WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology energy sources

  1. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  2. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2006. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.; Luschtinetz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains 25 contributions, which were held on the 13th symposium ''Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology'' in Stralsund (Germany). Separate documentation items analysing 16 of the contributions have been prepared for the ENERGY database

  3. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  4. Energy Efficiency: Information Sources for New and Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Steven A.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to share a list of useful organizations that provide reliable information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies based on research and experience. Experienced energy managers may use the information provided by these organizations to enhance their knowledge and understanding, thereby improving their energy management programs. The scope is limited to publicly-available and open-membership organizations that deal with new and emerging, energy-efficient technologies, strategies, and products. The sources identified should not be considered exhaustive but rather a first step “go to” list suggested by the author when searching for useful information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies.

  5. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  6. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Antunez, Emilio u.

    1996-01-24

    In order to remain competitive it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them is also given.

  7. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

  8. Renewable Energy Sources - Technologies and Development of the Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car, S.

    2010-01-01

    The usage of renewable energy sources is a substitute for usage of fossil fuels, whose quantities are limited, and it represents an essential contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases; at the same time it has a great economic significance for the development of new industries and creation of new jobs. To speed up gradual transition from fossil to renewable sources, governments of all EU member states harmonise their legislations and subordinate regulations promoting investments in usage of renewable sources and thus creating opportunities for new jobs especially in the production of plants and equipment for utilisation of wind power, solar energy, small hydro power plants, biomass and other kinds of renewable sources. In the last 10 years Croatia has adopted a number of acts and regulations that also stimulate investors to utilise renewable sources, and the source of such subsidies is a higher price of electricity paid by all the consumers. On the other hand, the development of domestic industry and gaining references necessary for gaining new contracts are very difficult because of stiff international competition and foreign sources of finance, which often require purchase of foreign equipment as a condition for contract award. In such conditions the utilisation of renewable sources does not contribute either to economic development or creating new jobs in Croatia, but in the countries in which such equipment is produced.(author).

  9. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2014. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luschtinetz, Thomas; Lehmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    This proceedings contains 38 papers with the following main topics: wind and hydrogen technology, developments in the use of bioenergy, fuel cells, photovoltaics. Two contributions were recorded separately for this database. [de

  10. Use a renewable energy sources and latest power-saving technologies in the the Republic Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of alternative power in Kazakstan is brought up. Wind-, hydro-, solar power, biogas installation can improve the Republic power base. The main directions of activity of A. Einstein International Power engineering Academy on involving renewable energy sources and latest power-saving technologies to Republic of Kazakstan's fuel-power balance is given. It should be noted that renewable power engineering usually handles reversible energy sources and reserved power cycles. (author)

  11. Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of seven different technologies is presented. The technologies integrate fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind power production into the electricity supply, and the Danish energy system is used as a case. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted...... of a complete system meeting electricity, heat and transport demands, and including RES, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating and transport technologies. In conclusion, the most fuel-efficient and least-cost technologies are identified through energy system...... and feasibility analyses. Large-scale heat pumps prove to be especially promising as they efficiently reduce the production of excess electricity. Flexible electricity demand and electric boilers are low-cost solutions, but their improvement of fuel efficiency is rather limited. Battery electric vehicles...

  12. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  13. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... to relocate electricity production directly from the sources, while heat storage devices can be used to relocate the electricity production from CHP plants and hereby improve the ability to integrate RES. The analyses are done by advanced computer modelling and the results are given as diagrams showing...

