WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology fire fighting

  1. Fighting Fires in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weick, Karl E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on wildland fire fighting supports educational administrators' use of the fire-fighting metaphor to describe the nature of their work. Fire-fighting nuances illuminate subtle conditions in educational organizations that increase their vulnerability to failure. These parallels suggest five management conditions that determine…

  2. Results of field testing with the FightSight infrared-based projectile tracking and weapon-fire characterization technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarski, Steve; Menozzi, Alberico; Sherrill, Todd; Volpe, Chris; Wille, Mark

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes experimental results from recent live-fire data collects that demonstrate the capability of a prototype system for projectile detection and tracking. This system, which is being developed at Applied Research Associates, Inc., under the FightSight program, consists of a high-speed thermal camera and sophisticated image processing algorithms to detect and track projectiles. The FightSight operational vision is automated situational intelligence to detect, track, and graphically map large-scale firefights and individual shooting events onto command and control (C2) systems in real time (shot location and direction, weapon ID, movements and trends). Gaining information on enemy-fire trajectories allows educated inferences on the enemy's intent, disposition, and strength. Our prototype projectile detection and tracking system has been tested at the Joint Readiness Training Center (Ft Polk, LA) during live-fire convoy and mortar registration exercises, in the summer of 2009. It was also tested during staged military-operations- on-urban-terrain (MOUT) firefight events at Aberdeen Test Center (Aberdeen, MD) under the Hostile Fire Defeat Army Technology Objective midterm experiment, also in the summer of 2009, where we introduced fusion with acoustic and EO sensors to provide 3D localization and near-real time display of firing events. Results are presented in this paper that demonstrate effective and accurate detection and localization of weapon fire (5.56mm, 7.62mm, .50cal, 81/120mm mortars, 40mm) in diverse and challenging environments (dust, heat, day and night, rain, arid open terrain, urban clutter). FightSight's operational capabilities demonstrated under these live-fire data collects can support closecombat scenarios. As development continues, FightSight will be able to feed C2 systems with a symbolic map of enemy actions.

  3. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  4. Fire Fighting Organization and Its Efficacy Problem in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Ömer; Şeniz ANBARLI BOZATAY

    2015-01-01

    Fire fighting which used to be performed by volunteers thanks to the efforts of citizens in the Ottoman Empire has been organized in various ways from the beginning of the 18th century onwards, when the first fire fighting organization was established. Fire fighting services offered by local and central governments across the world is de-centralized in Turkey, in other words conducted by local administrations. An effective fire fighting service directly affecting the safety of those who make ...

  5. Ways of solution of an underground fire-fighting problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, Y.F.; Gryadustchiy, B.A. [RESPIRATOR, Research-and-Manufacturing Association on Mine Rescue Work, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    The risk of fire in belt conveyors in underground coal mines is high. To fight fires on drives of conveyors, an automatic powder and foam system has been developed in the Ukraine. The powder is intended for fighting the flame phase of the fire, and foam is used for cooling the driving drums. The paper explains how to calculate the required foam quantity and describes experiments to determine the installation parameters of this fire fighting systems. 1 ref.

  6. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be

  7. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for

  8. Fire Fighting Organization and Its Efficacy Problem in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer YAVUZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire fighting which used to be performed by volunteers thanks to the efforts of citizens in the Ottoman Empire has been organized in various ways from the beginning of the 18th century onwards, when the first fire fighting organization was established. Fire fighting services offered by local and central governments across the world is de-centralized in Turkey, in other words conducted by local administrations. An effective fire fighting service directly affecting the safety of those who make use of this service aims to minimize the loss of lives. On the other hand, a small mistake made by fire fighters and victims jeopardizes their lives. The present study is primarily intended to investigate, in terms of “effectiveness problems”, the organization of fire fighting services over time and current methods by which fire fighting services are put into action. It also aims to study the ways related services are offered within the context of the relationship between local and central governments. “The urgent need to reform emergency response institutions” marks the basic suggestion of the study, in which several other suggestions are made to solve the problems concerning fire fighting services.

  9. Crisis management with applicability on fire fighting plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F. V.; Voicu, I.; Dumitrescu, L. G.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a case study for a crisis management analysis which address to fire fighting plants. The procedures include the steps of FTA (Failure tree analysis). The purpose of the present paper is to describe this crisis management plan with tools of FTA. The crisis management procedures have applicability on anticipated and emergency situations and help to describe and planning a worst-case scenario plan. For this issue must calculate the probabilities in different situations for fire fighting plants. In the conclusions of paper is analised the block diagram with components of fire fighting plant and are presented the solutions for each possible risk situations.

  10. Biocatalytic nerve agent detoxification in fire fighting foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeJeune, K E; Russell, A J

    1999-03-20

    Current events across the globe necessitate rapid technological advances to combat the epidemic of nerve agent chemical weapons. Biocatalysis has emerged as a viable tool in the detoxification of organophosphorus neurotoxins, such as the chemical weapons VX and sarin. Efficient detoxification of contaminated equipment, machinery, and soils are of principal concern. This study describes the incorporation of a biocatalyst (organophosphorus hydrolase, E.C. 3.1.8.1) into conventional formulations of fire fighting foam. The capacity of fire fighting foams to decrease volatilization of contained contaminants, increase surface wettability, and control the rate of enzyme delivery to large areas makes them useful vehicles for enzyme application at surfaces. The performance of enzyme containing foams has been shown to be not only reproducible but also predictable. An empirical model provides reasonable estimations for the amounts of achievable surface decontamination as a function of the important parameters of the system. Theoretical modeling illustrates that the enzyme-containing foam is capable of extracting agent from the surface and is catalytically active at the foam-surface interface and throughout the foam itself. Biocatalytic foam has proven to be an effective, "environmentally friendly" means of surface and soil decontamination.

  11. 灭火机器人控制技术研究%A study of the control technology of fire-fighting robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓军; 蔡兰蓉; 王英杰

    2014-01-01

    Introduction was made to a self-designed and self-made fire-fighting robot.STC80C52 single chip was adopted as control core for the system, combining with stepper motor and temperature sensor to judge the fire location, using infrared distance sensor with DC motor to complete automatic robot walking and walls etc. In terms of the control algorithm , the "left/right hand rule"and the policy that no fire do not enter the room were used to improve the efficiency of search for fire.%介绍了一种自行研发与制作的比赛用灭火机器人。该机器人采用 STC80C52单片机为主控芯片,结合使用步进电机和温度传感器来判断火源位置,利用红外测距传感器与直流电机完成机器人的行走和自动避障等功能。在控制算法上,采用“左右手定则”和无火不入房的策略,提高了寻找火源的效率。

  12. 75 FR 221 - Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...-01-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers as Installed on Various Transport Airplanes, Small Airplanes, and Rotorcraft AGENCY... the required specification, have been supplied to the aviation industry for use in fire extinguishing...

  13. Biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, A; Bergendahl, J; Rangwala, A

    2015-07-01

    Fluorinated fire-fighting foams may be released into the environment during fire-fighting activities, raising concerns due to the potential environmental and health impacts for some fluorinated organics. The current study investigated (1) the biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams, and (2) the applicability of current standard measures used to assess biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams. The biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams was evaluated using a 28-day dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Die-Away Test. It was found that all three materials, diluted in water, achieved 77-96% biodegradability, meeting the criteria for "ready biodegradability". Defluorination of the fluorinated organics in the foam during biodegradation was measured using ion chromatography. It was found that the fluorine liberated was 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the estimated initial amount, indicating incomplete degradation of fluorinated organics, and incomplete CF bond breakage. Published biodegradability data may utilize biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) metrics to quantify organics. COD and TOC of four fluorinated compounds were measured and compared to the calculated carbon content or theoretical oxygen demand. It was found that the standard dichromate-based COD test did not provide an accurate measure of fluorinated organic content. Thus published biodegradability data using COD for fluorinated organics quantification must be critically evaluated for validity. The TOC measurements correlated to an average of 91% of carbon content for the four fluorinated test substances, and TOC is recommended for use as an analytical parameter in fluorinated organics biodegradability tests.

  14. 三相泡沫防灭火技术在自燃采面的应用%Application of Three -phase Foam Fire -fighting Technology in Spontaneous Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中岭

    2015-01-01

    Introduces HTC spontaneous process and cause of 21021 mining face in Hongda Coal Mine,through the analysis,after compa-ring the three -phase foam fire -fighting technology governance,the fire area supplemented by local pressure ventilation,successfully solves the mining face of spontaneous combustion,to ensure the safety in production,has a certain reference value.%介绍了宏达煤矿21021采煤工作面发生自燃的过程及原因,通过分析、对比后采用三相泡沫防灭火技术对火区进行治理,辅以局部均压通风等,成功解决了采面自燃,保证了安全生产,具有一定的借鉴价值。

  15. Measuring wildland fire fighter performance with wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Vitalis, Antonios; Walker, Robyn; Riley, David; Pearce, H Grant

    2017-03-01

    Wildland (rural) fire fighting is a physically demanding and hazardous occupation. An observational study was conducted to explore the use of new technologies for the field study of fire fighters at wildfires and to understand the work pressures of wildland fire fighting. The research was carried out with two fire fighters at real fires wearing microphones, miniature video cameras, heart rate monitors and GPS units to record their actions and location at wildfire events. The fire fighters were exposed to high physiological workloads (heart rates of up to 180 beats per minute) and walked considerable distances at the fires. Results from this study have been used in presentations to fire fighters and non-operational fire personnel to understand the pressures fire fighters are under and how others complete the fire fighting tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 新峪矿综放工作面注氮气泡沫防灭火技术应用%Application of fire fighting technology of nitrogen foam injection on fully mechanized coal face in Xin Yu mine coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红俊; 陈军伟; 康怀宇

    2011-01-01

    氮气防灭火技术是防治煤层内因火灾的有效技术措施之一,但氮气轻,易流失,本文针对新峪矿5110综放工作面的实际情况,采用了氮气泡沫结合的方法进行防灭火,对注氮设备、注氮方式、注氮工艺、进行了详细的阐述,并对防灭火效果进行了深入分析。%Fire fighting technology of nitrogen injection is one of the most effective technical measures in preventing coal seam fire.However,nitrogen is light and loses easily.Regarding the practical situation on 5110 fully mechanized coal face of Xin Yu mine coal,this thesis analyzes the combination of nitrogen and foam for firefighting technology.It elaborates the nitrogen produce equipment,nitrogen injection way,and nitrogen injection technology.Furthermore,it analyzes the fire control results in details.

  17. ZrP nanoplates based fire-fighting foams stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lecheng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Li, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting foam, as a significant innovation in fire protection, greatly facilitates extinguishments for liquid pool fire. Recently, with developments in LNG industry, high-expansion firefighting foams are also used for extinguishing LNG fire or mitigating LNG leakage. Foam stabilizer, an ingredient in fire-fighting foam, stabilizes foam bubbles and maintains desired foam volume. Conventional foam stabilizers are organic molecules. In this work, we developed a inorganic based ZrP (Zr(HPO4)2 .H2O, Zirconium phosphate) plates functionalized as firefighting foam stabilizer, improving firefighting foam performance under harsh conditions. Several tests were conducted to illustrate performance. The mechanism for the foam stabilization is also proposed. Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3122

  18. STS-47 crew extinquishes fire during JSC fire fighting exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers lined up along water hoses direct spray at fire blazing in JSC's Fire Training Pit. At the left are backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak, holding the hose nozzle, and Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis. Manning the hose on the right are backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, holding the hose nozzle, followed by Commander Robert L. Gibson, Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, and MS Jerome Apt. Guiding the teams are MS Mae C. Jemison (front) and a veteran fire fighter and instructor (center). Doi and Mohri represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  19. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  20. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  1. Practice of Fighting Fire and Suppressing Explosion for a Super-Large and Highly Gassy Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Baijigou Mine fire in Ningxia Province, which broke out on October 24, 2003, affected more than 108 m3 of the mine and was probably the largest underground fire in China in recent years.In addition to its size, the fire was also characterized by excessive air leakage and the potential for violent methane explosions.A series of new measures were taken to fight the fire, including sealing intake tunnels with water, injecting three-phase foam through boreholes, and flushing with a large volume of nitrogen.The fire was successfully extinguished and production resumed soon afterwards; not one single methane explosion occurred during fire-fighting and afterwards.

  2. Virtual Reality Simulation of Fire Fighting Robot Dynamic and Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Setiawan, Joga D; Budiyono, Agus

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents one approach in designing a Fire Fighting Robot which has been contested annually in a robotic student competition in many countries following the rules initiated at the Trinity College. The approach makes use of computer simulation and animation in a virtual reality environment. In the simulation, the amount of time, starting from home until the flame is destroyed, can be confirmed. The efficacy of algorithms and parameter values employed can be easily evaluated. Rather than spending time building the real robot in a trial and error fashion, now students can explore more variation of algorithm, parameter and sensor-actuator configuration in the early stage of design. Besides providing additional excitement during learning process and enhancing students understanding to the engineering aspects of the design, this approach could become a useful tool to increase the chance of winning the contest.

  3. Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

    2007-01-15

    Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).

  4. STS-47 crew during fire fighting exercises at JSC's Fire Training Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers line up along water hoses to extinguish a blaze in JSC's Fire Training Pit during fire fighting exercises. Manning the hose in the foreground are Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, holding the hose nozzle, backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, and Commander Robert L. Gibson, at rear. Lined up on the second hose are Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, holding the hose nozzle, followed by MS N. Jan Davis, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, and backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak. A veteran firefighter monitors the effort from a position between the two hoses. In the background, backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai, donning gloves, and MS Mae C. Jemison look on. The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Mohri, Doi, and Mukai all represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  5. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  6. A STUDY ON A COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIP TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE REGIONAL FIRE FIGHTING VALIDITY -Case Study in Bangkok, Thailand-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripramai, Keerati; Oikawa, Yasushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Katada, Toshitaka

    Generally, in order to improve some regional fire fighting validity, indispensable strategies are not only a reinforcement of the governmental fire fighting ability, but also a strengthening of the cooperative relationship between governmental and non-governmental fire fighting ability. However, for practical purposes, the effective strategy should be different depending on the actual situationin the subject area. So, in this study, we grasp the actual state and background of the problems that need to be solved for the improvement of the regional fire fighting validity in Bangkok as a case study, and examine the appropriate solution focusing on the relationship between official and voluntary fire fighting. Through some practicable activities such as interviews, investigati ons, and making the regional fire fighting validity map, it became clear that the problems of uncooperative relationship and the lack of trust between stakeholders should be solved first and foremost.

  7. A Review of Fire Fighting Training in the Naval Education and Training Command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    threat a series of fire fighting schools and damage control courses have been established to train Naval personnel in the elements of fire prevention...unexPecte opprtunities -.. t ,- L ,ee snort course; while ir oort. Kre Vi.1Won Sclui, inst.,. tec a stcndby sys to .i ,nCh he,. reL , the n. .r-. .0nIA-e

  8. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  9. How to play the role of fire fighting equipments better%如何更好地发挥消防装备的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞军

    2011-01-01

    从国内外消防装备的概况出发,分析了当前我国消防装备存在的相关问题,并立足我国经济、社会和科技现状,从装备配备、人才培养、能力提高、机制建立等方面,提出了更好发挥消防装备作用的途径和方法.%Starting from the overview of the fire fighting equipments in China and other countries, problems of fire fighting e-quipments in China were analyzed. Considering the economical, social, and technology situation of China, methods of play the role of fire fighting equipments better were provided, such as e-quipping, staff training, improving capacity and establishing mechanism.

  10. Evaluation of three percent Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) concentrates as fire fighting agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, E. J.

    1981-04-01

    A large-scale fire test program involving 20,000-square foot JP-4 fuel fires was conducted to evaluate the fire suppression effectiveness and compatibility of 3 percent Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) agents in Air Force fire fighting vehicles. Three commercially available 3 percent AFFF concentrates were tested in accordance with military specification MIL-F-24385B. Test results are summarized in Appendix A. As a result of these tests, an updated Revision C to this MIL SPEC has been accomplished with new requirements for both 3 percent and 6 percent AFFF extinguishing agents.

  11. Application of Fire Fighting Technology of Nitrogen Foam Inje tcion on Fu lly Mechanized Coal Face in Xinyu Coal Mine%新峪矿综放工作面煤层预注阻化液防灭火技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘财; 陈军伟

    2014-01-01

    Fire fighting technology of nitrogen injection is one of the most effective technical measures in pre -venting coal seam fire.However , nitrogen is light and loses easily.Regarding the practical situation on 5110 fully mechanized coal face of Xin Yu mine coal , this thesis analyzes the combination of nitrogen and foam for firefighting technology.It elaborates the nitrogen produce equipment , nitrogen injection way , and nitrogen in-jection technology.Furthermore , it analyzes the fire control results in details.%鉴于新峪矿自投产以来10#、11#煤层多次出现发火的情况,5110综放工作面采取了煤层预注阻化液技术进行防灭火。本文阐述了预注阻化液防灭火技术在新峪矿5110综放工作面的成功应用,对阻化剂的选择、注液实施方案进行了详细的阐述,并对防灭火效果进行了深入的分析。

  12. Applicability of ISO 16697 Data to Spacecraft Fire Fighting Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.; Beeson, Harold D.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation Agenda: (1) Selected variables affecting oxygen consumption during spacecraft fires, (2) General overview of ISO 16697, (3) Estimated amounts of material consumed during combustion in typical ISS enclosures, (4) Discussion on potential applications.

  13. Fighting Forest Fires - An Assessment of Policy Options in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Luthfi Fatah; Udiansyah

    2010-01-01

    Uncontrolled forest fires are one of the key causes of habitat destruction in Indonesia. The haze they produce causes significant pollution problems for people in the country and in surrounding nations. This study has highlighted the root causes of the fires and assessed a range of potential new policy options to improve the situation. The study finds that the weak enforcement of forest conservation rules and regulations is a key problem and that this is caused by wide range of resource and i...

  14. The Environmental Impacts of Fire-Fighting Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tureková, Ivana; Balog, Karol

    2010-01-01

    Extinguishing foams are commonly used for extinguishing the fire of flammable liquids, whereby their insulating, choking and quenching effects are exploited. The purpose of the paper is to consider and compare the foams currently used in fire departments, regarding mainly their high extinguishing effect (capability of faster aborted burning on the large surface at low foam consumption), but also their impact on the environment in each stage of their life cycle.

  15. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks; Braender i driftrum - Insatsplaner, slaeckteknik, risker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-15

    On July 1, 2005 a fire occurred within an electrical switch room at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant. At the evaluation of the incident it was identified that the pre-fire plans did not give sufficient information in order to make the appropriate decisions. Questions raised based on the incident are how decisions are made and orders are delegated with respect to the incident command, which fire fighting tactic should be used, which types of extinguishing media should be used, what are the risks with respect to safety of staff and safety of the reactor. Lessons learned from the fire at Forsmark were that pre-incident planning was at hand but the information was not sufficient to make the correct initial decisions that might be critical for life and property. One of the most crucial ingredients in all safety related work is to utilize previous experience in order to maintain a high degree of safety. Lessons learnt are also the foundation on which the ability to construct or create strong barriers against a certain fault phenomena, fault mechanism or type of initial event. In the case of nuclear processes, fire is considered as an important and critical initial event which has to be recognized in a number of cases in order to maintain a safe process. The likelihood for a fire to represent an initial event should not be underestimated and can therefore not be neglected, probabilistically or deterministically, unless the inherent safety systems can not control the event in an acceptable manner. Regardless of safety measures and lessons learnt from previous experiences in the construction and the operation of the nuclear facility, fires can occur. Previous experiences point out that process system, e.g. systems that are part of the turbine, are more frequently subject to fire incidents compared to ordinary safety systems. Fires in electrical components, often electrical cabinets, can be difficult to handle and to extinguish quickly. This report presents the background work

  16. Fire fighting at longwall face 67 of the Stara Jama brown coal mine in Zenica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elezovic, V.; Bijelic, V.; Slijepcevic, S.

    1984-10-01

    A case is described of fire fighting at a 100 m long fully mechanized longwall. The fire occurred in the upper end of the longwall working a 9 m thick foot slice of a 18 m thick coal seam, i.e. beneath the goaf of the roof slice which had been outmined by the same sublevel working method. The mine fire was detected by the presence of CO in the outlet stream of mine air. Operation of the longwall was continued without interruption. The longwall crew worked using respirators. In order to extinguish the fire in the goaf, the suction type ventilation for the longwall (495 m/sup 3//min) was substituted by compressive ventilation. Two blowers were used for this purpose (2x250 m/sup 3//min). The pressure of mine air prevented the outflow of CO and enabled operations at the longwall to be continued without interruption. Fire fighting lasted nearly 2 months. A 50 m long zone, endangered by the fire, was outmined.

  17. Fire fighting with high risk. Firemen demand an emergency shutoff option for PV systems; Loeschen mit Risiko. Die Feuerwehr fordert von der Solarbranche ein 'Not-Aus' fuer Photovoltaikanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneking, Andreas

    2011-01-15

    It is a horror scenario for home owners with PV systems: Firemen cannot fight a fire in a burning house because free PV cables make it too risky. Emergency shutoff technologies may offer a way out. There are several technologies already commercially available but there is no legal regulation as yet, and experts are not in agreement about the optimum concepts.

  18. STS-35 Pilot Gardner during fire fighting exercises at JSC fire training pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner extinguishes a small blaze during a fire handling training session for crewmembers at JSC Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Wearing a navy blue flight suit, Gardner approaches fire while operating a fire extinguisher as Commander Vance D. Brand (far right) and Payload Specialist Samuel T. Durrance look on. The crew was briefed on types of potential blazes and the correct means of controlling each type. STS-35 will mark the first seven-member crew staffing since the Challenger accident of January 1986.

  19. STS-35 crewmembers during fire fighting exercises at JSC fire training pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 crewmembers extinguish a small blaze during a fire handling training session at JSC Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Wearing navy blue flight suits, Mission Specialist (MS) Robert A.R. Parker (second right) and MS John M. Lounge (third left) approach fire while operating a fire extinguishers. The crew was briefed on types of potential blazes and the correct means of controlling each type. Also pictured are (left to right) Commander Vance D. Brand, Payload Specialist Samuel T. Durrance, Pilot Guy S. Gardner, and training officer Al Putnam. STS-35 will mark the first seven-member crew staffing since the Challenger accident of January 1986.

  20. A portable W-band radar system for enhancement of infrared vision in fire fighting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, Mathias; Zech, Christian; Hülsmann, Axel; Kühn, Jutta; Schlechtweg, Michael; Hahmann, Konstantin; Kleiner, Bernhard; Ulrich, Michael; Ambacher, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present a millimeter wave radar system which will enhance the performance of infrared cameras used for fire-fighting applications. The radar module is compact and lightweight such that the system can be combined with inertial sensors and integrated in a hand-held infrared camera. This allows for precise distance measurements in harsh environmental conditions, such as tunnel or industrial fires, where optical sensors are unreliable or fail. We discuss the design of the RF front-end, the antenna and a quasi-optical lens for beam shaping as well as signal processing and demonstrate the performance of the system by in situ measurements in a smoke filled environment.

  1. Fighting Child Pornography: A Review of Legal and Technological Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Eggestein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our digitally connected world, the law is arguably behind the technological developments of the Internet age.  While this causes many issues for law enforcement, it is of particular concern in the area of child pornography in the United States.  With the wide availability of technologies such as digital cameras, peer-to-peer file sharing, strong encryption, Internet anonymizers and cloud computing, the creation and distribution of child pornography has become more widespread. Simultaneously, fighting the growth of this crime has become more difficult.  This paper explores the development of both the legal and technological environments surrounding digital child pornography.  In doing so, we cover the complications that court decisions have given law enforcement who are trying to investigate and prosecute child pornographers.  We then provide a review of the technologies used in this crime and the forensic challenges that cloud computing creates for law enforcement.  We note that both legal and technological developments since the 1990s seem to be working to the advantage of users and sellers of child pornography.  Before concluding, we provide a discussion and offer observations regarding this subject.

  2. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will lead to a dramatic increase in damage from forest fires in Europe by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region, the average annual area affected by forest fires has quadrupled since the 1960s (WWF, 2012). The number of forest fires is also on the increase in Central and Northern Europe. The Austrian forest fire database shows a total of 584 fires for the period 2012 to 2014, while even large areas of Sweden were hit by forest fires in August 2014, which were brought under control only after two weeks of intense fire-fighting efforts supported by European civil protection modules. Based on these facts, the improvements in forest fire control are a major international issue in the quest to protect human lives and resources as well as to reduce the negative environmental impact of these fires to a minimum. Within this paper the development of a multi-functional airborne management support system within the frame of the Austrian national safety and security research programme (KIRAS) is described. The main goal of the developments is to assist crisis management tasks of civil emergency teams and armed forces in disaster management by providing multi spectral, near real-time airborne image data products. As time, flexibility and reliability as well as objective information are crucial aspects in emergency management, the used components are tailored to meet these requirements. An airborne multi-functional management support system was developed as part of the national funded project AIRWATCH, which enables real-time monitoring of natural disasters based on optical and thermal images. Airborne image acquisition, a broadband line of sight downlink and near real-time processing solutions allow the generation of an up-to-date geo-referenced situation map. Furthermore, this paper presents ongoing developments for innovative extensions and research activities designed to optimize command operations in national and international fire-fighting

  3. 针对建筑电气中的消防设计分析%Analysis on fire-fighting design of building electricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽丽

    2015-01-01

    Starting from three aspects of automatic alarming system design,electricity fire-fighting substation and distribution station design,and emergent lighting design,the paper describes building electricity fire-fighting design points,and explores matters needing attention in building e-lectricity fire-fighting design,with a view to scientifically design electricity fire-fighting system and to guarantee the building safety.%从自动报警系统设计、电气消防供配电设计、应急灯具设计三方面出发,对建筑电气中消防设计要点进行了阐述,探讨了建筑电气消防设计的注意事项,以科学设计电气消防系统,保证建筑的安全性。

  4. Fighting Fire with Fire: Superlattice Cooling of Silicon Hotspots to Reduce Global Cooling Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Sherwood, T; Theogarajan, L; Chong, F T

    2010-10-05

    The running costs of data centers are dominated by the need to dissipate heat generated by thousands of server machines. Higher temperatures are undesirable as they lead to premature silicon wear-out; in fact, mean time to failure has been shown to decrease exponentially with temperature (Black's law). Although other server components also generate heat, microprocessors still dominate in most server configurations and are also the most vulnerable to wearout as the feature sizes shrink. Even as processor complexity and technology scaling have increased the average energy density inside a processor to maximally tolerable levels, modern microprocessors make extensive use of hardware structures such as the load-store queue and other CAM-based units, and the peak temperatures on chip can be much worse than even the average temperature of the chip. In recent studies, it has been shown that hot-spots inside a processor can generate {approx} 800W/cm{sup 2} heat flux whereas the average heat flux is only 10-50W/cm{sup 2}, and due to this disparity in heat generation, the temperature in hot spots may be up to 30 C more than average chip temperature. The key problem processor hot-spots create is that in order to prevent some critical hardware structures from wearing out faster, the air conditioners in a data center have to be provisioned for worst case requirements. Worse yet, air conditioner efficiencies decrease exponentially as the desired ambient temperature decreases relative to the air outside. As a result, the global cooling costs in data centers, which nearly equals the IT equipment power consumption, are directly correlated with the maximum hot spot temperatures of processors, and there is a distinct requirement for a cooling technique to mitigate hot-spots selectively so that the global air conditioners can operate at higher, more efficient, temperatures. We observe that localized cooling via superlattice microrefrigeration presents exactly this opportunity

  5. Fight Fire with Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Sara

    2009-01-01

    When Megan Meier hanged herself in 2006 after being the brunt of a MySpace prank, followed by the subsequent trial of the adult who participated in the 13-year-old girl's harassment, cyberbullying took its place in the eye of a media storm. All the ensuing attention has translated into increased concern among parents and a heightened awareness…

  6. 深水钻井船水消防系统的设计%Water fire-fighting system for deep water drilling ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐天晓; 于再红

    2013-01-01

    There are great differences between the design of water fire-fighting system in deep water drilling ships and that in common ships. The design and calculation is more complex due to the configuration of watering pressure stabilization system and supply of fire-fighting water for water spray system ,foam fire-fighting system and other subsystems for fire-fighting. This paper discusses the design and calculation key points of its water fire-fighting system for a deep water drilling ship with ABS classification.%深水钻井船水消防系统的设计与常规船舶有较大不同,湿式稳压系统的配置以及为水喷淋系统和泡沫消防系统等其他消防子系统提供消防水的要求,导致其设计和计算相对复杂。文中以某型入级ABS的深水钻井船为例,论述其水消防系统的设计与计算要点。

  7. 滨河花园地下车库消防设计%The fire fighting design of underground garage in Binhe garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫瑞鸣

    2012-01-01

    Combining with relevant codes, the paper analyzed the fire design of underground garage in Binhe garden, discussed from five as- pects, including fire fighting system, automatic sprinkler fire extinguishing system, fire extinguisher and other settings, emphatically elaborated the specific design method of each system, provided reference for similar underground garage fire fighting design.%结合相关规范,对滨河花园地下车库消防设计进行了分析,从五个方面进行了论述,包括消防系统,自动喷水灭火系统,消火栓等的设置等内容,着重阐述了各系统具体的设计办法,为今后同类地下车库消防设计提供了借鉴。

  8. Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cámara Tobalina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces (GRF when walking with fire fighting boots in comparison to walking with low calf shoes. Spatio-temporal parameters and the variables related to the three components of the GRF of 39 people were recorded under two different walking conditions. A T-test to contrast the difference between the coefficients of variation (CV in both conditions was used. The CV of the spatio-temporal variables (i.e velocity (V, condition I = 2.01%; condition II = 1.81%, of the vertical (i.e. contact force (FZA of the left foot, condition I = 2.54%; condition II = 2.73% and of the antero-posterior GRF (i.e. maximum force (FXMAX of the left foot, condition I = 4.47%; condition II = 4.59% was lower than 12.5%, suggesting that these variables could be used to analyze the influence of fire fighting boots on the gait. However, the low reproducibility showed by medium-lateral parameters does not allow to use them. Apart from the bipodal phase no differences were found between the two walking conditions. Key words: biomechanics, footwear, variability.

  9. DETERMINATION OF PERFLUOROCARBOXYLATES IN GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY FIRE-FIGHTING ACTIVITY. (R821195)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated surfactants are used in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) formulations, which are used to extinguish hydrocarbon-fuel fires. Virtually nothing is known about the occurrence of perfluorinated surfactants in the environment, in particular, at fire-train...

  10. Basic Design Analysis of Fire Fighting System at Oil Product Wharf%油品码头灭火系统设计浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨南武; 李春来; 纪懿桓

    2012-01-01

    Based on introducing and analysing the fire fighting system of a 100-thousand-ton oil product wharf, and integrating related research materials,the article concentrated on ex - plaining the essentials to design fire fighting system for oil product wharf.%文章基于对某10万吨级油品码头灭火系统的介绍和分析,结合相关调研资料,着重阐述了油品码头灭火系统的设计要点。

  11. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Fernández, M., E-mail: mariafernandez@iiag.csic.es; Gómez-Rey, M.X., E-mail: mxgomez@iiag.csic.es; González-Prieto, S.J., E-mail: serafin@iiag.csic.es

    2015-05-15

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil–plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS + Fo), Firesorb (BS + Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS + Ap). Soils (0–2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ{sup 15}N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N and NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS + Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS + Ap plots had higher values of δ{sup 15}N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS + Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS + Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS + Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS + Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil–plant system after 10 years

  12. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  13. Environmental contamination by perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates following the use of fire-fighting foam in Tomakomai, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Horii, Yuichi; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Kannan, K. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Petrick, G. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Marine Research

    2004-09-15

    On September 26, 2003, a magnitude (M) 8.3 offshore earthquake struck Hokkaido, Japan. The earthquake and ensuing tsunami injured hundreds of people and resulted in significant damage to port and coastal communities. Immediately following the earthquake, a major fire occurred at an oil storage facility of a refinery (Idematsu Kosan Company Ltd) located in the west part of Tomakomai, a Pacific coast city in southern Hokkaido. Idemitsu Kosan Company is the second largest oil refinery in Japan, with a capacity of 140,000 barrels per day (bpd) in Tomakomai. Forty five of the 105 oil storage tanks were damaged following the earthquake and resulted in release of petroleum naphtha, which ignited accidentally. The first fire was reported immediately after the earthquake on 26 September 2003 and was extinguished after 7 hours. The second fire occurred on 28 September and lasted for 44 h. More than three hundred fireman and about one hundred fire engines were brought from several prefectures by air carriers to extinguish the fire. More than 130,000 L of fire fighting foams (FFF) was delivered to extinguish these fires and at least 40,000 L was used. Detailed information regarding the type of FFF used was not available, but aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) have been used in the control of fuel-related fires. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated acids are a component of AFFF. The issue of environmental pollution by perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates has received much attention in the last four years. PFCs possess unique physicochemical properties and exhibit a wide range of volatility/ water solubility depending on the functional group. Environmental dynamics of PFCs is complex due to their unique characteristics and to their release from multitude of sources with various compositions. Previous studies have reported on environmental contamination by PFCs due to accidental release of AFFF. Large amount of

  14. The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity.

  15. On design of fire-fighting water-supply system in coal preparation plants%选煤厂消防给水系统设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓娟; 王俊

    2012-01-01

    根据《煤规》《选规》及《建规》中对选煤厂消防给水系统的有关规定,通过对选煤厂室内和室外消防用水量、选煤厂消防体制及管网布置进行了分析,针对选煤厂消防给水系统设计中存在的问题,提出了个人见解,以期指导实践。%According to the relative regulation on the fire-fighting water-supply system in the coal preparation plants in the Regulation for Coal,the Regulation for Coal Preparation and the Regulation for the Construction,the paper analyzes the volumes of the outdoor and indoor fire-fighting water in the coal preparation plants,the fire-fighting system for the coal selection plants,and the allocation for the pipe network,and points out own opinions for the problems in the design for the fire-fighting water-supply system in the coal preparation plants,so as to direct the practice.

  16. 高校学生宿舍消防安全工作的思考%Reflections on the Fire Fight Safety Work in University Student Dormitories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹

    2014-01-01

    消防安全是高校学生宿舍消防安全工作的重中之重,关系到学生的生命安全和财产利益。学生宿舍消防安全工作还存在着许多薄弱环节,必须警钟长鸣。本文通过案例并结合自身工作经验,分析和探讨高校学生宿舍的消防安全工作存在的普遍问题,以期引起广泛的关注。%Fire fight safety is a top priority of the fire fight safety work in university student dormitories, as it is related to students' life safety and property interests. There are still many weak links in the fire fight safety work in university student dormitories, which should attract our attention. Based on practical cases and the writer's own experience, this paper analyzed and explored the common problems existing in the fire fight safety work in univer-sity student dormitories, hoping to arouse wide attention.

  17. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, M; Gómez-Rey, M X; González-Prieto, S J

    2015-05-15

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil-plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS+Fo), Firesorb (BS+Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS+Ap). Soils (0-2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ(15)N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH₄(+)-N and NO₃(-)-N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS+Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS+Ap plots had higher values of δ(15)N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS+Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS+Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS+Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS+Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil-plant system after 10 years.

  18. Fighting Ebola through Novel Spore Decontamination Technologies for the Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Doona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRecently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF, the World Health Organization (WHO, Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH, and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs, a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned. The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2 produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army – Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established nonthermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers

  19. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC's novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  20. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  1. 77 FR 31325 - National Fire Codes: Request for Comments on NFPA Technical Committee Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... and Fire-Fighting Services at Airports. NFPA 412 Standard for Evaluating P Aircraft Rescue and Fire- Fighting Foam Equipment. NFPA 502 Standard for Road Tunnels, P Bridges, and Other Limited Access Highways... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Codes: Request for Comments on NFPA...

  2. Introduction of fire-fighting system design for chemical enterprises%化工企业消防系统设计介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志云

    2013-01-01

    Different from national standard, the local standard of fire-fighting design of Iiaoning province requires that the volume of fire-fighting water tank and the storage of foam liquid should be at least twice the amount of the designed consumption, and the oil reserve of diesel engine should ensure a 8-hour continuous operation of the unit, which cause the increase of accident water amount during fire extinguishing. In view of the above situation, empty fire-fighting water tank was used to store accident water temporarily, which could not only prevent environment pollution from polluted rainwater, but also save land and investment.%辽宁省的地方规定与国家规范要求不同,要求消防水罐的储水容积、泡沫液储量应达到2倍以上设计用量,柴油机油料储备量应满足机组连续工作8h的要求,这就导致了消防事故水收集量增大.利用使用过的空置消防水罐暂时存放事故水,可以防止污染雨水对水体造成污染,既节约用地,又节省投资.

  3. 智能灭火机器人的控制系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of Intelligent Fire Fighting Mobile Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茜; 杜刚; 魏利卓; 袁银

    2012-01-01

      Based on characteristics of Autonomous Mobile Robot, the hardware and software for intelligent fire fighting mobile robot were designed with EXP ATmega 128 as the controller. Moreover, the intelligent fire fighting mobile robot was assembled and tested. In the test, the actions of intelligent fire fighting mobile robot are easily controlled, which is of stable gesture during walking, can avoid the obstacle promptly and can detect the site of fire sources accurately.%  基于自主移动机器人的特点,以 EXP ATmega 128为控制处理器,设计了智能灭火机器人的硬件和软件,并完成了智能灭火机器人的组装和调试。试验表明,设计的智能灭火机器人行走时易操控,姿态稳定,能及时避开障碍物,准确探测火源的位置并成功灭火。

  4. Fighting fire and fatigue: sleep quantity and quality during multi-day wildfire suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Grace E; Aisbett, Brad; Hall, Sarah J; Ferguson, Sally A

    2016-07-01

    This study examined firefighters' sleep quantity and quality throughout multi-day wildfire suppression, and assessed the impact of sleep location, shift length, shift start time and incident severity on these variables. For 4 weeks, 40 volunteer firefighters' sleep was assessed using wrist actigraphy. Analyses revealed that the quantity of sleep obtained on fire days was restricted, and pre- and post-sleep fatigue ratings were higher, compared to non-fire days. On fire days, total sleep time was less when: (i) sleep location was in a tent or vehicle, (ii) shifts were greater than 14 h and (iii) shifts started between 05:00 and 06:00 h. This is the first empirical investigation providing objective evidence that firefighters' sleep is restricted during wildfire suppression. Furthermore, sleep location, shift length and shift start time should be targeted when designing appropriate controls to manage fatigue-related risk and preserve firefighters' health and safety during wildfire events. Practitioner Summary: During multi-day wildfire suppression, firefighters' sleep quantity was restricted, and pre- and post-sleep fatigue ratings were higher, compared to non-fire days. Furthermore, total sleep time was less when: (i) sleep occurred in a tent/vehicle, (ii) shifts were >14 h and (iii) shifts started between 05:00 and 06:00 h.

  5. Ship survivability through optimisation of fire fighting systems and damage control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Warship designs have been improved the last decade with respect to their resilience against weapon hits. In particular, attention was paid to reduction of the blast and fragmentation effects from warhead detonations. In addition to that, all kind of fire safety measures are taken, following existing

  6. 77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... to be cut off during a fire. (b) Carrying Capacity of Lifeboats (Safety Recommendation 3C) The Report... to determine the carrying capacity of lifeboats is not considered representative of the weight of... Recommendation 2D) The Report recommended that a fixed deluge system or multiple high capacity water...

