WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology europe economic

  1. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    Partial Contents: Science and Technology Policy, Corporate Alliances, Corporate Strategies, East West Relations, Europe Asia Relations, Infrastruction, Budget, Semiconductors, Strategy, Government, Industrial Policy...

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-24

    will be coordinated with other programmes such as " Agriculture and Agro-Industry" and "Industrial and Materials Technology (BRITE/EURAM [Bright...programme. Ethics Area 4: Research on Biomedical Ethics This will include legislation on bioethics and current ethics; the social impact of the...programme (i.e., any technological risks); assessing bioethical aspects of other EC R&D programmes; and establishing a European "ethical observatory

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-11

    general-council president Rene Monory, commenting on Poitiers’s Futuroscope, explains that "We had no chance of catching up with the other French...in Compiegne; Vatine Technology Park in Rouen; Caen-Normandie Technopolis in Caen; Cite Descartes in Marne-la-Vallee; Brest Iroise in Brest; Quimper

  4. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  5. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  6. The economic and political integration of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers issues concerning US coal and mineral exports to Europe in the wake of the economic and political integration of Europe. Topics addressed include: The European Energy Charter; the implications of the European Energy Charter for coal companies; and tax issues, coal development and the European Common Market

  7. Economic Benefits of Space Tourism to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P.

    The European aerospace industry has been very slow to consider the commercial opportunities in supplying passenger space travel services. This has been a costly mistake not just of space policy, but also of economic policy and environmental policy. This is because it is very unlikely that space tourism will remain just a small-scale activity of the very rich; it is much more likely to grow into a major new industry, employing millions of people in high quality employment - eventually much of it outside the Earth's eco-system. This is particularly important because, although the European “social-economic model” has greater popular support than the “USA model” (including among the general USA population), Europe today faces the major problem of high unemployment, which is imposing heavy social and economic costs. If Europe makes serious efforts soon to encourage the growth of passenger space travel, and of the many other economically and environmentally valuable space activities to which this will lead, then commercial space activities could become a major new axis of economic growth and employment-creation for Europe. Moreover, Europe has several advantages over the USA, Russia, Japan, China and India, and so could play a leading role in this field, if policy errors are corrected. The paper discusses the above possibilities, and the potential economic, environmental and other benefits for Europe in investing boldly in this fledgling industry.

  8. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2012-01-01

    This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007.......This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007....

  9. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; de Mouzon, J

    2012-01-01

    This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008.......This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008....

  10. Economic impacts of deforestation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoboli, R.

    1992-01-01

    Assessments of the economic impacts of the deterioration of European forests are being made from two points of view - the marketing of wood products and the potential economic benefits which can possibly be derived from a healthy environment. This article considers the principal results of these studies and evaluates their limitations and usefulness. In reviewing some scientific aspects of current debate on the probable causes of deforestation, as well as, in examining government efforts towards air pollution abatement, the article makes reference to tabled data on deforestation in Europe. Overall, the results of economic impacts studies based on the use of simulation models indicate a significant reduction in local supplies to the European wood products industry thus resulting in a dramatic drop in world market share and consequent market instability. Economic losses due to the inability to capitalize on healthy forests are valued in the order of billions of dollars per year in terms of the loss of business in the wood products and commercial-recreational sectors. While pointing out the uncertainties involved in the formulation of these assessments, the article also suggests how their results can constitute useful guidelines in cost benefit analyses of proposed government interventions. A discussion is made of the efficacy of some of these interventions now being considered aimed at reforestation and air pollution abatement

  11. Europe Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-29

    MICROELECTRONICS Italian SGS President: Survival Strategies for Small Firms (Rudolf Schulze; VDI NACHRICHTEN , 11 Jul 86) 47 SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL POLICY...29 September 1986 WEST EUROPE/^OtoEIECTRONICS ITALIAN SGS PRESIDENT: SURVIVAL STRATEGIES FOR SMALL FIRMS Duesseldorf VDI NACHRICHTEN in German...for Europe," first paragraph is VDI NACHRICHTEN introduction] [Text] Duesseldorf, 11 Jul 86—Japanese producers are in the process of taking over the

  12. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe & Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-11

    Commission (TECHNOLOGIE NACHRICHTEN-MANAGEMENT INFORMATIONEN, No 457, 12 Jun 87) 4 FRG Economic Minister Sets Rules for Airbus Subsidies...setting up of an infrastructure. 8707 CSO: 3698/M320 AEROSPACE, CIVIL AVIATION WEST EUROPE FRG ECONOMIC MINISTER SETS RULES FOR AIRBUS SUBSIDIES...program: 31 December 1989 Luigi Franchi Inc., large company classification Program: Research and development of a computerized multispindle forming

  13. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; Kupka, M

    2013-01-01

    The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?...

  14. Europe's economic integration: Maastricht and Europe. Europas wirtschaftliche Integration: Maastricht und Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, U. (DuPont de Nemours International S.A., Genf (Switzerland))

    1994-10-01

    The Maastricht Treaty is a decisive step towards Europe's economic integration, which will ultimately provide an alignment of economic policies and a common currency. Companies wishing to keep abreast of their competitors and contribute to improving the competitivity of Europe's industry are faced with the challenge of changing their traditional ways of business relations. (orig.)

  15. Improving patient access to novel medical technologies in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, Peter

    2012-02-03

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) organized a one-day workshop with clinicians, health economic experts, and health technology appraisal experts to discuss the equity of patient access to novel medical technologies in Europe. Two index technologies were considered: implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and drug-eluting stents (DES). The use of ICDs range from 35 implants\\/million population in Portugal to 166 implants\\/million population in Germany, whereas for implants of DES (as percentage of total stents) it is lowest in Germany at 14% and high in Portugal at 65%. These differences can in part be explained by a lack of structured implementation of guidelines, the direct cost in relation to the overall healthcare budget, and to differences in procedures and models applied by Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies in Europe. The workshop participants concluded that physicians need to be involved in a more structured way in HTA and need to become better acquainted with its methods and terminology. Clinical guidelines should be systematically translated, explained, disseminated, updated, and adopted by cardiologists in Europe. Clinically appropriate, consistent and transparent health economic models need to be developed and high-quality international outcome and cost data should be used. A process for funding of a technology should be developed after a positive recommendation from HTA agencies. Both the ESC and the national cardiac societies should build-up health economic expertise and engage more actively in discussions with stakeholders involved in the provision of healthcare.

  16. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN ECONOMIC EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Kinash

    2011-01-01

    In the article the basic aspects of the use of modern information technologies in an educational process are examined. Described directions of introduction of information technologies in economic education. Problems which are related to practice of professional preparation of specialists of economic specialities are examined. The role of information technologies in professional activity of specialists of economic type is underlined.

  17. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN ECONOMIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Kinash

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic aspects of the use of modern information technologies in an educational process are examined. Described directions of introduction of information technologies in economic education. Problems which are related to practice of professional preparation of specialists of economic specialities are examined. The role of information technologies in professional activity of specialists of economic type is underlined.

  18. Regional economic change in Europe: a neo-Schumpeterian vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.

    2004-01-01

    In this era of ongoing globalization a coherent vision on Europe's changing geo-economy is more important than ever before. Drawing on the work of Schumpeter, Fourastié and Perroux, the book at hand offers a new and policy-oriented perspective on regional economic change in Europe.Conceptually, it

  19. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...... contributed by Scientific Officer Edgar Thielmann, DG TREN, Head of Department Hans Larsen, RisøNational Laboratory, Senior Asset Manager Aksel Hauge Pedersen, DONG VE, Consultant Timon Wehnert, IZT-Berlin, and Senior Scientist Martine Uyterlinde, ECN...

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology: Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-17

    Construction of First Technological Park Begins [Barcelona REVISTA DE ROBOTICA , Mar 89] .... 8 European Firms Strive To Increase Competitiveness 8...Madrid University, Siemens Cooperation on AI Project Reported [Barcelona REVISTA DE ROBOTICA , Mar 89] .....: 21 ENERGY FRG’s Kohl Outlines...Park Begins 36980224b Barcelona REVISTA DE ROBOTICA in Spanish Mär 89 p 24 [Text] Telescincro, Inc., laid the cornerstone of its new factory and

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-27

    commercialisation . Japan and the United States have become the undisputed world cham- pions in computer-generated images and image synthe- sis. Yet this...Aachen (FRG), and is benefiting from support under the EEC-COMETT [Community Program for Education and Teaching in the Field of Technology] programme...nications], DGA [General Delegation to Armament], Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Research and Higher Education ) and 15 percent by industrial

  2. Social Determinants of Economic Behavior of Older Adults in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Youssim, Iaroslav

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis contributes to the growing economic literature which studies effects of social and cultural variables on economic behavior of older adults in Europe. Landes, cited in Guiso et al. (2006), states that "if we learn anything from the history of economic development, it is that culture makes all the difference” (p. 29). Indeed, in the recent years economists put an effort to apply their analytical frameworks and empirical tools to study the role of culture on economic outcomes (Gu...

  3. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  4. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    PARTIAL CONTENTS: CZECHOSLOVAKIA - Counterplanning Use in Selected CSR Areas Discussed, May 1984 Economic Results Summarized, First Half 1984 Ecocomic Results Summarized, Procurement of Grain Described...

  5. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Markus; Klaassen, Ger; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Soerensen, Lene; Hordijk, Leen

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO 2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO 2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  6. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-25

    participation of all workers in this process. An effective production intensification with differentiation according to agroecological conditions, with...to concrete agroecological and economic conditions. 16 In connection with crop production specialization, particular attention must be paid to...locality in the CSSR possesses specific agroecological conditions. They predetermine the natural propriety of growing individual types of field

  7. Technical change and economic policy: science and technology in the new economic and social context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Links between scientific research, technological development, and economic growth by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development are analyzed. The analysis is broken into four parts: (1) The New Economic and Social Context; (2) Trends in R and D and Innovation; (3) Technological Change and the Economy; and (4) Conclusions and Recommendations. The long-term structural nature of many of the problems facing western Europe are emphasized, and the limitations of short-term-demand management strategies in solving them.

  8. CLUSTERS- SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin BORDEI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global competition has evolved from the competition between companies to the competition between regions. In this context, clusters play an important role as competences’ concentration poles. The cluster initiatives represent concentrated efforts to increase the wealth and competitiveness in a certain region including companies, local administration, research and training institutions. This paper proposes the analysis of the European clusters’ role in ensuring the regional development. Resulted conclusions emphasize both the positive results of clusters’ existence, as well as the fields where improvements can be made in order to increase the clusters’ impact on the economic development.

  9. FDI and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe H. Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the major trends in scholarship about the role of FDI and exports on economic growth, the effect of tax policies on FDI, the formation of the economic catch up of the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE region and the determinants of FDI inflows in CEE nations. I am specifically interested in how previous research investigated the influence of FDI on host country economic growth, the inward FDI stock as a percentage of GDP, the features and restrictions of fiscal schemes in CEE economies and the institutional soundness displayed in policies towards FDI. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to research on FDI as a mechanism in the transition to the market, the dissimilarities in the FDI-assisted development methods among the CEE nations, the impact of FDI inflows for productivity convergence in CEE and the current slowing of growth in emerging Europe.

  10. Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Iglesias, Ana; Feyen, Luc; Szabó, László; Van Regemorter, Denise; Amelung, Bas; Nicholls, Robert; Watkiss, Paul; Christensen, Ole B; Dankers, Rutger; Garrote, Luis; Goodess, Clare M; Hunt, Alistair; Moreno, Alvaro; Richards, Julie; Soria, Antonio

    2011-02-15

    Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to design and prioritize adaptation strategies. New developments in regional climate modeling and physical-impact modeling in Europe allow a better exploration of those dimensions. This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four market impact categories (agriculture, river floods, coastal areas, and tourism) and one nonmarket impact (human health). The methodology integrates a set of coherent, high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an economic modeling framework. We find that if the climate of the 2080s were to occur today, the annual loss in household welfare in the European Union (EU) resulting from the four market impacts would range between 0.2-1%. If the welfare loss is assumed to be constant over time, climate change may halve the EU's annual welfare growth. Scenarios with warmer temperatures and a higher rise in sea level result in more severe economic damage. However, the results show that there are large variations across European regions. Southern Europe, the British Isles, and Central Europe North appear most sensitive to climate change. Northern Europe, on the other hand, is the only region with net economic benefits, driven mainly by the positive effects on agriculture. Coastal systems, agriculture, and river flooding are the most important of the four market impacts assessed.

  11. Health technology assessment: research trends and future priorities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Camilla Palmhøj; Funch, Tina Maria; Kristensen, Finn Børlum

    2011-07-01

    To provide an overview of health services research related to health technology assessment (HTA) and to identify research priorities from a European perspective. Several methods were used: systematic review of articles indexed with the MeSH term 'technology assessment' in PubMed from February 1999-2009; online survey among experts; and conference workshop discussions. Research activity in HTA varies considerably across Europe. The research was categorised into six areas: (1) the breadth of analysis in HTA (such as economic, organizational and social aspects); (2) HTA products developed to meet the needs of policy-makers (such as horizon scanning, mini-HTA, and core HTA); (3) handling life-cycle perspectives in relation to technologies; (4) topics that challenge existing methods and for which HTA should be developed to address the themes more comprehensively (such as public health interventions and organizational interventions); (5) development of HTA capacity and programmes; and (6) links between policy and HTA. An online survey showed that the three areas that were given priority were the relationship between HTA and policy-making (71%), the impact of HTA (62%) and incorporating patient aspects in HTA (50%). Policy-makers highlighted HTA and innovation processes as their main research priority (42%). Areas that the systematic review identified as future priorities include issues within the six existing research areas such as disinvestment, developing evidence for new technologies, assessing the wider effects of technology use, and determining how HTA affects decision-making. In addition, relative effectiveness and individualized treatments are areas of growing interest. The research priorities identified are important for obtaining high quality and cost-effective health care in Europe. Managing the introduction, use and phasing out of technologies challenges health services throughout Europe, and these processes need to be improved to successfully manage future

  12. Decarbonizing Europe's power sector by 2050 — Analyzing the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jägemann, Cosima; Fürsch, Michaela; Hagspiel, Simeon; Nagl, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The European Union aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80–95% in 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The transition towards a low-carbon economy implies the almost complete decarbonization of Europe's power sector, which could be achieved along various pathways. In this paper, we evaluate the economic implications of alternative energy policies for Europe's power sector by applying a linear dynamic electricity system optimization model in over 36 scenarios. We find that the costs of decarbonizing Europe's power sector by 2050 vary between 139 and 633 bn € 2010 , which corresponds to an increase of between 11% and 44% compared to the total system costs when no CO 2 reduction targets are implemented. In line with economic theory, the decarbonization of Europe's power sector is achieved at minimal costs under a stand-alone CO 2 reduction target, which ensures competition between all low-carbon technologies. If, however, renewable energies are exempted from competition via supplementary renewable energy (RES-E) targets or if investments in new nuclear and CCS power plants are politically restricted, the costs of decarbonization significantly rise. Moreover, we find that the excess costs of supplementary RES-E targets depend on the acceptance of alternative low carbon technologies. For example, given a complete nuclear phase-out in Europe by 2050 and politically implemented restrictions on the application of CCS to conventional power plants, supplementary RES-E targets are redundant. While in such a scenario the overall costs of decarbonization are comparatively high, the excess costs of supplementary RES-E targets are close to zero. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic implications of alternative energy policies for Europe's power sector. • Total decarbonization costs vary between 139 and 633 billion € 2010 up to 2050. • Decarbonization at minimal costs is ensured by competition between all low carbon technologies. • Excess costs of supplementary

  13. Economics and austerity in Europe: gendered impacts and sustainable alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bargawi, Hannah; Cozzi, Giovanni; Himmelweit, Sue

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together the research of leading feminist economists in the area of gender and austerity economics. By conducting a rigorous gender-impact analysis at national and pan-European levels, not only do the chapters of the book offer thorough evidence for the detrimental gender-impact of austerity policies across Europe, but they also provide readers with concrete suggestions of alternative policies that national governments and the European Union should adopt. The focus is on the ...

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TAXATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BOROVINA (COJOCARU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the economic crisis that started in the United States in 2007, economic growth has become of great importance for the countries affected by the crisis further to their confrontation with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. At national level, governments are searching for that mix of optimal economic policies that would revive economies on the upward and also sustainable trend. One of the key policies in this regard, especially for the countries in Central and Eastern Europe which intend to adopt the euro currency, is the tax policy. Its main instruments are taxes. In this paper, we pay special attention to these instruments and to the connection that they have with the economic growth. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part presents a few ideas related to the importance of taxes at national level, the second part is an analysis in terms of taxation of the Central and Eastern Europe countries, while the third part consists of a panel-type assessment of the relation between economic growth and taxation level.

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-28

    development: funding of R&D contracts subcontracted to external parties by companies with less than 1000 employees. • Technically oriented company... Analysis Using Molecular Biology," which it has been sponsoring since 1985. As of 1991, the program will receive a total of DM25 Million in...For instance, the five Dutch multinationals—Shell, Philips, Unilever , Akzo, DSM—earmark about 20 percent of their R&D budget to basic research

  16. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-06

    Budget Summarized [Bonn TECHNOLOGIE NACHRICHTEN -MANAGEMENT INFORMATIONEN, 10 Jul 92] 2 Germany: Small, Medium Firms Face Problems in Joining EC...Programs [Bonn TECHNOLOGIE NACHRICHTEN -MANAGEMENT INFORMATIONEN, 29 Jun 92] 5 Germany: SPD Deputy on Research Priorities, Savings [Wolf...7 German Government Provides More S&T Program Funding for Eastern Laender [Bonn TECHNOLOGIE- NACHRICHTEN MANAGEMENT-INFORMATIONEN, 13 Jul 92

  17. JPRS Report, Science & Technology: Europe, Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-27

    Americans and Japa- nese already announced the information society, in Ger- many Wilhelm Fucks’s book was still a best seller. Fucks believed that...cannot kid ourselves; this is not for tomorrow. Among others things, there are many technical problems, and maybe even more regulatory ones, which

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe, Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-25

    business), and entertainment electronics com- panies such as Sony , Pioneer, JVC, Hitachi and Mat- sushita ("National Panasonic") in particular are...of outsiders from Southeast Asia, who are making life miser- able for the already too numerous big producers, such as BASF, Sony , TDK, Maxell, FDM...Motor, Mitsubishi Motor, and Yamaha Motor (motorcycles, alongside its parent com- pany Yamaha Corporation, which is also in the musical instrument

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe, Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-09

    network hardware and software, and customised service to end users. The horizontal stratifi- cation of satellite communications which still prevails in...Television] Components"] [Text] Following the example of Japanese firms, Thomson Consumer Electronics (TCE), the Thomson group’s mass -market...installations, garage doors, cabinets or escalators and is sold like an ordinary mass product over the counter. At the astonishingly low price of DM500. Or

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe, Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-30

    development groups: food products, construction/housing, health and transportation. These areas make up a large part of the export products Denmark...Champagne Ardenne 11.86 12.75 5.52 15.55 13.63 26.64 14.05 100 Franche - Comte 0.74 1.40 4.85 9.31 2.34 76.38 3.15 1.83 100 ne- de-France 1.34

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-22

    de-France’s concentration exceeds Grenoble’s. In the Alps region, this concentration synergizes with the general industrial activity. The...the syncytial virus; treatment of sexually-transmissible diseases, such as prevention of recidivous vulvovaginal candidiases ; and parasitological

  2. Economic Growth and Transboundary Pollution in Europe. An Empirical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansuategi, A. [Ekonomi Analisiaren Oinarriak I Saila, Ekonomi Zientzien Fakultatea, Lehendakari Agirre Etorbidea, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2003-10-01

    The existing empirical evidence suggests that environmental Kuznets curves only exist for pollutants with semi-local and medium term impacts. Ansuategi and Perrings (2000) have considered the behavioral basis for the correlation observed between different spatial incidence of environmental degradation and the relation between economic growth and environmental quality. They show that self-interested planners following a Nash-type strategy tend to address environmental effects sequentially: addressing those with the most immediate costs first, and those whose costs are displaced in space later. This paper tests such behavioral basis in the context of sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe.

  3. Economic Growth and Transboundary Pollution in Europe. An Empirical Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansuategi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The existing empirical evidence suggests that environmental Kuznets curves only exist for pollutants with semi-local and medium term impacts. Ansuategi and Perrings (2000) have considered the behavioral basis for the correlation observed between different spatial incidence of environmental degradation and the relation between economic growth and environmental quality. They show that self-interested planners following a Nash-type strategy tend to address environmental effects sequentially: addressing those with the most immediate costs first, and those whose costs are displaced in space later. This paper tests such behavioral basis in the context of sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe

  4. Real Economic Convergence in Western Europe from 1995 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzenita Siljak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic convergence of real per capita GDP in the Western European countries with two types of measurement methodology. The first is sigma convergence, based on the coefficient of variation of real per capita GDP. The second is beta convergence, absolute/unconditional and conditional, including economic and socio-political variables, based on the neoclassical growth theory. The hypothesis of the paper is that there has been real economic convergence in Western Europe in at least one analyzed sub-period. The relationships between selected macroeconomic variables and the rate of economic growth are econometrically tested. Both sigma and beta convergence are estimated for the period 1995-2013 and four sub-periods: 1995-2003, 2004-2013, pre-crisis sub-period 2004-2008 and the crisis sub-period 2009-2013. The empirical findings support the hypothesis of economic convergence, i.e. that the poorer countries tend to grow faster than the rich ones in per capita terms, for some periods. However, the countries had a tendency to diverge, confiriming the negative effects of the crisis on per capita GDP growth. Sigma convergence is consistent with beta convergence. According to the results, the half-life of real convergence may take from 12 to 1078 years. Significant dissimilarities between the growth patterns among individual countries show the considerable heterogeneity of growth, i.e. the convergence clubs.

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-28

    EUROPE AEROSPACE, CIVIL AVIATION Polish Participation in Space Projects (ASTRONAUTYKA, No 2, 1987) 103 Cooperation in Solar Research, Janusz...0.55-micron filaments. Its losses are less than 100 W per cubic decimeter of wire at 1 tesla (at 50 Hz). Marcoussis researchers have even produced a...In May 1987 the company will have the first space environment test center in Europe to allow pretrial integration and testing under one roof

  6. Market and Money: Economic Instruments of Political Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Pînzaru

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By the creation of the unique currency, the European construction advanced, in the late twenty years, more in economic terms than in political ones. Still, at a closer look there can be found interesting arguments to sustain the idea of a political background for this surprising economic acceleration. Creating the common market and a new currency are things which have been possible only because of favourable factors in economy and of strong political will. This paper analyses the market as a frame of a political construction, and euro as a decisive tool for the purpose of the United Europe. For the first time in history, there is a space which approaches beliefs and values with the “help” of a currency, integrated in the political agenda.

  7. Decoupling Transport from Economic Growth. Towards Transport Sustainability in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tight, M.R.; Site, P. Delle; Meyer-Ruehle, O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aimed to identify and assess measures which could be used to reduce travel demand while maintaining economic growth and enhancing environmental quality. The research methodology involved a detailed review of past research; contact with over 600 experts from around Europe and elsewhere for ideas on potential measures; detailed questionnaires from over 100 of these experts; and a series of three panel sessions held in different parts of Europe, each of which involved around 16 experts debating the merits of different measures and identifying case study evidence of their effectiveness. The end result was a short list of 13 measures, indicative of broad types, which are considered to be effective, and an indication of their effectiveness if applied across the European Union. Seven illustrative measures are discussed which stand out from the results as having proven potential (though not necessarily at a European scale) to influence transport intensity and/or unit environmental load whilst not having large detrimental effects on GDP. These are the areas where it is felt that European transport policy could most usefully be focussed in terms of decoupling of transport demand and economic growth

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-06

    Aumasson Thermophysics Daniel Balageas Electronic Systems Gerard Gamier Optronic Systems Rene Jalin Systems Experimentation Jean-Claude Theodore...April 1988 54 WEST EUROPE physics laboratory at Cit Descartes , in cooperation with the College of France and the Paris-6, Paris-7 and Paris-12

  9. Solar thermal technology and market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabba, S.

    2000-01-01

    The solar heating industry in Europe has reached maturity after more than two decades of technical development. High quality systems are now available with reliability and durability of the products being assured. The European solar market, now the world's largest, has been growing since the late 1980s, despite the fact that conventional energy sources are usually available and inexpensive. This is a new phenomenon and marks the beginning of changes in energy supply and consumption that will be experienced throughout the world in this new century. Almost 10 million square metres of solar thermal collectors now exist in Europe saving more than 1.5 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions and about 500,000 tonnes of oil. The solar heating industry has created some 10,000 jobs. (author)

  10. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calhaz-Jorge, C.; De Geyter, C.; Kupka, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    -H and 43 785 IUI-D cycles were included. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In 17 countries where all clinics reported to their ART register, a total of 374 177 ART cycles were performed in a population of around 310 million inhabitants, corresponding to 1175 cycles per million inhabitants (range, 235...... such as initiated cycles and deliveries. As long as data are incomplete and generated through different methods of collection, the results should be interpreted with caution. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The 17th ESHRE report on ART shows a continuing expansion of the number of treatment cycles in Europe...

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-21

    of even higher temperatures. Almost daily, news of new successes arrived from the U.S.A., 4 Japan, China , and also from the-FRG. At present, some...Laser 12 5 59 12 Tecnologie del mare 13 3 340 113 Tecnologie 14 2 100 50 per lambiente Tecnologie 15 14 306 22 per (a biologia e la medicina Nuovi...Washington, D.C. 20301. (Telephone: Monday through Friday in 8 volumes: China , (202) 373-3771, Autovon: 243-3771.) For East Europe, Soviet Union, East Asia

  12. Working under pressure: economic recession and third sector development in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pape, U.D.; Chaves-Ávila, R.; Pahl, J.B.; Petrella, F.; Pielinski, B.; Savall-Morera, T.

    2016-01-01

    The context conditions for third sector organizations (TSOs) in Europe have significantly changed as a result of the global economic crisis, including decreasing levels of public funding and changing modes of relations with the state. The effect of economic recession, however, varies across Europe.

  13. Science and Technology and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberte, Mario B.

    1988-01-01

    Dealing with science and technology and economic development, this paper describes the relationship between technological capability and the degree of economic development. It analyzes the structure of the Philippine economy and the structural changes that have taken place since the 1970. It also investigates the impact of economic developments and technological advances in other countries on the Philippine economy. A discussion on possible research collaboration among PIDS, DOST and regional...

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ECONOMIC - FINANCIAL CRISIS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta-Mădălina MEGHIŞAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and financial crisis represents the most sever episode of this type during the last generations – as it results from the reports of the European Commission. The impact upon the European Union member states’ economies materialised under the form of the credit restructuration, reduction of the trust at the economic level, and also, a serious contraction of the demand and the commercial exchanges. These are elements which determined the decrease of the investment and production activity, and also the usage of the production capacities, especially in the constructions field. On a medium and long term, we can appreciate that the true problem of the nature and profoundness of the crisis represents the pressure upon the business competitiveness, with consequences at the level of the working force or degradation of the human and technologic capital.

  15. Smart Grid Technologies in Europe: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardito, L.; Procaccianti, G.; Menga, G.; Morisio, M.

    2013-01-01

    The old electricity network infrastructure has proven to be inadequate, with respect to modern challenges such as alternative energy sources, electricity demand and energy saving policies. Moreover, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)seem to have reached an adequate level of reliability

  16. West Europe Report Science & Technology No. 148

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-30

    concerned parties can we ensure that the Federal Republic of Germany will not lose contact with biotechnology." [Text] [Duesseldorf VDI NACHRICHTEN in...Duesseldorf VDI NACHRICHTEN in German 18 Mar 83 p 14] 12330 CS0: 3698/320 23 INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY SMALL PRECISION NC MACHINING CENTER

  17. JPRS Report, Science and Technology, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-15

    SPAZIOINFORMAZIONI, 1-3 Oct 90] 4 Germany: Hypersonic Technology Impact Assessment Published [Bonn TECHNOLOGIE- NACHRICHTEN PROGRAMM-INFORMATIONEN...14 German Laser System Measures Emission in Diesel Engines [Bonn TECHNOLOGIE- NACHRICHTEN MANAGEMENT-INFORMATIONEN, 29 Oct 90] 14 BIOTECHNOLOGY...Installed [Wim Amerongen; Amsterdam COMPUTERWORLD, 26 Sep 90] 16 ENERGY Germany Solar Energy Program Status Reviewed [Bonn TECHNOLOGIE- NACHRICHTEN

  18. Acceptance of Assisted Living Technologies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laura Vadillo Moreno; Roderick Udo; Nikki Holliday; Thijs van Houwelingen

    2014-01-01

    A recent European Commission report revealed the discrepancies in e-health adoption amongst older people between various European countries (Kubitschke, 2010). Uptake rates, in terms of the percentage of people aged over 65 using e-health technologies, differ for example, for social alarms between

  19. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, R. E-mail: roberto.andreani@tech.efda.org; Gasparotto, M. E-mail: maurizio.gasparotto@tech.efda.org

    2002-11-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy.

  20. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; Gasparotto, M.

    2002-01-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy

  1. Smart Grid Technologies in Europe: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ardito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The old electricity network infrastructure has proven to be inadequate, with respect to modern challenges such as alternative energy sources, electricity demand and energy saving policies. Moreover, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT seem to have reached an adequate level of reliability and flexibility in order to support a new concept of electricity network — the smart grid. In this work, we will analyse the state-of-the-art of smart grids, in their technical, management, security, and optimization aspects. We will also provide a brief overview of the regulatory aspects involved in the development of a smart grid, mainly from the viewpoint of the European Union.

  2. Assessment of potential economic and environmental impacts caused by Phytophthora ramorum in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hella Kehlenbeck

    2008-01-01

    Economic and environmental impacts of Phytophthora ramorum in Europe were evaluated within the European Union framework 6 project on ?Risk Analysis for P. ramorum a pathogen threat to Europe? (RAPRA). Impact assessment was conducted according to three different scenarios: 1. ?Nursery System? - describes losses occurring in...

  3. Economic appraisal of shale gas plays in Continental Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Economic feasibility of five European shale gas plays is assessed. ► Polish and Austrian shale plays appear profitable for P90 assessment criterion. ► Posidonia (Germany), Alum (Sweden) and a Turkish shale play below the hurdle rate. ► A 10% improvement of the IRR by sweet spot targeting makes all plays profitable. - Abstract: This study evaluates the economic feasibility of five emergent shale gas plays on the European Continent. Each play is assessed using a uniform field development plan with 100 wells drilled at a rate of 10 wells/year in the first decade. The gas production from the realized wells is monitored over a 25 year life cycle. Discounted cash flow models are used to establish for each shale field the estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) that must be realized, using current technology cost, to achieve a profit. Our analyses of internal rates of return (IRR) and net present values (NPVs) indicate that the Polish and Austrian shale plays are the more robust, and appear profitable when the strict P90 assessment criterion is applied. In contrast, the Posidonia (Germany), Alum (Sweden) and a Turkish shale play assessed all have negative discounted cumulative cash flows for P90 wells, which puts these plays below the hurdle rate. The IRR for P90 wells is about 5% for all three plays, which suggests that a 10% improvement of the IRR by sweet spot targeting may lift these shale plays above the hurdle rate. Well productivity estimates will become better constrained over time as geological uncertainty is reduced and as technology improves during the progressive development of the shale gas fields

  4. The economic cost of brain disorders in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J; Gustavsson, A; Svensson, M

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, we presented for the first time overall estimates of annual costs for brain disorders (mental and neurologic disorders) in Europe. This new report presents updated, more accurate, and comprehensive 2010 estimates for 30 European countries.......In 2005, we presented for the first time overall estimates of annual costs for brain disorders (mental and neurologic disorders) in Europe. This new report presents updated, more accurate, and comprehensive 2010 estimates for 30 European countries....

  5. The Technological Dimension of Educational Technology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    This article describes some of the main technological trends and issues of the European landscape of research and innovation in educational technology. Although several innovative technologies (tools, architectures, platforms, or approaches) emerge, such as intelligent support to personalization, collaboration or adaptation in mobile, game-based,…

  6. Studying the Factors of Economic Growth in Countries of Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkas Nataliia I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the impact of macroeconomic, technological and institutional indicators on economic growth of countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE using a panel data model. A sample of 12 CEE countries for the period 2006-2015 is analyzed. The following methods are used: 1 ordinary least squares (OLS, 2 fixed effects model (FE; 3 random effects model (RE. As a dependent variable there selected GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity, as an independent one — the exchange rate, export of high- and low-tech products, import of high-tech products, innovations. There used additional control variables: foreign direct investment, government efficiency, human capital, the Gini index, and public debt. The results of the study show that the devaluation of the monetary unit adversely affects the economic growth. Asymmetric results of the impact of high-technology and low-technology exports on GDP are obtained. The development of innovation and the improvement of the quality of human capital demonstrate a positive significant impact in terms of all specifications. The obtained results confirm that European integration supports non-price competition of CEE countries in the world market of high-tech products through participation in production networks of the EU-15.

  7. Sharing knowledge, shaping Europe US technological collaboration and nonproliferation

    CERN Document Server

    Krige, John

    2016-01-01

    In the 1950s and the 1960s, U.S. administrations were determined to prevent Western European countries from developing independent national nuclear weapons programs. To do so, the United States attempted to use its technological pre-eminence as a tool of “soft power” to steer Western European technological choices toward the peaceful uses of the atom and of space, encouraging options that fostered collaboration, promoted nonproliferation, and defused challenges to U.S. technological superiority. In Sharing Knowledge, Shaping Europe, John Krige describes these efforts and the varying degrees of success they achieved. Krige explains that the pursuit of scientific and technological leadership, galvanized by America’s Cold War competition with the Soviet Union, was also used for techno-political collaboration with major allies. He examines a series of multinational arrangements involving shared technological platforms and aimed at curbing nuclear proliferation, and he describes the roles of the Department ...

  8. THE IMPACT OF FISCAL POLICY ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    BOLDEANU Florin Teodor; TACHE Ileana; ION Mădălin-Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of fiscal policy on economic growth in 10 countries of Eastern Europe. For this analysis we to use two regression models. The results of the first model provide information on the factors that influence economic growth. Thus, direct taxes, indirect taxes, total income taxes, social contributions and the economic crisis had an effect on economic growth. Of these variables, total taxable income had a positive effect and indirect taxes and social contributions h...

  9. NBIC-TECHNOLOGIES GET OVER ECONOMIC DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Akaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is reflecting results of forecasting scenario of economic growth and shown that NBIC-technologies, due to the powerful synergetic effect generating by a mutual convergence of nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies, will give strong acceleration pace of technological progress, which exceeded the rate achieved in the previous upward wave of 5th great Kondratieff ’s economic cycle (1982–2006. On the base of theUSAeconomy data, the results of forecasting shows that the rate of technological progress will increase from 2,2% in 1980 to 3,5% in the 2030 s. 

  10. Technological economics: innovation, project management, and technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, F R

    1981-06-01

    The relationship between economics and technology, as well as their interaction in production, productivity, project management, and in technology transfer processes are reviewed. Over the last two decades there has been an increasing interest by economists in the technologist's view of technical change and its mechanisms. The author looks at the zone between technology and economics, the technological economics, and discusses the theory of innovation recently sketched out by Nelson and Winter. The relevance to project management and technology transfer of contemporary writing by economists leads to the view that there are welcome signs of a convergence of the conceptual models now emerging and the practical problems of technology management and movement. Economists now seem more willing to come to terms with technology than technologists with economics. The economic significance of the multitudes of technically unglamorous activities in development work is seriously neglected as a result of over-emphasis on the spectacular technological break. If economic elegance were to be admitted to the criteria of success, one might get a significant improvement in the engineering of technological change. 29 references, 4 figure.

  11. Technology Transfer, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the long-run equilibrium relationship between various international factors and economic growth, as well as to assess the short-term impact of inward FDI, trade and economic growth on international technology transfer to Nigeria. To achieve this, the study used a time series data from ...

  12. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From this perspective, efforts can be made to enhance each of the different elements, knowing how they relate in the entire development paradigm. This approach will improve the impact of ICT on economic development. Keywords: information and communication technologies, economic development, developing countries ...

  13. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda,

  14. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, Dionne S.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda,

  15. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political

  16. The economic cost of brain disorders in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olesen, J.; Gustavsson, A.; Svensson, M.; Wittchen, H.U.; Jonsson, B.; Vos, P.E.; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In 2005, we presented for the first time overall estimates of annual costs for brain disorders (mental and neurologic disorders) in Europe. This new report presents updated, more accurate, and comprehensive 2010 estimates for 30 European countries. METHODS: One-year

  17. Nuclear power economics and technology: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Intended for the non-specialist reader interested in energy and environmental policy matters, this report presents an overview of the current expert consensus on the status of nuclear power technology and its economic position. It covers the potential demand for nuclear energy, its economic competitivity, and the relevant aspects of reactor performance and future technological developments. The report provides an objective contribution to the ongoing scientific and political debate about what nuclear power can offer, now and in the future, in meeting the world's growing demand for energy and in achieving sustainable economic development. 24 refs., 18 figs;, 12 tabs., 5 photos

  18. Labour Mobility in Nowadays Europe and Its Role in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana ALBU

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available “Worker mobility is a key instrument for an efficiently functioning single market and is essential for allowing more people to find better employment, a key objective of the Lisbon Strategy”, as it is stipulated by the Communication from the Commission to the EP, the Council, the ECOSOC and CoR in Mobility, an instrument for more and better jobs: The European Job Mobility Action Plan (2007-2010. Job mobility has been significantly affected by technological change, by changes in education patterns, and by structural unemployment. The mobility of labour force in EU member states is hardly moving. ‘Creating jobs to people’* has been the focus of attention and debate within politicians, economists, experts in the field and policy- makers in the EU of 27, in order to contribute to a more even economic development at the level of regions, given the disparities between poorer regions of Europe and richer ones. Overcoming barriers, such as the cultural and language barrier, in the way of the free movement of people and especially the work force and creating an improved standard of living, diminishing income differences and regional differences in Europe does pose a real challenge for the EU of 27.

  19. Uranium enrichment. Technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.; Vanstrum, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R+D efforts on various processes. (author)

  20. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Jr., W. R.; Vanstrum, P. R.; Saire, D. E.; Gestson, D. K.; Peske, S. E.

    1982-08-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes.