  14. An assessment of exploiting renewable energy sources with concerns of policy and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yung-Chi; Lin, Grace T.R.; Li, Kuang-Pin; Yuan, Benjamin J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the Taiwanese government has vigorously promoted the development of renewable energy to engage the challenges of gradual depletion of fossil fuels and oil, as well as the intensification of the greenhouse effect. Since the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles were announced in 2008, Taiwanese government has declared that the development of renewable energy should take into account goals that pertain to energy, the environment, and the economy (3E goals). This study aims to assess the 3E goals and renewable energy sources regulated by the Renewable Energy Development Bill that passed in 2009. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is used to resolve the multi-goal problem for achieving our research purposes. That is, this research attempts to reveal the suitable renewable energy sources for the purposes of meeting the 3E policy goals. The results first show that environmental goal is the most important to the development of various renewable energy technologies in Taiwan, followed by the economic and energy goals. Additionally, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy would be the renewable energy sources utilized in meeting the 3E policy goals. (author)

  15. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  16. The Investments in Renewable Energy Sources: Do Low Carbon Economies Better Invest in Green Technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Angelo Romano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in low carbon and high carbon economies. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries was proposed. Results demonstrate that the dynamic of investments in renewable sources is similar in the two panels, and depends by nuclear power generation, GDP and technological efficiency. Results show that countries try to reduce their environmental footprint, decreasing the CO2 intensity. Based on the estimation results, we think that energy sustainability passes through the use of renewable resources that can complement the nuclear technology on condition that both exceed their limits.

  17. Renewable energy sources, the internet of things and the third industrial revolution: Smart grid and contemporary information and communication technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsios, Aristidis; Bousakas, Konstantinos; Salame, Takla; Bogno, Bachirou; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Vokas, Georgios A.; Mauffay, Fabrice; Petit, Pierre; Aillerie, Michel; Charles, Jean-Pierre

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the energy efficiency of a contemporary Smart Grid that is based on Distributed Renewable Energy Sources (DRES) is examined under the scope of the communication systems utilized between the energy loads and the energy sources. What is evident is that the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies that are based on the existing Web infrastructure can be heavily introduced in this direction especially when combined with long range low bandwidth networking technologies, power line communication technologies and optimization methodologies for renewable energy generation. The renewable energy generation optimization will be based on devices embedded in the PV panels and the wind power generators, which will rely on bidirectional communications with local gateways and remote control stations for achieving energy efficiency. Smart meters and DRES combined with IoT communications will be the enabling technologies for the ultimate fusion of Internet technology and renewable energy generation realizing the Energy Internet.

  18. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 3: technological innovation, renewable sources and rural energization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    These proceedings cover the papers presented in the 8. Brazilian congress on energy held at Rio de Janeiro from November, 30 to December, 02, 1999, focusing energy policy, regulation and sustainable development, specifically the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  19. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.

    2004-06-01

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  20. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology. Proceedings; Nutzung regenerativer Energiequellen und Wasserstofftechnik 2008. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luschtinetz, Thomas; Lehmann, Jochen (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Within the 15th symposium 'Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology' at 6th to 8th November, 2008, in Stralsund (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Processing of mine gas by means of membrane technology (T. Brinkmann, W. Clemens, A. Dengel, B. Hoting); (2) Energy storage in salt caverns / developments and concrete projects for adiabatic compressed air and for hydrogen storage (F. Crotogino, S. Huebner); (3) Application of an ORC plant in the area of a hybrid wind-hydrogen-plant (J. Eliasz, K. Rychlik); (4) Wind Farm Cluster Management Sysem (A.J. Gesino, C.A. Quintero Marrone, R. Mackensen, M. Wolff, B. Lange, K. Rohrig); (5) Results of a field test of a combination of a wood boiler and Stirling engine (B. Gross); (6) NANOSTIR - Optimisation of solid fuel operated Stirling CHP units by means of nano technological coatings (B. Gross); (7) Fundamental investigations of long-term behaviour / damage behaviour of big PEM stacks (September 2005 - October 2007) (M. Hinz, O. Luschtinetz, J. Lehmann); (8) HyFLEET:CUTE project: Results from the biggest hydrogen bus project in the world (T. Kampet); (9) Comparison of new chains of distribution for biogas and natural gas (M. Klamp); (10) Generation of hydrogen from formic acid at ambient temperature and its use in a H2/O2 fuel cell (B. Loges, A. Boddien, H. Junge, M. Beller); (11) PE membranes out of biological materials (E. Mendieta); (12) Offshore wind power affects generation, network and consumption (A. Miege, J. Lehmann, T. Luschtinetz, C. Sponholz, F. Gamallo); (13) Comparative investigations at fixed and tracking PV systems (R. Mueller, A. Rackwitz); (14) Energetic utilisation of biomass - boundary conditions, state of the art and perspectives (M. Nelles, D. Banemann, N. Engler, A. Schuech); (15) Supply networks - a new method of analysis for an optimized use of regenerative energy (R. Nieberle, A. Simroth); (16) Steam - vapour hybrid power plant supplied with