  7. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  8. 化工园区含苯消防废水处理研究%TREATMENT OF FIRE-FIGHTING WASTEWATER WITH BENZENE IN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY PARK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾秋菊; 陈麟凤; 周迟骏

    2011-01-01

    The removal of fire-fighting wastewater with benzene in forty minutes was studied. The technology we adopted was micellar enhanced ultrafiltration through the cross-flow filtration. The results showed that: when benzene concentration was 4 g·L-1, anionic surfactant SDBS's concentration was 1 mmol·L-1, the volume fraction of protein foam was 1:640, pH 7, Ap =0.28MPa, the permeation flux kept in 0.77 xl0-3 L·m-2·h-1· Pa-1, and benzene can be removed 94.1%. On this basis, if 0.75 g·L-1 nano SiO2 was added to the fire-fighting wastewater, benzene interception rate would rise to 88.0% in a short time and the permeation flux can reach to 0.85x10-3 L·m-2·h-1·Pa-1.%以40 min为限制,讨论了采用错流过滤方式的胶束强化超滤技术对含苯消防废水的去除效果.试验表明,当加入苯的质量浓度为4 g·L-1、蛋白泡沫灭火剂的体积分数为1∶640、阴离子表面活性剂十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)浓度为1 mmol· L-1、pH=7、跨膜压差Ap=0.28 MPa时,苯去除率为88.0%,出水通量达到0.77× 10-3 L· m-2· h-1 Pa-1.上述条件下,加入纳米二氧化硅0.75 g·L-1,能使苯去除率快速提高到99.8%,通量达到0.85×10-3 L.m-2.h-1.pa-1.

  9. Models for fleet sizing and localization of fire-fighting for attendance to accidents in platforms; Modelos para dimensionamento de frota e localizacao de embarcacoes fire-fighting para atendimento a acidentes em plataformas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Afonso Celso; Brinati, Marco Antonio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1996-12-31

    The increasing degree of use of maritime resources claims the establishment of a modern protection and assistance system to prevent and control maritime accidents. The usual safety systems for maritime accidents, generally, have the aid of specialized fleets in the attendance. This work presents models to determine the location and the profile of a specialized fleet for fire fighting, in order to guarantee the adequate attendance to expected accidents in a marine oil field. To modelling the problem, two means of analysis are considered: a deterministic model of integer programming and a probabilistic model. Considering the geographic location and the size of platforms as input data, the deterministic model establishes, among the available vessels, the fleet profile and location in order to minimize the fleet cost assuring the attendance to each platform within the standard requirements. The probabilistic model starts from a given solution for the fleet profile and vessel location and, by means of estimating the utilization factors of each vessel, proposes possible improvements in the fleet location, in order to maximize the probability of attending the accidents. A simulation model was elaborated to validate the results from the probabilistic model. The obtained results indicate the usefulness of every model, not only to a rational location problem solution, but also, for the analysis of the operational fleet performance. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Fire fighting design of coaI chemicaI project intermediate tank farm%煤化工项目中间罐区消防设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫庆元

    2015-01-01

    以西北某煤化工项目为例,介绍了中间罐区的消防设计思路和方法,系统地阐述了泡沫灭火系统、消防冷却水系统的设计计算及设计时需注意的问题。%Tanking a coal chemical project in northwest China as an example, the design thinking and method of intermediate tank farm fire fighting were introduced; besides, the design and calculation of foam extin-guishing system, fire fighting cooling water system as well as the problems need to be noticed were elaborated systematically.

  11. Use of Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology to Characterize Fire Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Cram

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential of a fiber optic cable connected to distributed temperature sensing (DTS technology to withstand wildland fire conditions and quantify fire behavior parameters. We used a custom-made ‘fire cable’ consisting of three optical fibers coated with three different materials—acrylate, copper and polyimide. The 150-m cable was deployed in grasslands and burned in three prescribed fires. The DTS system recorded fire cable output every three seconds and integrated temperatures every 50.6 cm. Results indicated the fire cable was physically capable of withstanding repeated rugged use. Fiber coating materials withstood temperatures up to 422 °C. Changes in fiber attenuation following fire were near zero (−0.81 to 0.12 dB/km indicating essentially no change in light gain or loss as a function of distance or fire intensity over the length of the fire cable. Results indicated fire cable and DTS technology have potential to quantify fire environment parameters such as heat duration and rate of spread but additional experimentation and analysis are required to determine efficacy and response times. This study adds understanding of DTS and fire cable technology as a potential new method for characterizing fire behavior parameters at greater temporal and spatial scales.

  12. [Determination of perfluorooctane sulfonates in fire-fighting foam and other materials by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiming; Cheng, Yan; Chen, Wei; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Xi; Wang, Zheng

    2010-02-01

    A novel method based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS) in the fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents. The PFOS residue was extracted with water at first by ultrasonic, then separated by high-speed centrifugation. The supernatant was purified by pre-conditioned solid phase extraction (SPE) micro-column, and the extract was filtrated through a membrane with 0.2 microm diameter. The filtrated liquid was analyzed by HPLC using acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (80 : 20, v/v) as mobile phase. The PFOS was detected by using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) on a tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis of the PFOS can be performed by using the relative abundance of two daughter ions of PFOS, and the quantitative analysis was performed by external standard method. The linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.002 - 0.1 mg/L with a linear correlation coefficient (r2 ) of 0.998. The spiked recoveries for PFOS in the fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents were 93.4% - 103%, 93.2% - 102% and 91.8% - 102% with the relative standard deviation of 0.48% - 3.52%, 0.78% - 1.79% and 0.47% - 3.47%, respectively. And the detection limit for PFOS was 2 mg/kg (S/N > or = 10), which can meet the requirement for the PFOS restriction in fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents in the EU directives. With high accuracy and sensitivity, the method is simple and rapid, and can be used for PFOS inspection in fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents.

  13. Design of fire-fighting robot based on time-condition algorithm%基于时间条件算法的灭火机器人设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡改蝶; 樊孝仁; 崔艺馨

    2015-01-01

    详细介绍了灭火机器人的组装,在组装机器人的基础上,概括性的介绍了灭火机器人的各种算法及无火不进房算法中的时间算法和条件算法。为了让灭火机器人更加稳定的退出每个房间,结合时间算法和条件算法的优点,提出了时间条件算法,从而让机器人采用时间条件算法在迷宫中行走,并完成灭火任务。实验表明,此算法的应用使机器人在灭火过程中稳定性很高,并能及时避开迷宫墙壁;不但效果好,而且在很大程度上缩短了时间。%This paper introduces the fire-fighting robot installation, on the basis of installation of fire-fighting robot, synoptically introduces all kinds of algorithms including time algorithm and conditional algorithm. In order to make fire-fighting robot get out of each room more stable, this paper combined with the advantages of time algorithm and condition algorithm, puts forward a time-condition algorithm, so that the robot using the time-condition algorithm can walk in a maze, and complete the task in the maze. The experiment show that, the robot using the algorithm has a very high stability in the process of fire-fighting, can timely avoid the maze walls, and the effect is good.

  14. The effect of energy drinks on cortisol levels, cognition and mood during a fire-fighting exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Owen-Lynch, Jane; Robinson, Sarita J; Jones, Emma; Hu, Henglong

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress has been associated with changes in cognitive performance and mood, and these have been in part associated with stress-related increased release of cortisol. Both glucose and caffeine consumed in isolation have been shown to moderate cortisol response and affect cognitive performance and affect mood; however, there has been very little research into their behavioural and physiological effects when taken in combination. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the two substances in combination under stressful and physically demanding conditions (fire-fighting training) on cognition, mood and cortisol release. Using a double-blind, mixed measures design, 81 participants were administered a 330-ml drink containing either (1) 50 g glucose and 40 mg caffeine, (2) 10.25 g of fructose/glucose and 80 mg caffeine or a placebo drink and tested across a range of cognitive tasks, mood and physiological measures. The results showed an increase in grip strength and improved memory performance after ingestion of the drink containing 50 g glucose and 40 mg caffeine, and both active drinks resulted in improved performance on the information-processing task compared to the placebo. In terms of mood effects, the drink containing 50 g glucose and 40 mg caffeine led to a reduction in anxiety and significantly reduced self-reported levels of stress following the fire-fighter training. Based on the results of this study, in situations of stress combined with physical performance, administration of an energy drink containing glucose and caffeine might be an easy to implement and cost effective way to maintain mental performance levels and to ameliorate the negative effects of stress on mood.

  15. 高校宿舍防火隐患研究与对策%Study on hidden troubles for fire fighting and countermeasures in hostel of high school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚思宁

    2009-01-01

    Taking the fourth floor student hostel building in north-west of Tongji university as example, the paper starting from aspects of rea-sons of catching fire and combustible material, structural fire-prevention, prevention and draining of smoke, fire-fighting equipment, evacuat-ing fix up, room, electrical equipment and fire prevention education and so on, studies hidden troubles of fire-fighting in hostel high school and reasons for them, it also proposes relative measures, thus to provide safety assurance for students in high school.%以同济大学西北四楼学生宿舍为例,从起火原因与可燃物、结构防火、防排烟、消防设备、疏散布置、房间、电器、防火教育等方面出发,研究了高校宿舍消防隐患及其背后原因,并针对性的提出了安全对策,从而为高校学生的学习生活提供安全保障.

  16. Bradley Fighting Vehicle Gunnery: The Use of the Protective Mask in the Conduct of Fire Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    PERI-PO, "eAeadi, una23 FINAL DISPOSITION: This rep may be destroyed when it is -.o longer needed. Please do not retinn it to the U.S. Army Resench...to the nature of the scoring procedures, the experimental aspects of the gunnery, and the artificiality of donning and/or removing the NBC mask, the...produced round count differences. 14 However, caution must be used in treating the number of rounds fired. Round count in the COFT is somewhat artificial

  17. Fire-fighting Robot Based on Single-chip Control%基于单片机控制的灭火机器人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑岚; 郑杨

    2011-01-01

    The fire fighting robot takes the STC89C52 single chip as the control. Extinguishing the flame sensor on the robot through the feelings of the flame intensity, and then compares the robot by comparing the difference between feeling the flame intensity, low and high transmission to the microcontroller, the microcontroller to control the robot's forward direction, automatically find the fire, the robot forward process through the infrared obstacle avoidance module, can effectively avoid the collision. When the fire reached the border, through the gray sensor signal to the microcontroller to start the fire fighting procedures, effectively complete fire fighting capabilities.%该灭火机器人由STC89C52单片机芯片作为控制核心。通过灭火机器人上火焰传感器感受火焰强度,再通过比较器比较机器人不同点感受火焰强度,输送给单片机高低电平,由单片机控制机器人的前进方向,自动寻找到火源,在机器人前进过程中通过红外避障模块,可以有效避免碰撞。当达到火源边界,通过灰度传感器给单片机信号,启动灭火程序,有效完成灭火功能。

  18. Satellite remote-sensing technologies used in forest fire management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-rui; Douglas J. Mcrae; SHU Li-fu; WANG Ming-yu; LI Hong

    2005-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing has become a primary data source for fire danger rating prediction, fuel and fire mapping, fire monitoring, and fire ecology research. This paper summarizes the research achievements in these research fields, and discusses the future trend in the use of satellite remote-sensing techniques in wildfire management. Fuel-type maps from remote-sensing data can now be produced at spatial and temporal scales quite adequate for operational fire management applications. US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellites are being used for fire detection worldwide due to their high temporal resolution and ability to detect fires in remote regions. Results can be quickly presented on many Websites providing a valuable service readily available to fire agency. As cost-effective tools, satellite remote-sensing techniques play an important role in fire mapping. Improved remote-sensing techniques have the potential to date older fire scars and provide estimates of burn severity. Satellite remote sensing is well suited to assessing the extent of biomass burning, a prerequisite for estimating emissions at regional and global scales, which are needed for better understanding the effects of fire on climate change. The types of satellites used in fire research are also discussed in the paper. Suggestions on what remote-sensing efforts should be completed in China to modernize fire management technology in this country are given.

  19. 南京市消防资源优化研究%Study on Optimization of Fire Fighting Resources in Nanjing Metropolitan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春阳; 刘飞; 杨雳

    2011-01-01

    针对目前南京市消防资源分布不均,各个救援主体之间存在信息孤岛现象,工作协调性差,致使突发状况发生时难以有效地保护人民的生命和财产安全的现状,探讨了通过利用层次分析法的部分思想南京市消防资源进行了重新分配,并进一步明确了责任区域,使消防资源得到最有效的利用。同时,利用广义最大覆盖模型对消防站进行了选址优化,从而进一步提高救援效率,对以后救援工作的顺利开展提供相关参考。%As current fire fighting resources are distributed unevenly in Nanjing, and there is the phenomenon of isolated information island among multi-rescue subjects, their coordination in teamwork is weak and that leads to the situation that when emergency happens, people's lives and property cannot be protected efficiently. This paper reapportions fire fighting resources in Nanjing and further defines responsibility region of each subjec,so that the fire fighting resources are effectively used. At the meantime,the paper optimizes the location of fire station, so as to improve rescue efficiency and provide important guidance for later rescue works to smoothly develop.

  20. Design of the Control System for Large-flow Fire Fighting Monitor%一种大流量消防炮控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 邓成中

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the feature of small-flow fire fighting monitor, I.e. , smaller motor drive torque, the control system for large flow fire fighting monitor is designed. In the system, the intelligent integrated power drive chip BIN79785B is adopted to design the drive circuit for large power DC motors both in horizontal and vertical directions of the fire fighting monitor, and to output required torque for driving the rotation of the fire monitor; the limit position of the rotation is detected by using Holzer switch. The main controller LPC1114 is used to detect present operating current of the motor in real time; to judge whether the motor is overload or not, and carry on corresponding action. Through wireless transceiver module nRF905, the fire fighting monitor can be controlled remotely. The tests show that the system works stably and responds quickly, the application is reliable.%针对大多数小流量消防炮电机驱动力矩较小的特点,设计了一种大流量消防炮控制系统.系统采用智能集成功率驱动芯片BTN7975B,设计了消防炮水平和垂直方向上大功率直流电机的驱动电路,以输出满足要求的驱动力矩驱动消防炮转动,同时利用霍尔开关检测消防炮转动极限位置;采用主控制器LPC1114实时检测电机当前工作电流,判断电机是否发生过载,并作出相应的控制动作;通过无线收发模块nRF905实现消防炮的无线遥控.试验表明,系统工作稳定、应用可靠,且响应速度快.

  1. 重型防化服导致热负荷的解决方案%The technical solutions of heat load problems caused by fire-fighting anti-chemical clothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓颖; 田亮; 王国辉; 徐志刚

    2012-01-01

    分析在高温环境条件下身穿重型防化服作战的消防员需承受的热负荷过载情况及其对身体机能的负面影响.介绍并分析目前国内外针对热负荷过载问题而采取的防护措施及其优缺点,提出利用航空宇航人体生命保障技术中的人体体温调节控制技术解决消防员本身热负荷问题的技术方案.以1 kg冰作为冷源,经循环导管带走热量.测试人员在40℃的房间穿着防化服65 min,心率、血压无明显变化,防化服后背测温点温度一直维持在27~29℃.%The overload of thermal and its negative impact on physical function of fire fighters when they wearing fire-fighting anti-chemical suit, fighting in high-temperature environment, were analyzed. Details of thermal overload protection measures foreign and domestic were introduced, and its advantages and disadvantages were analyzed. Based on the above analysis and using Aerospace technology in the control of body temperature for human life protection, the technical solution of heat load for fire fighters was proposed. The cold source is ice and the thermal was taken through circle vessel. Sixty five minutes after wearing the anti-chemical suit in a room at 40 ℃ , the cardiac rate and the blood pressure of test person has no significant change, and temperature of the point for measuring at the back of anti-chemical suit is between 27 ℃ to 29 ℃.

  2. Modelling Technology for Building Fire Scene with Virtual Geographic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.

  3. Design of an aiming hand-system specially for the projectiles of fighting forest fires%一种森林灭火手持式瞄准系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 胡建文

    2012-01-01

    宜昌测试技术研究所自主研制了CMH—1型智能森林灭火系统。为提高该系统实地灭火前瞄准的准备时间和异地瞄准的集成化水平,介绍了一种基于ARM7微处理器,GPS技术和无线通信技术实现的手持式观瞄系统。对系统的功能、硬件设计、软件设计进行了详细阐述。系统的集成度高,操作方便,实践证明系统性能稳定可靠,同时该系统也填补了国内森林灭火系统瞄准设备的空白。%Yichang testing technique research institute developed an intelligent system of CMH-1 for fighting forest fires. In order to improve the system's preparation time and integrated aiming level in different places,an aiming hand-system is introduced which is based on the ARM7 microprocessor, using GPS technology,and wireless communication technology. The functions of system,design of hardware,design of software are described in detail. The system which has high integration and convenient operation is proved stable and reliable by practice ,filling in gaps in developing the aiming hand-system for fighting forest fires.

  4. 建筑防火中的消防泡沫喷洒系统设计方法研究%Design Method Research of FireFighting Foam Sprinkling System in Building FireProtection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张太成

    2015-01-01

    The construction of fire fighting foam system design is of great significance, the traditional fire fighting foam sys⁃tem for fire protection design cannot to control pollution.Put forward a design method of fire fighting foam system in the construction project, adopting programmable logic controller PLC, with Siemens WINCC configuration software system for real-time monitoring and relevant data storage, statistics data, at the same time when the emissions and emissions beyond limit warning combined with fuzzy PID control system.Through the experimental debugging, the system can carry on the effective monitoring and real-time alarm to the emissions.%建筑工程中消防泡沫系统消防设计具有重要意义,传统的消防泡沫系统对消防的设计无法对造成的污染进行控制。提出一种建筑工程中消防泡沫系统消防设计方法,采用可编程逻辑控制器PLC,利用西门子组态软件WINCC对系统进行实时监控并存储相关数据,同时将数据进行统计,当排放物和排量超出限值时结合模糊PID 控制系统发出预警。经过实验调试,系统能够对排放气体进行有效监控并实时报警。可以有效保证建筑内的相关人员安全。

  5. Application of Computer Integration Technology for Fire Safety Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jianyong; LI Yinqing; CHEN Huchuan

    2008-01-01

    With the development of information technology, the fire safety assessment of whole structure or region based on the computer simulation has become a hot topic. However, traditionally, the concemed studies are performed separately for different objectives and difficult to perform an overall evaluation. A new multi-dimensional integration model and methodology for fire safety assessment were presented and two newly developed integrated systems were introduced to demonstrate the function of integration simulation technology in this paper. The first one is the analysis on the fire-resistant behaviors of whole structure under real fire loads. The second one is the study on fire evaluation and emergency rescue of campus based on geography information technology (GIS). Some practical examples are presented to illuminate the advan-tages of computer integration technology on fire safety assessment and emphasize some problems in the simulation. The results show that the multi-dimensional integration model offers a new way and platform for the integrating fire safety assessment of whole structure or region, and the integrated software developed is the useful engineering tools for cost-saving and safe design.

  6. 浅谈消防风机保护断路器的整定%Setting Research of Protection Circuit Breaker for Fire Fighting Blower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振国

    2014-01-01

    The setting problems of corresponding-level protection circuit breaker and the upper-level protection circuit breaker were discussed in a fire fighting blower.Through an instance,it pointed out that the corresponding-level protection circuit breaker only need the short circuit protection setting,and the upper-level protection circuit breaker need the load protection.It could provide references for the designs of similar fire fighting blowers.%针对消防风机的本级保护断路器以及上一级保护断路器的整定问题进行了探讨。通过实例,指出消防风机的本级保护断路器只设短路保护,而上一级保护器需设过负荷保护,以期为类似消防风机设计提供参考。

  7. 城市隧道消防系统现状与规范缺失的分析%Status and lack of fire fighting system of city tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小玲; 童雷; 王立新

    2012-01-01

    分析国内外的规范、国家标准、行业标准中对于城市隧道消防系统的规定,分析城市隧道消防系统应用现状,总结规范对城市隧道消防系统规定的缺失.建议增强高压细水雾灭火系统、泡沫-水喷雾联用系统等在城市隧道中的应用.推荐复合使用三波段红外火焰探测器和图像型探测器探测隧道火灾.严禁采用非消防设备执行消防联动控制功能.%The rules of fire fighting system of city tunnel in domestic and international norms, national standards, industry standards was analyzed as well as its application status, the lack of fire fighting system of city tunnel was concluded. Suggestions were proposed such as further strengthening the application of high-pressure water mist fire fighting system and foam-water spray system, and detection equipment as triple-band infrared flame detector and image-type detector. Fire control function should not be operated by non-fire-fighting equipment.

  8. Modern firing technology with primary emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Willmann; Detlef Boese [Babcock Borsig Service GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Cleaning of the flue gases of power station plants has increased enormously in the context of the environmental protection. Besides the cleaning of the flue gases of dust emissions by electrostatic precipitators the reduction of NOx emissions will become more and more important. The limit value of NOx emissions in Germany for boiler with a high steam capacity is 200mg/m{sup 3}n. Babcock has great experience of primary reduction of NOx emissions for different firing systems. For the choice of the firing system an exact knowledge about the coal and the ash composition is required. The significant properties of the coal are the calorific value and volatile matter content. The influence of firing systems and milling systems on combustion is discussed. 7 figs.

  9. 核电站地震次生火灾的扑救与防护%Fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires in nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕雪峰; 张鑫

    2011-01-01

    核电站地震次生火灾除了会造成人员伤亡、经济损失严重外,还可能造成放射性污染。目前我国核电处于快速发展时期,考虑我国地震多发的特性,研究核电站地震次生火灾具有重要的工程价值。本文详细分析了核电站地震次生火灾的起火原因、影响因素和发展特点等火灾特性,系统总结了核电站地震次生火灾扑灭应遵循"先重点,后一般"、"先隔离,后扑灭"、"急检修,勤巡逻"等三个原则,并提出了扑救和预防核电站地震次生火灾时应注意的三个事项。%Nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires will cause not only personnel injury,severe economic loss,but also serious environmental pollution.For the moment,nuclear power is in a position of rapid development in China.Considering the earthquake-prone characteristics of our country,it is of great engineering importance to investigate the nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires.This article analyzes the cause,influential factors and development characteristics of nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires in details,and summarizes the three principles should be followed in fighting and preventing nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires,such as solving problems in order of importance and urgency,isolation prior to prevention,immediate repair and regular patrol.Three aspects were pointed out that should be paid attention in fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires.

  10. Analysis of Existing Problems in the Design of Fire-fighting of Petrochemical Enterprises%石油化工企业消防设计中存在的问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪; 彭国祥; 余春和

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the major existing problems in the design of the hydrant system, fire monitor system, foam fire-fighting system and gas fire extinguishing system of petrochemical enterprises and addresses substitute solutions to the zoning and decompression of indoor hydrant system. This pa-per also provides suggestions to the taper pipe thread nozzle, vent valve and control of foam fire-fighting system. The authors of this paper also provide per-sonal comments about the controversial issues in the design of gas fire extinguishing system for reference to fire-fighting designers.%针对石油化工企业消火栓系统、消防炮系统、泡沫灭火系统及气体灭火系统设计中存在的主要问题进行了分析,对室内消火栓系统的分区和减压提出了替代的做法,并就泡沫灭火系统中管牙接口、排气阀及系统的控制给出了建议,同时对气体灭火系统设计中存在的争议提出了个人观点,为消防专业设计人员提供了一定的参考。

  11. 消防监督执法工作存在的问题与对策%Analysis on problems and countermeasures of fire-fighting supervision and law enforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱树干

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the fire-fighting supervision and law enforcement faults,the paper analyzes fire-fighting supervision and law enforcement problems,such as small scale teamwork,ignoring significance of fire-fighting security,emphasizing punishment and ignoring dispute,replacing punishment with reform and so on,and puts forward corresponding countermeasures,with a view to improve the efficiency of fire-fighting supervi-sion and law enforcement.%以消防监督执法工作的漏洞为切入点,对消防监督执法工作团队规模小、忽视消防安全的重要性、重罚轻纠、以罚代改的问题进行了分析,提出了几项相应的处理措施,以提高消防监督执法工作的有效性。

  12. An Analysis of the Building and Developing of the Non- active- service Fire Fighting Teams of Different Forms%浅析新形势下多种形式消防队伍的建设与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨太卫

    2012-01-01

    service fire The non - active - service fire fighting teams of different forms are different from those of on - active - fighting zations, which just in the development organizations, or those founded by the local governments, enterprises, villages and social organi- undertake the tasks of certain areas. This paper makes a deep analysis of the of our fire fighting teams of different forms, and it also enables the building problems occurring and developing of those different forms of fire fighting teams.%多种形式消防队伍是指有别于公安现役消防队,由各地政府、企业、乡镇、社会团体等出资建设,承担特定范围内灭火救援任务的消防组织。分析探讨我国多种形式消防队伍发展过程中存在的问题,有利于多种形式消防队伍的建设与发展。

  13. On design for fire-fighting system of some newly-built hospital%某新建医院消防系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕娟娟

    2012-01-01

    结合某新建医院消防系统的设计实例,按照相关规范要求,介绍了室内外消火栓给水系统,自动喷水灭火系统及建筑灭火器的配置及应用,为其他类似工程提供参考。%The paper analyzes the design example of the fire-fighting system of some newly-built hospital, and introduces the water-supply system of the hydrant indoor and outdoor, the automatic sprinkler system, and the building extinguisher, so as to provide some reference for other similar projects.

  14. Advanced coal-fired power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauke, F. [Babcock Borsig Power Energy GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the joint efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant'. Net efficiences of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700{degree}C. The principal efforts are based on development of creep resistent nickel-based materials named super-alloys for the hottest areas of the water/steam cycle. The Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant project will improve the competitiveness of coal-fired power generation. Furthermore, it will provide a major reduction of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants in the range of 15% from the best PF power plants presently and up to 40% from older plants. The demonstration programme will leave the possibility of any plant output between 400 and 1000 MW. The project will run to the end of 2003. 8 figs.

  15. 77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    .... SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National ] Institute for Occupational... developed respiratory protection for this occupational setting, firefighters battling wild fires often..., Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and...

  16. Drones, information technology, and distance: mapping the moral epistemology of remote fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of infor

  17. Drones, information technology, and distance: mapping the moral epistemology of remote fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of infor

  18. Drones, information technology, and distance: mapping the moral epistemology of remote fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of

  19. Circulator Integrated in Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, R. van; Bent, G. van der; Ashari, M.; McKay, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a demonstration of an integrated circulator for TR modules using low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology. Two different circulators have been realised to be used in TR modules in two different frequency bands, C-and Ku-band. The circulator is a three-port junction microstrip ty

  20. Review of Portable, Manually Operated, and Non-Total Flooding Fire Extinguishing Technologies for Use on Naval Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    requires that the process be self -sustainable. An uninhibited chemical chain reason is necessary for this to happen. Portable fire extinguishers need...application of the inert gas be monitored or fire fighting personnel exposed to these gases (at the area of localized use) are equipped with self - contained...Halons for Aircraft Fire Suppression Systems—2011 Update” 2011-03-07. http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/pdf/DraftHalonOptionsReport2011-03-15.pdf [58] Estee

  1. Application and Research of Fuzzy Neural Network in Fire Fighting System%FNN在火灾探测系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓才良; 毕效辉; 赵俊; 聂诗良

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to apply FNN to the fire detection system, using the FNN to deal with the signal of fire, so that it can not only reduce the missing alarm rate and the false alarm rate, but also adapt to the different environments, different working conditions, and get the goal of Self-Adaptive of the fire fighting system truly. This method owns the advantages of both neural networks and fuzzy logic, and let them complement the deficiency of each other, so it has great superiority. Experimental results show that using this algorithm to the testing system after it is translated into C code, and the svstem has been obviously improved in reducing false-alarm and missing-alarm.%尝试将模糊神经网络(FNN)应用到消防系统中,利用FNN对火灾信号进行处理,使其不仅能有效降低消防系统的漏报警、误报警率,而且还可以适应各种不同的环境和工作条件,从而真正实现消防系统的自适应.该方法结合了神经网络和模糊逻辑的优点,弥补不足,优势互补,具有很大的优越性.将此算法转化为C语言代码应用到测试系统中,系统在降低误报警、漏报警方面有着明显改善.

  2. Are post-fire silvicultural treatments a useful tool to fight the climate change threat in terms of plant diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Esteban Lucasr Borja, Manuel; de las Heras, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Adaptative forest management demands a huge scientific knowledge about post-fire vegetation dynamics, taking into account the current context of global change. We hypothesized that management practices should be carry out taking into account the climate change effect, to obtain better results in the biodiversity maintenance across time. All of this with respect to diversity and species composition of the post-fire naturally regenerated Aleppo pine forests understory. The study was carried out in two post-fire naturally regenerated Aleppo pine forests in the Southeastern of the Iberian Peninsula, under contrasting climatic conditions: Yeste (Albacete) shows a dry climate and Calasparra (Murcia) shows a semiarid climate. Thinning as post-fire silvicultural treatment was carried out five years after the wildfire event, in the year 1999. An experiment of artificial drought was designed to evacuate 15% of the natural rainfall in both sites, Yeste and Calasparra, to simulate climate change. Taking into account all the variables (site, silvicultural treatment and artificial drought), alpha diversity indices including species richness, Shannon and Simpson diversity indices, and plant cover, were analyzed as a measure of vegetation abundance. The results showed that plant species were affected by thinning, whereas induced drought affected total cover and species, with lower values at Yeste. Significant site variation was also observed in soil properties, species richness and total plant cover, conversely to the plant species diversity indices. We conclude that the plant community shows different responses to a simulated environment of climate change depending on the experimental site.

  3. Energy-Efficient Fire Monitoring over Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Young-guk Ha; Heemin Kim; Yung-cheol Byun

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled fires occurring in wild areas cause significant damage to natural and human resources. Many countries are looking for ways to fight forest fires at an early stage using sensor networks, by integrating IT technologies. Studies in the fire-related sensor network field are broadly classified into efficient processing of fire data on sensor nodes and energy efficiency during communications among wireless sensor nodes in case of fire. Most studies of sensor network energy efficiency s...

  4. Bridging the divide between fire safety research and fighting fire safely: How do we convey research innovation to contribute more effectively to wildland firefighter safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Ted Adams; Bret W. Butler; Sara Brown; Vita Wright; Anne Black

    2017-01-01

    Creating a safe workplace for wildland firefighters has long been at the centre of discussion for researchers and practitioners. The goal of wildland fire safety research has been to protect operational firefighters, yet its contributions often fall short of potential because much is getting lost in the translation of peer-reviewed results to potential and intended...

  5. 泡沫状树脂制备及其对消防废水的吸收性能%Preparation of foam-like super absorbent polymer and its absorption capability of fire fight wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢潮陵; 周迟骏

    2012-01-01

    以马铃薯淀粉和丙烯酸为原料、过硫酸钾为引发剂和N,N'-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺为交联剂,部分交联(预交联)后,通过微波辐射完成交联、发泡和干燥,制备泡沫状高吸水树脂,并考察工艺条件对泡沫树脂性能的影响.结果表明:糊化时淀粉与水的质量比1∶10,预交联15 min,微波辐照能量7.5 kJ/g的条件下,得到的泡沫状高吸水树脂吸收化工消防废水的最高吸水倍率可达155.7 g/g,前2min内吸水倍率可达101.6 g/g,与未发泡树脂相比,吸水速率提高了80%,可实现事故现场的化工消防废水快速固定化.%A foam-like super absorbent polymer was prepared through microwave by using potato starch and acrylic acid as material, potassium persulfate as initiator, and N, ./V'-methylene bisacrylamide as crosslinking agent. The steps were pre-crosslinked, cross-linked, foamed, and dried by microwave. The effect of the technological conditions on the foamed resin properties were investigated. Results indicated that, when the mass ratio of starch and water was 1:10,the time of pre-crosslinking was 15 min, and microwave power was 7.5 Kj/g, the maximum amount of absorption of the resin was 155.7 g/g, and 101. 6 g/g in the previous 2 min for chemical industry fire fight wastewater. The wastewater absorption rate increased by 80% compared with the non-foamed resin. Thus,it could be used to achieve high-speed solidification of fire fight wastewater in accident scene.

  6. Effect of clothing layers in combination with fire fighting personal protective clothing on physiological and perceptual responses to intermittent work and on materials performance test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Hultquist, Eric M; Lefferts, Wesley K; Fehling, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) shields firefighters from thermal and other occupational hazards; however, it also contributes to physiological and perceptual strain. This study examined the effect of clothing layers worn under structural fire fighting turnout gear (TOG) on physiological and perceptual responses during alternating work/recovery cycles and assessed the clothing ensembles' (PPC + base layer) material performance. Values are reported as mean ± standard error of the mean. Ten men (age, 21 ± 0.3 yr; height, 1.74 ± 0.02 m; weight, 74.3 ± 2.3 kg; VO2max, 58.9 ± 2.0 mL/kg/min) completed a 110-min alternating work/recovery walking protocol (three 20-min exercise bouts/10-, 20-, and 20-min recovery sessions) in a thermo-neutral (21.0°C, 58.7% RH) laboratory while wearing a cotton t-shirt (COT) or COT and a station uniform (SU) shirt under fire fighting TOG (COT+TOG and COT+SU+TOG, respectively). Changes in heart rate (HR), core temperature (Tco), skin temperature (Tsk), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal sensations (TS) were compared across exercise and recovery periods. During exercise sessions, HR, Tco, Tsk, and RPE reached similar levels for COT+TOG and COT+SU+TOG. During Recoveries 1, 2, and 3, mean chest Tsk decreased by 3.96, 6.64, and 6.49°C, respectively, for COT+TOG compared with 2.24, 3.78, and 4.09°C for COT+SU+TOG (p benefits were experienced during the recovery sessions for the COT+TOG ensemble as evidenced by a lower chest Tsk. In addition, materials performance testing revealed COT+SU+TOG provided greater thermal protection (64.8 ± 1.9 vs. 56.4 ± 0.3 cal/cm(2); p < 0.05) and equivalent heat dissipation compared with COT+TOG. These findings could guide departmental decisions about the use of station shirts.

  7. A Simple Analysis of the Regulation of Discretionary power in Fire_fighting Administrative penalty%浅论消防行政处罚中自由裁量权的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊海峰

    2015-01-01

    The specification and regulation of discretionary power in fire-fighting administrative penalty is a hot is-sue in the field of fire-fighting administrative law enforcement. This article starts with the property of value of dis-cretionary power and discus how to how to improve the discretion level,correctly wield the discretionary power and promote the fine and steady progress of our national fire-fighting executive law enforcement from the perspectives of two dimensionalities—system and ethic,discretionary standards,“penalty by computer”,case application and so on.%消防行政处罚中自由裁量权的规范与控制是消防行政执法领域的热点话题。围绕自由裁量权的价值属性展开论述,重点从制度维度与伦理维度的二维角度,从裁量基准、“电脑量罚”、判例应用等方面,探讨如何提高裁量规范化水平,正确行使自由裁量权,促进我国消防行政执法工作在法治化的轨道上健康稳步前行。

  8. 论加强消防战训参谋思维训练的必要性%Discussion on the Necessity of Strengthening the Fire Fighting Training Staff Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛聪智; 黄先炜

    2014-01-01

    消防战训参谋是整个公安消防部队指挥中的大脑,其能力高低直接影响着消防工作完成的好坏,而对消防战训参谋的思维训练更是战训工作中的重点和难点。下面本人结合工作实际,对消防战训工作中战训参谋思维的训练谈几点粗浅的认识。%Fire fighting training staff is the brain of the pubic security fire control forces command, the ability of which dir-ectly af ect the fire control work that is good or bad. And for the thinking training of fire fighting training staff is more important and dif icult in the training work. Below I combined with working practice, talking about some superficial underst-anding for training staff thinking in the fire control work.

  9. 基于Simulink的水灭火系统仿真研究%Water Fire Fighting System Simulation Based on Simulink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁相; 王春平

    2014-01-01

    该文提出一种新的基于Visual c++的水灭火系统仿真模型,通过将C++代码转换成C代码植入到仿真模型中,可以大大优化仿真模型的开发,该文中Simulink软件和VSULAL C++软件的优点在仿真模型中得到完整的体现。该文还详细讨论了水灭火仿真系统的开发和实现。%This paper presents an approach to integrate simulation model with Visual C++easily by translating simulation model to embedded C++code. Then the advantages of Simulink and Visual C++are fully used by this approach. According to a real example the development steps and realization of water fire fighting system based on this approach is discussed in detail.

  10. The Assessment of Fire-fighting Capabilities under the Pool Fire of Large Crude Oil Storage Tank%大型原油储罐池火灾事故下消防能力的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆功; 宋文华; 吕铃钥; 陈阵

    2012-01-01

    以某大型原油储备库为例,采用FDS火灾模拟软件对储罐罐内池火灾进行了数值模拟,得出了火灾发展过程、烟气质量分数分布以及热辐射强度的变化规律,火灾初期烟粒子浓度高的区域分布面积大,且烟粒子分布的面积也比较广,随着反应的进行,烟粒子浓度逐渐降低,火焰逐渐明显,且主要分布在油面附近;热辐射强度随燃烧时间的延长而增强,最高值达35 kW/m2,最终下降并稳定在25 kW/m2左右.最后,对罐区固定消防设施以及移动消防设施的消防能力进行了评估.消防给水系统不能满足储罐罐内池火灾的灭火需求,泡沫灭火系统46 min可以将火扑灭;满足5 min原则的1号超特勤消防站不能满足该储罐发生池火灾所需要的消防车数量、移动泡沫炮数量、泡沫混合液量以及冷却水量.%Using fire simulation software FDS, the pool fire inside the tank is simulated with a large crude oil storage tank area taken for an example. The result of the fire development process, the mass fraction distribution of flue gas and the thermal radiation intensity variation is as follows. In the initial period of fire, the area range of high smoke concentration is wide, and the distribution of smoke particle is relatively wide, with the reaction proceeding, the concentration of smoke particles decreases, the flame becomes clear and is mainly on the surface of oil. The thermal radiation intensity is enhanced as the burning time passes by with the maximum value of 35 kW/m2, and finally declines stabilized at 25 kW/m2 or so. At last, the ability of the fixed and mobile firefighting facilities in the tank area is assessed. The fire-fighting water supply system does not meet the demand for extinguishing the fire, and the foam fire-extinguishing system could put the fire out after 46 min. No. 1 fire station in accordance with 5 min principle does not meet the required number of the mobile foam gun, foam mixture

  11. “3S” Technology Application Forest Fire Prevention in Xiaolongshan%“3S”技术在小陇山林区森林防火中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春叶

    2016-01-01

    本文阐述了“3S”技术在小陇山林区森林火灾监测和扑救中的应用,即通过RS进行林火信息图像采集和林火的监测,以G1S为平台进行空间数据分析和数字管理,通过GPS进行林火信息的空间定位、导航和面积测算,提供更客观的预防和扑救森林火灾的辅助决策,提高林火管理水平,使小陇山林区森林火灾发生率和损失率均呈明显下降趋势。%This paper expounded the“3 s” technology in Xiaolongshan forest area, the application of forest fire monitoring and fighting the forest fire information through RS image acquisition and forest fire monitoring, based on G1S spatial data analysis and digital management platform, the space of fire information through the GPS positioning, navigation and area measurement, and provide more objective of forest fire prevention and fighting auxiliary decision-making, improve the level of forest fire management, and the incidence of Xiaolongshan forest fire are in obvious decline the loss rate.

