiences and new roles. Based on these new definitions and roles, the article raises a number of equity challenges for distance learning educators centering around who is taught, what is taught and how the teaching is done. To answer these challenges, a series of recommendations are suggested that educators can implement to make distance learning a leader in increasing educational equity for all students. The time to act is now.

  3. Gender and professionalisation in the Danish ECE workforce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Baagøe

    to practice. The research highlights the importance of reflecting gender aspects at an important step of vocational carreers. ECE research, practice and policy have to regard gender equity as a basic aspect of diversity and equality in ECE. The research explores and sheds light on the parallel difficulties...... of the gender equal recruitment and the strategies of professionalization. The aim is to discuss future possibilities of policies targeted at recruiting men....

  4. Corporate Governance and Private Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Pindroch, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The thesis aspires to address two fundamental aims, one of which is to undertake a systematic review of the existing literature and empirical evidence on corporate governance issues relevant for leveraged buyout investing (LBO); while the second aim is to develop, currently missing, evidence regarding the pre- and post- buyout corporate governance, including its role for buyout investing, in the Czech portfolio companies acquired via LBO by private equity firms. The first aim of the thesis is...

  5. Governing health equity in Scandinavian municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild; Diderichsen, Finn

    2017-01-01

    to health equity goals outside of the health sector and inadequate economic prioritization budget curbs implementation. Concerning evidence, there is a lack of epidemiological data, detailed evidence of health equity interventions as well as indicators relevant for monitoring implementation. Concerted......AIMS: Local governments in the Scandinavian countries are increasingly committed to reduce health inequity through 'health equity in all policies' (HEiAP) governance. There exists, however, only very sporadic implementation evidence concerning municipal HEiAP governance, which is the focus...

  6. International Investors, Exchange Rates and Equity Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Dirk G.; Isaac Miyakawa

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between equity returns and currency returns affects the risk of international equity portfolios. We analyze the equity index and currency returns of 53 countries and find that correlations are mainly positive. Negative correlations are found for currencies which play a special role in the global financial system like the US dollar, the Japanese yen, the British pound, the euro and the Swiss franc. Correlations generally increased in recent years and are often larger in extreme...

  7. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  8. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  9. Equity investigation of attitudinal shifts in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Traxler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on seven years of attitudinal data using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey from University Modeling Instruction (UMI sections of introductory physics at Florida International University. University Modeling Instruction is a curricular and pedagogical transformation of introductory university physics that engages students in building and testing conceptual models in an integrated lab and lecture learning environment. This work expands upon previous studies that reported consistently positive attitude shifts in UMI courses; here, we disaggregate the data by gender and ethnicity to look for any disparities in the pattern of favorable shifts. We find that women and students from statistically underrepresented ethnic groups have gains that are comparable to those of men and students from well-represented ethnic groups on this attitudinal measure, and that this result holds even when interaction effects of gender and ethnicity are included. We conclude with suggestions for future work in UMI courses and for attitudinal equity investigations generally. We encourage researchers to expand their scope beyond simple performance gaps when considering equity concerns, and to avoid relying on a single measure to evaluate student success. Finally, we conjecture that students’ social and academic networks are one means by which attitudinal and efficacy beliefs about the course are propagated.

  10. Equity investigation of attitudinal shifts in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Adrienne; Brewe, Eric

    2015-12-01

    We report on seven years of attitudinal data using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey from University Modeling Instruction (UMI) sections of introductory physics at Florida International University. University Modeling Instruction is a curricular and pedagogical transformation of introductory university physics that engages students in building and testing conceptual models in an integrated lab and lecture learning environment. This work expands upon previous studies that reported consistently positive attitude shifts in UMI courses; here, we disaggregate the data by gender and ethnicity to look for any disparities in the pattern of favorable shifts. We find that women and students from statistically underrepresented ethnic groups have gains that are comparable to those of men and students from well-represented ethnic groups on this attitudinal measure, and that this result holds even when interaction effects of gender and ethnicity are included. We conclude with suggestions for future work in UMI courses and for attitudinal equity investigations generally. We encourage researchers to expand their scope beyond simple performance gaps when considering equity concerns, and to avoid relying on a single measure to evaluate student success. Finally, we conjecture that students' social and academic networks are one means by which attitudinal and efficacy beliefs about the course are propagated.

  11. Efficiency, new equity capital enable systems to compete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; McCool, B P

    1985-01-01

    Because of limited cash, sponsors of some community and religious hospitals have sought to sell or lease their institutions to a not-for-profit (NFP) system or to a for-profit system. A number of national alliances address the capital formation problem of NFP institutions. Until now they have been almost exclusively concerned with acquiring less costly debt. Without new equity capital, market influence is difficult to obtain. Even well-managed voluntary systems face a serious threat from well-capitalized investor-owned systems. Increased competition among hospitals and physicians will force future advantages to those who have capital. It will also restrict funding of certain programs and services by voluntary enterprises. In anticipation of this, various forms of partnerships have developed with investor-owned systems. To regain the initiative as the premier sponsors of health care, religious and other voluntary systems must go beyond merely competing in their markets to acquiring weaker institutions. They also must revitalize private giving and excel in efficiency to offset threats from ambulatory, day-care operations and from high-technology hospitals. Structural changes in the industry can be predicted, including the following: The trend toward integration for production, financing, and marketing will continue. Public market equity capital will be increasingly used to finance medical practice. Hospitals that sell their equity values will establish service foundations. National alliances will continue, but strictly local systems will maintain operation. Investor-owned systems will move increasingly into high-technology tertiary care.

  12. Venture capital and private equity investment preferences in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dziekoński

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources of capital to finance companies in the SME sector is one of the basic conditions for the functioning and development of enterprises, especially in the early phase of their development. Increasingly popular is the use of capital market instruments, Private Equity, Venture Capital, Business Angels or Mezzanine. Funding of this kind can finance risky investments in return for a higher expected rate of return on capital. Access to financial resources and the conditions under which entrepreneurs can use them can determine the introduction of new technology, new products and services, expand distribution channels, implement changes that may lead to the growth in competitiveness and above all, innovation, thus the growth of the company. The paper presents results of statistical analysis of the venture capital and private equity funds investment strategies in selected countries. As a result investment profiles are created.

  13. Gender Equity: Womens Political Empowerment In South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    variation in female-to-male earned income and “a qualitative variable calculated through the World Economic Forum’s Executive Opinion Survey ( wage ...other potentially significant politicians, demonstrate that the glass ceiling is cracked, if not broken, with a clear path for future female...South Korea. With the political glass ceiling broken by Park, future prospects for female politicians like Na and Son seem bright. 2. The Presidency

  14. 302 Gender Equity and Empowerment in Nigeria: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info .... in education far from being randomly distributed have a negative impact and ..... Women in Management Review and Abstracts. ... at the Women's Forum, Arthur's Seat Hotel.

  15. Targeting Mr Average: Participation, Gender Equity and School Sport Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintoff, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The School Sport Partnership Programme (SSPP) is one strand of the national strategy for physical education and school sport in England, the physical education and social sport Club Links Strategy (PESSCL). The SSPP aims to make links between school physical education (PE) and out of school sports participation, and has a particular remit to raise…

  16. Gender Equity Employment in Polytechnics in South East Zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Women's Education Development by the Federal Ministry of. Education, set to achieve ..... within the workplace, discrimination against certain social groups such as ... stereotypes had greatly affected the access of women in equal employment ...

  17. Gender Equity and the Role of Women in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In 1920 AAUW's predecessor, the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, helped raise $100,000 for Polish scientist Marie Curie to purchase a gram of radium. Members honored Curie in New York City as she kicked off her triumphant 1921 fundraising tour of the United States, which allowed her to continue her relentless work and eventually establish the…

  18. Gender Equity in Intercollegiate Athletics: Determinants of Title IX Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah J.; Cheslock, John Jesse; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2006-01-01

    Using new data on intercollegiate athletes, this article shows that recent improvement in Title IX compliance among NCAA Division I institutions was previously overestimated, and provides the first estimates of compliance in Divisions II and III. In addition, regression analyses investigate how institutional characteristics relate to the extent of…

  19. Meeting the Challenge of Gender Equity in Community College Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Cindy; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Hardy, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 state, "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance". This provision paved the way for student-initiated lawsuits…

  20. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.

  1. On the Real Effects of Private Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPrivate equity has become an increasingly important part of our economy. Around the world the companies owned by private equity investors account for a substantial percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and private sector employment. These investors have recently been under fire in t

  2. Achieving Sex Equity via Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetsch, David L.; Gulledge, Earl N.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the women's rights movement and discusses the evolution of society's attitudes toward women. Discusses the goals and methods of Okaloosa-Walton Junior College Sex Equity Plan, a vocational education program for achieving sex equity. Highlights five major components: education, student recruitment, self-paced, self-directed instruction, job…

  3. Orwell and the Politics of Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Richard G.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews three general themes--each related to contemporary situations affecting educational equity--in the works of George Orwell. These include (1) that it is difficult for the weak to preserve their "inner core"; (2) that revolutions for equality can fail; and (3) that all people, including those who work for educational equity, are…

  4. 7 CFR 930.60 - Equity holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equity holders. 930.60 Section 930.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations § 930.60 Equity holders. (a) Inventory reserve ownership. The inventory reserve shall be the...