  1. Energy system analysis of CAES technologies in the Danish energy system with high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgi, Georges Garabeth; Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Wind power supplies 20% of the annual electricity demand in Denmark, while 50% is produced by combined heat and power (CHP). The installed wind turbine capacity in Western Denmark exceeds the local demand at certain points in time. So far, excess production has been exported to neighbouring...... countries. However, plans to expand wind power locally and in the neighbouring countries could restrain the export option and create transmission congestion challenges. This results in a need to increase the flexibility of the local electricity system. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) has been proposed...... as a potential solution for levelling fluctuating wind power production and maintaining system balance. Compared to other electricity storage technologies, CAES provides a large storage capacity using readily available technologies. Results from this paper, however, show that in order to have a significant...

  2. Appropriate Technology Sourcebook - For Tools and Techniques That Use Local Skills, Local Resources, and Renewable Sources of Energy. Volume One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Ken; Pam, Rick

    Written in non-technical language, this sourcebook identifies plans and books for village and small community technology. It contains reviews of publications from 375 American and foreign sources on agriculture, alternative sources of energy, water supply, health care, housing, and related subjects. Emphasized are small-scale systems using local…

  3. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2006. Proceedings; Nutzung regenerativer Energiequellen und Wasserstofftechnik 2006. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, J.; Luschtinetz, T. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    This volume contains 25 contributions, which were held on the 13th symposium ''Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology'' in Stralsund (Germany). Separate documentation items analysing 16 of the contributions have been prepared for the ENERGY database.

  4. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E. (Stathis) [Texas Christian Univ., Forth Worth, TX (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years). The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources - wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric - and some of the less common sources, such as tidal and wave energy. The emphasis of these chapters is on the global potential of each source; the engineering/technical systems that are currently used in harnessing the potential of each one of these energy sources; the technological developments that will contribute to wider utilization of the sources; and the environmental effects associated with their current and their wider use. The last three chapters are: energy storage, which is the main limitation of the wider use of solar and wind power and will become an important issue if renewable energy sources are to be used widely; energy conservation, which appears to be everyone's favorite issue, but by itself is not a solution to our energy challenge; and energy economics, a necessary consideration in market-driven economies. The fourteen chapters in the book have been chosen so that one may fit a semester University course around this book. At the end of every chapter, there are 12-20 problems

  5. Risks of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Pop-Jordanova, N.

    1989-09-01

    The paper is devoted to comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources and their influence to public perception, social acceptability and decision-making. The technical heights of the risks, expressed in the number of fatalities of labor and public per unit energy output, from fossil, nuclear and renewable sources are analysed and compared. The complete energy cycle from mining to waste disposal, as well as the future trends, are taken into account. A comparison of the risks of different energy systems with the anticipated global and national energy shares by source is also presented. Furthermore, detailed studies of the non-technical dimensions of the energy risks are performed. Using a modified attitude-behaviour model, the cognitive structure underlying the positions towards different energy options is investigated. Estimating the diverse acting of the risk components, the consequent changes in the rank ordering of the energy sources are deduced. Finally, adding the psychological components nuclear reaches the highest place. In this respect, a unified multidimensional space for the representation of various technological risks is introduced. It affords a comparison of the risks not only by their technical height, but also by other characteristics (involuntary, fearfulness etc.). Finally, it was pointed out that in considering the risk characteristics and constraints, as well as the external fields, a system approach has to be used, taking into account the risks simultaneously with the benefits. 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  6. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  7. Plenary lecture 1: thermoelectric technology as renewable energy source for power generation and heating & cooling systems