  1. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Vanstrum, P.R.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  2. Regional economic development in Europe : the role of total factor productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Klasing, Mariko J.; Milionis, Petros

    2018-01-01

    Regional economic development in Europe: the role of total factor productivity. Regional Studies. This paper documents the fact that the large and persistent differences in economic development across subnational regions in European Union countries can largely be attributed to differences in total

  3. Accelerator science and technology in Europe 2008-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    European Framework Research Projects have recently added a lot of meaning to the building process of the ERA - the European Research Area. Inside this, the accelerator technology plays an essential role. Accelerator technology includes large infrastructure and intelligent, modern instrumentation embracing mechatronics, electronics, photonics and ICT. During the realization of the European research and infrastructure project FP6 CARE 2004-2008 (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe), concerning the development of large accelerator infrastructure in Europe, it was decided that a scientific editorial series of peer-reviewed monographs from this research area will be published in close relation with the projects. It was a completely new and quite brave idea to combine a kind of a strictly research publisher with a transient project, lasting only four or five years. Till then nobody did something like that. The idea turned out to be a real success. The publications now known and valued in the accelerator world, as the (CERN-WUT) Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology, is successfully continued in already the third European project EuCARD2 and has logistic guarantees, for the moment, till the 2017, when it will mature to its first decade. During the realization of the European projects EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator R&D 2009-2013 and TIARA (Test Infrastructure of Accelerator Research Area in Europe) there were published 18 volumes in this series. The ambitious plans for the nearest years is to publish, hopefully, a few tens of new volumes. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, published in the monographs of the European Framework Projects (FP) on accelerator technology. The succession of CARE, Eu

  4. Reforming Pensions in Europe: Economic Fundamentals and Political Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ondřej Schneider

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes pension reforms in Europe and their determinants. As pension reforms are intrinsically difficult to define and pinpoint, we introduce an alternative measure of pension reforms by comparing long-term forecasts of pension expenditures for seventeen European countries. The larger the decrease in expected spending on public pensions in 2050 between two base years, the more successful a pension reform the country achieved (after controlling for other factors, such as demography...

  5. The Economics of Container Transhipment in Northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred J Baird

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, maritime economists, ports and shipping lines have considered container transhipment to be more expensive than direct call services, mainly by virtue of the extra feeder costs and container lift charges involved. This seems contrary to ongoing industry developments, with transhipment hubs now quite common in most major regions. Here, modelled costs for transhipment in northern Europe have been estimated and compared with an alternative multiport service. The conclusion is that ...

  6. Relationship of suicide rates to economic variables in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Kawohl, Wolfram; Theodorakis, Pavlos N

    2014-01-01

    European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation. RESULTS: There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita...... in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support...

  7. Economic and Technical Aspects of Flexible Storage Photovoltaic Systems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Zsiborács

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has an increasing role in the global energy mix. The need for flexible storage photovoltaic systems and energy storage in electricity networks is becoming increasingly important as more generating capacity uses solar and wind energy. This paper is a study on the economic questions related to flexible storage photovoltaic systems of household size in 2018. The aim is to clarify whether it is possible in the European Union to achieve a payback of the costs of flexible storage photovoltaic system investments for residential customers considering the technology-specific storage aspects prevalent in 2018. We studied seven different flexible storage photovoltaic investments with different battery technologies in Germany, France, Italy, and Spain because, in Europe, these countries have a prominent role with regard to the spread of photovoltaic technology. These investment alternatives are studied with the help of economic indicators for the different cases of the selected countries. At the end of our paper we come to the conclusion that an investment of a flexible storage photovoltaic (PV system with Olivine-type-LiFePO4, Lithium-Ion, Vented lead-acid battery (OPzS, Sealed lead-acid battery (OPzV, and Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHI batteries can have a positive net present value due to the high electricity prices in Germany and in Spain. The most cost-effective technology was the Olivine-type-LiFePO4 and the Lithium-Ion at the time of the study. We suggest the provision of governmental support and uniform European modifications to the regulatory framework, especially concerning grid fees and tariffs, which would be necessary in the beginning to help to introduce these flexible storage PV systems to the market.

  8. Evolving subsidiary roles and regional economic integration in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Duysters, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the impact of regional economic integration on chaging roles and strategies of overseas subsidiaries. The literature has acknowledged the positive impact of regional economic integration on the investment attractiveness of member states perticipating a regional bloc and

  9. 'Two or three things I know about her': Europe in the global crisis and heterodox economics

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Bellofiore

    2013-01-01

    Europe is in the middle of an economic and social storm. Although the turmoil since the mid-2008 originated elsewhere, the European dynamics may turn the Great Recession into a full-blown Great Depression. Within this dynamics, the faulty design of the 'single currency' is a key element, together with the neomercantilist fracture dividing the 'core' of Northern Europe and the 'periphery', mostly composed of Southern European countries. The paper gives a quick reminder of what the true nature ...

  10. Economic incentives for optimal sulfur abatement in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkos, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews and develops theoretical and empirical representations of economic incentives for implementing pollution control strategies. A number of alternative economic instruments exist, which, if applied internationally, could encourage implementation of abatement strategies by counties. The article considers means of persuading countries to minimize abatement costs. A comparison between the pollution targets achieved by the imposition of a uniform charge rate and by differentiated charge rates is discussed, and empirical results are provided with associated conclusions. These results are compared with a simple standards setting in the form of critical loads, in order to assess empirically if economic instruments work better than regulations

  11. Political and Economic Scope for Permit Markets in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    (organized polluters) due to the possibility of a free, initial distribution (grand-fathering). As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically...... of permit markets in the US. Therefore, the policy recommendation for e.g. CO2 reduction in Europe is to apply taxation in relation to large and non-organized groups only, such as households and the transportation sector. A permit market, on the other hand, is politically more attrac-tive to the industry...

  12. Economic technology of laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.

  13. The place of space technology in economic development: Reflections on present and future aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, A.; Reuter, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the development of satellite applications on the orientation of the space effort were examined. The gap between available and exploited technology, the impact of the current economic climate and future trends are discussed. Europe's low level of public funding for its space effort, in comparison to other space powers, and the dangers of complacency regarding Europe's competitiveness in the space market are illustrated. A proposal for the general direction which Europe's future strategy must take if European independence in this field is to be preserved is presented.

  14. Institutions, Technological Change and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corderí Novoa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories of economic growth try to explain variations in per capita income across countries by differences in capital accumulation and productivity. However, many scholars consider that integrating institutions into economic theory and economic history is an essential step in improving explanations of why some societies are richer than others. This paper develops the empirical and theoretical case that differences in institutions are the fundamental cause of differences in technological change (productivity, hence in economic growth. First, I give a definition of institutions and how they influence economic performance, from a New Institutional Economics point of view. Then, I introduce the theoretical framework based on the economics of ideas and endogenous growth models. Finally, I argue that R&D expenditures -a proxy for technological change- will vary across countries depending on some measures of institutional quality. In the end, this paper finds that stronger institutions (measured by an aggregate of institutional quality encourage greater R&D expenditures. At a disaggregate level, the rule of law is positively correlated and the regulatory burden is negatively correlated with R&D expenditures. Human capital level (measured by the tertiary and primary school enrolment rates has also a significant positive impact in R&D expenditures.

  15. The role of health economics in the evaluation of surgery and operative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Dr Matthew Taylor is the director of York Health Economics Consortium and leads the Consortium's health technology assessment program. The work of York Health Economics Consortium involves empirical research in health economics for both the private and public sectors. Dr Taylor is the scientific lead for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Economic and Methodological Unit and a former member of NICE's Public Health Advisory Committee. He is also managing director (Europe) of Minerva, an international network of health economics consultancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic aspects of advanced energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, R.; Rodriguez, A.P.; Venkata, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced energy technologies span a wide variety of resources, techniques, and end-user requirements. Economic considerations are major factors that shape their harnessing and utilization. A discussion of the basic factors in the economic arena is presented, with particular emphasis on renewable energy technologies--photovoltaics, solar-thermal, wind-electric conversion, biomass utilization, hydro, and tidal and wave energy systems. The following are essential to determine appropriate energy system topologies: proper resource-need matching with an eye on the quality of energy requirements, integrated use of several resources and technologies, and a comprehensive consideration which includes prospecting, collection, conversion, transportation, distribution, storage and reconversion, end use, and subsequent waste management aspects. A few case studies are included to apprise the reader of the status of some of the key technologies and systems

  17. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  18. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs, No. 2430.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-02

    dualism unavoidable in the system of Hungarian economic guidance; various forms of market mechanisms and central intervention will continue to...Preschools of elementary schools 8221 Establishments for the care and development [of children] 8222 Aid to children in foster and natural families

  19. Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciscar, J.C.; Iglesias, A.; Feyen, L.; Szabo, L.; Regemorter, van D.; Amelung, B.; Nicholls, R.; Watkiss, P.; Christensen, O.B.; Dankers, R.; Garrote, L.; Goodess, C.M.; Hunt, A.; Moreno, A.; Richards, J.; Soria, A.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to

  20. Economics Ph.D. education in Central and Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švejnar, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2000), s. 37-50 ISSN 0888-7233 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=3409103&site=ehost-live

  1. Decentralization and Economic Growth per capita in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crucq, Pieter; Hemminga, Hendrik-Jan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between decentralization and economic growth is investigated. The focus is on decentralization from the national government to the highest substate level in a country, which we define as regional decentralization. Section 2 discusses the different dimensions of

  2. Dividing united Europe. Stereotypes, prejudices and the European (economic) crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline; Karner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This special issue brings together scholars who examine the nexus between the (economic) crisis, national identities and the use of historical images, prejudices and stereotypes by focusing particularly on media and political discourses in different European countries. Pictures of Angela Merkel in a

  3. Conventional armed forces in Europe: Technology scenario development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, G.M.

    1990-07-01

    In January 1986, the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev proposed elimination of all nuclear weapons by the year 2000. In April of that year, Mr. Gorbachev proposed substantial reductions of conventional weapons in Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, including reductions in operational-tactical nuclear weapons. In May 1986, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) responded with the Brussels Declaration on Conventional Arms Control,'' which indicated readiness to open East/West discussions on establishing a mandate for negotiating conventional arms control throughout Europe. The Group of 23,'' which met in Vienna beginning in February 1987, concluded the meeting in January 1989 with a mandate for the Conventional Armed Forced in Europe (CFE) negotiations. On 6 March 1989, CFE talks began, and these talks have continued through six rounds (as of April 1990). Although US President George Bush, on 30 May 1989, called for agreement within six months to a year, and the Malta meeting of December 1989 called for completion of a CFE agreement by the end of 1990, much remains to be negotiated. This report provides three types of information. First, treaty provisions brought to the table by both sides are compared. Second, on the basis of these provisions, problem areas for each of the provision elements are postulated and possible scenarios for resolving these problem areas are developed. Third, the scenarios are used as requirements for tasks assigned program elements for possible US implementation of a CFE treaty. As progress is achieved during the negotiations, this report could be updated, as necessary, in each of the areas to provide a continuing systematic basis for program implementation and technology development. 8 refs.

  4. The Regulation of Food Science and Technology Professions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of a profession is justified when it improves consumer protection and public health. Higher education food science and technology (FST degrees, widely offered in many universities in Europe open to a wide range of jobs in the food sectors where the employees could cover different positions, roles and carry out diverse activities dealing with the food production and the quality and safety of the food products. This work reviews the state of the art of the FST regulated professions requiring higher education qualifications in the European countries. The research was carried out by collecting specific information on regulated professions by contacting unions, professional associations, public servant categories/professions, and by visiting national and EU websites.  The data collected for each regulated profession were: country, training/education required, date of implementation of regulation, professional training (if required, capability test (if required and acts required by law to be signed by a regulated professional. Only professions that required a higher education diploma were included in this search. Few countries were found to have a regulated profession in FST, in particular: Food Engineering (Turkey, Food Technologist (Greece, Iceland, Italy and Slovenia, and Oenologist (Italy, Portugal and Spain. FST regulated professions in Europe are thus scarce and have a rather limited history. The Food Technologist in Italy and the Food Engineer in Turkey were found to be the only completely regulated professions found in Europe. Food and professional regulation have been evolved over the years and raised the debate on the regulation of FST professions. Academia as well as other policymakers has to further contribute to this discussion to keep high the standards for quality of education and training of the qualified workforce and professionals in the food sector.

  5. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs, No. 2380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-18

    cases the trust suffers the adverse consequences of objec- tively necessary sensible risks, while the benefits go to the NAPS organiza- tions, of...excessive distances between plants). A solution to this problem is, for example, the Unicorn planting machine that, in comparison with other types of...We have also often been discussing the pro- blems of the economic and social consequences of the new price system. In addition we have been

  6. Translations on Eastern Europe, Economic and Industrial Affairs, Number 1659

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-09

    avarice of the capitalists for raw materials and we must derive advantages from that in order to con- solidate our economic situation" and "any such...machines being delivered to the Soviet Union by France already amounts to 16 percent of French machine exports. It is considered possible that these...and later on also on American initiative (1972, 1975). Under the pressure of events, a certain realism has developed among ruling circles in western

  7. Structural modelling of economic growth: Technological changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukharev Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoclassical and Keynesian theories of economic growth assume the use of Cobb-Douglas modified functions and other aggregate econometric approaches to growth dynamics modelling. In that case explanations of economic growth are based on the logic of the used mathematical ratios often including the ideas about aggregated values change and factors change a priori. The idea of assessment of factor productivity is the fundamental one among modern theories of economic growth. Nevertheless, structural parameters of economic system, institutions and technological changes are practically not considered within known approaches, though the latter is reflected in the changing parameters of production function. At the same time, on the one hand, the ratio of structural elements determines the future value of the total productivity of the factors and, on the other hand, strongly influences the rate of economic growth and its mode of innovative dynamics. To put structural parameters of economic system into growth models with the possibility of assessment of such modes under conditions of interaction of new and old combinations is an essential step in the development of the theory of economic growth/development. It allows forming stimulation policy of economic growth proceeding from the structural ratios and relations recognized for this economic system. It is most convenient in such models to use logistic functions demonstrating the resource change for old and new combination within the economic system. The result of economy development depends on starting conditions, and on institutional parameters of velocity change of resource borrowing in favour of a new combination and creation of its own resource. Model registration of the resource is carried out through the idea of investments into new and old combinations.

  8. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringos, Dionne S; Boerma, Wienke G W; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2013-12-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda, economy, prevailing values, and type of healthcare system are all important factors that influence the development of strong PC. Wealthier countries are associated with a weaker PC structure and lower PC accessibility, while Eastern European countries seemed to have used their growth in national income to strengthen the accessibility and continuity of PC. Countries governed by left-wing governments are associated with a stronger PC structure, accessibility and coordination of PC. Countries with a social-security based system are associated with a lower accessibility and continuity of PC; the opposite is true for transitional systems. Cultural values seemed to affect all aspects of PC. It can be concluded that strengthening PC means mobilising multiple leverage points, policy options, and political will in line with prevailing values in a country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  10. Symposium on Economic Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Murrell

    1991-01-01

    This symposium examines the economic problems facing the reforming countries of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the interrelationships between these problems, and current knowledge on how to deal with them. The word "reform" is surely a misnomer for what is occurring; "revolution" is more fitting.

  11. Integrating environmental and economic performance to assess modern silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.; Graves, A.R.; Burgess, P.J.; Werf, van der W.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    The environmental and economic performance of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe is highly variable. Multi-criteria analysis, using the PROMETHEE outranking approach, was used to evaluate the integrated performance of silvoarable agroforestry on hypothetical farms in nineteen landscape test sites in

  12. Economic, Social, and Cultural Determinants of Life Satisfaction: Are There Differences between Asia and Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the economic, social, and cultural variables on life satisfaction in Asia and Europe. The second section sets a unifying theoretical framework for all three domains by defining life satisfaction as a function of aspirations and expectations which in turn are affected by micro- and macro-level variables. On…

  13. The principle(s) of co-existence in Europe: Social, economic and legal avenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2015-01-01

    The European policy of coexistence follows a number of well-established social, economic and legal principles. Applying these principles in practice has resulted in a complex “rag rug” of coexistence policies in Europe. This rag rug makes enforcement of these principles difficult, at times even

  14. Economic, social and political consequences in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1997-01-01

    There have been and remain tremendous psychosocial and economic effects effects of the accident. In particular in the western parts of the former Soviet Union, against the background of disintegrating structures, have been a distrust of inefficient and corrupt administrators, poor medical services and food supplies, destabilization and serious economic problems of large population groups, losses of agricultural areas, and problems caused by large-scale evacuation and resettlement programs. A large number of psychosomatic and neurological disorders including alcoholism, loss of hair, impotence, even laziness and traffic accidents, have been attributed to radiation effects and strange new deseases such as ''chronic radiation sickness'' or ''radiation AIDS'' have been claimed. Most radiobiologists would, however, consider such claims as nonsense, even if some highly indirect relationships may perhaps be established. Unfortunately, many of such problems attributed by some to the Chernobyl accident can also be observed in other parts of the former Soviet Union which have not been affected by fallout. Many people, in particular children, cannot be classified as ''healthy'' according to the WHO definition, and life expectancy has dropped substantially in many parts of the former Soviet Union in the past decade

  15. Technology and ecological economics. Promethean technology, Pandorian potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Bruce [AgResearch Ltd., Private Bag 3123, Hamilton (New Zealand); Jollands, Nigel [New Zealand Centre for Ecological Economics, Massey University and Landcare Research Ltd, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North (New Zealand)

    2006-03-15

    In considering social, economic and ecological impacts of new technologies it is essential to start from an understanding of human nature. This paper explores this issue drawing out some implications for ecological and neoclassical economics. The paper presents two key arguments. First, we argue that there is a growing tension between our evolved human nature and social structures and our emerging technological prowess. Modern technologies give us increasing power to manipulate the very axes of nature: space, time, energy, matter, and life. Technologies are now so powerful they give us abilities our ancestors would consider godlike. The question is posed: Are humans ready to wield the power of the gods? We have the knowledge, but do we have the wisdom? The myth of Prometheus and Pandora is considered as a metaphor for the interaction between technology, nature and universal aspects of human nature developed over eons of evolution. Second, we argue that even a 'technologically optimistic' scenario (employed by some economists) may not actually deliver Utopian outcomes. With technological advancement and diffusion there is a 'technological trickle down effect' whereby potent technologies, once available only to governments and powerful elites, become available to greater numbers of groups and individuals. The more accessible a technology, the more likely its social and ecological impacts will be shaped by the full range and extremes of human nature. These issues have implications for the development and regulation of Promethean technologies such as nuclear energy, genetic engineering and nanotechnology; technologies with unprecedented power and reach through nature. Development and diffusion of such technologies may also have implications for the ethics of the social structure of society. (author)

  16. Status and prospects of fuel cell technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijkum

    1998-01-01

    Fuel Cells attract a lot of press attention today and an some example of a recent press heading is: ''Orders for Onsi's fuel cells hit $111 million''. The principle of fuel cell technology is explained and examples of realized applications given. In short: fuel cells can be used everywhere where power (and heat) is needed. Regarding the status of fuel cells, Europe is way behind Japan and the US. The 15 PAFC-200 kWe units in operation in Europe (worldwide > 90 units) produced 46,796 MWhe during 296,704 cumulative operating hours with an availability % over 70.00. The world record on continuous operation is held by Japan with 9,478 hours reached at 14th September 1996 and two PAFC-units passed their 40,000 hours of cumulative operation (US and Japan). In Japan, market enabling support is continued with subsidies of one third of the costs for 7 PAFC-units. In the Netherlands, Energy Distribution Companies test their tubular 100 kWe SOFC-unit. During 1,335 hours of continuous operation, the unit produced 165 MWhe in total at 3rd March. EnergieNed, CLC/Ansaldo and Gastec evaluated changes for co-generation and small power production with packaged fuel cell power plants in EU and EFTA countries. In general the authors concluded that implementation of fuel cell power plants in all EU and EFTA countries will be probably possible with today' s technical regulations. On might wonder: What has fuel cell technology to offer in one of the most efficient and low-priced gas economies in Europe, the Netherlands. An example of efficient energy use are greenhouses with artificial lighting and CO 2 -fertilization and energy (heat) storage device. Applying relatively favorable depreciation periods and (utility) interest rate, a PAFC 200 kWe generates just a positive return (IRR = 1.7 % after taxes and subsidies) when part of a gas-engine capacity is replaced

  17. An interactive economic GIS tool for Europe using map objects for Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Vaishnavi

    Europe is one of the world's seven continents, which has approximately 50 countries and all are rich in culture, traditions, economy, biodiversity, among other things. This thesis focuses on creating a GIS application about Europe which will give an overview of Europe in various aspects. It covers 50 countries including financial centers, currency used, population, GDP growth, private banks, central banks, stock exchange, coat of arms and flags for each country, using the HotLink Tool. A reference link is also provided for detailed understanding of the above mentioned aspects. The other part of the thesis mainly focuses on the economics of the European Union as well as each country independently, which gives a thorough knowledge about the current investment climate in Europe. A part of this idea is to ensure transparency after the financial crisis in 2008. Further the capital markets of the European Union and other European countries are brought to light to provide a clear picture of their present financial situation. The application can help in improving policy and decision making, foreign investments, business environment for various development organizations. So this GIS application will be an effective tool for customers to understand the risks in investments by learning about the economic conditions of Europe.

  18. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  19. Wind turbines fundamentals, technologies, application, economics

    CERN Document Server

    Hau, Erich

    2013-01-01

    "Wind Turbines" addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields.  In its revised third edition, special emphasis has been given to the latest trends in wind turbine technology and design, such as gearless drive train concepts, as well as on new fields of application, in particular the offshore utilisation of wind energy. The author has gained experience over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics.

  20. Technology assessment and technology policy in Europe : New concepts, new goals, new infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Leyten, J.; Hertog, P. den

    1995-01-01

    Starting from the observation that the technological potentials are underutilized in economic and in social tems, this article raises the question of what role technology assessment (TA) can play in technology policy to address this problem. The causes of the problem of underutilization are analyzed

  1. Economic suicides in the Great Recession in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-09-01

    There has been a substantial rise in 'economic suicides' in the Great Recessions afflicting Europe and North America. We estimate that the Great Recession is associated with at least 10 000 additional economic suicides between 2008 and 2010. A critical question for policy and psychiatric practice is whether these suicide rises are inevitable. Marked cross-national variations in suicides in the recession offer one clue that they are potentially avoidable. Job loss, debt and foreclosure increase risks of suicidal thinking. A range of interventions, from upstream return-to-work programmes through to antidepressant prescriptions may help mitigate suicide risk during economic downturn. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  2. THE ECONOMIC SITUATION IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: A POSSIBLE THREAT TO THE SECURITY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea PIRNUTA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The entire world has had to face the draconian effects of the economic recession recently. One of the regions marked by severe economic damages has been South Eastern Europe. The present article aims at analyzing the current economic situation in this particular region by trying to identify the strong and weak points, as well as possible ways to solve these specific issues. This paper lays emphasis upon states, such as: Turkey, Greece and Romania, but also on certain facts about the other states belonging to the previously mentioned region.

  3. An Economic Analysis of Obesity in Europe: Health, Medical Care and Absenteeism Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sanz de Galdeano

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is not only a health but also an economic phenomenon with potentially important direct and indirect economic costs that are unlikely to be fully internalized by the obese. In the US, obesity prevalence is the highest among OECD countries and the issue has long been the focus of policy debate and academic research. However, European obesity rates are rising and there is still a lack of economic analysis of the obesity phenomenon in Europe. This paper attempts to fill in this gap by usi...

  4. Economic growth and intangible capitals: Europe versus Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro José-Luis Alfaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the international growth model includes important restrictions about the consideration of GDP as a unique tool for measurement. In this sense, taking into consideration the wealth of a country, we must add intangibles such as human development, country image, employment conditions, environmental, innovation, public sector efficiency, and synergies to the variable production, which is defined as national intellectual capital. In this paper, we use a mathematical model of intellectual capital to determine, in monetary terms, the intangible elements that have a greater impact on long-term economic development in European and Asian countries. We have the main limitation of available information and we provide objective results using statistical method. By identifying these components, countries will be able to redirect their policies toward achieving sustainable long-term growth. The results show that the long-term growth of both continents are strongly dependent on the skills of their human resources, but register differences in structural factors such as trade, innovation, or environment.

  5. [Economic management of health crises affecting production animals in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, S; Humblet, M F; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Gosset, C; Albert, A; Vernaillen, F; Saegerman, C

    2011-12-01

    The importance of animal health crises has considerably increased over the last few years. When a crisis occurs, farmers can receive financial support through various public, private and mixed compensation schemes. Economic losses resulting from diseases may be direct and indirect. If a disease is covered by European Union regulations then countries have a legal obligation to partly compensate farmers for direct losses, either directly through the national budget, or through a specific fund. The European Veterinary Fund also co-finances these losses. Only a few countries provide compensation for indirect losses. The private insurance sector also provides protection against some direct and indirect losses but the risks covered are variable. To encourage farmers to subscribe to this kind of insurance, some public authorities provide subsidies to help pay the premium. Insurance companies do not generally cover the risks linked to contagious diseases, but some companies do extend cover to include this type of risk. Several alternatives, such as mutual funds, are available to improve risk coverage. There is a lack of harmonisation among the various compensation schemes of different countries. Public authorities cannot provide full compensation, but mutual funds and private insurance companies are alternatives that should be further investigated and their use should be extended to other countries. A classification of diseases would harmonise the situation at the European level.

  6. Political and economic heritage of postcommunist Europe and energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transition countries include a group of countries with similar political, economic and social problems that signify the period after the end of the cold war and the fall of Communism. The paper presents the characteristics of the European Communist countries before and after the fall of the iron curtain, which influenced the transition process toward market economy. The centralist (Russian) economy model had enormous advantages at the beginning, particularly in the energy sector, owing to unlimited consumption of blood, sweat and tears during the construction of major power plants. The bureaucratic system executed ruthless expropriation of land and the existing power system, neglecting the environment and human health and even disregarding the feasibility of new power plants. The market creation and particularly the creation of an energy market, under which we understand selling and buying of all forms of energy, fuels, power plants' equipment and capital for energy sector, asks for a series of tasks from the Eastern European countries. They must accept market rules, standards of highly industrialised western countries and achievements in parliamentary democracy as the canon of behaviour in democracy. Setting up a legal infrastructure for the private sector, devising a taxation system, determining ownership rights, stabilising the macro economy in the sense of managing the government budget so as to avoid an excessive fiscal deficit, and stabilising monetary policy are primary tasks of the transition countries. The paper particularly reviews the tasks specifically related to the energy sector and analyses the problems taking into account national strategic interests. (author)

  7. A methodology for the economic assessment of material damage caused by SO2 and NOx emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayerhofer, P.; Weltschev, M.; Trukenmueller, A.; Friedrich, R.

    1995-01-01

    Damage to materials causes high economic losses in Europe. A large part of this damage can be attributed to the emissions caused by the energy and the transport sector. In the paper, the procedure for the economic assessment of material damages caused by SO 2 and NO x emissions in Europe is described. Model and data requirements are outlined, and gaps and uncertainties of the quantification are discussed. Two types of results are presented. First, the marginal (additional) costs of damage to material caused by an additional power plant are assessed. The analysis covers plants with different technologies. Results for the fossil power plants are in the range of 0.0062 to 0.12 mECU/kWh. In addition, the total economic material damage due to the present air pollution was assessed. It is in the range of 2.9 to 5.3 x 10 9 ECU/year. However, the analysis has many uncertainties. Most noteworthy are the material inventories and partially the damage functions and input data. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, October 2017 : Migration and Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Public concerns in Europe and Central Asia over the recent sharp increase in asylum seekers and undocumented migrants seem to reflect a broader anxiety about reduced job security, caused by technological developments and internationalization of production and work. Policy reforms should help both migrants and non-migrants cope with increased and unavoidable flexibility in labor markets.

  9. Estimating the cost of epilepsy in Europe: a review with economic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliatti, Maura; Beghi, Ettore; Forsgren, Lars; Ekman, Mattias; Sobocki, Patrik

    2007-12-01

    Based on available epidemiologic, health economic, and international population statistics literature, the cost of epilepsy in Europe was estimated. Europe was defined as the 25 European Union member countries, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Guidelines for epidemiological studies on epilepsy were used for a case definition. A bottom-up prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, the societal perspective for including the cost items, and the human capital approach as valuation principle for indirect costs were used. The cost estimates were based on selected studies with common methodology and valuation principles. The estimated prevalence of epilepsy in Europe in 2004 was 4.3-7.8 per 1,000. The estimated total cost of the disease in Europe was euro15.5 billion in 2004, indirect cost being the single most dominant cost category (euro8.6 billion). Direct health care costs were euro2.8 billion, outpatient care comprising the largest part (euro1.3 billion). Direct nonmedical cost was euro4.2 billion. That of antiepileptic drugs was euro400 million. The total cost per case was euro2,000-11,500 and the estimated cost per European inhabitant was euro33. Epilepsy is a relevant socioeconomic burden at individual, family, health services, and societal level in Europe. The greater proportion of such burden is outside the formal health care sector, antiepileptic drugs representing a smaller proportion. Lack of economic data from several European countries and other methodological limitations make this report an initial estimate of the cost of epilepsy in Europe. Prospective incidence cost-of-illness studies from well-defined populations and common methodology are encouraged.

  10. Social Capital, Corruption and Economic Growth:Eastern and Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesize, that power centralisation in a political system leads to more corruption due to the monopoly power status of bureaucrats. Corruption again would then lead to a lower level of social capital, here measured as trust, and slow down economic growth even further. Indeed, when comparing the tables and weighted averages for corruption and trust, highly corrupt countries such as those in Eastern Europe, also tend have the lowest level of trust. In general, low levels of trust (measure...

  11. A Firm Level Study of Information Technology Productivity in Europe Using Financial and Market Based Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Peslak

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years, business has invested significant resources in information technology, hardware, software, and manpower. The Productivity Paradox is the seeming lack of productivity gains despite the increased investment in IT. For many years the existence of a Productivity Paradox has been the subject of research interest. Conflicting results have been obtained from a variety of data sets. Until this time however there has been no study that has investigated European companies’ use of information technology and its impact on productivity. The objective of this study was to investigate information technology productivity with a new data set from a European published source, and measuring productivity using both market and financial based measures. Results of the study indicated that information technology did have a consistent positive impact on firm level productivity in Europe for the years 1996, 1997, and 1998. Both market and financial based productivity measures provided consistent positive significant returns with regard to IT productivity. The major contribution of the study is that it provides an analysis of the impact of European information technology on firm and economic productivity.

  12. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.

    1995-01-01

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a 'sustainable city'; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined 'recipe' is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs

  13. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Economics Dept.; Nijkamp, P. [Dept. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a `sustainable city`; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined `recipe` is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs.

  14. Changing Economic Leadership : A New Benchmark of Sector Productivity in the United States and Western Europe, ca. 1910

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, Ewout; Woltjer, Pieter; Smits, Jan-Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The debate concerning the exact timing and causes of changes in economic leadership constitutes one of the central themes in economic history. This study aims to improve the measurement of economic performance in the United States and Western Europe (Britain, France and the Netherlands) during the

  15. Changing Economic Leadership. A New Benchmark of Sector Productivity in the United States and Western Europe, ca. 1910

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Woltjer, P.J.; Smits, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The debate concerning the exact timing and causes of changes in economic leadership constitutes one of the central themes in economic history. This study aims to improve the measurement of economic performance in the United States and Western Europe (Britain, France and the Netherlands) during

  16. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-07-01

    In order to plan for potential CO{sub 2} mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO{sub 2} mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO{sub 2} and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} sequestration, including captured CO{sub 2} storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO{sub 2} sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO{sub 2} sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO{sub 2}. No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO{sub 2} sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget.

  17. Variation in Health Technology Assessment and Reimbursement Processes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akehurst, Ronald L; Abadie, Eric; Renaudin, Noël; Sarkozy, François

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that differences in health technology assessment (HTA) processes among countries, particularly within Europe, have led to inequity in patient access to new medicines. To provide an up-to-date snapshot analysis of the present status of HTA and reimbursement systems in select European countries, and to investigate the implications of these processes, especially with regard to delays in market and patient access. HTA and reimbursement processes were assessed through a review of published and gray literature, and through a series of interviews with HTA experts. To quantify the impact of differences among countries, we conducted case studies of 12 products introduced since 2009, including 10 cancer drugs. In addition to the differences in HTA and reimbursement processes among countries, the influence of particular sources of information differs among HTA bodies. The variation in the time from the authorization by the European Medicines Agency to the publication of HTA decisions was considerable, both within and among countries, with a general lack of transparency as to why some assessments take longer than others. In most countries, market access for oncology products can occur outside the HTA process, with sales often preceding HTA decisions. It is challenging even for those with considerable personal experience in European HTA processes to establish what is really happening in market access for new drugs. We recommend that efforts should be directed toward improving transparency in HTA, which should, in turn, lead to more effective processes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bio-energy in Europe: changing technology choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-energy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. This is certainly evident in Europe, where a kaleidoscope of activities and programs was and is executed for developing and stimulating bio-energy. Over the past 10-15 years in the European Union, heat and electricity production from biomass increased with some 2% and 9% per year, respectively, between 1990 and 2000 and biofuel production increased about eight-fold in the same period. Biomass contributed some two-thirds of the total renewable energy production in the European Union (EU) (2000 PJ) or 4% of the total energy supply in 1999. Given the targets for heat, power and biofuels, this contribution may rise to some 10% (6000 PJ) in 2010. Over time, the scale at which bio-energy is being used has increased considerably. This is true for electricity and combined heat and power plants, and how biomass markets are developing from purely regional to international markets, with increasing cross-border trade-flows. So far, national policy programs proved to be of vital importance for the success of the development of bio-energy, which led to very specific technological choices in various countries. For the future, a supra-national approach is desired: comprehensive research development, demonstration and deployment trajectories for key options as biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle and advanced biofuel concepts, develop an international biomass market allowing for international trade and an integral policy approach for bio-energy incorporating energy, agricultural, forestry, waste and industrial policies. The Common Agricultural Policy of the (extended) EU should fully incorporate bio-energy and perennial crops in particular

  19. Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Voilà deux militants de la cause européenne qui plaident, chacun à sa manière, pour un sursaut afin que renaisse ce « désir d’Europe » qui nous fait tant défaut. « Il n’est pas trop tard, mais il est temps… », écrit P. COLLOWALD dans ses mémoires préfacées par Jacques Delors. Constatant que, « dans les jugements hâtifs de notre époque, on manque souvent de discernement, par ignorance et par manque de recul historique », cet ancien responsable de l’information à la Commission et au Parlement e...

  20. Economics and technology in international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume presents the main address, the lectures and the discussions of the symposium. The papers presented to the symposium were the following: the Draft Convention on the Law of the Sea and problems of the international deep seabed regime; developments in science and technology, as a challenge to international law; modern fishery engineering and its impact on international law; the EEC agricultural market - a case study of European Law; problems of international law in connection with a new system of the world economy; the GATT and a new world economic system; the Third World and UNCTAD; international disaster relief and mutual assistance in case of accidents, especially with a view to Atomic Energy Law; organisation, scope and limits of international co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  1. Scenarios of technology and innovation policies in Europe : Investigating future governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Stefan; Edler, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, public research, technology and innovation policies are no longer exclusively in the hands of national authorities: increasingly, national initiatives are supplemented by, or even competing with, regional innovation policies or transnational programmes, in particular the activities of the

  2. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafinski T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tania Stafinski1, Devidas Menon2, Caroline Davis1, Christopher McCabe31Health Technology and Policy Unit, 2Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 3Academic Unit of Health Economics, Leeds Institute for Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process.Methods: A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers.Results: Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations

  3. TAX COMPOSITION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH. A PANEL-MODEL APPROACH FOR EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURA PETRU-OVIDIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of tax composition on economic growth, based on a panel-model approach. The dataset includes six East-European countries and covers the period 1995-2012. Specifically, the study explores the relative impact of different components of tax revenue (direct and indirect tax revenue, as percentage of total tax revenue on economic growth. The paper adds marginally to the empirical literature, showing how the two types of tax revenue influence economic growth in Eastern Europe, under an extended set of economic and sociopolitical control variables. The most important empirical output, for the 6 investigated East-European countries during 1995-2012, suggests that direct taxes are significant and negatively correlated with economic growth, while indirect taxes exert a positive influence on the dependent variable, though insignificant. As for the control variables, it seems that only freedom from corruption and political stability have a significant impact on economic growth. The study suggests that the design of tax systems in Eastern European countries is in accordance with the Commission’s priorities regarding its growth-friendliness. As for policy implications, governments should continue shifting the tax burden away from labour on to tax bases linked to consumption, property, and combating pollution, with potential positive effects both for growth and for fighting against tax evasion.

  4. Europe 2020 Strategy’s Viability under This More Volatile Economic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The global crisis accentuated the competition between the greatest world economic actors. One of them, the EU28, tried to find, as solution to support its economic growth, the Cohesion Policy. The paper is focused on the analysis of the results of the Cohesion Policy and the perspectives of the new strategy Europe 2020. In order to do these, the paper uses the latest official statistic data and divides the analysis into three periods: until 2012, during 2012-2014 and during 2015-2020. The analysis is based on three elements (a comparative trend analysis, followed by a cluster analysis and a forecast using SPSS19 software and takes into considerations four important macroeconomic indicators. The main conclusion of the paper is that the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy will be not achieved and the socio-economic disparities will increase across the EU in 2020.All conclusions of the analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and statistic tables.

  5. Impact of international financial assistance on economic growth in Europe after the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchanov A.Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is devoted to studying the impact of international financial aid on economic growth in Europe after the Second World War. The aim of the investigation is the identification of regularities of post-war recovery of European economies in the second half of the twentieth century and the assessment of international financial aid’s role in the economic growth stimulation. The author summarizes domestic and foreign researchers’ achievements of studying the issue of the Marshall Plan and its importance for modern Ukraine, and differentiates the classic, capitalistic and modern stages of post-conflict reconstruction of the national economies. The relation between the amount of financial assistance from US government to 14 European countries and the growth of GDP in 1947–1952 is studied with the help of correlation and regression analysis and their significant linear dependence is determined. The issue of institutional support of international financing program of economic recovery of Europe has not been left without attention.

  6. Climate change and macro-economic cycles in pre-industrial europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Lee, Harry F; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales.

  7. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czvikovszky, T.; Dobó, J. [Research Institute for Plastics, Budapest (Hungary)

    1968-10-15

    The preparation of wood-plastic combinations can be regarded as a special field of graft-copolymerization. It is therefore quite understandable why this idea was first introduced by graft-copolymerization specialists. On the basis of the theory and technique of radiation-induced graft- copolymerization, which has been greatly developed since 1950, wood-plastic combinations appeared simultaneously in the United States of America and in Europe. As is known, intensive American research on wood-plastic combinations is based on four patents by Kenaga from 1958, which were published in 1963. The worldwide interest in the matter was initiated, however, by Karpov's paper of 1960 based on Soviet patents from 1958 and 1960.