  5. Locus of Equity and Brand Extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); J.W. Alba (Joseph)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPrevailing wisdom assumes that brand equity increases when a brand touts its desirable attributes. We report conditions under which the use of attribute information to promote a product can shift the locus of equity from brand to attribute, thereby reducing the attractiveness of extensio

  6. Locus of Equity and Brand Extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); J.W. Alba (Joseph)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPrevailing wisdom assumes that brand equity increases when a brand touts its desirable attributes. We report conditions under which the use of attribute information to promote a product can shift the locus of equity from brand to attribute, thereby reducing the attractiveness of extensio

  7. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Equity Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Currently, mathematics instruction in U.S. classrooms is far from achieving equity for African American students. This qualitative study reports the results of eight successful elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge of equity pedagogy, specifically their knowledge of culturally relevant pedagogy, cultural competence, and critical…

  8. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Equity Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Currently, mathematics instruction in U.S. classrooms is far from achieving equity for African American students. This qualitative study reports the results of eight successful elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge of equity pedagogy, specifically their knowledge of culturally relevant pedagogy, cultural competence, and critical…

  9. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant margin premium in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin pre...

  10. [Reflections on fostering a gender friendly environment in nursing education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2011-04-01

    Gender mainstreaming is a worldwide issue. The United Nations and World Health Organization have emphasized the importance of incorporating gender perspectives and gender equity into government policy decisions. In traditional nursing education, females and female nurses play increasingly important, albeit still silent, roles in traditionally patriarchal working places. Increasing attention is now paid to gender issues, and nursing has become an important field in which to discuss and address gender issues. Nurses should take into consideration patient privacy and prevalent cultural mores when working to accomplish gender equality as well as encourage mutual participation in an open-minded and equitable environment. This article describes how gender bias and insensitivity may result from nursing education and learning processes. In addition, this article reflects on how to leverage self-awareness, gender sensitivity, education strategies and role modeling to create a gender-friendly environment in nursing education.

  11. Communication and Collaboration, Satisfaction, Equity, and Autonomy in Blended Learning Environments: A Case from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Gülbahar, R. Orçun Madran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Research studies conducted in the area of e-learning and blended learning lead to the emergence of new concepts, which directly influence quality. Among these concepts, the ones taken into consideration for this research study are as follows: communication and collaboration, satisfaction, equity, and autonomy. The perceptions of students taking blended ICT courses in a private university in Turkey were gathered through an Online Learning Environment Survey (OLES. Additionally, the suggestions of instructors for improving the quality of blended learning were obtained through a focus group interview.The findings of this study show that the perceived communication, collaboration, and satisfaction levels of students vary according to their levels of computer and Internet literacy. Also, there are differences in the students’ satisfaction levels based on gender. The majority of students revealed that they considered themselves to be autonomous and equal in the blended learning environment.The findings of this research study, together with our review of recent literature, lead us to conclude that there are four major areas (containing several factors that must be considered when developing a high-quality blended learning environment. These four areas are as follows: technology, instructors, students, and pedagogy. Based on the findings, some practical suggestions for transforming traditional courses into blended ones are also offered at the end of the research study. Finally, suggestions for the future are provided.

  12. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  13. Vocational Psychology: Agency, Equity, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed.

  14. Gender, globalisation, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, S

    2000-03-01

    This article discusses the link between gender, globalization and democracy in relation to women¿s empowerment. Analyzing gender relations within the processes of development planning involves five approaches: 1) welfare, 2) equity, 3) anti-poverty, 4) efficiency, and 5) empowerment. In addition, a new approach, which combines efficiency and empowerment, must be added to highlight the problematic nature of the direction of causality assumed by traditional theory of development. The rise on women's representation in national parliament can be attributed to the increase of women's economic power and women's political struggles. However, promotion of globalization produces new opportunities for feminist politics, as well as difficulties, which include: the emergent position of productive engagement in which an efficient economy and democratic society are seen as interdependent; and increase in parliamentary representation correlates with increased paid employment for women. In conclusion, the author underscores that globalization is a gendered process which is restructuring social relations on a large scale and the challenges it bring provide opportunities for women in development.

  15. [A gender perspective on medicalized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2015-02-01

    Gender mainstreaming is a worldwide issue. The United Nations and the World Health Organization have emphasized the importance of incorporating gender perspectives and gender equity into government policy decisions. Different cultures have different attitudes toward the management of childbirth and these attitudes influence the feelings and needs of women and their partners. These needs must be better understood and satisfied. The widely held technocratic values of obstetricians influence the birthing experience of women significantly. This article uses a gender perspective to describe the medicalization of childbirth, the pharmacological pain-relief oppression of women, the prevalence of blaming women for decisions to conduct Caesarean sections, and the exclusion of men from involvement in the childbirth process. This article may be used as reference to enhance gender equality childbirth care for women.

  16. Infertility around the globe: new thinking on gender, reproductive technologies and global movements in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is estimated to affect as many as 186 million people worldwide. Although male infertility contributes to more than half of all cases of global childlessness, infertility remains a woman's social burden. Unfortunately, areas of the world with the highest rates of infertility are often those with poor access to assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). In such settings, women may be abandoned to their childless destinies. However, emerging data suggest that making ART accessible and affordable is an important gender intervention. To that end, this article presents an overview of what we know about global infertility, ART and changing gender relations, posing five key questions: (i) why is infertility an ongoing global reproductive health problem? (ii) What are the gender effects of infertility, and are they changing over time? (iii) What do we know about the globalization of ART to resource-poor settings? (iv) How are new global initiatives attempting to improve access to IVF? (v) Finally, what can be done to overcome infertility, help the infertile and enhance low-cost IVF (LCIVF) activism? An exhaustive literature review using MEDLINE, Google Scholar and the keyword search function provided through the Yale University Library (i.e. which scans multiple databases simultaneously) identified 103 peer-reviewed journal articles and 37 monographs, chapters and reports from the years 2000-2014 in the areas of: (i) infertility demography, (ii) ART in low-resource settings, (iii) gender and infertility in low-resource settings and (iv) the rise of LCIVF initiatives. International Federation of Fertility Societies Surveillance reports were particularly helpful in identifying important global trends in IVF clinic distribution between 2002 and 2010. Additionally, a series of articles published by scholars who are tracking global cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) trends, as well as others who are involved in the growing LCIVF movement, were invaluable. Recent

  17. Banking Firm, Equity and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Broll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the interaction between the solvency probability of a banking firm and the diversification potential of its asset portfolio when determining optimal equity capital. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate value at risk (VaR into the firm-theoretical model of a banking firm facing the risk of asset return. Given the necessity to achieve a confidence level for solvency, we demonstrate that diversification reduces the amount of equity. Notably, the VaR concept excludes a separation of equity policy and asset-liability management.

  18. Advancing Efforts to Achieve Health Equity: Equity Metrics for Health Impact Assessment Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Heller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA. Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1 the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2 the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3 the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4 the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric.

  19. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay-for-perfo......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay......-for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working...

  20. New Technologies Smart, or Harm Work-Family Boundaries Management? Gender Differences in Conflict and Enrichment Using the JD-R Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between technology-assisted supplemental work and well-being outcomes is a recent issue in scientific literature. Whether the use of technology for work purpose in off-work time may have a positive or negative impact on work-family balance remains an open question and the role of gender in this relationship is poorly understood. Aim: According to the JD-R theory, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between off-work hours technology assisted job demand (off-TAJD) and both work-family conflict (WFC) and work-family enrichment (WFE). Moreover, it considered two general job demands, workload and emotional dissonance, and one job resource, supervisory coaching. Method: The hypotheses were tested with a convenience sample of 671 workers. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS 23 and through multi-group structural equation model (SEM) (Mplus 7). Results: The estimated SEM [Chi-square (510) = 1041.29; p < 0.01; CFI = 0.95; TLI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.06 (0.05, 0.06); SRMR = 0.05. M = 319/F = 352] showed that off-TAJD was positively related to WFC in both subsamples; off-TAJD was positively related also to WFE only in the Male group. Workload was positively related to WFC in both Male and Female subsamples. Emotional dissonance was positively related to WFC in both subsamples and was negatively related to WFE. Supervisory coaching was strongly, positively related to WFE in both groups, and only in the Male subsample presented a low negative relationship with WFC. Conclusion: This study contributes to the literature on new challenges in work-life interface by analyzing the association between off-TAJD and WFC and Enrichment. Our findings suggest it is important to pay attention to gender differences in the study of the impact of supplemental work carried out during off-work hours using technology on the work-life interface. In fact, employee perception of Company demands of being available during off

  1. New Technologies Smart, or Harm Work-Family Boundaries Management? Gender Differences in Conflict and Enrichment Using the JD-R Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ghislieri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between technology-assisted supplemental work and well-being outcomes is a recent issue in scientific literature. Whether the use of technology for work purpose in off-work time may have a positive or negative impact on work-family balance remains an open question and the role of gender in this relationship is poorly understood.Aim: According to the JD-R theory, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between off-work hours technology assisted job demand (off-TAJD and both work-family conflict (WFC and work-family enrichment (WFE. Moreover, it considered two general job demands, workload and emotional dissonance, and one job resource, supervisory coaching.Method: The hypotheses were tested with a convenience sample of 671 workers. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS 23 and through multi-group structural equation model (SEM (Mplus 7.Results: The estimated SEM [Chi-square (510 = 1041.29; p < 0.01; CFI = 0.95; TLI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.06 (0.05, 0.06; SRMR = 0.05. M = 319/F = 352] showed that off-TAJD was positively related to WFC in both subsamples; off-TAJD was positively related also to WFE only in the Male group. Workload was positively related to WFC in both Male and Female subsamples. Emotional dissonance was positively related to WFC in both subsamples and was negatively related to WFE. Supervisory coaching was strongly, positively related to WFE in both groups, and only in the Male subsample presented a low negative relationship with WFC.Conclusion: This study contributes to the literature on new challenges in work-life interface by analyzing the association between off-TAJD and WFC and Enrichment. Our findings suggest it is important to pay attention to gender differences in the study of the impact of supplemental work carried out during off-work hours using technology on the work-life interface. In fact, employee perception of Company demands of being available

  2. ACCESS AND EQUITY: Challenges for Open and Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOJDE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available "The emergence of the system of open and distance education is an inevitable and phenomenal evolution in the history of educational developments internationally. While the formal system of education continues to be the mainstream of educational transaction, it has its inherent limitations with regard to expansion, provision of access and equity and cost-effectiveness. On the other hand, the growth of information and communication technologies has facilitated the expansion of distance mode of education. It is now possible to adopt flexible, constructivist, learner-friendly and multi-perspective approaches to teaching-learning, so essential for nurturing creativity, leadership, scholarship and integrated development of human personality.