    OpenAIRE

    SHAMMAS, Noel

    2011-01-01

    This paper will review the latest research and current status of thermoelectric power generation, and will also demonstrate, using electronic design, semiconductor simulation and practical laboratory experimentation, the application of thermoelectric technology for use in energy harvesting and scavenging systems. Ongoing research and advances in thermoelectric materials and manufacturing techniques, enables the technology to make a greater contribution to address the growing requirement for l...

  8. 7. Kassel symposium on energy systems technology: Renewable energy sources and efficient utilization of energy; 7. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik: Erneuerbare Energien und rationelle Energieverwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselitz, P. (comp.)

    2002-07-01

    This proceedings volume comprises 17 papers on the following subjects: Methane hydrates, compounds of gas and water; Compressed air stroage gas turbine power plants / Scheduled application for load levelling between varying wind power production and power demand; Modern pumped storage power stations in the GW range - the PSW Goldisthal example; Lead batteries - new developments and future applications; Alkaline battery systems for hybrid electric road vehicles; Lighium systems and their applications; Zinc/air cells; Hydrogen storage - metal hydride storage, compressed gas storage, LNG storage; Carbon nanofibres for hydrogen storage; Double-layer condensers - technology, cost, perslpectives; Supercondensers in motor vehicles; Superconducting magnetic energy stores; Flywheel storage - status report; Decentralized energy storage in the European integrated supply grid - the EU project DISPOWER; Intercontinental integration of power supply - perspectives of full-scale power supply on the basis of renewable energy sources in Europe; High-volgate direct-current transmission in the European power suppply grid; Superconductivity and energy transport - status and perspectives. [German] Dieser Tagungsband enthaelt 17 Vortraege mit folgenden Themen: Methanhydrate: Verbindung aus Gas und Wasser (Erwin Suess); Druckluftspeicher-Gasturbinen-Kraftwerke / Geplanter Einsatz beim Ausgleich flukturierender Windenergie-Produktion und aktuellem Strombedarf (Fritz Crotogino); Moderne Pumpspeicherwerke im Gigawattbereich - PSW Goldisthal (Wolfgang Bogenrieder); Bleibatterien - neue Entwicklungen und zukuenftige Einsatzbereiche (Reiner Wagner); Alkalische Batteriesysteme fuer Hybrid-Elektrostrassenfahrzeuge (Detlef Ohms, Gunter Schaedlich); Lithiumsysteme - Einsatzbereiche (Dietmar Rahner); Zink/Luft-Zellen (Michael Bruesewitz); Wasserstoffspeicher - Metallhydridspeicher, Druckgasspeicher, Fluessiggasspeicher (Andreas Otto); Kohlenstoff-Nanofasern zur Wasserstoffspeicherung (Juergen Garche

  9. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  10. New primary energy source by thorium molten-salt reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kato, Yoshio; Furuhashi, Akira; Numata, Hiroo; Mitachi, Koushi; Yoshioka, Ritsuo; Sato, Yuzuru; Arakawa, Kazuto

    2005-01-01

    Among the next 30 years, we have to implement a practical measure in the global energy/environmental problems, solving the followings: (1) replacing the fossil fuels without CO 2 emission, (2) no severe accidents, (3) no concern on military, (4) minimizing wastes, (5) economical, (6) few R and D investment and (7) rapid/huge global application supplying about half of the total primary energy till 50 years later. For this purpose the following system was proposed: THORIMS-NES [Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System], which is composed of (A) simple fission Molten-Salt power stations (FUJI), and (B) fissile-producing Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder (AMSB). It has been internationally prepared a practical Developmental Program for its huge-size industrialization of Th breeding fuel cycle to produce a new rational primary energy. Here it is explained the social meaning, the conceptual system design and technological bases, especially, including the molten fluoride salt technology, which was developed as the triple-functional medium for nuclear-engineering, heat-transfer and chemical engineering. The complex function of this system is fully achieved by the simplified facility using a single phase molten-salt only. (author)