  8. Economic crisis and levels of political participation in Europe (2002-2010): the role of resources and grievances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, A.; Marien, S.; Hooghe, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of the recent economic crisis on political participation levels in Europe. As the civic voluntarism model and grievances theory predict different effects of economic downturn on political participation, the crisis provides a unique context to evaluate the explanatory

  9. The economics of aquifer storage recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, R.; Pyne, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) technology is increasingly being utilized around the world for storing water underground through one or more wells during wet months and other times when water is available for storage. The water is then recovered from the same wells when needed to meet a growing variety of water supply objectives. The economics of ASR constitute the principal reason for its increasing utilization. ASR unit capital costs are typically less than half those of other water supply and water storage alternatives. Unit operating costs are usually only slightly greater than for conventional production well-fields. Marginal costs for ASR storage and recovery provide a powerful tool for making more efficient use of existing infrastructure, providing water supply sustainability and reliability at relatively low cost. The opportunity exists for a careful analysis of the net present value of ASR well-fields, addressing not only the associated capital and operating costs but also the value of the benefits achieved for each of the water supply objectives at each site. (Author)

  10. The economics of aquifer storage recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, R.; Pyne, G.

    2014-10-01

    Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) technology is increasingly being utilized around the world for storing water underground through one or more wells during wet months and other times when water is available for storage. The water is then recovered from the same wells when needed to meet a growing variety of water supply objectives. The economics of ASR constitute the principal reason for its increasing utilization. ASR unit capital costs are typically less than half those of other water supply and water storage alternatives. Unit operating costs are usually only slightly greater than for conventional production well-fields. Marginal costs for ASR storage and recovery provide a powerful tool for making more efficient use of existing infrastructure, providing water supply sustainability and reliability at relatively low cost. The opportunity exists for a careful analysis of the net present value of ASR well-fields, addressing not only the associated capital and operating costs but also the value of the benefits achieved for each of the water supply objectives at each site. (Author)

  11. Solar photovoltaic markets, economics, technology, and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, J.M.J.; Molinski, T.S. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)]|[Emerging Energy Systems, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    Solar Photovoltaics (PV) are solid state semiconductor electronic devices that transform infrared, visible, or ultraviolet light energy from the sun directly into electrical energy. Selenium was used to create the first solar cell in 1883. In 1954, Bell Laboratories developed the modern day silicon solar cell, whereby impurities were added to silicon through a process called doping. Silicon doped with boron results in a positive electrical charge, while silicon doped with phosphorous results in a negative electrical charge. The atom collision from photons in sunlight provides the necessary energy to free a trapped electron in the doped silicon, which then may flow through a wire creating an electric current. Many different materials besides silicon are used to create solar cells, such as plastics, organic compounds, and theoretically even special paints, while other doping agents besides boron and phosphorous are also used, such as arsenic and gallium. This paper provided an introduction to solar PV and world solar PV growth and markets. A review of solar PV economics was also included. In 2008, the total installed costs of solar photovoltaic cells were in the range of 7 to 10 Canadian dollars. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of solar PV were presented. Solar technologies under research and development were also discussed and assessed. It was concluded that although solar PV was one of the most expensive forms of renewable generation, there is great potential for solar PV to gain broader based application as costs continue to drop. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  12. Changing Economic Leadership: A New Benchmark of Sector Productivity in the United States and Western Europe, ca. 1910

    OpenAIRE

    Frankema, Ewout; Woltjer, Pieter; Smits, Jan-Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The debate concerning the exact timing and causes of changes in economic leadership constitutes one of the central themes in economic history. This study aims to improve the measurement of economic performance in the United States and Western Europe (Britain, France and the Netherlands) during the long nineteenth century by constructing a new benchmark of sector productivity and new estimates of comparative gdp per capita and per worker. Our main finding is that the Anglo-Dutch and Anglo-Amer...

  13. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Analysis of the BEV Technology Progress of America, Europe, Japan and Korea Based on Patent Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurong, Huang; Yuanyuan, Hou; Jingyan, Zhou; Ru, Liu

    2018-02-01

    The paper analyzed the Battery Electric Vehicle patent application trend, major country distribution, main technology layout and patentee of America, Europe, Japan and Korea based on patent information from 2006 to 2016 by using patent map method, and visualized the Battery Electric Vehicle technology progress conditions of the four countries and regions in the last decade.

  15. Techno-economical analysis of innovative technologies in electrical power systems. A feasibility study for a Russian distribution system operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Holger; Nikitina, Elena; Makarov, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Since the liberalization of the energy market in Europe transmission and distribution system operators have been facing fundamentally new challenges when ensuring a safe and reliable power supply. In addition to purely technical criteria economical aspects have become increasingly important in the strategic planning and operation of power systems. As described in this contribution, the results of a feasibility study demonstrate how the use of innovative technologies can make a valuable contribution to improve the economical situation.

  16. Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lucas; Bernauer, Thomas; Kalbhenn, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the most important international environmental monitoring networks in Europe, the one for water quality, in the time period 1965-2004. We develop a geographic information system that contains information on the location of several thousand active monitoring stations in Europe. Using multivariate statistics, we then examine whether and to what extent the spatial and temporal clustering of monitoring intensity is driven by environmental, political, and economic factors. The results show that monitoring intensity is higher in river basins exposed to greater environmental pressure. However, political and economic factors also play a strong role in monitoring decisions: democracy, income, and peer pressure are conducive to monitoring intensity, and monitoring intensity generally increases over time. Moreover, even though monitoring is more intense in international upstream-downstream settings, we observe only a weak bias toward more monitoring downstream of international borders. In contrast, negative effects of European Union (EU) membership and runup to the EU's Water Framework Directive are potential reasons for concern. Our results strongly suggest that international coordination and standardization of water quality monitoring should be intensified. It will be interesting to apply our analytical approach also to other national and international monitoring networks, for instance, the U.S. National Water-Quality Assessment Program or the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program for air pollution.

  17. Economic burden of malignant blood disorders across Europe: a population-based cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Richeal; Leal, Jose; Sullivan, Richard; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon

    2016-08-01

    Malignant blood disorders are a leading contributor to cancer incidence and mortality across Europe. Despite their burden, no study has assessed the economic effect of blood cancers in Europe. We aimed to assess the economic burden of malignant blood disorders across the 28 countries in the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Malignant blood disorder-related costs were estimated for 28 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland for 2012. Country-specific costs were estimated with aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health-care resource use obtained from international and national sources. Health-care costs were estimated from expenditure on primary, outpatient, emergency, inpatient care, and drugs. Costs of informal care and productivity losses due to morbidity and early death were also included. For countries in the EU, malignant blood disorders were compared with the economic burden of overall cancer. Malignant blood disorders cost the 31 European countries €12 billion in 2012. Health-care cost €7·3 billion (62% of total costs), productivity losses cost €3·6 billion (30%), and informal care cost €1 billion (8%). For the EU countries, malignant blood disorders cost €6·8 billion (12%) of the total health-care expenditure on cancer (€57 billion), with this proportion being second only to breast cancer. In terms of total cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion), malignant blood disorders cost €12 billion (8%). Malignant blood disorders represent a leading cause of death, health-care service use, and costs, not only to European health-care systems, but to society overall. Our results add to essential public health knowledge needed for effective national cancer-control planning and priorities for public research funding. European Hematology Association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic growth and technological change : an evolutionary interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, B.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply insights from evolutionary economic theory to the question of what can explain recent trends in economic growth, with emphasis on the role of technological change. Obviously, a basic question that precedes this question is "what is evolutionary economic theory"? The

  19. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to

  20. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to global mercury pollution and the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an assessment of the economic benefits of prevented developmental neurotoxicity is necessary for any cost-benefit analysis. Methods Distributions of hair-Hg concentrations among women of reproductive age were obtained from the DEMOCOPHES project (1,875 subjects in 17 countries) and literature data (6,820 subjects from 8 countries). The exposures were assumed to comply with log-normal distributions. Neurotoxicity effects were estimated from a linear dose-response function with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost was based on lifetime income, adjusted for purchasing power parity. Results The hair-mercury concentrations were the highest in Southern Europe and lowest in Eastern Europe. The results suggest that, within the EU, more than 1.8 million children are born every year with MeHg exposures above the limit of 0.58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million and €9,000 million per year. About four-fold higher values were obtained when using the logarithmic response function, while adjustment for productivity resulted in slightly lower total benefits. These calculations do not include the less tangible advantages of protecting brain development against neurotoxicity or any other adverse effects. Conclusions These estimates document that efforts to combat mercury pollution and to reduce MeHg exposures will have very substantial

  1. La Coopération Scientifique et Technologique en Europe occidentale. 1ère Partie Scientific and Technological Cooperation in Western Europe. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'exemple de la puissance américaine pendant et après le dernier conflit mondial a montré aux nations de l'Europe occidentale que leur développement économique dépendait étroitement de leur aptitude à la recherche scientifique et à l'innovation technologique. Devant la nécessité vitale d'élaborer une politique de la science et l'impossibilité de concurrencer individuellement les États-Unis sur l'ensemble du front, elles se sont progressivement engagées vers une collaboration de plus en plus réfléchie dans le domaine scientifique et technologique. Dans le même temps les grands organismes internationaux à vocation politique, économique ou militaire (ONU, OCDE, OTAN... créés après la guerre ont été aussi amenés à se préoccuper des problèmes de la science avant que ceux ci ne fassent l'objet d'une politique délibérée de coopération sous l'égide des Communautés européennes.Nous allons essayer. de faire le point sur toutes ces questions en exposant dans les différents chapitres I. La notion de politique de la science et son évolution dans le monde occidental. II. Les organismes internationaux impliqués dans une coopération scientifique et technologique en Europe occidentale. III et IV. Les résultats (scientifiques puis technologiques de cette coopération en dehors des grands organismes internationaux. V. Les actions menées dans le cadre de ces organismes. VI. La politique de coopération entreprise au sein des Communautés européennes. VII. La coopération européenne en matière d'énergie. The exemple of U.S. power during and after the last World War showed the countries in Western Europe that their economic development was closely linked to their capocity for scientific research and technological innovation. Faced with the vital need to draw up a science policy and the impossibilty of individually rivaling the United States in all areas, they gradually moved toward more and more deliberate coopération in

  2. The EU Battery Alliance. Can Europe Avoid Technological Dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Carole

    2018-01-01

    With the launch of its 'battery alliance', the European Union is finally taking up the industrial battle with Asia and hopes to meet a large share of the surging demand for electrical batteries. Yet, the clock is ticking and the future of battery manufacturing in Europe depends primarily on the strategies that auto-makers will adopt. The right conditions may finally be in place for electric transportation to become a mass market. Hybrid and full-electric vehicles (EVs) still account for a very small fraction of total sales (1% in 2016) but demand is booming and forecasts are constantly revised upwards. Many European countries, as well as India and China, have recently signaled their intention to completely phase out gas and diesel powered cars between 2025 and 2040. In the meantime, charging infrastructures are built with public funds, incentive schemes for the purchase of EVs are extended, CO 2 emissions standards are tightened, minimum quotas for the sales of zero emission vehicles are introduced, and cities are increasingly investing in electric bus fleets. This strong push in terms of public policy adds to a growing environmental awareness among customers - in particular in Europe since the Dieselgate scandal - and clearly strengthens the case for ambitious EV plans in the automotive industry

  3. Economic assessment and comparison of acacia energy crop with annual traditional crops in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol, Carles M.; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier; Brun, Filippo; Mosso, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In several policy documents bioenergy is recognized as an important renewable energy source in Italy. The increase in energy prices represents an opportunity for lignocellulosic energy crops such as acacia and poplar. However, for Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) to be adopted by farmers, these crops must be perceived to be at least as profitable as crops that normally compete with these plantations for land use. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic feasibility of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) as an energy crop in a low input production regime in Italy and, in particular, to consider its competitiveness with wheat. Our results show that neither SRC and SRF techniques using assumed production costs (EUR3820 and EUR5285 ha -1 yr -1 ) nor biomass productions are able to obtain a positive profit (-EUR184 and -EUR172 ha -1 yr -1 ) that can convince farmers to invest in biomass plantations on their land. The results demonstrate that wheat is a more economically secure option than SRC or SRF. The viability of local biomass production in Italy and Southern Europe depends on the active support of the governments; without them, biomass is not economically competitive for the farmers when compared to crops such as wheat. (author)

  4. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND IMPACT FACTORS IN COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Florin FILIP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the premise that the performance of the economies of different countries, respectively their economic growth, is sinthtically expressed by the GDP growth indicator, whose dynamics evolves under the impact of a variety of determining factors, including some of financial-monetary nature. Thus, there are highlighted specific causal linkages and influences of economic and financial factors represented by certain indicators (inflation, unemployment, exports as percentage of GDP, imports as percentage of GDP, domestic credit as percentage of GDP, non-performing loans rate to GDP growth rate, by using econometric methods. Much of the paper is focused on on shaping an econometric model in which GDP growth rate is dependent variable and the other mentioned indicators are impact factors, respectively determinant variables. Along the mentioned determining factors, in our model is evaluated also the impact of the manifestation of the recent financial crisis, considering it as an additional determinant dummy variable. By processing the data for a group of countries of Central and Eastern Europe over the period 2000-2013, there result findings on the impact of each of the determining factors on the economic growth in the countries concerned and are formulated the appropriate assessments and conclusions.

  5. Innovation diffusion, technological convergence and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    R. Andergassen; F. Nardini; M. Ricottilli

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the mechanics through which novel technological principles are developed and diffused throughout an economy consisting of a technologically heterogeneous ensemble of firms. In the model entrepreneurs invest in the discovery and in the diffusion of a technological principle and their profit flow depends on how many firms adopt the innovation and on how long it takes other entrepreneurs to improve it. We show that technological convergence emerges from the competition amo...

  6. Research and development of nitride fuel cycle technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, Janne

    2004-01-01

    Research and development on nitride fuels for minor actinide burning in accelerator driven systems is performed in Europe in context of the CONFIRM project. Dry and wet methods for fabrication of uranium free nitride fuels have been developed with the assistance of thermo-chemical modelling. Four (Pu, Zr) pins have been fabricated by PSI and will be irradiated in Studsvik at a rating of 40-50 kW/m. The thermal conductivity of (Pu, Zr)N has been measured and was found to be in agreement with earlier theoretical assessments. Safety modeling indicates that americium bearing nitride fuels, in spite of their relatively poor high temperature stability under atmospheric pressure, can survive power transients as long as the fuel cladding remains intact. (author)

  7. Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popplow, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.

  8. On the economic attractiveness of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of wind and solar power technologies is often evaluated in public debates by comparing levelized costs of electricity. This is, however, incorrect, as doing so neglects the economic value of technologies. Similarly, renewable energy support schemes are often designed to incentivize investors to only account for the marginal economic costs (MEC) but not for the marginal economic value (MEV el ) of renewable energy technologies, i.e., the revenue from selling electricity on the wholesale market during the unit's technical lifetime. In this paper, it is shown that the net marginal economic costs per kWh (NMEC) - defined as the difference between the MEC and the MEV el per kWh - should serve as the reference when discussing the economic attractiveness of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, renewable energy support schemes should incentivize investments in technologies and regions with the lowest net marginal economic costs per kWh (NMEC), as otherwise excess costs occur. This is demonstrated using the example of Germany and its technology- and region-specific wind and solar power targets for 2020. By applying a linear electricity system optimization model, Germany's technology- and region-specific wind and solar power targets for 2020 are found to cause excess costs of more than 6.6 bn Euro 2010 . These are driven by comparatively high NMEC (low economic attractiveness) of offshore wind and solar power in comparison to onshore wind power in Germany up to 2020.

  9. The impact of carbon sequestration on the production cost of electricity and hydrogen from coal and natural-gas technologies in Europe in the medium term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, Evangelos; Peteves, Stathis D.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is a distinct technological option with a potential for controlling carbon emissions; it complements other measures, such as improvements in energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy sources. The deployment of carbon sequestration technologies in electricity generation and hydrogen production will increase the production costs of these energy carriers. Our economic assessment has shown that the introduction of carbon sequestration technologies in Europe in 2020, will result in an increase in the production cost of electricity by coal and natural gas technologies of 30-55% depending on the electricity-generation technology used; gas turbines will remain the most competitive option for generating electricity; and integrated gasification combined cycle technology will become competitive. When carbon sequestration is coupled with natural-gas steam reforming or coal gasification for hydrogen production, the production cost of hydrogen will increase by 14-16%. Furthermore, natural-gas steam reforming with carbon sequestration is far more economically competitive than coal gasification

  10. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  11. Information technology boosts contractor's economic success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, M.; Vasey, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article will discuss the advantages of Information Technology (IT) and how one drilling contractor, Global Marine, has applied this technology. The company has applied it in an efficient manner which has provided business benefits and cost reductions that have helped its operations be more successful. The following are the different aspects of information technology that led to the contractor's success: cost reduction measures; migration to a client/server IT infrastructure; IT business benefits; and keys to obtaining business benefits from IT

  12. Green technologies for the use of urban wastewater: economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Alfredo Gil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban sewage is one of the biggest polluters of water resources. For treatment, the usual conventional technologies (CT are based on civil and hydraulic engineering; more recently, green technologies (GT based on biology and ecology began to be developed. The aim of this study was to assess the economic aspects of these technologies using cost-benefit analysis. The economic benefits are derived from the sale of forest products and the environmental benefits of water decontamination, valued by the avoided cost method. The results of the study establish that GT have better commercial and economic performance than CT, and that the inclusion of environmental benefit significantly improves the results.

  13. The use of non-economic criteria in pricing and reimbursement decisions in Central and Eastern Europe: issues, trends and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Kalo, Zoltan; Zah, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    According to some experts, there is still room for improvement with regard to the inclusion of ethical considerations in Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The pros and cons of the introduction of non-economic criteria in the HTA process in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) are discussed. In comparison to Western Europe, financial considerations are even more important in CEE settings; however, it could also be said that attachment to equity and justice is part of CEE's heritage. Therefore, the trade-off between conflicting principles is evaluated. Expert commentary: To ensure the right balance between equity and efficiency in decision making, the current HTA framework has to be further augmented to allow all conflicting criteria to be addressed to a satisfactory degree. Following other examples, the applicability of multi criteria decision analysis technique to CEE settings should be further investigated.

  14. What drives Senegalese migration to Europe? The role of economic restructuring, labor demand, and the multiplier effect of networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baizán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: International migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe is poorly understood. Furthermore, existing studies pay insufficient attention to the links between the micro-level factors and political, social, and economic processes in both origin and destination areas. Here we integrate insights from institutional approaches in migration and development research with perspectives that highlight the role of labor market and social capital. Objective: We analyze the contextual and individual-level determinants of migration from Senegal to France, Italy, and Spain since the mid-1970s. We examine the following hypotheses: (1 In Senegal, the deterioration of living conditions and heightened economic insecurity have created the conditions for increasing out-migration propensities. (2 In Europe, labor market restructuring has increased job opportunities in particular places and job niches. (3 In facilitating access of Senegalese migrants to jobs in Europe, social networks have linked these two processes. (4 The conjunction of periods of strong labor demand and the availability of personal networks in Europe creates a boosting effect on the migration probabilities of the Senegalese to Europe. Methods: We use event history models to analyze life course data from the Migrations between Africa and Europe survey (2008. Results: Our empirical results concerning both individual socioeconomic indicators and contextual indicators provide consistent support for the four hypotheses proposed. Conclusions: The initiation and expansion of migration between Senegal and Europe stem from the simultaneous presence of several key factors at origin and destination, including processes of economic restructuring and the mutually reinforcing process of social capital formation and changing labor market conditions. These factors are historically contingent, but they may have a wider relevance in the explanation of migration from developing countries to developed

  15. Strengthening national decision-making on immunization by building capacity for economic evaluation: Implementing ProVac in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Julia; Hoestlandt, Céline; D Clark, Andrew; Baxter, Louise; Felix Garcia, Ana Gabriela; Mounaud, Bérénice; Mosina, Liudmila

    2015-05-07

    For many years, low- and middle-income countries have made efforts to strengthen national decision-making on immunization. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) ProVac Initiative was established to help expedite the use of evidence-based decision-making around new vaccine introduction. This initiative provides training in user-friendly cost-effectiveness models and supports the development of country-led economic evaluations. Due to the success of the ProVac Initiative in the Americas, and following requests from countries from outside the Americas, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded a two-year pilot effort to expand the initiative to other world regions. Called the ProVac International Working Group (IWG), this endeavor took place in 2012 and 2013. It was coordinated by PAHO and carried out in collaboration with several international partners, including the Agence de Médecine Préventive (AMP), London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, Sabin Vaccine Institute, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the WHO European Region, technical support was provided by AMP, in close collaboration with the WHO Regional Office for Europe and other ProVac IWG partners. In 2012, AMP, the WHO Regional Office for Europe, and other partners held a training workshop in Dubrovnik, Croatia, for 31 participants from four countries of the WHO European Region. The aim was to train health professionals in standard methods of economic evaluation and to assess regional demand for economic studies to support decision-making on immunization. AMP and the other organizations also supported four national cost-effectiveness studies in the WHO European Region. The assistance included country visits and support over a period of six months, the establishment of multidisciplinary teams of experts, ongoing training on the TRIVAC decision-support model for new

  16. Central Europe: Ethical Overlaps of Environmental and Economic Interests in Coming Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caha, Zdeněk

    2017-10-25

    Despite the size and thanks to the rich brown coal reserves, the Czech Republic is one of the leading energy producers in Europe, and the 7th biggest exporter of electricity in the world. However, following the climate change mitigation, the novel energy policy that enhances the reduction of coal mining is about to be implemented. A preliminary material flow analysis of the Czech energy sector was carried out. The data obtained confirmed that this government act would result in a dramatic reduction of revenues from electricity sales. Conversely, increased costs would be necessary in order to modernize nuclear power plants and promote the production of renewable energy. In addition, the economic analysis revealed that the act might be prejudicial to economic relations in Central and Western-European countries as some of them are significantly dependent on the electricity imported from the Czech Republic. Disputes between engineers and politicians were highlighted. The aforementioned interrelations were subsequently analyzed and a conclusion was made stating that global interests should have the highest moral priority.

  17. Promoting Economic Security through Information Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of economic insecurity is a global threat to national security. In Nigeria today, we have witness a lot of national security issues that risks the continued existence of the country as one indivisible political entity with many calling for disintegration. Hitherto, many terrorist networks have sprang up in many parts of ...

  18. Promoting Economic Security through Information Technology Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... The problem of economic insecurity is a global threat to national security. ... of the country as one indivisible political entity with many calling for disintegration. ..... The integration of ICT in agriculture can .... Table 4.2.7 Respondents by IT on Business propriety and trade .... of production, distribution and.

  19. Technology Transfer, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... Investment and Economic Growth in Nigeria. Omojola ... view of FDI and trade, towards a more friendly view, by using FDI and trade as ..... the automatically selected Schwarz Info Criterion and the maximum lags, in ..... National Bureau of Statistics [NBS], 2007, 'National account of Nigeria: 1981-. 2006' ...

  20. The need for economic policy coordination between Europe, Japan, and the United States: Policy recommendations for the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Knoester (Anthonie); A. Kolodziejak (André)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractBetter policy coordination between Europe, Japan, and the United States is urgently needed in order to restore economic growth and to diminish mutual trade imbalances. Using the EC Compact model it is shown how coordinated fiscal policies can contribute to reaching these goals in the

  1. The Principle(s) of Co-existence in the Market for GMOs in Europe: Social, Economic and Legal Avenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2016-01-01

    The European policy of co-existence for GMOs follows a number of well-established social, economic and legal principles. Applying these principles in practice has resulted in a complex “rag rug” of co-existence policies in Europe. This rag rug makes enforcement of these principles difficult, at

  2. Global epidemiology of phytoplasma diseases of economic importance in Southeast Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrev, Sasa

    2007-01-01

    The network ‘Global epidemiology of phytoplasma diseases of economic importance in Southeast Europe’ will coordinate the efforts of plant pathologists, microbiologists and entomologists of Southeast European countries to better monitor phytoplasma strains propagation through nurseries and insect vectors, at the European scale. This will be investigated both in plants and insects using up to date molecular typing tools and real-time PCR detection technology. In addition, the network will initi...

  3. Drinking water treatment technologies in Europe : State of the art - vulnerabilities - research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoek, J.P.; Bertelkamp, C.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Singhal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Eureau is the European Federation of National Associations of Water and Wastewater Services. At the request of Eureau Commission 1, dealing with drinking water, a survey was made focusing on raw drinking water sources and drinking water treatment technologies applied in Europe. Raw water sources

  4. Combination of low energy and mechanical cooling technologies for buildings in Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses options for incorporating low energy cooling technologies combined with standard mechanical cooling in buildings in central Europe. Case studies, design recommendations and role of computer simulation of building and system in the design process are presented. Applicability of

  5. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed

  6. Economic and environmental impacts of alternative transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This project has focused on comparing alternative transportation technologies in terms of their : environmental and economic impacts. The research is data-driven and quantitative, and examines the : dynamics of impact. We have developed new theory an...

  7. Hollywood's Conversion to Color: The Technological, Economic and Aesthetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindem, Forham A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the film industry's conversion to color cinematography in the period between the 1920s and 1960s. Cites economic considerations, technological modifications, and aesthetic preferences by audiences as factors in this development. (JMF)

  8. International water and sanitation technology transfers, experiences from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Possibilities of transferring cost-effective, innovative water and wastewater technologies on public water markets are discussed based on experiences of the Dutch water business cluster in the Central and Eastern European Countries. These transfers evolved under suitable conditions, among others

  9. Economic viability of biogas technology in a Bangladesh village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, W.K.; Lucas, N.J.D.

    1997-01-01

    We estimate energy consumption for domestic cooking and biogas energy resources for 21 clusters of households in a village. Data were analyzed on a cluster basis, with investments shared. Under the present conditions, biogas technology would not be economically viable. Economic analysis involving viability tools including additional benefits of biogas technology indicate that creating a market for local biogas would make such a project feasible. (Author)

  10. Block chain Technology:Concept of Digital Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ovais

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explain about blockchain technology and how to use of blockchain technology for modern economics practices. We focused on this paper to put the light on blockchain usage in some other areas of economy such as, governance and political decision making, public finance, financial institution & stock market trading, global trading and other economic activities. The literature showed that blockchain is rapidly growing at globally and increasing digital money for tran...

  11. Economic and ordinal benefits of Hydrogen Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannantoni, C.; Zoli, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing economic, environmental and energy investments is particularly suited for hydrogen technologies, because it makes it possible to calculate business returns, negative externalities and, above all, the economic benefits to the citizens: the monetizable positive externalities and the ordinal benefits, i.e. those which cannot be reduced to a simple monetary value. [it

  12. Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area:Community Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area, for 13 years of development, has made detailed work in building the investment environment, bold job in the management system innovation, full strengths in business recruitment and investment attacting,hard job in cultivating new point of economic growth.

  13. Nuclear in Europe: waning appetites hinder new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear industry's failure to produce new types of fission reactors which prove reliable and cost-effective within timescales acceptable to governments and public utilities is, it is argued, behind the current waning interest in new technology research programs. Public funds are less readily available to finance new reactor design development programs and this trend is likely to continue. Examples are given of these trends in the United States of America, the United Kingdom, France and Germany. (UK)

  14. Franchising technologies for sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganebnykh Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes factors of environmental change that cause the need to form new forms of interaction between economically active market subjects for sustainable development of territories. The authors of the article analyze franchising as one of the most flexible forms of interaction in small business. Modern trends in small business show a gradual merger of the production of goods and their trade with the provision of services. It leads to the necessity to create a fundamentally new mechanism that meets the needs of the modern market. The article proposes a new complex model of franchising which combines all the specified forms.

  15. Economical motor protection using microcomputer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, N.

    1983-09-01

    A trend to design new motors closer to their design limits and the high cost of plant shutdown has increased the need for better protection of smaller three phase motors. A single chip microcomputer relay can be applied to replace thermal overloads which are of limited effectiveness on low and medium voltage machines with comprehensive, economical motor protection. The requirement for different protection features and how they are achieved is presented. All the protection features discussed are commercially available in a compact unit that uses a single chip microcomputer.

  16. Subtle mechanisms of growth: technology and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Arbix

    Full Text Available The article deals with obstacles faced by developing countries to reach economic development. Passivity in technological learning, low productivity in relation to developed economies, adoption of spurious competitive advantages and reproduction of technological delay are presented as challenges to overcome. It states that breaking the passive strategy is the only way for these countries to build a better future.

  17. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  18. Increased wood-fiber production: technology, economics, and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Bentley

    1973-01-01

    Forest tree improvement is a form of technological change, and it should be viewed as such. The economic objective of technological change is to increase productivity per dollar invested. This is accomplished through selection and breeding for increased growth rates or reduced losses to insects and disease. Programs which yield improved planting stock make forest...

  19. On the economics of technology diffusion and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy is an essential factor that fuels economic growth and serves human well-being. World energy use has grown enormously since the middle of the 19th century. This increase in the scale of energy demand comes at a certain price, including environmental externalities, such as the enhanced greenhouse effect. Notwithstanding the need for renewable energy sources, these environmental problems also necessitate further improvements in energy efficiency. Technological change plays a crucial role in realizing energy efficiency improvements and, hence, in ameliorating the conflict between economic growth and environmental quality. At the same time, it is known that not only innovation, but also diffusion of new technologies is a costly and lengthy process, and that many firms do not invest in best-practice technologies. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the inter. play between economic growth, energy use and technological change, with much emphasis on the adoption and diffusion of energy-saving technologies. The thesis presents a mix of theoretical and empirical analyses inspired by recent developments in economic theorizing on technological change that stress the role of accumulation and distribution of knowledge (learning), uncertainty, path dependency and irreversibility. The theoretical part of the study examines how several characteristics of technological change as well as environmental policy affect the dynamics of technology choice. The empirical part of the study explores long-run trends in energy- and labour productivity performance across a range of OECD countries at a detailed sectoral level

  20. [Decision modeling for economic evaluation of health technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho; Soares, Marta Oliveira; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2014-10-01

    Most economic evaluations that participate in decision-making processes for incorporation and financing of technologies of health systems use decision models to assess the costs and benefits of the compared strategies. Despite the large number of economic evaluations conducted in Brazil, there is a pressing need to conduct an in-depth methodological study of the types of decision models and their applicability in our setting. The objective of this literature review is to contribute to the knowledge and use of decision models in the national context of economic evaluations of health technologies. This article presents general definitions about models and concerns with their use; it describes the main models: decision trees, Markov chains, micro-simulation, simulation of discrete and dynamic events; it discusses the elements involved in the choice of model; and exemplifies the models addressed in national economic evaluation studies of diagnostic and therapeutic preventive technologies and health programs.

  1. Prospects for natural gas in Europe. Market potential, political intervention and technological options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabelitz, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The potential market demand, the emerging fundamental political intervention in the European gas and electricity markets and the technological options available will give the gas industry in Europe a different appearance at the beginning of the 21. century. One of the key questions is: will the political intervention and technological options and innovations assist and promote the realisation of market potential? At the moment, it cannot be stated definitely whether the currently available technological options will allow the significant cost reductions hoped for in the entire gas chain to become reality in good time. Under these circumstances, a major mismatch would emerge between the market potential predicted for natural gas in Europe and the actual market development. (R.P.)

  2. EuCARD 2010 Accelerator Technology in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2010-01-01

    Accelerators are basic tools of the experimental physics of elementary particles, nuclear physics, light sources of the fourth generation. They are also used in myriad other applications in research, industry and medicine. For example, there are intensely developed transmutation techniques for nuclear waste from nuclear power and atomic industries. The European Union invests in the development of accelerator infrastructures inside the framework programs to build the European Research Area. The aim is to build new infrastructure, develop the existing, and generally make the infrastructure available to competent users. The paper summarizes the first year of activities of the EU FP7 Project Capacities EuCARD –European Coordination of Accelerator R&D. Several teams from this country participate actively in this project. The contribution from Polish research teams concerns: photonic and electronic measurement – control systems, RF-gun co-design, thin-film superconducting technology, superconducting transpo...

  3. Determinants of International Technology Transfer: an Empirical Analysis of the Enterprise Europe Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the key factors that foster technology transfer within the triad university-industry-government in an international context, i.e., the Enterprise Europe Network (EEN. Based on 71 technological Partnership Agreements (PAs, estimation results indicate that PAs associated to partners that provide their collaborators with the appropriate training in technology transfer-related issues, present substantial past experience in international or technological projects, and participate in extensive networks, are those that achieve better performances in terms of international technology transfer. High levels of formal schooling per se are not a key determinant of international technology transfer; the critical factor is highly educated human resources who receive complementary training in technology transfer issues.

  4. Implementing greenhouse gas trading in Europe. Lessons from economic literature and international experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemare, Catherine; Quirion, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The European Commission (document COM (2001) 581) has recently presented a directive proposal to the European Parliament and Council in order to implement a greenhouse gas emission trading scheme. If this proposal survives the policy process, it will create the most ambitious trading system ever implemented. However, the legislative process is an opportunity for various interest groups to amend environmental policies, which as a result generally deviate further from what economic literature proposes. A close look at implemented emission trading schemes, stressing their discrepancies with economic literature requests, is thus useful to increase the chances of forthcoming emission trading schemes to go through the political process. We thus review ten emission trading systems, which are either implemented or at an advanced stage of the policy process. We draw attention to major points to be aware of when designing an emission trading system: sectoral and spatial coverage, permits allocation, temporal flexibility, trading organisation, monitoring, enforcement, compliance, and the harmonisation vs. subsidiarity issue. The aim is to evaluate how far experiences in emission trading move away from theory and why. We then provide some lessons and recommendations on how to implement a greenhouse gas emission trading program in Europe. We identify some pros of the Commission proposal (spatial and sectoral coverage, temporal flexibility, trading organisation, compliance rules), some potential drawbacks (allocation rules, monitoring and enforcement) and items on which further guidance is needed (monitoring and allocation rules). Lastly, the European Commission should devote prominent attention to the US NO X Ozone Transport Commission budget program, as the only example of integration between the federal and state levels

  5. Quick scan of the economical, technological and environmental aspects of biomass value chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, E.; Urbanus, J.; Bloom, J.G.P.

    2011-01-15

    Results are presented of the AERTOs project (Associated European Research and Technology Organisations). The objective is to identify, design and implement joint, long-term, sustainable cooperation activities between RTOs (Research and Technology Organisations). The purpose of this work is a bottom-up approach to develop and deploy joint activities towards a Bio-based Economy. The results of this report will deliver input for a more extensive paper about the position of the RTOs in Europe. This report contains a quick scan of various biomass value chains that could emerge. Together with the AERTOs partners several bio-based chains were selected for further evaluation. Next, the technological, economical and environmental aspects of each step of the production chain were determined. By integrating this data over the full chain, the chains could be compared to each other in a consistent way. A sensitivity analysis then provided insight into the bottlenecks in the value chain.

  6. Understanding energy consumption: Beyond technology and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, H.; Shove, E.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes two years of efforts among a cross-disciplinary group of senior researchers to bring social and cultural perspectives to modeling of household energy consumption. The work has been organized by the Center for Energy Studies of the University of Geneva. The researchers represent both the physical and social sciences, several institutions and a number of countries. The initiative was based on an acknowledgement of the failure of technical and economic models to explain consumption or more importantly, how consumption patterns change. Technical and economic models most often either ignore social and cultural issues or reduce them to parameters of other variables. An important objective for the Geneva Group has been to engage modelers and social scientists in a dialogue which brings social and cultural context to the fore. The process reveals interesting insights into the frictions of cross-disciplinary interaction and the emergence of new perspectives. Various classical modeling approaches have been discussed and rejected. Gradually, a framework has emerged which says something about the appropriate institutions and actors which contribute to consumption patterns; about how they are related; and finally about how the interinstitutional relationships and the consumption patterns themselves change. A key point of convergence is that a complete understanding of energy end-use will not be possible from an analysis directed at the point of end use alone. The analysis must incorporate what happens inside institutions like manufacturers, retailers, and public policy organizations as well as how those organizations interact with consumers, including media and advertising. Progress towards a better understanding of energy consumption requires a greater engagement of social scientists with these heretofore little explored actors an relationships.

  7. Beggar-Thy-Neighbour vs. Danube Basin Strategy: Habsburg Economic Networks in Interwar Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Weigl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire, leaders in successor states were eager to become economically independent from the former capital Vienna. They therefore quickly implemented a set of neomercantilistic measures, especially nationalization programs. Nevertheless, the 1920s saw a reestablishment of the common market in the former territories of the Habsburg Empire in terms of interregional trade and interlocking directorates, mainly because of the business strategy of international financial syndicates that were based on the traditional Viennese commercial relations with the successor states. The international credit of Jewish bankers like Louis Rothschild, Rudolf Sieghart, and Max Feilchenfeld and others mattered. After the “Big Bang” at Wall Street in 1929, the industrial holdings of the Viennese banks and the maturity problem (short-term borrowing, long-term lending in their relations to East European debtors and Western financiers caused the Creditanstalt-crisis of 1931 and put an end to Vienna’s position as a financial hub in East Central Europe. However, even during the crisis of the 1930s, the share of the successor states in the bilateral balances of trade indicates path dependency on a smaller scale.

  8. Nuclear Energy in Europe does not involve only Economic and Technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallier, M.; Blanchon, B.; Barra, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the past, France built its fleet of nuclear power plants from a purely national perspective. Today, all nuclear stakeholders are faced with the Europeanization of projects at a time when there is an upsurge of interest in this form of energy. Each program has to achieve a balance between on the one hand design, operation and regulation, and on the other the industrial, economic and social policies of each country. One very important point is the disparity between the nuclear and safety cultures of the States intending to make use of this power source. In this very particular industry, industrial and occupational risks are closely linked. Technical progress has indeed been made, but the role of the human individual, despite being a strong link in the safety chain, is currently under-estimated. Recognition of the place of the individual, human health protection, the professional culture and high-level social guarantees are all inseparable from nuclear safety. As recognised by recent studies, widespread use of subcontracting, the resulting flow of workers between States and social dumping all jeopardize worker skills and health. The construction of a European hub responsible for the overall design of nuclear safety and radiation protection, tailored to the reality of each country, is therefore essential. What is needed is transparency, with an efficient social dialogue but also under the control of the citizens and staff... while going far beyond the confines of Europe. (authors)

  9. The role of technological innovation in sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Constantinescu; Simona Frone

    2014-01-01

    As in science an accurate picture of present is highlighted from a future outlook, we should recognize the crucial role of new technologies and innovation to improve knowledge in this field. They may give guarantee of sustainable economic development, provided prioritization of research in some fields such as: information technology and communication, resource depletion and climate change. Technological innovation becomes support of all strategies and policies aimed at ensuring sustainable ec...

  10. Debate on science and technology promotion for overcoming economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This book records debate point and topic presentation of debate on science and technology promotion for overcoming economic difficulties which lists opening greeting, topic presentation such as innovation of national science technology system, sufficient supply and demand of science and engineering personnel, invigoration of technology research of corporation and general debate. This debate was held by the Policy Board of democratic and liberal party on 22 May 1990 in Press center.