  3. Personality and gender differences in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, David P; Long, Audrey E; McPhearson, Allante; O'Brien, Kirby; Remmert, Brooke; Shah, Seema H

    2016-03-21

    Men's and women's personalities appear to differ in several respects. Social role theories of development assume gender differences result primarily from perceived gender roles, gender socialization and sociostructural power differentials. As a consequence, social role theorists expect gender differences in personality to be smaller in cultures with more gender egalitarianism. Several large cross-cultural studies have generated sufficient data for evaluating these global personality predictions. Empirically, evidence suggests gender differences in most aspects of personality-Big Five traits, Dark Triad traits, self-esteem, subjective well-being, depression and values-are conspicuously larger in cultures with more egalitarian gender roles, gender socialization and sociopolitical gender equity. Similar patterns are evident when examining objectively measured attributes such as tested cognitive abilities and physical traits such as height and blood pressure. Social role theory appears inadequate for explaining some of the observed cultural variations in men's and women's personalities. Evolutionary theories regarding ecologically-evoked gender differences are described that may prove more useful in explaining global variation in human personality.

  4. Private equity leveraged buyout and public values: the bankruptcy of Eircom, Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, W.; Groenewegen, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 the Delft University of Technology was commissioned by the Ministry of Economic Affairs of the Netherlands to investigate the potential impact of private equity leverage buy-out in the telecommunication sector on the public values that the government wished to safeguard. The study provided a

  5. Discovering Valuable Growth Opportunities: An Analysis of Equity Alliances with IPO Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Reuer (Jeffrey); T.W. Tong (Tony)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFirms often use alliances to access external resources and explore new market or technological opportunities, yet they also can face obstacles to discovering these opportunities in the first place. In this paper, we examine how firms can overcome these obstacles and form equity alliances

  6. Gender and the utilisation of health services in the Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buor, D.

    2004-01-01

    The survey seeks to structure a model for gender-based health services utilisation for the Ashanti Region of Ghana, and in addition, recommend intervention measures to ensure gender equity in the utilisation of health services. A sample size of 650 covered over 3108 houses, and the main research ins

  7. Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship: Final Report to the MCM 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender equality is not just about economic empowerment. It is a moral imperative, it is about fairness and equity, and includes many political, social and cultural dimensions. Gender equality, however, is also a key factor in self-reported well-being and happiness across the world. In the aftermath of the Great Recession, there is now an urgent…

  8. Unsettling the Gendered Power Paradigm: Discomfort, Dissonance and Dissention among Women in Local Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Catherine; Clover, Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to achieve gender equity in political life, women remain underrepresented in nearly all levels of government. In this paper, we explore the experiences offered by women who have been elected to local government in the province of British Columbia, Canada, to illustrate the persistence of gendered discourses and…

  9. Gender and Schooling in the Early Years. Research on Women and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Janice, Ed.; Irby, Beverly, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In this volume, gender and schooling in the early years addresses a broad range of issues including, but not limited, to gender equity in education. We explore, for example, the complex world of play in Fromberg's chapter and are reminded that for young children, play involves issues of power and hierarchy in ways that parallel the role of gender…

  10. The Formation of Gender Education Policies in Taiwan, 1995-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao-Chin, Hsieh; Shu-Ching, Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the formation of gender equity education policies in Taiwan between 1995 and 1999. The first part of the article presents a general description of Taiwan's women's movement, the education reform movement, and the development of women's/gender studies after the lifting of martial law in 1987. The second part of…

  11. Gendered Violence: Examining Education's Role. Working Paper Series. Working Paper 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Katherine

    Violence is a part of daily life in the United States, the world's leader in the number of homicides, rapes, and assaults. This working paper examines the issue of violence in the United States from a gender equity perspective. Gendered violence is reinforced by cultural beliefs that allow individuals and groups to use violence to establish and…

  12. Gender Divergence in Academics' Representation and Research Productivity: A Nigerian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opesade, Adeola Omobola; Famurewa, Kofoworola Folakemi; Igwe, Ebelechukwu Gloria

    2017-01-01

    Gender equity is increasingly seen as an indicator of development and global acceptance in networks of higher education. Despite this, gender divergence in research productivity of academics coupled with under-representation of women in science has been reported to beset female's scholarly activities. Previous studies provide differing results,…

  13. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  14. Paving the Way For Private Equity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since China fully opened its financial market on December 11 last year, a variety of foreign financial institutions have come to share in the blossoming Chinese market. Global private equity firms have also attached keen interest to this emerging market.

  15. Equity versus Warm Glow in Intergenerational Giving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadrieh, A.

    2003-01-01

    In different treatments of an intergenerational common resource experiment, monetary payoff maximization by each generation causes either negative or positive externalities for future generations.Two behavioral types have been observed previously in single generation games: equity motivated

  16. Improvement of Educational Equity & Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational improvement for equity and professional teacher development are crucial issues concerning the essential right all students have of a good education. Firstly the article proposes a contextual reflection on improvement, some considerations related to well known traditions in the field and particularly the social justice and its relationships and implication for educational politics, curriculum, teaching, teacher and community. Secondly, it claims for the coherence of teacher professional development to educational equity. Different analysis and proposals are outlined related to policies and tasks the public administration should undertake and some dimensions of teacher education are considered attending educational equity criteria. Professional learning communities are described and valued as a hypothetical framework in order to improve equity and teacher education relationships.

  17. What Drives Private Equity Investments in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Precup Mihai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting the determinants of private equity investments in Romania over the period 2000 - 2013. Additionally, this paper presents the main highlights in terms of evolution, source of funding and activities in which the private equity funds invested during the crisis. Starting from the existing literature, this paper extends the analysis of private equity drivers to Romanian market by including variables such as: economic growth, market capitalization, interest rate, unemployment rate and public R&D expenditure which were already tested in previous papers. In addition, this paper introduces new variables such us productivity and corruption index which we consider important factors in explaining the evolution of private equity investments in Romania.

  18. Social Construction of Skill: Gender, Power, and Comparable Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Ronnie J.

    1990-01-01

    Pressures that contribute to conventional definitions of skill are uncovered through identification of sources of gender bias in job evaluation systems. Pay equity initiatives are examined to highlight process by which new definitions of skill are constructed or blocked. Demonstrates that comparable worth research can engender understanding of…

  19. The Malawi National Tuberculosis Programme: an equity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimzizi Rhehab

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until 2005, the Malawi National Tuberculosis Control Programme had been implemented as a vertical programme. Working within the Sector Wide Approach (SWAp provides a new environment and new opportunities for monitoring the equity performance of the programme. This paper synthesizes what is known on equity and TB in Malawi and highlights areas for further action and advocacy. Methods A synthesis of a wide range of published and unpublished reports and studies using a variety of methodological approaches was undertaken and complemented by additional analysis of routine data on access to TB services. The analysis and recommendations were developed, through consultation with key stakeholders in Malawi and a review of the international literature. Results The lack of a prevalence survey severely limits the epidemiological knowledge base on TB and vulnerability. TB cases have increased rapidly from 5,334 in 1985 to 28,000 in 2006. This increase has been attributed to HIV/AIDS; 77% of TB patients are HIV positive. The age/gender breakdown of TB notification cases mirrors the HIV epidemic with higher rates amongst younger women and older men. The WHO estimates that only 48% of TB cases are detected in Malawi. The complexity of TB diagnosis requires repeated visits, long queues, and delays in sending results. This reduces poor women and men's ability to access and adhere to services. The costs of seeking TB care are high for poor women and men – up to 240% of monthly income as compared to 126% of monthly income for the non-poor. The TB Control Programme has attempted to increase access to TB services for vulnerable groups through community outreach activities, decentralising DOT and linking with HIV services. Conclusion The Programme of Work which is being delivered through the SWAp is a good opportunity to enhance equity and pro-poor health services. The major challenge is to increase case detection, especially amongst the poor

  20. The ConNECT Framework: a model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Sly, Jamilia; Ashing, Kimlin; Fleisher, Linda; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Ford, Sabrina; Yi, Jean C; Lu, Qian; Meade, Cathy D; Menon, Usha; Gwede, Clement K

    2017-02-01

    Health disparities persist despite ongoing efforts. Given the United States' rapidly changing demography and socio-cultural diversity, a paradigm shift in behavioral medicine is needed to advance research and interventions focused on health equity. This paper introduces the ConNECT Framework as a model to link the sciences of behavioral medicine and health equity with the goal of achieving equitable health and outcomes in the twenty-first century. We first evaluate the state of health equity efforts in behavioral medicine science and identify key opportunities to advance the field. We then discuss and present actionable recommendations related to ConNECT's five broad and synergistic principles: (1) Integrating Context; (2) Fostering a Norm of Inclusion; (3) Ensuring Equitable Diffusion of Innovations; (4) Harnessing Communication Technology; and (5) Prioritizing Specialized Training. The framework holds significant promise for furthering health equity and ushering in a new and refreshing era of behavioral medicine science and practice.