  11. Individual characteristics and stated preferences for alternative energy sources and propulsion technologies in vehicles: A discrete choice analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the determinants of the demand for alternative energy sources and propulsion technologies in vehicles. The data stem from a stated preference discrete choice experiment with 598 potential car buyers. In order to simulate a realistic automobile purchase situation, seven alternatives were incorporated in each of the six choice sets, i.e. hybrid, gas, biofuel, hydrogen, and electric as well as the common fuels gasoline and diesel. The vehicle types were additional...

  12. Nuclear energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  13. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  14. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Bathgate, M.B.; Crawford, R.B.; McCaleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K. (eds.)

    1976-05-01

    The chief objective of LLL's biomedical and environmental research program is to enlarge mankind's understanding of the implications of energy-related chemical and radioactive effluents in the biosphere. The effluents are studied at their sources, during transport through the environment, and at impact on critical resources, important ecosystems, and man himself. We are pursuing several projects to acquire such knowledge in time to guide the development of energy technologies toward safe, reasonable, and optimal choices.

  15. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.B.; Bathgate, M.B.; Crawford, R.B.; McCaleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K.

    1976-05-01

    The chief objective of LLL's biomedical and environmental research program is to enlarge mankind's understanding of the implications of energy-related chemical and radioactive effluents in the biosphere. The effluents are studied at their sources, during transport through the environment, and at impact on critical resources, important ecosystems, and man himself. We are pursuing several projects to acquire such knowledge in time to guide the development of energy technologies toward safe, reasonable, and optimal choices

  16. A Review of Organic Photovoltaic Energy Source and Its Technological Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidius Rutatizibwa Rwenyagila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews and describes some of the existing research and mechanisms of operation of organic photovoltaic (OPV cells. Introduced first are problems that exist with traditional fossil fuels that result in most of the world energy challenges such as environmental pollution. This is followed by the description of baseline organic solar cell (OSC structures and materials. Then, some of the existing modelling approaches that have implemented either a one- or a two-dimensional drift-diffusion model to examine OSC structures are reviewed, and their reproducibility is examined. Both experimental and modelling approaches reviewed are particularly important for more and better designed research to probe practical procedural problems associated with OSCs that hinder the commercialization of OPV technology.

  17. Appropriate technology sourcebook: for tools and techniques that use local skills, local resources, and renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, K.; Pam, R.

    1976-01-01

    This is a guide to practical plans and books for village and small community technology. Critical reviews of selected publications on alternative sources of energy, farm implements, shop tools, agriculture, low-cost housing, health care, water supply, pedal power, philosophy of appropriate technology, and related subjects are given. Small-scale systems using local skills and resources are emphasized. Publications were chosen that provide enough practical information to be of significant help in understanding principles and in actually building the designs included. Entries were selected on the basis of low price, clarity of presentation, easily understandable nontechnical language, and unique subject matter. Materials and production techniques required are listed for all equipment plans. More than 375 publications from American and international sources, with 200 illustrations are listed. Price and address are given for each publication; some are also available in French or Spanish editions.