  11. Economic and developmental considerations for pharmacogenomic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, John A; Johnson, Scott J; Hughen, W Keener; Trujillo, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's core business is the innovation, development and marketing of new drugs. Pharmacogenetic (PG) testing and technology has the potential to increase a drug's value in many ways. A critical issue for the industry is whether products in development should be teamed with genetic tests that could segment the total population into responders and non-responders. In this paper we use a cost-effectiveness framework to model the strategic decision-making considerations by pharmaceutical manufacturers as they relate to drug development and the new technology of PG (the science of using genetic markers to predict drug response). In a simple, static, one-period model we consider three drug development strategies: a drug is exclusively developed and marketed to patients with a particular genetic marker; no distinguishing among patients based on the expression of a genetic marker is made (traditional approach); and a strategy whereby a drug is marketed to patients both with and without the genetic marker but there is price discrimination between the two subpopulations. We developed three main principles: revenues under a strategy targeting only the responder subpopulation will never generate more revenue than that which could have been obtained under a traditional approach; total revenues under a targeted PG strategy will be less than that under a traditional approach but higher than a naive [corrected] view would believe them to be; and a traditional [corrected] approach will earn the same total revenues as a price discrimination strategy, assuming no intermarket arbitrage. While these principles relate to the singular (and quite narrow) consideration of drug revenues, they may nevertheless partially explain why PG is not being used as widely as was predicted several years ago when the technology first became available, especially in terms of pharmaceutical manufacturer-developed tests.

  12. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  13. An economic analysis of tradeable emission permits for sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruitwagen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the analysis of the applicability of tradeable emission permits for cost-effective SO2 reduction in Europe. First, an economic theoretical background is presented based on a literature study. Second, integrated assessment models are presented and compared. One of these models is selected for simulation. Third, a new permit trading systems is developed and analysed by detailed simulations of trading schemes, including their economic and environmental implications. Chapter 2 discusses some general economic aspects of pollution control. Attention is paid to the cost effectiveness of pollution control, to the international dimension of acid rain policy and to the need for cooperation. Some general game theoretic concepts are reviewed. Also attention is paid to the alternative policy instruments for emission control, focusing on tradeable emission permits. The theory of tradeable emission permits is elaborated in Chapter 3. Permit trading for pollutants that are non-uniformly mixing is thoroughly discussed and illustrated by some empirical studies. After discussing both emission permit and deposition permit trading systems, alternative systems of tradeable permits for this kind of pollutants are examined. Two main aspects in examining permit trading systems concern (1) the kind of trading process assumed, involving the distinction between simultaneous multilateral permit trading versus bilateral sequential permit trading, and (2) the initial distribution of emission permits. The thorough discussion on tradeable permits contributes to a better understanding of this policy instrument and sheds light on the implications of permit trading for non-uniformly mixing pollutants. The findings of this chapter indicate that a new permit trading system has to be developed. Chapter 4 describes and compares integrated assessment models for simulation of acid rain control. First, three integrated assessment models for the European acid rain problem

  14. Economic burden of non-malignant blood disorders across Europe: a population-based cost study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Burns, Richeal; Leal, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Blood disorders comprise a wide range of diseases including anaemia, malignant blood disorders, and haemorrhagic disorders. Although they are a common cause of disease, no systematic cost-of-illness studies have been done to assess the economic effect of non-malignant blood disorders in Europe. We aimed to assess the economic burden of non-malignant blood disorders across the 28 countries of the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Non-malignant blood disorder-related costs (WHO International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision [ICD] D50-89) were estimated for 28 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland for 2012. Country-specific costs were estimated with aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health-care resource use obtained from international and national sources. Health-care costs were estimated from expenditure on primary care, outpatient care, emergency care, hospital inpatient care, and drugs. Costs of informal care and productivity losses due to morbidity and early death were also included. To these costs we added those due to malignant blood disorders (ICD-10 C81-96 and D47) as estimated in a Burns and colleagues' companion Article to obtain the total costs of blood disorders. Non-malignant disorders of the blood cost the 31 European countries €11 billion in 2012. Health-care costs accounted for €8 billion (75% of total costs), productivity losses for €2 billion (19%), and informal care for less than €1 billion (6%). Averaged across the European population studied, non-malignant disorders of the blood represented an annual health-care cost of €159 per ten citizens. Combining malignant and non-malignant blood disorders, the total cost of blood disorders was €23 billion in 2012. Our study highlights the economic burden that non-malignant blood disorders place on European health-care systems and societies. Our study also shows that blood disorder costs were evenly distributed between malignant and non

  15. The potential of medical device industry in technological and economical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresova P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Petra Maresova,1 Marek Penhaker,1,2 Ali Selamat,1,3 Kamil Kuca1,41Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic; 2Department of Cybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Technical University of Ostrava, Poruba, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia; 4Center for Biomedical Research, University Hospital Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech RepublicAbstract: The high quality of public health improves not only healthy life expectancy, but also the productivity of labor. The most important part of the health care sector is the medical technology industry. The aim of this study is to analyze the current situation in the medical device industry in Europe, its potential strengths and weaknesses in the context of topical economic and demographic development. The contribution specifies an analysis of the economic state of the medical device industry in the context of demographic development of European Union’s macroeconomic indicators and views of experts in the field of medical device development, concerning the opportunities for entities involved in the medical device market. There is fierce competition on the European market. The innovative activity is stable and well regulated by responsible authorities. Worldwide, the medical device market is expected to grow.Keywords: technology context, medical device, Europe, expenditure, review

  16. Explaining Protest in the Aftermath of the Great Recession in Europe: The Relevance of Different Economic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Vassallo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The European economic crisis has brought economic hardship and prolonged instability to many countries in the European Union. While economies are struggling to recover, citizens have opted to become more vocal unconventionally. Mass protest, public occupations and demonstrations have dominated Europe. Yet, numbers of people choosing to protest need to be assessed to verify whether the economic recession is indeed responsible for a surge in protest activism on the continent. With the use of multiple rounds from the European Social Survey (2006-2012, this article tests the hypothesis linking unconventional political behavior in Europe to the economy. Findings suggest that overall European protest levels are not higher after the crisis, although confrontational activism has spiked in few countries. Economic variables retain instead an important role in the explanation of protest in the post-recession era, with both objective and subjective economic measures supporting a grievance theory explanation of why Europeans protest. Economic decline matters in the selection of protest as a mode of political participation.

  17. Decline in tropospheric NO2 and the effects of the 2008-09 economic crisis observed by OMI over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F. F.

    2011-12-01

    We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economic crisis time period.

  18. Adaptation in Europe. Addressing risks and opportunities from climate change in the context of socio-economic developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoard, S. [EEA (Denmark); Winograd, M. [Alterra (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The 'Adaptation in Europe' report describes the policies and some of the measures taken at EU level and by European countries. So far half of the 32 EEA member countries have plans for adaptation, and some have started to take action, although all countries still have a lot of work to do. While global mitigation efforts should continue to aim to limit global temperature increases to 2 deg. C, the report states that it is necessary to prepare for a greater range of temperature increases and other climate changes. This is needed to properly account for the many uncertainties in climatic and socio-economic projections. The report recommends a combination of different measures - 'grey' measures such as technological and engineering projects, 'green' ecosystem-based approaches using nature, and so-called 'soft' measures such as policies to change governance approaches. The most effective adaptation projects often combine two or more different approaches, the report says. For example, adaptation on France's Mediterranean coast uses an integrated approach considering climate change, tourism, transport and biodiversity. In urban areas green spaces and water bodies work together with building design to reduce heatwave risks. Barcelona has also started to adapt to water shortages with a new highly efficient desalination plant. This 'grey' project works in tandem with other 'soft' initiatives such as incentives to reduce water consumption, reducing the impacts from prolonged droughts. While the cost of adaptation may be high in some cases, the report emphasises the overall savings from some adaptation actions. One of the largest ecosystem-based adaptation projects is restoring the Danube river basin to its previously natural state. Although it will cost an estimated Euro 183 million, it should help prevent flooding such as the 2005 event which alone cost Euro 396 million in damages. Early warning systems to help

  19. Adaptation in Europe. Addressing risks and opportunities from climate change in the context of socio-economic developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoard, S. [EEA (Denmark); Winograd, M. [Alterra (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The 'Adaptation in Europe' report describes the policies and some of the measures taken at EU level and by European countries. So far half of the 32 EEA member countries have plans for adaptation, and some have started to take action, although all countries still have a lot of work to do. While global mitigation efforts should continue to aim to limit global temperature increases to 2 deg. C, the report states that it is necessary to prepare for a greater range of temperature increases and other climate changes. This is needed to properly account for the many uncertainties in climatic and socio-economic projections. The report recommends a combination of different measures - 'grey' measures such as technological and engineering projects, 'green' ecosystem-based approaches using nature, and so-called 'soft' measures such as policies to change governance approaches. The most effective adaptation projects often combine two or more different approaches, the report says. For example, adaptation on France's Mediterranean coast uses an integrated approach considering climate change, tourism, transport and biodiversity. In urban areas green spaces and water bodies work together with building design to reduce heatwave risks. Barcelona has also started to adapt to water shortages with a new highly efficient desalination plant. This 'grey' project works in tandem with other 'soft' initiatives such as incentives to reduce water consumption, reducing the impacts from prolonged droughts. While the cost of adaptation may be high in some cases, the report emphasises the overall savings from some adaptation actions. One of the largest ecosystem-based adaptation projects is restoring the Danube river basin to its previously natural state. Although it will cost an estimated Euro 183 million, it should help prevent flooding such as the 2005 event which alone cost Euro 396 million in damages. Early warning systems to help predict forest fires, floods and droughts have been set up in

  20. Patterns in Standards and Technologies for Economic Information Systems Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Irimia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presets results from a review of the current standards used for collaboration between economic information systems, including web services and service oriented architecture, EDI, ebXML framework, RosettaNet framework, cXML, xCBL UBL, BPMN, BPEL, WS-CDL, ASN.1, and others. Standards have a key role in promoting economic information system interoperability, and thus enable collaboration. Analyzing the current standards, technologies and applications used for economic information systems interoperability has revealed a common pattern that runs through all of them. From this pattern we construct a basic model of interoperability around which we relate and judge all standards, technologies and applications for economic information systems interoperability.

  1. The potential of medical device industry in technological and economical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresova, Petra; Penhaker, Marek; Selamat, Ali; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The high quality of public health improves not only healthy life expectancy, but also the productivity of labor. The most important part of the health care sector is the medical technology industry. The aim of this study is to analyze the current situation in the medical device industry in Europe, its potential strengths and weaknesses in the context of topical economic and demographic development. The contribution specifies an analysis of the economic state of the medical device industry in the context of demographic development of European Union's macroeconomic indicators and views of experts in the field of medical device development, concerning the opportunities for entities involved in the medical device market. There is fierce competition on the European market. The innovative activity is stable and well regulated by responsible authorities. Worldwide, the medical device market is expected to grow.

  2. New technologies applied to family history: a particular case of southern Europe in the eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Manuel Pérez

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how the support of new technologies has helped historians to develop their research over the last few decades. The author, therefore, summarizes the application of both database and genealogical programs for the southern Europe family studies as a methodological tool. First, the author will establish the importance of the creation of databases using the File Maker program, after which they will explain the value of using genealogical programs such as Genopro and Heredis. The main aim of this article is to give detail about the use of these new technologies as applied to a particular study of southern Europe, specifically the Crown of Castile, during the late modern period. The use of these computer programs has helped to develop the field of social sciences and family history, in particular, social history, during the last decade.

  3. Energy and economic milestones in Nigeria: Role of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahunsi, S.O.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric power supply could be the driving force critical to poverty reduction, economic growth and sustainable development in developing countries like Nigeria. Comparative analysis of several promising technologies that could be explored to achieve energy sufficiency however shows that nuclear power is more economically competitive and outstanding despite the relatively high initial capital cost. Furthermore, one of the critical conditions in deciding to invest in a specific electric power technology is the overall cost component of the new technology, nuclear therefore is in many places competitive with other forms of electricity generation. The fundamental attraction is about harnessing the sources of energy which takes cognizance of the environmental effects of burning fossil fuel and its security of supply. This paper therefore highlights the benefits of inclusion of nuclear energy in the Nigeria energy mix, a sine qua non for economic and social development, safer environment, wealth creation and a long term energy security.

  4. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  5. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M G; Ramsey, Scott D

    2014-08-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to increase the return on investment as well as patient and societal impact. This paper describes examples of 'early cycle economic evaluations' as applied to diagnostic technologies and highlights challenges in its real-time application. It shows that especially in the field of diagnostics, with rapid technological developments and a changing regulatory climate, early cycle economic evaluation can have a guiding role to improve the efficiency of the diagnostics innovation process. In the next five years the attention will move beyond the methodological and analytic challenges of early cycle economic evaluation towards the challenge of effectively applying it to improve diagnostic research and development and patient value. Future work in this area should therefore be 'strong on principles and soft on metrics', that is, the metrics that resonate most clearly with the various decision makers in this field.

  6. Prospects for pro-environmental protein consumption in Europe: Cultural, culinary, economic and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Aiking, Harry

    2018-02-01

    The current ratio between plant and animal protein in the Western diet is causing serious threats to both public health and the environment. Healthy, pro-environmental protein consumption requires a transition to a diet with more plant protein and considerably less animal protein. The present paper focuses on the prospects of this transition by analyzing consumer responses to some key options in the context of regional differences across Europe. The aim is to assess how responses to the options might be shaped by 1) cultural, culinary and economic spatial gradients (including GDP per capita) at regional level and 2) differences in environmental friendly behavior and gender at individual level. The study, covering all EU members in 2012, compares regional level statistics (food supply data) with individual level statistics (consumer survey data) and vice-versa. The south-north latitude gradient showed a decreasing trend in vegetable and pulse protein supplies and, in parallel, a decreasing trend in positive consumer responses to the key options, probably due to differences in meal experiences. The west-east longitude gradient showed decreasing levels of animal protein supplies and GDP per capita. Individuals' willingness to do something positive for the environment and their gender played a weak but consistent role in the responses. To effectively stimulate diet changes, it is important to seek ways in which culinary and environmental aspects can complement each other and to ensure that diet changes do not depend solely on individual decisions but become an integral part of regional social processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  8. Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, F.; Pal, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it

  9. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  10. Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

  11. Meeting the challenge of funding and allocating resources to mental health across Europe: developing the Mental Health Economics European Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaid, David; Knapp, Martin; Curran, Claire

    2006-01-01

    There is growing demand for economic analysis to support strategic decision-making for mental health but the availability of economic evidence, in particular on system performance remains limited. The Mental Health Economics European Network (MHEEN) was set up in 2002 with the broad objective of developing a base for mental health economics information and subsequent work in 17 countries. Data on financing, expenditure and costs, provision of services, workforce, employment and capacity for economic evaluation were collected through bespoke questionnaires developed iteratively by the Network. This was augmented by a literature review and analysis of international databases. Findings on financing alone suggest that in many European countries mental health appears to be neglected while mechanisms for resource allocation are rarely linked to objective measure of population mental health needs. Numerous economic barriers and potential solutions were identified. Economic incentives may be one way of promoting change, although there is no 'one size fits all solution. There are significant benefits and synergies to be gained from the continuing development of networks such as MHEEN. In particular the analysis can be used to inform developments in Central and Eastern Europe. For instance there is much that can be learnt on both how the balance of care between institutional and non-institutional care has changed and on the role played by economic incentives in ensuring that resources were used to develop alternative community-based systems.

  12. Promotion of electricity from renewable energy in Europe post 2020. The economic benefits of cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2013-08-15

    In Europe, the availability of renewable energies, especially from sun and wind, differs significantly across regions. Consequently, cooperation in the deployment of renewable energy among European countries potentially yields substantial efficiency gains. However, in order to achieve the 2020 renewable energy targets for electricity, Member States of the European Union almost purely rely on domestic production. For the period after 2020, a European renewable energy target has not yet been defined, but decarbonization pathways outlined in the Roadmap of the European Commission include renewable energy shares of electricity generation to be 50-60% by 2030. Therefore, we analyze the benefits of cooperation compared to continuing with national renewable energy support after 2020. We use a large-scale dynamic investment and dispatch model of the European electricity system and find that compared to a 2030 CO{sub 2}-only target (-40% compared to 1990 emission levels), electricity system costs increase by 5 to 7% when a European-wide renewable energy target for electricity generation (of around 55%) is additionally implemented. However, these additional costs are lower by 41 to 45% compared to the additional electricity system costs which would arise if the renewable energy target was reached through national support systems (without cooperation). Furthermore, we find that the cooperation gains (i.e., the cost reduction achieved by cooperation) are quite robust: They decrease only slightly when interconnectors are not further extended (compared to today) and depend only slightly on assumptions about investment cost developments of renewable energy technologies. With regard to the practical implementation of cooperation, however, unclear administrative issues and questions concerning the fair sharing of costs and benefits between the Member States represent major obstacles that need to be tackled in order to reach renewable energy targets at the lowest costs possible.

  13. Information and communication technology use and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Maryam; Ismail, Rahmah; Fooladi, Masood

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT) has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants). We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use.

  14. Information and communication technology use and economic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farhadi

    Full Text Available In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants. We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use.

  15. Expert system for economic evaluation of technological projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Hlavenka

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the technical level, a basic tool for decision-making and realization of the technical innovation project is also its economic effectiveness. It is assessed by comparing expenses and effects with respect to all-society interests and standards valid in a relevant period for the areas of technology, economy, ecology, safety of work, etc.

  16. The 'economics' of medical technology | Járos | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The word 'economics' is used in this paper in its widest sense, referring to issues that 'influence the management, regulation and government of an enterprise'. In addition to the obvious monetary issues in health-care technology, social, ethical, legal and cultural issues are also discussed. The eventual, generally high cost ...

  17. Economics of selected water control technologies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a production function, marginal productivity of farm inputs and benefit-cost analysis, we explore the economics of selected water control technologies. From the production function, all farm inputs, including irrigation water is found to have a significant and positive effect on yield. Marginal value products of farm inputs ...

  18. The Economics of Theatre/Entertainment Technology in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay therefore, discusses theatre technology and its attendant economic impact as business in Nigeria using Bradford Delong.s (2004) discourse on international capital mobility. Aspects of Delong.s position and David Throsby.s cultural capital theory form the theoretical base for this work. The essay is more situated ...

  19. A Survey on Economic-driven Evaluations of Information Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Zarvic, N.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    The economic-driven evaluation of information technology (IT) has become an important instrument in the management of IT projects. Numerous approaches have been developed to quantify the costs of an IT investment and its assumed profit, to evaluate its impact on business process performance, and to

  20. EXPLOSIVE FORMING – ECONOMICAL TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosive forming represents a technological alternative for obtaining small-lot parts,with inexpensive and efficient manufacturing preparation. The explosive forming processing methodspresent a series of important advantages, being recommended for the wide-scale application in theaerospace industry. The economic benefit varies from case to case, independent from the part type,manufacturing series and user.

  1. EXPLOSIVE FORMING – ECONOMICAL TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACE STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Niculae MARIN; Victor GHIZDAVU

    2010-01-01

    The explosive forming represents a technological alternative for obtaining small-lot parts,with inexpensive and efficient manufacturing preparation. The explosive forming processing methodspresent a series of important advantages, being recommended for the wide-scale application in theaerospace industry. The economic benefit varies from case to case, independent from the part type,manufacturing series and user.

  2. Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Serrhini, Mohammed; Felgueiras, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This book contains a selection of articles from The Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016 (EMENA-TSSL'16), held between the 3th and 5th of October at Saidia, Oujda, Morocco. EMENA-TSSL'16 is a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss recent results and innovations, current trends, professional experiences and challenges in Information & Communication Technologies, and Security to support Learning. The main topics covered are: A) Online Education; B) Emerging Technologies in Education; C) Artificial Intelligence in Education; D) Gamification and Serious games; E) Network & Web Technologies Applications; F) Online experimentation and Virtual Laboratories; G) Multimedia Systems and Applications; H) Security and Privacy; I) Multimedia, Computer Vision and Image Processing; J) Cloud, Big Data Analytics and Applications; K) Human-Computer Interaction; L) Software Systems, Architectures, Applications and Tools; M) Onli...

  3. Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pauleit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the presentations and synthesis of the discussion during a Symposium on ‘Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives’ held at the European IALE conference 2009 in Salzburg, Austria. The symposium addressed an extended and much debated subject of the landscape dynamics in Europe. The papers presented during the symposium showcased a broad spectrum of cutting edge research questions and challenges faced by the cultural landscapes of Europe. During six sessions, 18 presentations (besides 20 posters were made by 36 scientists (including co-authors from 14 countries, representing 25 institutions of Europe. A glance at the presentations revealed that the state-of-the-art focuses on driving forces and selected aspects of transformation processes, methods of its analysis and planning support as dimensions of research in this field. However, inter- and transdisciplinary research and integrative approaches to the development of rural-urban cultural landscapes are needed. The extended discussion session at the latter part of the symposium highlighted some critical and unaddressed research questions which remained a pending agenda for future research.

  4. How may CCS technology affect the electricity market in North-Western Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebregts, A.J.; Groenenberg, H.

    2008-11-01

    The EU electricity market is changing. Electricity demand in Europe is on the rise, the power plant fleet is aging, and a large share of the capacity will need to be replaced in the coming decades. An ambitious target has been formulated for the share of renewable energy, and CO2 prices are anticipated to increase. On top of this, CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) has appeared as an important technology in the transition to a long term sustainable energy supply. This paper discusses the implications of all the fore-mentioned developments for the EU electricity market, with an emphasis on the Northwest European market. On the whole, electricity prices in the Northwestern part of Europe are anticipated to increase until 2020, but this may only partly be ascribed to the pending introduction of CCS

  5. The Deployment of Low Carbon Technologies in Energy Intensive Industries: A Macroeconomic Analysis for Europe, China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nabernegg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes currently contribute 40% to global CO2 emissions and therefore substantial increases in industrial energy efficiency are required for reaching the 2 °C target. We assess the macroeconomic effects of deploying low carbon technologies in six energy intensive industrial sectors (Petroleum, Iron and Steel, Non-metallic Minerals, Paper and Pulp, Chemicals, and Electricity in Europe, China and India in 2030. By combining the GAINS technology model with a macroeconomic computable general equilibrium model, we find that output in energy intensive industries declines in Europe by 6% in total, while output increases in China by 11% and in India by 13%. The opposite output effects emerge because low carbon technologies lead to cost savings in China and India but not in Europe. Consequently, the competitiveness of energy intensive industries is improved in China and India relative to Europe, leading to higher exports to Europe. In all regions, the decarbonization of electricity plays the dominant role for mitigation. We find a rebound effect in China and India, in the size of 42% and 34% CO2 reduction, respectively, but not in Europe. Our results indicate that the range of considered low-carbon technology options is not competitive in the European industrial sectors. To foster breakthrough low carbon technologies and maintain industrial competitiveness, targeted technology policy is therefore needed to supplement carbon pricing.

  6. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgwater, A V; Double, J M [Aston Univ. Birmingham (GB). Dept of Chemical Engineering

    1992-12-31

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels.

  7. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels

  8. Energy and Economic Trade Offs for Advanced Technology Subsonic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, D. V.; Wagner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in future aircraft technology which conserve energy are studied, along with the effect of these changes on economic performance. Among the new technologies considered are laminar-flow control, composite materials with and without laminar-flow control, and advanced airfoils. Aircraft design features studied include high-aspect-ratio wings, thickness ratio, and range. Engine technology is held constant at the JT9D level. It is concluded that wing aspect ratios of future aircraft are likely to significantly increase as a result of new technology and the push of higher fuel prices. Composite materials may raise aspect radio to about 11 to 12 and practical laminar flow-control systems may further increase aspect ratio to 14 or more. Advanced technology provides significant reductions in aircraft take-off gross weight, energy consumption, and direct operating cost.

  9. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investments and Remittances on Economic Growth: A Case Study in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Adrian Comes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and remittances on Economic Growth (EG, using panel data of seven countries from Central and Eastern Europe with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita under 25,000 $. The empirical literature stressed the relationships between FDI and remittances and economic growth, and our purpose is to identify if there are significant relationships between FDI, remittances and economic growth in the seven analyzed countries. We find a positive impact of both FDI and remittances on GDP, but the influence of FDI is higher in all analyzed states, with accepting the assumption of ceteris paribus principles in limiting research caused by other possible determinants.

  10. Search engine imaginary: Visions and values in the co-production of search technology and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Astrid

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the co-production of search technology and a European identity in the context of the EU data protection reform. The negotiations of the EU data protection legislation ran from 2012 until 2015 and resulted in a unified data protection legislation directly binding for all European member states. I employ a discourse analysis to examine EU policy documents and Austrian media materials related to the reform process. Using the concept 'sociotechnical imaginary', I show how a European imaginary of search engines is forming in the EU policy domain, how a European identity is constructed in the envisioned politics of control, and how national specificities contribute to the making and unmaking of a European identity. I discuss the roles that national technopolitical identities play in shaping both search technology and Europe, taking as an example Austria, a small country with a long history in data protection and a tradition of restrained technology politics.

  11. Broadband Optical Access Technologies to Converge towards a Broadband Society in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudreuse, Jean-Pierre; Pautonnier, Sophie; Lavillonnière, Eric; Didierjean, Sylvain; Hilt, Benoît; Kida, Toshimichi; Oshima, Kazuyoshi

    This paper provides insights on the status of broadband optical access market and technologies in Europe and on the expected trends for the next generation optical access networks. The final target for most operators, cities or any other player is of course FTTH (Fibre To The Home) deployment although we can expect intermediate steps with copper or wireless technologies. Among the two candidate architectures for FTTH, PON (Passive Optical Network) is by far the most attractive and cost effective solution. We also demonstrate that Ethernet based optical access network is very adequate to all-IP networks without any incidence on the level of quality of service. Finally, we provide feedback from a FTTH pilot network in Colmar (France) based on Gigabit Ethernet PON technology. The interest of this pilot lies on the level of functionality required for broadband optical access networks but also on the development of new home network configurations.

  12. The rhetoric of calculations. Economical arguments for development of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solli, Joeran

    2004-01-01

    The thesis discusses the theoretical economics and social factors for development of new energy technologies and has chapter on: New energy technologies in an economical and political change, technology development from innovation economy to economical sociology, opinion formation in the energy sector, establishing energy economical discussion, economy as pidgin, financial factors, forming social education and market power versus language strife

  13. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2012: results generated from European registers by ESHREaEuro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calhaz-Jorge, C.; De Geyter, C.; Kupka, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The 16th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the data of the treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) initiated in Europe during 2012: are there any changes compared with previous years? Despite some fluctuations in the number...... with husband and donor semen, respectively. The method of reporting varies among countries, and registers from a number of countries have been unable to provide some of the relevant data such as initiated cycles and deliveries. As long as data are incomplete and generated through different methods...

  14. Transferability of economic evaluations of medical technologies: a new technology for orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Young, Terry; Buxton, Martin

    2008-05-01

    Transferring results of economic evaluations across countries or jurisdictions can potentially save scarce evaluation resources while helping to make market access and reimbursement decisions in a timely fashion. This article points out why transferring results of economic evaluations is particularly important in the field of medical technologies. It then provides an overview of factors that are previously identified in the literature as affecting transferability of economic evaluations, as well as methods for transferring results in a scientifically sound way. As the current literature almost exclusively relates to transferability of pharmacoeconomic evaluations, this article highlights those factors and methodologies that are of particular relevance to transferring medical technology assessments. Considering the state-of-the-art literature and a worked, real life, example of transferring an economic evaluation of a product used in orthopedic surgery, we provide recommendations for future work in this important area of medical technology assessment.

  15. Economic Operation of Supercritical CO2 Refrigeration Energy Storage Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Ryan

    With increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy resources, improved methods of energy storage are becoming a crucial stepping stone in the path toward a smarter, greener grid. SuperCritical Technologies is a company based in Bremerton, WA that is developing a storage technology that can operate entirely on waste heat, a resource that is otherwise dispelled into the environment. The following research models this storage technology in several electricity spot markets around the US to determine if it is economically viable. A modification to the storage dispatch scheme is then presented which allows the storage unit to increase its profit in real-time markets by taking advantage of extreme price fluctuations. Next, the technology is modeled in combination with an industrial load profile on two different utility rate schedules to determine potential cost savings. The forecast of facility load has a significant impact on savings from the storage dispatch, so an exploration into this relationship is then presented.

  16. Smart farming technologies - description, taxonomy and economic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balafoutis, Athanasios T.; Beck, Bert; Tsiropoulos, Zisis

    2017-01-01

    Precision Agriculture is a cyclic optimization process where data have to be collected from the field, analysed and evaluated and finally used for decision making for site-specific management of the field. Smart farming technologies (SFT ) cover all these aspects of precision agriculture and can...... comprise the delineation of management zones, decision support systems and farm management information system s. Finally, precision application technologies embrace variable-rate application technologies, precision irrigation and weeding and machine guidance. In this chapter, the reader can find...... a technical description of the technologies included in each category accompanied by a taxonomy of all SFT in terms of farming system type, cropping system, availability, level of investment and farmers’ motives to adopt them. Finally, the economic impact that each SFT has compared to conventional...

  17. Socio-economic research for innovative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yuichi [Tokyo Univ., High Temperature Plasma Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Okano, Kunihiko [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    In the 21st century global environment and energy issues become very important, and this is characterized by the long-term (in the scale of a few tens years) and world-wide issue. In addition, future prospect of these issues might be quite uncertain, and scientific prediction could be very difficult. For these issues vigorous researches and various efforts have been carried out from various aspects; e.g., world-wide discussion such as COP3 in Kyoto, promotion of the energy-saving technology and so on. Development of environment-friendly energy has been promoted, and new innovative technologies are explored. Nuclear fusion is, of course, a promising candidate. While, there might be some criticism for nuclear fusion from the socio-economic aspect; e.g., it would take long time and huge cost for the fusion reactor development. In addition, other innovative energy technologies might have their own criticism, as well. Therefore, socio-economic research might be indispensable for future energy resources. At first we have selected six items as for the characteristics, which might be important for future energy resources; i.e., energy resource, environmental load, economics, reliability/stability, flexibility on operation and safety/security. Concerning to innovative energy technologies, we have nominated seven candidates; i.e., advanced coal technology with CO2 recovery system, SOFC top combined cycle, solar power, wind power, space solar power station, advanced fission and fusion. Based on questionnaires for ordinary people and fusion scientists, we have tried to assess the fusion energy development, comparing with other innovative energy technologies. (author)

  18. Technology and economics of near-surface geothermal resources exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Э. И. Богуславский

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents economic justification for applicability of near-surface geothermal installations in Luga region, based on results of techno-economic calculations as well as integrated technical and economic comparison of different prediction scenarios of heat supply, both conventional and using geothermal heat pumps (GHP. Construction costs of a near-surface geothermal system can exceed the costs of central heating by 50-100 %. However, operation and maintenance (O&M costs of heat production for geothermal systems are 50-70 % lower than for conventional sources of heating. Currently this technology is very important, it is applied in various countries (USA, Germany, Japan, China etc., and depending on the region both near-surface and deep boreholes are being used. World practice of near-surface geothermal systems application is reviewed in the paper.

  19. Economical evaluation on spent fuel storage technology away from reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Chihiro; Nagano, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2000-01-01

    Concerning the spent fuel storage away from reactor, economical comparison was carried out between metal cask and water pool storage technology. The economic index was defined by levelized cost (Unit storage cost) calculated on the assumption that the storage cost is paid at the receipt of the spent fuel at the storage facility. It is found that the cask storage is economical for small and large storage capacity. Unit storage cost of pool storage, however, is getting close to that of cask storage in case of storage capacity of 10,000 ton. Then, the unit storage cost is converted to power generation cost using data of the burn up of the fuel, etc. The cost is obtained as yen 0.09/kWh and yen 0. 15/kWh for cask storage and pool storage, respectively in case of the capacity of 5,000 tonU and the cooling time of 5 years. (author)

  20. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  1. US carbon emissions, technological progress and economic growth since 1870

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    The long-term US experience emphasises the importance of controlling for electrification and other major technology transformations when evaluating the growth of carbon emissions at different stages of development. Prior to World War I, carbon emissions grew faster than economic growth by 2.3% per year. As electricity use expanded and steam engines became much larger, carbon emissions began to grow slower than economic growth by 1.6% per year. Adjusting to this technological shift, an expanding economy continues to increase carbon emissions by about 9% for each 10% faster growth. There is little evidence of a decline in this elasticity as the income level rises. These results suggest that the USA today will need to find additional policies to curb carbon emissions if it wishes to prevent any further increase in its per capita emissions, and if its per capita economy grows by more than 1.8% per year. (Author)

  2. Technology-Critical Elements: Economic and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Critical elements are those that provide essential functionality to modern engineered materials, have few ready substitutes and are subject to supply-chain risks or concerns about long-run availability. This paper provides economic and public-policy perspectives on critical elements. It suggests: that which elements are critical is situational and changes over time; that we are not running out of mineral-derived raw materials in a geologic sense but rather, for some elements, face scarcities that are technological, environmental, political or economic in nature; and that public policy's most important role over the longer term is fostering scientific and technological innovation, especially early stage research, that has the potential to overcome these scarcities.

  3. An assessment of the social and economic cohesion aspects of the development of the information society in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, José Dias; Dentinho, Tomaz P.; Faria, Miguel; Paumier-Bianco, F.; Coelho, Rita D.

    1996-01-01

    Neste trabalho pretende consolidar-se a contribuição portuguesa para o estudo comunitário “Na Assessment of the Social and Economic Cohesion Aspects of the Development of the Information Society in Europe” elaborado por um consórcio europeu liderado pela Nexus Europe e em que intervém o ISEGI- Instituto Superior de Estatística e Gestão de Informação, da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, como parceiro nacional português.

  4. Long working hours and health in Europe: Gender and welfare state differences in a context of economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Benavides, Fernando G; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Bartoll, Xavier; Vargas, Hernán; Borrell, Carme

    2016-07-01

    This article examines the relationship between moderately long working hours and health status in Europe. A cross-sectional study based on data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey (13,518 men and 9381 women) was performed. Working moderately long hours was consistently associated with poor health status and poor psychological wellbeing in countries with traditional family models, in both sexes in Liberal countries and primarily among women in Continental and Southern European countries. A combination of economic vulnerability, increasing labour market deregulation and work overload related to the combination of job and domestic work could explain these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How Socio-Economic Change Shapes Income Inequality in Post-Socialist Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelj, Nina; Mahutga, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Although income inequality in Central and Eastern Europe was considerably lower during socialism than in other countries at comparable levels of development, it increased significantly in all Central and East European states after the fall of communist regimes. However, some of these countries managed to maintain comparatively low inequality…

  6. Socio-economic determinants of micronutrient intake and status in Europe: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Geelen, A.; Nikolic, M.; Altaba, I.I.; Vinas, B.R.; Ngo, J.; Golsorkhi, M.; Medina, M.; Brzozowska, A.; Szczecinkska, A.; Cock, de D.; Vansant, G.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Serra Majem, L.; Moreno, L.A.; Glibetic, M.; Gurinovic, M.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide the evidence base for targeted nutrition policies to reduce the risk of micronutrient/diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe, by focusing on: folate, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and iodine for intake and status; and vitamin C, vitamin D, Ca, Se and Cu for

  7. An economic analysis of tradeable emission permits for sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, S.

    1996-01-01

    7.1 Introduction
    This study has examined the question of whether a system of tradeable emission permits can contribute to a cost-effective reduction of SO 2 emissions in Europe, taking into account

  8. Economic evaluation of information technology applications on dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Asseldonk, van, M.A.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on the economic evaluation of information technology (IT) applications on dairy farms in order to support investment decisions. The evaluation included a normative (deductive) approach and an empirical (positive) approach. The normative approach predicted potential benefits from a theoretical model of the investment, and investigated how farmers should deal with the applications. The empirical approach observed the actual effects of the i...

  9. Plasma technology: a technical economical and political challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, V.A. de; Vicente, L.C.; Bender, O.W.; Sanches Junior, O.

    1987-01-01

    To survey the State of the Art and Technic in Material, Process and Products by Plasma, it was needed to assemble economic, political and managerial variables that will affect the absortion and implantation of this technology in Brazil. Through a survey in industries, universities, research centers, energy agencies and financial and forster institutions it was possible to build a frame that gave us conditions to forecasting and suggest some mesures to Plasma sector. (author) [pt

  10. Experience with civil plutonium management: Technology and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarimpas, N.; Stevens, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Recent NEA work on plutonium has been, essentially, targeted at economic and scientific aspects and the need to identify suitable technical solutions, despite the existing political uncertainties associated with their implementation. Such studies provide the facts and current views concerning plutonium and its civil use; address questions influencing the choice of fuel cycle options and illustrate how economic and logistic assessments of the alternatives could be undertaken. An ad-hoc expert group, with a membership drawn from fifteen countries and three international organisations, which was formed in early 1994 under the auspices of the NEA, with the task of identifying, examining and evaluating the broad technical questions related to plutonium management, has just published its work. This paper discusses the work and main conclusions of the expert group and focuses on the following two topics: Technologies, already implemented, which provide for short and medium-term storage of plutonium or for recycling the plutonium through reactors. A brief review is provided of experience gained with them and technical commentaries are made on their potential future deployment; Such technologies may, in the longer term, be joined by a further range which are, in some cases, already under development. Attention is drawn to those additional options that may become available. Another NEA expert group studied in detail the economics of the open and closed fuel cycles and reported, in 1994, its main findings: Some economic considerations of importance to various aspects of plutonium recycling are also presented in this paper. (author)

  11. Economics of household technology adoption in developing countries: evidence from solar technology adoption in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Aklin, M.; Bayer, P.; Harish, S.P.; Urpelainen, J.

    2018-01-01

    Innovation is one of the most important drivers of economic development. Even in developing countries, households have access to a wide array of new technologies. However, factors affecting households’ technology adoption decisions remain poorly understood. Using data on solar microgrid adoption from rural India, we investigate the determinants of household technology adoption. We offer all households identical solar products to avoid bias from product differentiation. Households pay a monthl...

  12. Do Technological Developments and Financial Development Promote Economic Growth: Fresh Evidence from Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ur Rehman, Ijaz; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between financial development, technological development and economic growth in Romania. We construct aggregate indices of financial development and technological development using principal component analysis. The ARDL bounds testing approach shows the presence of cointegration between financial development, technological development and economic growth. Financial development and technological development contribute to economic growth. Moreover, financial developmen...

  13. Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking: The catalyst for sustainable bio-based economic growth in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengal, Philippe; Wubbolts, Marcel; Zika, Eleni; Ruiz, Ana; Brigitta, Dieter; Pieniadz, Agata; Black, Sarah

    2018-01-25

    This article discusses the preparation, structure and objectives of the Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU). BBI JU is a public-private partnership (PPP) between the European Commission (EC) and the Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC), the industry-led private not-for-profit organisation representing the private sectors across the bio-based industries. The model of the public-private partnership has been successful as a new approach to supporting research and innovation and de-risking investment in Europe. The BBI JU became a reality in 2014 and represents the largest industrial and economic cooperation endeavour financially ever undertaken in Europe in the area of industrial biotechnologies. It is considered to be one of the most forward-looking initiatives under Horizon 2020 and demonstrates the circular economy in action. The BBI JU will be the catalyst for this strategy to mobilise actors across Europe including large industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), all types of research organisations, networks and universities. It will support regions and in doing so, the European Union Member States and associated countries in the implementation of their bioeconomy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW.