  12. The structure of the fire fighting foam surfactant Forafac®1157 and its biological and photolytic transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Morten K; Huber, Sandra; Svenson, Johan; Hagenaars, An; Pabon, Martial; Trümper, Monika; Berger, Urs; Knapen, Dries; Herzke, Dorte

    2012-10-01

    For several decades, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has widely been used as a fluorinated surfactant in aqueous film forming foams used as hydrocarbon fuel fire extinguishers. Due to concerns regarding its environmental persistence and toxicological effects, PFOS has recently been replaced by novel fluorinated surfactants such as Forafac®1157, developed by the DuPont company. The major component of Forafac®1157 is a 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (6:2 FTAB), and a link between the trade name and the exact chemical structure is presented here to the scientific community for the first time. In the present work, the structure of the 6:2 FTAB was elucidated by (1)H, (13)C and (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Moreover, its major metabolites from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and its photolytic transformation products were identified. Contrary to what has earlier been observed for PFOS, the 6:2 FTAB was extensively metabolized by blue mussel and turbot exposed to Forafac®1157. The major metabolite was a deacetylated betaine species, from which mono- and di-demethylated metabolites also were formed. Another abundant metabolite was the 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide. In another experiment, Forafac®1157 was subjected to UV-light induced photolysis. The experimental conditions aimed to simulate Arctic conditions and the deacetylated species was again the primary transformation product of 6:2 FTAB. A 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide was also formed along with a non-identified transformation product. The environmental presence of most of the metabolites and transformation products was qualitatively demonstrated by analysis of soil samples taken in close proximity to an airport fire training facility.

  13. Focused sunlight factor of forest fire danger assessment using Web-GIS and RS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Sherstnyov, Vladislav S.; Yankovich, Elena P.; Engel, Marina V.; Belov, Vladimir V.

    2016-08-01

    Timiryazevskiy forestry of Tomsk region (Siberia, Russia) is a study area elaborated in current research. Forest fire danger assessment is based on unique technology using probabilistic criterion, statistical data on forest fires, meteorological conditions, forest sites classification and remote sensing data. MODIS products are used for estimating some meteorological conditions and current forest fire situation. Geonformation technologies are used for geospatial analysis of forest fire danger situation on controlled forested territories. GIS-engine provides opportunities to construct electronic maps with different levels of forest fire probability and support raster layer for satellite remote sensing data on current forest fires. Web-interface is used for data loading on specific web-site and for forest fire danger data representation via World Wide Web. Special web-forms provide interface for choosing of relevant input data in order to process the forest fire danger data and assess the forest fire probability.

  14. Fighting fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  15. Utilizing GIS Technology to Improve Fire Prevention Activities in an Urban Fire Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Wendy C; Shields, Timothy M; McDonald, Eileen M; Perry, Elise C; Hanna, Peter; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    The Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD) has been installing smoke alarms city wide for more than three decades. Though data on each visit are entered into a database, no system existed for using these data for planning or evaluation. The objective of this study is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and existing databases to 1) determine the number of residences in need of a home visit; 2) determine total visits, visits per household, and number of homes entered for eligible households; and 3) demonstrate integration of various data via GIS for use in prevention planning. The tax assessment database was queried to determine the number of eligible (as determined by BCFD policy) residences in need of a visit. Each attempted BCFD home visit was coded to identify, if the BCFD personnel interacted with residents ("pass door") and installed alarms. Home visits were geocoded and compared to the tax assessment database to determine city wide pass door rates. Frequency of visits was run by individual residences to measure efficiency. A total of 206,850 residences met BCFD eligibility for a home visit. In 2007, the BCFD attempted 181,757 home visits and 177,213 were successfully geocoded to 122,118 addresses. A total of 122,118 eligible residences (59%) received a home visit. A total of 35,317 residences (29%) received a repeat visit attempt. The pass door rate was 22% (46,429) of all residences. GIS technology offers a promising means for fire departments to plan and evaluate the fire prevention services they provide.

  16. Tools, courses, and learning pathways offered by the National Interagency Fuels, Fire, and Vegetation Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva K. Strand; Kathy H. Schon; Jeff Jones

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances in the area of fuel and wildland fire management have created a need for effective decision support tools and technology training. The National Interagency Fuels Committee and LANDFIRE have chartered a team to develop science-based learning tools for assessment of fire and fuels and to provide online training and technology transfer to help...

  17. Living with floods in the Jamuna floodplain (Bangladesh): fight or flight? Technological and societal responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruknul Ferdous, Md; Wesselink, Anna; Brandimarte, Luigia; Slager, Kymo; Mynett, Arthur; Zwarteveen, Margreet

    2017-04-01

    Building onto the general theory introduced by Di Baldassarre, this paper uses a socio-hydrological approach to describe human-flood interactions in the Jamuna floodplain, Bangladesh. In this vast space (a braided river bed of 6-16 km; floodplains up to 50 km wide) the differences between land and water are temporary and shifting. Government flood defence structures were constructed on the west bank only, while community initiatives exist on the east bank. As a result, there are several kinds of socio-hydrological spaces along, but also in the river, with different livelihoods and flood characteristics. This variety gives rise to co-existence of 'living with floods' and 'fighting floods' approaches. The analysis is based on recent fieldwork, in which information on historical and current livelihoods, migration and the floodplain system was collected at household level. Our analysis enables us to tentatively confirm the levee effect described by Di Baldassarre et al. (2013); however, his hypothesis that people move away from unprotected floodplains is only true to some extent. Adaptation in Bangladesh means first of all literally 'living with floods': being flooded with greater or lesser frequency. Key words: Bangladesh; Jamuna River; river flooding; socio-hydrological dynamics

  18. Observations from the fire and collapse of the Faculty of Architecture Building, Delft University of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, M.D.; Meacham, B.; Kodur, V.; Kirk, A.; Park, H.; Straalen, IJ.J. van; Maljaars, J.; Weeren, K. van; Feijter, R. de; Both, K.

    2013-01-01

    On May 13, 2008, a fire occurred at the Faculty of Architecture Building at the Delft University of Technology (TUD) in the Netherlands. The fire ultimately led to the collapse of a major portion of the building. Data was collected on this fire event by an international team that included

  19. Fire-fighting system upgrade of port engineering%港口工程消防系统升级改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛小方; 钟良生; 王波; 刘川

    2013-01-01

    The designed pressure of a fire-fighting system in a foreign port is too small,far from the employer's requirements that the pressure at the most distant end of the fire water ring main system shall be at least 1.0 MPa.To upgrade this system,according to the requirements of NFPA14-2010 and the approved documents by the consultants,it is confirmed that the residual pressure at the DN65 hose connection of the most remote hydrant shall be not less than 0.69 MPa after the system upgrade.Through trial calculation,graphical method and inverse calculation,the pump outlet pressure in the pump house is confirmed to be 0.84 MPa.The existing system is upgraded by adding devices and control systems such as an in-line pump,a jockey pump,a clean water tank with the capacity of 20m3,cooling water supply pipe,pressure sensors,electric valves,ultrasonic liquid level meters,and frequency conversion control cabinets.The upgrade work has achieved the expected target finally,and passed the check and has been accepted.%针对国外某港口项目消防供水系统设计压强过小,远未达到业主要求的环状管网最远处压强不小于1.0 MPa的要求,对系统进行升级改造.根据NFPA14-2010及咨工批复文件要求,确定系统升级后在最远处消火栓DN65水带接口处剩余压强需不小于0.69 MPa.采用试算、图解法、反推计算法等方法确定泵房水泵出口处压强为0.84 MPa.通过增加1台变频管中泵、1台稳压泵、1个20 m3的清水池、冷却水供水管以及压强传感器、电动阀、超声波液位计、变频控制柜等设备和控制系统对原有系统进行改造,升级改造工作最终达到预期目的,通过验收.

  20. Analysis on Cutting-off of Non-fire-fighting Power Supply of Metro Stations%地铁车站非消防电源的切除分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉

    2014-01-01

    现行国家相关设计规范对火灾时非消防电源的切除提出了明确的规定,但对火灾时切除非消防电源的目的、方式(手动方式或自动方式)及位置并未形成一致的要求。针对这些问题,进行较为深入的分析。明晰了火灾时切除非消防电源的主要原则和目标,即:避免造成人员恐慌和二次事故;避免火灾的进一步扩大;保证火灾扑救人员的安全,避免造成触电事故;在保证消防救灾的前提下,尽量减小断电范围。最后,结合地铁车站用电负荷及运营管理的特点,提出车站设备区、公共区发生火灾时切除非消防电源的原则、方式及位置。%In the current national design codes and standards,there are definite provisions for the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply,however,there are no specific provisions on the purposes,manners (manual cutting-off manner or automatic cutting-off manner)and positions of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply.In this article,analysis is made on the purposes,manners (manual cutting-off manner or automatic cutting-off manner)and positions of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply.The main principles and purposes of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply in case of fire are defined,i.e.,trying to avoid passenger chaos and secondary incident,trying to avoid further spread of the fire,trying to ensure the safety of the firefighters and trying to minimize the power cutting-off scope.Finally,the principles,manners and positions of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply in case of fire occurring in the equipment area and public area of Metro stations are proposed on basis of the features of the power load and operation management of Metro stations.

  1. 高层建筑消防防火排烟设计中的问题及对策%Inquiry on high-rise building fire-fighting smoke exhausting design problems and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜自富

    2016-01-01

    In light of high-rise building fire features,starting from asPects of natural smoke exhausting window,air distributor,smoke exhausting system and ventilation combined system,the PaPer describes Problems existing in high-rise fire-fighting and smoke exhausting design,and ex-Plores rational fire-fighting and smoke-exhausting system design countermeasures,with a view to create safe living environment for users.%针对高层建筑火灾发生时的特点,从自然排烟窗、送风口、防排烟系统、通风合用系统等方面,阐述了高层建筑消防防火排烟设计中存在的问题,探讨了合理设计防火排烟系统的对策,旨在为使用者营造出安全的生活环境。

  2. 石油化工企业封闭式输煤钢结构栈桥水消防系统选型%Type selection of fire-fighting system for closed steel coal handling trestle in petrochemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乃兵; 曹立坤

    2012-01-01

    以1400 mm单皮带栈桥为例,对比分析了石油化工企业封闭式输煤钢结构栈桥采用自动喷水灭火系统及水喷雾灭火系统的相关技术参数及用水量情况,常规状态下,结合皮带运动及水喷雾灭火系统动作快的特点,建议石油化工企业榆煤栈桥水消防灭火系统采用水喷雾灭火系统.%Taking 1 400 mm single belt coal handling trestle as an example, the technical parameters and water consumption of automatic fire-extinguishing sprinkler system and water spray extinguishing system applied for closed steel coal handling trestle's fire-fighting in petrochemical enterprises were compared and analyzed. Under conventional condition, combined with the belt movement characteristics and the high flow speed of water spray extinguishing system, water spray extinguishing system was suggested to be used for coal handling trestle's fire-fighting in petrochemical enterprises.

  3. Exploration on Network Interaction in Practical Teaching of Advanced Fire-fighting%网络互动在《船舶高级消防》实操教学中的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁振国; 杨永前

    2012-01-01

    This paper starts with the single training-"respiratory" in practical teaching of advanced fire-fighting,summarizes its implementation of process in network interaction and makes comments to the effectiveness after its implementation of network interaction.%从《船舶高级消防》实操教学中"呼吸器"单项实训入手,总结了网络互动教学在《船舶高级消防》实操教学中的实施过程,并对实施后的教学效果进行了评述。

  4. New technologies for fire suppression on board naval craft, FiST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahm, M.; Hiltz, J.; Wal, R. van der; Hertzberg, T.; Lindström, J.

    2014-01-01

    For three years Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands have been investigating new technologies for fire suppression on board naval crafts within the FiST project. The project has focused on a number of technologies. These included the evaluation of water based fire suppression systems and in particular

  5. Application of PDA forest fire monitoring based on web service technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufei ZHOU; Pengju LIU; Xiaoming TANG

    2009-01-01

    The difficulty in information communication and sharing are major problems for forest fire monitoring and early warning in China. As authors, we applied web service technology to a personal digital assistant (PDA) forest fire monitoring system and propose the framework of a monitoring system based on service-oriented architecture (SOA). At the same time, we describe the composition and function of web services from a server side and a client side. The method for developing a web service invocation engine on the PDA is introduced in detail. Finally, an example of a fire danger rating and fire weather services system are established, based on the Beijing Forest Fire Control System. The results show that the PDA forest fire monitoring system based on web services can effectively take advantage of the existing fire protection decision information services, realize real-time information interaction and sharing, and improve the level of forest fire monitoring.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS--UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation (ESTE) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. This ESTE project involved evaluation of co-firing common woody bio...

  7. Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.A.

    1997-01-17

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

  8. Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boots REPRODUCIBILIDAD DE LAS VARIABLES ESPACIO-TEMPORALES Y DE LAS COMPONENTES DE LA FUERZA DE REACCIÓN DEL SUELO EN LA MARCHA CON BOTAS DE BOMBERO [Reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces walking with fire fighting boo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Gavilanes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study is to analyze the reproducibility of the spatio-temporal variables and the ground reaction forces (GRF when walking with fire fighting boots in comparison to walking with low calf shoes. Spatio-temporal parameters and the variables related to the three components of the GRF of 39 people were recorded under two different walking conditions. A T-test to contrast the difference between the coefficients of variation (CV in both conditions was used. The CV of the spatio-temporal variables (i.e velocity (V, condition I = 2.01%; condition II = 1.81%, of the vertical (i.e. contact force (FZA of the left foot, condition I = 2.54%; condition II = 2.73% and of the antero-posterior GRF (i.e. maximum force (FXMAX of the left foot, condition I = 4.47%; condition II = 4.59% was lower than 12.5%, suggesting that these variables could be used to analyze the influence of fire fighting boots on the gait. However, the low reproducibility showed by medium-lateral parameters does not allow to use them. Apart from the bipodal phase no differences were found between the two walking conditions. Key words: biomechanics, footwear, variability.ResumenEl objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la reproducibilidad de las variables espacio-temporales y de la fuerza de reacción del suelo (FRS durante la marcha con botas de bombero y compararla con la mostrada durante la marcha con calzado de cuero sin caña. Se registraron las variables espacio-temporales de 39 personas así como las variables que definen las tres componentes de la FRS con dos tipos de calzado diferente. Se utilizó la prueba T para contrastar la hipótesis referida a la diferencia del coeficiente de variación (CV entre los dos tipos de calzado. El CV de las variables espacio-temporales (p. ej. velocidad (V, condición I = 2,01%; condición II = 1,81%, así como de las que definen la componente vertical (p. ej. fuerza de apoyo (FZA del pie izquierdo, condición I = 2

  9. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  10. Fire-fighting Linkage Control of Large-space Intelligent Active Control Sprinkler System%大空间智能型主动喷水灭火系统消防联动控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海军

    2012-01-01

    介绍大空间智能型主动喷水灭火装置的基本构成、技术参数,大空间智能灭火装置、自动扫描射水灭火装置和自动扫描射水高空水炮灭火装置的消防联动控制方式、控制系统.及其在实际工程中的应用。%The basic structure, parameters of large- space intelligent active technical sprinkler system are introduced. Fire - fighting linkage control method, control system and the actural application of large - space intelligent auto - sprinkler device, automatic -scanning sprinkler device and automatic- scanning elevated fire monitor extinguishing device are also introduced.

  11. Fighting Testing ACAT/FRRP: Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Flight testing Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project (ACAT/FRRP). The goal of this project is to develop common modular architecture for all aircraft, and to enable the transition of technology from research to production as soon as possible to begin to reduce the rate of mishaps. The automated Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) system is designed to prevent collision with the ground, by avionics that project the future trajectory over digital terrain, and request an evasion maneuver at the last instance. The flight controls are capable of automatically performing a recovery. The collision avoidance is described in the presentation. Also included in the presentation is a description of the flight test.

  12. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire ex-tinguishing, the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine. The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation, namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district, increasing the air pressure of the working face, and filling the ground surface fractures. A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire. When the measures fail to in-crease the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber, the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  13. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire extinguishing,the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine.The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation,namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district,increasing the air pressure of the working face,and filling the ground surface fractures.A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire.When the measures fail to increase the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber,the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  14. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  15. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue.

  16. Capsaicin-fighting fire with fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Agarwal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain conditions involving the maxillofacial region represent a major health problem and patients with persistent pain are difficult to manage successfully. Most of these conditions are often comorbid with additional health issues. Capsaicin has been studied in various models of pain and neuropathy. Currently, its best known use is as a topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Its use as a noxious stimulus offers several benefits and has been used with considerable success in conditions like postherpetic neuralgia, atypical facial pain, musculoskeletal pain etc. Adverse events from capsaicin are mainly at the application site (burning, stinging, erythema, and systemic events are rare. This review highlights the emerging evidence on the use of capsaicin in the commonly encountered orofacial pain conditions.

  17. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  18. 灭火及应急救援远程战略投送体系建设%Long-range strategic delivery system of fire fighting and emergency rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋培刚

    2012-01-01

    针对当前日趋严峻的重特大灾害事故处置需要,从消防部队“灭大火、救大灾”的要求出发,结合我国经济区域建设和发展趋势,阐述了我国构建重大灾害事故灭火及应急救援远程战略投送体系的现实意义,探讨运用动态立体灭火救援圈理论,构建重特大灾害事故灭火和抢险救援远程战略投送体系及其现实应用的基本思路.%As to the worsening situation of major disasters disposal, based on the requirement of "put out the fire, save big disaster"for fire service, combined with China's economic and regional construction and development trends, the practical sig-nificance of constructing long-range strategic delivery system of fire fighting and emergency rescue was described, and the idea of using dynamic three-dimensional fire and rescue loop was discussed.

  19. Biosecurity and yield improvement technologies are strategic complements in the fight against food insecurity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Cook

    Full Text Available The delivery of food security via continued crop yield improvement alone is not an effective food security strategy, and must be supported by pre- and post-border biosecurity policies to guard against perverse outcomes. In the wake of the green revolution, yield gains have been in steady decline, while post-harvest crop losses have increased as a result of insufficiently resourced and uncoordinated efforts to control spoilage throughout global transport and storage networks. This paper focuses on the role that biosecurity is set to play in future food security by preventing both pre- and post-harvest losses, thereby protecting crop yield. We model biosecurity as a food security technology that may complement conventional yield improvement policies if the gains in global farm profits are sufficient to offset the costs of implementation and maintenance. Using phytosanitary measures that slow global spread of the Ug99 strain of wheat stem rust as an example of pre-border biosecurity risk mitigation and combining it with post-border surveillance and invasive alien species control efforts, we estimate global farm profitability may be improved by over US$4.5 billion per annum.

  20. Installation of an on-site power generation facility using gas as a fuel used as an emergency power supply for fire fighting facilities; Shoboyo setsubinado no hijo dengen ni shiyosuru gas wo nenryo to suru jika hatsuden setsubi no donyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Fire Defence Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    This paper summarizes provisions in the Fire Service Law when an on-site power generation facility using gas as a fuel is used as an emergency power supply for fire fighting facilities. The provisions described include the following: regulations on output, number of facilities, operation systems and reserve fuels when installing a power generation facility burning gas exclusively used for normal power use and disaster prevention (a power generation facility using gaseous fuel to be used as a normal and emergency power supply in fire fighting facilities), precautions on operation of these facilities, and evaluation on assurance of stable supply source of the main fuel when no installation of the reserve fuel supply system is required. These regulations take the view of the current status of increase in the structures subjected to fire fighting activities that have installed on-site power generation facilities and cogeneration plants used as ordinary power supply systems. The regulations have become enforced based on the result of discussions on the said power generation facilities burning gas exclusively by the discussion committee for the on-site power generation facilities used as power supply systems for fire fighting facilities in the Nippon Engine Generator Association. 2 figs.

  1. The research on the thermal destruction of environment and controlling techniques of the No.4 outcrops fire in Haibaoqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xiao-wei; DENG Jun; WEN Hu; DAI Ai-ping; WU Jian-bin

    2011-01-01

    The coal fire is one of very serious disasters in natural,not only amount of coal resources was burned and some ecological environment problems such as ground subsidence,acid rain,pollution and vegetation died were caused serious.The No.4 coal seam outcrops fire in Haibaoqing was take as research object,based on the existing theory of mechanism and characteristics of coal outcrop fires,a new fire-fighting composite gel is applicated which fits in with extinguishment of outcrop coal fires well.The technology has many advantages in extinguishing coal fires including isolating the coal from oxygen and lowering the temperature of the high-temperature coal and rock.The structure and chemical composition as well as fires-fighting properties of the composite gel is analyzed profoundly,as a result,reduce and stop the environment destruction caused by the coal fire.

  2. Final Report: Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression Project, Exploration Technology Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    The Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression (FPDS) project is a technology development effort within the Exploration Technology Development Program of the Exploration System Missions Directorate (ESMD) that addresses all aspects of fire safety aboard manned exploration systems. The overarching goal for work in the FPDS area is to develop technologies that will ensure crew health and safety on exploration missions by reducing the likelihood of a fire, or, if one does occur, minimizing the risk to the crew, mission, or system. This is accomplished by addressing the areas of (1) fire prevention and material flammability, (2) fire signatures and detection, and (3) fire suppression and response. This report describes the outcomes of this project from the formation of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) in October 2005 to September 31, 2010 when the Exploration Technology Development Program was replaced by the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program. NASA s fire safety work will continue under this new program and will build upon the accomplishments described herein.

  3. Sustainable Precision Green Manufacturing Technologies for Indirect Fire Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    100 48 Prototype Laser Ignition System equipment 100 49 M119A2 Digital Fire Control equipment Phase 4 Spanning Yoke 100 50 Digital Fire Control...109.3 ADIM Weapon Parts- -3-Shaft 100 109.4 ADIM Weapon Parts- -4-Alpine Bearings 100 109.5 ADIM Weapon Parts- 5-Ledex Solenoids 100 109.6 ADIM Weapon

  4. Fighting Windmills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2004-01-01

    the environmentalists) demand changes in behaviour on moral grounds. In contrast, the Bootleggers (the producers of renewable energy), who profit from the very regulation, keep a low profile. The actual heavy subsidisation of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, can be viewed as a successful policy outcome...... to be just as tough as fighting windmills and needs to be addressed in future and more rigorous empirical research. At the end of the day, transparent incentives of relevant stakeholders in the climate change issue are necessary preconditions for progress in the climate change negotiations....

  5. Fire protection research for energy technology projects; FY 79 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes work performed in fiscal year 1979, on a DOE funded study entitled Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that fire protection measures for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE) evolve concurrently with the complexity of FEE. Ultimately, it is planned that the detailed study of fusion experiments will provide an analytical methodology which can be applied to the full range of energy technology projects. We attempt to achieve this objective by coordinately advancing 3 (three) major task areas; (a) determine the fire hazards of current FEE facilities (b) assess the ability of accepted fire management strategies to meet and negate the hazard, (c) perform unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire growth and damage assessment models.

  6. 10th Asia-Oceania Symposium on Fire Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuyama, Ken; Himoto, Keisuke; Nakamura, Yuji; Wakatsuki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on topics in the entire spectrum of fire safety science, targeting research in fires, explosions, combustion science, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, risk analysis, structural engineering, and other subjects. The book contributes to a gain in advanced scientific knowledge and presents or advances new ideas in all topics in fire safety science. Two decades ago, the 1st Asia-Oceania Symposium on Fire Science and Technology was held in Hefei, China. Since then, the Asia-Oceania Symposia have grown in size and quality. This book, reflecting that growth, helps readers to understand fire safety technology, design, and methodology in diverse areas including historical buildings, photovoltaic panels, batteries, and electric vehicles.

  7. The Location Management in of the LEO System Suitableed for Fire Fighting and Emergency Control%适合消防抢险的低轨卫星系统位置管理技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘国涛

    2013-01-01

    In the development of the mobile communication, location management is one of the most important and the most challengeable problem. The location management in the LEO system for fire fighting and emergency control needs to be studied in order to settle for the demand of public security in new time and to set up the satellite network of the fire department. In this paper, a location management suitableed for fire emergency in the LEO system which has been discussed.reference value.%在移动通信的发展中,位置管理是移动通信技术发展中最重要最具挑战性的问题之一。为适应公安消防部队新时期灭火救援任务需要,建设好覆盖公安消防部队卫星通信网,需要对适合消防抢险的位置管理技术进行研究。提出了一种适合用于消防抢险的低轨卫星系统的位置管理方式,有一定的参考价值。

  8. Progress in research and application of water mist fire suppression technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Water mist technology in fire suppression has been a subject of many investigations over the last decade. This paper introduces the concept of water mist technology and discusses its extinguishment mechanisms in comparison with other fire suppression systems briefly. A survey is made on the recent applications of water mist for (1) Class B spray and pool fires in machinery spaces, gas turbine enclosures, combat vehicles, and flammable liquid storage rooms; (2) Class A fires in residential occupancies, marine accommodations and public spaces, heritage buildings and libraries; (3) Class C fires in electronic equipment and computer rooms; and (4) the fires in aircraft onboard cabin and cargo compartments. The paper proceeds to review some new applications of water mist for the Class K fires in commercial cook rooms. Use of water mist for total-ship protection as well as the fire protection of heavy goods vehicle shuttle trains is also investigated. At last, the up-to-date development of corresponding test to evaluate the capabilities and limitaions of water mist is discussed.

  9. The Fight Against Taylorism in Europe: Strategies, Achievements in Job Design and Technology, Setbacks, Obstacles, Chances for Upgrading Work

    OpenAIRE

    Pruijt, Hans

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTaylorism (keeping conception and execution apart ) is a persistent, underlying principle of many organizations. Many have pointed to drawbacks in terms of flexibility, capacity for innovation, quality, cost and employee wellbeing. There is a countermovement, particularly in North-West Europe where managers and employee representatives, aided by consultants and researchers, pursue viable alternatives. The Fight Against Taylorism analyzes 150 cases of anti-Taylorist initiatives in ...

  10. Study on LNG Pool Fire Fighting with High Power Foam%高倍泡沫扑救LNG池火实验研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史先召; 黄伟金; 姜帅; 周宁

    2016-01-01

    LNG in the pool fire burning mechanism and high-expansion foam suppression effectiveness for pool fire by using camera, thermal imaging, thermocouple tree, heat flow meter and other instrument through large-scale fire test platform were discussed. The results showed that high-expansion foam had better suppression effectiveness for the LNG pool fire, significantly reduced the heat radiation hazard of LNG pool fire on the surrounding structures. But high-expansion can’t completely put out the LNG pool fire with a little greater 7. 2 L/m2 ·min supply intensity.%搭建了大尺度LNG池火测试实验平台,应用摄像、热成像、热电偶树、热流计等仪器开展了LNG在池火燃烧机理及高倍泡沫对池火灾抑制作用的实验研究。结果表明高倍泡沫对LNG池火有较好的抑制作用,显著的降低LNG池火对周边构建筑物的热辐射危害,但以高倍泡沫灭火系统设计规范规定的略大于7.2 L/m2·min供给强度下,高倍泡沫无法扑灭LNG池火。

  11. Design of Ranch Fire Monitoring System Based on Zig Bee Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    This paper designs a way to introduce Zig Bee technology into the ranch fire monitoring system,and builds a real-time ranch fire monitoring system based on Zig Bee wireless sensor network.The system can monitor the parameters related to ranch in real time,such as air moisture,temperature and smoke density,so as to provide information support for ranch fire prevention and extinguishment.This paper researches the circuit design of Zig Bee wireless sensor network node,node information collection,data fusion,transmission and effective topological structure of sensor network.

  12. Fighting discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK.

  13. Development and application of ferrite materials for low temperature co-fired ceramic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huai-Wu; Li, Jie; Su, Hua; Zhou, Ting-Chuan; Long, Yang; Zheng, Zong-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Development and application of ferrite materials for low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology are discussed, specifically addressing several typical ferrite materials such as M-type barium ferrite, NiCuZn ferrite, YIG ferrite, and lithium ferrite. In order to permit co-firing with a silver internal electrode in LTCC process, the sintering temperature of ferrite materials should be less than 950 °C. These ferrite materials are research focuses and are applied in many ways in electronics.

  14. Geographic information technology monitoring and mapping of coal fires in Ukraine, according to the space survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivnyak, G.; Busygin, B.; Garkusha, I. [National Mining Univ., Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    Coal fires are a significant problem around the world, particularly in China, India, and the United States. Coal fires burn thousands of tons of coal reserves and lead to serious problems for the environment, degradation and destruction of landscape, and harm public health. Technology, such as spectrology analysis of signatures with high temperature activity can be used to calculate vegetation algorithms and soil indexes, and multispectral survey data in the thermal channels of scanners. This paper presented the perspectives of technology development in coal fires and the approach to the detection, monitoring, and quantitative estimation of coal fires by the instruments using geographic information systems. Specifically, the paper considered the use of coal fire fragment monitoring technology from data of a diachronous survey obtained by Landsat satellites, to classify dangerous coal waste banks of the Donbass Mine located in Ukraine. The paper provided a description of the study area and discussed the detection technology of temperature-active waste banks. It was concluded that geoinformation technology provides an opportunity to effectively mark mining dumps, in particular, waste banks in multispectrum space images made by Landsat satellites. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Assessment of latest technology in coal refuse fire extinguishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneval, D.R.

    1976-05-01

    It is easier, cheaper, and less hazardous to prevent fires in coal refuse banks than to extinguish them. This can be done by compacting in thin layers (to reduce air and air flow), sealing edges with various materials (crushed linestone is good, it gives off CO/sub 2/ when heated), etc. In particular the tippler form of pile construction should be avoided. Once these piles do ignite (by spontaneous combustion or other means), it is often difficult and hazardous (gases, explosions, unsafe regions, etc) to work at extinguishing them. Various methods are given. Once the fire is put out, the pile should be reworked, compacting and sealing it, so the process does not start again. (LTN)

  16. Feasibility Analysis of a Type of Soft Firing Technology with Pneumatic Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun-rong; MI Liang-chuan; ZHAO Hua

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at solving the conflict between the requirements of reducing gun recoil and increasing muzzle velocity, a new type of soft firing technology with pneumatic transmission is put forward. By mathematical model and instance simulation, the feasibility analysis of this technique is made. The result shows that the soft firing technology with pneumatic transmission can reduce the maximum pressure on the breechblock by 27 % and increase the muzzle velocity by 20 %. The proposed new approach has the significance to the compatibility of power and flexibility.

  17. Technology Roadmap: High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal is the largest source of power globally and, given its wide availability and relatively low cost, it is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. The High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation Roadmap describes the steps necessary to adopt and further develop technologies to improve the efficiency of the global fleet of coal. To generate the same amount of electricity, a more efficient coal-fired unit will burn less fuel, emit less carbon, release less local air pollutants, consume less water and have a smaller footprint. High-efficiency, low emissions (HELE) technologies in operation already reach a thermal efficiency of 45%, and technologies in development promise even higher values. This compares with a global average efficiency for today’s fleet of coal-fired plants of 33%, where three-quarters of operating units use less efficient technologies and more than half is over 25 years old. A successful outcome to ongoing RD&D could see units with efficiencies approaching 50% or even higher demonstrated within the next decade. Generation from older, less efficient technology must gradually be phased out. Technologies exist to make coal-fired power generation much more effective and cleaner burning. Of course, while increased efficiency has a major role to play in reducing emissions, particularly over the next 10 years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be essential in the longer term to make the deep cuts in carbon emissions required for a low-carbon future. Combined with CCS, HELE technologies can cut CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation plants by as much as 90%, to less than 100 grams per kilowatt-hour. HELE technologies will be an influential factor in the deployment of CCS. For the same power output, a higher efficiency coal plant will require less CO2 to be captured; this means a smaller, less costly capture plant; lower operating costs; and less CO2 to be transported and stored.

  18. Structural fire risk of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário

    2017-04-01

    Portugal is on the top of the European countries most affected by vegetation fires which underlines the importance of the existence of an updated and coherent fire risk map. This map represent a valuable supporting tool for forest and fire management decisions, focus prevention activities, improve the efficiency of fire detection systems, manage resources and actions of fire fighting with greater effectiveness. Therefore this study proposed a structural fire risk map of the vegetated area of Portugal using a deterministic approach based on the concept of fire risk currently accepted by the scientific community which consists in the combination of the fire hazard and the potential economic damage. The existing fire susceptibility map for Portugal based on the slope, land cover and fire probability, was adopted and updated by the use of a higher resolution digital terrain model, longer burnt area perimeter dataset (1975 - 2013) and the entire set of Corine land cover inventories. Five susceptibility classes were mapped to be in accordance with the Portuguese law and the results confirms the good performance of this model not only in terms of the favourability scores but also in the predictive values. Considering three different scenarios of (maximum, mean, and minimum annual) burnt area, fire hazard were estimate. The vulnerability scores and monetary values of species defined in the literature and by law were used to calculate the potential economic damage. The result was a fire risk map that identifies the areas more prone to be affected by fires in the future and provides an estimate of the economic damage of the fire which will be a valuable tool for forest and fire managers and to minimize the economic and environmental consequences of vegetation fires in Portugal. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by: (i) the project Interact - Integrative Research in Environment,Agro-Chain and Technology, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000017, research line BEST, cofinanced by

  19. GIS tools, courses, and learning pathways offered by The National Interagency Fuels, Fire, and Vegetation Technology Transfer (NIFTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Heward; Kathy H. Schon

    2009-01-01

    As technology continues to evolve in the area of fuel and wildland fire management so does the need to have effective tools and training on these technologies. The National Interagency Fuels Coordination Group has chartered a team of professionals to coordinate, develop, and transfer consistent, efficient, science-based fuel and fire ecology assessment GIS tools and...

  20. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  1. Fire and collapse, Faculty of Architecture building, Delft University of Technology: Data collection and preliminary analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, B.; Park, H.; Engelhardt, M.; Kirk, A.; Kodur, V.; Straalen, IJ.J.; Maljaars, J.; Weeren, K. van; Feijter, R. de; Both, K.

    2010-01-01

    On the morning of May 13, 2008, a fire that started in a coffee vending machine on the 6th floor of the 13-story Faculty of Architecture Building at the Delft University of Technology (TUD), Delft, the Netherlands, quickly developed into an extreme loading event. Although all building occupants evac

  2. Fire and collapse, Faculty of Architecture building, Delft University of Technology: Data collection and preliminary analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, B.; Park, H.; Engelhardt, M.; Kirk, A.; Kodur, V.; Straalen, IJ.J.; Maljaars, J.; Weeren, K. van; Feijter, R. de; Both, K.

    2010-01-01

    On the morning of May 13, 2008, a fire that started in a coffee vending machine on the 6th floor of the 13-story Faculty of Architecture Building at the Delft University of Technology (TUD), Delft, the Netherlands, quickly developed into an extreme loading event. Although all building occupants

  3. Integrated microfluidic devices based on low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology

    OpenAIRE

    Maeder, Thomas; Birol, Hansu; Jacq, Caroline; Ryser, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in integrated fluidic mesosystems, based on low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology, in this laboratory and elsewhere. LTCC is shown to be an advantageous technique for integrated fluidic systems, due to its simplicity, low cost and ease of integration with other technologies and components (silicon, polymer, circuit boards. Also, the techniques utilized in making the structures are presented.

  4. Silica Foams for Fire Prevention and Firefighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Alexander V; Kuprin, D S; Abduragimov, I M; Kuprin, G N; Serebriyakov, Evgeniy; Vinogradov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-13

    We report the new development of fire-extinguishing agents employing the latest technology of fighting and preventing fires. The in situ technology of fighting fires and explosions involves using large-scale ultrafast-gelated foams, which possess new properties and unique characteristics, in particular, exceptional thermal stability, mechanical durability, and full biocompatibility. We provide a detailed description of the physicochemical processes of silica foam formation at the molecular level and functional comparison with current fire-extinguishing and fire-fighting agents. The new method allows to produce controllable gelation silica hybrid foams in the range from 2 to 30 s up to 100 Pa·s viscosity. Chemical structure and hierarchical morphology obtained by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images develop thermal insulation capabilities of the foams, reaching a specific heat value of more than 2.5 kJ/(kg·°C). The produced foam consists of organized silica nanoparticles as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis with a narrow particle size distribution of ∼10-20 nm. As a result of fire-extinguishing tests, it is shown that the extinguishing efficiency exhibited by silica-based sol-gel foams is almost 50 times higher than that for ordinary water and 15 times better than that for state-of-the-art firefighting agent aqueous film forming foam. The biodegradation index determined by the time of the induction period was only 3 d, while even for conventional foaming agents this index is several times higher.

  5. The potential for LiDAR technology to map fire fuel hazard over large areas of Australian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F; Gordon, Christopher E

    2016-10-01

    Fuel load is a primary determinant of fire spread in Australian forests. In east Australian forests, litter and canopy fuel loads and hence fire hazard are thought to be highest at and beyond steady-state fuel loads 15-20 years post-fire. Current methods used to predict fuel loads often rely on course-scale vegetation maps and simple time-since-fire relationships which mask fine-scale processes influencing fuel loads. Here we use Light Detecting and Remote Sensing technology (LiDAR) and field surveys to quantify post-fire mid-story and crown canopy fuel accumulation and fire hazard in Dry Sclerophyll Forests of the Sydney Basin (Australia) at fine spatial-scales (20 × 20 m cell resolution). Fuel cover was quantified in three strata important for crown fire propagation (0.5-4 m, 4-15 m, >15 m) over a 144 km(2) area subject to varying fire fuel ages. Our results show that 1) LiDAR provided a precise measurement of fuel cover in each strata and a less precise but still useful predictor of surface fuels, 2) cover varied greatly within a mapped vegetation class of the same fuel age, particularly for elevated fuel, 3) time-since-fire was a poor predictor of fuel cover and crown fire hazard because fuel loads important for crown fire propagation were variable over a range of fire fuel ages between 2 and 38 years post-fire, and 4) fuel loads and fire hazard can be high in the years immediately following fire. Our results show the benefits of spatially and temporally specific in situ fuel sampling methods such as LiDAR, and are widely applicable for fire management actions which aim to decrease human and environmental losses due to wildfire.

  6. Videodisc/Microcomputer Technology in Wildland Fire Behavior Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. J. Jenkins; K.Y. Matsumoto-Grah

    1987-01-01

    Interactive video is a powerful medium, bringing together the emotional impact of video and film and the interactive capabilities of the computer. Interactive videodisc instruction can be used as a tutorial, for drill and practice and in simulations, as well as for information storage. Videodisc technology is being used in industrial, military and medical applications...

  7. 78 FR 24725 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    .../2013 Class A Foams in Manual Structural Fire Fighting. NFPA 1221--2013 Standard for the 7/8/2013.../2015 Rescue and Fire- Fighting Operations. NFPA 407--2012 Standard for Aircraft 7/7/2014 Fuel Servicing... Rescue and Fire- Fighting Vehicles. NFPA 415--2013 Standard on Airport 7/8/2013 Terminal...

  8. Current and advanced NO/sub x/-control technology for coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A NOx-control-technology assessment study of coal-fired industrial boilers was conducted to examine the effectiveness of combustion-modification methods, including low excess air, staged combustion, and burner modifications. Boiler types considered included overfed and underfed stokers, spreader stokers, pulverized-coal and coal-fired cyclone units. Significant variations in NOx emissions occur with boiler type, firing method, and coal type; a relative comparison of emission-control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. Baseline (as-found) emissions from grate-fired stokers were shown to be in the range of 200 to 300 ppM. Similarly, as-found emissions from suspension-fired units were quite low (350 to 600 ppM) as compared to comparably designed utility-sized units. Low excess air was shown to be the most effective method on existing units, reducing emissions by approximately 10%. Evaluation of staged combustion and burner modification, however, were limited due to current boiler designs. Major hardware modification/design and implementation are necessary before the potential of these techniques can be fully evaluated. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion-modification program, including energy considerations, incremental capital and operating costs, corrosion, secondary pollutants, and retrofit potential.

  9. 220kV地下变电站消防技术优化研究%Optimization Research on Fire Prevention Technologies and Strategies for 220kV Underground Substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓华; 朱亚平

    2011-01-01

    以上海220 kV济南站为例,对220 kV全地下变电站火灾危险性进行分析,结合规范确定消防灭火系统的技术原则和策略,介绍了室内外消火栓、预作用自动喷水灭火、主变水喷雾灭火、烟烙尽全淹没气体灭火、移动式灭火、火灾探测报警和消防排水等系统;以及济南站消防系统设计的方法、经验,并对消防系统的优化提出建议。%Taking the 220 kV Jinan underground substation as example,this article points out the fire hazard of underground substation and analyses the technical principles and strategies of its fire fighting system by combining relevant norms.The substation fire-fighting system includes the internal and external fire hydrants system,pre-action sprinkler system,water spray fire extinguishing system for main transformer,the gas fire extinguishing system,portable fire extinguishing system,the automatic fire alarm system and the drainage system for fire-fighting.After introducing the designing methods and practical experience of the fire-fighting system for Jinan underground substation,this article puts forward the suggestions on the optimization of fire-fighting system.