  18. New energy technologies. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report on the new energy technologies has been written by a working group on request of the French ministry of economy, finances and industry, of the ministry of ecology and sustainable development, of the ministry of research and new technologies and of the ministry of industry. The mission of the working group is to identify goals and priority ways for the French and European research about the new technologies of energy and to propose some recommendations about the evolution of research incentive and sustain systems in order to reach these goals. The working group has taken into consideration the overall stakes linked with energy and not only the climatic change. About this last point, only the carbon dioxide emissions have been considered because they represent 90% of the greenhouse gases emissions linked with the energy sector. A diagnosis is made first about the present day context inside which the new technologies will have to fit with. Using this diagnosis, the research topics and projects to be considered as priorities for the short-, medium- and long-term have been identified: energy efficiency in transports, in dwellings/tertiary buildings and in the industry, development for the first half of the 21. century of an energy mix combining nuclear, fossil-fuels and renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  19. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  20. Energy storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This book takes stock of the advantages and drawbacks of the different energy storage solutions apart from the classical fossil fuels (oil, uranium, gas), and details the technologies developed for an electric end-use. Storage is one of the most critical point for the development of new energy technologies, in particular those that use the electricity vector all along the energy source chain (generation, production, transport, utilisation). Storage is important not only for individual or independent applications, that use renewable energies or not, often intermittent, but also to secure coupled systems like power transportation and distribution systems. The development and choice of the most relevant technologies is dependent of technical-economical parameters. It can also supply new services, in particular in the framework of new electricity markets. Content: power film-capacitors, magnetic storage, kinetic energy storage, compressed air energy storage (CAES), hydro-pneumatic storage, high-temperature thermal storage of electricity, hydraulic gravity storage, power electronic systems for energy storage. (J.S.)

  1. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  2. Alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the development of alternative energy sources has made them more attractive than nuclear power, due to their characteristics, such as small scale and short lead times, moderate costs and minimal environmental impact. The objectives of energy policy are discussed in relation to forecasts of energy demand. Tables show (a) projected useful energy demands UK; (b) patterns of end-use of energy; (c) costs of heating fuels; (d) net present value of gas purchases; (e) useful-energy by end-use analysis; and (f) primary fuel summary 2025. The contributions of hydro, nuclear, waves, solar, oil, gas and coal are estimated to 2025. (U.K.)

  3. Solar Thermal Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Solar Thermal Energy Technology (PST) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy resource.

  4. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens-Guille, P.D.

    1975-01-01

    The author highlights the interesting points made by the speeches during the conference on Energy and its Future in Southern Africa. He also draws attention to potential alternate energy sources such as power from tides, ocean waves, ocean temperature differences and geothermal power

  5. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, F.

    1986-01-01

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  6. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, technologies, cost and availability. Sub-project alternative energy sources: solar, eolic, shale, ocean, hydrogen, organic wastes, peat and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Several aspects of solar, eolic and ocean energy and shale, peat lignite, hydrogen and organic waste in Brazil are described, including reserves, potential, technology economy and environment. Based in data and information presented in this report, the necessity of a more detailed survey with the potential of alternative energy sources in Brazil, emphasizing the more promiser regions is also mentioned. (C.G.C.)

  7. A Comprehensive Tool for Exploring the Availability, Scalability and Growth Potential of Conventional and Renewable Energy Sources and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack-Scott, E.; Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Davis, S. J.; Delman, E.

    2015-12-01

    It has been a generational challenge to simultaneously meet the world's energy requirements, while remaining within the bounds of acceptable cost and environmental impact. To this end, substantial research has explored various energy futures on a global scale, leaving decision-makers and the public overwhelmed by information on energy options. In response, this interactive energy table was developed as a comprehensive resource through which users can explore the availability, scalability, and growth potentials of all energy technologies currently in use or development. Extensive research from peer-reviewed papers and reports was compiled and summarized, detailing technology costs, technical considerations, imminent breakthroughs, and obstacles to integration, as well as political, social, and environmental considerations. Energy technologies fall within categories of coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, solar, wind, hydropower, ocean, geothermal and biomass. In addition to 360 expandable cells of cited data, the interactive table also features educational windows with background information on each energy technology. The table seeks not to advocate for specific energy futures, but to succinctly and accurately centralize peer-reviewed research and information in an interactive, accessible resource. With this tool, decision-makers, researchers and the public alike can explore various combinations of energy technologies and their quantitative and qualitative attributes that can satisfy the world's total primary energy supply (TPES) while making progress towards a near zero carbon future.