  15. New international economic order and flow of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojko, B

    1979-12-01

    The role of science and technology in creating a new international economic order based on manpower and raw materials is examined. The traditional linkage of science and politics should end and emphasis be given to increasing productivity in order to expand employment opportunities and raise the world living standard. An indigenous research and development capability is seen as essential to counteract the effects of the time factor when technology is introduced into developing countries. Other considerations are risk of an illusory self-reliance, allocation of development sites in terms of labor substitution, ruthlessness of labor competition during modernization, variations of labor quality, and relationship of demography and unemployment. Competition between the capitalist and socialist countries is being redirected into cooperation in the area of technology transfer. 7 references. (DCK)

  16. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW

  17. CORRUPTION, POVERTY AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE: EASTERN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Ildırar, Mustafa; Iscan, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    Corruption, defined as “the misuse of public power for private benefit.” The World Bank describes corruption as one of the greatest obstacles to economic and social development. It undermines development by distorting the rule of law and weakening the institutional foundation on which economic performance depends. In past decades, many theoretical and empirical studies have presented corruption hinders investment, reduces economic growth, restricts trade, distorts government expenditures and ...

  18. Economic issues of storage technologies in different applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, L.W.M.; De Noord, M.

    2004-09-01

    For evaluating energy storage technologies, economical parameters are of considerable importance. A qualitative assessment is given of storage technologies in general, contributing to success or failure of their use. Based on data of nine storage technologies that are defined in the INVESTIRE Network (Investigation on storage technologies for intermittent renewable energies: evaluation and recommended R and D strategy), results of a quantitative cost analysis are presented, based on device-specific key parameters. The costs have been defined as additional costs, effected by the required investments and operation and maintenance expenditures, the efficiency of a device and its lifetime. In order to compare the technologies properly, categories of typical use have been defined, ranging from stand-alone small applications (typical storage capacity of 0.1 kWh) to levelling of power production (approximately 1 MWh). The outcome is presented in such a way that for each category of typical use, the best technological options are identified, based on a cost analysis

  19. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  20. Implications of technological learning on the prospects for renewable energy technologies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, Martine A.; Junginger, Martin; Vries, Hage J. de; Faaij, Andre P.C.; Turkenburg, Wim C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the consequences of technological developments on the market diffusion of different renewable electricity technologies in the EU-25 until 2020, using a market simulation model (ADMIRE REBUS). It is assumed that from 2012 a harmonized trading system will be implemented, and a target of 24% renewable electricity (RES-E) in 2020 is set and met. By comparing optimistic and pessimistic endogenous technological learning scenarios, it is found that diffusion of onshore wind energy is relatively robust, regardless of technological development, but diffusion rates of offshore wind energy and biomass gasification greatly depend on their technological development. Competition between these two options and (existing) biomass combustion options largely determines the overall costs of electricity from renewables and the choice of technologies for the individual member countries. In the optimistic scenario, in 2020 the market price for RES-E is 1 Euro ct/kWh lower than in the pessimistic scenario (about 7 vs. 8 Euro ct/kWh). As a result, total RES-E production costs are 19% lower, and total governmental expenditures for RES-market stimulation are 30% lower in the optimistic scenario

  1. Library macro-environment: New technological and economic rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Štular-Sotošek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and flexible adaptation to changes in the macro-environment is also crucial for libraries, which have to review them, respond to them and become a part of them. Consequently, the application of marketing science and tools helps libraries to find out how to survive in the competitive world and how to become better and stronger. The article, which draws from marketing, economic and information disciplines, introduces the main principles in the technological and economic environment of libraries and finds the knowledge about these disciplines to be most crucial for successful management of modern libraries, especially on the pretentious publishing market and on the market of information suppliers. Within the technological and economic environment, the cooperation is the only logical solution, which benefits the producers of information services and products as well as libraries. The following text finds that libraries will achieve long-term success and will be proactive in developing partnerships only by using relationship marketing. This relatively new approach offers libraries new ways for successful and long-term management of alliances between partners.

  2. The implications of technological learning on the prospects of specific renewable energy technologies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; De Vries, H.J.; Junginger, H.M.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this chapter is to examine the impact of technological learning on the diffusion of specific renewable energy technologies into the electricity market of the EU-25 until 2020, using a market simulation model (ADMIRE REBUS). It is assumed that from 2012 a harmonized trading system for renewable energy certificates will be implemented. Also it is assumed that a target of 24% renewable electricity (RES-E) in 2020 is set and met. By comparing optimistic and pessimistic endogenous technological learning scenarios, it is found that the diffusion of onshore wind energy into the market is relatively robust, regardless of technological development. However the diffusion rates of offshore wind energy and biomass gasification greatly depend on their technological development. Competition between these two options and already existing biomass combustion options largely determines the overall costs of electricity from renewables and the choice of technologies for the individual member countries. In the optimistic learning scenario, in 2020 the market price for RES-E is 1 euroct/kWh lower than in the pessimistic scenario (about 7 vs. 8 euroct/kWh). As a result, the total expenditures for RES-E market stimulation are 30% lower in the optimistic scenario. For comparison, instead of introducing a harmonized trading system, also continuation of present policies to support renewables was evaluated, assuming that the member states of the EU can fulfil their ambition levels only by exploiting their domestic renewable energy potentials (i.e. exclusion of international trade). This would require many member states to use their offshore wind potential, making the diffusion of offshore wind much less dependent on both the rate of technological learning and competition from biomass options, compared to the harmonization policy scenario

  3. Technical and economic assessments commercial success for IGCC technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, T.

    1998-01-01

    The experiences gained from several Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration plants operating in the US and Europe facilitate commercial success of this advanced coal-based power generation technology. However, commercialization of coal-based IGCC technology in the West, particularly in the US, is restricted due to the low price of natural gas. On the contrary, in China--the largest coal producer and consumer in the world--a lack of natural gas supply, strong demand for air pollution control and relatively low costs of manufacturing and construction provide tremendous opportunities for IGCC applications. The first Chinese IGCC demonstration project was initiated in 1994, and other potential IGCC projects are in planning. IGCC applications in re-powering, fuel switching and multi-generation also show a great market potential in China. However, questions for IGCC development in China remain; where are realistic opportunities for IGCC projects and how can these opportunities be converted into commercial success? The answers to these questions should focus on the Chinese market needs and emphasize economic benefits, not just clean, or power. High price of imported equipment, high financing costs, and the technical risk of first-of-a-kind installation barricade IGCC development in China. This paper presents preliminary technical and economic assessments for four typical IGCC applications in the Chinese marketplace: central power station, fuel switching, re-powering, and multi-generation. The major factors affecting project economics--such as plant cost, financing, prices of fuel and electricity and operating capacity factor--are analyzed. The results indicate that well-proven technology for versatile applications, preferred financing, reduction of the plant cost, environmental superiority and appropriate project structure are the key for commercial success of IGCC in China

  4. An Empirical Analysis of Social Capital and Economic Growth in Europe (1980-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Isabel; Vazquez, Emilia; Portela, Marta

    2009-01-01

    It is of paramount concern for economists to uncover the factors that determine economic growth and social development. In recent years a new field of investigation has come to the fore in which social capital is analysed in order to determine its effect on economic growth. Along these lines the work presented here examines the relationships that…

  5. Socializing the European Semester? Economic governance and social policy coordination in Europe 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Vanhercke, B.

    2014-01-01

    The European Semester of policy coordination, which is the core of EU’s new institutional architecture for economic and social governance, introduced since the beginning of the Euro crisis, has prompted questions about the nature and dynamics of the EU’s emerging socio-economic governance

  6. Evolving subsidiary roles and regional economic integration in Europe (special editorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Duijsters, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the impact of regional economic integration on changing roles and strategies of overseas subsidiaries. the literature has acknowledged the positive impact of regional economic integration on the investment attractiveness of member states participating in a regional bloc

  7. Relationship of suicide rates to economic variables in Europe: 2000-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoulakis, K.N.; Kawohl, W.; Theodorakis, P.N.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Navickas, A.; Hoshl, C.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Sorel, E.; Rancans, E.; Palova, E.; Juckel, G.; Isacsson, G.; Korosec Jagodic, H.; Botezat-Antonescu, I.; Warmke, I.; Rybakowski, J.; Azorin, J.M.; Cookson, J.; Waddington, J.; Pregelj, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Hranov, L.G.; Stevovic, L.I.; Pezawas, L.; Adida, M.; Figuera, M.L.; Pompili, M.; Jakovljevic, M.; Vichi, M.; Perugi, G.; Andreasen, O.; Vukovic, O.; Mavrogiorgou, P.; Vamik, P.; Bech, P.; Dome, P.; Winkler, P.; Salokangas, R.K.R.; From, T.; Danileviciute, V.; Gonda, X; Rihmer, Z.; Benhalima, J.F.; Grady, A.; Kloster Leadholm, A.K.; Soendergaard, S.; Nordt, C.; Lopez-Ibor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates. Aims: The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates. Method: Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European

  8. The fertility response to the Great Recession in Europe and the United States: Structural economic conditions and perceived economic uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ludovica Comolli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study further develops Goldstein et al.'s (2013 analysis of the fertility response to the Great Recession in western economies. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the fertility reaction to different indicators of the crisis. Beyond the structural labor market conditions, I investigate the dependence of fertility rates on economic policy uncertainty, government financial risk, and consumer confidence. Methods: Following Goldstein et al. (2013, I use log-log models to assess the elasticity of age-, parity-, and education-specific fertility rates to an array of indicators. Besides the inclusion of a wider set of explanatory variables, I include more recent data (2000−2013 and I enlarge the sample to 31 European countries plus the United States. Results: Fertility response to unemployment in some age- and parity-specific groups has been, in more recent years, larger than estimated by Goldstein et al. (2013. Female unemployment has also been significantly reducing fertility rates. Among uncertainty measures, the drop in consumer confidence is strongly related to fertility decline and in Southern European countries the fertility response to sovereign debt risk is comparable to that of unemployment. Economic policy uncertainty is negatively related to TFR even when controlling for unemployment. Conclusions: Theoretical and empirical investigation is needed to develop more tailored measures of economic and financial insecurity and their impact on birth rates. Contribution: The study shows the nonnegligible influence of economic and financial uncertainty on birth rates during the Great Recession in Western economies, over and above that of structural labor market conditions.

  9. Interconnected power systems: a technical and economical optimization for the benefit of energy transitions in France and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The roles and missions of TSOs go way beyond the implicit meaning of the term 'power transmission'. At the heart of the power system, we are responsible to keep the balance between supply and demand. By ensuring that we have the ability to fulfill this role on a daily basis, we provide our customers with economical, reliable and clean access to power supply. Operating the power system is all about optimization. Firstly, by mutualizing energy sources at the European level, RTE insures 'power' solidarity between regions and enhance renewable energy sources contribution. Secondly, the market mechanisms that we are developing make it possible to use the most competitive energy sources in France and in Europe. This optimal use of resources call for close cooperation with our European counterparts. These mechanisms support security of supply and economic optimization of the system, while also facilitating other ways to consume power. Overall, we promote solutions to help making decisions based on physical and economic parameters, always seeking the most advantageous solution and ensuring grid operability. RTE is constantly seeking ways of remaining a step ahead of changes within the power system. In the energy transition context, French economic competitiveness also relies on optimal efficiency of the power system. Our ambition is to developing a smart transmission system to support tomorrow's economy and energy landscape, in conjunction with our partners. (author)

  10. The application of containment technologies on landfills and contaminated sites in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchior, S.

    1997-01-01

    Remedial action on contaminated sites may include ex-situ or in-situ treatment of contaminants (extraction of solids, liquids and gases or in-situ decontamination) as well as the application of containment technologies. Rumer ampersand Ryan (1995) define containment technology as open-quotes the construction of low-permeability barriers around the source zone [of contaminated sites] to contain contaminants combined with manipulation of hydraulic gradientsclose quotes. The technical focus areas of the 1997 International Containment Technology Conference and Exhibition include vertical, bottom and surface barriers as well as technologies like permeable barriers and stabilization ampersand solidification. Contaminant transport modeling, the test and choice of materials, quality assurance and control, cost and performance criteria, and long-term performance monitoring are integral and essential parts of the technologies and their application. The extent of their use depends on the technology applied as well as on the hazard of the site. This paper will focus on a description of the systems used to construct walls, floors, and caps on European landfills and contaminated sites. The application of walls, floors, and caps, however, is not only a question of the best available technology but also is strongly governed by the priority of the problem to be solved. Therefore this paper will give a short overview on some environmental, socio-economical and political factors, which influence the application of containment technologies, before short profiles of the currently applied technologies will be presented

  11. A New Approach to the Economic Integration between South and North Korea: A Comparative Study with the Transition Economies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Chul Cho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to find the enlightenment that the experience of state system transition in Eastern Europe offers to the economic integration of Korea and DPRK if leave DPRK as an independent economic area to seek its economic transition in a certain period, when the political structure breaks down. The transition policies of economic system of Eastern Europe states could be roughly divided into four types, the policies of liberalization, the policies of stabilization of the macro economy, the policies of privatization and financial reform. This thesis is trying to analyze how to use these types of polices in DPRK. According to the situation in Eastern Europe, compared to the fact that whether the speed of the transition of economic system is radical or gradual, the result of the transition of economic system depends on the condition of the preliminary stage of the transition of economic system and how consistently and ardently the states which plan to change their system promote all kinds of reform policy. The way to minimize the side-effect which the Eastern Europe suffered after the transition is to minimize the cost of the unity of Korea as much as possible. Therefore, the following policies coordination must be carried out. First, do not launch the stabilization policy mainly by restraining the aggregate demand as the Eastern Europe states. Appropriate policy adjustment should follow that. Second, the fruit of the economic reform should be distributed to the class or group which has got the acquired right. Third, appropriate income policy is needed in order to allay the controversy between economic growth and stabilization policy.

  12. ECONOMIC EFFECT OF INTRODUCTION OF MODULAR TECHNOLOGY IN RAILWAY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Bilous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore the current state of the railway engineering industry in the world, the problems of its development prospects, especially the introduction of the modular process technology and economic impact of its introduction. Methodology. The research is based on statistical information from public sources, which is used to confirm the veracity of the thesis put forward about the feasibility of further implementation of the principle of modularity in the railway engineering sector. Data was also obtained from the websites of manufacturers of railway equipment. Also, in the study of the issue, analytical articles on the economic development of the sector of railway engineering in the world were used. Results of the research showed that today, in transport engineering industry, in particular – in the railway engineering, there is a problem of inefficient implementation and use of technological developments, which are used in the manufacture of railway rolling stock. Many technical solutions are duplicated, leading to more time and financial costs. At the same time, there is no free access to information about existing technical solutions, which significantly slows down the development of rail transport. One of the main solutions to the problem is the use of modular technology in the design and manufacture of rolling stock. Leading global manufacturers have already begun to use the modules in the production of their rolling stock, but the technology is not yet sufficiently developed and finds its realization only in reducing the costs of production of rolling stock by specific manufacturers. The full benefits of the new technology have not yet been obtained by producers and operators. Thus, there is a considerable margin for the implementation of modular technology in the production of railway vehicles, which will result in further reducing both production costs and the costs of maintenance, operation and repair of

  13. An Innovative Economic Incentive Model for Improvement of the Working Environment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1997-01-01

    work injury compensation system, that a number of European countries operate. Building on an understanding of enterprise decision processes and ressources, it is suggested to implement a range of tools targetting different groups of enterprises. The central tools are bonus schemes, a special scheme......The design of economic incentive schemes to promote working environment embetterment has proven complicated. The contribution list some central preconditions and tools of an economic incentive model for improving the working environment. The economic incentive is proposed built into the compulsory...... for small enterprises, a marketing label and low interest investment aid. It is finally discussed what contrains the implementation of such a scheme can be confronted with....

  14. Information and Communications Technology Development and its Economic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pajgrt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with economic context of Information a Communications Technology (ICT development’s analysis. Historical data of ICT revenue in USA for last 53 years were analyzed and were compared with the historical data in Czech Republic, Germany, China, India, Japan and Brazil for last 13 years. The ratio of ICT revenues to GDP was used as proper indicator in the examined countries to reflect the influences of the surrounding progress and define the individual progress stages. The formulation of the progress’ general rules and its prediction was done. It was monitored the dynamics of ICT sales, depending on its form and the influence of global economy.

  15. Comparative economic evaluation of environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrascu, Roxana; Athanasovici, Victor; Raducanu, Cristian; Minciuc, Eduard; Bitir-Istrate, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    Cogeneration is one of the most powerful technologies for reduction of environmental pollution along with renewable energies. At the Kyoto Conference cogeneration has been identified as being the most important measure for reducing emissions of greenhouse effect gases. It has also been mentioned that cogeneration has a potential of reducing pollution with about 180 million tones per year. In order to promote new cogeneration technologies and evaluate the existing ones it is necessary to know and to be able to quantify in economical terms the environmental issues. When comparing different cogeneration technologies: steam turbine (TA), gas turbine (TG), internal combustion engine (MT), in order to choose the best one, the final decision implies an economic factor, which is even more important if it includes the environmental issues. The environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies is quantified using different criteria: depletion of non-renewable natural resources, eutrofisation, greenhouse effect, acidification etc. Environmental analysis using these criteria can be made using the 'impact with impact' methodology or the global one. The results of such an analysis cannot be quantified economically directly. Therefore there is a need of internalisation of ecological effects within the costs of produced energy: electricity and heat. In the energy production sector the externalizations represent the indirect effects on the environment. They can be materialised within different types of environmental impact: - Different buildings of mines, power plants etc; - Fuel losses during transportation and processing; - Effect of emissions in the air, water and soil. Introduction of the environmental impact costs in the energy price is called internalisation and it can be made using the direct and indirect methods. The paper discusses aspects regarding the emissions of cogeneration systems, the eco-taxes - method of 'internalisation' of environmental

  16. 40 CFR 450.22 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best available technology economically achievable (BAT). 450.22 Section 450.22 Protection of... limitations reflecting the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40... the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). (a) Beginning no later than August 1...

  17. Explaining participation of private forest owners in economic incentives. Case studies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Górriz, E.; Mäntymaa, E.; Petucco, C.

    2014-01-01

    Taking part in the implementation of a voluntary policy instrument for land use management implies motivational requirements of the targeted landowner. Increasing knowledge on the potential economic, managerial and attitudinal factors helps design incentives in accordance and facilitates an effec...

  18. Economic aspects of Solar Thermal Technologies for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinecke, W.

    1993-01-01

    Economic results of German studies are presented, which compare the four solar thermal technologies for electricity generation (parabolic trough collector system, central receiver system, parabolic dish/Stirling system, solar chimney plant). These studies were carried out by Interatom (today Siemens/KWU) in Bergisch Gladbach, Flachglas Solartechnik in Koln and Schlaich Bergermann and Partner in Stuggart under contract of DLR in Koln. Funds were made available by the German Ministry of Research and Development (BMFT). The results indicate that all of the investigated technologies have the potential to reduce the generating costs and that in the future costs of below 0.30 DM/kWh could be expected under excellent insolation conditions (e.G. 2850 kWh/m''2 a direct insolation as in California/USA). (Author) 25 refs

  19. The role of economic incentives for managing technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunreuther, H.

    1995-01-01

    A key issue facing society in dealing with the management of technological facilities is balancing the costs of reducing risks with the relevant benefits. These tradeoffs are difficult for both experts and laypersons to make when there is limited objective data on the nature of the health and safety risks. Economic incentives, such as insurance and compensation, can play an important role in reducing and preventing losses associated with technological facilities if they are coupled with appropriate regulations and/or standards. They also can communicate information to the public on the price associated with different levels of risk. The talk will focus on how these policy tools can be utilized for improving the risk management process in conjunction with risk assessment. The siting of facilities for storing and disposing of potentially hazardous wastes will be used to illustrate these concepts and indicate how the public can be made a more integral part of the process

  20. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Twenty-Fourth Isata International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-05

    Hirayama, Association of Electronic Technology for Automobile Traffic and Driving and Y Ishii, Oki Electric Industry, Japan " Mazda Car Communication...System" Mazda Car Corporation, FRG IMPROVING TRAFFIC FLOW "Strategies for Integrating Dynamic Route Guidance and Traffic Control Systems" MGH Bell...Chemical Structure by Means of Exafs" N Sato, Honda R&D Co. Ltd and T Minami, Honda Motor Co. Ltd, Japan 155 910904 "Microstructural and Hardness

  1. The economic cost of hospital malnutrition in Europe; a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatbari-Soltani, Saman; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Malnutrition among hospitalized patients increases length of stay (LOS) and carries extra hospitalization costs. To review the impact of malnutrition on hospital LOS and costs in Europe. PubMed and Google Scholar search. All articles from January 2004 until November 2014 were identified. Reference lists of relevant articles were also manually searched. Ten studies on LOS and nine studies on costs were reviewed. The methods used to assess malnutrition and to calculate costs differed considerably between studies. Malnutrition led to an increased LOS ranging from 2.4 to 7.2 days. Among hospitalized patients, malnutrition led to an additional individual cost ranging between 1640 € and 5829 €. At the national level, the costs of malnutrition ranged between 32.8 million € and 1.2 billion €. Expressed as percentage of national health expenditures, the values ranged between 2.1% and 10%. In Europe, malnutrition leads to an increase in LOS and in hospital costs, both at the individual and the national level. Standardization of methods and results reported is needed to adequately compare results between countries. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Scientific and Technological Progress on Economic Development - the Views of Some Nobel Laureates of the Economic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Xhelili KRASNIQI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are different authors' opinions and numerous theories according to which scientific technological progress is a determining factor of the economic development. The paper aims to present the contributions of some Nobel laureates to the impact of scientific and technological progress on economic development such as Arrow, Debreu, Hicks, Solow, Kuznets, Kantorovich and Stiglitz. The research results of their contributions show that scientific technological progress is considered as a source of economic development but this advanced technology to be widely and effectively used should be accompanied by such ideological and institutional adjustments that guarantee the reasonable use of innovations produced by the huge improvements of human knowledge.

  3. The impact of the financial crisis under the effects of increasing global economic interdependence. The case of Eastern and Central Europe Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bușega Ionuț

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological progress that arose in areas such as transportation, communication and information exchange has led to a series of consequences that forced national economies to converge into a global, market based economy. In addition to the aforementioned causes, increased liberalisation amidst financial markets has supplemented the initiation of this metamorphosis that had several benefits in terms of general commercial exchange (trade, capital flows, and investment opportunities for business organisations. Simultaneously with the financial leverage resulted from the expansion of these interconnections, a series of channels that are detrimental to the financial welfare of entities has emerged, which, in consequence elevated the vulnerability and susceptibility to external economic shocks. The major debate elicited by this trade-off mainly concerns the costs and benefits of the international liberalisation of capital flows and trade. The purpose of this article is to examine the methods through which globalisation has affected the expansion of the international financial crisis back in 2008, by identifying and assessing the subsequent transfer routes, to and from the United States, where it was initially triggered. This article also aims to evaluate the repercussions experienced by Central and Eastern Europe and how they re-established economic growth following the financial crisis.

  4. Economical-environmental assessment on technologies producing electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafzadeh, K.

    2000-01-01

    Currently, the electric power industry is undergoing substantial regulatory and organizational change with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Under these circumstances, with utilization of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) concept, we consider the assessment of Technologies producing energy from financial and pollution viewpoint. AHP techniques is one of the efficient methods in analysis of complex and multi-criteria problems, which has plenty of applications. General pattern of this assessment has been introduced, and the main goal is determining of overall priority weights for each technology. With using this pattern, overall priority weights has been determined for thermal, combined cycle and Gas turbine plants. It has been cleared that relative priority of these plants will change, if relative priority of assessment criterions changes. For application of this approach, capital budgeting process and selection of some suitable technologies among the alternatives candidate for construction have been presented. In this process the objective is to maximize the sum of overall priority weights of technologies which have been identified from AHP. Constraints are about the construction budget and annual budget for emission allowances. This process is in the integer programming IP form an has been applied to three kind of power plants with reasonable assumptions

  5. Socio-economic position and subjective health and well-being among older people in Europe: a systematic narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sanna; Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of older European populations have established that disability and morbidity vary with indicators of socio-economic position (SEP). We undertook a systematic narrative review of the literature to ascertain to what extent there is evidence of similar inequalities in the subjective health and well-being of older people in Europe. Relevant original research articles were searched for using Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy and Practice, Cinahl, Web of Science and International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS). We included studies of SEP and indicators of subjective health and well-being (self-rated health; life satisfaction; quality of life) conducted since 1991 using population-based samples of older people in Europe and published 1995-2013. A total of 71 studies were identified. Poorer SEP was associated with poorer subjective health and well-being. Associations varied somewhat depending on the SEP measure and subjective health and well-being outcome used. Associations were weaker when social support and health-related behaviours were adjusted for suggesting that these factors mediate the relationship between SEP and subjective health and well-being. Associations tended to be weaker in the oldest age groups. The patterns of associations by gender were not consistent and tended to diminish after adjusting for indicators of health and life circumstances. The results of this systematic narrative review of the literature demonstrate the importance of social influences on later life subjective health and well-being and indicate areas which need further investigation, such as more studies from Eastern Europe, more longitudinal studies and more research on the role of mediating factors.

  6. The role of socio-economic status in depression: results from the COURAGE (aging survey in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinne Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status (SES has been found to be associated with a higher prevalence of depression. However, studies that have investigated this association have been limited in their national scope, have analyzed different components of SES separately, and have not used standardized definitions or measurements across populations. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between SES and depression across three European countries that represent different regions across Europe, using standardized procedures and measurements and a composite score for SES. Method Nationally-representative data on 10,800 individuals aged ≥18 from the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE survey conducted in Finland, Poland and Spain were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. An adapted version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify the presence of depression, and SES was computed by using the combined scores of the total number of years educated (0–22 and the quintiles of the country-specific income level of the household (1–5. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between SES and depression. Results Findings reveal a significant association between depression and SES across all countries (p ≤ 0.001. After adjusting for confounders, the odds of depression were significantly decreased for every unit increase in the SES index for Finland, Poland and Spain. Additionally, higher education significantly decreased the odds for depression in each country, but income did not. Conclusion The SES index seems to predict depression symptomatology across European countries. Taking SES into account may be an important factor in the development of depression prevention strategies across Europe.

  7. Economic assessment of new technology of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Song, K. D.; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. S.; Choi, H. B.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the change in the manufacturing cost of DUPIC fuel on the power generation cost. In doing so, the installed capacity of nuclear power plants until the year 2040 were forecasted by using the trend analysis technique. This study used the NUFCAP computer code, developed by KAERI, which allows to conduct quantitative evaluation of the volumes of nuclear fuel and spent fuel as well as unit and system costs of nuclear fuel cycle. As a result of this study, it was found that there was little economic difference between the two possible options for the Korean electric system, direct disposal and DUPIC fuel cycle. The rate of discount and the manufacturing cost of DUPIC fuel were resulted in the most significant factors affecting the economics of the two options. Finally, it was expected that the result of this study provided the arguing point for the international debate on the economics of DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Techno-economic analysis of PC versus CFB combustion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-01

    In the last ten years circulating fluidised bed combustion (CFBC) has emerged as a viable alternative to pulverised coal combustion (PCC) for utility-scale coal power generation, with widespread deployment of 300 MW boilers and the successful demonstration of supercritical units of up to 600 MW. Although CFBC offers a greater degree of fuel flexibility and does not usually require downstream flue gas cleaning, high capital costs and high auxiliary power use have hindered the adoption of CFBC for utility power generation. Recent advances in CFBC unit capacity and steam conditions have led to higher efficiencies and economies of scale, with the result that a CFBC plant may now be more economically favourable than a PCC plant depending on a range of factors such as available fuels and regional emissions limits. This report reviews the state-of-the-art for both technologies and provides a comparison of their relative performances and economic costs. Standard operational parameters such as efficiency, availability, and flexibility are assessed, in addition to relative suitability for biomass cofiring and oxyfuel combustion as strategies for carbon mitigation. A review of recent cost evaluations of the two technologies is accompanied by a breakdown of individual plant expenses including flue gas scrubbing equipment and ash recycle value.

  9. Technological innovation as a mean to increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VASILE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporations must be able to adapt and evolve if they wish to survive. Businesses operate with the knowledge that their competitors will inevitably come to the market with a product that changes the basis of competition. The ability to change and adapt is essential to survival.(1 European Union and its member states set several frameworks to support companies to acquire knowledge and strengthen their competitiveness, as follows:- National Programs for R & D funding which support national actors;- Sectorial Operational Programs (either at national or regional level, in full compliance with national rules;- EU programs (e.g. Competitiveness and Innovation Program – CIP, R&D Framework Programs – FP;- Pan-European programs (e.g. EUREKA.Romania is participating to all programs and pan-European R & D frameworks. Furthermore, its innovation program within the National Plan for research facilitates company participation to knowledge development and technology development. Nevertheless Romania’s Innovation performance is still at one of the lowest level in Europe(2. The followings present how companies are considering their participation to R & D programs and the impact of an R & D project in a company.

  10. Economic and Social Models in Europe and the Importance of Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heipertz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on European economic and social models. It provides a comparative assessment of fiscal and regulatory policies in 17 industrialised countries (the EU15, US and Japan and presents the records of these countries in attaining key economic and social objectives. Social and economic systems that feature efficient public sectors and flexible market structures tend to experience reasonably sustainable public finances, high economic growth, education standards and employment, and well-functioning markets. Anglo-Saxon countries broadly fit this mould, albeit, seemingly, at some cost of income equality. A more pronounced emphasis on welfare state policies and the corresponding relatively high levels of public spending bring benefit to income distribution in the Nordic countries while the resulting inefficiencies in their economies are counterbalanced by flexibility in labour and particularly product markets. Also, a number of reform-minded European countries have improved their fiscal and regulatory policies while significantly enhancing the functioning of markets, fiscal sustainability and economic performance. This was generally attained without jeopardising social objectives. On the other hand, those continental and Mediterranean countries that maintain market inefficiencies and at the same time sustain expensive and inefficient welfare states generally suffer from low growth and employment and less well-functioning markets and face serious risks to their economies’ fiscal sustainability. The findings of this note support calls for the comprehensive reform of fiscal policies, as well as of product and labour markets.

  11. Social/economic costs and health-related quality of life in patients with cystic fibrosis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreul, Karine; Michel, Morgane; Brigham, Karen Berg; López-Bastida, Julio; Linertová, Renata; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro; Posada-de-la-Paz, Manuel; Taruscio, Domenica; Schieppati, Arrigo; Iskrov, Georgi; Péntek, Márta; von der Schulenburg, Johann Matthias Graf; Kanavos, Panos; Persson, Ulf; Fattore, Giovani

    2016-04-01

    Our goal was to provide data on the economic burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and their caregivers in Europe. A cross-sectional study was carried out on adults and children with CF in eight European countries. Patients completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, use of healthcare services and presence of a caregiver. Costs were calculated with a bottom-up approach using unit costs from each participating country, and HRQOL was assessed using EQ-5D. The principal caregiver also answered a questionnaire on their characteristics, HRQOL and burden. A total of 905 patients with CF was included (399 adults and 506 children). The total average annual cost per patient varied from €21,144 in Bulgaria to €53,256 in Germany. Adults had higher direct healthcare costs than children, but children had much higher informal care costs (P costs increased with patients' level of dependence. In adults, mean utility fell between 0.640 and 0.870, and the visual analogue scale ranged from 46.0 to 69.7. There was no difference in caregiver HRQOL regardless of whether they cared for an adult or a child. However, caregivers who looked after a child had a significantly higher burden (P = 0.0013). Our study highlights the burden of CF in terms of costs and decreased HRQOL for both patients and their caregivers throughout Europe.

  12. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-01-01

    In order to plan for potential CO(sub 2) mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO(sub 2) mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO(sub 2) sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO(sub 2) and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO(sub 2) sequestration, including captured CO(sub 2) storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO(sub 2) sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO(sub 2) sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO(sub 2). No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO(sub 2) sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO(sub 2) sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget

  13. Use of New Technologies in the Prevention of Suicide in Europe: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Juan-Luis; Delgado, Carmen; Sánchez-Prada, Andrés; Pérez-López, Mercedes; Franco-Martín, Manuel A

    2017-06-27

    New technologies are an integral component of today's society and can complement existing suicide prevention programs. Here, we analyzed the use of new technologies in the prevention of suicide in 8 different European countries. The aim of this paper was to assess the opinions of professionals in incorporating such resources into the design of a suicide prevention program for the region of Zamora in Spain. This investigation, encompassed within the European project entitled European Regions Enforcing Actions against Suicide (EUREGENAS), includes 11 regions from 8 different countries and attempts to advance the field of suicide prevention in Europe. Using a specifically designed questionnaire, we assessed the opinions of 3 different groups of stakeholders regarding the use, frequency of use, facilitators, content, and format of new technologies for the prevention of suicide. The stakeholders were comprised of policy and public management professionals, professionals working in the area of mental health, and professionals related to the social area and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). A total of 416 participants were recruited in 11 regions from 8 different European countries. The utility of the new technologies was valued positively in all 8 countries, despite these resources being seldom used in those countries. In all the countries, the factors that contributed most to facilitating the use of new technologies were accessibility and free of charge. Regarding the format of new technologies, the most widely preferred formats for use as a tool for the prevention of suicide were websites and email. The availability of information about signs of alarm and risk factors was the most relevant content for the prevention of suicide through the use of new technologies. The presence of a reference mental health professional (MHP) was also considered to be a key aspect. The countries differed in the evaluations given to the different formats suggesting that the cultural

  14. Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Chatzikosta, Isaia; Pastiadis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that suicidal rates vary considerably among European countries and the reasons for this are unknown, although several theories have been proposed. The effect of economic variables has been extensively studied but not that of climate. METHODS: Data from 29 European...... countries covering the years 2000-2012 and concerning male and female standardized suicidal rates (according to WHO), economic variables (according World Bank) and climate variables were gathered. The statistical analysis included cluster and principal component analysis and categorical regression. RESULTS......: The derived models explained 62.4 % of the variability of male suicidal rates. Economic variables alone explained 26.9 % and climate variables 37.6 %. For females, the respective figures were 41.7, 11.5 and 28.1 %. Male suicides correlated with high unemployment rate in the frame of high growth rate and high...

  15. Impact of Scientific and Technological Progress on Economic Development - the Views of Some Nobel Laureates of the Economic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Xhelili KRASNIQI; Nexhmie Berisha VOKSHI

    2017-01-01

    There are different authors' opinions and numerous theories according to which scientific technological progress is a determining factor of the economic development. The paper aims to present the contributions of some Nobel laureates to the impact of scientific and technological progress on economic development such as Arrow, Debreu, Hicks, Solow, Kuznets, Kantorovich and Stiglitz. The research results of their contributions show that scientific technological progress is considered as a sour...

  16. The Reform of the EU Framework for Economic and Social Development through the Strategy “Europe 2020"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the strategy "Europe 2020" and outlines the economic and social development in light of this strategy. For 2020, the European Commission proposes EU five measurable objectives that will guide the process and will be implemented in the Member States: employment, research and innovation, climate change and energy, education and fighting poverty. Given the challenges of the international financial crisis, an important place is occupied by the inclusive growth, that follows to support citizens by: providing high levels of employment, investing in workforce training, fight poverty, modernize labor markets and building welfare systems able to anticipate and cope with changes and challenges of a “cohesion society”. In order to stimulate inclusive growth, the analysis focuses on three areas: employment, education and training and the fight against poverty.

  17. Negotiating the crisis? Collective bargaining in Europe during the economic downturn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glassner, V.; Keune, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights in the role of the key actors in the labour market, which are the trade unions, the employer organizations and the state, in negotiating responses to the economic downturn. As the crisis revealed, the role of the state changed with regard to the prevailing paradigm of the

  18. Toward a Unified Europe? Explaining Cultural Differences by Economic Development, Cultural Heritage and Historical Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; van Schaik, A.B.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Economic development is linked with systematic changes in basic values, but cultural change is path dependent.This is known as Inglehart's thesis.In this paper we build on his thesis and try to explain value differences across European regions.This is relevant as it fits in the ongoing discussion of

  19. EU governance of economic and social policies : Chances and challenges for social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, S.; Klosse, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at establishing to what extent the renewed EU economic and social policy coordination cycles offer opportunities to uphold and further develop the Union’s social objectives. First, it seeks to examine to what extent the legal frameworks in which macroeconomic and social policies

  20. The relationship between economic factors and equity markets in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Filer, R.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2000), s. 623-638 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3028601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 116200001 Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2000 http://search. ebscohost .com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=4336202&site=ehost-live

  1. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  2. DISCUSSING THE ROLE OF MIGRATION AND EDUCATION IN FIGHTING ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the effects of the net migration rate and higher education on a set of economic vulnerability indicators in the South-Eastern EU countries, when controlling inter alia for other explanatory variables. These relationships are explored by panel data regression models, using macroeconomic variables collected over 10 years from the Eurostat dataset. The random effects Generalized Least Squares (GLS and the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimators are comparatively examined. The paper finds that the tertiary education attainments do not represent a significant determinant of income inequality and subjective well-being, while the net migration rate and lifelong learning exert a significant and powerful impact on most our measures of economic vulnerability over the period of analysis.

  3. ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: AN INVESTIGATION FOR SIX EU CANDIDATE AND POTENTIAL CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Tache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The South Eastern European region (SEE has seen major beneficial transformation in the recent years. Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 became members of the European Union and registered significant economic growth rates. This paper investigates some important factors that influence economic growth in 6 EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia and offers to policy makers in those countries key insights for stimulating the economy. The paper proposes a dynamic growth model which will be developed using the Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation. This model is suited for this type of analysis because of the small T sample and also to cope with missingness. The results indicate that nine out of the fourteen variables were statistically significant. The number of non-resident tourists, the number of passenger cars, the number of children in pre-primary and primary-education are positive factors for economic growth. In contrast, government debt, inflation, all energy imports, railway transportation and primary production of coal and lignite are hindering development.

  4. COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF ECONOMICS, OF SCIENCE AND MEDICINE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina-Consuela FORNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of medical cooperation raises many questions current and controversial, which are the focus of interest in socio-political and legal, such as debates on instruments to combat the high costs, the public health system, legislation aimed at ensuring health, tobacco consumption, alcohol, obesity and others. Public health legislation deals with the framework conditions, legal and social aspects of public health, protection and deployment the law of public health on tobacco. The aim of this study is to identify the degree to which economic freedom correlates with indicators of development, health and economic cooperation in medicine field. In this regard, we consider useful to investigate how the correlation indicators of policy Health – 2020 with global and European economic development. Research methods are located in estimating the degree of international cooperation in the medicine field through statistical methods, comparison, graphics, deduction or induction.The results allow to formulate a whole picture regarding international cooperation in the field of medicine, combating different diseases but human vices as obesity, tobacco use, alcohol etc. Facilitation of cooperation in research and innovation is the key to bridging the gap between research and demand in different countries and regions.