  10. Techno-economic assessments of oxy-fuel technology for South African coal-fired power stations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available at the technical and economic viability of oxy-fuel technology for CO(sub2) capture for South African coal-fired power stations. This study presents a techno-economic analysis for six coal fired power stations in South Africa. Each of these power stations has a...

  11. Application research of gas fire extinguishing system in building fire-fighting design%气体灭火在建筑消防设计中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子焱

    2016-01-01

    The thesis introduces features of three kinds of common gas fire extinguishing system including IG541 ,heptafluoropropane and aerosol extinguishing gas,analyzes their safety,and illustrates the high efficiency and timeliness of gas fire extinguishing system through examples.%介绍了IG541、七氟丙烷、热气溶胶气体三种常见气体灭火系统的特点,从大气环境、人体、保护对象等角度,分析了三种气体灭火系统的安全性,并通过实例说明了使用气体灭火系统具有高效性、及时性。

  12. Cock-fighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2016-01-01

    That Cock-fighting was extremely popular the ancient Greece, is clearly showed by the numerous depictions on vases and its symbolic and metaphorical range among the language of the Athenians. Greek comedy exploits and expands the metaphorical use of cock-fighting in both the linguistic and the pe......That Cock-fighting was extremely popular the ancient Greece, is clearly showed by the numerous depictions on vases and its symbolic and metaphorical range among the language of the Athenians. Greek comedy exploits and expands the metaphorical use of cock-fighting in both the linguistic...

  13. 三相泡沫防灭火新技术在峻德煤矿采空区灭火中的应用%Application of Three-phase Foam for Fire Extinguishing Technology in Junde Coal Mine Goal Outfire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祥武

    2011-01-01

    Top-caving coal process is 2 to 5 times larger than layer mining with slow promoting, long-term floating coal gob in the combustion zone, fire prevention and control work is very difficult, three-phase foam for fire extinguishing technology is put forward and successful experiences of three-phase foam fire-fighting is introduced in the open area.%分析综采放顶煤工艺的采空区比分层开采的采空区大2~5倍,推进速度慢,采空区浮煤长期处于自燃带内,防灭火工作难度很大,提出采用三项泡沫防灭火新技术进行防灭火工作,介绍了利用三相泡沫开区灭火的成功经验.

  14. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  15. Why we fight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    Analyse af den amerikanske militære informationsserie Why we fight 1942-1945, baggrund, virkemidler og værdiindhold   ......Analyse af den amerikanske militære informationsserie Why we fight 1942-1945, baggrund, virkemidler og værdiindhold   ...

  16. The Fight Free Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, Craig K.; Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Fletcher, Reginald

    2000-01-01

    Describes implementation of the Fight Free Classroom intervention (designed to decrease fighting and aggressiveness by helping students take ownership of their behavior) in an urban elementary school that included students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Overall, aggressive acts among students with and without EBD decreased…

  17. Yearbook 1998. TULISIJA Research Programme for Wood Firing Technology; Vuosikirja - Aarsbok 1997. TULISIJA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljung, M.; Kilpinen, P. [eds.

    1999-11-01

    TULISIJA is the 3-year national research programme for small scale wood firing technology with the aim to assist manufacturers in their efforts to develop the most emission-free, yet efficient, wood firing equipment in the world. The following ten projects have been in progress during the year 1998: The behaviour of fuel; Computational fluid dynamics simulation of combustion in small scale wood ovens; computational fluid dynamics simulation of combustion in small scale wood ovens and modelling of emission chemistry; Modelling of heat transfer in fireplace walls and constructions; Detailed emission and temperature measurements in the TULISIJA test oven; Measurement environment for fireplace testing; Reduction of emissions from soapstone fireplaces; Development of a new modular method for fireplace manufacture; Replacement of energy intensive raw material with recycled industrial waste and further development of combustion processes in fireplaces and Instructions for dimensioning and design of fireplaces for optimum living atmosphere in residences

  18. Yearbook 1998. TULISIJA Research Programme for Wood Firing Technology; Vuosikirja - Aarsbok 1997. TULISIJA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljung, M.; Kilpinen, P. [eds.

    1999-11-01

    TULISIJA is the 3-year national research programme for small scale wood firing technology with the aim to assist manufacturers in their efforts to develop the most emission-free, yet efficient, wood firing equipment in the world. The following ten projects have been in progress during the year 1998: The behaviour of fuel; Computational fluid dynamics simulation of combustion in small scale wood ovens; computational fluid dynamics simulation of combustion in small scale wood ovens and modelling of emission chemistry; Modelling of heat transfer in fireplace walls and constructions; Detailed emission and temperature measurements in the TULISIJA test oven; Measurement environment for fireplace testing; Reduction of emissions from soapstone fireplaces; Development of a new modular method for fireplace manufacture; Replacement of energy intensive raw material with recycled industrial waste and further development of combustion processes in fireplaces and Instructions for dimensioning and design of fireplaces for optimum living atmosphere in residences

  19. Mitsubishi latest coal fired USC boiler technology (CFE Pacifico 700 MW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Sakamoto, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Power Systems; Fujitab, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Power Systems

    2013-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has successfully completed commissioning work for CFE (Comision Federal de Electricidad) Pacifico 700 MW coal-fired unit in March 2010 which is the first supercritical unit in Latin America. This supercritical boiler was designed with state of the art technologies such as low NOx burners, high fineness pulverizers, advanced vertical furnace wall technology and so on. Especially the advanced vertical furnace wall technology with some improvements is a key technology to realize swift load changes such as 5% load per minute ramping rate with assuring dynamic characteristics. Recently the requirement of the high efficiency and the swift load changes for the power boilers has been increased so that even a coal-fired unit needs flexible operation characteristics for balancing variety of power sources. One of the challenges for the swift load change is to keep the furnace wall metal temperature low during the load change, which the advanced vertical furnace wall could realize. The report describes the features of the unit and commissioning result including load swing test results in details.

  20. Smouldering Subsurface Fires in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, are an important phenomena in the Earth system. These fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the forest ground and are responsible for 50% or more of the total biomass consumed during wildfires. Only after the 2002 study of the 1997 extreme haze event in South-East Asia, the scientific community recognised the environmental and economic threats posed by subsurface fires. This was caused by the spread of vast biomass fires in Indonesia, burning below the surface for months during the El Niño climate event. It has been calculated that these fires released between 0.81 and 2.57 Gton of carbon gases (13-40% of global emissions). Large smouldering fires are rare events at the local scale but occur regularly at a global scale. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains or fire-fighting attempts and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading over very extensive areas of forest and deep into the soil. Indeed, these are the oldest continuously burning fires on Earth. Earth scientists are interested in smouldering fires because they destroy large amounts of biomass and cause greater damage to the soil ecosystem than flaming fires do. Moreover, these fires cannot be detected with current satellite remote sensing technologies causing inconsistencies between emission inventories and model predictions. Organic soils sustain smouldering fire (hummus, duff, peat and coal) which total carbon pool exceeds that of the world's forests or the atmosphere. This have important implications for climate change. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in unprecedented permafrost thaw that is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to fires. Because the CO2 flux from peat fires has been measured to be about 3000 times larger that the natural degradation flux, permafrost thaw is a risk for greater carbon release by fire and subsequently

  1. Fighting global warming by greenhouse gas removal: destroying atmospheric nitrous oxide thanks to synergies between two breakthrough technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Tingzhen; de Richter, Renaud; Shen, Sheng; Caillol, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    Even if humans stop discharging CO2 into the atmosphere, the average global temperature will still increase during this century. A lot of research has been devoted to prevent and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the atmosphere, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one of the technologies that might help to limit emissions. In complement, direct CO2 removal from the atmosphere has been proposed after the emissions have occurred. But, the removal of all the excess anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 will not be enough, due to the fact that CO2 outgases from the ocean as its solubility is dependent of its atmospheric partial pressure. Bringing back the Earth average surface temperature to pre-industrial levels would require the removal of all previously emitted CO2. Thus, the atmospheric removal of other greenhouse gases is necessary. This article proposes a combination of disrupting techniques to transform nitrous oxide (N2O), the third most important greenhouse gas (GHG) in terms of current radiative forcing, which is harmful for the ozone layer and possesses quite high global warming potential. Although several scientific publications cite "greenhouse gas removal," to our knowledge, it is the first time innovative solutions are proposed to effectively remove N2O or other GHGs from the atmosphere other than CO2.

  2. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  3. OCULUS fire: a command and control system for fire management with crowd sourcing and social media interconnectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Astyakopoulos, Alkiviadis; Dimitros, Kostantinos; Margonis, Christos; Thanos, Giorgos Konstantinos; Skroumpelou, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    AF3 (Advanced Forest Fire Fighting2) is a European FP7 research project that intends to improve the efficiency of current fire-fighting operations and the protection of human lives, the environment and property by developing innovative technologies to ensure the integration between existing and new systems. To reach this objective, the AF3 project focuses on innovative active and passive countermeasures, early detection and monitoring, integrated crisis management and advanced public information channels. OCULUS Fire is the innovative control and command system developed within AF3 as a monitoring, GIS and Knowledge Extraction System and Visualization Tool. OCULUS Fire includes (a) an interface for real-time updating and reconstructing of maps to enable rerouting based on estimated hazards and risks, (b) processing of GIS dynamic re-construction and mission re-routing, based on the fusion of airborne, satellite, ground and ancillary geolocation data, (c) visualization components for the C2 monitoring system, displaying and managing information arriving from a variety of sources and (d) mission and situational awareness module for OCULUS Fire ground monitoring system being part of an Integrated Crisis Management Information System for ground and ancillary sensors. OCULUS Fire will also process and visualise information from public information channels, social media and also mobile applications by helpful citizens and volunteers. Social networking, community building and crowdsourcing features will enable a higher reliability and less false alarm rates when using such data in the context of safety and security applications.

  4. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  5. Probe on Fire Fighting Zone Design in Pharmaceutical Cleanrooms -Taking and Example of Freezing & Packaging Cleanroom%医药生产厂房防火设计初探——以分冻包装厂房为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯春源; 胡庆杰

    2011-01-01

    As important part in building design, fire fighting design faced many problems in pharmaceutical cleanroom with complex process, curved traffic flow and cleanliness requirements. The specialities and considerations are summarized to fire fighting zone design for pharmaceutical cleanroom in comparison with ordinary buildings, taking the example of freezing & packaging cleanroom of west zone, No. 13, Tiantan Biology.%防火设计是建筑设计中重要的组成部分。医药生产厂房由于洁净要求,尤其以其复杂的工艺布局和曲折迂回的交通流线使防火设计面临很多需要解决的问题。结合天坛生物103号西区分冻包装厂房,总结和归纳了医药生产厂房防火设计相对于普通工业建筑的一些特殊性和在此类建筑设计中需要注意的一些问题。

  6. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  7. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Electronic Cigarette Explosions and Fires: The 2015 Experience Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  8. Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps. Test and technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2008-12-15

    Heat pumps may be the next step in gas-fired residential space heating. Together with solar energy it is an option to combine natural gas and renewable energy. Heat pumps for residential space heating are likely to be based on the absorption or adsorption process, i.e. sorption heat pumps. Manufacturers claim that the efficiency could reach 140-160%. The annual efficiency will be lower but it is clear that gas-fired heat pumps can involve an efficiency and technology step equal to the transition from non-condensing gas boilers with atmospheric burners to condensing boilers. This report contains a review of the current sorption gas-fired heat pumps for residential space heating and also the visible development trends. A prototype heat pump has been laboratory tested. Field test results from Germany and the Netherlands are also used for a technology evaluation. The tested heat pump unit combines a small heat pump and a supplementary condensing gas boiler. Field tests show an average annual efficiency of 120% for this prototype design. The manufacturer abandoned the tested design during the project period and the current development concentrates on a heat pump design only comprising the heat pump, although larger. The heat pump development at three manufacturers in Germany indicates a commercial stage around 2010-2011. A fairly high electricity consumption compared to traditional condensing boilers was observed in the tested heat pump. Based on current prices for natural gas and electricity the cost savings were estimated to 12% and 27% for heat pumps with 120% and 150% annual efficiency respectively. There is currently no widespread performance testing procedure useful for annual efficiency calculations of gas-fired heat pumps. The situation seems to be clearer for electric compression heat pumps regarding proposed testing and calculation procedures. A German environmental label exists and gasfired sorption heat pumps are also slightly treated in the Eco-design work

  9. Effect of Tri-Staple Technology and Slow Firing on Secure Stapling Using an Endoscopic Linear Stapler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Suguru; Nakayama, Shinya; Hida, Koya; Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of Tri-staple technology and slow firing using the Endo-GIA endoscopic linear stapler. The cardiac and pyloric portions of porcine stomachs were divided using the endoscopic linear stapler with different reload types. A total of 8 min of waiting time was employed during firing in the slow-firing group and no waiting time was employed in the normal-firing group. The shape of the staples was then evaluated. The length of the staple line and serosal laceration was also determined. There was a moderate negative correlation between tissue thickness and secure staple formation. Tri-staple reloads (purple, black) offered more secure staple formation compared with Universal green reload. Although slow firing enhanced secure staple formation, its effect was greater when using green reload, compared with Tri-staple reloads. Significantly shorter staple line length and longer serosal laceration was observed in the thick tissue. Although the cartridge type did not influence lengths of the staple line or serosal laceration, both were better in the slow-firing group. Tri-staple reloads offered more secure staple formation compared with the Universal reload. Although slow firing improved staple line shortening and serosal laceration, its effect on secure stapling was relatively small when using Tri-staple reloads. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Survey of Fire Detection Technologies and System Evaluation/Certification Methodologies and Their Suitability for Aircraft Cargo Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, T.; Grosshandler, W.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated program on global civil aviation, NIST is assisting Federal Aviation Administration in its research to improve fire detection in aircraft cargo compartments. Aircraft cargo compartment detection certification methods have been reviewed. The Fire Emulator-Detector Evaluator (FE/DE) has been designed to evaluate fire detection technologies such as new sensors, multi-element detectors, and detectors that employ complex algorithms. The FE/DE is a flow tunnel that can reproduce velocity, temperature, smoke, and Combustion gas levels to which a detector might be exposed during a fire. A scientific literature survey and patent search have been conducted relating to existing and emerging fire detection technologies, and the potential use of new fire detection strategies in cargo compartment areas has been assessed. In the near term, improved detector signal processing and multi-sensor detectors based on combinations of smoke measurements, combustion gases and temperature are envisioned as significantly impacting detector system performance.

  11. Yearbook 1997. TULISIJA Research Programme for Wood Firing Technology; Vuosikirja - Aarsbok 1997. TULISIJA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljung, M.; Kilpinen, P. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    Firewood is a renewable source of energy. With respect to carbon dioxide emission and change of climate, wood is a neutral fuel. Further, acidic emissions such as sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides are low in comparison with corresponding emissions originating from other sources. Under adverse conditions, however, considerable amounts of carbon monoxide and other unburned gases may be released during the burning of wood in a fireplace. Several enterprises in Finland manufacture small-size (less than 20 kW) wood burning units, such as various types of stoves and fireplaces. One particularly interesting product is the heat storing fireplace. In recent years almost 80 % of all new houses in Finland have been fitted with these fireplaces as an additional heat source for the house. The annual turnover in manufacturing such wood burning equipment is some FIM 500-600 million in Finland. About FIM 150-200 million of this is exports. The product development of wood burning equipment has been lively in Finland. The emission issues have been and are still of ever growing importance in the marketing of fireplaces. The Control of the emission of unburned gases requires thorough mixing of gases with a sufficient quantity of combustion air at high temperatures. European fireplace standard (CEN TC 295) is under preparation and will contribute to the need for further efforts in the development of low-emission wood firing. The aim of the TULISIJA research programme for wood firing technology (1997 - 1999) is to assist manufacturers in their efforts to develop the most emission-free, yet efficient, wood firing equipment in the world. Projects during 1997 deal with the following issues: Numeric flow simulation and heat transfer; Formation and decomposition mechanisms of pollutants; Behavior of the firewood charge during combustion and Charting of temperatures and compositions in a test fireplace and the measurement of emissions

  12. Quantitative comparison of fire danger index performance using fire activity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, KC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available fighting preparedness and in logistic planning of fire fighting resources [2, 3]. Different indices are being used for specific areas while some FDIs, e.g. the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), are now being applied globally in the Global Wildfire...," Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 234, pp. S10-S10, 2006. [2] A. P. Dimitrakopoulos, et al., "Evaluation of the Canadian fire weather index system in an eastern Mediterranean environment," Meteorological Applications, vol. 18, pp. 83-93, 2011. [3...

  13. Survey of available technology for the improvement of gas-fired residential heating equipment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnam, A.A.; Talbert, S.G.; Vergara, R.D.; Levy, A.; DeWerth, D.W.; Norris, T.R.

    1979-08-01

    Available technology was surveyed as to possible application to more efficient gas-fired comfort heating and water heating in residences. Objectives were (1) to evaluate energy saving modifications and design approaches, including both retrofit and new systems, and (2) to identify RD and D required to bring to the marketplace those concepts that have a reasonable payback period. Over 60 concepts, including both retrofit devices and new designs, were identified on the basis of the study of the technical literature and discussions with various segments of industry. After evaluating each concept on the basis of expected initial cost, energy consumption, and operating cost, those concepts with a reasonably short payback period were considered from the point of view of RD and D needs. A principal recommendation covering several specific concepts was the study of condensing heat-exchanger systems. RD and D was recommended on both mechanical and aerodynamically valved pulse combustors, radiant burners, catalytic systems, heat pipe systems, self-powered heating units, and gas-fired heat pumps. Relative to retrofit concepts, recommendations covered the effects of derating on furnace corrosion and the methodology for predicting savings in individual homes. Need was also indicated for a methodology to optimize sizing of heating units and for data on energy demand requirements for integrated appliances. General recommendations related to systems control analysis, minimum venting requirements, and combustion air requirements in tight homes.

  14. 乌鲁木齐煤田灭火区混土种植基质配比试验研究%Experimental Study on Matrix Proportion Mixing Soil in Urumqi Coal Field Fire-fighting Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭树芳; 安文明; 张文俊; 师庆东

    2013-01-01

    The way that is matrix materials mixing seed to improve seed growth environment is becoming a method of ecological restoration with convenient construction and high efficiency.Matrix components and combinations are the key in the research.Bonding agent, aquasorb, sheep manure, compound fertilizer, straw and paved thickness were chosen as impact factors, orthogonal experiment was done to design the test scheme, through extreme difference analysis and variance analysis of vegetation index, the schemes of optimization and influence of matrix on index were studied, for the purpose to provide a new way for ecological restoration of Urumqi coal field fire-fighting area.Results indicated that concerning vegetation cover, height and density after lmonth, E (straw) is the main influencing factor of the vegetation cover with very significance.B (absorbent agent) is the main influencing factors of height and density with very significance.Concerning biomass, vegetation cover, height and density after 4month, D (compound fertilizer) is the main factors of three biomass indexes and density.E (straw) is the main influence factor of vegetation cover and the height, and B (absorbent agent), D (compound fertilizer), E (straw) and F (paved thickness) have notable effect on vegetation cover and height.According to the majority, economy and the importance of factors on index, the optimal scheme of A3B2C5D4E4F3 is chosen on integral balance method.%利用基质材料混合种子以改良种子生长环境成为生态修复中施工方便、生态修复效率较高的一种方法.基质组分和配比是研究中的重点,文章以乌鲁木齐煤田灭火区为研究区,选择粘合剂、保水剂、羊粪、复合肥、秸秆和铺设厚度,利用正交试验设置试验方案,通过植物指标的极差和方差分析,获取研究区生态恢复的优方案和基质对指标的影响,为乌鲁木齐煤田灭火区生态修复提供新的方法.结果表明:(1)对1个月后的盖度

  15. Electron beam technology for multipollutant emissions control from heavy fuel oil-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Ostapczuk, Anna; Licki, Janusz

    2010-08-01

    The electron beam treatment technology for purification of exhaust gases from the burning of heavy fuel oil (HFO) mazout with sulfur content approximately 3 wt % was tested at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology laboratory plant. The parametric study was conducted to determine the sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, absorbed irradiation dose, and ammonia stoichiometry process parameters. In the test performed under optimal conditions with an irradiation dose of 12.4 kGy, simultaneous removal efficiencies of approximately 98% for SO2, and 80% for NO(x) were recorded. The simultaneous decrease of PAH and one-ringed aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, and xylenes [BTX]) concentrations was observed in the irradiated flue gas. Overall removal efficiencies of approximately 42% for PAHs and 86% for BTXs were achieved with an irradiation dose 5.3 kGy. The decomposition ratio of these compounds increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The decrease of PAH and BTX concentrations was followed by the increase of oxygen-containing aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. The PAH and BTX decomposition process was initialized through the reaction with hydroxyl radicals that formed in the electron beam irradiated flue gas. Their decomposition process is based on similar principles as the primary reaction concerning SO2 and NO(x) removal; that is, free radicals attack organic compound chains or rings, causing volatile organic compound decomposition. Thus, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology ensures simultaneous removal of acid (SO2 and NO(x)) and organic (PAH and BTX) pollutants from flue gas emitted from burning of HFO. This technology is a multipollutant emission control technology that can be applied for treatment of flue gas emitted from coal-, lignite-, and HFO-fired boilers. Other thermal processes such

  16. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  17. Microchip electrophoresis in low-temperature co-fired ceramics technology with contactless conductivity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fercher, Georg; Smetana, Walter; Vellekoop, Michiel J

    2009-07-01

    In this paper a novel micromachined contactless conductivity CE device produced in low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) is introduced. The application of LTCC multilayer technology provides a promising method for the contactless detection of conductive compounds because of its increased dielectric constant compared with glass or plastics. The capacitive coupling of the excitation signal into the microchannel across the LTCC substrate is improved, resulting in better detection sensitivity. Two silver electrodes located externally at opposite sides at the end of the separation channel act as detector. Impedance variations in the channel are measured without galvanic contact between electrodes and fluid. Inorganic ions are separated in less than 1 min with this novel ceramic device. The limit of detection is 10 microM for potassium.

  18. 46 CFR 132.130 - Fire stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contains space assigned for the stowage of combustibles, must be reachable by at least two streams of water..., may be used for any purpose except fire-fighting, fire drills, and testing. (m) A suitable hose rack or other device must be provided for each fire hose. Each rack on a weather deck must be placed so...

  19. Contribution of Earth Observation and meteorological datasets for the design and development of a national fire risk assessment system (NFOFRAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagis, Thomas; Bliziotis, Dimitris; Liantinioti, Chrysa; Gitas, Ioannis Z.; Charalampopoulou, Betty

    2016-08-01

    During the past decades, forest fires have increased both in frequency and severity thus, increasing the life threats for people and environment and leading countries to spend vast amounts of resources in fighting forest fires. Besides anthropogenic activities, climatic and environmental changes are considered as driving factors affecting fire occurrence and vegetation succession. Especially in the Mediterranean region, the development and existence of effective tools and services is crucial for assisting pre-fire planning and preparedness. The collaborative project NFOFRAS aims at introducing an innovative and effective system for rating forest fire risk, and is based on existing technology and standards that have been developed by countries with a long and a very successful involvement in this field. During the first phase of the project a detailed documentation of the proposed methodology was composed. In addition, Earth Observation (EO) and meteorological datasets were utilized for producing accurate pre-fire measurements over a selected study area in Greece.

  20. Behind the Curtain: Keeping Surgical Patients Warmer Fights Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cleveland Clinic, Ohio Photo courtesy of NIGMS Keeping Surgical Patients Warmer Fights Infection As recently as the mid- ... His research led to a new conclusion: Keep surgical patients warm. No new drugs, no fancy technology. Warming ...

  1. Study of large oil storage tank zone fire risk forecast and early warning technology%大型石油储罐区火灾风险预测预警技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晅亚; 张清林; 秘义行; 许晓元

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the large-scale storage working equipments and process in large oil storage tank zone, based on the analysis of key equipments' leakages, fires, explosion and other disaster scenes and accident evolution model in the tank areas, the effect factors of the tanks area fire risk and fire & explosion accidents hazards were studied through the statistics and analysis of the typical petroleum tank zone fire accidents cases. Depending on the characteristics of different typical fire and explosion accidents scenarios, using the information technologies (GIS geographic information system, RS remote sensing and telemetry systems, etc. ) and remote singles moni-tor technologies, the large-scale oil storage tank area fire risk forecasting and early warning technology system were proposed. The status parameters of dangerous materials and process equipments can be carried out with real time measurement and monitoring. It can be realized to intergrade the fire risk dynamic analysis and evaluation, detection and monitoring, disasters prediction and early warning, including system dynamic decision-making, comprehensive coordination, emergency response, by which to improve the fire fighting forces prevention and control of large oil storage tank fire, disaster forecast and early warning signs, and level of technical capacity in order to achieve the dynamic security management of the storage tank area fire risk.%针对目前我国大型石油储罐区储运工艺特点与作业条件,通过对典型石油储罐区火灾事故案例的统计与分析,在对罐区关键设备与工艺设施泄漏、火灾、爆炸特性以及事散场景与灾害演化模式分析的基础上,对石油储运罐区火灾风险影响因素以及罐区火灾、爆炸事故危险性进行研究.根据典型的火灾、爆炸事故场景特点,基于信息技术(GIS地理信息系统、RS遥感遥测系统等)与远程信号动态监测技术,提出大型石油储罐区

  2. Prevention and control of coalfield fire technology: A case study in the Antaibao Open Pit Mine goaf burning area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Kai; Zhong Xiaoxing; Wang Deming; Shi Guoqing; Wang Yanming; Shao Zhenlu

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to clearly detect the location of a burning area in a coal mine since it is hidden underground.So we conducted research on the distribution of the burning area before controlling it.Firstly,the original drilling technique was used to analyze and determine the loose and scope of caving of burning area through field test,and then obtained the gases and the temperature data in this area were according to the borehole data.By analyzing these data,we found out that the location of burning area concentrated in the loose and caving area; and finally,the location and development of the burning area within the tested area were accurately determined.Based on this theory,we used the ground penetrating radar (GPR) to find out the loose and caving scale in the burning area during the control process of the burning area,and then located the fire-extinguishing boreholes within target which we used to control burning fire in the section.A mobile comprehensive fire prevention and extinguishing system based on the three-phase foam fire prevention and control technique was then adopted and conducted in the burning area which took only 9 months to extinguish the 227,000 m2 of burning area of 9# coal.This control technology and experience will provide a very important reference to the control of other coalfield fire and hillock fire in the future.

  3. Russia Fights Back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Kremlin boosts its profile with strengthened antiterrorist drive Vladimir Putin may well breathe a sigh of relief when hearing the news that Chechen rebel leader Shamil Basayev was killed. In recent years, fighting against terrorism has been weighing heavily on the mind of the Russian president. Only a couple of days earlier.

  4. Fast fight detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Serrano Gracia

    Full Text Available Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms. Recent work considered the well-known Bag-of-Words framework for the specific problem of fight detection. Under this framework, spatio-temporal features are extracted from the video sequences and used for classification. Despite encouraging results in which high accuracy rates were achieved, the computational cost of extracting such features is prohibitive for practical applications. This work proposes a novel method to detect violence sequences. Features extracted from motion blobs are used to discriminate fight and non-fight sequences. Although the method is outperformed in accuracy by state of the art, it has a significantly faster computation time thus making it amenable for real-time applications.

  5. Fast fight detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Gracia, Ismael; Deniz Suarez, Oscar; Bueno Garcia, Gloria; Kim, Tae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms. Recent work considered the well-known Bag-of-Words framework for the specific problem of fight detection. Under this framework, spatio-temporal features are extracted from the video sequences and used for classification. Despite encouraging results in which high accuracy rates were achieved, the computational cost of extracting such features is prohibitive for practical applications. This work proposes a novel method to detect violence sequences. Features extracted from motion blobs are used to discriminate fight and non-fight sequences. Although the method is outperformed in accuracy by state of the art, it has a significantly faster computation time thus making it amenable for real-time applications.

  6. Fighting for their survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gracie; Guo

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of economic performance of China’s painting&dyeing industry during the first five months of 2008 Relying on the researches on enterprises,China Dyeing and Printing Association works out the industry performance in the first five months this year.According to the results,painting&dyeing firms are fighting for their survival in 2008 with yuan appreciation,

  7. Fighting status inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job...

  8. Innovative forest fire suppression technology device to solve the problem of forest fire prevention and the contribution of the world forest fire prevention%创新型森林防灭火技术对世界森林防灭火贡献的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江创葵; 季仙华

    2016-01-01

    China's water resources are very scarce, especially in the occurrence of forest fires, the water is very precious. At present, China's forest fire prevention, fire prevention methods are still the traditional relatively backward methods, once the forest fire, forest fire prevention, fire fighting efficiency is low, not only a waste of resources, destruction of the ecological environment, but also caused serious damage to property and personnel. This paper in reference on the basis of relevant experience at home and abroad, aiming at the problems of our country in the forest fire prevention and fire extinguishing, and domestic and foreign forest party fire extinguishing mechanism and methods, to explore the forest fire prevention and fire extinguishing system new method mechanism, and comprehensive utilization of water resources in our country, a model of forest fire prevention and fire extinguishing irrigation system, and detailed analysis of the forest fire prevention and extinguishing system with advanced, low consumption, environmental protection, resource conservation, efficient features, expounds the new forest protection, fire extinguishing system contribution to China's economic development and the development of the world economy, which has certain practical significance for promoting the development of China's socio-economic development and ecological civilization.%在借鉴国内外相关经验的基础上,针对我国在森林防、灭火方面存在的一些问题,以及国内外的森林方灭火机制与方法,探索森林防、灭火系统新的方法机制,综合利用我国水资源,研究出了一种新型森林防、灭火浇灌系统,详细分析了森林防灭火系统具有先进、低耗、环保、节约资源等高效特点,阐述了新型森林防、灭火系统对我国经济发展以及世界经济发展的贡献。

  9. Moorland Wild Fires in the Peak District National Park, Technical Report 3

    OpenAIRE

    McMorrow, J.

    2006-01-01

    Warmer, drier summers brought by climate change increase the risk of frequent wildfires on the moorland of the Peak District National Park (PDNP) of northern England. Fires are costly to fight, damage the ecosystem, harm water catchments, cause erosion scars and disrupt transport. Fires release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Accurate forecasts of the timing of fires and high fire risk locations will aid the deployment of fire fighting resources.Both spatial modelling (identifying where ris...

  10. Fire Threatens the Grasslands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    FIRE is herdsmen’s woe. It is said by elderly people that fire almost destroyed the entire grasslands long ago. Few domestic animals survived and with great difficulty the people rebuilt and replanted what they could for many generations. Because of their efforts the grasslands survived. I have never experienced that kind of tragedy, but I could sense the fear in people’s voices when they talked of it. It is actually an unwritten law on the grasslands that whenever a fire occurs, no matter how far away or how dangerous it is, you must go out and fight it.

  11. Fighting the Next Superbug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ With A/H1N1,popularly known as "swine flu," becoming a distant memory,concerns are mounting about the next pandemic and the catastrophic effect it could have on the global population.To alleviate the tension,Guangzhou Pharmaceutical Holdings Ltd.is taking a non-traditional approach to fighting future widespread diseases by avoiding antibiotic treatment and embracing traditional Chinese medicine(TCM).

  12. UTILIZATION OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY FIRE DYNAMICS SIMULATION COMPUTER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. BARTLEIN

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a methodology for utilization of the NIST FDS code to evaluate the effects of radiant and convective heating from single and multiple fire sources, on heat sensitive targets as Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), and High Explosives (HE). The presentation will demonstrate practical applications of the FDS computer program in fire hazards analysis, and illustrate the advantages over hand calculations for radiant heat and convective transfer and fire progression. The ''visualization'' of radiant and convective heat effects will be demonstrated as a tool for supporting conclusions of fire hazards analysis and TSR development.

  13. Reflections on the Application of Fire Risk Simulation Technology%关于火灾模拟技术应用和发展的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫剑

    2011-01-01

    火灾模拟技术为性能化设计提供依据和分析手段,促进了消防技术的发展。对火灾模拟技术进行了综述,介绍了火灾模拟技术在防灭火工作中的应用,对我国火灾模拟技术发展进行了展望。%Fire risk simulation technology provides the means for performance-based fire prevention design and analysis and promotes the development of fire technology.This paper reviews fire risk simulation technology and introduces its application in fire prevention,and its future direction.

  14. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

  15. Monitor Forest Fires with FY Serial Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing as the measure to monitor disasters has the advantage of temporal resolution and large scale. Since "5.6 catastrophe" in 1987, China began to monitor forest fires broadly. In the summer of 2002, many forest/grass fires occurred in the Daxing'anling Mountains, and the damage was very heavy. In the forest fires fighting, the meteorological satellites play an important role in monitoring the fires. Especially the FY serial meteorological satellites have the advantage of large scale monitorin...

  16. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  17. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  18. 森林火灾应急扑救中航空飞机装备的种类及技术%Type of Aviation Aircraft Equipment and Technology for Forest Fire Emergency Suppression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高仲亮; 王秋华; 舒立福; 张明远

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of forest fire monitoring and fighting,aviation aircraft consist of fixed-wing aircraft and heli-copters. They attack fast and flexibly,without terrain restrictions,and can realize airborne command,aircraft landing for fire suppression,line-down fire suppression, chemical-based fire suppression,bucket fire suppression,artificial precipitation and fire suppression during glide. In view of such disadvantags as the restrictions involved in the implementation of aerial fire sup-pression,low utilization rate of water and low efficiency of fire suppression, and such advantages as water-based fire suppres-sion and the low cost,safety and environmental protection features of water,it is proposed that water is the best fire extin-guishing agent and water mist is the best way of fire extinctio. Improvement of the utilization rate of water-based fire extinc-tion,research and development of water mist-based fire extinguishing system and new types of airborne water mist fire extin-guishing bombs to exert their superiority in forest fire fighting will be the development direction of aerial fire suppression.%航空飞机是监测和扑救森林火灾的重要组成部分,分为固定翼机和直升机。航空飞机具有出击迅速、机动灵活、不受地形限制等优点,能进行空中指挥、机降灭火、索降灭火、化学灭火、吊桶灭火以及人工增雨和滑降灭火等作业。针对航空灭火水利用率和灭火效率低的缺点,以及水灭火的优越性和水的廉价、安全环保特性,提出水是最好的灭火剂,细水雾是其最佳的作用方式。提高水灭火的利用率、研发细水雾灭火系统和新型机载细水雾灭火弹,发挥其扑救森林火灾的优越性,将是航空灭火的发展方向。

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GRC and AR have identified the following roles and responsibilities necessary to accomplish the hot fire objective of this task.  AR will be responsible for...

  20. Influence of BIM Technology on Fire Command Rescue For Tall Buildings%BIM技术对高层建筑消防指挥救援的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 皇甫冬梅; 贾真

    2015-01-01

    Based on the worldwide problem about the tall buildings fire, with the application of BIM technology research in the field of fire protection and the fire command system of GIS, and through the comparison between BIM technology and fire GIS data, advantages of the combining of BIM technology and fire GIS platform used in tall buildings fire control are analyzed. Moreover, based on the GIS fire control flow chart, the flow chart of BIM technology applied in the construction of fire command is put forward. Finally, the three aspects of influence on the tall buildings fire command and rescue with the development of BIM technology applied to tall buildings were further discussed.%结合高层建筑火灾这样一个世界性难题和BIM技术在消防领域的研究方向以及消防GIS指挥系统的应用,通过对BIM技术和消防GIS技术的数据信息进行比较,分析BIM技术与消防GIS技术平台结合应用与高层建筑消防所具有的数据信息优势。并且基于地理信息系统消防流程图,提出BIM技术应用于建筑消防指挥的流程图。最后,进一步探讨了BIM技术的发展应用给高层建筑消防指挥救援带来的3方面影响。

  1. 矿用固化泡沫防灭火密闭充填新技术%New Technology of Mine Solidification Foam Filling up Fire- Fight Closeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海

    2005-01-01

    文章介绍了1种煤矿井下防灭火密闭充填的新材料、新装备.详细分析了煤矿现有防灭火密闭手段存在的不足.通过用固化泡沫密闭充填新技术与煤矿现有密闭充填的对比,介绍了该新技术的有效接顶、绝对不燃、不收缩、凝固时间可随机调整等突出特点.同时还详细介绍了ZHJZ-6/1.5型矿用移动式防灭火综合注浆装置的结构、技术参数和特点.

  2. Web-GIS platform for forest fire danger prediction in Ukraine: prospects of RS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiy, N. V.; Zharikova, M. V.

    2016-10-01

    There are many different statistical and empirical methods of forest fire danger use at present time. All systems have not physical basis. Last decade deterministic-probabilistic method is rapidly developed in Tomsk Polytechnic University. Forest sites classification is one way to estimate forest fire danger. We used this method in present work. Forest fire danger estimation depends on forest vegetation condition, forest fire retrospective, precipitation and air temperature. In fact, we use modified Nesterov Criterion. Lightning activity is under consideration as a high temperature source in present work. We use Web-GIS platform for program realization of this method. The program realization of the fire danger assessment system is the Web-oriented geoinformation system developed by the Django platform in the programming language Python. The GeoDjango framework was used for realization of cartographic functions. We suggest using of Terra/Aqua MODIS products for hot spot monitoring. Typical territory for forest fire danger estimation is Proletarskoe forestry of Kherson region (Ukraine).

  3. Studies on Selection of Fire Resistant Tree Species for Subtropical Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fire disaster is the primary one of the facts of deforestation. Although in recent years the level of forest management and technique for fire suppression have been improving and fire fighting force has been strengthened, the area of fire has not been decreased obviously. Using biological fire resistant technique can effectively prevent the campaign fire. In this paper, fire resistant ability and component about 12 tree species, in mountain area of Daguishan, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, have been ...

  4. Fighting Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar eLangenbach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking Asian soybean rust (SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several resistance genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  5. Even Good Bots Fight

    CERN Document Server

    Tsvetkova, Milena; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. In this article, we analyze collaborative bots by studying the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Further, just like humans, Wikipedia bots exhibit cultural differences. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this provides a warning to the Artificial Intelligence research community.

  6. Fighting for the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Maj Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how military deployment affects the everyday lives of Danish soldiers’ families. By approaching the challenges faced by soldiers and their partners from an anthropological perspective of the family, the article provides new insights into the social consequences of military...... deployment and the processes of militarization at home. Drawing on ethnographic examples from recent fieldwork among women, children, and soldiers at different stages of deployment, the article demonstrates how soldiers and their families attempt to live up to ideals about parenthood and family by creating...... ‘relational spaces’ that allow them to preserve intimate relationships despite geographical distances. Besides dealing with the practical responsibilities of everyday life, soldiers’ partners also fight to maintain the sense of closeness associated with normative ideals about family relations and a ‘good...

  7. Fire and explosion security in the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference has 12 presentations on topics regarding fire fighting, explosions and development scenarios, safety and security aspects, management of safety issues and measures and preparedness. Some accidents and fires are discussed. Some important problems with LNG with respects to plants, transport, fires and risk assessment are presented.