  8. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  9. Intermediate-energy light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Corbett, W

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, atomic scale information underlies scientific and technological progress in disciplines ranging from pharmaceutical development to materials synthesis to environmental remediation. While a variety of research tools are used to provide atomic scale information, synchrotron radiation has proved invaluable in this quest. The rapid growth of soft- and hard X-ray synchrotron light sources stands as stark testimony to the importance and utility of synchrotron radiation. Starting from just a handful of synchrotron light sources in the early 1970s, this burgeoning field now includes over 70 proposed, in-construction, or operating facilities in 23 countries on five continents. Along the way, synchrotron light facilities have evolved from small laboratories extracting light parasitically from storage rings designed for high-energy physics research to large, dedicated sources using the latest technology to produce extraordinarily bright photon beams. The basic layout of a multi-GeV storage ring light sourc...

  10. Buildings Energy Technology; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Buildings Energy Technology (BET) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. Each issue of BET also will include an article presenting a program overview or highlighting a current energy conservation technology project of DOE's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) plus a listing of scheduled meetings of interest. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  11. Technology and energy at school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, N.

    1994-01-01

    The teaching of technology and energy in schools requires more than simply the transfer of information. Public attitudes towards technology often contain unacknowledged contradictions, and research has shown that programmes for greater public understanding of science depend for their success on context, motivation, and on the source of the information. Exploration of the methods of science, its motivations and its limitations, should provide the basis for teaching nuclear energy in schools

  12. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  13. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis

  14. New energy technologies 4. Energy management and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Caire, R.; Raison, B.; Quenard, D.; Verneau, G.; Zissis, G.

    2007-01-01

    This forth tome of the new energy technologies handbook is devoted to energy management and to the improvement of energy efficiency. The energy management by decentralized generation insertion and network-driven load control, analyzes the insertion and management means of small power generation in distribution networks and the means for load management by the network with the aim of saving energy and limiting peak loads. The second part, devoted to energy efficiency presents in a detailed way the technologies allowing an optimal management of energy in buildings and leading to the implementation of positive energy buildings. A special chapter treats of energy saving using new lighting technologies in the private and public sectors. Content: 1 - decentralized power generation - impacts and solutions: threat or opportunity; deregulation; emerging generation means; impact of decentralized generation on power networks; elements of solution; 2 - mastery of energy demand - loads control by the network: stakes of loads control; choice of loads to be controlled; communication needs; measurements and controls for loads control; model and algorithm needs for loads control. A better energy efficiency: 3 - towards positive energy buildings: key data for Europe; how to convert fossil energy consuming buildings into low-energy consuming and even energy generating buildings; the Minergie brand; the PassivHaus or 'passive house' label; the zero-energy house/zero-energy home (ZEH); the zero-energy building (ZEB); the positive energy house; comparison between the three Minergie/PassivHaus/ZEH types of houses; beyond the positive energy building; 4 - light sources and lighting systems - from technology to energy saving: lighting yesterday and today; light sources and energy conversion; energy saving in the domain of lighting: study of some type-cases; what future for light sources. (J.S.)

  15. Renewable energy sources and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panajotova, Yu.

    1998-01-01

    The share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world energy balance is estimated from 1-2 to 10% of the total primary energy sources consumption. In EU since 1990 until now the power energy production from these sources is growing continuously by over 3% annually. The features of the updated Environmental Strategy for Bulgaria (ESB) elaborated with the World Bank in 1994 are: increasing the energy efficiency; utilising RES; granting preference to the regional energy concept and establishing regional energy centres based on the EU experience. In ESB the basic priorities are linked with disease factors - pollutants as lead in the air and soils (from leaded petrol, resp. from metallurgical enterprises), dust particles in the air (from household heating, industry and thermo-electric power stations) and sulfur dioxide and other gases (also from energy sector and industry). There is consistent policy for harmonization of the Bulgarian standards with those of the WHO. Among the implemented projects preference is granting to ones concerning new energy saving technologies and RES. Bulgaria got an environmental protection law harmonized with the international legislation and adapted to the economic situation inflicted by the market economy transition. The development of RES needs high investment cost and has low efficiency factor compared to the classical methods of energy production. Implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the