  5. Modeling economic growth fuelled by science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a simulation model to investigate how science and technology fuel economic growth. This model is built upon a synthesis of technological capabilities represented by national innovation systems. This paper gathers data of papers and patents for 183 countries between 1999 and 2003, as well as GDP and population for 2003. These data show a strong correlation between science, technology and income. Three simulation exercises are performed. Feeding our algorithm with data for population, patents and scientific papers, we obtain the world income distribution. These results support our conjecture on the role of science and technology as sources of the wealth of nations.Este artigo propõe um modelo de simulação para investigar a contribuição da ciência e da tecnologia para o crescimento econômico. O ponto de partida são os sistemas nacionais de inovação, um conceito que sintetiza a capacitação tecnológica das nações. Desta forma, o modelo pode preservar simplicidade e parcimônia. Os dados coletados (patentes, artigos e PIB e população, para 183 países indicam uma forte correlação entre ciência, tecnologia e renda. Três exercícios com simulações são realizados para diversos momentos do tempo, mostrando a progressiva aderência do modelo a essas variáveis tecnológicas.

  6. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real

  7. CANDU flexible and economical fuel technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingjun, C. [CNNC Nuclear Power Operation Management Co., Zhejiang (China); Zhenhua, Z.; Zhiliang, M. [CNNC Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co., Zhejiang (China); Cottrell, C.M.; Kuran, S. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Use in CANDU reactor is one good option of recycled uranium (RU) and thorium (Th) resource. It is also good economy to CANDU fuel. Since 2008 Qinshan CANDU Plant and our partners (Candu Energy and CNNC and NPIC) have made great efforts to develop the engineering technologies of Flexible and Economical Fuel (RU and Th) in CANDU type reactor and finding the CANDU's position in Chinese closed fuel cycle (CFC) system. This paper presents a proposal of developing strategy and implementation plan. Qinshan CANDU reactors will be converted to use recycled and depleted uranium based fuels, a first-of-its-kind. The fuel is composed of both recycled and depleted uranium and simulating natural uranium behavior. This paper discusses its development, design, manufacture and verification tested with success and the full core implementation plan by the end of 2014. (author)

  8. Estimating costs in the economic evaluation of medical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, B R; Elixhauser, A

    1990-01-01

    The complexities and nuances of evaluating the costs associated with providing medical technologies are often underestimated by analysts engaged in economic evaluations. This article describes the theoretical underpinnings of cost estimation, emphasizing the importance of accounting for opportunity costs and marginal costs. The various types of costs that should be considered in an analysis are described; a listing of specific cost elements may provide a helpful guide to analysis. The process of identifying and estimating costs is detailed, and practical recommendations for handling the challenges of cost estimation are provided. The roles of sensitivity analysis and discounting are characterized, as are determinants of the types of costs to include in an analysis. Finally, common problems facing the analyst are enumerated with suggestions for managing these problems.

  9. Economic evaluation of GPS technology in Serbian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the level of savings in the application of the most modern technical systems for satellite guidance and control over performing agricultural operations throughout the season. The exemplary property was Agricultural Corporation Belgrade (PKB, which covers about 21.000 hectares of arable land. The effects of plot shape and direction of movement of tractor-attachment units in calculating the savings from reduced overlapping of adjacent passes were studied. The analysis was carried out of savings per crop (maize, wheat, soybean, sugar beet and alfalfa and the operations for each crop separately, based on the manufacturing technology applied to an exemplary property. Detailed data are shown only for wheat and barley. Comparing the achieved level of savings, the application of guidance for the type of the most economically viable operations was found as well as the needed equipment level of guidance devices and management. In particular, the analysis involved the functional dependence of the economic savings in fuel and inputs for the operations such as mineral fertilizers distribution and chemical plant protection. Tabulated are the data estimates for the degree of anticipated savings for operations related to the five analyzed crops.

  10. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Davis, Caroline; McCabe, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process. A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases) and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents) was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers. Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations remains unclear. Increasingly, reimbursement systems are expressing interest in and/or implementing reimbursement policy options that extend beyond the traditional "yes," "no," or "yes with restrictions" options. Such options typically require greater involvement of manufacturers which, to date, has been limited. Centralized reimbursement systems have become an

  11. More Power, Less SympathyThe Response of IGOs in Western Europe to Unwanted Migration during Economic Crises Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irial Glynn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article chronicles the influence of intergovernmental organisations (IGOs over unwanted migration in Western Europe since the 1930s. It pays particular attention to what occurred during times of economic crisis, especially the Great Depression in the 1930s, the recession-hit 1970s and early 1980s, and the current global financial difficulties. The IGOs under consideration are the League of Nations during the 1930s and the European Commission from the 1970s onwards. The European Commission’s ability to influence West European states’ policies on unwanted migration has grown considerably since the League of Nations’ unsuccessful attempts in the 1930s, especially in the lead-up to the current economic crisis. This increase in power has been offset, however, by a decrease in the European Commission’s sympathy as Brussels increasingly regards unwanted migration as a security and justice issue rather than as a social and cultural one in a move that bears close resemblance to the stance of West European states.

  12. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  13. Economic and technological aspects of the market introduction of renewable power technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlen, Christine M.

    Renewable energy, if developed and delivered with appropriate technologies, is cleaner, more evenly distributed, and safer than conventional energy systems. Many countries and several states in the United States promote the development and introduction of technologies for "green" electricity production. This dissertation investigates economic and technological aspects of this process for wind energy. In liberalized electricity markets, policy makers use economic incentives to encourage the adoption of renewables. Choosing from a large range of possible policies and instruments is a multi-criteria decision process. This dissertation evaluates the criteria used and the trade-offs among the criteria, and develops a hierarchical flow scheme that policy makers can use to choose the most appropriate policy for a given situation. Economic incentives and market transformation programs seek to reduce costs through mass deployment in order to make renewable technologies competitive. Cost reduction is measured in "experience curves" that posit negative exponential relationships between cumulative deployment and production cost. This analysis reveals the weaknesses in conventional experience curve analyses for wind turbines, and concludes that the concept is limited by data availability, a weak conceptual foundation, and inappropriate statistical estimation. A revised model specifies a more complete set of economic and technological forces that determine the cost of wind power. Econometric results indicate that experience and upscaling of turbine sizes accounted for the observed cost reduction in wind turbines in the United States, Denmark and Germany between 1983 and 2001. These trends are likely to continue. In addition, future cost reductions will result from economies of scale in production. Observed differences in the performance of theoretically equivalent policy instruments could arise from economic uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, a methodology for the

  14. Framework for modelling economic impacts of invasive species, applied to pine wood nematode in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Soliman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens the European forestry industry. The effect of spatial resolution on the assessment result is analysed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Direct economic impacts resulting from wood loss are computed using partial budgeting at regional scale, while impacts on social welfare are computed by a partial equilibrium analysis of the round wood market at EU scale. Substantial impacts in terms of infested stock are expected in Portugal, Spain, Southern France, and North West Italy but not elsewhere in EU in the near future. The cumulative value of lost forestry stock over a period of 22 years (2008-2030, assuming no regulatory control measures, is estimated at €22 billion. The greatest yearly loss of stock is expected to occur in the period 2014-2019, with a peak of three billion euros in 2016, but stabilizing afterwards at 300-800 million euros/year. The reduction in social welfare follows the loss of stock with considerable delay because the yearly harvest from the forest is only 1.8%. The reduction in social welfare for the downstream round wood market is estimated at €218 million in 2030, whereby consumers incur a welfare loss of €357 million, while producers experience a €139 million increase, due to higher wood prices. The societal impact is expected to extend to well beyond the time horizon of the analysis, and long after the invasion has stopped. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pinewood nematode has large economic consequences for the conifer forestry industry in the EU. A change in spatial resolution affected the calculated directed losses by 24%, but did not critically affect conclusions.

  15. THE AFTERMATH OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS: HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS’ INEQUALITIES IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia PALASCA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During an economic downturn the non-productive sectors (education, health, and social services are the most exposed to sudden policy changes, as a result of austerity measures. This article aims to assess the impact of the late 2000’s crisis on some European countries’ healthcare systems in order to highlight the link between the breakdown of the economic context and the negative outcomes on a social level. In this regard, a panel data analysis was employed, focusing on out-of-pocket health expenses as an estimation of a nation’s wellbeing and healthcare development level. The cross-time results indicated a clear collapse of all national healthcare systems in 2009 while the cross-section effects implied that the twenty three countries could be divided in three groups according to their healthcare policy, especially regarding health insurance. Thus, countries should pay more attention to the private insurances component of the healthcare systems as the others are defenseless against business cycle fluctuations.

  16. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellanger, Martine; Pichery, Céline; Aerts, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to global mercury pollution and the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an assessment of the economic benefits of prevented developmental neurotoxicity is necessary for any cost-benefit analysis. METHODS: Distributions of hair-Hg concentrations among...... with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost.......58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million...

  17. Migrants’ Role in Enhancing the Economic Development of Host Countries: Empirical Evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graţiela Georgiana Noja

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines several modellers of immigration flows deployed within the European Union (EU, as well as their economic consequences upon the most targeted ten migrant receiving countries. The paper’s aim is to identify specific ways in which migrants can contribute to host countries’ sustainable development through positive spillover upon natives, labour market performance, and the overall economic activity. A set of methods and macro-econometric models, based on country fixed effects, spatial analysis, and structural equations modelling, was applied on a balanced panel formed by ten EU host economies. We analysed distinctly the labour and humanitarian (asylum seekers migration flows, considered throughout two separate time periods, namely 2000–2015 and 2000–2019 (2019 being the deadline for Brexit negotiations. The results highlight that the immigration flows were mainly shaped by labour market outcomes, while the primary positive immigration impact was induced upon the gross domestic product (GDP per capita and employment levels, both for natives and the foreign population.

  18. EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK'S ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA AND EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAGIU ALINA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Investment Bank is the European Union's financial institution. It finances investment projects to contribute to the balanced development of the Union. At the same time "bank" and "body" of the European Union, it contributes to the achievement of the European Union objectives by funding projects to promote European integration, balanced development, economic and social cohesion and the development of an economy based on innovation. Today, the EIB exists on the capital markets with the best quote, “Triple A”. This quote allows it to mobilize in highly competitive conditions, the most important financial volume required to support investments. As an institution, EIB continuously adapts its working mode to changes in EU policies. As a bank, it works closely with the banking community, both for loans on the capital markets as well as for financing investments.

  19. Economic and humanistic burden of illness in generalized anxiety disorder: an analysis of patient survey data in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toghanian S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Samira Toghanian,1 Marco DiBonaventura,2 Krister Järbrink,1 Julie C Locklear31AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden; 2Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA; 3AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE, USABackground: Whilst studies suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD represents a considerable health care burden in Europe, there is a paucity of published evidence. This study investigated the burden of illness associated with GAD across five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK.Methods: Information from the 2008 European National Health and Wellness Survey database was analyzed. Bivariate, multivariate, and cost analyses were used to compare patients with GAD and propensity-matched controls.Results: Compared with non-GAD controls, patients with GAD had more comorbidities and were more likely to smoke but less likely to be employed, use alcohol, or take exercise. They also had significantly worse health-related quality of life, and significantly greater work impairment and resource use, which increased as GAD severity increased. Within-country analyses demonstrated results similar to those for the five European countries overall, with the largest differences in resource use between patients with GAD and non-GAD controls documented in France and Germany. The average mean differences in direct costs were relatively small between the GAD groups and controls; however, indirect costs differed substantially. Costs were particularly high in Germany, mainly due to higher salaries leading to higher costs associated with absence from work. The limitation of this study was that the data were from a self-reported Internet survey, making them subject to reporting bias and possibly sample bias.Conclusion: Across all five European countries, GAD had a significant impact on work impairment, resource use, and economic costs, representing a considerable individual and financial burden that increased with severity of disease. These data

  20. Health Technology Assessments of human papillomavirus vaccinations in Europe: a survey from VENICE network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Dorléans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Venice II is a project funded in 2008 by the European centre for disease Prevention and control to collect information on the national vaccination programmes, to increase their knowledge and to know the impact of new vaccines introduced in member states (MS. In 2006-2007, two vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV were authorized in Europe.
    Methods: an online survey was carried out to investigate the decision-making process undertaken regarding the potential introduction of the HPV vaccinations into MS national immunization pro- grammes as well as to investigate the modalities of implementation of the vaccination programmes. there were specific questions about health technology assessment and reports of the countries that had carried them out were reviewed.
    Results: in 21 of the 29 MS, the national advisory body recommended to introduce HPV vaccination in their national immunization schedule and in 18 countries introduced it. only 6 countries have realized a health technology assessments (Hta report, each one with different methodology, but in all of them both vaccines show positive evaluations.
    Conclusion: from the available Hta, HPV vaccination is cost-effective under the assumption of a life- long protection. Screening programme for cervical cancer and HPV vaccination programme should be always complementary. organizational aspects need to be taken into account to improve the vaccina- tion. HPV vaccination should target girls before the debut of their sexual life. Instead HPV vaccination of boys has not been demonstrated as bringing significant epidemiological benefits and has not been shown as being cost-effective. ...

     

  1. On the relationship between energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emissions and economic growth in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acaravci, Ali [Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya-Hatay (Turkey); Ozturk, Ilhan [Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Cag University, 33800, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    This study examines the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth by using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration for nineteen European countries. The bounds F-test for cointegration test yields evidence of a long-run relationship between carbon emissions per capita, energy consumption per capita, real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the square of per capita real GDP only for Denmark, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Portugal and Switzerland. The cumulative sum and cumulative sum of squares tests also show that the estimated parameters are stable for the sample period. We found a positive long-run elasticity estimate of emissions with respect to energy consumption at 1% significant level in Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy and Portugal. Positive long-run elasticity estimates of carbon emissions with respect to real GDP and the negative long-run elasticity estimates of carbon emissions with respect to the square of per capita real GDP at 1% significance level in Denmark and 5% significant level in Italy are also found. These results support that the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Denmark and Italy. This study also explores causal relationship between the variables by using error-correction based Granger causality models. (author)

  2. Technological, Economic, and Environmental Optimization of Aluminum Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin

    2013-08-01

    The four strategic directions (referring to the entire life cycle of aluminum) are as follows: production, primary use, recycling, and reuse. Thus, in this work, the following are analyzed and optimized: reducing greenhouse gas emissions from aluminum production, increasing energy efficiency in aluminum production, maximizing used-product collection, recycling, and reusing. According to the energetic balance at the gaseous environment level, the conductive transfer model is also analyzed through the finished elements method. Several principles of modeling and optimization are presented and analyzed: the principle of analogy, the principle of concepts, and the principle of hierarchization. Based on these principles, an original diagram model is designed together with the corresponding logic diagram. This article also presents and analyzes the main benefits of aluminum recycling and reuse. Recycling and reuse of aluminum have the main advantage that it requires only about 5% of energy consumed to produce it from bauxite. The aluminum recycling and production process causes the emission of pollutants such as dioxides and furans, hydrogen chloride, and particulate matter. To control these emissions, aluminum recyclers are required to comply with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production. The results of technological, economic, and ecological optimization of aluminum recycling are based on the criteria function's evaluation in the modeling system.

  3. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  4. Challenges in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: An Evaluation of 18 Years of Swiss Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bonvin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanSwitzerland’s State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO has been working in the energy sectors of Eastern Europe and Central Asia since 1992, financing 41 projects to the value of CHF 316 million. In 2009 an independent evaluation was commissioned to assess the effects of these projects in the region and to draw lessons for future project funding. The evaluation found the projects to be highly satisfactory in terms of relevance, satisfactory in terms of effectiveness and sustainability, and — because of external factors relating to governance, transparency and political stability in a country — generally unsatisfactory in terms of efficiency.Lessons drawn from the successful projects will be used to further improve them in the future. With limited financial resources governments are attempting to find a balance between energy security and environmental sustainability. SECO will support this mission by helping to reduce inefficient consumption, to increase the share of renewable energy, to strengthen the sustainability of utility companies and to develop effective energy policies.

  5. The constraints to the economic development in the former socialist EU countries from the Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last 25 years, most Central and Eastern European states have become detached from the centralized economy system thus demonstrating the reliability of the market economy. The unequivocal effect of the free market, with ups and downs, forces researchers to undertake increasingly complex economic analysis and further the profile of the new economy. With the accession of a number of countries from this region to the European Union there were some constraints and limitations in adopting the European acquis, whose knowledge and solution involves the use of specific policies and tools. We consider the problems related to the resolution of economic, social and technological discrepancies and gaps, of mitigating the negative impact of unfavourable demographic trends, of elucidating the role of the state amid the erosion of its duties due to the process of integration and globalization, of increasing pressure interdependencies interstate and others.

  6. West Europe Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This document contains articles about Western Europe. Some topics discussed are socialism, political parties, international relations, foreign policy, sociology, consumerism, economics, military operations, commerce, industries, energy, trade, private...

  7. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring...

  8. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2006: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2010-01-01

    In this 10th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report, the results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2006 are presented. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers....

  9. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2006: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2010-01-01

    In this 10th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report, the results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2006 are presented. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers.......In this 10th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report, the results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2006 are presented. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers....

  10. Techno-economical analysis of innovative technologies in electrical power systems. A feasibility study for a Russian distribution system operator; Wirtschaftlicher Einsatz von innovativen Technologien in Energieversorgungsnetzen. Machbarkeitsstudie am Beispiel eines russischen Verteilungsnetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Holger [Siemens-Division Energy Management, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Transmission Solutions; Ettinger, Andreas [Siemens-Division Energy Management, Erlangen (Germany). Power Technologies International (PTI); Nikitina, Elena [Siemens-Division Energy Management, Moskau (Russian Federation). Power Technologies International (PTI); Makarov, Andrej [JSC Bashkir Power Grid Company, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Since the liberalization of the energy market in Europe transmission and distribution system operators have been facing fundamentally new challenges when ensuring a safe and reliable power supply. In addition to purely technical criteria economical aspects have become increasingly important in the strategic planning and operation of power systems. As described in this contribution, the results of a feasibility study demonstrate how the use of innovative technologies can make a valuable contribution to improve the economical situation.

  11. Biomass torrefaction technology: Techno-economic status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batidzirai, B.; Mignot, A.P.R.; Schakel, W.B.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising bioenergy pre-treatment technology, with potential to make a major contribution to the commodification of biomass. However, there is limited scientific knowledge on the techno-economic performance of torrefaction. This study therefore improves available knowledge on torrefaction by providing detailed insights into state of the art prospects of the commercial utilisation of torrefaction technology over time. Focussing on and based on the current status of the compact moving bed reactor, we identify process performance characteristics such as thermal efficiency and mass yield and discuss their determining factors through analysis of mass and energy balances. This study has shown that woody biomass can be torrefied with a thermal and mass efficiency of 94% and 48% respectively (on a dry ash free basis). For straw, the corresponding theoretical energetic efficiency is 96% and mass efficiency is 65%. In the long term, the technical performance of torrefaction processes is expected to improve and energy efficiencies are expected to be at least 97% as optimal torgas use and efficient heat transfer are realised. Short term production costs for woody biomass TOPs (torrefied pellets) are estimated to be between 3.3 and 4.8 US$/GJ LHV , falling to 2.1–5.1 US$/GJ LHV in the long term. At such cost levels, torrefied pellets would become competitive with traditional pellets. For full commercialisation, torrefaction reactors still require to be optimised. Of importance to torrefaction system performance is the achievement of consistent and homogeneous, fully hydrophobic and stable product, capable of utilising different feedstocks, at desired end-use energy densities. - Highlights: • Woody biomass torrefaction thermal efficiency is 94% and mass efficiency is 48% on a daf basis. • Straw theoretical torrefaction energetic efficiency is 96% and mass efficiency is 65%. • Current woody TOPs production costs are between 3.3 and 4.8 US$/GJ LHV , 50

  12. Technology in the Aid of Delivering Economic Content to Teachers: Virtual Economics v. 3

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Swinton; Benjamin Scafidi

    2012-01-01

    We examine the impact on student achievement of a face-to-face teacher workshop that also provides economics instructors with access to an electronic library of instructional and reference material for their economics classroom—Virtual Economics v. 3 (VE3), offered by the Council for Economic Education. Based on evidence using student and teacher-level administrative data from the Georgia Department of Education and controlling for students’ prior achievement in mathematics, we find evidence ...

  13. Fuel reprocessing experience in India: Technological and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.N.; Kumar, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach to the reprocessing of irradiated fuel from power reactors in India is conditioned by the non-availability of highly enriched uranium with the consequent need for plutonium for the fast-reactor programme. With this in view, the fuel reprocessing programme in India is developing in stages matching the nuclear power programme. The first plant was set up in Trombay to reprocess the metallic uranium fuel from the research reactor CIRUS. The experience gained in the construction and operation of this plant, and in its subsequent decommissioning and reconstruction, has not only provided the know-how for the design of subsequent plants but has indicated the fruitful areas of research and development for efficient utilization of limited resources. The Trombay plant also handled successfully, on a pilot scale, the reprocessing of irradiated thorium fuel to separate uranium-233. The second plant at Tarapur has been built for reprocessing spent fuels from the power reactors at Tarapur (BWR) and Rajasthan (PHWR). The third plant, at present under design, will reprocess the spent fuels from the power reactors (PHWR) and the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) located at Kalpakkam. Through the above approach experience has been acquired which will be useful in the design and construction of even larger plants which will become necessary in the future as the nuclear power programme grows. The strategies considered for the sizing and siting of reprocessing plants extend from the idea of small plants, located at nuclear power station sites, to a large-size central plant, located at an independent site, serving many stations. The paper discusses briefly the experience in reprocessing uranium and thorium fuels and also in decommissioning. An attempt is made to outline the technological and economic aspects which are relevant under different circumstances and which influence the size and siting of the fuel reprocessing plants and the expected lead times for construction

  14. The invisible college of the economics of innovation and technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, B.; Werker, C.

    2003-01-01

    The research area of the economics of innovation and technological change (EITC) has flourished over the past decades. While it was a relatively marginal field of economics in the 1950s and 1960s, the field has now grown to become a major part of economic analysis. Because many of the early scholars

  15. Enhancing Economic Stability Utilizing the High Technologies in Community Colleges: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Barbara H.; Kurki, Allan W.

    Strategies to enhance the economic stability of community colleges through high technology approaches are discussed in this paper. First, general economic problems facing higher education are identified, and the ways in which they influence community colleges are described. Next, 10 strategies to aid in the economic recovery of community colleges…

  16. On-Going Nuclear Physics and Technology Research Programmes in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Innovative nuclear technology applications have emerged in recent years and triggered an unprecedented interest of different communities of scientists worldwide, concerned by the multidisciplinary scientific, technical and engineering aspects of such applications. ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems, for the transmutation of highly radiotoxic nuclear waste), EA (Energy Amplifiers, for the production of energy), Spallation Neutron Sources (for multiple applications such as in Bio-Sciences, Medicine, Material Science), Radioactive Ion Beams (of relevance for fundamental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, for applications in Medicine, amongst many others) are examples of applications that address a set of common multidisciplinary, leading edge and cross-cutting issues and research topics. Other applications being considered for High-Energy Physics purposes consist on facilities aiming at producing intense neutrino beams.The sustainability of nuclear energy as an economically competitive, environmentally friend and proliferation resistant technology to meet mankind's growing energy demand has imposed in recent years the consideration of new (Generation IV) or non-conventional types of nuclear reactors, operating with non-standard coolants, higher-energy neutron spectra, higher temperatures, amongst other issues. The safety and operational aspects of these nuclear energy systems share with the nuclear technology applications previously referred (ADS, EA, SNS, etc.) a set of common scientific and technical issues.In this paper, the scientific, technical and engineering topics and issues of relevance for the implementation and deployment of some of the systems previously described are briefly presented. A set of selected major on-going R and D programmes and experiments involving international collaborations of scientists and consortia of institutions are succinctly described

  17. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  18. Applying the AHP in Health Economic Evaluations of New Technology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J. Marjan; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2011-01-01

    Much research in health care is devoted to health economical modelling. Even though the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is increasingly being applied in health care, its value to health economical modelling is still unrecognized. We explored the value of using AHP-derived results in a health

  19. Effectiveness and economic assessment of routine larviciding for prevention of chikungunya and dengue in temperate urban settings in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetta, Giorgio; Trentini, Filippo; Poletti, Piero; Baldacchino, Frederic Alexandre; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto; Merler, Stefano; Melegaro, Alessia

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, several European countries where arboviral infections are not endemic have faced outbreaks of diseases such as chikungunya and dengue, initially introduced by infectious travellers from tropical endemic areas and then spread locally via mosquito bites. To keep in check the epidemiological risk, interventions targeted to control vector abundance can be implemented by local authorities. We assessed the epidemiological effectiveness and economic costs and benefits of routine larviciding in European towns with temperate climate, using a mathematical model of Aedes albopictus populations and viral transmission, calibrated on entomological surveillance data collected from ten municipalities in Northern Italy during 2014 and 2015.We found that routine larviciding of public catch basins can limit both the risk of autochthonous transmission and the size of potential epidemics. Ideal larvicide interventions should be timed in such a way to cover the month of July. Optimally timed larviciding can reduce locally transmitted cases of chikungunya by 20% - 33% for a single application (dengue: 18-22%) and up to 43% - 65% if treatment is repeated four times throughout the season (dengue: 31-51%). In larger municipalities (>35,000 inhabitants), the cost of comprehensive larviciding over the whole urban area overcomes potential health benefits related to preventing cases of disease, suggesting the adoption of more localized interventions. Small/medium sized towns with high mosquito abundance will likely have a positive cost-benefit balance. Involvement of private citizens in routine larviciding activities further reduces transmission risks but with disproportionate costs of intervention. International travels and the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases are increasing worldwide, exposing a growing number of European citizens to higher risks of potential outbreaks. Results from this study may support the planning and timing of interventions aimed to reduce the

  20. Economic and humanistic burden of illness in generalized anxiety disorder: an analysis of patient survey data in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghanian, Samira; Dibonaventura, Marco; Järbrink, Krister; Locklear, Julie C

    2014-01-01

    Whilst studies suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) represents a considerable health care burden in Europe, there is a paucity of published evidence. This study investigated the burden of illness associated with GAD across five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK). Information from the 2008 European National Health and Wellness Survey database was analyzed. Bivariate, multivariate, and cost analyses were used to compare patients with GAD and propensity-matched controls. Compared with non-GAD controls, patients with GAD had more comorbidities and were more likely to smoke but less likely to be employed, use alcohol, or take exercise. They also had significantly worse health-related quality of life, and significantly greater work impairment and resource use, which increased as GAD severity increased. Within-country analyses demonstrated results similar to those for the five European countries overall, with the largest differences in resource use between patients with GAD and non-GAD controls documented in France and Germany. The average mean differences in direct costs were relatively small between the GAD groups and controls; however, indirect costs differed substantially. Costs were particularly high in Germany, mainly due to higher salaries leading to higher costs associated with absence from work. The limitation of this study was that the data were from a self-reported Internet survey, making them subject to reporting bias and possibly sample bias. Across all five European countries, GAD had a significant impact on work impairment, resource use, and economic costs, representing a considerable individual and financial burden that increased with severity of disease. These data may help us to understand better the burden and costs associated with GAD.

  1. Social/economic costs and health-related quality of life in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, Marianna; Kodra, Yllka; Armeni, Patrizio; De Santis, Marta; López-Bastida, Julio; Linertová, Renata; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro; Posada-de-la-Paz, Manuel; Taruscio, Domenica; Schieppati, Arrigo; Iskrov, Georgi; Péntek, Márta; von der Schulenburg, Johann Matthias Graf; Kanavos, Panos; Chevreul, Karine; Persson, Ulf; Fattore, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the economic burden from a societal perspective and the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in Europe. We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with DMD from Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. Data on demographic characteristics, healthcare resource utilization, informal care, labor productivity losses, and HRQOL were collected from the questionnaires completed by patients or their caregivers. HRQOL was measured with the EuroQol 5-domain (EQ-5D) questionnaire. Costs have been estimated from a societal perspective adopting a bottom-up approach. A total of 422 questionnaires were included in the study; 268 of which were collected from patients with DMD and 154 from caregivers. The average annual cost per person in 2012 ranged from €7657 in Hungary to €58,704 in France. Direct non-healthcare costs are the main component of whole costs and informal care is the main driver of non-healthcare costs. Costs are also shown to differ between children and adults. With regard to HRQOL of adult patients, the EQ-5D VAS score and EQ-5D index scores were 50.5 and 0.24, respectively. The corresponding EQ-5D VAS and EQ-5D index scores for caregivers were 74.7 and 0.71, respectively. We have estimated the average annual cost per patient with DMD in eight European countries adopting a social perspective, and to our knowledge this is the first study with such a wide perspective. The results on costs show a considerable gap between Eastern and Western European countries. Non-healthcare costs range from 64 to 89 % of overall costs and informal care is to a great extent the main driver of this cost category. The HRQOL of people with DMD is much lower than that of the general population.

  2. Clinical and economic burden of Clostridium difficile infection in Europe: a systematic review of healthcare-facility-acquired infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, P N; Nathwani, D; Wilcox, M H; Stephens, J; Shelbaya, A; Haider, S

    2012-05-01

    PubMed, EMBASE and conference abstracts were reviewed systematically to determine the clinical and economic burden associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) acquired and treated in European healthcare facilities. Inclusion criteria were: published in the English language between 2000 and 2010, and study population of at least 20 patients with documented CDI acquired/treated in European healthcare facilities. Data collection was completed by three unblinded reviewers using the Cochrane Handbook and PRISMA statement. The primary outcomes were mortality, recurrence, length of hospital stay (LOS) and cost related to CDI. In total, 1138 primary articles and conference abstracts were identified, and this was narrowed to 39 and 30 studies, respectively. Data were available from 14 countries, with 47% of studies from UK institutions. CDI mortality at 30 days ranged from 2% (France) to 42% (UK). Mortality rates more than doubled from 1999 to 2004, and continued to rise until 2007 when reductions were noted in the UK. Recurrent CDI varied from 1% (France) to 36% (Ireland); however, recurrence definitions varied between studies. Median LOS ranged from eight days (Belgium) to 27 days (UK). The incremental cost of CDI was £4577 in Ireland and £8843 in Germany, after standardization to 2010 prices. Country-specific estimates, weighted by sample size, ranged from 2.8% to 29.8% for 30-day mortality and from 16 to 37 days for LOS. CDI burden in Europe was most commonly described using 30-day mortality, recurrence, LOS and cost data. The continued spread of CDI and resultant healthcare burden underscores the need for judicious use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Socio-economic evaluation of selected biogas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, F.; Martinsen, L.

    2013-05-15

    Financial and welfare economic analyses are conducted of 15 different biogas production scenarios that vary in terms of plant size and type of input. All considered scenarios lead to welfare economic losses. Overall welfare economic GHG reduction costs seem to increase with increasing crop/crop material share of input, and although the costs vary significantly across scenarios they are quite high for all scenarios. The financial analyses suggest that biogas production generally will be financially profitable for the agricultural sector and local CHP facilities but unprofitable for the biogas plants and the State. Seen from a policy perspective the results highlights the importance of designing regulatory instruments in a way that create incentives for private actors to engage in welfare economically desirable biogas production activities while discouraging the expansion of welfare economically undesirable activities. (Author)

  4. Prospects for reconciling the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation with technological progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Brian

    2008-12-01

    The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is understood in portions of academia and sometimes acknowledged in political circles. Nevertheless, there is not a unified response. In political and policy circles, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is posited to solve the conflict between economic growth and environmental protection. In academia, however, the EKC has been deemed fallacious in macroeconomic scenarios and largely irrelevant to biodiversity. A more compelling response to the conflict is that it may be resolved with technological progress. Herein I review the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation in the absence of technological progress, explore the prospects for technological progress to reconcile that conflict, and provide linguistic suggestions for describing the relationships among economic growth, technological progress, and biodiversity conservation. The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics and principles of ecology such as trophic levels and competitive exclusion. In this biophysical context, the human economy grows at the competitive exclusion of nonhuman species in the aggregate. Reconciling the conflict via technological progress has not occurred and is infeasible because of the tight linkage between technological progress and economic growth at current levels of technology. Surplus production in existing economic sectors is required for conducting the research and development necessary for bringing new technologies to market. Technological regimes also reflect macroeconomic goals, and if the goal is economic growth, reconciliatory technologies are less likely to be developed. As the economy grows, the loss of biodiversity may be partly mitigated with end-use innovation that increases technical efficiency, but this type of technological progress requires policies that are unlikely if the conflict between economic growth

  5. Technology in the Aid of Delivering Economic Content to Teachers: Virtual Economics v. 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Swinton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact on student achievement of a face-to-face teacher workshop that also provides economics instructors with access to an electronic library of instructional and reference material for their economics classroom—Virtual Economics v. 3 (VE3, offered by the Council for Economic Education. Based on evidence using student and teacher-level administrative data from the Georgia Department of Education and controlling for students’ prior achievement in mathematics, we find evidence that the VE3 workshop experience increases student achievement in high school economics. Our difference-in-differences estimates suggest that teacher participation in the VE3 workshop increases student achievement by 0.061 standard deviations on Georgia’s high stakes economics end-of-course test. Future research should seek estimating the effect of treatments in education such as the VE3 workshop using randomized controlled trials (RCT.

  6. Smart Energy Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B. V.

    2016-01-01

    is presented in terms of energy (primary energy supply), environment (carbon dioxide emissions), and economy (total annual socio-economic cost). The steps are ordered in terms of their scientific and political certainty as follows: Decommissioning nuclear power, implementing a large amount of heat savings......This study presents one scenario for a 100% renewable energy system in Europe by the year 2050. The transition from a business-as-usual situation in 2050, to a 100% renewable energy Europe is analysed in a series of steps. Each step reflects one major technological change. For each step, the impact......, converting the private car fleet to electricity, providing heat in rural areas with heat pumps, providing heat in urban areas with district heating, converting fuel in heavy-duty vehicles to a renewable electrofuel, and replacing natural gas with methane. The results indicate that by using the Smart Energy...

  7. Techno-economic analysis of resource recovery technologies for wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Matafome, Beatriz; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina

    2017-01-01

    resource-recovery treatment units: (a) a chemical precipitation process, for recovery of iron phosphate fertilizer; (b) the Exelys technology, for increased biogas production; and, (c) the Phosnix technology, for recovery of struvite fertilizer. Seven upgrade strategies/flowsheets employing different...... upgrading combinations involving chemical precipitation and Exelys technologies were not found economical for the given plant. Sensitivity analyses on the economic evaluation criteria have demonstrated that the results obtained are robust against uncertainties in influent wastewater characteristics...

  8. Towards better monitoring of technology critical elements in Europe: Coupling of natural and anthropogenic cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Blengini, Gian Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The characterization of elemental cycles has a rich history in biogeochemistry. Well known examples include the global carbon cycle, or the cycles of the 'grand nutrients' nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More recently, efforts have increased to better understand the natural cycling of technology critical elements (TCEs), i.e. elements with a high supply risk and economic importance in the EU. On the other hand, tools such as material-flow analysis (MFA) can help to understand how substances and goods are transported and accumulated in man-made technological systems ('anthroposphere'). However, to date both biogeochemical cycles and MFA studies suffer from narrow system boundaries, failing to fully illustrate relative anthropogenic and natural flow magnitude and the degree to which human activity has perturbed the natural cycling of elements. We discuss important interconnections between natural and anthropogenic cycles and relevant EU raw material dossiers. Increased integration of both cycles could help to better capture the transport and fate of elements in nature including their environmental/human health impacts, highlight potential future material stocks in the anthroposphere (in-use stocks) and in nature (e.g., in soils, tailings, or mining wastes), and estimate anticipated emissions of TCEs to nature in the future (based on dynamic stock modeling). A preliminary assessment of natural versus anthropogenic element fluxes indicates that anthropogenic fluxes induced by the EU-28 of palladium, platinum, and antimony (as a result of materials uses) might be greater than the respective global natural fluxes. Increased combination of MFA and natural cycle data at EU level could help to derive more complete material cycles and initiate a discussion between the research communities of biogeochemists and material flow analysts to more holistically address the issues of sustainable resource management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvander, Bertil; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century, agriculture in Europe has undergone profound technological change, associated with and to an extent supporting the long post-war economic boom. This process has not gone unchallenged, however; some resistance to the process has come from a growing perception of environmental (and to an extent social) degradation, and some farms and businesses, particularly in Less Favoured Areas, have been simply unable to keep up. For both groups, organic farming has m...

  10. Economic modeling and energy policy planning. [technology transfer, market research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. G.; Schwartz, A., Jr.; Lievano, R. J.; Stone, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A structural economic model is presented for estimating the demand functions for natural gas and crude oil in industry and in steam electric power generation. Extensions of the model to other commodities are indicated.

  11. Technical and energy economic boundary conditions for a CCS based power generation structure in Europe; Technische und energiewirtschaftliche Rahmenbedingungen fuer eine CCS-basierte Erzeugungsstruktur in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Tom; Blesl, Markus [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung

    2008-07-01

    The development of the power generation in Europe substantially is characterized by the process of liberalisation and the endeavours to climate protection. The ensuring of future supply security increasingly becomes more important. In order to achieve the climatic protection goal a multiplicity of technical options in the competitively organized market is available. In order to be competitive in such a market, certain requirements have to be expected to future power plants with CCS technology (CCS = carbon Capture and storage). By means of a European energy system model the question is to answered in the contribution under consideration which requirements to the CS technology have to be expected to the CCS technology.

  12. Sustainable growth in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreini, P.

    1993-01-01

    The measures till now adopted did not stop environmental deterioration in Europe and the growth of economic activities in the future will make the situation more and more heavy. The European Communities (EEC) Cabinet launched a long term program for a sustainable growth in Europe, which could conciliate economic needs with environmental protection. This paper presents the first part of the program

  13. The new Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities for business growth in an area of changing social, economic and political climate. The topics include existing political and economic ties, how these ties are evolving, comparisons between east and west, pollution and environmental issues, battery markets in eastern Europe, motive power, standby power, the transition of eastern europe to a market economy, and opportunities for the west

  14. Technology Optimism in a Socio-Economic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1996-01-01

    Abstract It is widely acknowledged that a great effort is necessary to cope with environmental problems. Focus is often upon technological change as the main way to achieve sustainability. But is it reasonable to place so much faith in technological change? The main dividing line between the opti......Abstract It is widely acknowledged that a great effort is necessary to cope with environmental problems. Focus is often upon technological change as the main way to achieve sustainability. But is it reasonable to place so much faith in technological change? The main dividing line between...... the optimistic and the critical view relates to the importance of distributional issues. First, an over-narrow focus upon technology diverts attention from the need to deal with distributional issues as an integral part of coping with environmental problems. Second, the technology optimists underestimate...... the need for changes in fundamental mechanisms, power structures and basic ideas as preconditions for influencing the direction of technological change. The paper deals with the state interventionist version of technology optimism, where it is emphasized that active industrial and technology policies...