  8. City Fire Risk Evaluation Based on GIS%基于GIS城市火灾风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保杰; 纪亚洲; 周云霞

    2012-01-01

    It was held that evaluating city fire risk could contribute to fire fight programming and fire fight strength deployment in the city. In order to evaluate the grades of urban fire risk, an index system was built according to three aspects including regional environment, fire hazard, protection ability. After various parameters were superimposed using the spatial analysis function of GIS and grid technology, risk evaluation results were revealed on GIS thematic map , and the city's present risk rating map was obtained. The results show that the fire risk is great in old urban district of Xuzhou and border area of new and old urban districts, because there are more people and more buildings in the old urban area, border area of new and old urban districts has weaker fire-fighting capacity.%评估城市区域火灾风险有助于规划城市消防和部署消防力量.为评估城市火灾风险等级,结合城市区域环境、火灾危害和防护能力3个方面,构建火灾风险评估指标体系.利用地理格网和GIS空间分析技术,对各指标体系按其权重进行叠加,并以徐州市为例,得到城市火灾风险等级图.结果表明:徐州市老城区由于人口、建筑密集,火灾风险大;新老城区结合带则因消防力量相对薄弱,火灾风险也较大.基于格网GIS的城市火灾风险评价方法同样适用于其他大中型城市的火灾风险评估.

  9. Design and implementation of the monitoring system for underground coal fires in Xinjiang region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-bo, Dang; Jia-chun, Wu; Yue-xing, Liu; Yuan, Chang; Bin, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal fire (UCF) is serious in Xinjiang region of China. In order to deal with this problem efficiently, a UCF monitoring System, which is based on the use of wireless communication technology and remote sensing images, was designed and implemented by Xinjiang Coal Fire Fighting Bureau. This system consists of three parts, i.e., the data collecting unit, the data processing unit and the data output unit. For the data collecting unit, temperature sensors and gas sensors were put together on the sites with depth of 1.5 meter from the surface of coal fire zone. Information on these sites' temperature and gas was transferred immediately to the data processing unit. The processing unit was developed by coding based on GIS software. Generally, the processed datum were saved in the computer by table format, which can be displayed on the screen as the curve. Remote sensing image for each coal fire was saved in this system as the background for each monitoring site. From the monitoring data, the changes of the coal fires were displayed directly. And it provides a solid basis for analyzing the status of coal combustion of coal fire, the gas emission and possible dominant direction of coal fire propagation, which is helpful for making-decision of coal fire extinction.

  10. Improving rangeland seeding success in post-fire water repellent soil using surfactant seed coating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe disturbance from catastrophic wildfires often requires that native plant materials be reintroduced through reseeding, but the success rate of these restoration efforts in arid environments is notoriously low. Post-fire soil water repellency can limit reseeding success by decreasing soil moist...

  11. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  12. 燃气锅炉使用富氧燃烧初探%Application of oxygen-combustion technology in gas - fired boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张郁; 翟强

    2012-01-01

    The point of oxygen combustion technology was described. The future of oxygen combustion technology in gas - fired boiler was analyzed.%介绍了富氧燃烧的特点,分析了在燃气锅炉中使用富氧技术的应用前景.

  13. The Cooperation Mechanism Constrction of Logistic Support in Fire Fighting on the Conflict Theories%基于冲突理论的灭火救援战勤保障协同机制构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛惊雷

    2015-01-01

    协同保障是消防部队战勤保障现场保障主要形式,作为组织整体协同行动,必然存在组织冲突。消除保障分队间的组织冲突根源是提高灭火救援战勤保障效率的有效支撑,运用功能倍增机理,从协同形成机制、实现机制以及约束机制三方面建立科学的协同保障机制,才能有力指导保障组织指挥和保障要素整合,以实现战勤保障有序化、规范化,提高战勤保障系统协同保障效应。%Cooperative logistics is the primary form in the fire rescue logistics. It is certain that there will be an or-ganizational conflict in cooperative logistics because it is a unitary organizational cooperation. To eliminate the root of the organizational conflict is an efficient support for improving the efficiency of the logistics support. Only when sci-entific cooperative support mechanism is constructed from the following three aspects like coordinating forming mech-anism,the achieving mechanism and the restricting mechanism by means of logistics mechanism can the fire army scientifically supervises the organizational command of logistics and the conformity of logistics factor,to achieve fire rescue’logistics ordering and standardization,lastly to enhance its effect of cooperative logistics.

  14. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  15. Design on the intelligent view glance control system of the aerial bomb for forest fire fighting%森林灭火航弹智能观瞄投放控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少刚; 周钊; 张书宇; 赵丹; 郭云龙; 李晓伟

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop an intelligent view glance control system of the forest fire bomb to improve fire extinguishing efficiency. In this paper, taking industrial computer as the core of control system, through the RS232-CAN converter to release control commands to the CAN bus distributed communication node and receive feedback data real-timely, realize the efficient, real-time and reliable operation of the intelligent view glance control system of the forest fire bomb. This paper describes the hardware constitution and software implementation process of the control system, and conducts the debugging experiment on the related function testing of the control system. The experimental results show that the intelligent view glance control system of the forest fire bomb can work properly, and complete the corresponding control functions.%研制出一种森林灭火航弹智能观瞄投放控制系统,提高森林灭火航弹的灭火效率。文中以工控机为控制系统核心,通过RS232-CAN转换器向CAN总线分布式通讯节点实时地发布控制命令以及接收反馈数据,实现森林灭火航弹智能观瞄投放控制系统的高效实时可靠运行。文中描述了控制系统的硬件构成以及软件实现流程,并且对控制系统进行了相关功能的调试实验,经过实验验证,设计的森林灭火航弹智能观瞄投放控制系统可以正常运行,完成相应的控制功能。

  16. VISUAL REINFORCEMENT IN FIGHTING COCKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMPSON, T I

    1964-01-01

    Fighting cocks were conditioned to emit a key-pecking response on a fixed ratio reinforcement schedule leading to the visual image of another fighting cock. In addition, the relative reinforcing properties of the visual reinforcer were compared with food and water reinforcers in a three-choice, non-reversible option situation. The relative reinforcing effects of mirror presentation and another rooster visually presented through a window, were compared. The mirror maintained a relatively lower response output.

  17. Interim Brigade Combat Team: Indirect distributive fires concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerard M Acosta; Christopher Menton

    2002-01-01

      The expectation that the Interim Brigade Combat Team will fight in a non-linear environment has forced units to develop new tactics to incorporate indirect fires to deliver rounds in a 360-degree zone...

  18. FIRE SAFETY UPGRADING FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS IN BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    building. Specifically, thermal barriers for window openings, automatic smoke detectors with manual response by fire fighting shelter personnel, and environmental seals for shelter areas are recommended as feasible upgrading remedies.

  19. The application of RANS CFD for design of SNCR technology for a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszak Monika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the technology of NOx emission abatement by SNCR method. The scope of research included CDF simulations as well as design and construction of the pilot plant and tests of NOx reduction by urea in the plant located in industrial pulverized-coal fired boiler. The key step of research was to determine the appropriate temperature window for the SNCR process. The proposed solution of the location of injection lances in the combustion chamber enabled to achieve over a 30% reduction of NOx. It is possible to achieve higher effectiveness of the proposed SNCR technology and meet the required emission standards via providing prior reduction of NOx to the level of 350 mg/um3 using the primary methods.

  20. Technology Application Research of The 2011 UFC Ultimate Fighting Games%对2011年UFC终极格斗比赛中技术运用的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李际麟

    2012-01-01

    文章采用录像观察等研究方法,对2011年世界UFC终极格斗比赛中技术运用的现状、制胜的因素等方面进行全面、系统的分析。研究结果认为:技术KO在比赛中占得分次数最多,拥有过硬的站立击打技术是格斗运动员必备的基础。在站立贴摔动作过程中应加强对拳膝动作的防守和使用,注重站立贴身技术特别是贴摔技术的运用,促进贴身击打和地面技术有机结合,并建议今后应加强地面绞锁断头台技术的强化训练,提高技术成功率为比赛制胜创造条件。%With the methods of video observation and other research methods,the paper conducts a thorough and systematic analysis about the techniques used in the the 2011 World UFC Ultimate Fighting games and the winning factors.The results show that: KO scoring the most times in the games,and excellent standing strike technology is the essential foundation of wrestling athletes.Paste in the standing wrestling boxing action needs to strengthen the knee during movement of the defense and use,focusing on personal standing wrestling techniques and technology,especially the use of stickers to promote the personal combination of hitting and ground techniques,and suggests that it should be strengthened to the ground twist scaffold technology intensive training to improve the technical success rate of winning the game to create the conditions.

  1. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  2. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  3. Influence Factors of the Formation and Stability of Fire-fighting Three-phase Foam%防灭火三相泡沫形成和稳定的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋新生; 翟琰; 冯军; 吕科宗

    2016-01-01

    为研究含超细粉体的防灭火三相泡沫的形成和稳定过程及其影响因素,在实验室中通过机械搅拌的方式制备三相泡沫,重点研究不同泡沫液、不同粉体类型以及泡沫液质量分数、粉体添加量和粉体粒径对三相泡沫发泡、稳泡性能的影响。结果表明,表面活性剂有利于三相泡沫的形成,且泡沫发泡性能随泡沫液质量分数的增大而提高。轻质、亲水性颗粒与非离子表面活性剂共存有利于三相泡沫的生成和稳定,粉体添加量增大会增强泡沫稳定性,但添加量过大则会影响泡沫的发泡性能。搅拌强度和发泡倍数对泡沫稳定性也有影响,发泡倍数过高会影响泡沫的稳定性。%To explore the formation and stability process and the influence factors of the fire⁃fighting three⁃phase foams with ultra⁃fine powders incorporated, different kinds of foams were prepared by waring blender, and the factors such as foaming agent, powder type, mass fraction of foaming agent and adding quantity powders, and particle size were extremely focused in this work. The results show that the surfactant is favorable for the formation of three⁃phase foam, and foam foaming performance increase by the in⁃creases with mass fraction of foaming agent. Lightweight, hydrophilic particles coexisting with non⁃ionic surfactant help the forma⁃tion and stability of three⁃phase foam. The foam stability increases by the increases of the powders additiue amount, but excessive powders impair the foaming performance. Mixing strength and expansion ratio also has an effect on the stability of foam, when the foaming ratio is too high, it will influence the stability of foam.

  4. Novel Tools in Determining the Physiological Demands and Nutritional Practices of Ontario FireRangers during Fire Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. H.; Larivière, C.; Leduc, C. R.; McGillis, Z.; Eger, T.; Godwin, A.; Larivière, M.; Dorman, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The seasonal profession of wildland fire fighting in Canada requires individuals to work in harsh environmental conditions that are physically demanding. The purpose of this study was to use novel technologies to evaluate the physiological demands and nutritional practices of Canadian FireRangers during fire deployments. Methods Participants (n = 21) from a northern Ontario Fire Base volunteered for this study and data collection occurred during the 2014 fire season and included Initial Attack (IA), Project Fire (P), and Fire Base (B) deployments. Deployment-specific energy demands and physiological responses were measured using heart-rate variability (HRV) monitoring devices (Zephyr BioHarness3 units). Food consumption behaviour and nutrient quantity and quality were captured using audio-video food logs on iPod Touches and analyzed by NutriBase Pro 11 software. Results Insufficient kilocalories were consumed relative to expenditure for all deployment types. Average daily kilocalories consumed: IA: 3758 (80% consumption rate); P: 2945±888.8; B: 2433±570.8. Average daily kilocalorie expenditure: IA: 4538±106.3; P: 4012±1164.8; B: 2842±649.9. The Average Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for protein was acceptable: 22–25% (across deployment types). Whereas the AMDR for fat and carbohydrates were high: 40–50%; and low: 27–37% respectively, across deployment types. Conclusions This study is the first to use the described methodology to simultaneously evaluate energy expenditures and nutritional practices in an occupational setting. The results support the use of HRV monitoring and video-food capture, in occupational field settings, to assess job demands. FireRangers expended the most energy during IA, and the least during B deployments. These results indicate the need to develop strategies centered on maintaining physical fitness and improving food practices. PMID:28107380

  5. Independent Validation and Verification of Process Design and Optimization Technology Diagnostic and Control of Natural Gas Fired Furnaces via Flame Image Analysis Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program has invested in emerging Process Design and Optimizations Technologies (PDOT) to encourage the development of new initiatives that might result in energy savings in industrial processes. Gas fired furnaces present a harsh environment, often making accurate determination of correct air/fuel ratios a challenge. Operation with the correct air/fuel ratio and especially with balanced burners in multi-burner combustion equipment can result in improved system efficiency, yielding lower operating costs and reduced emissions. Flame Image Analysis offers a way to improve individual burner performance by identifying and correcting fuel-rich burners. The anticipated benefit of this technology is improved furnace thermal efficiency, and lower NOx emissions. Independent validation and verification (V&V) testing of the FIA technology was performed at Missouri Forge, Inc., in Doniphan, Missouri by Environ International Corporation (V&V contractor) and Enterprise Energy and Research (EE&R), the developer of the technology. The test site was selected by the technology developer and accepted by Environ after a meeting held at Missouri Forge. As stated in the solicitation for the V&V contractor, 'The objective of this activity is to provide independent verification and validation of the performance of this new technology when demonstrated in industrial applications. A primary goal for the V&V process will be to independently evaluate if this technology, when demonstrated in an industrial application, can be utilized to save a significant amount of the operating energy cost. The Seller will also independently evaluate the other benefits of the demonstrated technology that were previously identified by the developer, including those related to product quality, productivity, environmental impact, etc'. A test plan was provided by the technology developer and is included as an appendix to the summary report

  6. Discovery Mondays - Men of fire: the fire brigade show their mettle

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Flashover and backdraught, these technical terms refer to two of the most dangerous phenomena associated with fires. In order to train in dealing with them, in the course of their fire fighting duties the CERN fire brigade use special simulation equipment. The demonstrations are rather spectacular... Thrills are therefore guaranteed at the next Discovery Monday on 2 February! In the course of the evening, you will see fire-fighters demonstrate climbing techniques including abseiling, a method they would have to use to access underground structures on the CERN site in the event of an accident. The accomplished climbers (the Hazardous Environments Response Team) will provide detailed explanations of the rescue techniques and procedures they use in tunnels and hazardous environments. However, the remit of the CERN fire brigade goes well beyond fire-fighting. It ranges from monitoring confined spaces to dealing with flooding and preventing chemical hazards. A wide range of equipment enables them to fulfil thei...

  7. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  8. Fire Extinguisher Robot Using Ultrasonic Camera and Wi-Fi Network Controlled with Android Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Purba, H. A.; Efendi, S.; Fahmi, F.

    2017-03-01

    Fire disasters can occur anytime and result in high losses. It is often that fire fighters cannot access the source of fire due to the damage of building and very high temperature, or even due to the presence of explosive materials. With such constraints and high risk in the handling of the fire, a technological breakthrough that can help fighting the fire is necessary. Our paper proposed the use of robots to extinguish the fire that can be controlled from a specified distance in order to reduce the risk. A fire extinguisher robot was assembled with the intention to extinguish the fire by using a water pump as actuators. The robot movement was controlled using Android smartphones via Wi-fi networks utilizing Wi-fi module contained in the robot. User commands were sent to the microcontroller on the robot and then translated into robotic movement. We used ATMega8 as main microcontroller in the robot. The robot was equipped with cameras and ultrasonic sensors. The camera played role in giving feedback to user and in finding the source of fire. Ultrasonic sensors were used to avoid collisions during movement. Feedback provided by camera on the robot displayed on a screen of smartphone. In lab, testing environment the robot can move following the user command such as turn right, turn left, forward and backward. The ultrasonic sensors worked well that the robot can be stopped at a distance of less than 15 cm. In the fire test, the robot can perform the task properly to extinguish the fire.

  9. Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF) fire protection study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, R. C.; Burns, R. E.; Leonard, J. T.

    1989-07-01

    An analysis is presented to the effectiveness of various types of fire fighting agents in extinguishing the kinds of fires anticipated in Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF), otherwise known as Hush Houses. The agents considered include Aqueous Film-Forming Foam, Halon 1301, Halon 1211 and water. Previous test work has shown the rapidity with which aircraft, especially high performance aircraft, can be damaged by fire. Based on this, tentative criteria for this evaluation included a maximum time of 20 s from fire detection to extinguishment and a period of 30 min in which the agent would prevent reignition. Other issues examined included: toxicity, corrosivity, ease of personnel egress, system reliability, and cost effectiveness. The agents were evaluated for their performance in several fire scenarios, including: under frame fire, major engine fire, engine disintegration fire, high-volume pool fire with simultaneous spill fire, internal electrical fire, and runaway engine fire.

  10. The Influence of Dipping Technology on Fire Retardant Retention Quantity of FRW Fire-Retarding Veneer%浸渍工艺对FRW阻燃单板载药量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎涛; 乔磊; 李晓乐; 林会峰; 姜道鸿; 韩爽

    2012-01-01

    The new-type fire retardant FRW was selected to treat poplar and birch veneer, and the influence of the treatment technology conditions including the soaking time and solution concentration, veneer thickness and the timber of different tree species on the fire retardant retention quantity of the FRW fire-retarding veneer was studied. The results showed that along with the prolonging of soaking time duration and increasing of the solution concentration, the fire retardant retention quantity of the poplar and birch veneer both increased. There was difference in the fire retardant retention quantity between the tree species, the fire retardant retention quantity of poplar veneer was higher than that of the birch veneer. At the same time, with the increase of veneer thickness, the fire retardant retention quantity showed a downward trend in the overall.%选用新型木材阻燃剂FRW处理杨木和桦木单板,探讨浸渍工艺条件(浸渍时间和浸渍浓度)、单板厚度、树种等因素对FRW阻燃单板载药量的影响.结果表明:随着单板浸渍时间的增加和浸渍浓度的提高,杨木和桦木的单板载药量均呈上升趋势;树种不同,其载药量存在差异,杨木单板的载药量高于桦木单板;随着单板厚度的增加,单板载药量在整体上呈下降趋势.

  11. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  12. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  13. Quantifying Fugitive Methane Emissions at an Underground Coal Fire Using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, D.; Gannon, L.; Kim-Hak, D.; Ide, T.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding methane emissions is of utmost importance due to its greenhouse warming potential. Methane emissions can occur from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources which include wetlands, landfills, oil/gas/coal extraction activities, underground coal fires, and natural gas distribution systems. Locating and containing these emissions are critical to minimizing their environmental impacts and economically beneficial when retrieving large fugitive amounts. In order to design a way to mitigate these methane emissions, they must first be accurately quantified. One such quantification method is to measure methane fluxes, which is a measurement technique that is calculated based on rate of gas accumulation in a known chamber volume over methane seepages. This allows for quantification of greenhouse gas emissions at a localized level (sub one meter) that can complement remote sensing and other largescale modeling techniques to further paint the picture of emission points. High performance analyzers are required to provide both sufficient temporal resolution and precise concentration measurements in order to make these measurements over only minutes. A method of measuring methane fluxes was developed using the latest portable, battery-powered Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy analyzer from Picarro (G4301). In combination with a mobile accumulation chamber, the instrument allows for rapid measurement of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes over wide areas. For this study, methane fluxes that were measured at an underground coal fire near the Four Corners region using the Picarro analyzer are presented. The flux rates collected demonstrate the ability for the analyzer to detect methane fluxes across many orders of magnitude. Measurements were accompanied by simultaneously geotagging the measurements with GPS to georeferenced the data. Methane flux data were instrumental in our ability to characterize the extent and the migration of the underground fire. In the future

  14. Fire Extinguishing Performance of Firebane on JP-8 Jet Fuel Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    Compressed Air Foam CAFFS Combined Agent Fire Fighting System cm3 cubic centimeter ft2 square feet g grams gal/min gallons per minute GSL Global...agent used, and effectiveness on the fires . Compressed air foam systems were used for the evaluations, the recommended agent delivery method for...the engine protocol pool fire ....................................... 14 Figure 6. Firebane 1115 foam blanket during engine nacelle test

  15. Guide To Fighting Positions, Obstacles, And Revetments - Air Force Handbook 10-222, Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    and should provide a minimum 2-foot wide crest at the top of the wall. Constructing the wall requires formwork and equipment to mix the soil-cement...hardened position, which is reinforced against direct- and indirect-fire. Tunnels and trenches may be constructed to connect with other fighting

  16. Design and Application of Shandong Fire Mobile Command System based Mobile Internet%基于移动互联网的山东消防移动指挥系统的设计和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传军; 任钢

    2014-01-01

    随着城市规模不断扩大和基础建设不断完善,各种火灾,尤其是重大恶性火灾频繁发生,给消防灭火救援工作提出了更高的要求。本文介绍了移动互联网技术的概念和组成,从消防具体工作出发,分析了其在消防信息化建设中的应用,围绕现代消防移动指挥系统的设计展开研究。最后给出了消防移动指挥系统的总体设计、部署设计和功能设计等应用。%With the continuous expansion of city scale and infrastructure continue to improve, various fire, particularly the major malignant fire frequently occurs, put forward higher requirements for fire fighting and rescue work. This paper introduces the concept and composition of mobile Internet technology, starting from the fire of specific work, and analyzes the application in fire protection in the information construction, carry out research on the design of modern fire mobile command system. Finally, the overall design, the deployment of fire fighting mobile command system design and function design and other applications are given.

  17. A High-Performance LC Wireless Passive Pressure Sensor Fabricated Using Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An LC resonant pressure sensor with improved performance is presented in this paper. The sensor is designed with a buried structure, which protects the electrical components from contact with harsh environments and reduces the resonant-frequency drift of the sensor in high-temperature environments. The pressure-sensitive membrane of the sensor is optimized according to small-deflection-plate theory, which allows the sensor to operate in high-pressure environments. The sensor is fabricated using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC technology, and a fugitive film is used to create a completed sealed embedded cavity without an evacuation channel. The experimental results show that the frequency drift of the sensor versus the temperature is approximately 0.75 kHz/°C, and the responsivity of the sensor can be up to 31 kHz/bar within the pressure range from atmospheric pressure to 60 bar.

  18. A high-performance LC wireless passive pressure sensor fabricated using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Tan, Qiulin; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Yunzhi; Xiong, Jijun

    2014-12-05

    An LC resonant pressure sensor with improved performance is presented in this paper. The sensor is designed with a buried structure, which protects the electrical components from contact with harsh environments and reduces the resonant-frequency drift of the sensor in high-temperature environments. The pressure-sensitive membrane of the sensor is optimized according to small-deflection-plate theory, which allows the sensor to operate in high-pressure environments. The sensor is fabricated using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology, and a fugitive film is used to create a completed sealed embedded cavity without an evacuation channel. The experimental results show that the frequency drift of the sensor versus the temperature is approximately 0.75 kHz/°C, and the responsivity of the sensor can be up to 31 kHz/bar within the pressure range from atmospheric pressure to 60 bar.

  19. A Relentless Illness—Fighting Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues A Relentless Illness— Fighting Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... the fight to control and cure type 1 diabetes. As international chairman of the Juvenile Diabetes Research ...

  20. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  1. A Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Optimized for Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Dlouhý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on modifying a pulverized coal-fired steam boiler in a 250 MWe power plant for oxygen combustion conditions. The entry point of the study is a boiler that was designed for standard air combustion. It has been proven that simply substituting air by oxygen as an oxidizer is not sufficient for maintaining a satisfactory operating mode, not even with flue gas recycling. Boiler design optimization aggregating modifications to the boiler’s dimensions, heating surfaces and recycled flue gas flow rate, and specification of a flue gas recycling extraction point is therefore necessary in order to achieve suitable conditions for oxygen combustion. Attention is given to reducing boiler leakage, to which external pre-combustion coal drying makes a major contribution. The optimization is carried out with regard to an overall power plant conception for which a decrease in efficiency due to CO2 separation is formulated.

  2. A novel electrolytic ignition monopropellant microthruster based on low temperature co-fired ceramic tape technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hsun; Yetter, Richard A

    2009-04-07

    A planar 2-D liquid monopropellant microthruster fabricated from low temperature co-fired ceramic tapes and ignited by electrolysis is reported. The volume of the combustion chamber was 820 nL (0.82 mm(3)). Silver electrodes were screen printed and positioned on the top and bottom surfaces of the combustion chamber. A DC voltage potential applied across the electrodes was used to initiate decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) based liquid monopropellants. A thrust output of 150 mN was obtained using a voltage input of 45 V. Measured ignition energies were as small as 1.9 J. Ignition delays, as short as a few hundred milliseconds, were found dependent on the type of HAN-based propellant and the voltage potential.

  3. “一键式”化工园区消防接处警技术研究%Research on the "One Click" Fire Alarm and Command Technology of Chemical Industrial Park for Fire Fighting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘馨泽; 袁纪武; 毛文锋; 于学春; 孙春媛

    2016-01-01

    介绍了化工园区消防接处警系统研究现状,分析了当前存在的主要问题.结合化工园区企业消防接处警系统的功能需求,提出了“一键式”消防接处警技术模式,设计开发了“一键式”化工园区消防接处警系统.系统在“应急启动”热键中集成了地图定位、电铃控制、出警单生成和短信群发等关键技术,在性能上有了显著提升,为提高消防队快速救援能力提供了有效技术支持,具有一定的推广价值.

  4. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-25

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-25

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  6. Organizing for Emergencies - Issues in Wildfire Fighting in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia's accession to the European Union implies inevitable changes in the national emergency management system. New requirements for adjustment in accordance with the EU standards and practices also apply to the fire-services organization. Harmonious functioning of a large number of relatively autonomous organizations related to the National Protection and Rescue Directorate necessitates clear decision-making authority and coordination mechanisms as well as a high level of interoperability and core competencies development. This paper gives an overview of the Croatian fire protection organization along with its accompanying legislation, followed by an analysis of identified problems, especially those concerning fighting of wildfire. In our research a survey questionnaire comprised of Likert-scale items was used to assess the attitudes and experiences of trained fire department members. The respondents reported a relatively low evaluation of effectiveness and appropriateness of the following key fire service attributes: organizational structure, legislation and firefighting logistics support. From the obtained results guidelines can be drawn for possible redesign of the emergency management organization, especially those concerning the fire protection service.

  7. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S. [W.S. Hinton and Associates, Cantonment, FL (United States); Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  8. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  9. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  10. State and future outlook for improvement in endogeneous fire prevention in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belaventsev, L.P.; Miller, Yu.A.; Boldin, V.A. (VostNII (USSR))

    1990-06-01

    Deals with the problem of fighting endogenous fires in the Prokop'evsk-Kiselovsk region of the Kuzbass where at deeper horizons the accident rate increased by 1.3 times (at the 2nd horizon) or by 2.7 times (at the 4th horizon), coal loss increased by 50% and the danger of endogeneous fires increased by 1.5 times. Only 5-7 % of total coal winning in the Prokop'evskgidrougol' association (where all mines work under extinguished fire beds) is conducted with stowing, which is the best method of fire prevention. The following measures are recommended for mine design: using the safest technologies, steady ventilation air streams and reduced depression. Fire prevention methods developed at VostNII are presented. Application of antipyrogens (urea, gel-forming compounds containing silicates of alkali metals) and salts of strong acids foamed with nitrogen, aerosols and powders is discussed. The number of endogenous fires in the Kuzbass decreased slowly (by 24%) over 1986-1989 as compared with other regions (by 41-47% during the same time period).

  11. Research on Burning of Fire Prevention Belt Technology in Qujing%曲靖市森林火烧防火线技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建华

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the present situation of forest fire prevention and the application of burning of fire prevention belt technology in Qujing. The operation of burning of fire prevention belt, i. e, best period for selection, work procedures, personnel organization, task allocation, equipment configuration and operation procedure have also been elaborated.%介绍曲靖市森林防火现状及火烧防火线技术应用概况.阐述森林火烧防火线作业的最佳时期选择、工作程序、人员组织、任务分配、设备配置以及作业程序等.

  12. MESH Network Technology in Fire Emergency Communication Applicatiom%MESH网络技术在消防应急通信中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸雪初; 曾凡兵

    2012-01-01

    MESH语音对讲系统采用Mesh网络技术,实现了与消防350MHz无线通信系统的互联互通,有效解决了地下建筑、隧道等内部与外部的语音通信问题,为消防部队参与灭火抢险救援任务提供应急通信保障。%MESH voice intercom system adopts Mesh network technology,to achieve the interconnection and interworking withthe 350MHz wireless communication system of the fire department,effectively solute the internal and external voice communicationproblem with the underground construction,tunnels and so on,provide emergency communication guarantee for fire forces involvingin fire rescue.

  13. Boxes with Fires: Wisely Integrating Learning Technologies into the Art Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Diane C.

    2009-01-01

    By integrating and infusing computer learning technologies wisely into student-centered or social constructivist art learning environments, art educators can improve student learning and at the same time provide a creative, substantive model for how schools can and should be reformed. By doing this, art educators have an opportunity to demonstrate…

  14. Fire and EMS Districts, Prince George's County Fire Department Fire Battalion Areas, Published in 1998, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Prince George's County Office of Information Technology and Communications.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire and EMS Districts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1998. It is described as...

  15. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  16. Video Games and Adolescent Fighting

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists have found positive correlations between playing violent video games and violent and antisocial attitudes. However, these studies typically do not control for other covariates, particularly sex, that are known to be associated with both video game play and aggression. This study exploits the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which includes questions on video game play and fighting as well as basic demographic information. With both parametric and nonparametric estimators, as there is ...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting, ANSI/NFPA 1971; . 7. American National Standard for Men's.... Development of a Job-Related Physical Performance Examination for Fire Fighters; Dotson and Others. A summary.... Proposed Sample Standards for Fire Fighters' Protective Clothing and Equipment; International Association...

  18. A data model for route planning in the case of forest fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Zlatanova, S.; Moreno, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Toro, C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to guide relief vehicles to safety and quickly pass through environments affected by fires is critical in fighting forest fires. In this paper, we focus on route determination in the case of forest fires, and propose a data model that supports finding paths among moving obstacles. This d

  19. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  20. Improving the accuracy of image-based forest fire recognition and spatial positioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires are frequent natural disasters.It is necessary to explore advanced means to monitor,recognize and locate forest fires so as to establish a scientific system for the early detection,real-time positioning and quick fighting of forest fires.This paper mainly expounds methods and algorithms for improving accuracy and removing uncertainty in image-based forest fire recognition and spatial positioning.Firstly,we discuss a method of forest fire recognition in visible-light imagery.There are four aspects to improve accuracy and remove uncertainty in fire recognition:(1)eliminating factors of interference such as road and sky with high brightness,red leaves,other colored objects and objects that are lit up at night,(2)excluding imaging for specific periods and azimuth angles for which interference phenomena repeatedly occur,(3)improving the thresholding method for determining the flame border in image processing by adjusting the threshold to the season,weather and region,and (4)integrating the visible-light image method with infrared image technology.Secondly,we examine infrared-image-based methods and approaches of improving the accuracy of forest fire recognition by combining the spectrum threshold with an object feature value such as the normalized difference vegetation index and excluding factors of disturbance such as interference signals,extreme weather and high-temperature animals.Thirdly,a method of visible analysis to enhance the accuracy of forest fire positioning is examined and realized;the method includes decreasing the visual angle,selecting central points,selecting the largest spots,and judging the selection of fire spots according to the central distance.Case studies are examined and the results are found to be satisfactory.

  1. A consortium approach for disaster relief and technology research and development: Fire station earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Douglas C.

    1992-06-01

    A new paradigm is proposed for alleviating the chronic problem of inadequate response to natural and man-made disasters. Fundamental flaws and weaknesses in the current disaster mitigation system point to the need for an international consortium involving governments, academia, industry, and businesses. Recent changes in social and political framework offer a unique opportunity of rethink and reform the existing disaster response mechanism. Benefits of a collaborative consortium approach may include commercial incentives, improved cost effectiveness, coherence in research and development efforts, conduciveness for long-term planning, and improved deployment of technology for disaster mitigation.

  2. Alien vision exploring the electromagnetic spectrum with imaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Austin A

    2011-01-01

    Austin Richards takes readers on a visual tour of the electromagnetic spectrum beyond the range of human sight, using imaging technology as the means to ""see"" invisible light. Dozens of colorful images and clear, concise descriptions make this an intriguing, accessible technical book. Richards explains the light spectrum, including visible light, and describes the advanced imaging technologies that enable humans to synthesize our own version of ""alien"" vision at different wavelengths, with applications ranging from fire fighting and law enforcement to botany and medicine. The second editio

  3. Decontamination of soils and materials containing medium-fired PuO{sub 2} using inhibited fluorides with polymer filtration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temer, D.J.; Villarreal, R.; Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The decontamination of soils and/or materials from medium-fired plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) with an effective and efficient decontamination agent that will not significantly dissolve the matrix requires a new and innovative technology. After testing several decontamination agents and solutions for dissolution of medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, the most successful decontamination solutions were fluoride compounds, which were effective in breaking the Pu-oxide bond but would not extensively dissolve soil constituents and other materials. The fluoride compounds, tetra fluoboric acid (HBF{sub 4}) and hydrofluorosilicic acid (H{sub 2}F{sub 6}Si), were effective in dissolving medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, and did not seem to have the potential to dissolve the matrix. In both compounds, the fluoride atom is attached to a boron or silicon atom that inhibits the reactivity of the fluoride towards other compounds or materials containing atoms less attracted to the fluoride atom in an acid solution. Because of this inhibition of the reactivity of the fluoride ion, these compounds are termed inhibited fluoride compounds or agents. Both inhibited fluorides studied effectively dissolved medium-fired PuO{sub 2} but exhibited a tendency to not attack stainless steel or soil. The basis for selecting inhibited fluorides was confirmed during leaching tests of medium-fired PuO{sub 2} spiked into soil taken from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When dissolved in dilute HNO{sub 3}, HCl, or HBr, both inhibited fluoride compounds were effective at solubilizing the medium-fired PuO{sub 2} from spiked INEL soil.

  4. Technology and Organisation of Inka Pottery Production in the Leche Valley. Part II: Study of Fired Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, F.; Häusler, W.; Riederer, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    Ceramic finds from the Inka workshops at Tambo Real and La Viña in the Leche Valley in northern Peru were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, thin section microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Sherds of Inka style vessels and of local style vessels can be distinguished by their shape, although local techniques appear to have been used in making both types. A reconstruction of the firing techniques by scientific studies of the ceramic material does not reveal a substantial difference in material or in the firing of both forms, although high firing temperatures were necessary to achieve sufficient stability of the large Inka style vessels. It cannot be decided whether the smaller local vessels were fired together with the Inka vessels or separately. Most of the variation in the maximum firing temperature can be explained with the normal temperature and atmosphere fluctuations in an open pit kiln.

  5. Technology and Organisation of Inka Pottery Production in the Leche Valley. Part II: Study of Fired Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, F. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology (United States); Haeusler, W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E15 (Germany); Riederer, J. [Rathgen-Forschungslabor (Germany); Wagner, U., E-mail: uwagner@ph.tum.de [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology (United States)

    2003-09-15

    Ceramic finds from the Inka workshops at Tambo Real and La Vina in the Leche Valley in northern Peru were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy, thin section microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Sherds of Inka style vessels and of local style vessels can be distinguished by their shape, although local techniques appear to have been used in making both types. A reconstruction of the firing techniques by scientific studies of the ceramic material does not reveal a substantial difference in material or in the firing of both forms, although high firing temperatures were necessary to achieve sufficient stability of the large Inka style vessels. It cannot be decided whether the smaller local vessels were fired together with the Inka vessels or separately. Most of the variation in the maximum firing temperature can be explained with the normal temperature and atmosphere fluctuations in an open pit kiln.

  6. Rescue and Fire Fighting on RWY 06R/24L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Vaňková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rescue and firefighting service is an important and essential part at the Václav Havel Airport Prague and it has to follow the requirements stated in Commission regulations (EU, regulations and laws of Czech Republic. Construction of parallel runway 06R/24L influences runway and taxiway system significantly. Consequences of these construction changes are changes of access routes and new places of potential interventions originates. Safety risks of inaccessible areas at the airport and inability to follow response time come with operations of the new runway. These risks are assessed and mitigated if necessary.

  7. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million…

  8. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million…

  9. Intelligent agents for training on-board fire fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Harbers, M.; Heuvelink, A.; Doesburg, W. van

    2009-01-01

    Simulation-based training in complex decision making often requires ample personnel for playing various roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). Using intelligent agents may diminish the need for staff. However, to achieve goal-directed training, events in the simulation as well as the behavior of key

  10. Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lajcik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, the author reveals how to use mental imagery to facilitate the mastery of martial art technique.    

  11. Fire Risks and Prevention Strategies for Architecture at Historic Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the features of China's architecture at historic sites with regard to fire protection, the causes of fire since 1949, reviewing their weaknesses in fire protection, and exploring modern technologies for fire prevention that are applicable to ancient buildings. We put forward suggestions to improve fire prevention and management: eliminating potential problems of fire, improving fire protection and establishing a better fire security system, which is especially important to protect ancient buildings.

  12. The effect of ceramic thickness and number of firings on the color of a zirconium oxide based all ceramic system fabricated using CAD/CAM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Meena Ajay

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Ceramics have a long history in fixed prosthodontics for achieving optimal esthetics and various materials have been used to improve ceramic core strength. However, there is a lack of information on how color is affected by fabrication procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various dentin ceramic thicknesses and repeated firings on the color of zirconium oxide all-ceramic system (Lava™) fabricated using CAD/CAM technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty disc-shaped cores, 12 mm in diameter with a 1 mm thickness were fabricated from zirconium oxide based all ceramic systems (Lava™, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) and divided into three groups (n = 10) according to veneering with dentin ceramic thicknesses: as 0.5, 1, or 1.5 mm. Repeated firings (3, 5, 7, or 9) were performed, and the color of the specimens was compared with the color after the initial firing. Color differences among ceramic specimens were measured using a spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade, VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) and data were expressed in CIELAB system coordinates. A repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test were used to analyze the data (n = 10, α=.05). RESULTS L*a*b* values of the ceramic systems were affected by the number of firings (3, 5, 7, or 9 firings) (P<.001) and ceramic thickness (0.5, 1, or 1.5 mm) (P<.001). Significant interactions were present in L*a*b* values between the number of firings and ceramic thickness (P<.001). An increase in number of firings resulted in significant increase in L* values for both 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm thicknesses (P<.01, P=.013); however it decreased for 1 mm thickness (P<.01). The a* values increased for 1 mm and 1.5 mm thicknesses (P<.01), while it decreased for 0.5 mm specimens. The b* values increased significantly for all thicknesses (P<.01, P=.022). As the dentin ceramic thickness increased, significant reductions in L* values (P<.01) were recorded. There were significant increases in both a

  13. Study on the fire-protection-system for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel and transportation ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. O; Choi, M. H.; Lee, S. C. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    This study consists of : the fire risk and it's fire protection for the storage facilities and transportation equipments of dangerous goods, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the dangerous goods transportation ships, the necessary equipment for safety of ships and regulations of fire fighting equipment for ships, technical specification of spent nuclear fuel transportation ships which are operated in foreign countries, draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, inspection items of fire fighting equipment, scope of education and training. On the basis of the aforementioned, a draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel is proposed and the regulations for ship engaged in the a carrage of dangerous goods that should be considered in design and operation stage are proposed.