  1. Equity issues were not fully addressed in Cochrane human immunodeficiency virus systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aves, Theresa; Kredo, Tamara; Welch, Vivian; Mursleen, Sara; Ross, Stephanie; Zani, Babalwa; Motaze, Nkengafac Villyen; Quinlan, Leah; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    To describe and summarize equity reporting in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) systematic reviews and explore the extent to which equity issues are addressed and reported in HIV reviews using the PROGRESS Plus framework. Application of the PROGRESS Plus framework to a bibliometric analysis of HIV reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The analysis included 103 reviews published as of March 2014, with a median of five studies per review (first quartile; Q1 = 2; third quartile; Q3 = 11). Reporting of PROGRESS Plus factors was as follows: Place of residence (low, middle, and high income; 55.3%), place of residence (urban or rural; 24.3%), race or ethnicity (20.4%), occupation (10.7%), gender (65.0%), religion (1.9%), education (7.8%), socioeconomic position (10.7%), social networks and capital (1.0%), age (1.9%), and sexual orientation (3.8%). Gaps in the reporting of relevant equity indicators were identified within Cochrane HIV systematic review indicating that research is not consistently conducted through an equity lens. There is a need to incorporate PROGRESS Plus factors into both primary and secondary studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender Disparities in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswat, Khaled A.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a growing health concern worldwide and its complications are as prevalent as other common chronic disease complications such as hypertension and diabetes. In this review, we will discuss the role of gender in osteoporosis, especially related to peak bone mass and maturation, rate of annual bone loss, screening, prevalence of osteoporosis and its related fractures, mortality after osteoporosis-related fracture, fracture risk predication using different technologies and the impact of gender on osteoporosis management.

  3. Information and communication technologies and gender in climate change and green economy: Situating women’s opportunities and challenges in Zambian policies and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Namukombo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zambia’s 2012 report on the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (RIO +20 identifies existing opportunities on the country’s transitioning to green economy. The RIO +20 conference of 2012 has resulted in new momentum in addressing problems of sustainable development. However, this article argues that there are practical challenges that require paying attention to, especially those involving women. The article addressed one key question: To what extent can women participate in the transitioning process to green economy in Zambia and what opportunities and challenges exists? The study used document analysis to answer the above question. National policy documents were reviewed to understand interventions on environmental management. Whilst going through the documents, the study used gender analysis frameworks (education, skills, roles in family and society, access to infrastructure to bring out qualitative and quantitative information on women. Using suggested green economy interventions in the literature as benchmark, qualitative analysis was used to project possible participation of women in green economy activities and possible challenges to be faced. The study found that participation of women will be limited despite existing opportunities because of challenges of access to information and communication technology infrastructures, low educational levels and skills and financial constraints. As Zambia undergoes a transitioning process, these limitations should be addressed in planned green economy policies and interventions to maximise benefits.Keywords: Green economy; Gender; Policies; Strategies; ICT; Zambia

  4. Not lack of ability but more choice: individual and gender differences in choice of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Kenny, Sarah

    2013-05-01

    The pattern of gender differences in math and verbal ability may result in females having a wider choice of careers, in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and non-STEM fields, compared with males. The current study tested whether individuals with high math and high verbal ability in 12th grade were more or less likely to choose STEM occupations than those with high math and moderate verbal ability. The 1,490 subjects participated in two waves of a national longitudinal study; one wave was when the subjects were in 12th grade, and the other was when they were 33 years old. Results revealed that mathematically capable individuals who also had high verbal skills were less likely to pursue STEM careers than were individuals who had high math skills but moderate verbal skills. One notable finding was that the group with high math and high verbal ability included more females than males.

  5. Measuring perinatal health equity and migration indicators for international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Anita J; Small, Rhonda; Sarasua, Irene; Lang, Carly

    2015-01-01

    An international research collaboration answered, "Can equity in perinatal health for migrant women be measured for comparison across countries?" In nine countries, perinatal databases were assessed for the availability of equity indicators. Equity data were also sought from women and health records. Optimal sources of data differed depending on the migrant perinatal health equity indicator. Health and migration data, required to capture equity, were often not reported in the same location. Migration indicators other than country of birth were underreported. Perinatal health equity can be measured for international comparisons, although a standardized protocol is required to capture all indicators.

  6. A Study of Performance and Effort Expectancy Factors among Generational and Gender Groups to Predict Enterprise Social Software Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunil S.

    2013-01-01

    Social software technology has gained considerable popularity over the last decade and has had a great impact on hundreds of millions of people across the globe. Businesses have also expressed their interest in leveraging its use in business contexts. As a result, software vendors and business consumers have invested billions of dollars to use…

  7. The Interaction of Pedagogical Approach, Gender, Self-Regulation, and Goal Orientation Using Student Response System Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Kellah M.

    2008-01-01

    This research compares a behaviorally based approach for using electronic student response system (SRS) technology with a metacognitive-oriented approach to determine effects on attendance, preparation for class, and achievement. Also examined are the interaction effects of pedagogical approach with self-regulatory and motivational characteristics…

  8. [Self-efficacy and the gender gap as determinants of interest in a science and technology career].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Tomoko

    2012-12-01

    Interest in a science and technology career, and determinants of such interest, were investigated. In Study 1, self-efficacy for work activities and interest in a science and technology career were assessed. Participants were undergraduate students (n = 264; 132 men, 132 women) and graduates (n = 276; 146 men, 130 women). Graduates were more interested in a science and technology career than undergraduate students, and men were more interested in a technology career than women. Moreover, self-efficacy for realistic and investigative activities was positively related with interest in such a career. In Study 2, relationships between self-efficacy for realistic and investigative activities and childhood experiences were investigated using data from undergraduates (n = 262; 132 men, 130 women) and graduates (n = 274; 141 men, 133 women). Individuals who frequently experienced daily activities, activities in nature, and activities with animals and plants in their childhood had higher self-efficacy for realistic and investigative activities. Moreover, graduates had such past experiences more frequently than undergraduates and males more frequently than females.

  9. A Study of Performance and Effort Expectancy Factors among Generational and Gender Groups to Predict Enterprise Social Software Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunil S.

    2013-01-01

    Social software technology has gained considerable popularity over the last decade and has had a great impact on hundreds of millions of people across the globe. Businesses have also expressed their interest in leveraging its use in business contexts. As a result, software vendors and business consumers have invested billions of dollars to use…

  10. Slum Upgrading and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Sverdlik, Alice

    2017-03-24

    Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.

  11. Urban planning and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary Evelyn; Freeman, Lance

    2011-06-01

    Although the fields of urban planning and public health share a common origin in the efforts of reformers to tame the ravages of early industrialization in the 19th century, the 2 disciplines parted ways in the early 20th century as planners increasingly focused on the built environment while public health professionals narrowed in on biomedical causes of disease and disability. Among the unfortunate results of this divergence was a tendency to discount the public health implications of planning decisions. Given increasingly complex urban environments and grave health disparities in cities worldwide, urban planners and public health professionals have once again become convinced of the need for inclusive approaches to improve population health and achieve health equity. To make substantive progress, intersectoral collaboration utilizing ecological and systems science perspectives will be crucial as the solutions lie well beyond the control of any single authority. Grounded in the social determinants of health, and with a renewed sense of interconnectedness, dedicated and talented people in government agencies and communities who recognize that our future depends on cultivating local change and evaluating the results can come to grips with the enormous challenge that lies ahead to create more equitable, sustainable, and healthier cities worldwide.

  12. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY FUND UNDER THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM (FSRDS) AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  13. The effect of sales promotions characteristics on brand equity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahram Jabarzadeh Karbasi; Ali Jafari Rad

    2014-01-01

    .... One of the influential factors in this field is brand equity. Concerning this issue, the aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of sale promotions on the brand equity of ETKA chain stores...

  14. Framework for monitoring equity in access and health systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paper, proposes a framework for monitoring equity in access and health .... get additional data through in—depth and qualitative studies. Equity and health .... characteristics of HIV infected patients seeking care in relation to access to the Drug ...

  15. ACCOUNTING, TAX AND FINANCIAL APPROACHES CONCERNING THE CONCEPT OF EQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantiating the concept of equity is an issue of interest to specialists in accounting, taxation and finance. The purpose of this article is to present three of the sensitive issues generated by the concept of equity. One aspect considered is the demarcation of financial liabilities from the equity instruments. The distinction between equity and debt instruments is necessary because it has consequences on financial reporting. A second part of the study focuses on the fiscal side, trying to find the answer to the question: Are there deferred taxes recognized in equity? Deferred tax liabilities will be presented at the end of the year in equity and not debt, because they are related to gains recorded directly in equity. The third part of the article discusses the financial importance of equity, focusing on subscription and attribution rights as financial instruments used when raising capital. By creating subscription rights it is desired to obtain immediate funds needed to finance the entity.

  16. Mutual Fund Performances of Polish Domestic Equity Fund Managers 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gözde Ünal; Ömer Faruk Tan

    2015-01-01

    .... A total of 14 equity fund managers' performances are analyzed. The study can be guiding especially for investors who are interested in Polish equity fund performances in a period where emerging stock markets outperformed with QE.