  15. Socio-Economic Impacts of Rain Water Harvesting Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technologies in Rwanda: A case study of Nyaruguru ... ownership and maintenance of established RWH technologies. ... production towards food security. .... The overall average family size for the households ..... respondents are aware of these techniques but few implement them- only 1 .... Water productivity in Rain-.

  16. Economic evaluation of three on-station fish farming technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the technolo-gies were considered to be socially desirable that could ensure efficiency in use of resources, screening on-station was germane in technology transfer. Undiscounted profit, rate of return, return on annual operation cost, benefit-cost ratio, return to management, and land were adopted as indicators for ...

  17. Economic opportunities resulting from a global deployment of concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies-The example of German technology providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Daniel; Viebahn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Several energy scenario studies consider concentrated solar power (CSP) plants as an important technology option to reduce the world's CO 2 emissions to a level required for not letting the global average temperature exceed a threshold of 2-2.4 o C. A global ramp up of CSP technologies offers great economic opportunities for technology providers as CSP technologies include highly specialised components. This paper analyses possible value creation effects resulting from a global deployment of CSP until 2050 as projected in scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and Greenpeace International. The analysis focuses on the economic opportunities of German technology providers since companies such as Schott Solar, Flabeg or Solar Millennium are among the leading suppliers of CSP technologies on the global market.

  18. NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Roya

    2013-04-01

    NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe (Roya Ayazi, Secretary General NEREUS nereus.bruxelles@euroinbox.com) NEREUS currently unites 25 European regions and 39 Associate Members with the common objective to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe for the benefit of regions and their citizens. As voice of European Regions, NEREUS serves as an advocate for the regions in matters of space uses and also as a direct channel to the regional users of space technologies (such as local authorities, SMEs, universities and research institutes and citizens). EO/GMES, Global Satellite Navigation and Telecommunication are identified by the NEREUS Political Charta as core areas of cooperation. NEREUS holds the view that broad societal awareness and involvement is vital to fully exploit Euope's space systems. Understanding the potentials of Copernicus and EGNOS/Galileo is in the first place an essential step for the development of the downstream sector. Therefore NEREUS makes special efforts to contribute with numerous network activities to communicate and promote the added value of space uses for public policies but also as valuable new business opportunities. In economic terms space uses are suited to stimulate economic growth and innovation dynamics at regional level. The network community produced several illustrative communication tools (publications, video, web-based tools, mobile NEREUS-exhibition) portraying examples how regions already use space systems and the concrete benefits for the citizens. Most of the NEREUS-publications and video are online: www.nereus-regions.eu. Pooling a considerable wealth of capabilities and expertise, the network offers its members a dynamic platform to collaborate and share experiences and knowledge inter regionally. But these tools were not only the outcome of an intensive regional collaboration but

  19. JPRS Report, Science and Technology: Europe Twenty-Fourth ISATA International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-05

    Consultancy, UK and F Op de Beek, Philips, The Netherlands ISSUES IN IMPLEMENTING IVHS PROGRAMS "IVHS: A Public/Private Sector " Partnership "" J R...Traffic and Driving and Y Ishii, Oki Electric Industry, Japan " Mazda Car Communication System" Mazda Car Corporation, FRG IMPROVING TRAFFIC FLOW...Universität Politecnica de Catalunya, Spain in addition, it is expected that Ford of Europe and Daimler Benz will join the project during 1991. Th? P£mo

  20. Economic analysis of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall shortage and variability constrain crop production of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and climate change may even aggravate this problem. An attractive method to mitigate this is water harvesting. This thesis examines the economic aspects of water harvesting by exploring optimal water

  1. Gender Disparity in Third World Technological, Social, and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akubue, Anthony I.

    2001-01-01

    Socialization of women in developing countries inhibits their education and employment in scientific and technical fields. This mindset perpetuates poverty and limits economic and social development. Solutions include elimination of gender bias, information dissemination, replication of successful development projects, use of role models, and…

  2. Commercialization of University Research for Technology-Based Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, W. Ker

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the hypothesized relationship between US federally funded university research and development (R&D) and its resulting economic impact, as measured by the level of licensing revenue generated by US universities. The author also examines the key operating statistics of the top-ten licensing income-producing…

  3. State of the Art of HVAC Technology in Europe and America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2015-01-01

    of energy sources and energy generators are very much similar. This paper will present state-of the art-off energy efficient systems that will provide a good indoor environmental quality at a decreased energy use. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling systems are an important requirement...... mechanisms and media to emit and remove heat or moisture from indoor spaces (e.g. hydronic radiant heating and cooling systems, fan-coil units, and active beams). The main differences between HVAC systems in Europe, North America and other parts of the world are often the indoor terminal units. Type...... for increasing the energy efficiency of HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) systems and for increasing the amount of renewable energy used. Especially these types of systems are getting increasing attention in Europe and North-America. In the present study, operation characteristics, possibilities...

  4. Economic reassessment of energy technologies with risk-management techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Markus; Unger, Hermann

    1999-01-01

    A new approach for the reassessment of modern energy technologies is discussed. This mainly addresses renewable-energy systems, like photovoltaics or wind converters. A new number called the 'Marginal Energy Risk Price (MERP) for Hedging' is introduced. (Author)

  5. Europe: A Summary [Status and technology of polymer-containing fibrous materials in the Western Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmester, A. [Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung, Berlin-Dahlem, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1968-10-15

    In a concise survey of the research work conducted on polymer wood in Europe, the effects of gamma rays on the properties of wood and wood- base materials are discussed. Subsequently, the most important results of investigations into the improvement of wood with the monomers methylacrylate, methylmethacrylate, acrylonitrile, diisocyanate, formaldehyde, styrene, vinylacetate, vinylpropionate, polyethylene glycol and pulp sulphite liquor are reported. The extent of industrial manufacture and applications is mentioned.

  6. Historical Perspective of the Role of Technology in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Šimurina, Jurica; Tica, Josip

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to investigate technology changes and influence on economies since the First Industrial Revolution. The First Industrial Revolution was the first point in time when both increase of GDP per capita and population occurred at the same time (avoiding the Malthusian trap). Thus the selected point in time. Furthermore, developments of the late 18th and 19th centuries have some common properties with development of new technologies today. Even though the process of techno...

  7. Economic Literacy Indicators at the Department of Computer Education & Instructional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi GEREK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Developments in technology and communication in the 21st century have led to increased expectations from individuals. One of these expectation areas is literacy. As a requirement of the information age, it can be said that the economic literacy is one of the most important areas of literacy. Economic literacy can be defined in terms of ability to revise the alternatives for interpreting economic problems and finding solutions to these problems, to define the cost and profits, to investigate the effects of changes in economic conditions and in public policies, to gather and organize economy-related data and to balance the profits and costs. One of the tools that affect the life can be said economic literacy but it is a neglected area in most higher education programs. In this study, Computer Education and Instructional Technology program courses were examined within the framework of economic literacy indicators

  8. Recirculating aquaculture production systems : an overview of different components, management, economics and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kals, J.

    2004-01-01

    Report of a literature study on Recirculating aquaculture production systems executed within the MRG ercirculation program. The report gives an overview of different components, management, economics and technology and is made by the Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (RIVO).

  9. Impacts of nuclear and hydroelectric great projects: economical, technological, environmental and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Sigaud, L.; Mielnik, O.

    1988-01-01

    Some studies about the Great Impacts of Energy Sources, mainly nuclear power plant and hydroelectric power plant, in Brazil are presented. The technological, economical, social and environmental aspects are described [pt

  10. Energetic and economic evaluations on hydrogen storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arca, S.; Di Profio, P.; Germani, R. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy). Centro di Eccellenza Materiali Innovativi Nanostrutturati, Dip. Chimica; Savelli, G.; Cotana, F.; Rossi, F.; Amantini, M. [Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Sezione di Fisica Tecnica

    2008-07-01

    With the development of the hydrogen economy and fuel cell vehicles, a major technological issue has emerged regarding the storage and delivery of large amounts of hydrogen. Several hydrogen storage methodologies are available while other technologies are being developed aside from the classical compression and liquefaction of hydrogen. A novel technology is also in rapid process, which is based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen. The features and performances of available storage systems were evaluated in an effort to determine the best technology throughout the hydrogen chain. For each of the storage solutions presented, the key parameters were compared. These key parameters included interaction energy between hydrogen and support; real and practical storage capacity; and specific energy consumption. The paper presented the study methods and discussed hydrogen storage technologies using compressed hydrogen; metal hydrides; liquefied hydrogen; carbon nanotubes; ammonia; and gas hydrates. Carbon dioxide emissions were also evaluated for each storage system analyzed. The paper also presented the worst scenario. It was concluded that a technology based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen, while being far from optimized, was highly competitive with the classical approaches. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Potential vehicle fleet CO2 reductions and cost implications for various vehicle technology deployment scenarios in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaoglu, Guzay; Honselaar, Michel; Thiel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The continuous rise in demand for road transportation has a significant effect on Europe's oil dependency and emissions of greenhouse gases. Alternative fuels and vehicle technology can mitigate these effects. This study analyses power-train deployment scenarios for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in EU-27 until 2050. It considers European policy developments on vehicle CO 2 emissions, bio-energy mandates and reductions in the CO 2 footprint of the European energy mix and translates these into comprehensive scenarios for the road transport sector. It quantifies and assesses the potential impact of these scenarios on well-to-wheel (WtW) CO 2 emission reductions primary energy demand evolution, and cost aspects for the prospective vehicle owners. The study reveals that, under the deployed scenarios, the use of bio-fuel blends, technological learning and the deployment of hybrids, battery electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell vehicles can decrease WtW CO 2 emissions in EU-27 passenger road transport by 35–57% (compared to 2010 levels) and primary energy demand by 29–51 Mtoe as they would benefit from a future assumed decarbonised electricity and hydrogen mix in Europe. Learning effects can lead to acceptable payback periods for vehicle owners of electric drive vehicles. - Highlights: ► Power-train penetration scenarios for 2010–2050 passenger road transport in Europe. ► A dedicated tool is developed to analyse H 2 production and distribution mix till 2050. ► Alternative vehicles can drastically reduce CO 2 emissions and energy demand. ► Electric vehicles could become cost competitive to conventional vehicles by 2030. ► Policies needed to create adequate momentum and guarantee decarbonised transport.

  12. Economic and technical assay of the application of radionuclide technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, F.G.

    1976-05-01

    The dynamically loaded components of combustion engines undergo wear during operation as a function of the operating points and the operating parameters selected. Radionuclide measurement methods developed in the Federal Republic of Germany in the LIT laboratory of Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung allow to determine the wear of machine components during operation, contrary to conventional length measurement techniques. In the first part of this work the existing wear problems will be analyzed and investigations will be made into the capacities of conventional and radionuclide measurement methods. Based on this, a cost-benefit analysis system was developed for evaluation under technical and economical aspects of the use of different measurement methods allowing to solve detailed wear problems. This system furnishes results on the respective optimum wear measurement method relating to the actual problem and taking into account the relevant technical and economical boundary conditions. (orig.) [de

  13. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  14. A New Direction for Technology-Based Economic Development: The Role of Innovation Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendis, Richard A.; Seline, Richard S.; Byler, Ethan J.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerating innovation to drive economic growth is the foremost goal for technology-based economic development organizations today. Realizing this goal through programmes is challenged by limited and outdated operating models. The authors outline their 21st Century Innovation Intermediary model, which pairs commercialization with regional…

  15. Innovation, entrepreneurship and culture : the interaction between technology, progress and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, T.E.; Ulijn, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Any technological advance, innovation or economic growth created by an organization is dependent on how that organization’s culture and environment fosters or inhibits these developments. This process is further complicated by the global nature of economic activity and differences in national

  16. The Economics of Technology Sharing: Open Source and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Lerner; Jean Tirole

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews our understanding of the growing open source movement. We highlight how many aspects of open source software appear initially puzzling to an economist. As we have acknowledged, our ability to answer confidently many of the issues raised here questions is likely to increase as the open source movement itself grows and evolves. At the same time, it is heartening to us how much of open source activities can be understood within existing economic frameworks, despite the presenc...

  17. Technological Exports and the Dynamics of Ukraine’s Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cherkass

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the promotion of technological exports in the context of making products competitive on the world market at the expense of quantified but not qualified factors. The author describes the destructive consequences of primary export growth. Relying on a designed structural model, she analyzes factors pertaining to technological exports and industrial production, and also evaluates the effectiveness of promoting exports for economic growth. She demonstrates the negative effect of the devaluation of the hryvnia on industrial production growth and the currency’s neutrality as a factor in the promotion of technological exports. The article establishes that technological exports determine to a considerable extent the dynamics of Ukraine’s economic growth, while the exports of raw materials worsen these indicators. The author shows that the export of metal products stands in the way of increasing technological export, and offers her recommendations to improve the dynamics of economic growth.

  18. Technology commercialization: From generating ideas to creating economic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Dehghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent changes in competitors' status, technology, and customer interests make it unwise and impossible for companies to rely on their products. Customers always seek to find new products. Consequently, companies should continuously produce and offer superior products to meet customer needs, tastes, and expectations. In fact, every company needs a development plan for its new products. Research has demonstrated that one of the major reasons for rapid development of technology in industrial countries is commercialization of research results. The basis of such commercialization is research-industry collaboration in converting research output into innovation. Today, technology commercialization and its outcomes can provide financial resources required for organizational longevity. The main objective of this article is to propose a model for commercializing research findings from idea generation to initial market entry. We believe that this article can, hopefully, contribute to commercialization literature by acting as a guide to local authorities involved in commercialization cycle.

  19. The Economics of New Health Technologies Incentives, Organization, and Financing

    CERN Document Server

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Technological change in healthcare has led to huge improvements in health services and the health status of populations. It is also pinpointed as the main driver of healthcare expenditure. Although offering remarkable benefits, changes in technology are not free and often entail significant financial, as well as physical or social risks. These need to be balanced out in the setting of government regulations, insurance contracts, and individuals' decisions to use and consume certaintechnologies. With this in mind, this book addresses the following important objectives: to provide a detailed ana

  20. Transferability of economic evaluations of medical technologies: a new technology for orthopedic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Young, Terry; Buxton, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Transferring results of economic evaluations across countries or jurisdictions can potentially save scarce evaluation resources while helping to make market access and reimbursement decisions in a timely fashion. This article points out why transferring results of economic evaluations is

  1. The Effect of Information Technology on Economic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    The author evaluated the effect on student performance of using a new information technology (IT) enhancement that permits students to participate in the recording of lectures that can be downloaded later from the Internet. The author compared two sections of the same Intermediate Microeconomics class and observed the sample students to be…

  2. Energy. Economics - politics - technology. Energie. Wirtschaft - Politik - Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruppa, A; Mielenhausen, E; Kallweit, J H; Schlueter, H; Schenkel, J; Vohwinkel, F; Streckel, S; Brockmann, H W

    1978-01-01

    The themes of the various aspects of the energy sector collected in this volume and discussed by different authors are: Energy policy, energy demand-research and forecasts, energy supplies, new technologies for future energy supply, generation of electrical energy by nuclear power stations, effect on the environment of energy plants, legal problems of site planning, and the authorisation of energy plants.

  3. Techno-economic evaluation of broadband access technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    Broadband for all is an essential element in the EU policy concerning the future of ICT-based society. The overall purpose of this paper is to present a model for evaluation of different broadband access technologies and to present some preliminary results based on the model that has been carried...

  4. Energy demand analytics using coupled technological and economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impacts of a range of policy scenarios on end-use energy demand are examined using a coupling of MARKAL, an energy system model with extensive supply and end-use technological detail, with Inforum LIFT, a large-scale model of the us. economy with inter-industry, government, and c...

  5. Technology for America's economic growth : a new direction to build economic strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-22

    Investing in technology is investing in America's future: a growing economy with more high-skill, high-wage jobs for American workers; a cleaner environment where energy efficiency increases profits and reduces pollution; a stronger, more competitive...

  6. Economic feasibility of EBFGT technology for removal of pollutants from combustion of liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A. A.; Fageeha, O.I.; Kunnummal, N.; Al-Ghamdi, S.; Pawelec, A.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.

    2011-01-01

    A project on feasibility of electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology at oil fired boiler was conducted for Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco). As part of this project, economic feasibility of EBFGT technology was performed for heavy oil fired boilers in Saudi Arabia. Economic evaluation was performed for two options of EBFGT installation; the first for 65 000 Nm3/h and the second for 130 000 Nm 3 /h. The main factors affecting investment and operation costs were discussed and costs were compared to conventional methods. The results of the evaluation showed that EBFGT method is economically attractive. (author)

  7. Economic feasibility of EBFGT technology for removal of pollutants from combustion of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basfar, A. A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Institute, Radiation Technology Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Fageeha, O. I.; Kunnummal, N.; Al-Ghamdi, S. [Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco), Environmental Protection Department, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Pawelec, A.; Chmielewski, A. G.; Tyminski, B.; Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Licki, J. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Świerk (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    A project on feasibility of electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology at oil fired boiler was conducted for Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco). As part of this project, economic feasibility of EBFGT technology was performed for heavy oil fired boilers in Saudi Arabia. Economic evaluation was performed for two options of EBFGT installation; the first for 65 000 Nm3/h and the second for 130 000 Nm{sup 3}/h. The main factors affecting investment and operation costs were discussed and costs were compared to conventional methods. The results of the evaluation showed that EBFGT method is economically attractive. (author)

  8. Exploring the 'New Rural Paradigm' in Europe: eco-economic strategies as a counterforce to the global competitiveness agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Marsden, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    Rural regions in Europe are facing diverging pathways of development. On the one hand, the influence of urbanisation and the intensification and continued up-scaling of agriculture make it more difficult for many regions to remain distinctive and increase sustainability. Places, as well as goods and

  9. Socio-economic factors in the differential upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šumilo, D.; Bormane, A.; Asokliene, L.; Vasilenko, V.; Golovljova, I.; Avsic-Zupanc, T.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Randolph, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2008), s. 81-95 ISSN 1052-9276 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * Europe Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 7.130, year: 2008

  10. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Pérez, Inocente; Gutiérrez Benítez, Omar; Martínez Bermúdez, Guillermo; Padrón Padrón, Wilfredo; Águila Cabrera, Cira

    2015-01-01

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  11. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali

    2002-01-01

    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  12. Impact of Technology and Culture on Home Economics and Nutrition Science Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburime, M. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and report on the impact of technology and culture on home economics and nutrition science education in developing countries with a focus on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Globally and most especially in developing countries, the advent of information and communication technologies has meant…

  13. Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    Comparing the pace and extent of economic development across the developing regions yields that Arab countries have displaced a weak economic performance over the past 20 years, despite their favorable geo-strategic location and a high density of national and international structural adjustment...... efforts. Using cross-country regressions, this paper identifies two binding constraints to economic development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): 1) Most countries are not able to apply or adopt existing technologies efficiently and 2) The economically inefficient...

  14. Shale gas technology innovation rate impact on economic Base Case – Scenario model benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cash flow models control which technology is affordable in emerging shale gas plays. • Impact of technology innovation on IRR can be as important as wellhead price hikes. • Cash flow models are useful for technology decisions that make shale gas plays economic. • The economic gap can be closed by appropriate technology innovation. - Abstract: Low gas wellhead prices in North America have put its shale gas industry under high competitive pressure. Rapid technology innovation can help companies to improve the economic performance of shale gas fields. Cash flow models are paramount for setting effective production and technology innovation targets to achieve positive returns on investment in all global shale gas plays. Future cash flow of a well (or cluster of wells) may either improve further or deteriorate, depending on: (1) the regional volatility in gas prices at the wellhead – which must pay for the gas resource extraction, and (2) the cost and effectiveness of the well technology used. Gas price is an externality and cannot be controlled by individual companies, but well technology cost can be reduced while improving production output. We assume two plausible scenarios for well technology innovation and model the return on investment while checking against sensitivity to gas price volatility. It appears well technology innovation – if paced fast enough – can fully redeem the negative impact of gas price decline on shale well profits, and the required rates are quantified in our sensitivity analysis

  15. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean-Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Köhl, Jürgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François

    2017-01-01

    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such initiatives are often fragmented. The operational outputs of national efforts would benefit from closer collaboration among stakeholders via transnationally coordinated approaches, as most economically important pests are similar across Europe. This paper proposes a common European framework on biocontrol R&I. It identifies generic R&I bottlenecks and needs as well as priorities for three crop types (arable, vegetable and perennial crops). The existing gap between the market offers of biocontrol solutions and the demand of growers, the lengthy and expensive registration process for biocontrol solutions and their varying effectiveness due to variable climatic conditions and site-specific factors across Europe are key obstacles hindering the development and adoption of biocontrol solutions in Europe. Considering arable, vegetable and perennial crops, a dozen common target pests are identified for each type of crop and ranked by order of importance at European level. Such a ranked list indicates numerous topics on which future joint transnational efforts would be justified. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions, air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  17. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of low carbon energy technologies: Indian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Rahul; Kumar, Manish; Deswal, Surinder; Chandna, Pankaj

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, techno-economic and an environmental investigation and analysis of Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs) has been presented, with special emphasis on India. The paper identify, analyze and recommend, on the basis of available and collected / collated information and data, the promising and potential low carbon energy technology options suited to Indian conditions for grid connected power generation. The evaluation criteria adopted include - emission reduction potential, technological feasibility, and economic viability; and on its basis recommend a detailed action plan and strategy for guiding future research and development with a more focused approach considering current Indian policy framework.

  18. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors

  19. A GIS tool for the economic assessment of renewable technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmmud, F.; Woods, J.; Watson, S.; Halliday, J.; Hossain, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) has the potential to analyse a large area for the optimum selection and siting of renewable energy systems. This paper reports on a GIS based scheme for the economic assessment of a selected number of wind and photovoltaic systems in the state of Karnataka, in India. This involved the implementation of an appropriate GIS methodology. The preparation of the GIS database is often the most arduous task in GIS operations. Thus, a description of the GIS methodology and the preparation of the database for the analysis of a selection of wind and photovoltaic systems is given. This approach has enabled the identification of the high potential areas in terms of the levelised electricity costs. An overall assessment of the region for present and future scenarios is also given. (author)

  20. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable renewable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility and sufficient capacity, and greater concern for overgeneration from renewable sources not well matched in time with electric loads. Hydrogen systems have the potential to support the grid in each of these areas. However, limited information is available about the economic competitiveness of hydrogen system configurations. This paper quantifies the value for hydrogen energy storage and demand response systems to participate in select California wholesale electricity markets using 2012 data. For hydrogen systems and conventional storage systems (e.g., pumped hydro, batteries), the yearly revenues from energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets are compared to the yearly cost to establish economic competitiveness. Hydrogen systems can present a positive value proposition for current markets. Three main findings include: (1) For hydrogen systems participating in California electricity markets, producing and selling hydrogen was found to be much more valuable than producing and storing hydrogen to later produce electricity; therefore systems should focus on producing and selling hydrogen and opportunistically providing ancillary services and arbitrage. (2) Tighter integration with electricity markets generates greater revenues (i.e., systems that participate in multiple markets receive the highest revenue). (3) More storage capacity, in excess of what is required to provide diurnal shifting, does not increase competitiveness in current California wholesale energy markets. As more variable renewable generation is installed, the importance of long duration storage may become apparent in the energy price or through additional markets, but currently, there is not a sufficiently large price differential between days to generate enough revenue to offset the cost of additional storage. Future work will involve

  1. Technology and economics of fermentation alcohol - an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, R.K.

    1983-03-01

    Fermentation alcohol is being widely studied as an alternative fuel, and production is increasing, especially in Brazil, where the goal is more than 10 billion litres per year by 1985. Fuel markets are hundreds of times greater than the traditional ethanol markets which the existing industry supplies. To make a material contribution to fuel supply, fermentation ethanol must be treated as a major chemical and produced in large-volume, highly efficient plants. Such plants must be assured of a continuous supply of low-cost raw materials for which suitable processes have been developed and commercially proven. Sugar cane in the tropics and grains in some temperate countries meet these requirements; cellulosics do not qualify at present, nor will they in the foreseeable future, without major breakthroughs. Using techniques borrowed from the starch sweetener industry, starchy materials may be economically hydrolysed to fermentable sugars; rapid acid hydrolysis may prove superior to enzymatic processes. Major projects are under way to replace traditional batch or cascade fermentations with rapid, single-vessel continuous units, but these have not yet been fully proven. Where suitable, yeast recycle is being used as a means of increasing alcohol yields, and energy-efficient distillation methods of the petrochemical industry are being adopted. The consequent large reduction in steam consumption greatly reduces the appeal of other methods which have been proposed to remove water. Opportunities for process improvements abound, especially in developing (1) the means to provide cellulosic raw materials in large quantities at acceptable costs, (2) economically effective methods of pretreating and hydrolysing cellulosics, (3) practical organisms for converting five-carbon sugars to ethanol and (4) higher fermentation yields and efficiencies using bacteria or immobilized yeast. (Refs. 21).

  2. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar: best practice in climate technology and energy efficiency in central and eastern Europe. Seminar Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, P [ed.

    2000-08-01

    The Capacity Building Seminar on 'Best Practice in Climate Technology and Energy Efficiency in Central and Eastern Europe', held 6-10 December 1999 in Marienthal/Ostritz in Germany, was a very successful event in the framework of the CLIMATE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE (CTI). One reason for that is that the seminar allowed delegates from 22 nations, from Kazakhstan to Estonia, come together for an exchange of opinions about 'Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection' and all related issues. A reason is that this seminar provided an excellent starting point for future networking in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia. The colleagues who got to know each other at the seminar will meet again in future workshops and seminars. They can now contact a colleague from abroad to get information about special questions of Energy Efficiency when they need it. A third reason - and the most important one for the entire co-operation within the CTI organisation - is the special character of the seminar as a starting point for multitude of activities on Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection. At the end of the Ostritz seminar eleven delegations stated that they would organise follow up workshops in their own countries to go deeper into the details and to co-operate on a higher level. It may be that these workshops will be followed by others in other European regions. (orig./GL)

  3. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar: best practice in climate technology and energy efficiency in central and eastern Europe. Seminar Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, P. [ed.

    2000-08-01

    The Capacity Building Seminar on 'Best Practice in Climate Technology and Energy Efficiency in Central and Eastern Europe', held 6-10 December 1999 in Marienthal/Ostritz in Germany, was a very successful event in the framework of the CLIMATE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE (CTI). One reason for that is that the seminar allowed delegates from 22 nations, from Kazakhstan to Estonia, come together for an exchange of opinions about 'Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection' and all related issues. A reason is that this seminar provided an excellent starting point for future networking in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia. The colleagues who got to know each other at the seminar will meet again in future workshops and seminars. They can now contact a colleague from abroad to get information about special questions of Energy Efficiency when they need it. A third reason - and the most important one for the entire co-operation within the CTI organisation - is the special character of the seminar as a starting point for multitude of activities on Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection. At the end of the Ostritz seminar eleven delegations stated that they would organise follow up workshops in their own countries to go deeper into the details and to co-operate on a higher level. It may be that these workshops will be followed by others in other European regions. (orig./GL)

  4. Parametric economic analysis of natural gas reburn technologies. Topical report, June 1991-June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluestein, J.

    1992-06-01

    The report presents a parametric economic analysis of natural gas reburn technologies used for control of nitrogen oxides emissions in coal-fired utility boilers. It is a competitive assessment of the economics of gas reburn performed in the context of regulatory requirements and competing conventional technologies. The reburn technologies examined are basic gas reburn, reburn with sorbent injection and advanced gas reburn. The analysis determined the levelized costs of these technologies in $/ton of NOx removed with respect to a gas-coal price differential in $/MMBtu of energy input. For those niches in which reburn was less economical, a breakeven capital cost analysis was carried out to determine the R ampersand D goals which would make reburn more cost competitive

  5. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA ESTIMATING THE ECONOMIC IMPACT

    OpenAIRE

    Ruttan, Vernon W.

    2001-01-01

    There is strong synergy among research, education, technology development and technology transfer. Examples of successful public-private technology transfer linkage institutions are provided. But efforts to document the benefits of research conducted at the University of Minnesota to the state have rarely been conducted with the rigor that would be required to meet the test of professional credibility. A program of research to develop more rigorous evidence on economic benefits to the State i...

  6. The emergence of the global fintech market: Economic and technological determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Christian; Hornuf, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the economic and technological determinants inducing entrepreneurs to establish ventures with the purpose of reinventing financial technology (fintech). We find that countries witness more fintech startup formations when the latest technology is readily available, capital markets are well-developed, and people have more mobile telephone subscriptions. Furthermore, the available labor force has a positive impact on the development of this new market segment. Finally, the more so...

  7. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES IN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mehedintu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance management includes activities that ensure that goals are consistently being met inan effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, adepartment, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service, as well as many other areas.In these days of globalization and intensive use of information technology, the organizations must defineand implement an appropriate strategy that would support their medium-term development, stability andcompetitiveness. This is achieved through a coherent and interrelated set of activities for understanding thecustomer expectations and the level at which the offer of organization add value to customers and satisfy theirneeds, define their internal organization to allow timely response to market demands without losing focus on client,tracking strategy and business model for the accomplishment of the organization mission, aligning the existing ITproject management or under development implementation in organization with the strategic management oforganization etc. Strategic Management determines the improvement of processes, effective use of resources, focuson critical areas in terms of finance, creating opportunities for innovation and technological progress, improvementof the supply mechanism and the duty to promote personal interaction and negotiation at all levels, continuousassessment of organization and its technological trends, analyze the market potential and competence field etc.Strategic management system will not give good results if the strategy is not defined by a set of operationalobjectives clearly at all levels.Business performance is based on a set of analytical processes of business, supported by informationtechnology that defines the strategic goals that can be measured by performance indicators. EnterprisePerformance Management creates a powerful and precise environment, characterized by data consistency,efficiency analysis

  8. Technical, environmental, and economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power technologies in the Chinese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Xiao Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Wang Bo; Xu Xiang

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the technical, environmental, and economic dimensions of deploying advanced coal-fired power technologies in China. In particular, we estimate the differences in capital cost and overall cost of electricity (COE) for a variety of advanced coal-power technologies based on the technological and economic levels in 2006 in China. This paper explores the economic gaps between Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and other advanced coal power technologies, and compares 12 different power plant configurations using advanced coal power technologies. Super critical (SC) and ultra super critical (USC) pulverized coal (PC) power generation technologies coupled with pollution control technologies can meet the emission requirements. These technologies are highly efficient, technically mature, and cost-effective. From the point of view of efficiency, SC and USC units are good choices for power industry. The net plant efficiency for IGCC has reached 45%, and it has the best environmental performance overall. The cost of IGCC is much higher, however, than that of other power generation technologies, so the development of IGCC is slow throughout the world. Incentive policies are needed if IGCC is to be deployed in China

  9. Conservation Agriculture and its contribution to the achievement of agri-environmental and economic challenges in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J. González-Sánchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conservation Agriculture is an ecosystem approach to farming capable of providing solutions for numerous of the agri-environmental concerns in Europe. Certainly, most of the challenges addressed in the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP could be tackled through Conservation Agriculture (CA. Not only the agri-environmental ones, but also those concerning farmer and rural communities’ prosperity. The optimisation of inputs and similar yields than conventional tillage, make Conservation Agriculture a profitable system compared to the tillage based agriculture. Whereas this sustainable agricultural system was conceived for protecting agrarian soils from its degradation, the numerous collateral benefits that emanate from soil conservation, i.e., climate change mitigation and adaptation, have raised Conservation Agriculture as one of the global emerging agrosciences, being adopted by an increasing number of farmers worldwide, including Europe.

  10. Economic assessment of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauferts, U.; Van Heek, A.; Hart, J.

    2007-01-01

    This nuclear system study focuses on a realistic evolution of Partitioning and Transmutation technologies, which can be deployed incrementally on an industrial scale as well as on future developments such as reactors of the third and fourth generation and Accelerated Driven Systems (ADS). A set of five different fuel cycles has been selected, representing the options proposed in different European countries. Two industrial scenarios as continuation of the open nuclear fuel cycles and mono-recycling of plutonium in PWRs have been chosen as a reference. In addition, 3 more innovative cycles are considered using Fast Generation IV reactors and double strata scenarios with advanced PWR, ADS and fast reactors. This study shows, first, that closing the nuclear fuel cycle would be a useful strategy to mitigate concerns about a rapid depletion of natural uranium resources in this century. Secondly, all the 3 advanced fuel cycle strategies proposed reduce effectively the total amount of nuclear waste out of pile and consequently the need for large capacities of deep geological repositories. Thirdly, the most efficient strategy towards the mitigation of waste production is the utilization of fast reactors technology to burn plutonium and ADS to burn minor actinides

  11. The innovations in science and technology as a demand for bio-better medicines in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the role of the scientific excellence of innovative medicines as the key element in the development process in Greece. The collected statistical information and data on the absorbability of funds for research of innovative medicines, diagnostics, and advanced drug delivery systems pointed out that the Greek scientists could take advantage of the "Horizon 2020" on the continuity of their investigation, whilst how the accumulation of knowledge at Greek universities and research foundations could be translated into industrial products with added value, safe and effective for the European consumers. In conclusion, this review also is considered to provide the potential benefits in order to adapt the signaling of the "Horizon 2020" for the development of a bio-better Europe based on scientific inspirations. This approach could be considered as an interplay between countries and even between the north and west located countries in the European landscape.

  12. IEA Wind TCP Task 26: Impacts of Wind Turbine Technology on the System Value of Wind in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Riva, Alberto D [Ea Energy Analyses; Hethey, Janos [Ea Energy Analyses; Vitina, Aisma [Danish Energy Agency

    2018-05-01

    This report analyzes the impact of different land-based wind turbine designs on grid integration and related system value and cost. This topic has been studied in a number of previous publications, showing the potential benefits of wind turbine technologies that feature higher capacity factors. Building on the existing literature, this study aims to quantify the effects of different land-based wind turbine designs in the context of a projection of the European power system to 2030. This study contributes with insights on the quantitative effects in a likely European market setup, taking into account the effect of existing infrastructure on both existing conventional and renewable generation capacities. Furthermore, the market effects are put into perspective by comparing cost estimates for deploying different types of turbine design. Although the study focuses on Europe, similar considerations and results can be applied to other power systems with high wind penetration.

  13. Technological and Economic Aspects of Wave Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographical regions contiguous to the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are prone to natural disasters and poor electric supply especially in rural and hard to reach coastal regions. Utilization of ocean resources for power generation such as tidal, thermal solar and wind for energy need to be incorporated in a broad framework for the region. Development of ocean-based energy systems can be integrated with early warning networks linked by satellite which can give a few hours to days warning to help mitigate the severity of natural disasters on human life. Ocean-based electricity extraction has; however, remained elusive for various reasons. Interest in these systems resumed after the oil crisis of the 1970’s, but was uncoordinated. Extraction of ocean energy from the kinetic energy of waves and ocean currents depends on various mechanical devices with variable efficiencies. Apart from the efficiency, one must match the output phase of the feeder waveforms with that of the electrical grid. Also, the wavelengths of the typical wave are of the order of a few meters, the interception of which requires large devices. The mechanical efficiency of the turbine extraction system is further limited by the flow momentum considerations. Some applications and their implementation are looked at, specifically with reference to the difficulties of implementation in the region, and other factors like economic efficiency (rate of returns in place of mechanical efficiency. Individual wave energy harvesters are thus bound to suffer from inefficiencies and it may be beneficial to use wave farm configurations from the point of view of the randomness of wave motion, the large wavelengths, and the added advantage of averaging fluctuations from large numbers of generators.

  14. Europe representations in textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Brennetot , Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    This EuroBroadMap working paper presents an analysis of textbooks dealing with the representations of Europe and European Union. In most of these textbooks from secondary school, the teaching of the geography of Europe precedes the evocation of the EU. Europe is often depicted as a given object, reduced to a number of structural aspects (relief, climate, demography, traditional cultures, economic activities, etc.) whose only common point is their location within conventional boundaries. Such ...

  15. Technical and economic evaluation of selected technologies of the Landfill Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floran, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    In 1992 and 1993, numerous innovative and emerging technologies for characterizing metal and mixed waste contaminants and their migration beneath landfills in and environments were field tested at Sandia`s Chemical Waste Landfill. Many of these technologies are being evaluated as part of the Landfill Characterization System (LCS). The LCS emphasizes minimally intrusive technologies and downhole sensors that strive to be cheaper, better, safer and faster than conventional methods. Major aims of the LCS are to demonstrate, test and evaluate these technologies, and determine whether substantial cost saving over traditional baseline methods can be realized. To achieve these goals, the LCS uses an integrated systems approach that stresses the application of complementary and compatible technologies. Successful field demonstrations combined with favorable economics, will greatly assist the commercialization of these technologies to the private sector and to Environmental Restoration groups throughout the DOE Complex. In this paper, a technical and economic evaluation of selected technologies that comprise the LCS is presented. Because sampling and analysis is the most costly part of a characterization effort, the economic evaluation presented here focuses specifically on these activities. LCS technologies discussed include the ``Smart Sampling Methodology`` and two field screening analytical methods, stripping voltammetry and x-ray fluorescence.

  16. A Material History of Electroshock Therapy : Electroshock Technology in Europe until 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzesnitzek, Lara; Lang, Sascha

    2016-09-01

    The article considers the history of electroshock therapy as a history of medical technology, professional cooperation and business competition. A variation of a history from below is intended; though not from the patients' perspective (Porter, Theory Soc 14:175-198, 1985), but with a focus on electrodes, circuitry and patents. Such a 'material history' of electroshock therapy reveals that the technical make-up of electroshock devices and what they were used for was relative to the changing interests of physicians, industrial companies and mental health politics; it makes an intriguing case for the Social Construction of Technology theory (Bijker et al., The social construction of technological systems: new directions in the sociology and history of technology. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987).

  17. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  18. Knowledge and Technology Transfer in Materials Science and Engineering in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bressler, Patrick; Dürig, Urs; González-Elipe, Agustin; Quandt, Eckhard; Ritschkoff, Anne-Christine; Vahlas, Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Materials is one of the Key Enabling 3 Technologies identified by the European Commission1. Together with Advanced Manufacturing it underpins almost all other Key Enabling and Industrial Technologies. The basic science and engineering research that results in the development of Advanced Materials lies within the field of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE). The transfer of knowledge from basic research into final products and applications in the field of MSE involves certain MSE-...

  19. Uptake and diffusion of medical technology innovation in Europe: what role for funding and procurement policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Torbica, Aleksandra; Cappellaro, Giulia

    2010-01-01

    The producers of medical technology constantly strive to innovate and to improve their products for the benefit of patients. With each new generation of devices enabling less invasive techniques, better clinical outcomes and reduced recovery times, patients are direct beneficiaries of this commitment to innovation. Innovation and patient access to technology are inseparably linked with each national health system's respective coverage, procurement and reimbursement policies. If a particular i...

  20. Technological aspects of intrinsically safe and economical reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Nobuyuki; Oda, Junro; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Sugawara, Ichiro.