  14. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  15. Application of ZigBee Wireless Sensor and Satellite Positioning Technology in Forest Fire Early-warning%ZigBee无线传感与卫星定位技术在森林火灾预警中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢劭谦; 宋哲存

    2011-01-01

    The wireless network node was based on Zighee CC2530 module, temperature and humidity sensor module, compass V-03 module and the self designed wireless gateway. The forest fire early-warning system without guard for a long time was designed through mesh network topology, wireless multi-hop and the Kalman filter algorithm method. The system was able to transport the temperature, humidity and geographic location information of tested forest area to the forest fire departments in all-weather. These information could help the workers to find out the fire position and fire intensity in time, which can also improve the efficiency of fire prevention and fire fighting.%应用Zigbee CC2530模块、温湿传感器模块、北斗V-03模块以及自行设计的无线网关.采用网状网络拓扑方法、无线多跳以及卡尔曼滤波算法,设计出可实现长时间无人监守的森林防火预警系统。该系统能全天候将被测林区的温度、湿度以及地理位置等技术参数传回至森林防火部门,便于救灾人员及时发现火点具体位置与火势情况,提高森林的防火、灭火的效率。

  16. Marginal conditions for the insurance against fire events in waste incinerators; Randbedingungen fuer die Versicherung gegen Brandereignisse in Abfallverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weschenbach, Harry [VMD-Prinas GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Insurance companies represent not only damage compensation systems, but also a worldwide financial services operating compensation of damages against the insurance premium. The insurance industry has adapted itself to the industrial development. The comprehensive risk management was supplemented increasingly. Especially in the case of damage prevention and fire fighting, the insurance industry falls back on the comprehensive risk management. The fire insurance companies have learned to evaluate fire risks more technically and economically and to impact the design concepts of fire fighting. Under these conditions, in the case of major industrial risks the fire insurance companies are willing to provide an extensive insurance coverage.

  17. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  18. Technology Analysis of CO2 Capture and Storage in Firing Power Plant%火电厂CO2 CCS技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月红

    2012-01-01

    After introducing the CO2 emission characteristics from firing power plant,this paper discussed two parts in both CO2 capture and storage,and put forward four main technological lines for CO2 capture in firing power plants.The paper also analyzed and compared the features and appliances of every capture measures,and pointed out some problems needed to be solved for using the existing capture methods to firing power plant in China.Finally it analyzed and summarized CO2 storage technology and comprehensive utilization.%介绍了火电厂CO2排放特点,将CO2减排技术分为捕集与封存两个部分进行讨论,提出了火电厂CO2捕集的4种主要技术路线;比较分析了几种主要捕集方法的技术特点和火力发电适用性,CO2应用于我国火电厂需解决的问题;综述了CO2的封存技术和综合利用。

  19. The impact of flue gas cleaning technologies in coal-fired power plants on the CCN distribution and cloud properties in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, M.; Vogel, B.; Junkermann, W.; Brachert, L.; Schaber, K.

    2013-05-01

    Gas-cleaning technologies used in modern coal-fired power plants cause an unintended nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol droplets during the cleaning process. As a result, high concentrations of ultra-fine aerosol droplets are emitted into the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of these emissions on the atmospheric aerosol distribution, on the cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, and consequently on cloud properties is investigated. Therefore, a sophisticated modeling framework is used combining regional simulations of the atmospheric aerosol distribution and its impact on cloud properties with detailed process simulations of the nucleation during the cleaning process inside the power plant. Furthermore, the simulated aerosol size distributions downwind of the coal-fired power plants are compared with airborne aerosol measurements performed inside the plumes.

  20. The Key Technologies Demanding Prompt Solution in Network Fire Control System%网络火控中一些亟待解决的关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 刘克敏; 孙幸福

    2011-01-01

    According to the actualities that the demestic fire control system development still remains at multi-computer communication system, this paper presents the background and present situation of networks fire control system development. The influence of this trend on weapon system is analyzed briefly. On this basis, we put forward some key technologies demanding prompt solution.%针对国内火控系统发展仍停留在“多计算机通讯体制的现状”,阐述了网络火控的研究背景、现状及发展方向。论述了火控系统信息化、网络化对武器系统的影响,在此基础上提出了网络火控中亟待解决的几个关键问题。

  1. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  2. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Ants medicate to fight disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Nick; Sundström, Liselotte; Fuchs, Siiri; Freitak, Dalial

    2015-11-01

    Parasites are ubiquitous, and the ability to defend against these is of paramount importance. One way to fight diseases is self-medication, which occurs when an organism consumes biologically active compounds to clear, inhibit, or alleviate disease symptoms. Here, we show for the first time that ants selectively consume harmful substances (reactive oxygen species, ROS) upon exposure to a fungal pathogen, yet avoid these in the absence of infection. This increased intake of ROS, while harmful to healthy ants, leads to higher survival of exposed ants. The fact that ingestion of this substance carries a fitness cost in the absence of pathogens rules out compensatory diet choice as the mechanism, and provides evidence that social insects medicate themselves against fungal infection, using a substance that carries a fitness cost to uninfected individuals.

  4. Art therapy in cancer fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.

  5. Active fire monitoring and fire danger potential detection from space: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John J. QU; Wanting WANG; Swarvanu DASGUPTA; Xianjun HAO

    2008-01-01

    Wildland fire is both one of the major natural hazards and a natural process for ecosystem persistence. Accurate assessment of fire danger potential and timely detection of active fires are critical for fire fighting and fuel management. Space-borne measurements have become the primary approaches for these efforts. Many research works have been conducted and some data pro-ducts have been generated for practical applications. This paper presents a review of the major sensors and algo-rithms for active fire monitoring and fire danger potential detection from space. Major sensors and their character-istics, physical principles of the major algorithms are sum-marized. Limitations of these algorithms and future improvements are also discussed.

  6. Health and environmental effects of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production and RDF/coal co-firing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, J.J.; Wessels, T.E.; Lynch, J.F.; Fassel, V.A.; Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Norton, G.A.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.; Dekalb, E.L.; Dobosy, R.J.

    1981-10-01

    Six facilities, representing the scope of different co-firing techniques with their associated RDF production systems were reviewed in detail for combustion equipment, firing modes, emission control systems, residue handling/disposal, and effluent wastewater treatment. These facilities encompass all currently operational or soon to be operational co-firing plants and associated RDF production systems. Occupational health and safety risks for these plants were evaluated on the basis of fatal and nonfatal accidents and disease arising from the respective fuel cycles, coal and RDF. Occupational risks include exposure to pathogenic organisms in the workplace. Unusual events that are life threatening in the RDF processing industry (e.g., explosions) are also discussed and remedial and safety measures reviewed. 80 refs., 4 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Volume 1, Phase 1: Annual report, September 28, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant.

  8. Construction of Guiyang Forest-fire Prevention Geographic Information System Based on Requirement Analysis%基于需求分析的贵阳市森林防火地理信息系统的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜伟

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,construction of forest-fire prevention geographic information system for Guiyang city was discussed,which based on the requirement analysis,3S technologies,database technologies and network communication technology.The system includes three subsystems: forest-fire prevention command subsystem,positioning and monitoring subsystem,and daily fire prevention office management subsystem.The functions of the system include early warning of the forest-fire disaster,on-site command of fire-fighting,disaster loss assessment,etc.It could serve as an informatization platform for forest fire management in Guiyang city.%基于需求分析,利用3S技术、数据库技术和网络通讯技术构建了贵阳市森林防火地理信息系统。系统包括森林防火指挥子系统、定位监控子系统和日常防火办公管理子系统,实现了对林火灾前预警、灾时指挥和灾后损失评估功能,为贵阳市林业系统提供森林防火信息化平台。

  9. Microfabrication of a Novel Ceramic Pressure Sensor with High Sensitivity Based on Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC) Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Li; Qiulin Tan; Wendong Zhang; Chenyang Xue; Yunzhi Li; Jijun Xiong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel capacitance pressure sensor based on Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is proposed for pressure measurement. This approach differs from the traditional fabrication process for a LTCC pressure sensor because a 4J33 iron-nickel-cobalt alloy is applied to avoid the collapse of the cavity and to improve the performance of the sensor. Unlike the traditional LTCC sensor, the sensitive membrane of the proposed sensor is very flat, and the deformation of the se...

  10. High-resolution inventory of technologies, activities, and emissions of coal-fired power plants in China from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Zhang, Q.; Tong, D.; Zheng, B.; Li, M.; Huo, H.; He, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    This paper, which focuses on emissions from China's coal-fired power plants during 1990-2010, is the second in a series of papers that aims to develop a high-resolution emission inventory for China. This is the first time that emissions from China's coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20-year period. This inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this study, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units and supplements with aggregated data where unit-based information is not available. Between 1990 and 2010, compared to a 479 % growth in coal consumption, emissions from China's coal-fired power plants increased by 56, 335, and 442 % for SO2, NOx, and CO2, respectively, and decreased by 23 and 27 % for PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. Driven by the accelerated economic growth, large power plants were constructed throughout the country after 2000, resulting in a dramatic growth in emissions. The growth trend of emissions has been effectively curbed since 2005 due to strengthened emission control measures including the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and the optimization of the generation fleet mix by promoting large units and decommissioning small ones. Compared to previous emission inventories, CPED significantly improved the spatial resolution and temporal profile of the power plant emission inventory in China by extensive use of underlying data at unit level. The new inventory developed in this study will enable a close examination of temporal and spatial variations of power plant emissions in China and will help to improve the performances of chemical transport models by providing more accurate emission data.

  11. Strengthening Technology Research of Building after Fire Disaster%火灾后建筑物加固技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2012-01-01

    The fire disaster, witch is the main threaten of the public safety and social development, is the most common disasters. Building fire disasters generally accounted for about 60% of the total. On fire disaster, the structural components of buildings are damaged in varying degrees and different forms. Some needs for a simple repair or reconstruction, the majority can be reinforced through effective reinforcement and can be used again. In this paper, aiming at the fire damage in the different failure modes and different degree of the reinforced concrete structure, based on the structural reinforcement theory, the study on different materials, techniques, reinforcement methods and new reinforcement technology for the damaged buildings is carried out to ensure the safe and normal use of them.%火灾是最经常、最普遍地威胁人类生命财产安全和社会发展的主要灾害,而建筑火灾一般要占火灾总数的60%左右.就火灾而言,建筑物结构构件均会遭到不同程度、不同形式的损害,有的需要简单修复或拆掉重建,大多数经过有效加固便可以重新投入使用.本文针对钢筋混凝土结构在遭受火灾破坏后的不同破坏形态及不同破坏程度,以结构加固理论为基础,研究使用不同加固材料、工艺、加固方法及新型加固技术对该类建筑物进行加固处理,以确保其正常安全使用.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, LNB, and LNB plus AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO{sub x} emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu with fly ash LOI values of approximately 8 percent. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO{sub x} emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at full-load, NO{sub x} emissions and fly ash LOI are near 0.40 lb/MBtu and 8 percent, respectively. However, it is believed that a substantial portion of the incremental change in NO{sub x} emissions between the LNB and LNB+AOFA configurations is the result of additional burner tuning and other operational adjustments and is not the result of the AOFA system. During this quarter, LNB+AOFA testing was concluded. Testing performed during this quarter included long-term and verification testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration.

  13. Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Kit to offer community education programs on women's heart disease. Organize heart-health screening events and health fairs ...

  14. New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165942.html New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene Two trials show ... New gene-based therapies appear to significantly decrease cholesterol levels in people, and could even cut down ...

  15. Fire Source Accessibility of Water Mist Fire Suppression Improvement through Flow Method Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Mun Hee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Recently, nuclear power plants set CO{sub 2} fire suppression system. However it is hard to establish and to maintain and it also has difficulties performing function test. Therefore, it needs to develop a new fire suppression system to replace the existing CO{sub 2} fire suppression systems in nuclear power plant. In fact, already, there exist alternatives - gas fire suppression system or clean fire extinguishing agent, but it is hard to apply because it requires a highly complicated plan. However, water mist fire suppression system which has both water system and gas system uses small amount of water and droplet, so it is excellent at oxygen displacement and more suitable for nuclear power plant because it can avoid second damage caused by fire fighting water. This paper explains about enclosure effect of water mist fire suppression. And it suggests a study direction about water mist fire source approach improvement and enclosure effect improvement, using flow method control of ventilation system. Water mist fire suppression can be influenced by various variable. And flow and direction of ventilation system are important variable. Expectations of the plan for more fire source ventilation system is as in the following. It enhances enclosure effects of water mists, so it improves extinguish performance. Also the same effect as a inert gas injection causes can be achieved. Lastly, it is considered that combustible accessibility of water mists will increase because of descending air currents.

  16. Classical Theories and the Will to Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of Freudian or Jungian theories will be avoided. The most important psychological considerations are those observed in combat conditions. The...CLASSICAL THEORIES OF THE WILL TO FIGHT A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial Fulfillment...PAGE Name of Candidate: Major Kurt P. VanderSteen Thesis Title: Classical Theories and the Will to Fight Approved by

  17. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  18. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3]. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U. S. coal.

  19. Continuous flow analytical microsystems based on low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology. Integrated potentiometric detection based on solvent polymeric ion-selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez-Garcia, Nuria; Mercader, Manel Bautista; Mendes da Rocha, Zaira; Seabra, Carlos Antonio; Góngora-Rubio, Mario Ricardo; Chamarro, Julian Alonso

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, the low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology, which has been commonly used for electronic applications, is presented as a useful alternative to construct continuous flow analytical microsystems. This technology enables not only the fabrication of complex three-dimensional structures rapidly and at a realistic cost but also the integration of the elements needed to carry out a whole analytical process, such as pretreatment steps, mixers, and detection systems. In this work, a simple and general procedure for the integration of ion-selective electrodes based on liquid ion exchanger is proposed and illustrated by using ammonium- and nitrate-selective membranes. Additionally, a screen-printed reference electrode was easily incorporated into the microfluidic LTCC structure allowing a complete on-chip integration of the potentiometric detection. Analytical features of the proposed systems are presented.

  20. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  1. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  2. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  3. Compound depositions from the BOPEC fires on Bonaire : Measurements and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent D; Bodar CWM; Boshuis ME; de Groot AC; de Zwart D; Hoffer SM; Janssen PJCM; Mooij M; de Groot GM; Peijnenburg WJGM; Verbruggen EMJ; IMG; SEC; LER; mev

    2011-01-01

    Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some perfluorinated fire fighting foam constituents (especially perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS) were found in deposited soot and in water on Bonaire due to the BOPEC oil depot fires in September 2010. The soot deposition did not result in elevated co

  4. Extinguishment of enclosed gas fires with water sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighus, R.

    1993-02-01

    Water sprays are widely used for fire fighting in industrial areas, and they are used for fire protection in the process industry and at offshore oil- and gas-production platforms. No real quantification of the effect of water sprays as a fire fighting medium exists. The water delivery is specified through standards and regulations which are based on industrial experience. In process areas, water spray is often used in deluge systems, intended to control the fire until the leakage of fuel has been shut down. For this purpose, there is a need for quantification of the ability a certain spray system has to remove heat from the fire and to reduce the fire load to the construction and process equipment. SINTEF NBL has studied extinguishment and control of enclosed hydrocarbon fires by means of water sprays. A scale model of a module of an offshore platform is used in studies of enclosed liquid hydrocarbon fire development. The model is instrumented to measure heat transfer, fire development, and production of soot and gases from combustion.

  5. Discovery Mondays - Men of fire: the fire brigade show their mettle

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Flashover and backdraught, these technical terms refer to two of the most dangerous phenomena associated with fires. In order to train in dealing with them, in the course of their fire fighting duties the CERN fire brigade use special simulation equipment. The demonstrations are rather spectacular... Thrills are therefore guaranteed at the next Discovery Monday on 2 February! In the course of the evening, you will see fire-fighters demonstrate climbing techniques including abseiling, a method they would have to use to access underground structures on the CERN site in the event of an accident. The accomplished climbers (the Hazardous Environments Response Team) will provide detailed explanations of the rescue techniques and procedures they use in tunnels and hazardous environments. CERN firemen simulate the backdraft phenomena for training. The demonstration, which you will have the opportunity to observe, on the next Discovery Monday, is spectacular. However, the remit of the CERN fire brigade goes well b...

  6. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  7. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  8. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  9. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 3, January--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  10. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  11. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide NO{sub x} control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 2, October--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide NO{sub x} control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  14. Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish R. [Linde LLC, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) technology offers flexibility to treat the flue gas from both existing and new coal-fired power plants and can be applied to treat all or a portion of the flue gas. Solvent-based technologies are today the leading option for PCC from commercial coal-fired power plants as they have been applied in large-scale in other applications. Linde and BASF have been working together to develop and further improve a PCC process incorporating BASF’s novel aqueous amine-based solvent technology. This technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirements using novel solvents that are very stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. In addition, long-term small pilot-scale testing of the BASF solvent has been performed on a lignite-fired flue gas. In coordination with BASF, Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based PCC technology. This report provides a summary of the work performed and results from a project supported by the US DOE (DE-FE0007453) for the pilot-scale demonstration of a Linde-BASF PCC technology using coal-fired power plant flue gas at a 1-1.5 MWe scale in Wilsonville, AL at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). Following a project kick-off meeting in November 2011 and the conclusion of pilot plant design and engineering in February 2013, mechanical completion of the pilot plant was achieved in July 2014, and final commissioning activities were completed to enable start-up of operations in January 2015. Parametric tests were performed from January to December 2015 to determine optimal test conditions and evaluate process performance over a variety of operation parameters. A long-duration 1500-hour continuous test campaign was performed from May to

  15. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  16. Fire Risk Analysis and Optimization of Fire Prevention Management for Green Building Design and High Rise Buildings: Hong Kong Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Albert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many iconic high rise buildings in Hong Kong, for example, International Commercial Centre, International Financial Centre, etc. Fire safety issue in high rise buildings has been raised by local fire professionals in terms of occupant evacuation, means of fire-fighting by fire fighters, sprinkler systems to automatically put off fires in buildings, etc. Fire risk becomes an important issue in building fire safety because it relates to life safety of building occupants where they live and work in high rise buildings in Hong Kong. The aim of this research is to identify the fire risk for different types of high rise buildings in Hong Kong and to optimise the fire prevention management for those high rise buildings with higher level of fire risk and to validate the model and also to carry out the study of the conflict between the current fire safety building code and the current trend of green building design. Survey via the 7-point scale questionnaire was conducted through 50 participants and their responses were received and analysed via the statistical tool SPSS software computer program. A number of statistical methods of testing for significantly difference in samples were adopted to carry out the analysis of the data received. When the statistical analysis was completed, the results of the data analysis were validated by two Fire Safety Experts in this area of specialisation and also by quantitative fire risk analysis.

  17. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  18. Monitoring Fires from Space and Getting Data in to the hands of Users: An Example from NASA's Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D.; Wong, M.; Ilavajhala, S.; Molinario, G.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the broad uptake of MODIS near-real-time (NRT) active fire data for applications. Prior to the launch of MODIS most real-time satellite-derived fire information was obtained from NOAA AVHRR via direct broadcast (DB) systems. Whilst there were efforts to make direct broadcast stations affordable in developing countries, such as through the Local Applications of Satellite Remote Technologies (LARST), these systems were relatively few and far between and required expertise to manage and operate. One such system was in Etosha National Park (ENP) in Namibia. Prior to the installation of the AVHRR DB system in ENP, fires were reported by rangers and the quality, accuracy and timing of reports was variable. With the introduction of the DB station, early warning of fires improved and fire maps could be produced for park managers within 2-3 hours by staff trained to process data, interpret images and produce maps. Up keep and maintenance of such systems was relatively costly for parks with limited resources therefore when global fire data from MODIS became available uptake was widespread. NRT data from MODIS became availalbe through a collaboration between the MODIS Fire Team and the US Forest Service (USFS) Remote Sensing Applications Center to provide rapid access to imagery to help fight the Montana wildfires of 2001. This prompted the development of a Rapid Response System for fire data that eventually led to the operational use of MODIS data by the USFS for fire monitoring. Building on this success, the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) project was funded by NASA Applications, and developed under the umbrella of the GOFC-GOLD Fire program, to further improve products and services for the global fire information community. FIRMS was developed as a web-based geospatial tool, offering a range of geospatial data services, including a fire email alert service which is widely used around the world. FIRMS was initially developed to

  19. Relationship between number and intensity of fighting: evidence from cow fighting tournaments in Valdostana cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sartori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cattle establish firm dominance relationships through ritualised fights. This study aimed at investigating behaviours involved in dominance relationships and effect of factors such as weight, age and repeated fighting experience in fighting dynamics. Subject of the study was the Valdostana breed, whose cows assess dominance relationships in traditional competitions. Tournaments consist in rounds in which cows interact in pairs to assess dominance. Only winners participate in subsequent rounds. An amount of 120 fights involving 145 cows was retained, and winners (51 cows were considered as focal individuals. An ethogram of agonistic interactions was established, including behaviours of different agonistic intensity as physical interactions (pushes, clashes, displays (threats, vocalisations, and non agonistic approaches. A transition diagram of behaviours showed a tendency to express firstly non agonistic approaches and lastly more aggressive clashes. A mixed linear model analysis on traits like competition intensity, duration, and type of behaviours expressed showed a significant effect of age difference on behaviours. However, the most important factor was the number of rounds performed: from the first to subsequent fights agonistic intensity and physical contacts increased, and displays reduced. This may be due either to the fact that more aggressive individuals were likely to be the winners, or that in higher rounds the opponents were more similar regarding fighting ability or aggressiveness and thus more intense fights occurred. The increased aggressiveness after repeated situations of competition suggests suggests that careful attention should be paid to welfare when animals are exposed to situations of high competition, like regrouping.

  20. 综合防灭火技术在综放工作面的应用研究%Study on the Application of Comprehensive Fire Prevention and Control Technology in Fully Mechanized Working Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺峰

    2015-01-01

    According to the characteristics of mine fire prevention and control in 1901 fully mechanized working face in Yuanbao Coal Mine, this paper put forward the some comprehensive fire prevention and control measures. Through technology integration and demonstration, we can achieve high starting point, less investment and strong effect, and then formed a complete set of fire prevention and control technology systems and ensure the safety of mine production.%根据元堡煤矿1901综放工作面火灾防治的特点,提出一些综合防灭火技术措施。通过技术集成与示范,达到高起点、少投入、强效果,形成一套完整的火灾防治技术体系,保证矿井安全生产。

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  2. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  3. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal.

  4. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3] and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  6. THE EFFECT OF FIRE FIGHTING FOAMS ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND FIRE EXTINGUISHING

    OpenAIRE

    Tureková, Ivana; Karol BALOG; Półka, Marzena

    2012-01-01

    Огнетушители, как правило, применяются в операциях пожаротушения легковоспламеняющихся жидкостей, в которых используются их изоляционные свойства, герметизация и подавление процесса горения. Целью этой статьи является проведение рассуждений и сравнительный анализ наиболее часто используемых противопожарных пен в словацких противопожарных департаментах, учитывая не только их высокую эффективность пожаротушения (способность подавать их во время тушения пожаров на большой площади при низком уров...

  7. Fighting Fire with Fire A new idea for immunising computers against viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amer; Deeba; 李海龙

    2006-01-01

    电脑病毒防不胜防,造成的损失难以估量。最近发表在Nature Physics上的一篇文章使人们不再谈“毒”色变。该文阐释了“以毒攻毒”的防毒理念,即通过吸引并识别病毒的“诱捕系统”(honey pots)使防毒程序先行到达可能被感染的计算机构筑第二道防火墙,从而防止病毒入侵。另外,网络连接的计算机越多,防毒功能就越强。若研制成功,则必将成为电脑族的防毒首选。

  8. Fighting Fire with Fire: Modeling the Datacenter-Scale Effects of Targeted Superlattice Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Theogarajan, L; Sherwood, T P; Chong, F T

    2010-11-11

    Local thermal hot-spots in microprocessors lead to worst case provisioning of global cooling resources, especially in large-scale systems. However, efficiency of cooling solutions degrade non-linearly with supply temperature, resulting in high power consumption and cost in cooling - 50 {approx} 100% of IT power. Recent advances in active cooling techniques have shown on-chip thermoelectric coolers (TECs) to be very efficient at selectively eliminating small hot-spots, where applying current to a superlattice film deposited between silicon and the heat spreader results in a Peltier effect that spreads the heat and lowers the temperature of the hot-spot significantly to improve chip reliability. In this paper, we propose that hot-spot mitigation using thermoelectric coolers can be used as a power management mechanism to allow global coolers to be provisioned for a better worst case temperature leading to substantial savings in cooling power. In order to quantify the potential power savings from using TECs in data center servers, we present a detailed power model that integrates on-chip dynamic and leakage power sources, heat diffusion through the entire chip, TEC and global cooler efficiencies, and all their mutual interactions. Our multiscale analysis shows that, for a typical data center, TECs allow global coolers to operate at higher temperatures without degrading chip lifetime, and thus save {approx}27% cooling power on average while providing the same processor reliability as a data center running at 288K.

  9. Microfabrication of a Novel Ceramic Pressure Sensor with High Sensitivity Based on Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel capacitance pressure sensor based on Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC technology is proposed for pressure measurement. This approach differs from the traditional fabrication process for a LTCC pressure sensor because a 4J33 iron-nickel-cobalt alloy is applied to avoid the collapse of the cavity and to improve the performance of the sensor. Unlike the traditional LTCC sensor, the sensitive membrane of the proposed sensor is very flat, and the deformation of the sensitivity membrane is smaller. The proposed sensor also demonstrates a greater responsivity, which reaches as high as 13 kHz/kPa in range of 0–100 kPa. During experiments, the newly fabricated sensor, which is only about 6.5 cm2, demonstrated very good performance: the repeatability error, hysteresis error, and nonlinearity of the sensor are about 4.25%, 2.13%, and 1.77%, respectively.

  10. 森林火灾动态监测预警技术方案的研究%The Research of Forest Fire Dynamic Monitoring and Early Warning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南海涛

    2012-01-01

    采用基于视频图像分析技术的林区烟火智能处理技术,无缝融合智能图像识别技术、面向对象的3D GIS技术和大型网络监控技术等高新技术,结合森林防火的理论,构建林火智能监测预警及应急指挥系统,当出现火情时能自动识别并预警,在现场采集的视频未经压缩的情况下进行林火识别,以保证烟火识别的响应速度和准确率,从而实现林区视频的自动监控、烟火准确识别、火点精确定位、火情蔓延趋势推演、扑救指挥的辅助决策和灾后评估等多方面功能,建立森林防火的完整业务链,并针对性地解决用户的各种个性化需求。%Combined with the theory of forest fire,a fire intelligent monitoring warning and emergency command system was constructed based on the video image analysis technology of forest fireworks intelligent processing technology,seamless fusion intelligent image recognition technology,object-oriented 3D GIS technology,large-scale network monitoring technology and the other high technologies.When fire occurs in the forest,the system can automatically recognize the fire based on the uncompressed video collected in the field,to ensure the response speed and accuracy of fire identification.Consequently,a series of functions such as automatic forest video monitoring,accurate identification of forest fire,accurate positioning,inference of the fire spread trend,auxiliary decision-making on saving command,and post-disaster assessment can be realized.An integrated business chain of forest fire prevention was established,which can solve all kinds of personalized demands of the users.

  11. Child Soldiers: Children Associated with Fighting Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Suzan J; de Jong, Joop

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, there are an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 children involved in armed conflict. Children can be abducted into a fighting force to fight or serve as sex slaves. Child soldiers have depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, evidence is mixed because of methodologic limitations. Various mental health interventions have been tried, with promising results. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are uniquely trained in understanding and assisting youth to heal from such extraordinary experiences. A public health paradigm could include interventions that are based on a comprehensive assessment of interweaving developmental, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  13. 燃煤烟气中汞吸附技术的研发进展%Research Progress of Mercury Adsorption Technology for Coal-fired Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建星; 邓双; 姚福德; 王琳琳; 陈小鹏; 张凡

    2013-01-01

    At present mercury sorbents technology is the special technology to remove mercury in coal-fired flue gas.The present research situation of mercury-removing sorbents used in coal-fired flue gas were summarized.The sorbents by carrier type could be divided into carbon-based sorbents,fly ash,mineral sorbents,metal sorbents,metal compound sorbents and complex sorbents.The mercury removal efficiencies,costs,and application conditions of various sorbents were summarized.The influence factors of adsorption process were especially analyzed.The influences of form distribution,smoke components,nature of the sorbents,temperature and evaluation device were also illustrated.And finally,the future research directions in this field were suggested.%指出了汞吸附剂脱汞技术是目前燃煤烟气专门脱汞技术,并概述了国内外燃煤烟气中脱汞吸附剂的研究现状.目前研发的汞吸附剂按载体类型可分为:碳基吸附剂、飞灰、矿物类吸附剂、金属类吸附剂、金属化合物类吸附剂和络合吸附剂.综合评述了不同种类吸附剂的脱汞效率、成本和适用条件等;尤其对吸附过程的影响因素进行了分析,阐明了汞的形态分布、吸附剂性质、烟气成分、温度和评价装置的影响,最后对该领域的研究方向做了展望.

  14. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights : left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness gai

  15. Application of Inert Foam fire- fighting Technology in Xinglong Coal Mine%惰气泡沫防灭火技术在兴隆庄煤矿的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振平; 王洪权; 宋先明; 陈建峰

    2004-01-01

    惰气泡沫注入煤层自燃火区后,实现了大范围冷却降温、固氮、隔绝空气、封堵漏风等功能,弥补了注氮易泄漏,注胶渗透性差的不足,具有其独特的防灭火性能.该技术在兴隆庄煤矿4324综放工作面火区治理过程中的成功应用表明,惰气泡沫防灭火技术与其他防灭火措施配合使用,具有很好的互补性,防灭火效果显著.

  16. 三相泡沫防灭火技术在露天矿的首次应用%First-lime Application of Fire Fighting Technology with Three-phase Foam in Open-pit Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵光强; 王东禹; 韩佰春; 仲晓星

    2009-01-01

    在分析了安太堡矿的自然发火情况和已采取的防灭火技术措施的应用效果的基础上,针对安太堡矿的煤自燃情况和现有防灭火措施的不足,制定了新的防灭火技术方案,将三相泡沫防灭火技术首次应用到矿区的煤自燃防治中,取得了显著的防灭火效果,有效的抑制了矿区的自然发火情况.介绍了三相泡沫的组成及防灭火机理,三相泡沫的制备和灌注参数,防灭火系统的设计、工艺实施及应用效果等.

  17. 比例混合器在煤矿泡沫防灭火制备工艺中的应用%Application of Proportional Mixer in Foam Fire-fighting Preparation Technology of Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振平; 吴林峰; 文虎; 王伟峰; 孟清华; 蔡琪

    2014-01-01

    分析了比例混合器在煤矿泡沫防灭火制备工艺中应用的技术优势,并且结合煤矿实际情况,对比例混合器的工作原理和结构做了介绍,对其主要参数进行了计算,对不同类型的比例混合器进行实验分析.结果表明,比例混合器使煤矿泡沫防灭火制备工艺简单,混合液配比效果充分,安全性得到了提高;比例混合器的最佳供水压力在0.8 ~1.0 MPa之间;不同的比例混合器适用于不同发泡倍数的发泡剂.

  18. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute); R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)

    2007-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  19. Communicating in Fighting the Trafficking of Human Beings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irina Pop

    2013-01-01

      Romania's progress in adopting the laws in fighting THB assessed in the First European Reports in applying the Warsaw Convention in Fighting Trafficking in Human Beings In 2012, 31 of May, the Group...

  20. A Sensor System Based on Semi-Conductor Metal Oxide Technology for In Situ Detection of Coal Fired Combustion Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Marquis

    2007-05-31

    Sensor Research and Development Corporation (SRD) proposed a two-phase program to develop a robust, autonomous prototype analyzer for in situ, real-time detection, identification, and measurement of coal-fired combustion gases and perform field-testing at an approved power generation facility. SRD developed and selected sensor materials showing selective responses to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Sensor support electronics were also developed to enable prototype to function in elevated temperatures without any issues. Field-testing at DOE approved facility showed the ability of the prototype to detect and estimate the concentration of combustion by-products accurately with relatively low false-alarm rates at very fast sampling intervals.

  1. Based on the content networking technology remote building fire water pressure real-time monitoring system%基于物联网技术的远程建筑消防水压实时监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖曙江; 刑佳佳; 陈睿迪; 徐培龙

    2012-01-01

    建筑消防供水系统由自动喷淋系统和消防水系统构成,消防供水系统的正常联动是关系到建筑物内人民群众生命安全重要保证.本文介绍一种基于物联网技术的建筑消防水压实时监控系统,对建筑物内部自动喷淋系统和消防水系统进行全天候2 4小时监控,达到自动监测、自动启泵供水目的,同时也满足了建筑消防水压远程实时监管的要求.%Building fire water supply system consists of automatic sprinkler system and fire system.Fire water supply system the normal working is building the people's life safety guarantee. Article introduces a real-time monitoring system the based on Internet of things technology building fire water pressure,Automatic sprinkler system and fire water system in Internal of building is monitored for all-weather 24hours, Achieving automatic monitoring and controlling automatic pump supplying water, also achieved Remote real-time supervision of building fire water pressure requirements.

  2. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Meira Castro, Ana Cristina [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  3. Acute toxicity of three fire-retardant and two fire-suppressant foam formulations to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.; Linder, G.; Krest, S.; Sparling, D.; Little, E.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with five early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to determine the acute toxicities of five fire-fighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Eyed egg, embryo–larvae, swim-up fry, and 60- and 90-d posthatch juveniles were exposed to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCG-R, Fire-Trol GTS-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). Swim-up fry were generally the most sensitive life stage, whereas the eyed-egg was the least sensitive. Toxicity of fire-fighting formulations was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested with Fire-Trol GTS-R and Silv-Ex and for 90-d-old juveniles tested with Fire-Trol LCG-R. The fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were ranked from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-h LC50 calculated for each formulation): Phos-Chek WD-881 (11–44 mg/L), Silv-Ex (11–78 mg/L), Phos-Chek D75-F (218–>3,600 mg/L), Fire-Trol GTS-R (207–>6,000 mg/L), and Fire-Trol LCG-R (872–>10,000 mg/L). Toxicity values suggest that accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect fish populations.

  4. Modeling human-caused forest fire ignition for assessing forest fire danger in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires have not been considered as a significant threat for mountain forests of the European Alpine Space so far. Climate change and its effects on nature, ecology, forest stand structure and composition, global changes according to demands of society and general trends in the provision of ecosystem services are potentially going to have a significant effect on fire ignition in the future. This makes the prediction of forest fire ignition essential for forest managers in order to establish an effective fire prevention system and to allocate fire fighting resources effectively, especially in alpine landscapes. This paper presents a modelling approach for predicting human-caused forest fire ignition by a range of socio-economic factors associated with an increasing forest fire danger in Austria. The relationship between touristic activities, infrastructure, agriculture and forestry and the spatial occurrence of forest fires have been studied over a 17-year period between 1993 and 2009 by means of logistic regression. 59 independent socio-economic variables have been analysed with different models and validated with heterogeneous subsets of forest fire records. The variables included in the final model indicate that railroad, forest road and hiking trail density together with agricultural and forestry developments may contribute significantly to fire danger. The final model explains 60.5% of the causes of the fire events in the validation set and allows a solid prediction. Maps showing the fire danger classification allow identifying the most vulnerable forest areas in Austria and are used to predict the fire danger classes on municipality level.

  5. Discussion and Research of Tall Buildings for Electrical Fire Prevention Technology Distribution Systems%高层民用建筑供配电系统的电气防火技术探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈全乐

    2015-01-01

    In high-rise buildings, high-rise power supply and distribution system belongs to the risks in the projects of the highest, according to the requirements of the high-rise building fire, in power supply and distribution system to implement the electrical fire prevention technology, to avoid potential fire hazard. Senior civil power supply system involves a large number of lines, equipment, can easily lead to accidents, and increases the risk of fire. By studying the distribution system for the supply of tall buildings, we analyzed the application of electrical fire prevention technology.%高层民用建筑中的高层供配电系统属于风险隐患最高的项目,根据高层民用建筑的防火要求,在供配电系统中要落实电气防火技术,规避潜在的火灾隐患。高层民用建筑的供配电系统涉及到大量的线路、设备,很容易引起安全事故,增加了防火的风险。通过对高层民用建筑供配电系统的研究,分析了电气防火技术的应用。

  6. Analysis of the Urban Complex Fire-fighting Design-- Take the Dike Complex Port City of Beijing Project as an Example%浅析城市综合体消防设计--以北京市颐堤港城市综合体项目为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏欣欣

    2014-01-01

    This article takes the dike complex project of Bei-jing as an example, explores the fire protection system design of urban complex, and elaborates from the fire hydrant water supply system, automatic sprinkler system and water spray system, large space intel igent active sprinkler system and gas fire extinguishing system.%本文以北京市颐堤港城市综合体项目为例,研究城市综合体的消防系统设计,并且分别从消火栓给水系统、自动喷水灭火系统、水喷雾系统、大空间智能型主动喷水灭火系统和气体灭火系统进行了阐述。

  7. Fighting terrorism in Africa by proxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2014-01-01

    the actual fighting and peacekeeping on the ground while western powers basically pay the costs, the logistics, and the training of local African troops. The paper concludes that the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) in Somalia and The African-led International Support Mission to Mali (AFISMA...

  8. Ten years of fighting bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This year marks a decade since the first human outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza in Hong Kong. Since then, US $1.9 billion has been pledged to fight avian influenza and a global effort is under way to prevent and be prepared for a pandemic.

  9. Take Three Actions to Fight Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-07

    This podcast explains how vaccination, everyday preventive actions, and the correct use of antiviral drugs can help you fight both seasonal flu and 2009 H1N1 flu.  Created: 10/7/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/7/2009.

  10. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  11. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  12. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  13. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  14. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  15. Assessment of energy and economic impacts of particulate-control technologies in coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    Under contract to Argonne National Laboratory, Midwest Research Institute has derived models to assess the economic and energy impacts of particulate-control systems for coal-fired power plants. The models take into account the major functional variables, including plant size and location, coal type, and applicable particulate-emission standards. The algorithms obtained predict equipment and installation costs, as well as operating costs (including energy usage), for five control devices: (1) cold-side electrostatic precipitators, (2) hot-side electrostatic precipitators, (3) reverse-flow baghouses, (4) shake baghouses, and (5) wet scrubbers. A steam-generator performance model has been developed, and the output from this model has been used as input for the control-device performance models that specify required design and operating parameters for the control systems under study. These parameters then have been used as inputs to the cost models. Suitable guideline values have been provided for independent variables wherever necessary, and three case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the subject models. The control-equipment models aggregate the following cost items: (1) first costs (capital investment), (2) total, first-year annualized costs, and (3) integrated cost of ownership and operation over any selected plant lifetime. Although the models have been programmed for rapid computation, the algorithms can be solved with a hand calculator.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction Technologies for Coal-fired Power Plants%燃煤电厂烟气中二氧化碳的减排技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫华

    2012-01-01

    Due to the growth emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion,greenhouse effect has brought significant influences on the world environment and social economic development.Then,the mitigation of CO2 emissions has drawn more attention all over the world.The paper had reviewed four main CO2 emission reduction technologies and various typical separation techniques for a major CO2 emission source,coal-fired power plants.In the end,CO2 capture technologies have been prospected.%由于CO2等温室气体引发的温室效应对全球生态环境和社会经济发展造成了显著影响,使得CO2减排受到了国际社会的密切关注。文章针对CO2的集中排放源,介绍燃煤电厂烟气中CO2减排技术路线和目前国际上常用的CO2捕集分离技术,最后分析和展望CO2捕集分离技术的发展前景。

  17. Effects of a Sprinkler on Evacuation Dynamics in Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A fire in an enclosed space, such as a room in a building, is generally called a compartment fire. To prevent the compartment fire, a sprinkler for first-aid fire-fighting is installed in rooms. However, it is difficult to determine the degree to which smoke generation and the fire spreading will be inhibited when sprinklers are on. In particular, demonstrating evacuation behavior assuming an actual fire is impossible. In this study, we evaluated an effectiveness of the sprinkler by numerical simulations. To consider evacuation dynamics, a real-coded cellular automata (RCA was used, where we can freely set the direction and velocity of an evacuee based on a floor field model. To consider the situation in the room fire, we used a simulator called Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS. Two cases with and without the sprinkler were compared to see the validity of the sprinkler on evacuation dynamics. The effect of smoke and the expansion of the fire-spreading region were discussed. Results show that, since the fire-spreading region disappears when the sprinkler is actuated, the evacuation time decreases. Even though the sprinkler is actuated, the smoke generated at the beginning of a fire diffuses inside the whole room. However, the duration of evacuees being overwhelmed by smoke is less, because the amount of smoke generated by the pyrolysis reaction is much decreased.