  17. ACCOUNTING, TAX AND FINANCIAL APPROACHES CONCERNING THE CONCEPT OF EQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantiating the concept of equity is an issue of interest to specialists in accounting, taxation and finance. The purpose of this article is to present three of the sensitive issues generated by the concept of equity. One aspect considered is the demarcation of financial liabilities from the equity instruments. The distinction between equity and debt instruments is necessary because it has consequences on financial reporting. A second part of the study focuses on the fiscal side, trying to find the answer to the question: Are there deferred taxes recognized in equity? Deferred tax liabilities will be presented at the end of the year in equity and not debt, because they are related to gains recorded directly in equity. The third part of the article discusses the financial importance of equity, focusing on subscription and attribution rights as financial instruments used when raising capital. By creating subscription rights it is desired to obtain immediate funds needed to finance the entity.

  18. Essays on equity-efficiency trade offs in energy and climate policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmero, Juan P.

    Economic efficiency and societal equity are two important goals of public policy. Energy and climate policies have the potential to affect both. Efficiency is increased by substituting low-carbon energy for fossil energy (mitigating an externality) while equity is served if such substitution enhances consumption opportunities of unfavored groups (low income households or future generations). However policies that are effective in reducing pollution may not be so effective in redistributing consumption and vice-versa. This dissertation explores potential trade-offs between equity and efficiency arising in energy and climate policies. Chapter 1 yields two important results. First, while effective in reducing pollution, energy efficiency policies may fall short in protecting future generations from resource depletion. Second, deployment of technologies that increase the ease with which capital can substitute for energy may enhance the ability of societies to sustain consumption and achieve intertemporal equity. Results in Chapter 1 imply that technologies more intensive in capital and materials and less intensive in carbon such as corn ethanol may be effective in enhancing intertemporal equity. However the effectiveness of corn ethanol (relative to other technologies) in reducing emissions will depend upon the environmental performance of the industry. Chapter 2 measures environmental efficiency of ethanol plants, identifies ways to enhance performance, and calculates the cost of such improvements based on a survey of ethanol plants in the US. Results show that plants may be able to increase profits and reduce emissions simultaneously rendering the ethanol industry more effective in tackling efficiency. Finally while cap and trade proposals are designed to correcting a market failure by reducing pollution, allocation of emission allowances may affect income distribution and, hence, intra-temporal equity. Chapter 3 proves that under plausible conditions on preferences

  19. Equity market liberalization, credit constraints and income inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Puyang; Sen, Somnath; Jin, Shujing

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides compelling evidence that equity market liberalization, the most efficient way to smooth financial market frictions such as credit constraints, can alleviate persistent cross-dynastic income inequality through increasing the accumulation of human capital. We examine the impact of equity market liberalization on inequality by using the data of 72 countries during 1980-2006. The effect is robust to alternative measurements of equity market liberalization. Furthermore, equity ...

  20. Intimate partner violence, power, and equity among adolescent parents: relation to child outcomes and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Crystal; Callands, Tamora A; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration and power imbalances in parenting partners may result in poor outcomes for parents and children. Previous work in this area has focused on the maternal experiences, neglecting to examine paternal effects. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of IPV, power, and equity in parenting and child outcomes in an urban sample of adolescent parents. 159 male and 182 female parents in a relationship were recruited through university-affiliated hospitals. Power, equity, and IPV were measured at 6 months post-partum and were used as predictors for parenting and child outcomes 12 months post-partum using general estimating equations. Gender interactions and mediation effects of depression were also assessed. Higher perceived relationship equity was related to better infant temperament (B = 0.052, SE = 0.023, p = 0.02) whereas higher partner power was related to poorer social development (B = -0.201, SE = 0.088, p = 0.02) and fine motor development (B = -0.195, SE = 0.078, p = 0.01). IPV victimization was associated with poor infant temperament (B = -2.925, SE = 1.083, p = 0.007) and lower parenting competence (B = -3.508, SE = 1.142, p = 0.002). Depression mediated the relationship between IPV and parenting and IPV and infant temperament. No gender effects were found. IPV, inequities, and power imbalances were disadvantageous for parenting and child outcomes. Our results suggest that these dynamics may negatively affect both males and females. Interventions to reduce violence in both partners and promote equity in relationships could benefit couples and their children.

  1. Intergenerational equity and the investing of rents from exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwick, J.M.

    1977-12-01

    The present generation's ethical dilemma over shortchanging future generations by overconsuming exhaustible resources could be relieved by a program of converting the capital from these resources into machines and living off the current flow of machines and labor. If the stock of machines is assumed not to depreciate, then the stock of productive capital and resources is not depleted. Cobb-Douglas technology is used to determine what will happen to consumption if only the rents from exhaustible resources are invested in reproducible capital goods. An important feature of Cobb-Douglas technology is that input in the form of minerals from an exhaustible resource is needed to get a positive output of the single produced commodity. Results of the model indicate that a savings investment rule will not provide for the maintenance of per capita consumption constant over time. Further studies have explored the effects of depreciations and intergenerational equity. 7 references.

  2. Value at risk, bank equity and credit risk

    OpenAIRE

    Broll, Udo; Wahl, Jack E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the implications of the value at risk concept for the bank's optimum amount of equity capital under credit risk. The market value of loans is risky and lognormally distributed. We show that the required equity capital depends upon managerial and market factors. Furthermore, the bank's equity and asset/liability management has to be addressed simultaneously by bank managers.

  3. 46 CFR 67.31 - Stock or equity interest requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stock or equity interest requirements. 67.31 Section 67... VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.31 Stock or equity interest requirements. (a) The stock or equity interest requirements for citizenship under this...

  4. The Sublime Objects of Education Policy: Quality, Equity and Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Quality and equity are touchstones of education policy in the twenty-first century in a range of global contexts. On the surface, this seems fitting: after all, who could object to more quality and greater equity in education? Yet what do we mean by quality and equity, and how are they related? This paper draws on Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to…

  5. Brand Equity Evolution: a System Dynamics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Crescitelli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in brand management lies in monitoring brand equity over time. This paper aimsto present a simulation model able to represent this evolution. The model was drawn on brand equity concepts developed by Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000, using the system dynamics methodology. The use ofcomputational dynamic models aims to create new sources of information able to sensitize academics and managers alike to the dynamic implications of their brand management. As a result, an easily implementable model was generated, capable of executing continuous scenario simulations by surveying casual relations among the variables that explain brand equity. Moreover, the existence of a number of system modeling tools will allow extensive application of the concepts used in this study in practical situations, both in professional and educational settings

  6. Who cares about equity in the NHS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, M

    1994-05-14

    The concept of equity in relation to the National Health Service in Britain encompasses not one but at least eight distinct principles. Until the 1980s the NHS had a good record of incorporating these principles into practice. Throughout the 1980s, however, there has been a pronounced change, with the gradual introduction of business values into the service, culminating in the market based reforms of the 1990s. Several recent policies seem to be taking the NHS away from the goal of an equitable system--for example, the new arrangements for community care and the incentives within contracting to select patients on financial grounds. To restore equity as a value demands priority for ethical values, monitoring of policies for their effects on equity, some national planning, and a new debate about the entitlement to services such as continuing care.

  7. Investigating of Brand Equity on Hospital Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karbalaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies five factors that influence the creation of brand equity through successful customer relationships: trust, customer satisfaction, relationship commitment, brand loyalty and brand awareness. An empirical test of the relationships among these factors suggests that hospitals can be successful in creating image and positive brand equity if they can manage their customer relationships well. The subjects were 318 customers of hospitals in Tehran area. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with Lisrel software was used for the data analysis. Results from the research hypothesis testing suggest the following information. First, the study found that trust, customer satisfaction and relationship commitment all had a positive influence on brand loyalty and brand awareness. And brand equity, trust, customer satisfaction and relationship commitment also had a significant positive influence on hospital image. All of hypothesis is supported.

  8. Country brand equity model: Sustainability perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of country brand equity that incorporates the issue of sustainability in determining destination brand equity. In particular, the model includes elements of sustainability as its core dimensions and promotes the concept of the country sustainability promise that transforms destination resources into the positive perception and experience. The theoretical model is empirically tested using global secondary data confirming that country image is the most important element followed by sustainability and loyalty. Also, the analysis suggests the existence of the higher order construct confirming the country brand equity concept. Based on the research findings, the article offers some implications to the destination managers by suggesting the direction for further development and strategy implementation.

  9. The equity dimension in evaluations of the quality and outcomes framework: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemans Lieven

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pay-for-performance systems raise concerns regarding inequity in health care because providers might select patients for whom targets can easily be reached. This paper aims to describe the evolution of pre-existing (inequity in health care in the period after the introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF in the UK and to describe (inequities in exception reporting. In this evaluation, a theory-based framework conceptualising equity in terms of equal access, equal treatment and equal treatment outcomes for people in equal need is used to guide the work. Methods A systematic MEDLINE and Econlit search identified 317 studies. Of these, 290 were excluded because they were not related to the evaluation of QOF, they lacked an equity dimension in the evaluation, their qualitative research focused on experiences or on the nature of the consultation, or unsuitable methodology was used to pronounce upon equity after the introduction of QOF. Results None of the publications (n = 27 assessed equity in access to health care. Concerning equity in treatment and (intermediate treatment outcomes, overall quality scores generally improved. For the majority of the observed indicators, all citizens benefit from this improvement, yet the extent to which different patient groups benefit tends to vary and to be highly dependent on the type and complexity of the indicator(s under study, the observed patient group(s and the characteristics of the study. In general, the introduction of QOF was favourable for the aged and for males. Total QOF scores did not seem to vary according to ethnicity. For deprivation, small but significant residual differences were observed after the introduction of QOF favouring less deprived groups. These differences are mainly due to differences at the practice level. The variance in exception reporting according to gender and socio-economic position is low. Conclusions Although QOF seems not to be socially

  10. Gendered Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position o...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  11. Gender (inequality among employees in elder care: implications for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwér Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (inequality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. Results We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (inequality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. Conclusion The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (inequality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men.