    1987-01-01

    ISER is a modified version of process inherent ultimate safe reactor (PIUS) developed by ASEA-ATOM, Sweden, and follows the same inherent safety principle, that is, passive reactor shutdown through the introduction of borated pool water into a core via an interface, and passive decay heat removal by natural circulation. The most significant deviation from the PIUS is that the ISER employs a steel reactor pressure vessel enclosed in the reactor pit, instead of a prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessel of the PIUS. The merits of using steel pressure vessels are siting versatility including barge-mounted plants, low cost, the standardization and serial production of total NSSSs through the weight reduction and compaction of primary system, as well as the possibility of utilizing current LWR technology, which minimizes R and D effort. In this paper, the design features of the latest version of ISERs are shown, and the specific problems of the key components are discussed. The primary system consists of a primary coolant loop and a borated water pool, which are connected with upper and lower interfaces. The nuclear design and thermohydraulic design, the operation and maintenance, and the design features of a steam generator, a pressurizer, interfaces and so on are described. (Kako, I.)

  1. Arms and technology transfers: Security and economic considerations among importing and exporting states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodgaard, S.; Pfaltzgraff, R.L. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The issues of technology and armament transfers are increasingly at the forefront of problems of international security and disarmament. Three major reasons could explain this. First, the disarmament process has been very successful in the last few years, especially in the field of nuclear, as well chemical and conventional, weapons. Second the disarmament effort underway concerns primarily the old partners of the East-West confrontation. Last, the general context, characterized by the opening and widening of exchanges, the increasingly open and transparent circulation of techniques and material, and the globalization of economic relations, must be taken into account. This report, prepared by UNIDIR comprises the following subjects: General trends in defense related transfers; Political/military factors associated with the diffusion of advanced technology; economic and technological consideration; and facilitation of economic growth/maximization of regional security and stability

  2. Analysis of technology and seminar on economic trends about High-intensity LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This is divided into two parts. Contents of this report in the first part are technical trends on high-intensity LED which reports introduction of LED as compound semiconductor, white LED? patent issues, review on technology of High-intensity LED and Reliability of High-intensity LED. The second part deals with economic tends about High-intensity LED. This seminar was held to report analysis and economical trends about High-intensity LED by Korea Industrial Education Institute in 2003.

  3. Technological and economical problems in exploitation of coal stripe mines in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristov, Stoyan; Borisov, Bogomil

    1997-01-01

    Taking into consideration the restructure of the mining-energetic industry into the new economic conditions, financial, technical and technological problems are analysed, as well as their influence on the economic effects of the coal production in Bulgaria. Ecological standards for environmental policy are noticed. Perspectives for development of the coal production industry are pointed out, especially in the mining/power complex Maritsa East, one of the most important region for power generation in Bulgaria

  4. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  5. Technology and function of grooved abraders in the early Neolithic of northwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hamon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Found sporadically in late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic contexts, grooved abraders are among the most common tools found in Linear Pottery and Villeneuve-Saint-Germain settlements in north-western Europe (5,100-4,700 BCE. This paper presents an overview of the technical and functional characteristics of these tools in early Neolithic domestic contexts. Despite different blank morphologies and sizes, these tools tend to be relatively small in size and are generally not shaped. They are characterized by the use of a very specific raw material: low cohesive and generally ferruginous sandstones, chosen because their abrasiveness is enhanced through use. A classification of the different types of grooves is proposed, based on their shape, depth, section and localization. These characteristics are combined with use-wear analysis in order to propose a number of functional interpretations. Far from the widespread hypothesis that these tools functioned as shaft straighteners, we argue on the basis of the use-wear analysis and archaeological associations of items that these tools were primarily involved in the manufacture of bone and lithic tools, as well as of schist and limestone personal ornaments. They are evidence of the generalization and diversification of polishing and abrading techniques in the technical system of the first Neolithic populations. As such, they contribute to defining a whole new technical paradigm and are an essential element in any definition of the Neolithic.

  6. The Model of Optimum Economic Growth with the Induced Scientific-Technological Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilenko Viktor A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the economic dynamics of the Harrod – Domar model, a model of optimum economic growth in line with the induced scientific-technological progress (STP has been built. In order to reflect the induced scientific-technological progress, with this model is proposed to further allocate the income element that is specially used for the investment of innovation activity, implementation of which reduces the capital intensity in development of the discussed economy. For the simplest way of presenting an economic mechanism for the investment of induced STP, analytical solutions of an appropriate task in optimum management have been obtained. Studying these decisions allowed to reveal the characteristics of the impact of parameters of scientific-technological progress and the analyzed economic system on choosing the best trajectory for its evolution. Possible directions for further developing the results presented can be considered the tasks in building and analyzing models of optimum economic growth that implement different investment options for the induced STP, as well as the models in which this investment mechanism is not exogenouslyed, but rather the result of the corresponding economic-mathematical research.

  7. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  8. Basis for the evaluation of economic benefits from using modules for the development of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodyukov, V.M.; Purtova, M.I.; Smirnova, Z.M.; Semenova, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A method is discussed for calculating the economic effect obtained by introduction of a designing principle involving standardized units and blocks of various radiation equipment. The method was based on a comparison of the technological and economic factors that could be obtained by using the said principle with similar factors not involving the aggregate principle (used previously in designing various instruments and installations). The formulae are sited for estimating the economy involved in designing and manufacturing aggregated complexes (AC) of the subsystems involved in an aggregated system of instrument making (ASIM) and for evaluating the additional economic effect resulting from reduced AC development time

  9. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  10. Evaluation of technological and economic standard of the mining industry. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evdokimov, F.I.; Nekhaev, S.A.; Laptev, I.V.

    1983-02-01

    In order to assure constant growth in coal production, as stipulated in the five-year plan, an evaluation scheme has been devised. The technological and economic standard is judged by indicators such as productivity, self sufficiency, capital write-off and investment, as well as factors such as working conditions, financial incentives, health services, and absenteeism. The method of canonical analysis yields expressions for technological and economic factors, and a coefficient for the utilization of resources. Relationship of these coefficients and factors is demonstrated graphically.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants by use of the analytic hierarchy process and nine end node criteria for a reference scenario based on subjective criteria weighting has been presented in a previous paper by authors. However, criteria weight variations may substantially modify overall evaluations and rankings of power plants. The current paper presents a sensitivity analysis with four alternative scenarios (sets of criteria weights) compared with the reference scenario. The results show that priority to 'technology and sustainability' favors renewable energy power plants, while priority to 'economic' criteria favors mainly nuclear power plants and less the four types of fossil fuel power plant

  12. Development of laparoscopic surgery and training facilities in Europe: Results of a survey of the European Society of Uro-Technology (ESUT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, M. P.; Schreuders, L. C.; Rassweiler, J. J.; Abbou, C. C.; van Velthoven, R.; Janetschek, G.; Breda, G.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The European Society of Uro-Technology (ESUT) conducted a survey in order to assess the application of laparoscopy and the facilitation of training programs within Europe. Methods: A total of 430 urologists and residents from European countries answered the ESUT survey during the XVIIIth

  13. Patient and public involvement in scope development for a palliative care health technology assessment in europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brereton, L.; Goyder, E.; Ingleton, C.; Gardiner, C.; Chilcott, J.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Oortwijn, W.; Mozygemba, K.; Lysdahl, K.B.; Sacchini, D.; Lepper, W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) helps to ensure that study findings are useful to end users but is under-developed in Health Technology Assessment (HTA). "INTEGRATE-HTA, (a co-funded European Union project -grant agreement 30614) is developing new methods to assess complex health

  14. Combined analysis of climate, technological and price changes on future arable farming systems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Kros, J.; Webber, H.; Zhao, G.; Britz, W.; Reinds, G.J.; Ewert, F.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compare the relative importance of climate change to technological, management, price and policy changes on European arable farming systems. This required linking four models: the SIMPLACE crop growth modelling framework to calculate future yields under climate change for arable

  15. THE INFORMATION ERA AND THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES. A MORAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Alina COCALIA (CRĂCIUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article proposes a personalized approach of a new dimension for the contemporary society, namely the comprehension of the human behavior in manifestation, in the present conditions of the unprecedented development of technology, the unavoidable advent of both interdependency and of the human’s dependency of the created technical environment. The content of the article has in view the technologized society, governed by the globalization process that implies a meticulous analysis of the economic, social and moral impact of the emergence and evolution of the new technologies in the present context. This article allots a higher degree of attention, aiming at both the emergence, extending and use on a large scale of the new technologies and also the economic implication that are inferred.

  16. Emerging new technologies for the defense of Central Europe and geostrategic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the structure of the post-World War II European security system has been transformed by the remarkable events of 1989 and 1990. These changes included the collapse of the communist parties in Eastern Europe, which has led to the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact. Simultaneously, the prospect of German reunification accelerated during the winter of 1990 and was sanctioned in the dramatic Kohl-Gorbachev July 1990 summit in the Soviet Union. During that meeting, the Soviet government made a series of politically contentious concessions and accepted that a united Germany could remain in NATO, albeit with some unilateral restrictions on the size of the new German armed forces and the disposition of non-German NATO forces in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). The acceptance by Mikhail Gorbachev and his regime of an end to the cold war on terms very favorable to the West followed two important meetings. The first was the London NATO summit; the Atlantic Alliance announced a major change of its flexible response strategy in which nuclear weapons would be used as a last resort. Further, the alliance called for a series of bilateral nonaggression agreements with the former members of the Warsaw Pact including the Soviet Union. The second meeting, the 28th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), concluded with a major political victory by Gorbachev over his hard line opponents both in the civilian apparatus and the military. The final barrier to German unification, on October 3, 1990, fell when the new German government formally acknowledged the Oder-Neisse boundary as unalterable in a treaty signed by the members of the 2 + 4 Talks on September 12, 1990, in Moscow. Most important from the perspective of NATO is the commitment by the Soviet Union to totally withdraw all of its air and ground units from the former GDR by 1994

  17. Techno-economic viability assessments of greener propulsion technology under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalianda, D.K.; Kyprianidis, K.G.; Sethi, V.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced method is presented for techno-economic assessment under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios. • The viability of the contra-rotating open rotor concept is investigated under various environmental policies. • CO_2 taxation is needed to drive the aerospace industry towards greener solutions. - Abstract: Sustainability of the aviation industry, as any other industry, depends on the elasticity of demand for the product and profitability through minimising operating costs. Of paramount importance is assessing and understanding the interdependency and effects of environmentally optimised solutions and emission mitigation policies. This paper describes the development and application of assessment methodologies to better understand the effects of environmental taxation/energy policies aimed at environmental pollution reduction and the future potential economic impact they may have on the adaptation of “greener” novel technologies. These studies are undertaken using a Techno-economic Environmental Risk Assessment approach. The methodology demonstrated allows the assessment of the economic viability of new technologies compared to conventional technologies, for various CO_2 emission taxation and fuel price scenarios. It considers relative increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. A study undertaken as a ‘proof of concept’ compares a Counter Rotating Open Rotor aircraft with a conventional aircraft for short range operations. It indicates that at current fuel price and with no carbon taxation, a highly fuel efficient technology, such as the one considered, could be rendered economically unviable. The work goes on to demonstrate that in comparison to the conventional aircraft, any economic benefits that may be accrued from improvement in fuel consumption through such a technology, may well be negated through increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. The work further demonstrates that if policy

  18. Designing medical technology for resilience: integrating health economics and human factors approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsci, Simone; Uchegbu, Ijeoma; Buckle, Peter; Ni, Zhifang; Walne, Simon; Hanna, George B

    2018-01-01

    The slow adoption of innovation into healthcare calls into question the manner of evidence generation for medical technology. This paper identifies potential reasons for this including a lack of attention to human factors, poor evaluation of economic benefits, lack of understanding of the existing healthcare system and a failure to recognise the need to generate resilient products. Areas covered: Recognising a cross-disciplinary need to enhance evidence generation early in a technology's life cycle, the present paper proposes a new approach that integrates human factors and health economic evaluation as part of a wider systems approach to the design of technology. This approach (Human and Economic Resilience Design for Medical Technology or HERD MedTech) supports early stages of product development and is based on the recent experiences of the National Institute for Health Research London Diagnostic Evidence Co-operative in the UK. Expert commentary: HERD MedTech i) proposes a shift from design for usability to design for resilience, ii) aspires to reduce the need for service adaptation to technological constraints iii) ensures value of innovation at the time of product development, and iv) aims to stimulate discussion around the integration of pre- and post-market methods of assessment of medical technology.

  19. Technology development and innovation for the bottom of the economic pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2015-04-01

    Directed development of new technologies to solve specific problems of the poor in the developing world is a daunting task. Developing countries can be a wasteland littered with failed technologies sent there with much goodwill and effort from the industrial countries. Drawing on my team's experience I summarize our answers to some key questions for the technology designer or developer: How might one go about it? What works and what doesn't? What lessons can one draw from an examination of select successes and failures? The key lessons from our experience are: (1) successful technology design and implementation can not be separated from each other - they are tightly intertwined, (2) social factors are as critical for a technology's success as factors based on engineering science, and (3) ignorance of political economy, behavioral economics, organizational behavior, institutional imperatives, cultural norms and social drivers can prove fatal flaws when a new technology leaves the laboratory and meets the real world.

  20. Impacts Seed Technology Improvement on Economic Aspects of Chilli Production in Central Java - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable production, including that of chillies, plays an important role in agricultural sector and rural economic development worldwide. This is because of greater farm productivity with regard to vegetables than cereal and staple crops. This paper analyses the impact of seed technology development on the economic aspects of chilli production in Central Java. Particular attention is paid to improved varieties of chilli. Potential consequences of seed technology development are discussed. Data of this study are compiled from surveys conducted in three selected chilli producing regions in 2010-2012. The results show that the major varieties of chilli grown by surveyed farmers are grouped into three broad types: hybrids, local and improved open pollinated varieties. The chilli varieties farmers selected varied according to location and cropping season. In the dry season, farmers grew similar proportions of hybrid, local, and open pollinated types. Nevertheless, there were differences among the survey sites. Farmers grew different varieties to exploit seasonal microclimates and market preferences. Mostly, farmers selected varieties for economic motives. The consequence of growing hybrids was less use of agrochemicals, particularly pesticides, than for other varieties. Overall, they show the best economic performance in the study site. Development of seed technology should consider agro-ecological and economic aspects to obtain better outcomes. Private sector and national research institutions need to collaborate more to utilise available genetic resources to produce better varieties of chilli.

  1. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  2. Early economic evaluation of emerging health technologies: protocol of a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of early health technology assessment, discussed well over a decade, has now been collaboratively implemented by industry, government, and academia to select and expedite the development of emerging technologies that may address the needs of patients and health systems. Early economic evaluation is essential to assess the value of emerging technologies, but empirical data to inform the current practice of early evaluation is limited. We propose a systematic review of early economic evaluation studies in order to better understand the current practice. Methods/design This protocol describes a systematic review of economic evaluation studies of regulated health technologies in which the evaluation is conducted prior to regulatory approval and when the technology effectiveness is not well established. Included studies must report an economic evaluation, defined as the comparative analysis of alternatives with respect to their associated costs and health consequences, and must evaluate some regulated health technology such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, high-risk medical devices, or biomarkers. We will conduct the literature search on multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Databases, and EconLit. Additional citations will be identified via scanning reference lists and author searching. We suspect that many early economic evaluation studies are unpublished, especially those conducted for internal use only. Additionally, we use a chain-referral sampling approach to identify authors of unpublished studies who work in technology discovery and development, starting out with our contact lists and authors who published relevant studies. Citation screening and full-text review will be conducted by pairs of reviewers. Abstracted data will include those related to the decision context and decision problem of the early evaluation, evaluation methods (e.g., data sources, methods, and assumptions used to

  3. Designing medical technology for resilience : integrating health economics and human factors approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsci, Simone; Uchegbu, Ijeoma; Buckle, Peter; Ni, Zhifang; Walne, Simon; Hanna, George B.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The slow adoption of innovation into healthcare calls into question the manner of evidence generation for medical technology. This paper identifies potential reasons for this including a lack of attention to human factors, poor evaluation of economic benefits, lack of understanding of

  4. Educational Technology during Economic Downturns: Sailing the Winds of "Creative Destruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardez, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    While most organizations react to economic downturns by downsizing and cutting training and educational "costs," a few others thrive under adversity by engaging in innovative practices supported by extensive and creative uses of educational technology. This article examines how diverse organizations benefit from the cycles of "creative…

  5. Economic Crisis, Technology and the Management of Education: The Case of Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2016-01-01

    The 2008 crash has been likened to that of 1929. Does it have consequences for the management of education, and in particular for distributed leadership? Informed by evolutionary economics, it is argued that 2008 marked the end of the installation period of a major technological innovation, namely ICT. In the aftermath of the crash, a period of…

  6. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  7. Evaluating the Air Quality, Climate Change, and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentation that describes a project to evaluate economic and environmental performance of several biogas management technologies. It will analyze various criteria air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs associated with the use of biogas. Th...

  8. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  9. Deep-sea mining: Economic, technical, technological, and environmental considerations for sustainable development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    investment of $1.95 billion as capital expenditure and $9 billion as operating expenditure for a single deep-sea mining venture. In view of high investment, technological challenges and economic considerations, private-public cooperation could be an effective...

  10. 75 FR 23214 - HIPAA Privacy Rule Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health Information Technology for Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ...-AB62 HIPAA Privacy Rule Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health Information Technology for Economic... disclosures, the administrative burden on covered entities and business associates of accounting for such...: HITECH Accounting of Disclosures, Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Room 509F, 200 Independence Avenue, SW...

  11. 76 FR 31425 - HIPAA Privacy Rule Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health Information Technology for Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... 164 HIPAA Privacy Rule Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health Information Technology for Economic... Secretary 45 CFR Part 164 RIN 0991-AB62 HIPAA Privacy Rule Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health... accounting of disclosures of protected health information. The purpose of these modifications is, in part, to...

  12. Consequences for people from changed economic requirements and implementations of new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myhre, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The offshore oil and gas business has reached mature levels where improvements and efficiency, optimisation and down-sizing are necessary to achieve required economic performance. The paper discusses the oil worker in future with the focus on manning and safety as a consequence of new technologies and cost reduction. 1 fig

  13. Production System of Peranakan Etawah Goat under Application of Feed Technology: Productivity and Economic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Sodiq

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feed resources are the major constraint in increasing goat production in the village. The main constraints to goat raising are related to feeds (i the high cost of transport of crop residues and grass to the homesteads, (ii the low nutritive value of feeds used, particularly in the dry period. This research was design to evaluate goat productivity and economic efficiency of goat farming under application of feed technology production system in Peranakan Etawah goat farmer group of Gumelar Banyumas Central Java. All farmers were taken as respondents using census methods. On farm research with participative focused group discussion, indepth interview, and farm observation. Descriptive analysis and independent t test methods were used to analyze the data. Results of this study showed that there was a significant improvement goat productivity on production system with the application of feed technology. Body weight at weaning, survival rate till weaning, and doe productivity were increased 7%, 2% and 5%, respectively. There was no evidence of significant different of farmers income and economic efficiency before and after the applied feed technology (P>0.05. The calculation was based on cash flow. Before application, farmers income per year and economic efficiency were Rp14.404.520,00 and 1.21, then insignificantly improve into Rp16.487.100,00 and 1.27, respectively. (Animal Production 11(3: 202-208 (2009 Key Words: Livestock production system, Peranakan Etawah goat, feed technology aplication, productivity and economic efficiency

  14. Economic homogenization and heterogenization in the EU with the EMU - technological, sectoral and regional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    1999-01-01

    Traditional the arguments for the EMU have been founded in arguments from the theory of optimal currency unions. Even if that should be the case there would still be problems if technological development are characterized by increasing returns. In that case growing economic differences according ...

  15. ICT, Education Transformation, and Economic Development: An Analysis of the US National Educational Technology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the conclusions and recommendations in the National Education Technology Plan (NETP), this article makes explicit the connections between the economic rationale used in the plan and the educational transformations it recommends. The article reviews macroeconomic research, microeconomic research, labor market and workforce studies,…

  16. A new method for evaluating worst- and best-case (WBC) economic consequences of technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1996-01-01

    This paper is addressing the problem of evaluating economic worst- and best-care (WBC) consequences of technological development in industrial companies faking into account uncertainties and lack of exact cost and market information. In the theoretical part of the paper, the mathematical concepts...

  17. The International Trade Policy for Technology Transfers: Legal and Economic Dilemmas on Multilateralism versus Bilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    In the book, the Researcher addresses the importance of international technology transfers for economic development, as well as the underlying causes for the different institutional arrangements that promote such activity. The work provides a systematic interpretation of the wide range of interests...

  18. THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF IT-TECHNOLOGIES IN SYSTEM OF INTERNET BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sergeevna Vinnikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of work is caused by active introduction of IT-technologies in various spheres of economic activity and in particular the bank environment, and also social and economic problems of use of information systems which arose along with a world economic crisis, sanctions and growth of the competition.Purpose: to define the main social and economic problems and the directions of development of IT-technologies in system of Internet banking at the present stage.Methodology: general scientific methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, system approach.Results. Features of development of IT-technologies within remote bank customer service in Russia are defined. The directions of development of IT-technologies of the BSS company from a position of dynamic distribution of Internet banking in the future and from a position of development of the relations with clients are presented.Practical implications: results of research will be demanded by the scientists dealing with problems of Internet banking, heads of the commercial banks dealing with issues of remote bank service, students, undergraduates and graduate students of higher educational institutions.

  19. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE INSTALLATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR MULTIPOLLUTANT STRATEGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report evaluates the engineering and economic factors associated with installing air pollution control technologies to meet the requirements of strategies to control sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and mercury under the Clear Skies Act multipollutant control s...

  20. How the “People’s game“ conquered the world: A short socio-economic history of football in Europe and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary football represents a highly commodified spectacle, a segment of the entertainment industry where huge amounts of money change hands, and the popularity of football competitions - whether national or international - is a global phenomenon, which billions of people take part in. Only thirty years ago, however, the situation was very different. In Western Europe, and especially Great Britain, football was mostly associated with hooliganism, and the audiences at the run-down stadiums were dwindling in numbers. On the other hand, in Eastern Europe before the fall of the Berlin wall football was at its peak, only to fall from grace and onto the European periphery in the 90’s, where it is, by and large, still situated. This dramatic transformation which turned football into “entertainment for rich people” did not occur by accident, it has deep roots in the history of the sport, but also in the wider socio-economic transformations within the context of which this segment of pop culture exists. In this paper I will offer a look at the social and economic conditions in which football developed with the aim of establishing a framework for understanding the changes which occurred within the sport and within the society, with a special focus on the connection between football and the rise of nationalism in the former Yugoslavia, but also wider social processes linked to the descent of Serbia into the so-called process of “transition”, or the acceptance of parliamentary democracy and capitalism as bases of social order. It is my intention to, through the analysis of sociohistorical elements which influenced the development and transformation of the game of football, indicate the wider frame of possibilities for the analysis of contemporary events through the prism of this segment of pop-culture.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026

  1. ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN TERMS OF: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulita BIRCA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important condition for achieving a sustainable economic growth and for improving living standards of the population of the Republic of Moldova is the active involvement of the national economy in the international exchange of goods, services, knowledge, technology, etc., and also strengthening its positions on the international market. Therefore, to achieve and maintain competitiveness has become a fundamental economic policies issue in the context of globalization. In the contemporary world, national economic competitiveness is determined by a wide variety of features and important factors. In this article, the authors will focus their attention on the part of science, technology and innovation as being one of the key tools in the modern future of any modern state.

  2. The hullaballoo over e-learning? Technology and pluralism in economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Watson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available E-learning vs. face-to-face delivery: this binary opposition has governed much of the existing pedagogical research concerning technological innovation, as educationists are pressured to prioritise efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of traditional teaching methods. This paper rejects such a false dichotomy, proffering the alternative that can be found in blended learning methods. It is through the meticulous splicing of e-learning and traditional lectures that the individual economics lecturer is freed to deliver a pluralist perspective. “Contest and controversy; orthodoxy and heterodoxy; critique and reject”: technology provides the vehicle for economics education to break free of the constraints of monist teaching methods and ensures that economics students can fully engage in the discipline’s vibrant debates.

  3. Employment Condition, Economic Deprivation and Self-Evaluated Health in Europe: Evidence from EU-SILC 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Silvia; Pigini, Claudia; Seracini, Marco; Minelli, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Background: The mixed empirical evidence about employment conditions (i.e., permanent vs. temporary job, full-time vs. part-time job) as well as unemployment has motivated the development of conceptual models with the aim of assessing the pathways leading to effects of employment status on health. Alongside physically and psychologically riskier working conditions, one channel stems in the possibly severe economic deprivation faced by temporary workers. We investigate whether economic deprivation is able to partly capture the effect of employment status on Self-evaluated Health Status (SHS). Methods: Our analysis is based on the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey, for a balanced sample from 26 countries from 2009 to 2012. We estimate a correlated random-effects logit model for the SHS that accounts for the ordered nature of the dependent variable and the longitudinal structure of the data. Results and Discussion: Material deprivation and economic strain are able to partly account for the negative effects on SHS from precarious and part-time employment as well as from unemployment that, however, exhibits a significant independent negative association with SHS. Conclusions: Some of the indicators used to proxy economic deprivation are significant predictors of SHS and their correlation with the employment condition is such that it should not be neglected in empirical analysis, when available and further to the monetary income. PMID:28165375

  4. Employment Condition, Economic Deprivation and Self-Evaluated Health in Europe: Evidence from EU-SILC 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Silvia; Pigini, Claudia; Seracini, Marco; Minelli, Liliana

    2017-02-03

    Background : The mixed empirical evidence about employment conditions (i.e., permanent vs. temporary job, full-time vs. part-time job) as well as unemployment has motivated the development of conceptual models with the aim of assessing the pathways leading to effects of employment status on health. Alongside physically and psychologically riskier working conditions, one channel stems in the possibly severe economic deprivation faced by temporary workers. We investigate whether economic deprivation is able to partly capture the effect of employment status on Self-evaluated Health Status (SHS). Methods : Our analysis is based on the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey, for a balanced sample from 26 countries from 2009 to 2012. We estimate a correlated random-effects logit model for the SHS that accounts for the ordered nature of the dependent variable and the longitudinal structure of the data. Results and Discussion : Material deprivation and economic strain are able to partly account for the negative effects on SHS from precarious and part-time employment as well as from unemployment that, however, exhibits a significant independent negative association with SHS. Conclusions : Some of the indicators used to proxy economic deprivation are significant predictors of SHS and their correlation with the employment condition is such that it should not be neglected in empirical analysis, when available and further to the monetary income.

  5. A Review of Warm Mix Asphalt Technology: Technical, Eco-nomical and Enviromental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, warm mix asphalt (WMA technology presents a wide potential for successful use in road works construction projects. However, concerns remain regarding the durability and behavior of WMA mixtures in the long term, which need to be addressed. This review focuses on the technical, economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages. The review concludes that the main advantage, at the moment, of this technology concerns the environment. At the end of this work, the authors include certain recommendations for future works to continue strengthening the development of WMA technology.

  6. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation. [economic impact and aircraft configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The economic benefits attributable to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation are discussed. Topics covered include: the ag-air industry, the data base used to estimate the potential benefits and a summary of the potential benefits from technological improvements; ag-air activities in the United States; foreign ag-air activities; major ag-air aircraft is use and manufacturers' sales and distribution networks; and estimates of the benefits to the United States of proposed technological improvements to the aircraft and dispersal equipment. A bibliography of references is appended.

  7. Technological retrofit of existing buildings: dwelling quality, environmental sustainability, economic rising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bellomo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Redevelopment can stand as an effective response to the converging ecological, energy and economic crises if the energy efficiency of the built heritage can be enhanced using renewable energy and innovative technologies with a low environmental impact. To this end, the Research Unit Technology and Environment, University of Naples Federico II, is undertaking a structured set of studies addressing the issue of retrofit technology of buildings in Campania put up in the second half of the 20th century to help in defining best practices for planning, design and production.

  8. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The cost of heat savings in buildings increase as more heat savings are achieved due to the state of the building stock and hence, alternatives other than savings typically become more economically feasible at a certain level of heat reductions. It is important to identify when the cost of heat...... savings become more expensive than the cost of sustainable heat supply, so society does not overinvest in heat saving measures. This study first investigates the heat saving potentials for different countries in Europe, along with their associated costs, followed by a comparison with alternative ways...... of supplying sustainable heating. Different heat production options are included in terms of individual and community heating systems. Furthermore, the levelised cost of supplying sustainable heat is estimated for both a single technology and from an energy system perspective. The results are analysed...

  9. Nuclear power in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, J.

    2000-01-01

    Currently nuclear power accounts for more than 25% of total electricity production in Europe (including Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) However, significant new construction is planned in Central and Eastern Europe only, apart from some in France and, possibly in Finland. Many countries in Western Europe have put nuclear construction plans on hold and several have cancelled their nuclear programs. This report looks at the history of nuclear power and its current status in both Eastern and Western Europe. It provides an outline of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, from uranium procurement to final waste disposal. Economic and environmental issues are discussed, as well as the prospect of increased East-West trade and cooperation in the new poso-cold war world. Detailed profiles are provided of all the countries in Western Europe with significant nuclear power programs, as well as profiles of major energy and nuclear companies

  10. Shedding light on solar technologies-A techno-economic assessment and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Schmidt, Tobias S.; Wiederkehr, David; Schneider, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Solar power technologies will have to become a major pillar in the world's future energy system to combat climate change and resource depletion. However, it is unclear which solar technology is and will prove most viable. Therefore, a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies along the key quantitative and qualitative competitiveness criteria is needed. Based on a literature review and detailed techno-economic modeling for 2010 and 2020 in five locations, we provide such an assessment for the three currently leading large-scale solar technologies. We show that today these technologies cannot yet compete with conventional forms of power generation but approach competitiveness around 2020 in favorable locations. Furthermore, from a global perspective we find that none of the solar technologies emerges as a clear winner and that cost of storing energy differs by technology and can change the order of competitiveness in some instances. Importantly, the competitiveness of the different technologies varies considerably across locations due to differences in, e.g., solar resource and discount rates. Based on this analysis, we discuss policy implications with regard to fostering the diffusion of solar technologies while increasing the efficiency of policy support through an adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies. - Highlights: → We conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies (CSP/PV). → While solar technologies approach competitiveness in 2020, no clear winner emerges. → Solar resource and discount rate heavily impact competitiveness of solar technologies. → Adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies increases policy efficiency. → Focus on key cost down levers and strategic co-benefits of solar technologies needed.

  11. Economic assessment of RFID coupled with open source technologies for wood traceability in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperandio G

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the economic sustainability of the implementation of a wood traceability system in Calabria based on RFID and open source technologies. We identified a break-even point in its implementation under different scenarios in order to highlight the economic sustainability limits, expressed in terms of m3 or tons of processed product. The results showed that the use of RFID technology along the supply chain could lead to an effective operational simplification and to a more efficient use of resources. Based on the average market prices for timber (80-120 € / m3, the implementation of RFID technology led to an increase in timber price by 8% under the worst scenarios. This suggests that the use of open source technologies for wood traceability is already feasible and economically sustainable, as 40% of private companies stated their willingness to pay a premium price (on average 3.25% higher for purchasing certified local wood products in Calabria. Moreover, we expect a further reduction of tags and hardware costs in the next future, up to half the costs estimated in this work, thus making the application of such technology to timber traceability even more affordable.

  12. Employment status and mental health care use in times of economic contraction: a repeated cross-sectional study in Europe, using a three-level model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Veerle; van de Straat, Vera; Bracke, Piet

    2015-03-11

    Framed within the recent economic crisis, in this study we investigate the medical mental health care use of the unemployed compared with that of the employed in Europe, and whether the relationship between employment status and mental health care use varies across macro-economic conditions. We examine whether the macro-economic context and changes therein are related to mental health care use, via their impact on mental health, or more directly, irrespective of mental health. We use data from three waves of the Eurobarometer (2002, 2005/2006, and 2010), which has a repeated cross-sectional and cross-national design. Linear and logistic multilevel regression analyses are performed with mental health, contacting a general practitioner, and contacting a psychiatrist for mental health problems as dependent variables. The multilevel design has three levels (the individual, the period-country, and the country), which allows us to estimate both longitudinal and cross-sectional macro-effects. The macro-economic context and changes therein are assessed using national unemployment rates and growth rates in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The mean unemployment rate is negatively related to mental health, although for women, this effect only applies to the employed. Among women, no relationship is found between changes in the macro-economic context and mental health. The unemployment rate, and changes in both the unemployment rate and the real GDP growth rate, are associated with men's care use, regardless of their mental health, whereas this does not hold for women. In countries with an increase in the unemployment rate, both unemployed and employed men tend to medicalize their problems more by contacting a general practitioner, irrespective of their mental health, while the likelihood of contacting a psychiatrist is lower among employed men. Our findings stress the importance of taking the macro-economic context and changes therein into account when studying the mental health

  13. Unfolding innovation: modelling the interplay of science, technology, and economic growth

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

      In this talk I will show that the space in which scientific, technological and economic developments interplay with each other can be mathematically shaped using pioneering multilayer network and complexity techniques. We build the tri-layered network of human activities (scientific production, patenting, and industrial production) and study the interactions among them, also taking into account the possible time delays. Within this construction we can identify which capabilities and prerequisites are needed to be competitive in a given activity, and even measure how much time is needed to transform, for instance, the technological know-how into economic wealth and scientific innovation, being able to make predictions with a very long time horizon. Quite unexpectedly, we find empirical evidence that the naive knowledge flow from science, to patents, to products is not supported by data, being instead technology the best predictor for industrial and scientific production for the next decades. &...

  14. Evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability. Proceedings of a symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Symposium on evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability was intended for managers in utilities, reactor design organizations and hardware manufacturing companies and for government decision makers who need to understand technological advances and the potential of evolutionary water cooled reactors to contribute to near and medium term energy demands. The topics addressed include: strategic issues (global energy outlook, the role of nuclear power in sustainable energy strategies, power generation costs, financing of nuclear plant projects, socio-political factors and nuclear safety requirements); technological advances (instrumentation and control, means od improving prevention and mitigation of severe accidents, development of passive safety systems); keys to economic viability (simplification, standardization, advances in construction and project management, feedback of experience from utilities into new designs, and effective management of plant operation)

  15. Economic and Humanistic Burden of Dry Eye Disease in Europe, North America, and Asia: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Marguerite; Patel, Dipen A; Keith, Michael S; Snedecor, Sonya J

    2016-04-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a chronic and progressive multifactorial disorder of the tears and ocular surface, which results in symptoms of discomfort and visual disturbance. The aim of this systematic literature review was to evaluate the burden of DED and its components from an economic and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) perspective, and to compare the evidence across France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, USA, Japan, and China. PubMed, Embase, and six other resources were searched for literature published from January 1998 to July 2013. Of 76 titles/abstracts reviewed on the economic burden of DED and 263 on the HRQoL burden, 12 and 20 articles, respectively, were included in the review. The available literature suggests that DED has a substantial economic burden, with indirect costs making up the largest proportion of the overall cost due to a substantial loss of work productivity. In addition, DED has a substantial negative impact on physical, and potentially psychological, function and HRQoL across the countries examined. A number of studies also indicated that HRQoL burden increases with the severity of disease. Additional data are needed, particularly in Asia, in order to gain a better understanding of the burden of DED and help inform future health care resource utilization. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  17. Precision Agriculture Technologies Positively Contributing to GHG Emissions Mitigation, Farm Productivity and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Balafoutis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a short description of the technology and the impacts that have been reported in literature on greenhouse gases reduction and the associated impacts on farm productivity and economics. The technologies presented span all agricultural practices, including variable rate sowing/planting, fertilizing, spraying, weeding and irrigation.

  18. Application of Supercomputer Technologies for Simulation Of Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Valentinovich Okrepilov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, an extensive experience has been accumulated in investigation of problems related to quality, assessment of management systems, modeling of economic system sustainability. The performed studies have created a basis for development of a new research area — Economics of Quality. Its tools allow to use opportunities of model simulation for construction of the mathematical models adequately reflecting the role of quality in natural, technical, social regularities of functioning of the complex socio-economic systems. Extensive application and development of models, and also system modeling with use of supercomputer technologies, on our deep belief, will bring the conducted research of socio-economic systems to essentially new level. Moreover, the current scientific research makes a significant contribution to model simulation of multi-agent social systems and that is not less important, it belongs to the priority areas in development of science and technology in our country. This article is devoted to the questions of supercomputer technologies application in public sciences, first of all, — regarding technical realization of the large-scale agent-focused models (AFM. The essence of this tool is that owing to the power computer increase it has become possible to describe the behavior of many separate fragments of a difficult system, as socio-economic systems are. The article also deals with the experience of foreign scientists and practicians in launching the AFM on supercomputers, and also the example of AFM developed in CEMI RAS, stages and methods of effective calculating kernel display of multi-agent system on architecture of a modern supercomputer will be analyzed. The experiments on the basis of model simulation on forecasting the population of St. Petersburg according to three scenarios as one of the major factors influencing the development of socio-economic system and quality of life of the population are presented in the

  19. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF MEDICAL DEVICES IN EUROPE: PROCESSES, PRACTICES, AND METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sabine; Olberg, Britta; Panteli, Dimitra; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    To review and compare current Health Technology Assessment (HTA) activities for medical devices (MDs) across European HTA institutions. A comprehensive approach was adopted to identify institutions involved in HTA in European countries. We systematically searched institutional Web sites and other online sources by using a structured tool to extract information on the role and link to decision making, structure, scope, process, methodological approach, and available HTA reports for each included institution. Information was obtained from eighty-four institutions, forty-seven of which were analyzed. Fifty-four methodological documents from twenty-three agencies in eighteen countries were identified. Only five agencies had separate documents for the assessment of MDs. A few agencies made separate provisions for the assessment of MDs in their general methods. The amount of publicly available HTA reports on MDs varied by device category and agency remit. Despite growing consensus on their importance and international initiatives, such as the EUnetHTA Core Model®, specific tools for the assessment of MDs are rarely developed and implemented at the national level. Separate additional signposts incorporated in existing general methods guides may be sufficient for the evaluation of MDs.

  20. STAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR OBTAINIGN AN ECONOMIC WHITE WINE TO AN INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Miño Valdés

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to develop a sustainable technology to produce economical white wine, industrial scale, not viniferous grapes grown in Misiones. This technological project started at laboratory scale, it continued in a pilot plant and planned to an industrial scale. It was considered as productive unit 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: the development of dry white wine at laboratory scale, the evaluation of the variables of the process in the vilification, the Mathematical modeling of alcoholic fermentation in winemaking conditions, the assessment of the fitness of wines for human consumption, the establishment of a technological process for winemaking in a pilot plant, the evaluation in pilot plant of the technological process established, the calculation and selection of industrial equipment and finally, the costs estimation and profitability of the industrial technological process. A technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators was reached whose values were 6,602,666 net present value of U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of payback a value net of three years to date.