  18. Perceptions of forest experts on climate change and fire management in European Mediterranean forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raftoyannis Y

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has already increased fire risk in Mediterranean forests. Adaptation options related to forest fires and climate change include measures related to fuel management, fire fighting and infrastructure, as well as public awareness. The importance of each of these measures was evaluated in six Mediterranean countries in a study initiated within the COST Action FP0703 “Expected Climate Change and Options for European Silviculture”. A questionnaire survey was used to document the views of foresters and forest scientists. Country differences were observed and adaptation measures related to fire fighting efficiency and public awareness were valued as more important than fuel management. Results were discussed in the light of a critical review of adaptive fire management measures with special reference to European Mediterranean countries.

  19. Fighting experience affects fruit fly behavior in a mating context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In animals, correlations exist among behaviors within individuals, but it is unclear whether experience in a specific functional context can affect behavior across different contexts. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the effects of conflict-induced behavioral modifications on male mating behavior. In D. melanogaster, males fight for territories and experience a strong winner-loser effect, meaning that winners become more likely to win subsequent fights compared to losers, who continue to lose. In our protocol, males were tested for courtship intensity before and after fighting against other males. We show that male motivation to copulate before fights cannot predict the fight outcomes, but that, afterwards, losers mate less than before and less than winner and control males. Contrarily, winners show no differences between pre- and post-fight courtship intensity, and do not differ from control males. This suggests that the physiological modifications resulting from fight outcomes indirectly affect male reproductive behavior.

  20. Molding Technology and Fire-retardant Properties of LDPE/LLDPE/APP/ Sb2O3 Systems%LDPE/LLDPE/APP/Sb203阻燃体系的成型工艺和阻燃性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺超; 方帅; 许春花; 蒙亚州; 张琪; 郭玉花; 黄震

    2012-01-01

    以低密度聚乙烯和线性低密度聚乙烯为基础物质,添加阻燃剂聚磷酸铵和三氧化二锑,构成阻燃体系,研究了阻燃体系的成型加工工艺参数和阻燃性能。研究表明:随着阻燃剂添加量的增大,主螺杆转速需要逐步降低,牵引速度随之下降,主螺杆转速的较小变化,可引起机头压力的急剧增加,物料的实际挤出温度相应提高;当阻燃荆总添加量达到40%时,达到FV-O阻燃等级。%Low density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene were used as basic materials, ammonium polyphosphate and diantimony trioxide were added into them as fire-retardant agent content to prepare fire-retardant sys- tem. The molding technological parameters and fire-retardant performance of the fire-retardant systems were tested. The results showed that with increase of fire-retardant agent content, the rotational speed of main screws needed de- creases gradually and the pulling speed decreases accordingly; small change of the rotational speed of main screw cau- ses the pressure of die increases sharply, and the real extrusion temperature increases accordingly; when the fire-re- tardant addition dosage is 40% the fire-retardant level can reach FV-O.

  1. The effect of coal-fired power-plant SO2 and NOx control technologies on aerosol nucleation in the source plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Knipping

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleation in coal-fired power-plant plumes can greatly contribute to particle number concentrations near source regions. The changing emissions rates of SO2 and NOx due to pollution-control technologies over recent decades may have had a significant effect on aerosol formation and growth in the plumes with ultimate implications for climate and human health. We use the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM large-eddy simulation model with the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS microphysics algorithm to model the nucleation in plumes of coal-fired plants. We test a range of cases with varying emissions to simulate the implementation of emissions-control technologies between 1997 and 2010. We start by simulating the W. A. Parish power plant (near Houston, TX during this time period, when NOx emissions were reduced by ~90% and SO2 emissions decreased by ~30%. Increases in plume OH (due to the reduced NOx produced enhanced SO2 oxidation and an order-of-magnitude increase in particle nucleation in the plume despite the reduction in SO2 emissions. These results suggest that NOx emissions could strongly regulate particle nucleation and growth in power-plant plumes. Next, we test a range of cases with varying emissions to simulate the implementation of SO2 and NOx emissions-control technologies. Particle formation generally increases with SO2 emission, while NOx shows two different regimes: increasing particle formation with increasing NOx under low-NOx emissions and decreasing particle formation with increasing NOx under high-NOx emissions. Next, we compare model results with airborne measurements made in the W. A. Parish power-plant plume in 2000 and 2006, confirming the importance of NOx emissions on new particle formation and highlighting the substantial effect of background aerosol loadings on this process (the more polluted background of the 2006 case caused more than an order-of-magnitude reduction in particle formation in the plume compared to

  2. Efeito do ciclo de queima sobre as propriedades tecnológicas de uma massa cerâmica vermelha para revestimento poroso Effect of firing cycle on the technological properties of a red wall tile paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Pinto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi feita uma análise comparativa das propriedades tecnológicas de uma massa cerâmica vermelha para revestimento poroso queimada em dois distintos ciclos de queima, sendo um ciclo de queima lento tradicional e um ciclo de queima rápido. Os corpos cerâmicos foram queimados entre 1080 e 1160 ºC. As seguintes propriedades tecnológicas foram determinadas: retração linear, absorção de água, massa específica aparente e tensão de ruptura à flexão. Análise microestrutural foi realizada por meio de difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados experimentais mostraram claramente que o emprego de um ciclo de queima lento resultou em melhores propriedades dos corpos cerâmicos sinterizados.In this work was done a comparative analysis of the technological properties of a red wall tile ceramic paste fired in two different firing cycles, being a traditional slow-firing cycle and a fast-firing cycle. The ceramic pieces were fired between 1080 and 1160 ºC. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density and flexural strength. Microstructural analysis was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results indicated clearly that the use of a slow-firing cycle resulted in enhanced properties of the red wall tiles.

  3. 复合抗静电阻燃ABS 、聚丙烯、聚乙烯的研制%Preparation of anti-static and fire retardant technology forABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李申; 杨书申; 汪敏

    2001-01-01

    讨论了塑料的抗静电阻燃机理.详细介绍了复合抗静电阻燃ABS塑料、聚丙烯、聚乙烯材料的研制工艺及配方;给出了复合抗静电阻燃ABS塑料、聚丙烯、聚乙烯材料的抗静电、阻燃性能测试数据.结果表明:所研制的聚乙烯、聚丙烯、ABS塑料具有优良的抗静电阻燃效果.%The fire retardant and anti-static mechanism of plastic isdiscussed in this paper.The manufacturing technology and construction of the anti-siatic and fire retardant ABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene were provided on detail.The anti-static and fire retardant test data of the anti-static and fire retardant ABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene were given.The result shows that the anti-static and fire retardant property of these material was good.

  4. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the amonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO, and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project will be funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  5. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Quarterly report No. 7, January--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the amonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO, and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project will be funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  6. 基于云构架无线智能消防小车的设计%Design of Wireless Intelligent Fire Vehicle Based on Cloud Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟宏; 郑首易; 杨智棠; 曹展豪; 陈富豪

    2016-01-01

    针对重大型火灾中消防人员不方便进入火场进行准确地勘察和及时抢救灭火的问题,设计一种基于云构架的无线智能消防小车,利用火焰传感器探测火源,处理器输出PMW波控制直流电机对小车进行驱动,通过蓝牙通信技术远程遥控技术遥控小车到达起火点,检测并显示火场温度和烟雾浓度,探测火场环境,经过无线通信上传云端,通过云端判断是否执行灭火动作。最后,进行相关实验。结果表明,该方案的可行性;智能消防小车在各种环境中的有效通信距离大于20m;其为今后智能消防小车应提供必要的基础。%According to actual condition that it is inconvenient for firemen to get into the fire to carry out an accurate investigation, rescue people and put out fire in time in the large fire, designs a wireless intelligent fire vehicle based on cloud architecture. It can detect the fire source using a flame sensor, and its CPU could output the PMW signal to control the DC-motor and drive the vehicle. Uses the Bluetooth communication technology and remote control technology, to control the vehicle to arrive at the Fire Points, measure and display the fire field temperature and smoke concentration to detect the fire environment. The result data of detection will upload to the Cloud terminal by wireless communication, and the Cloud terminal will decide whether to carry out fire fighting actions. Finally, carries related out experiments. Result shows that the project is feasible; the effective communication distance of intelligent fire vehicle in a variety of environments is greater than 20m;and it shall provide the necessary foundation for future intelligent fire vehicle.

  7. Optimization and reconstruction technology of SCR flue gas denitrification ultra low emission in coal fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhao

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from thermal power plant increased year by year in China. A large number of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions caused by the growing environmental problems have been widely attached importance to people. SCR denitrification technology has the advantages of cleanliness and high efficiency. At present, it has been the major technology to control NOx emission because of its high denitrification efficiency, reliable operation, no by-products and simple structure of the device. The denitrification efficiency can be stabilized at 70%. In this paper, three different denitrification methods are compared. The factors influencing the denitrification efficiency, the system arrangement and the key factors of the denitrification system are discussed in detail. And the numerical simulation of how to use this calculation software in the SCR reactor flue, baffle, reactor, spray ammonia grille and spray ammonia, mixer, etc. are reviewed, as well as the effect of system operation control on the deoxidation performance.

  8. Development and technology transfer of the BNL flame quality indicator for oil-fired applications: Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, Wai Lin; McDonald, R.J.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of a flame quality indicator is to continuously and closely monitor the quality of the flame to determine a heating system`s operating performance. The most efficient operation of a system is achieved under clean burning conditions at low excess air level. By adjusting a burner to function in such a manner, monitoring the unit to maintain these conditions can be accomplished with a simple, cheap and reliable device. This report details the development of the Flame Quality Indicator (FQI) at Brookhaven National Laboratory for residential oil-heating equipment. It includes information on the initial testing of the original design, field testing with other cooperating organizations, changes and improvements to the design, and finally technology transfer and commercialization activities geared towards the development of commercially available products designed for the oil heat marketplace. As a result of this work, a patent for the technology was obtained by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Efforts to commercialize the technology have resulted in a high level of interest amongst industry members including boiler manufacturers, controls manufacturers, oil dealers, and service organizations. To date DOE has issued licenses to three different manufacturers, on a non-exclusive basis, to design, build, and sell FQIs.

  9. Altruity: Key to the Fight Against Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Kourilsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of altruity and illustrates its philosophical and practical importance in the fight against poverty. Altruity –a highly specific form of rational altruism– is the duty that comes with freedom. The individual duty of altruity is the necessary counterpart of the right to individual freedoms. It is, by its very nature, distinct from (though complementary to generosity, and devoid of any expectation of reciprocity (while not excluding it. The idea of altruity is the cornerstone of a theory of individual responsibility, and of a theory of justice, which provide a conceptual framework for the struggle against poverty. And because it is only meaningful if implemented with a pre-defined method, it also provides a framework for action, as the FACTS Initiative has shown. Altruity thus emerges as one of the keys to the fight against poverty.

  10. Resurgence in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Stephanie P; Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-03-01

    Resurgence of previously reinforced responding was investigated in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Swimming through a ring produced 15-s mirror presentations according to, with different fish, either a fixed-ratio 1 or a variable-interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement. When responding was stable, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule was substituted for the mirror-presentation schedule. Following this, mirror presentations were discontinued (extinction). During this latter phase, there were transient increases in the ring-swim response relative to the frequency of such responding during the differential-reinforcement-of-other behavior schedule. Resurgence was similar for the fish exposed previously to the fixed-ratio or to the variable-interval schedule. These results extend to Siamese fighting fish a well-established behavioral phenomenon previously not observed in this species or with this response topography, and only rarely reported following the removal of a non-consumable reinforcer.

  11. Fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  12. Exploiting structural biology in the fight against parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modis, Yorgo

    2012-04-01

    Despite spectacular advances in structural biology over the past half-century, only approximately 2% of the structures in the Protein Data Bank are from eukaryotic parasites and less than 0.5% are from multicellular parasites. Even when only major human pathogens are considered, 3D structures of parasites are vastly underrepresented. Yet approximately one-third of the global burden of human disease comes from parasites. It is time to divert greater effort and resources in structural biology to benefit the fight against parasitic diseases. Using as leverage recent technological and methodological advances, a concerted effort to determine macromolecular structures from parasite pathogens would provide invaluable mechanistic insights on vital processes of the parasites and would suggest novel strategies for inhibiting infection.

  13. Strategy changes in subsequent fights as consequences of winning and losing in fruit fly fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannoy, Séverine; Kravitz, Edward A

    2016-11-11

    In competition for food, territory and mates, male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) engage in agonistic encounters with conspecifics. The fighting strategies used to obtain these resources are influenced by previous and present experience, environmental cues, and the internal state of the animal including hormonal and genetic influences. Animals that experience prior defeats show submissive behavior and are more likely to lose 2(nd) contests, while animals that win 1(st) fights are more aggressive and have a higher probability of winning 2(nd) contests. In a recent report, we examined these loser and winner effects in greater detail and demonstrated that both winners and losers show short-term memory of the results of previous bouts while only losers demonstrate a longer-term memory that requires protein synthesis. The recent findings also suggested that an individual recognition mechanism likely exists that can serve important roles in evaluating the fighting ability of opponents and influencing future fighting strategy. In this article, we follow up on these results by asking how previous defeated and victorious flies change their fighting strategies in the presence of 2(nd) losing and winning flies, by searching for evidence of territory marking, and discussing the existing literature in light of our findings.

  14. The ForFire photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyaud, A.; Angelopoulos, A.; Chelmis, C.; Costopoulos, V.; Chica, M.; Giomataris, I.; Gongadze, A.; Herbert, T.; Kantemiris, I.; Kirch, S.; Mols, J. P.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Quinlan, F.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the ForFire project is the development of an outdoor fire detection system by using an innovative solar blind camera based on the technology of photosensitive gas and solid-state detectors. The development of this new sensor together with an appropriate algorithm for pattern recognition aims to provide a high capability and a high reliability flame-detection system with cost effectiveness, early detection and accurate localization of fire hazards. This is achieved by focusing specifically on the detection of the VUV part (180 nm ≤ λ ≤ 260 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by the fire source. The advantage of this approach is that on Earth only fire flames emit in this spectral range thus avoiding potential interferences with other wavelength sources where the Sun is a dominant background.

  15. Application of Data Transmission Technology in the Automatic Fire Alarm System%数据通信传输技术在火灾自动报警系统中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鸿

    2011-01-01

    At present the fire damage degree and endanger scope are on the rise. In order to reduce the loss of degree, countnes in the world develop automatic fire alarm system. Data transmission technology is a very important technique in the automatic fire alarm system. Combining with automatic fire alarm system from data transmission mode. string/parallel communication mode. flyers/duplex data transmission. data synchronization method, digital coding method, the article introduced the technology.%目前,火灾损失程度和危害范围呈上升趋势.为了降低火灾损失的程度,世界各国都在积极开发火灾自动报警系统.数据通信传输技术是在火灾自动报警系统中非常重要的一种技术.本文结合火灾自动报警系统从数据通信传输模式,串/并行通信方式、传单/双工数据传输方式、数据同步方式、数字编码方式等方面介绍这一技术.

  16. EU’s Role in Fighting Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Maftei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available International terrorism, a phenomenon with constant development, is today acertainty and has dramatically marked the beginning of this century and millennium. Thisproblem has reached a global dimension and it represents a concern to the entire internationalcommunity. Over the time, numerous international and regional regulations have been framed, inorder to prevent and combat terrorism. The European Union condemns terrorist acts andrecognizes the central role of the United Nations, in fighting against terrorism and promotingsecurity, as well as the contribution of the new NATO in what concerns the defense and securitypromotion. Europe has to act more firmly in order to consolidate the defense against terrorismand the European Union’s borders. At the same time, the European Union considers that only aconcerted and firm action from all the states and the major actors on the international scenewould lead to the identification of the solutions which can contribute to the efficient fight againstterrorism and, by these means, provide for the international peace and security. The proportion ofthe danger terrorism represents has turned the fight against this phenomenon in an internationalcommunity’s desideratum.

  17. How to pick a good fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joni, Saj-nicole A; Beyer, Damon

    2009-12-01

    Peace and harmony are overrated. Though conflict-free teamwork is often held up as the be-all and end-all of organizational life, it actually can be the worst thing to ever happen to a company. Look at Lehman Brothers. When Dick Fuld took over, he transformed a notoriously contentious workplace into one of Wall Street's most harmonious firms. But his efforts backfired--directors and managers became too agreeable, afraid to rock the boat by pointing out that the firm was heading into a crisis. Research shows that the single greatest predictor of poor company performance is complacency, which is why every organization needs a healthy dose of dissent. Not all kinds of conflict are productive, of course -companies need to find the right balance of alignment and competition and make sure that people's energies are pointed in a positive direction. In this article, two seasoned business advisers lay down ground rules for the right kinds of fights. First, the stakes must be worthwhile: The issue should involve a noble purpose or create noticeable--preferably game-changing--value. Next, good fights focus on the future; they're never about placing blame for the past. And it's critical for leaders to keep fights sportsmanlike, allow informal give-and-take in the trenches, and help soften the blow for the losing parties.

  18. Calculation of fire-fighting air pressure water tank, pressure maintenance pump and determination of vertical compartment in hydrant system%消防气压罐、稳压泵计算及消火栓系统竖向分区确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林海; 郭尚鸣

    2015-01-01

    After the implementation of GB 50974—2014 Technical Code for Fire Protection Water Supply and Hydrant Systems, air pressure tank is adopted in temporary high pressure fire protection water supply system to prevent pressure maintenance pumps from frequent starts and stops. It is different from the stabilized air pres-sure water tank set to meet the requirement that the height setting of head water tank of fire protection water sup-ply system of temporary high pressure shall conform the static pressure requirement of fire-extinguishing installa-tion at the worst place set before the implementation of GB 50974—2014 in aspects of design philosophy and us-ing function. Although both are gas pressure water tanks specialized for fire protection and both have the function of pressure maintenance, they can neither be confused with each other, nor be applied indiscriminately in design. The design philosophy and computing method of air pressure water tank as well as the confirmation of vertical compartment of hydrant systems were introduced in detail.%GB 50974—2014《消防给水及消火栓系统技术规范》实施后设置稳压泵的临时高压消防给水系统为防止稳压泵频繁启停而采用的气压水罐,与GB 50974—2014实施前临时高压消防给水系统的高位水箱设置高度不能满足最不利处水灭火设施静压要求而设置的稳压气压水罐,虽同为消防用气压水罐,同有稳压作用,但其设计理念,使用功能有很大不同,不能混为一谈,在设计上更不能套用。详细介绍了气压水罐的设计理念和计算方法,以及由此确定消火栓系统的竖向分区。

  19. ECOAL Project—Delivering Solutions for Integrated Monitoring of Coal-Related Fires Supported on Optical Fiber Sensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Ribeiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The combustion of coal wastes resulting from mining is of particular environmental concern, and the importance of proper management involving real-time assessment of their status and identification of probable evolution scenarios is recognized. Continuous monitoring of the combustion temperature and emission levels of certain gases allows for the possibility of planning corrective actions to minimize their negative impact on the surroundings. Optical fiber technology is well suited to this purpose and here we describe the main attributes and results obtained from a fiber optic sensing system projected to gather data on distributed temperature and gas emissions in these harsh environments.

  20. Review of Virtual Reality Technology Application in Fire and Medical Exercise for Development of VR based Radiological Emergency Exercise System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sub Lee; Lee, Byung Il; Park, Seong Jun; Lee, Dewhey; Park, Younwon [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The article of Act on Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency (APPRE) was amended as a nuclear licensee shall formulate a radiological emergency exercise plan as prescribed by the Ordinance of the Prime minister and execute such plan with the approval of the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC). Current radiological emergency exercise is basically conducting in the field. The field exercise essentially requires participation of mass population. Due to lack of time, cost, communication and participation, the field exercise necessarily causes several limitations in an aspect of effectiveness. The public participants often misunderstood the situation as real though it is just an exercise so several conflicts are occurring. Furthermore, the exercise program is too ideal to reflect the real accident situation. In this point of view, application of virtual reality (VR) technology is highlighted with its many advantages. VR technology is expected to resolve those existing problems. Our research team is currently developing VR based radiological emergency exercise system. In this paper, the advantages and actual application of VR based training were introduced. With those advantages and improvement of existing disadvantages, our VR based radiological emergency exercise system will be developed. Not only physical interactive features, but also interactive fail-considered real-like scenarios will be adopted in the system. The ultimate goal of the system is safe and perfect evacuation of residents in case of radioactive accident.

  1. Recovering Silver Technology from Waste Silver Catalyst by Fire Smelting%火法熔炼从废银催化剂中回收银

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖微; 贺小塘; 赵雨; 王欢; 吴喜龙; 李勇; 李子璇; 张选东; 雷霆

    2015-01-01

    The process of recovering silver technology from waste silver catalyst by fire smelting was studied. CaO-Al2O3 binary slag system was formed by adding the slagging elements of calcium oxide, when the amount of calcium oxide is 7 kg, melting temperature of 1500℃, time is 6 h, the recovery rate of silver more than 98%; the specific gravity of silver is bigger, sink the bottom of crucible, slag phase and the metal phase separation, obtain high purity of silver more than 99.98%.%研究了火法熔炼从废催化剂中回收银的工艺。通过添加造渣剂CaO形成CaO-Al2O3二元渣系,当CaO加入量为7 kg,熔炼温度1500℃,时间6 h,银的回收率大于99%;银比重大,沉在坩埚底部,渣相和金属相分离,得到纯度大于99.8%的银。

  2. 燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术创新和应用探讨%Discussion on technology innovation of coal -fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆虎; 吴金土

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the existing coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion technolo-gy, summed up the basic reason desulfurization chimney corrosion failures, technological innovation ideas pro-posed chimney desulfurization corrosion.And briefly describes the use of self-vulcanized butyl rubber anti-corrosion lining for coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney antiseptic feasibility and success stories.%通过对现行燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术分析,总结了脱硫烟囱防腐失效的原因,提出了脱硫烟囱防腐的技术创新思路。简要介绍了采用自硫化丁基橡胶防腐衬里对燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱进行防腐的可行性和成功案例。

  3. 火电厂脱汞技术综述%Mercury Removal Technology Advances of Coal-fired Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宝江

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas mercury pollution was attached great importance,and to research institutions it bacome one of the current focus of research.Combination of morphological characteristics of mercury,from coal before combustion,combustion and post-combustion synthesis,the latest developments of thermal power plants flue gas mercury removal technology was summerized.%火电厂烟气汞污染已受到高度重视,已成为科研机构当前重点研究内容之一。结合汞的形态特性,从煤燃烧前、燃烧中和燃烧后三方面综述了火电厂烟气脱汞技术最新进展。

  4. 基于OpenGL的火灾模型构建的研究与实现%Research and Implementation of Fire Model Construction Based on OpenGL Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖潇; 朱大明; 夏蓉

    2012-01-01

    讨论了基于OpenGL的火灾模型构建的研究.在Tao框架的基础上用C#进行OpenGL建模技术的实现,并以昆明理工大学实验楼教室为对象构建一个室内的火灾模型.首先对OpenGL建模技术进行简要介绍,提出基于Tao框架C#中OpenGL建模技术的实现.其次,阐述了在建模之前如何初始化OpenGL绘制环境,并叙述基于OpenGL火灾模型构建的过程.最后,提出了基于OpenGL火灾模型构建的不足以及未来发展中的方向.%OpenGL based fire model research is discussed. The Tao framework based on C# OpenGL modeling technology, and Kunming University of Science and Technology experimental floor classroom were based on an indoor fire model. The OpenGL modeling technology is first introduced, is put forward based on Tao framework in C # OpenGL modeling technology implementation. Secondly, how to initialize the OpenGL drawing before in the modeling environment is elaborated, and based on the description of OpenGL fire model construction process. Finally , based on OpenGL fire model deficiencies and the development direction in the future are proposed.

  5. The Logical Methods and Common Technology of Identifying Fire Start Time%认定起火时间的逻辑方法及常用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云波

    2012-01-01

    The accurate analysis of identifying fire time is an important condition for determining the cause of the fire.On the basis of summing up the study of fire development and spread law and material combustion characteristics,the writer described logical analysis of identifying fire time and the main basis and introduced the common technical means to identifying fire time.%准确分析认定起火时间是正确判定火灾原因的重要条件之一,文章在总结研究火灾发展蔓延规律和物质燃烧特性的基础上,分析阐述了认定起火时间的逻辑分析方法和主要依据,介绍了认定起火时间的常用技术手段。

  6. Fire Retardant Technology and Evaluation Method for Wood-based Panels%人造板阻燃技术与评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉泉; 彭力争; 张根成; 吴建国; 张建

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced three fire retardant treatments for wood-based panels and the common fire retardants;briefed the standards for fire retardant wood and wood-based panel products and the evaluation and test methods for fire retardant materials;and discussed the existing issues of the standard for fire-resistant panels.%介绍了3种人造板的阻燃处理方法及常用阻燃剂,概述了阻燃人造板标准、阻燃性能评价和检测方法,分析了目前阻燃人造板研发生产在国内外标准方面存在的问题。

  7. A Full-Scale Fire Program to Evaluate New Furnishings and Textile Materials Developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, L. J.; Wray, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The plans for the present series of full-scale experimental fires were initiated at the suggestion of NASA following the presentation of a film and discussion illustrating Battelle-Columbus' recent work in fire research. That film showed bedroom-type fires carried out as a part of a program to determine the influence of the cyclic characteristics of real fires under limited ventilation on the burning and pyrolysis properties of the room furnishings. A new series of fires was suggested by NASA designed to show the performance of new fire resistant and fire retardant materials by providing comparative fire and smoldering environmental conditions. More recently, the goal for the new series of fires was written in a meeting with NASA personnel and others at Battelle on May 3 and 4, 1972. The goal was as follows: To establish the need for special materials of improved fire safety in domiciliary settings of public concern, and to assess, in a professionally acceptable manner, the potential of materials arising from the new space-age technology for this purpose. It was anticipated that some new materials arising from the space-age technology and not yet available through conventional commercial channels might provide significant improvements in fire safety if the best of the commercially available materials showed important shortcomings in this area. It was the intent of this program to assess the benefits that could accrue from the use of these new materials. Fire safety is a matter requiring the evaluation of a number of factors. For example, fire resistance and fire spread, visibility during the fire, toxicity of evolved gases, and the fire-fighting problem that is created must be evaluated before the relative hazard can be assessed. The plan of the program provided for sampling and instrumentation to evaluate these factors, consistent with the goal of technological utilization that has been specified. Arrangements were made with the Columbus Fire Department to use an

  8. Einstein's Theory Fights off Challengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Two new and independent studies have put Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to the test like never before. These results, made using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, show Einstein's theory is still the best game in town. Each team of scientists took advantage of extensive Chandra observations of galaxy clusters, the largest objects in the Universe bound together by gravity. One result undercuts a rival gravity model to General Relativity, while the other shows that Einstein's theory works over a vast range of times and distances across the cosmos. The first finding significantly weakens a competitor to General Relativity known as "f(R) gravity". "If General Relativity were the heavyweight boxing champion, this other theory was hoping to be the upstart contender," said Fabian Schmidt of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, who led the study. "Our work shows that the chances of its upsetting the champ are very slim." In recent years, physicists have turned their attention to competing theories to General Relativity as a possible explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Currently, the most popular explanation for the acceleration is the so-called cosmological constant, which can be understood as energy that exists in empty space. This energy is referred to as dark energy to emphasize that it cannot be directly detected. In the f(R) theory, the cosmic acceleration comes not from an exotic form of energy but from a modification of the gravitational force. The modified force also affects the rate at which small enhancements of matter can grow over the eons to become massive clusters of galaxies, opening up the possibility of a sensitive test of the theory. Schmidt and colleagues used mass estimates of 49 galaxy clusters in the local universe from Chandra observations, and compared them with theoretical model predictions and studies of supernovas, the cosmic microwave background, and the large-scale distribution of galaxies. They

  9. Integrative flue-gas pollutants removal technology for coal-fired utility boilers%燃煤电站锅炉烟气污染物一体化协同治理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚明宇; 聂剑平; 张立欣; 李红智

    2016-01-01

    Against the increasingly serious pollutant emissions from coal-fired utility boilers,this paper puts forward the integrative removing technology for flue gas pollutants emission from coal-fired power plants. In this technology,the removal of each single pollutant depends on the synergistic effect of two or more equipments.Integrative design and layout are necessary for the existing environmental protection equip-ments.The practical engineering application shows that,the synergistic integration of flue gas pollutants removal technology is an effective way to achieve ultra-low flue gas pollutants emission from coal-fired power plants.%针对燃煤电站污染物排放日益严重的问题,提出了燃煤电站锅炉烟气污染物一体化协同治理技术,即对单一污染物,采取多设备协同治理,设备设置和系统参数一体化考虑,从整体的角度对各环保设备的工程设计及运行进行优化。实际工程应用表明,采用烟气污染物一体化协同脱除技术是实现燃煤电站烟气超低排放的有效途径。

  10. Application of the Flexible Ceramic Internal Coating Technology of Offshore Platform Fire Water Pipeline%海洋平台消防水管线柔性陶瓷内涂技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文若; 陈珣

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance of offshore platform fire water pipeline , and extend the life of the pipeline, a new type of flexible ceramic (CeRam-Kote 54) internal coating technology is used for the corrosion construction of the fire water pipelines on an offshore platform .The technology requirements for the construction , inspection control difficulties and key points are summarized .The result showed that the internal coating technology has obvious advantages than conventional tech -nology , and the construction is simple , it can be widely applied in fire water pipeline on offshore platform .%为了提高海洋平台消防水管线的内防腐性能,延长管线的使用寿命,采用一种新型柔性陶瓷涂料( CeRam-Kote 54)内涂技术,对某海洋平台消防水管线进行内防腐施工,并对该施工技术的要求和检验控制难点、要点进行总结,结果表明,柔性陶瓷内涂技术较传统的管线防腐技术有明显的优势,且施工简便,可广泛应用于海洋平台消防水管线。

  11. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  12. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities . DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400...

  13. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  14. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  15. New pharmacological strategies to fight enveloped viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisskirchen, Karin; Lucifora, Julie; Michler, Thomas; Protzer, Ulrike

    2014-09-01

    Enveloped viruses pose an important health threat because most of the persistent and many emerging viruses are enveloped. In particular, newly emerging viruses create a need to develop broad-spectrum antivirals, which usually are obtained by targeting host cell factors. Persistent viruses have developed efficient strategies to escape host immune control, and treatment options are limited. Targeting host cell factors essential for virus persistence, or immune-based therapies provide alternative approaches. In this review, we therefore focus on recent developments to generate antivirals targeting host cell factors or immune-based therapeutic approaches to fight infections with enveloped viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fire hazard analysis for fusion energy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror fusion facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) was used to evaluate the fire safety of state-of-the-art fusion energy experiments. The primary objective of this evaluation was to ensure the parallel development of fire safety and fusion energy technology. Through fault-tree analysis, we obtained a detailed engineering description of the 2XIIB fire protection system. This information helped us establish an optimum level of fire protection for experimental fusion energy facilities as well as evaluate the level of protection provided by various systems. Concurrently, we analyzed the fire hazard inherent to the facility using techniques that relate the probability of ignition to the flame spread and heat-release potential of construction materials, electrical and thermal insulations, and dielectric fluids. A comparison of the results of both analyses revealed that the existing fire protection system should be modified to accommodate the range of fire hazards inherent to the 2XIIB facility.

  17. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  18. Rapid weight gain in professional boxing and correlation with fight decisions: analysis from 71 title fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Gianlorenzo; Weinstein, Richard N; Wallace, Paul Wesley; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Bianco, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Boxing is a sport where athletes compete in several weight categories. Professional boxers typically dehydrate to cut their weight for the weigh-in (24 h before the contest) and then rehydrate before the fight. The International Boxing Federation (IBF) mandates a second weigh-in 12 h before the fight. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify the weight gain (WG) from the 1st to the 2nd weigh-in; 2) to investigate whether rapid WG affects boxing performance (win/loss rate) and 3) whether weight discrepancy (WD) 15 between boxers exposes them to increased health risks (rate of fights ended before time limit). From official weigh-in reports of 71 IBF fights (142 fighters) the following data were gathered/calculated for each boxer: age, weight division, 1st weight, 2nd weight, WG between weigh-ins (kg and %), WD between opponents, and fight decision. Between the weigh-ins, the average WG was 2.52 ± 1.37 kg (range -0.3/6.4 kg) and 3.8 ± 2.2% of the initial body weight (range -0.4/9.3%) and the average WD 1.94 ± 1.50 kg (maximum 7.10 kg). Both WG and WD did not affect match outcomes. We observed tendencies for higher loss rate among boxers gaining more weight, and for higher victory rate in boxers with larger WD, however without reaching significance. A significant negative correlation was found between the 1st weight and the WG, both in absolute (r = -0.278, p = 0.001) and relative value (r = -0.497, p boxing performance were not found, single cases with an alarming high WG and WD were noted.

  19. Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    With effect from 15 April 2004, the Fire Brigade will no longer issue master keys on loan. Contractors' personnel requiring access to locked premises in order to carry out work must apply to the CERN staff member responsible for the contract concerned.

  20. Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to the nearest exit. Don't stop. Don't go back . In case of fire, do not try to rescue pets or possessions. Once you are out, do not go back in for any reason. Firefighters have the best chance of rescuing people who are trapped. Let firefighters know right away if anyone is missing. ...

  1. Wireless mobile field-based GIS science and technology for crisis management process: A case study of a fire event, Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.H. EL-Gamily

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless GIS services have been evolving from scientific and technological perspectives through the last two decades. These services include both the location-based services (LBS and the mobile field-based GIS. Whereas the former provides the user with the capability to access and query the already established enterprise geo-database, the latter enables the end user not only to access and query but also to update the geo-database by a near real-time spatial and non-spatial data. However, to establish a mobile field-based GIS facility, a concise system architecture should be designed. This architecture includes client-side components, wireless communication facility, and server components. The integration and automation of these components can provide the capability to collect, update, validate, and query the enterprise geo-database remotely in a near real-time mode. One of the potential fields of applications for the mobile field-based GIS is the crisis management process. A prescribed system has been previously defined as emergency response cycle for managing both the natural and the man-made crises. Three phases of the emergency response cycle are outlined which are the response and rescue phase, the recovery and reconstruction phase, and mitigation and preparedness phase. In each phase, various tasks are undertaken based on the type of the event. Selective tasks of the response and the rescue phase of the fire event occurred in the Sheraton Exchange Center have been chosen to check the validity of using the mobile field-based GIS for enhancing the performance of these tasks. These tasks are path selection and quick damage estimates.

  2. GPS Fire Vehicle Monitoring and Management System Design and Research%GPS消防车辆监控管理系统设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾涛

    2012-01-01

    首先分析了GPS导航定位技术,然后着重分析了GPS在消防车辆调度中的应用,开发了一套以GPS技术为核心的消防车辆调度监控管理信息系统.该系统管理高效,有效地提高了数字化管理水平,能够合理调度消防车辆,提高企业管理效率,同时节约了开支,实现管理成本和运营成本量化,大大节省运营成本.%This paper first analyzes the CPS navigation and positioning technology, and then focuses on the analysis of GPS in fire fighting vehicle scheduling, develops a set to GPS technology as the core of fire vehicle scheduling and monitoring management information system, the system of efficient management, effectively improve the digital management level, to schedule fire vehicles, improve enterprise management efficiency, at the same lime, save money, to realize the management cost and the operating cost of quantification, greatly saves the operation coat.

  3. Intervention times for fire fighters in tall buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne; Warneboldt Green, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The means of intervention for the rescue service is a topic of high interest, when it comes to tall buildings. The usage of stairs and a consequent fatigue of the rescue service, affects the process of fire fighting and rescuing in such buildings. In the present study tests were conducted in a high......-rise building in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The goal was to gain more information regarding the travel time for fire fighters ascending stairs. Furthermore, signs of fatigue such as pulse during the intervention and fluid loss during the whole process were recorded. The test was conducted twice...

  4. Fighting blind: why US Army Divisions Need a Dedicated Reconnaissance and Security Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Day Assault On Baghdad, 1st ed. (United States: Naval Institute Press, 2007), 44-45. 2 Robert S. Cameron , To Fight or Not To Fight? Organizational...north and south of 8 Cameron , To Fight or Not to Fight?, 47-54, 92-93. 9 US Army Cavalry...11 McGrath, Scouts Out!, 109-111, 148-149; Cameron , To Fight or Not to Fight?, 92-112. 12 7th

  5. Methods for Prediction of Temperature Distribution in Flashover Caused by Backdraft Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting temperature distribution in flashover fire is a key issue for evacuation and fire-fighting. Now many good flashover fire experiments have be conducted, but most of these experiments are proceeded in enclosure with fixed openings; researches on fire development and temperature distribution in flashover caused by backdraft fire did not receive enough attention. In order to study flashover phenomenon caused by backdraft fire, a full-scale fire experiment was conducted in one abandoned office building. Process of fire development and temperature distribution in room and corridor were separately recorded during the experiment. The experiment shows that fire development in enclosure is closely affected by the room ventilation. Unlike existing temperature curves which have only one temperature peak, temperature in flashover caused by backdraft may have more than one peak value and that there is a linear relationship between maximum peak temperature and distance away from fire compartment. Based on BFD curve and experimental data, mathematical models are proposed to predict temperature curve in flashover fire caused by backdraft at last. These conclusions and experiment data obtained in this paper could provide valuable reference to fire simulation, hazard assessment, and fire protection design.

  6. Extinguishing smouldering fires in silos. BRANDFORSK project 745-961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisaari, M.; Baroudi, D.; Latva, R. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1998-11-01

    Combustible, porous materials may self-ignite during their storage time in silos as a result of internal heating. The self-ignition process may be slow, and it results in smouldering fires that are extremely difficult to extinguish. Suitable means to fight the smouldering fire were studied both theoretically and experimentally. General heat and mass transfer equations for porous media subject to fires and suppression were written. The equations together with dimensional analysis revealed critical parameters, like the grain size and moisture content, affecting the combustion and suppression process, but they also revealed the complexity of the problem. Experimental results of over 50 tests with varying combustibles and suppression agents were used as the basis for proposed qualitative guidelines on how to fight a smouldering silo fire. Among the potential gaseous agents, CO{sub 2} was found to be the most efficient one. Low expansion foam was also found to be a potential candidate, but its applicability requires further confirmation. Quantifying the guidelines requires a whole new study on the detection of a smouldering fire. The same detection system should be capable of monitoring the suppression process and - most importantly - verifying the extinguishment. (orig.) 46 refs.

  7. Advanced concept for damage control : A framework to simulate fire propagation and damage control effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillis, M.P.W.; Keijer, W.; Smit, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Current damage control procedures are developed on the basis of a long-standing experience. However there are reasons to believe that these procedures do not account for major weapon-induced calamities. Fire fighting after substantial blast and fragmentation damage, due to a weaponhit, is quite beyo

  8. Advanced concept for damage control : A framework to simulate fire propagation and damage control effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillis, M.P.W.; Keijer, W.; Smit, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Current damage control procedures are developed on the basis of a long-standing experience. However there are reasons to believe that these procedures do not account for major weapon-induced calamities. Fire fighting after substantial blast and fragmentation damage, due to a weaponhit, is quite

  9. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 3. Smoke and Toxicity (Combustion Toxicology of Polymers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Possible Cancer Hazards.i’ Science. 195, pp 17 - 23. 1977. S K Brauman, N Fishman. A S. Broliy, and D. L Chamberlain, "Smoke Generation from the...Sidor and J. M. Peters, "Fire Fighting and Pulmon .ry Fun.tiin An Epidemiologic Study," American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 109, pp. 249-254

  10. 基于WINDOWS+RTX的舰炮火控测试评估系统开发%Development of Test and Evaluation System for Fire Control of Naval Gun Based on Windows Adding in RTX Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立红; 方华

    2012-01-01

    A test and evaluation system for fire control of naval gun is designed by utilizing digital simulation and windows adding in RTX technology, which provides a technical method for checking tactical function of naval gun weapon and fire control calculation accuracy. The equipment has been used in engineer practice of XX naval gun weapon.%采用数字仿真方法和WINDOWS+ RTX技术设计一套舰炮火控测试评估系统,为检查舰炮武器战术功能和火控精度提供了一种技术途径,已成功应用于××型舰炮武器工程实践中.