  12. Net worth and housing equity in retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Todd; Nicholas S. Souleles

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the trends in the life-cycle profiles of net worth and housing equity between 1983 and 2004. The net worth of older households significantly increased during the housing boom of recent years. However, net worth grew by more than housing equity, in part because other assets also appreciated at the same time. Moreover, the younger elderly offset rising house prices by increasing their housing debt, and used some of the proceeds to invest in other assets. We also consider ho...

  13. Equity Concerns over Climate Change Mitigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ying; Pan Jiahu

    2004-01-01

    As a complicated concept with ethical implications, equity or fairness in the field of climate change mitigation concerns the relations not only between individual human beings but also between human beings and the nature. In this paper, after the review of equity between individuals, market and non-market attributes of emissions rights are distinguished and discussed. Based on the argument of equal per capita emissions rights, three types of emissions rights and the concept of minimum emissions rights as social security are proposed.

  14. Intended and Unintended Consequences of Educational Technology on Social Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Andrew A.; Reeves, Todd D.; Stich, Amy

    2016-01-01

    While much has been written in the field of educational technology regarding educational excellence and efficiency, less attention has been paid to issues of equity. Along these lines, the field of educational technology often does not address key equity problems such as academic achievement and attainment gaps, and inequality of educational…

  15. Pengaruh Media Sosial Instagram @Zapcoid Terhadap Brand Equity Zap Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafira Putri Kinanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological development has provided to our generation an easier life in terms of connecting to each other with the blurring boundaries of time and place. According to a survey conducted by wearesocial.com in 2016, 79.0 million out of 88.1 million Internet users in Indonesia are active social media users. Therefore, there has been an increasing number of companies making use of social media to market their products, including ZAP Clinic. Along with the use of social media by ZAP Clinic, the brand equity of the company has become stronger as signified by the company being selected as TOP Brand Award 2016 for the first time. This research aims at understanding to what extent Instagram, as a social media, influences the brand equity of ZAP Clinic, through the company’s Instagram account @zapcoid. This research used quantitative method with explanatory research as its type of research. The data was collected through online questionnaires that were spread via direct messages to Instagram followers of @zapcoid that had done any treament at ZAP Clinic. Sample used in this research amount a hundred. The sampling technique was purposive, while the analysis technique was simple linear regression with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. This research demosntrates that social media (X significantly influences the equity of a brand for 0.621 or 62.1%, while the remnant 37.9% is the contribution of other variables that were not assessed. Perkembangan teknologi internet di kehidupan manusia mempermudah komunikasi tanpa batas jarak dan waktu. Menurut survei yang dilakukan oleh wearesocial.com pada tahun 2016 dari 88.1 juta pengguna internet di Indonesia 79.0 juta merupakan pengguna aktif media sosial. Oleh karena itu banyak perusahaan yang memanfaatkan media sosial sebagai alat komunikasi pemasarannya, salah satunya adalah ZAP Clinic. Seiring dengan peningkatan kualitas media sosial yang dilakukan, brand equity ZAP Clinic pun semakin

  16. How well does consumer-based brand equity align with sales-based brand equity and marketing mix response?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, Hannes; Ailawadi, Kusum L.; van Heerde, H.J.

    Brand equity is the differential preference and response to marketing effort that a product obtains because of its brand identification. Brand equity can be measured based on either consumer perceptions or on sales. Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) measures what consumers think and feel about the

  17. How well does consumer-based brand equity align with sales-based brand equity and marketing mix response?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, Hannes; Ailawadi, Kusum L.; van Heerde, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Brand equity is the differential preference and response to marketing effort that a product obtains because of its brand identification. Brand equity can be measured based on either consumer perceptions or on sales. Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) measures what consumers think and feel about the

  18. How well does consumer-based brand equity align with sales-based brand equity and marketing mix response?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, Hannes; Ailawadi, Kusum L.; van Heerde, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Brand equity is the differential preference and response to marketing effort that a product obtains because of its brand identification. Brand equity can be measured based on either consumer perceptions or on sales. Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) measures what consumers think and feel about the

  19. Empowered but Not Equal: Challenging the Traditional Gender Roles as Seen by University Students in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-bakr, Fawziah; Bruce, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Petrina M.; Schlaffer, Edit; Kropiunigg, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    This study examines perspectives of Saudi university students regarding changing gender roles as affected by women's rights, education, employment, and activity in the public sphere. Results from a questionnaire distributed among 4,455 male and female students indicate students are confident and optimistic about improving gender equity, however…

  20. Exploring the potential for changing gender norms among cricket coaches and athletes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored gender norms with cricket coaches and athletes in India to adapt a coach-delivered gender violence prevention program from the United States for the urban Indian context. Interviews and focus groups conducted among coaches and adolescent cricketers highlight the extent to which coaches and athletes articulate prevailing inequitable notions about gender and recognition of the power coaches wield. Adapting a violence prevention program that emphasizes gender norms change may be feasible with Indian cricket coaches but is likely to require attention to defining gender equity and challenging cultural assumptions with coaches prior to implementing the program with athletes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Gender and cleaner production: toward a framework for including gender analysis when developing strategies and designing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sally; Quinn, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Environmental policies that do not consider global gender dimensions often create benefits for some people and ecosystems but result in costs for others, in particular women, at some point along the global chain of production and consumption. This article is intended to begin a dialogue about the importance of including gender analysis in the design of cleaner production strategies. We review global development policy and its critiques that have identified a need for gender awareness and analysis. This examination provides a backdrop for a discussion of how to include gender analysis in cleaner production planning and implementation. We invite researchers and practitioners to enter this dialogue to further the field and develop effective tools and policies to analyze gender dynamics, support gender equity, and find environmentally sound solutions that are sustainable for the long-term.

  2. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  3. Gender Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Fan-min

    2016-01-01

    Gender discourse was paid much attention in recent years. The primary objective of this fundamental research is to perceive the distinction between direct and indirect in gender discourse. The method used in this study is known as contrastive and analysis which illustrates men and women's differences.

  4. On Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores differences between males and females and their manifestation in biology and culture. Cultures differ, not in whether they cope with the socialization of males to invest in child rearing, but in how they deal with this problem. Issues of gender and power and gender and child rearing are discussed. (SLD)

  5. A theoretical model for analysing gender bias in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Eva E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the last decades research has reported unmotivated differences in the treatment of women and men in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. There is an ongoing discussion on how to avoid such gender bias. We developed a three-step-theoretical model to understand how gender bias in medicine can occur and be understood. In this paper we present the model and discuss its usefulness in the efforts to avoid gender bias. In the model gender bias is analysed in relation to assumptions concerning difference/sameness and equity/inequity between women and men. Our model illustrates that gender bias in medicine can arise from assuming sameness and/or equity between women and men when there are genuine differences to consider in biology and disease, as well as in life conditions and experiences. However, gender bias can also arise from assuming differences when there are none, when and if dichotomous stereotypes about women and men are understood as valid. This conceptual thinking can be useful for discussing and avoiding gender bias in clinical work, medical education, career opportunities and documents such as research programs and health care policies. Too meet the various forms of gender bias, different facts and measures are needed. Knowledge about biological differences between women and men will not reduce bias caused by gendered stereotypes or by unawareness of health problems and discrimination associated with gender inequity. Such bias reflects unawareness of gendered attitudes and will not change by facts only. We suggest consciousness-rising activities and continuous reflections on gender attitudes among students, teachers, researchers and decision-makers.

  6. Relationship between Major Developed Equity Markets and Major Frontier Equity Markets of World

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Mansoor Baig; Muhammad Bilal; Waheed Aslam

    2016-01-01

    The core aim of this study is to compute the long run relationship between frontier equity markets Pakistan (KSE 100 Index), Argentina (MERVAL BUENOS AIRES) stock Exchange, NSE.20 (Kenya), MSM 30 (MSI) Oman and equity markets of developed world (OMXS30) Sweden, SMI (Switzerland), SSE Composite Index (China) and STI index (Singapore) by taking weekly values from stock return prices for the period 1st week of January-2000 to last week of January/2014. Descriptive statistic, Corre...

  7. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  8. Equity trade-offs in conservation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A; Bennett, Nathan J; Ives, Christopher D; Friedman, Rachel; Davis, Katrina J; Archibald, Carla; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2017-09-01

    Conservation decisions increasingly involve multiple environmental and social objectives, which result in complex decision contexts with high potential for trade-offs. Improving social equity is one such objective that is often considered an enabler of successful outcomes and a virtuous ideal in itself. Despite its idealized importance in conservation policy, social equity is often highly simplified or ill-defined and is applied uncritically. What constitutes equitable outcomes and processes is highly normative and subject to ethical deliberation. Different ethical frameworks may lead to different conceptions of equity through alternative perspectives of what is good or right. This can lead to different and potentially conflicting equity objectives in practice. We promote a more transparent, nuanced, and pluralistic conceptualization of equity in conservation decision making that particularly recognizes where multidimensional equity objectives may conflict. To help identify and mitigate ethical conflicts and avoid cases of good intentions producing bad outcomes, we encourage a more analytical incorporation of equity into conservation decision making particularly during mechanistic integration of equity objectives. We recommend that in conservation planning motivations and objectives for equity be made explicit within the problem context, methods used to incorporate equity objectives be applied with respect to stated objectives, and, should objectives dictate, evaluation of equity outcomes and adaptation of strategies be employed during policy implementation This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling home equity conversion loans with life insurance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Home equity represents a reserve that can be used for providing additional money for its owners during their retirement. Life insurance models can be successfully applied to model home equity conversion loans. The home equity conversion loan is a financial product that provides a certain flexibility by using home equity as a resource for a quality life during retirement. Home equity conversion loans do not have a predetermined maturity date, as do conventional loans. But, like every loan, it must be repaid. One potential advantage of using a home equity conversion loan during tough financial times instead of some types of need-based assistance is that eligibility is straightforward. Home equity conversion loans can be useful tools in the process of pension system reform.