  11. Artificial Intelligence Applications to Fire Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don J. Latham

    1987-01-01

    Artificial intelligence could be used in Forest Service fire management and land-use planning to a larger degree than is now done. Robots, for example, could be programmed to monitor for fire and insect activity, to keep track of wildlife, and to do elementary thinking about the environment. Catching up with the fast-changing technology is imperative.

  12. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  13. The fighting hypothesis in combat : How well does the fighting hypothesis explain human left-handed minorities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Ton G.G.; McManus, I.C.; Schaafsma, Sara M.; Geuze, Reint H.; McGrew, WC; Schiefenhovel, W; Marchant, LF

    2013-01-01

    The strong population bias in hand preference in favor of right-handedness seems to be a typical human trait. An elegant evolutionary hypothesis explaining this trait is the so-called fighting hypothesis that postulates that left-handedness is under frequency-dependent selection. The fighting hypoth

  14. Research on Fire Prevention and Extinguishing of Fully Mechanized Top Coal Caving Face in High Gas and Inflammable Coal Seam%高瓦斯易燃煤层综放工作面的防灭火研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝平

    2014-01-01

    为了有效控制易自燃煤层放顶煤工作面自然发火,通过对煤自然发火机理的研究,以某矿8826放顶煤综采工作面为例,分析了低位放顶煤工作面采有三种防灭火技术进行防灭火的具体方案,优化出高效率、低投入、可操作性强的三相泡沫防灭火技术措施,以更好地防止煤层自燃,值得推广使用。%To effectively control the spontaneous combustion of top coal caving mining faces with spontaneous combustion coal seam,based on the research of the mechanism of coal spontaneous combustion,the coal spontaneous combustion is analyzed by taking 8826 fully mechanized top coal caving face of a coal mine as the example.The ad-vantages and disadvantages are discussed in implementation process of various fire-fighting technology of low caving working face,three-phase foam fire-fighting technical measures of high efficiency,low cost and strong operability are optimized,in order to better prevent the spontaneous combustion of coal seam.

  15. Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle Procedures Guides: Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    can open and close fully and locks in both OPEN and CLOSED positions. 8. Check that safety pin is not missing. Internal fire suppression handles 9...that safety pin is not missing. Driver’s instrument panel 19. Check VOLTS gage. 20. Check ENGINE COOLANT TEMP gage. 21. Check ENGINE OIL gage. 22

  16. [The fight over dentistry 1919-1924].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, C

    1997-01-01

    In the history of many professions there are periods of more or less pronounced borderline fights against other professions and/or charlatans. This article is about such an example from the profession of dentistry in Sweden. From the middle of the second decade of this century, there was an increasing discrepancy between the need for dental care and the too low number of dentists. Furthermore: the majority of the Swedish people could not afford dental care at all. In the public debate the concept "dental misery" was created. In 1919 a famous Swedish paediatric professor, Isak Jundell, presented a debate article in "Allmänna Svenska Läkartidningen" (Journal of the Swedish Medical Association), with a proposal for building up a corps of dental assistants with shorter training than dentists, but still with competence for tooth cleaning, extraction and some operative dentistry. The aim of the proposal was to give people easier available and cheaper dental care. The dental profession had been questioned and threatened and the reaction from the advocates of the dentists was immediate and intense. Now followed an almost five year long struggle, with the Swedish Dental Association on one side and parts of the medical profession, dental technicians, even some dentists and a number of politicians on the other. The controversy ended up in the Swedish Parliament in 1924 where many members in both the chambers had signed motions concerning authorisation of dental technicians. The dentists won the fight thanks to the resolution in the Parliament not to authorise the technicians. But still more important, from a social political point of view, was a statement from the Parliament with a commission to the Government to analyse the prerequisites for building up a Public Dental Health Service organisation in Sweden. After a series of committees this was finally a reality fourteen years later, in 1938, when the Parliament in a resolution initiated "folktandvården".

  17. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  18. FIGHT ZONE WITH POINTS OF THE SHOTOKAN KARATE FEMALE COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the fight zone with point during the female kumite of competition. This study used a quantitative research for identify the fight zone with point (ippon or waza-ari or not during the female kumite of competition. Were selected on the Internet several championship of kumite of the JKA and of the ITKF. The study detected a high probability of point in the zone 7 and in the zone 2. The study determined that the most points at the corner occurred when the karateka practiced the attack in fight zone. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA verified significant difference between the fight zone with points, H (10 = 29,49, p = 0,001. The Mann Whitney U test detected significant difference between the zone 5 with waza-ari versus all the zone. The greatest number of points in the fight zone was in agreement with the size of the fight zone. The central zone or zone 5 has 6x6 m, during the female kumite occurred more points, total of 68 waza-aris and 5 ippons. The study on the fight zone with points of the female kumite permits that the karateka has knowledge about the combat zones and guides the karateka before, during and after the female kumite. However, more studies should be done to confirm these findings.

  19. 消防工程自动喷水灭火系统技术的应用与发展%Application and Development of Fire Engineering Automatic Sprinkler System Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建峰

    2016-01-01

    目前国际上公认有效的自动灭火设施中自动喷水灭火系统独占鳌头,为消防工程做出了巨大贡献,本文着重分析了自动喷水灭火器的应用技术,并且介绍和展望了自动喷水灭火系统的发展,并且阐明其存在的问题和解决办法,促进自动喷水灭火系统的健康发展.%At present the automatic sprinkler system is the most internationally recognized effective automatic fire extinguishing facilities, which has made a huge contribution to fire engineering. This paper analyzes the application technology of the automatic sprinkling fire extinguisher, introduces and looks into the development of the automatic sprinkler system, and expounds the existing problems and solutions, to promote the healthy development of the automatic sprinkler system.

  20. Effects of fire on fish populations: Landscape perspectives on persistance of native fishes and nonnative fish invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.B.; Young, M.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Rieman, B.

    2003-01-01

    Our limited understanding of the short and long-term effects of fire on fish contributes to considerable uncertainty in assessments of the risks and benefits of fire management alternatives. A primary concern among the many potential effects of fire is the effects of fire and fire management on persistence of native fish populations. Limited evidence suggests vulnerability of fish to fire is contingent upon the quality of affected habitats, the amount and distribution of habitat (habitat fragmentation), and habitat specificity of the species in question. Species with narrow habitat requirements in highly degraded and fragmented systems are likely to be most vulnerable to fire and fire-related disturbance. In addition to effects of fire on native fish, there are growing concerns about the effects of fire on nonnative fish invasions. The role of fire in facilitating invasions by nonnative fishes is unknown, but experience with other species suggests some forms of disturbance associated with fire may facilitate invasion. Management efforts to promote persistence of fishes in fire-prone landscapes can take the form of four basic alternatives: (1) pre-fire management; (2) post-fire management; (3) managing fire itself (e.g. fire fighting); and (4) monitoring and adaptive management. Among these alternatives, pre-fire management is likely to be most effective. Effective pre-fire management activities will address factors that may render fish populations more vulnerable to the effects of fire (e.g. habitat degradation, fragmentation, and nonnative species). Post-fire management is also potentially important, but suffers from being a reactive approach that may not address threats in time to avert them. Managing fire itself can be important in some contexts, but negative consequences for fish populations are possible (e.g. toxicity of fire fighting chemicals to fish). Monitoring and adaptive management can provide important new information for evaluating alternatives, but

  1. Software fires detection and extinction for forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos García Seco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the most usual fire detection and forest extinction application technologies at present. We will see all different methods used by these applications that can be found in the Market and some examples. Also, some basic questions about the most influent parameters when a fire must be extinct are shown. Finally, after having shown all the technologies, we will build a model about an intelligent system which not only detects, but also extinguish wildfires.

  2. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  3. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Fire ant allergy Share | Fire Ant Allergy This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Fire ants are a stinging insect typically found in ...

  4. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  5. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  6. 徐大堡核电站运行和维修技术支持大楼的火灾自动报警系统设计%Automatic Fire Alarm System Design of Operation and Maintenance Technical Support Building of XU Dapu Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩圆

    2016-01-01

    Compared with other auxiliary workshops,XU Dapu Nuclear Power Plant has the characteristic of higher personnel density,more fire compartments and more concentrated communication machine rooms, etc. This paper introduced the design of the automatic fire alarm system based on the fire detection requirements,fire-fighting requirements and the characteristics of the building. The design could provide a certain guarantee for the safe operation of the building,and also provide a reference of automatic fire alarm system design for the operation and maintenance technology support building of subsequent AP1000 million kilowatt PWR nuclear power plant.%相比核电站其他辅助厂房,徐大堡核电站运行和维修技术支持大楼具有人员密度高、防火分区多、通信机房集中等特点。根据该建筑物特点、火灾探测和灭火要求对大楼火灾自动报警系统进行设计,为大楼安全运行提供一定保障,也为后续A P1000百万千瓦级压水堆核电站运行和维修技术支持大楼的火灾自动报警系统设计提供参考。

  7. Geometry-of-fire tracking algorithm for direct-fire weapon systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Caleb K.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The continuous cycle for validating geometry of fires on a battlefield impedes momentum. A force that can decide and act quicker than the enemy has an advantage. The goal of this thesis is to provide dismounted infantry units with this advantage by developing a sensor network that streamlines the geometry-of-fire validation cycle for direct-fire weapon systems. This is the first attempt to develop technology for this specific applicati...

  8. Comparative Nozzle Study for Applying Aqueous Film Forming Foam on Large-Scale Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    over protein foam on large-scale fires when utilized in crash rescue and fire fighting vehicles. The air-aspirating nozzles and foam pumps used as...constructed for the Air Force C-5A tests (Reference 4) was utilized . An overall view of the test site is shown in Figure 1. Phase I fire test areas...36.6 gallons per inch. The proportioning of AFFF concentrate was determined by using the refractometri :; method and also by metering the amount of AFPF

  9. A New Application to Facilitate Post-Fire Recovery and Rehabilitation in Savanna Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mark L.; Schnase, John L.; Weber, Keith T.; Brown, Molly E.; Gill, Roger L.; Haskett, George W.; Gardner, Tess A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government spends an estimated $3billion per year to fight forest fires in the United States. Post-fire rehabilitation activities represent a small but essential portion of that total. The Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery (RECOVER) system is currently under development for Savanna ecosystems in the western U.S. The prototype of this system has been built and will have realworld testing during the summer 2013 fire season. When fully deployed, the RECOVER system will provide the emergency rehabilitation teams with critical and timely information for management decisions regarding stabilization and rehabilitation strategies.

  10. Suspension mechanism and application of sand-suspended slurry for coalmine fire prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yongliang; Wang Lanyun; Chu Tingxiang; Liang Donglin

    2014-01-01

    North and west China has abundant coal resources, however, such resources make these regions prone to serious mine fire disasters. Although the copious sand and fly ash resources found in these areas can be used as fire-fighting materials, conventional grouting is expensive because of water shortage and loess particles. A new compound material (i.e., a sand-suspended colloid), which comprises a mineral inorganic gel and an organic polymer, is developed in the current study to improve the quality of sand injection and reduce water wastage when grouting. The new material can steadily suspend the sand, through the addi-tion of a small amount of colloid yielding steady sand-suspended slurry. The process of producing the slurry is convenient and quick, overcoming the shortage of sand-suspending thickeners which need heat and are difficult to produce. The space work model based on the theory of the double-electric layer is established to study the suspended mechanism of the solid particles in the sand-suspended colloid. The dispersion effect of the sand-suspended colloid is demonstrated by the incorporation of the electro-static effect by the double-electric layer and the steric hindrance effect on the sand particles, ensuring the stability of the colloid system and the steady suspension of sand particles in the sand-suspended colloid. Mechanical analysis indicates that the sand is suspended steadily under the condition that the rock sand particles stress on the lower part of the fluid is less than the yield stress of the colloid. Finally, the fire-prevention technology of sand suspension was applied and tested in the Daliuta Coal Mine, achieving suc-cessful results.

  11. Smokey comes of age: Unmanned aerial systems for fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twidwell, Dirac; Allen, Craig R.; Detweiler , Carrick; Higgins, James; Laney, Christian; Elbaum, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, fire management has focused on techniques both to protect human communities from catastrophic wildfire and to maintain fire-dependent ecological systems. However, despite a large and increasing allocation of resources and personnel to achieve these goals, fire management objectives at regional to global scales are not being met. Current fire management techniques are clearly inadequate for the challenges faced by fire managers, and technological innovations are needed. Advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) technology provide opportunities for innovation in fire management and science. In many countries, fire management organizations are beginning to explore the potential of UAS for monitoring fires. We have taken the next step and developed a prototype that can precisely ignite fires as part of wildfire suppression tactics or prescribed fires (fire intentionally ignited within predetermined conditions to reduce hazardous fuels, improve habitat, or mitigate for large wildfires). We discuss the potential for these technologies to benefit fire management activities, while acknowledging the sizeable sociopolitical barriers that prevent their immediate broad application.

  12. 3 Drugs Identified to Potentially Fight Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html 3 Drugs Identified to Potentially Fight Zika Virus But only one is already approved in the ... fetuses protection against the damaging effects of Zika virus, a new multicenter study reports. Researchers identified these ...

  13. CDC Awards $16M in Fight Against Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160203.html CDC Awards $16M in Fight Against Zika Health experts warn pregnant women to avoid downtown ... where mosquitoes are apparently infecting people with the Zika virus. The number of local transmissions of the ...

  14. Gene Therapy Helps 2 Babies Fight Type of Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163244.html Gene Therapy Helps 2 Babies Fight Type of Leukemia Tweaking ... time," said Qasim, a professor of cell and gene therapy at University College London. Small trials are under ...

  15. "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "As a native nation, we must fight diabetes…" Past Issues / ... Springs, Az. Type 2 I didn't know a thing about diabetes when I was diagnosed, but ...

  16. Drug Helps Fight Breast Tumors Tied to 'Cancer Genes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Helps Fight Breast Tumors Tied to 'Cancer Genes' Lynparza may offer a new treatment for women ... with breast cancer linked to BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations, according to the study. Olaparib delayed cancer ...

  17. PREDICTION OF FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abhijit Suresh; Sai Swarna Latha; Pooja Nair; N. Radhika

    2014-01-01

    .... The vital response to physical and emotional danger is called fight or flight response. It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific stimulus, such as pain or the threat of danger...

  18. Injected Drug May Help Fight Osteoporosis in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160452.html Injected Drug May Help Fight Osteoporosis in Women Abaloparatide appears to reduce fractures better ... risk of bone fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis better than a placebo and the currently available ...

  19. US Antitrust Move has Google fighting on Two Fronts

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Google may soon be fighting antitrust battle on two fronts. The European Commission has been looking for two years into wether the search giant abused local competition law. Now the Federal Trade Commission is starting its own antitrust inquiry.

  20. Promising Results for Drug to Fight Arthritis Linked to Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Results for Drug to Fight Arthritis Linked to Psoriasis Psoriatic arthritis causes painful joint swelling, but new ... of a form of arthritis often linked to psoriasis. According to Stanford University researchers, psoriatic arthritis is ...

  1. Busy Minds May Be Better At Fighting Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Busy Minds May Be Better at Fighting Dementia Computer use, crafting, social activities and games all ... aging, even if you're genetically predisposed toward dementia or Alzheimer's disease, a new study reports. Activities ...

  2. Model and zoning of forest fire risk in Heilongjiang province based on spatial Logistic%基于空间Logistic的黑龙江省林火风险模型与火险区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓欧; 李亦秋; 冯仲科; 张冬有

    2012-01-01

    林火风险分析和森林火险区划是林火管理的重要组成部分.该文利用黑龙江省2000-2010年MODIS火烧迹地遥感数据集MCD45A1,在RS和GIS技术支持下构建林火空间分布与林火影响因子间的空间Logistic林火风险模型,在较大时间尺度和省域空间尺度上进行了森林火险区划研究,结果表明:通过空间采样构建的Logistic林火风险模型拟合效果很好,在显著性水平为0.05的情况下,通过模型系数的混合检验和Wald检验;相对运行特征(relative operating characteristic,ROC)值为0.753;经图层运算得到森林火险概率分布图,并将黑龙江省分为无火险区、低火险区、中火险区、高火险区和极高火险区.大兴安岭山地集中了极高火险区和高火险区;小兴安岭基本上属于高火险区和中火险区;东部山地小部分地区属于中火险区;其它地区属于低火险区和无火险区.黑龙江省森林火险的定量定位评价可为林火的预防、扑救以及防火指挥员进行防火规划和部署扑火力量、指导森林防火工作提供科学依据.%Forest fire risk analysis and forest fire risk zoning are important parts of the forest fire management. MODIS burn scars of remote sensing data sets MCD45A1 of Heilongjiang Province in 2000-2010 was used to build the spatial logistic forest fire risk model based on the spatial distribution of forest fire and forest fire impact factor by using geographic information system technology. Forest fire risk zoning study was conducted in a larger temporal scale and provincial spatial scale. Logistic model of forest fire risk built by spatial sampling between the distribution of forest fires and forest fire impact factor fit well (p<0.05). The relative operating characteristic value was 0.753 and the probability distribution map of forest fire was gotten by layer computing. Forest fire area of Heilongjiang province was divided into none,low,moderate,high,and extremely

  3. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  4. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  5. Fighting desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    "Fighting Desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic" is an investigation of Tropic of Cancer that investigates the deeply repressed homoerotic desire that periodically surfaces. This reading is dependent upon an interpretation of Eve Sedgwick that proposes male sexuality as a continuum. By looking at the nature of the male-male relationships, as well as the lack of emotion and presence in the male-female relationships, I will show that the most intimate relationships are between men, and that these relationships are expressed through the telling of stories about (heterosexual) sex; this is the function of women within the novel: one has sex with a woman, not for the pleasure that the act brings, but for the pleasure that the recounting of the story to other men brings. Furthermore, I will look at Miller's use of puns within the novel and how they also contribute to a homoerotic reading. None of this is to argue that Miller was not homophobic and sexist--Miller very clearly was--the purpose of this essay is to show the complex nature of sexuality, even within a protagonist who asserts a very defined heterosexuality.

  6. Metabolomics in the fight against malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Salinas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics uses high-resolution mass spectrometry to provide a chemical fingerprint of thousands of metabolites present in cells, tissues or body fluids. Such metabolic phenotyping has been successfully used to study various biologic processes and disease states. High-resolution metabolomics can shed new light on the intricacies of host-parasite interactions in each stage of the Plasmodium life cycle and the downstream ramifications on the host’s metabolism, pathogenesis and disease. Such data can become integrated with other large datasets generated using top-down systems biology approaches and be utilised by computational biologists to develop and enhance models of malaria pathogenesis relevant for identifying new drug targets or intervention strategies. Here, we focus on the promise of metabolomics to complement systems biology approaches in the quest for novel interventions in the fight against malaria. We introduce the Malaria Host-Pathogen Interaction Center (MaHPIC, a new systems biology research coalition. A primary goal of the MaHPIC is to generate systems biology datasets relating to human and non-human primate (NHP malaria parasites and their hosts making these openly available from an online relational database. Metabolomic data from NHP infections and clinical malaria infections from around the world will comprise a unique global resource.

  7. Understanding and fighting the medicine counterfeit market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dégardin, Klara; Roggo, Yves; Margot, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Medicine counterfeiting is a serious worldwide issue, involving networks of manufacture and distribution that are an integral part of industrialized organized crime. Despite the potentially devastating health repercussions involved, legal sanctions are often inappropriate or simply not applied. The difficulty in agreeing on a definition of counterfeiting, the huge profits made by the counterfeiters and the complexity of the market are the other main reasons for the extent of the phenomenon. Above all, international cooperation is needed to thwart the spread of counterfeiting. Moreover effort is urgently required on the legal, enforcement and scientific levels. Pharmaceutical companies and agencies have developed measures to protect the medicines and allow fast and reliable analysis of the suspect products. Several means, essentially based on chromatography and spectroscopy, are now at the disposal of the analysts to enable the distinction between genuine and counterfeit products. However the determination of the components and the use of analytical data for forensic purposes still constitute a challenge. The aim of this review article is therefore to point out the intricacy of medicine counterfeiting so that a better understanding can provide solutions to fight more efficiently against it.

  8. Crayfish recognize the faces of fight opponents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Van der Velden

    Full Text Available The capacity to associate stimuli underlies many cognitive abilities, including recognition, in humans and other animals. Vertebrates process different categories of information separately and then reassemble the distilled information for unique identification, storage and recall. Invertebrates have fewer neural networks and fewer neural processing options so study of their behavior may reveal underlying mechanisms still not fully understood for any animal. Some invertebrates form complex social colonies and are capable of visual memory-bees and wasps, for example. This ability would not be predicted in species that interact in random pairs without strong social cohesion; for example, crayfish. They have chemical memory but the extent to which they remember visual features is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the crayfish Cherax destructor is capable of visual recognition of individuals. The simplicity of their interactions allowed us to examine the behavior and some characteristics of the visual features involved. We showed that facial features are learned during face-to-face fights, that highly variable cues are used, that the type of variability is important, and that the learning is context-dependent. We also tested whether it is possible to engineer false identifications and for animals to distinguish between twin opponents.

  9. Your help is appreciated to fight Spam

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Mail Service

    2004-01-01

    Spam problem constantly increases its severity: currently about 90% of e-mails received daily by CERN Mail servers are unsolicited messages - called ‘Spam' - and spammers are doing their best to bypass anti-spam filters. In these conditions, users' feedback is priceless. It allows the CERN Mail Service to improve Spam fighting performance, and of course reduce the number of received unsolicited mails. Outlook users should note the existence of ‘anti-Spam buttons': ‘Check Spam classification of an e-mail', ‘Update personal whitelist' and ‘Report Spam'. The ‘Report Spam' button is very important: it removes the selected Spam from your Inbox, and sends a copy to the CERN Mail Service. Those reports are used to build new filters nearly in real time; a new Spam might be blocked in less than 15 minutes! Therefore, every Outlook user is warmly encouraged to get rid of the Spam messages received in the Inbox folder by using the ‘Report Spam' button and not b...

  10. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 4, April--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  11. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 8, April--June, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U. S. coal.

  12. 光纤通信技术在消防部队的实践与发展前景%Application of Optical Fiber Communication Technology in Fire Forces and Its Development Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雅蕾

    2015-01-01

    光纤通信技术广泛应用到各行各业,促进了社会经济的快速发展。文中针对光纤通信技术在消防部队的应用情况进行分析和探讨,并对其发展前景进行相关展望。%Optical fiber communication technology has been widely applied to all walks of life,which promotes rapid development of social economy.In this article,application of optical fiber communication technology in fire department is analyzed and discussed,and its development prospect is presented.

  13. Research and Application of Fire Resisting Building External Insulation Formwork Technology%防火建筑外保温模板技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚通稳

    2016-01-01

    Under the requirements of insulation outside the building and fire protection performance, combined with the characteristics of existing external insulation system and insulation materials, a new kind of insulation material, namely fire resisting building external insulation formwork was designed. Through the detection and analysis on the slurry fluidity of fire isolation component, the compressive and flexural strength and wet density, the suitable mix proportion was chosen. By the comprehensive analysis on insulation and construction performance, it is pointed out that this component can meet wall concrete pouring and building energy-saving requirement.%在建筑物外保温系统防火性能要求下,结合现有外保温系统和保温材料特点,设计出一种新型保温材料——防火建筑外保温模板.通过对防火隔离设计部件料浆流动性、试件抗折、抗压强度和湿密度进行检测及数据分析,确定生产配料方案;对由企业生产并自然养护28d保温模板进行保温与施工性能综合分析,该制品满足墙体混凝土浇筑的施工与建筑物节能要求.

  14. 煤矿火区下开采技术研究报告%Mining Technology Research Reports under Coal Mine Fire Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任光斌

    2014-01-01

    The coalseam in this paper belongs to coal mines that easy to spontaneous combustion, through the Wong grouting for small kiln fire area, the mining workface under fire area uses pressure ventilation and sprays magnesium chloride inhibitor, both ends of the back of the head in mining workface builds flyash and gelling agent wall to prevent carbon monoxide and other harmful gases of small kiln fire area pouring out the mining workface and the spontaneous combustion of left coal in this workface goaf.%本文对煤层容易自燃的矿井,通过对小窑火区的黄泥灌浆,火区下采煤工作面采用均压通风和喷洒氯化镁阻化剂,采煤工作面两端头后部构筑粉煤灰和胶凝剂墙体,防止小窑火区一氧化碳等有害气体向采煤工作面涌出,也防止本工作面采空区遗煤的自燃发火。

  15. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  16. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...

  17. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-13

    The major objectives of the project are to: (1) demonstrate the performance of three combustion NO{sub x} control technologies; (2) determine the short-term NO{sub x} emission trends for each of the operating configurations; (3) determine the dynamic long-term NO{sub x} emission characteristics for each of the operating configurations using sophisticated statistical techniques; (4) evaluate progressive cost-effectiveness (i.e., dollars per ton of NO{sub x} removed) of the low NO{sub x} combustion technologies tested; and (5) determine the effects on other combustion parameters (e.g., CO production, carbon carry-over, particulate characteristics) of applying the low NO{sub x} combustion technologies. (VC)

  18. Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This three phase SBIR project from ADA Technologies Inc. (ADA) builds upon the experience of ADA in development of fine water mist (FWM) fire suppression technology....

  19. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  20. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  1. Heat shields for aircraft - A new concept to save lives in crash fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, C. B.; Parker, J. A.; Fish, R. H.; Henshaw, J.; Newland, J. H.; Tempesta, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    A passenger compartment surrounded by a fire-retardant shell, to protect the occupants long enough for the fire to burn out or for fire-fighting equipment to reach the aircraft and extinguish it, is proposed as a new concept for saving lives in crash fires. This concept is made possible by the recent development of two new fire-retardant materials: a very lightweight foam plastic, called polyisocyanurate foam, and an intumescent paint. Exposed to heat, the intumescent paint expands to many times its original thickness and insulates the surface underneath it. Demonstration tests are illustrated, described and discussed. However, some problems, such as preventing fuselage rupture and protecting windows, must be solved before such a system can be used.

  2. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-03-01

    Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

  3. The challenge of applying governance and sustainable development to wildland fire management in Southern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susana Aguilar; Cristina Montiel

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses participatory processes in wildland fire management (WFM).Participation is an essential element of both the European Sustainable Development (SD) Strategy and the White Paper on Governance.Governance and SD have thus become an interconnected challenge to be applied to WFM (as a sub-area in forest policy),amongst other policies.An overspread weakness in WFM is lack of real participatinn of stakeholders.Absence of (or deficient) participation can seriously impair contribution of this group to WFM in high-risk areas and runs counter governance and the SDS.Further,this weakness might prevent an efficient.use of fire as a land management tool (prescribed burning,PB) and as a technique for fighting wildfire (suppression fire,SF).Even though these rue practices have been well known in many different places,they have been increasingly neglected or prohibited over time in Southern Europe.At present,forest and fire fighting administrations are turning their eyes back on them and analyzing the benefits of using fire in relation to preventive and suppressive actions.Therefore,participatory and diffusion mechanisms (the latter adopting the shape of national and international experts' networks) are required in order to solve the socalled fire paradox:that is,the need to move from a one-dimensional perception of the negative impacts of fire to a more sophisticated one that also stresses its positive effects.Governance,based on broad social participation,and diffusion,through fire networks,are of utmost importance in order,first,to diminish long-standing suspicion amongst different interests as to the use of fire and,secondly,to diffuse best practices associated with PB and SF.Most importantly,the EU should exercise its environmental leadership so that these new fire practices and sustainable WFM are diffused across the international arena.

  4. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with physical fighting among Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Hussin, Siti Fatimah; Abd Aziz, Nur Shahida; Hasim, Hazrin; Sahril, Norhafizah

    2014-09-01

    Physical fighting among adolescents is one manifestation of interpersonal violence that is an important issue globally, but attention to this problem in Malaysia has been limited. We analyzed data available from the Malaysia Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2012. Of the 25 507 respondents, 27.4% reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Being bullied (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67-3.39) was significantly and highly associated with involvement in physical fighting. Smoking (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI = 2.20-2.97), males (aOR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.62-1.93), using drugs (aOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.09-2.15), and drinking alcohol (aOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.24-1.63) were other factors associated with physical fighting. Parental supervision showed no significant association with physical fighting. These findings indicate that more attention needs to be given to bullying at school by school authorities and parents.

  6. Neuromuscular responses to simulated brazilian jiu-jitsu fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bruno Victor Corrêa; Ide, Bernardo Neme; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Marocolo, Moacir; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m) undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest). Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT) and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ) tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre) and after the last one (Post). Blood lactate (LA) was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power) was observed.

  7. 用B类泡沫扑灭蒸气火灾%Fire fighting steam fire with B class foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晔

    2010-01-01

    @@ 在突发事件中,大多数未点燃的易燃液体外泄蒸气都可用AFFF(水成膜泡沫)泡沫来覆盖,目的是防止外泄蒸气被点燃.但是,一些环保机构则不允许消防队在这种情况下使用含氟表面活性剂型灭火泡沫,或只有当生命或健康受到威胁之时才允许消防队使用这种灭火剂.

  8. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  9. The Dissect and Measures of the Common Problems of the Gas-fired Industrial Boilers Security Technology%燃气工业锅炉安全技术常见一些问题剖析及措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维澄

    2012-01-01

    Deficiencies in safety management technology of gas-fired industrial boiler were found from a long-term test practice, such as improper selection of air intake and exhaust equipment, improper tuyere installation position, poor quality of installation and maintenance, non-standard installation of detection alarm and interlock device and unreasonable settings of traditional gas supply process. The author carefully analyzed the safety problems, proposed appropriate improvements and precautions to ensure the gas-fired industrial boilers safety and economic.%从长期检验实践中,发现燃气工业锅炉安全管理技术把关上存在诸多缺失,诸如进排风设备选型和风口安装位置不当、安装维修质量把关不到位、检测报警及联锁装置安装不规范、传统的燃气供应工艺流程控制设置不合理等问题,针对诸多安全隐患问题进行认真剖析,提出相应改进和预防的措施,确保燃气工业锅炉安全经济运行。

  10. Survey of Expert System in Forest Fire Management Based on 3S Technology%3S技术和专家系统在林火管理中的应用研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瑜; 夏国荣

    2013-01-01

    The application research of ES in forestry management based on 3S has improved greatly the development level of forest management.This paper discusses the feasibility of the ES(expert system)and the 3S technology and the application in the aspects of forest fire management,And also analyzes the combination and questions between Expert System and 3S.It embodies science intelligence and information of existing forest fire management.%  基于3S技术的专家系统的应用研究极大提高了林火管理的水平。介绍了专家系统(ES)与3S技术结合的可行性以及未来在林火管理领域的应用。分析了ES与3S技术在林火管理中的结合点及所面对的问题,进一步体现了现有林火管理科学化、智能化和信息化。

  11. Comprehensive Fire Control Technology of Carbon Monoxide Exceeded Treatment in Caving Region of Hongliu Colliery%高冒区CO超限治理的综合防灭火技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彦云; 代涛; 史波波

    2015-01-01

    红柳煤矿I010204工作面冒顶区充填高分子材料引起高分子材料或浮煤燃烧,进而CO超限最高达5000ppm。为有效地控制CO气体的超限,通过灌浆、注氮、注液氮和注三相泡沫等综合防灭火措施,保证了工作面的安全启封和顺利回收。本研究为宁东矿区在今后的工作面回撤阶段的防灭火工作,提供了技术保障和很好的借鉴作用。%Mine caving region of I010204 working faces of Hongliu colliery filled with polymer material burned because of high molecular material or float coal combustion caused by the overrun heat, and CO up to 5000ppm. For effective control of CO gas overrun, comprehensive fire control technology of grouting, nitro⁃gen injection, injection of liquid nitrogen and three-phase foam was empolyed to ensure the safety of the working face, the unsealing and smooth recovery. Fire prevention work of the research provides technical sup⁃port and a good reference for the Ningdong mine back stage in the future.

  12. Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using

  13. Summaries of BFRL fire research in-house projects and grants, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Nora H.

    1993-09-01

    The report describes the fire research projects performed in the Building and Fire Research Laboratory (BFRL) and under its extramural grants program during fiscal year 1993. The BFRL Fire Research Program has directed its efforts under three program thrusts. The in-house priority projects, grants, and externally-funded efforts thus form an integrated, focussed ensemble. The publication is organized along those lines: fire risk and hazard prediction - carbon monoxide prediction, turbulent combustion, soot, engineering analysis, fire hazard assessment, and large fires; fire safety of products and materials - materials combustion, furniture flammability, and wall and ceiling fires; and advanced technologies for fire sensing and control - fire detection and fire suppression. For the convenience of the reader, an alphabetical listing of all grants is contained in Part 2.0.

  14. NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions (WSFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoni, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Western states Fire Missions (WSFM) that occurred in 2007. The objectives of this mission are: (1) Demonstrate capabilities of UAS to overfly and collect sensor data on widespread fires throughout Western US. (1) Demonstrate long-endurance mission capabilities (20-hours+). (2) Image multiple fires (greater than 4 fires per mission), to showcase extendable mission configuration and ability to either linger over key fires or station over disparate regional fires. (3) Demonstrate new UAV-compatible, autonomous sensor for improved thermal characterization of fires. (4) Provide automated, on-board, terrain and geo-rectified sensor imagery over OTH satcom links to national fire personnel and Incident commanders. (5) Deliver real-time imagery to (within 10-minutes of acquisition). (6) Demonstrate capabilities of OTS technologies (GoogleEarth) to serve and display mission-critical sensor data, coincident with other pertinent data elements to facilitate information processing (WX data, ground asset data, other satellite data, R/T video, flight track info, etc).

  15. 某类重特大火灾数值模拟研究%Numerical Simulation for Special-typed Big Fires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁杰; 申世飞

    2011-01-01

    Causes and sites of several fires occnrred in a bar, the Dancer King Club in Shenzhen City, and the Forever-joy Latin Club in Fujian Province are similar. Heavy casualties caused by fire in the short time. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study fire prevention and controlmeasures. The advantage of the FDS software is taken to construct a fire model of the bar. The evacuation simulation parameter can be rationally set through the rational analysis involving on site situation of porsons. By seltting the appropriate fire scens according to the actual fires, the software can analyze the parameter change of the beat radiation, smoke temperature, smoke toxicity, and smoke visthifity in older to figure out the available evacuation time. Combined with CFE software to simulate the evacuation process, fire consequence analysis has been carried out in accordance with the different fuel types, fire facilities, and the number of evacuated persons. Fuel analysis results show that renvation of polyurethane foam sound-absorbing cotton weakens fire technology and is direct cause of the fire spreading speed. The materials can produce large amounts of toxic smoke and cause casualties in a short period. The simulation results of diffierent fire-fighting facilities reflect the important role played by automatic fire-fighting facilities. The quiek response sprinkler beads should be promotod for the sprinkler system in public amenities. The reason for large number of casualties is that automatic fire-fighting facilities not been installed in accordance with national standards. The quantitative analysis of the anticipated casalties in the different number of evacuated persons has proved that the fixed member of fire control manager in the public amenities has a great significant. The results can be used to analyze the cauls of fires and fire preventiou measures.%某酒吧火灾、深圳舞王俱乐部火灾和福建长乐拉丁酒吧火灾的发生场所和火灾原因类似,且短时间

  16. Fire safety challenges of green buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Meacham, Brian; Echeverria, Juan; Cheng, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concerns and advances in architectural technologies have lead to a greater number of green buildings or buildings with green, eco-friendly elements. However, from a practical standpoint, there is no incident reporting system in the world that tracks data on fire incidents in green buildings. Fire safety objectives are not explicitly considered in most green rating schemes, and green design features have been associated with photovoltaic panels and roof materials, lightweight timber frame buildings, and combustible insulation materials. Fire Safety Challenges of Green Buildings is

  17. A Hopi tradition: Yellow firing ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canouts, Veletta; Bishop, Ronald

    1995-09-01

    The famed Hopi yellow-ware vessels of the American southwest were not the product of any single technological variable, firing technique, clay, or temper Instead, all of these factors worked together in a technological system affected by the desires, knowledge, and effectualness of the people producing the pottery.

  18. Inclusion of people with disabilities through fights and martial arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Carvalho da Silva Mocarzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating how the fights / martial arts were adapted for inclusion of people with disabilities in the social sphere as well as for rehabilitation and sports-competition. The analysis was initially made at the global level and later specific attention was paid to the Brazilian reality, through a narrative review of literature. The following fights / martial arts were considered: fencing, judo, karate, kung fu, boxing, taekwondo and capoeira. It was concluded that the fights / martial arts can contribute to combating social exclusion, contributing to the promotion of health, beauty and leisure and new talents in parasports can be discovered too. Further studies on the subject are needed.

  19. A mismatch between the perceived fighting signal and fighting ability reveals survival and physiological costs for bearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac González-Santoyo

    Full Text Available Signals of fighting indicate an animal's intention to attack and so they serve to prevent costly aggressive encounters. However, according to theory, a signal that is different in design (i.e. a novel signal but that fails to inform fighting intentions will result in negative fitness consequences for the bearer. In the present study we used males of the territorial damselfly Hetaerina americana, which have a red wing spot during territory defense that has evolved as a signal of fighting ability. By producing a novel signal (covering the red spot with blue ink in territory owners, we investigated: a the behavioral responses by conspecific males; b survival cost and c three physiological mediators of impaired survival: muscular fat reserves, muscle mass and immune ability. We predicted that males with the novel signal would be attacked more often by conspecifics as the former would fail to convey fighting ability and intentions adequately. This will result in lower survival and physiological condition for the novel signal bearers. We found that, compared to control males (males whose red spot was not changed, experimental males had reduced survival, were less able to hold a territory, and had a reduced muscle mass. It seems that spot modified males were not able to effectively communicate their territory tenancy, which may explain why they lost their defended sites. Our results provide support for theoretical models that a novel signal that fails to informing fighting ability may lead to a fitness cost for bearers.

  20. Adolescent Physical Fighting in Ghana, Their Demographic and Social Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Acquah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical fighting is an important behavioral concern of public health importance among adolescents worldwide. The present study examines the patterns and correlates of physical fighting among a school-based population in a low-income country setting. Data on 6235 adolescents aged 11–16 years were derived from the Republic of Ghana contributions to the Global School-based Health Survey. Three thresholds of participation in a physical fight during a 12-month recall period were compared against several independent sociodemographic variables. Bivariate analyses were used to screen for statistically significant associations and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine significant relationships while adjusting for covariates. Within the recall period, 32% of adolescents had reported being involved in two or more physical fights. Those involved in a physical fight during three or more days during the recall period were more likely to have been bullied (relative risk ratios (RRR = 1.86; 99% confidence intervals (CI: 1.38–2.52, have had a troubled experience with alcohol (RRR = 2.202; CI = 1.55–2.64, and miss days of school (RRR = 2.02; CI = 1.39–2.92. When adjusted only for age and sex, having understanding parents was protective (RRR = 0.64; CI = 0.53–0.78 as was having a positive school environment (RRR = 0.73; CI = 0.55–0.97. Our findings suggest that school-based programming which simultaneously targets multiple risk behaviors and conflict resolution may be helpful in interventions to reduce rates of physical fighting.