  10. Empirical Study on Customer Equity of the Pesticide Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anqi ZHAO; Yucheng HE; Shuang CAO

    2016-01-01

    The focus of modern marketing has shifted from products and enterprise level of traditional marketing to customer level,and customer equity is receiving closer attention. No. 1 document of central government proposed innovating agricultural production and operation system and establishing new agricultural business entities. Seizing these customers becomes a great challenge for pesticide enterprises in the new trend. Therefore,pesticide enterprises need to find out key factors driving customer equity,so as to carry out pertinent marketing and grab the maximum market share. Based on the first-hand survey data,this paper analyzed the influence of value equity,brand equity and relation equity on customer equity by factor analysis and structural equation analysis. It found that the relation equity has the highest driving effect,especially training,community building and visiting experience. Finally,it came up with some recommendations to make pertinent marketing.

  11. Where Discipline and Racial Equity Intersect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how "Courageous Conversations" workshops have assisted teachers charged with training colleagues in how to talk about racism with students and with each other, and how to do something about it. Such professional development around equity issues often includes personal reflection and discussion with colleagues about…

  12. Social Design Experiments: Toward Equity by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Kris D.; Jurow, A. Susan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we advance an approach to design research that is organized around a commitment to transforming the educational and social circumstances of members of non-dominant communities as a means of promoting social equity and learning. We refer to this approach as social design experimentation. The goals of social design experiments…

  13. Status Characteristics, Reward Allocation, and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, Toby L.; Cook, Karen S.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between a group's power and prestige or status hierarchy and group members' patterns of reward allocation was investigated. The addition of evidence concerning actual task performance results in the alignment of reward and status rankings and encourages the use of distribution rules stressing equity as opposed to equality.…

  14. Housing equity, residential mobility and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Highly productive economies require a flexible labor force with workers that move in accordance with the changing demand for goods and services. In times with falling housing prices, the mobility of home owning workers may be hampered by a lock-in effect of low or even negative housing equity. Th...

  15. Skill and Luck in Private Equity Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korteweg, Arthur; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Private equity (PE) performance is persistent, with PE firms consistently producing high (or low) net-of-fees returns. We use a new variance decomposition model to isolate three components of persistence. We find high long-term persistence: the spread in expected net-of-fee future returns between...

  16. Option-implied measures of equity risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bo-Young; Christoffersen, Peter; Vainberg, Gregory;

    2012-01-01

    Equity risk measured by beta is of great interest to both academics and practitioners. Existing estimates of beta use historical returns. Many studies have found option-implied volatility to be a strong predictor of future realized volatility. We find that option-implied volatility and skewness a...... able to reflect sudden changes in the structure of the underlying company....

  17. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We are the first to estimate illiquidity premia in equity option markets using effective spreads for a large cross-section of firms. The risk-adjusted return spread for illiquid over liquid options is 23 bps per ...

  18. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically and econ...

  19. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European shock

  20. 76 FR 6774 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice... view this document, as well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register...: Russlynn Ali, Assistant Secretary, Office for Civil Rights. BILLING CODE 4000-01-P...

  1. Achieving Equity: New Ideas for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brent; Sumara, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The route to greater equity in education is tied to a clearer understanding of learning theory, including current research findings that are "game changers" for educators. These "game changers" include rapidly evolving definitions of "learning" and "learners"; an understanding that intelligence and ability are more learned than bestowed; a…

  2. Market impact costs of institutional equity trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, Laura; van der Sluis, Pieter Jelle

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys a

  3. Intergenerational equity and dynamic duality principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Uzawa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of intergenerational equity concerning intertemporal paths of consumption and capital accumulation is introduced and the analysis of the dynamic processes of capital accumulation and changes in environmental quality that are intergenerationally equitable is developed. The analysis is based upon the dynamic duality principles, as originally developed by Koopmans and Uzawa, and later extended to the case involving environmental quality.

  4. Measuring the Equity of School Finance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garms, Walter I.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a new method of measuring the adequacy and equity of school finance systems using the multiple regression technique. It enables the separation of provisions for differences in district wealth from differences in tax rate, and of both of these from the differences in provision for needs and costs. (Author/IRT)

  5. What does equity in health mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, G

    1987-01-01

    The author posits some ethical concerns and theories of distribution in order to gain some insight into the meaning of equity in health, as referred to in WHO documents. It is pointed out that the lack of clarity in the WHO positions is evidenced by examining 1) the European strategy document, which focuses on giving equal health to all and equity access to health care, and 2) the Global Strategy for Health, which talks about reducing inequality and health as a human right. The question raised in document 1 is whether more equal sharing of health might mean less health for the available quantity of resources. The question raised in document 2 is whether there is a right to health per se. The question is how does one measure health policy effects. Health effects are different for an 8-year-old girl and an octogenarian. How does one measure the fairness of access to health care in remote mountain villages versus an urban area? Is equal utilization which is more easily measured comparable to equal need as a measure? How does one distribute doctors equitably? The author espouses the determinant of health as Aday's illness and health promotion, which is not biased by class and controversy. The Aday definition embraces both demand and need, although his definition is still open to question. Concepts of health with distinction between need and demand are made. Theories of Veatch which relate to distributive justice and equity in health care are provided as entitlement theory (market forces determine allocation of resources), utilitarianism (greatest good for the greatest number regardless of redistribution issues), maximum theory (maximize the minimum position or giver priority to the least well off), and equality (fairness in distribution). Different organizational and financing structures will influence the approach to equity. The conclusion is that equity is a value laden concept which has no uniquely correct definition. 5 theories of equity in distribution of health

  6. The Conceptualizing Analysis of Materialize to Dimension of Customer Relationship Management and Brand Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Barani, G.; Jagadeesan, S.

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews the various approaches to defining and Measuring Brand Equity. CRM strategy (Customer Relationship Management) is a business philosophy, stemming from relationship marketing that joins strategy and technology, with the aim of creating value for both customers and the company. In this paper we justify the interest of establishing a formal system to measure CRM performance. It analyses the diverse views regarding the set of attributes relevant for measurement of Brand equity. Existing measures of brand equity have been classified into three categories for the discussion in the paper. One set of measures are those focusing on outcome of Brand Equity at the product market level, the second category is that of measures related to customer mindset while the third set is based on measurement of financial parameters. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the work done by various researchers over the last few decades. It analyses the merits and limitations of the different types of measures. Based on the observations made by experts in related literature the authors suggest the scope for further research in the discipline.

  7. Urban environmental health hazards and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Friel, Sharon; Dixon, Jane; Corvalan, Carlos; Rehfuess, Eva; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gore, Fiona; Bartram, Jamie

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings. Interventions to improve health equity through the environment include actions and policies that deal with proximal risk factors in deprived urban areas, such as safe drinking water supply, reduced air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced traffic injury hazards and noise, improved working environment, and reduced heat stress because of global climate change. The urban environment involves health hazards with an inequitable distribution of exposures and vulnerabilities, but it also involves opportunities for implementing interventions for health equity. The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector. Health equity also implies policies and actions that improve the global living environment, for instance, limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In a global equity perspective, improving the living environment and health of the poor in developing country cities requires actions to be taken in the most affluent urban areas of the world. This includes making financial and technical resources available from high-income countries to be applied in low-income countries for urgent interventions for health equity. This is an abbreviated version of a paper on "Improving the living environment" prepared for the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Knowledge Network on Urban Settings.

  8. Indicators for the Analysis of Peasant Women’s Equity and Empowerment Situations in a Sustainability Framework: A Case Study of Cacao Production in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga de Marco Larrauri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Family agriculture is a fundamental pillar in the construction of agroecological agri-food alternatives fostering processes of sustainable rural development where social equity represents a central aspect. Despite agroecology’s critical openness, this area has not yet incorporated an explicit gender approach allowing an appropriate problematization and analysis of the cultural inequalities of gender relations in agriculture, women’s empowerment processes and their nexus with sustainability. This work presents an organized proposal of indicators to approach and analyze the degree of peasant women’s equity and empowerment within a wide sustainability framework. After a thorough bibliographical review, 34 equity and empowerment indicators were identified and organized into six basic theoretical dimensions. Following the collection of empirical data (from 20 cacao-producing families, the indicators were analyzed and reorganized on the basis of hierarchical cluster analysis and explanatory interdependence into a new set of six empirical dimensions: (1 access to resources, education and social participation; (2 economic-personal autonomy and self-esteem; (3 gender gaps (labor rights, health, work and physical violence; (4 techno-productive decision-making and remunerated work; (5 land ownership and mobility; and (6 diversification of responsibilities and social and feminist awareness. Additionally, a case study is presented that analyzes equity and empowerment in the lives of two rural cacao-producing peasant women in Ecuador.

  9. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  10. Equality or equity in health care access: a qualitative study of doctors' explanations to a longer doctor's delay among female TB patients in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, A; Johansson, E

    2004-04-01

    Earlier studies from Vietnam have highlighted the importance of studying gender aspects of health-seeking and diagnosis of potential tuberculosis patients. A longer doctor's delay to diagnosis among female TB patients has been shown. The objective of the present study was to explore doctors' views about and explanations for the longer doctor's delay. Five focus group discussions and three in-depth interviews were performed in a rural province in Vietnam. Thematic content analysis was used to interpret the data. The doctors suggest that women are lost or delayed within the health care-seeking chain, mainly because of barriers associated with the female gender. These barriers are identified, but yet the patient-doctor encounter seems to be steered by an equality principle. This results in gender blindness since equal treatment is suggested despite needs being different. We argue that gender equity should be the guiding principle for the tuberculosis patient-doctor encounter. An equity principle emphasises that needs vary with factors like gender or context. We suggest more research into the health care-seeking chain in order to identify the specific steps where TB diagnosis of men and women may be delayed. Interventions are needed in order to reduce delay to TB diagnosis especially for women and the current TB control strategy, (DOTS), needs to be examined from an equity perspective.

  11. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-12-12

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.

  12. Building coalitions, creating change: an agenda for gender transformative research in development Workshop Report 3-5 October 2012, Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that increased gender equity can make a significant contribution towards alleviating poverty and increasing food security. But past efforts to integrate gender into agricultural research and development practice have failed to address the inequalities that limit women’s access to agricultural inputs, markets, resources and advice. A Gender Transformative Approach (GTA) goes beyond just considering the symptoms of gender inequality, and addresses the social norms...

  13. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes its starting point in the problem faced by a specific Danish bank that women are grossly underrepresented in management positions, in spite of the great measure of initiatives taken over more than a century to ensure equal opportunities in Denmark. Danish women got the vote in 1915......, there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...

  14. Gender dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concept Gender dysphoria is not the same as homosexuality. Identity conflicts need to continue over time to ... to be the opposite sex. Treatment Individual and family therapy is recommended for children to create a ...

  15. Corporate Negative Equity: The Evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Global Financial Crisis the frequency of reported losses of companies has increased significantly in countries of the European Union. Moreover, the financial leverage of companies have increased and even exceeded 100% in several countries. The reason of this development is negative equity that companies find themselves to report. At first sight negative equities are caused by accumulated losses from prior periods. However, there are some other reasons that can result in increasing negative equities in companies. They remain adequate as long as a company is able to pay its bills. Nevertheless, a company with negative equity is exposed to risks. This paper investigates whether the corporate negative equity is a sign of the future failure of a company. We examine non-financial manufactured companies from selected countries of the European Union within the period 2005–2012 from database Amadeus (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Germany. By the means of comparison between negative and positive equities we applied descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. We find that in all surveyed countries the size positively influences the equity of companies. Other factors as profitability and growth opportunities do not influence the corporate equity. In addition the binary logistic regression analysis has been conducted based on the evidence from Czech companies. Our results indicate that negative equities are not a sign of bankruptcy or insolvency of a company. But the low profitability or low business activities (that are predictors of bankruptcy might lead to negative equities in the balance sheet.

  16. Analyzing the Effect of Customer Equity on Repurchase Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently there is a shift in the interest of managers and researchers from a traditional focus on product management to a more recent focus on customer equity that considers customers as the most important company’s asset. The current exploratory study examine the relationships among value equity, brand equity, relationship equity, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and repurchase intentions through a structural equation model . For the purposes of this study, questionnaires were distributed to a randomly selected group of 200 customers of Fast food unit of Kalleh Company that are divided into three groups included fast foods, restaurants and coffee shops in Isfahan city. A total of 190 responses were received. Of these, ten (10 responses had to be discarded due to invalid or incomplete data entries. Thus the sample comprising of a total of 180 respondents was used for analysis. The data was analyzed by AMOS software. As for repurchase intentions, value equity had significant positive effects indirectly via perceived behavioral control, while brand equity and relationship equity had no significant influences. In addition, The results indicate that the effects of value, brand and relationship equity on attitude are positive and significant, while subjective norms are influenced by value equity and relationship equity. The perceived behavioral control is just influenced by value equity. Attitude and subjective norms have no significant influence on repurchase intentions, while perceived behavioral control has positive effect on them. Therefore, value equity emerges as the strongest driver of customer equity that effects repurchase intentions indirectly through perceived behavioral control. The findings of this study can enable many businesses like distribution companies to forecast the customers repurchase intentions more accurately and provide a guide to managing their assets and marketing activities as well.

  17. CDC's Health Equity Resource Toolkit: disseminating guidance for state practitioners to address obesity disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Gayle Holmes; James, Stephen D; Hawley, Lisa; Corrigan, Bethany; Kramer, Rachel E; Overton, Samantha N; Farris, Rosanne P; Wasilewski, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been on the rise in the United States over the past three decades, and is high. In addition to population-wide trends, it is clear that obesity affects some groups more than others and can be associated with age, income, education, gender, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. To reverse the obesity epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) promotes evidence-based and practice-informed strategies to address nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors. These public health strategies require translation into actionable approaches that can be implemented by state and local entities to address disparities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used findings from an expert panel meeting to guide the development and dissemination of the Health Equity Resource Toolkit for State Practitioners Addressing Obesity Disparities (available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/health_equity/toolkit.html). The Toolkit helps public health practitioners take a systematic approach to program planning using a health equity lens. The Toolkit provides a six-step process for planning, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address obesity disparities. Each section contains (a) a basic description of the steps of the process and suggested evidence-informed actions to help address obesity disparities, (b) practical tools for carrying out activities to help reduce obesity disparities, and (c) a "real-world" case study of a successful state-level effort to address obesity with a focus on health equity that is particularly relevant to the content in that section. Hyperlinks to additional resources are included throughout.

  18. CDC’s Health Equity Resource Toolkit: Disseminating Guidance for State Practitioners to Address Obesity Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Gayle Holmes; James, Stephen D.; Hawley, Lisa; Corrigan, Bethany; Kramer, Rachel E.; Overton, Samantha N.; Farris, Rosanne P.; Wasilewski, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been on the rise in the United States over the past three decades, and is high. In addition to population-wide trends, it is clear that obesity affects some groups more than others and can be associated with age, income, education, gender, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. To reverse the obesity epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) promotes evidence-based and practice-informed strategies to address nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors. These public health strategies require translation into actionable approaches that can be implemented by state and local entities to address disparities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used findings from an expert panel meeting to guide the development and dissemination of the Health Equity Resource Toolkit for State Practitioners Addressing Obesity Disparities (available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/health_equity/toolkit.html). The Toolkit helps public health practitioners take a systematic approach to program planning using a health equity lens. The Toolkit provides a six-step process for planning, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address obesity disparities. Each section contains (a) a basic description of the steps of the process and suggested evidence-informed actions to help address obesity disparities, (b) practical tools for carrying out activities to help reduce obesity disparities, and (c) a “real-world” case study of a successful state-level effort to address obesity with a focus on health equity that is particularly relevant to the content in that section. Hyperlinks to additional resources are included throughout. PMID:24962967

  19. The Analysis of Pricing Power of Preponderant Metal Mineral Resources under the Perspective of Intergenerational Equity and Social Preferences: An Analytical Framework Based on Cournot Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirui Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium with Cournot equilibrium solving the technological problem of intergenerational equity and strategic value compensation confirmation, achieving the effective combination between sustainable development concept and value evaluation, thinking and expanding the theoretical framework for the lack of pricing power of mineral resources. The conclusion of the theoretical model and the numerical simulation shows that intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium enhance international trade market power of preponderant metal mineral resources owing to the production of intergenerational equity compensation value and strategic value. However, the impact exerted on Cournot market power by social preferences is inconsistent: that is, changes of altruistic Cournot equilibrium and reciprocal inequity Cournot equilibrium are consistent, while inequity aversion Cournot equilibrium has the characteristic of loss aversion, namely, under the consideration of inequity aversion Cournot competition, Counot-Nash equilibrium transforms monotonically with sympathy and jealousy of inequity aversion.

  20. Carework and caring: A path to gender equitable practices among men in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewkes Rachel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between men who engage in carework and commitment to gender equity. The context of the study was that gender inequitable masculinities create vulnerability for men and women to HIV and other health concerns. Interventions are being developed to work with masculinity and to 'change men'. Researchers now face a challenge of identifying change in men, especially in domains of their lives beyond relations with women. Engagement in carework is one suggested indicator of more gender equitable practice. Methods A qualitative approach was used. 20 men in three South African locations (Durban, Pretoria/Johannesburg, Mthatha who were identified as engaging in carework were interviewed. The men came from different backgrounds and varied in terms of age, race and socio-economic status. A semi-structured approach was used in the interviews. Results Men were engaged in different forms of carework and their motivations to be involved differed. Some men did carework out of necessity. Poverty, associated with illness in the family and a lack of resources propelled some men into carework. Other men saw carework as part of a commitment to making a better world. 'Care' interpreted as a functional activity was not enough to either create or signify support for gender equity. Only when care had an emotional resonance did it relate to gender equity commitment. Conclusions Engagement in carework precipitated a process of identity and value transformation in some men suggesting that support for carework still deserves to be a goal of interventions to 'change men'. Changing the gender of carework contributes to a more equitable gender division of labour and challenges gender stereotypes. Interventions that promote caring also advance gender equity.