  16. Second program on energy research and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    The second major energy research and development program is described. Renewable and nonrenewable energy resources are presented which include nuclear technology and future energy sources, like fusion. The current status and outlook for future progress are given.

  17. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  18. Hydrogen energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morovic, T.; Pilhar, R.; Witt, B.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of different energy systems from the economic point of view has to be based on data showing all relevant costs incurred and benefits drawn by the society from the use of such energy systems, i.e. internal costs and benefits visible to the energy consumer as prices paid for power supplied, as well as external costs and benefits. External costs or benefits of energy systems cover among other items employment or wage standard effects, energy-induced environmental impacts, public expenditure for pollution abatement and mitigation of risks and effects of accidents, and the user costs connected with the exploitation of reserves, which are not rated high enough to really reflect and demonstrate the factor of depletion of non-renewable energy sources, as e.g. fossil reserves. Damage to the natural and social environment induced by anthropogenous air pollutants up to about 90% counts among external costs of energy conversion and utilisation. Such damage is considered to be the main factor of external energy costs, while the external benefits of energy systems currently are rated to be relatively unsignificant. This means that an internalisation of external costs would drive up current prices of non-renewable energy sources, which in turn would boost up the economics of renewable energy sources, and the hydrogen produced with their energy. Other advantages attributed to most of the renewable energy sources and to hydrogen energy systems are better environmental compatibility, and no user costs. (orig.) [de

  19. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  20. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, W.J.; Bookless, W.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the United States Department of Energy, was established in 1952 to do research on nuclear weapons and magnetic fusion energy. Since then, in response to new national needs, we have added other major programs, including technology transfer, laser science (fusion, isotope separation, materials processing), biology and biotechnology, environmental research and remediation, arms control and nonproliferation, advanced defense technology, and applied energy technology. These programs, in turn, require research in basic scientific disciplines, including chemistry and materials science, computing science and technology, engineering, and physics. The Laboratory also carries out a variety of projects for other federal agencies. Energy and Technology Review is published monthly to report on unclassified work in all our programs. This issue reviews work performed in the areas of modified retoring for waste treatment and underground stripping to remove contamination

  1. Buildings Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Emmanuel, L. [eds.

    1996-11-01

    BET announces on a monthly basis current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. It contains abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers,patents,theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through IEA`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government- to-government agreements. The citations are available for online searching and retrieval; current information, added daily, is available to DOE and its contractors.

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the 'new' renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal. Best technology and policy practice must be identified and exchanged with emerging economy partners, to enable the most cost-effective and beneficial development.

  3. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  4. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    2004-01-01

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies.......Wind power and combined heat and power (CHP) using biomass (for combustion, gasification or fermentation) are two of the most promising renewable technologies for generation of electricity. Denmark has a long and well-established tradition for these technologies that now account for approx. 25...

  5. Uranium as an energy source: resources, production and reserves from the point of view of technological development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersow, M.

    2008-01-01

    A reliable evaluation of the uranium resources available in the future and associated strategic reserves must take into account trends in prospecting, degree of technological development of the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle (starting with the mining industry and preparation), but in particular also the specific raw material and energy yield of future generations of fuel and reactor technology. Uranium deposits are categorised with regard to ore content and probable production costs. The intensified prospecting following the increase in the uranium price will lead to discovery of further reserves and thus continue to follow the historical trend. Uranium production is subject to increasingly stringent legal boundary conditions - mining and preparation are approved according to strict international standards to minimise the environmental effects during operation and to restore and recultivate the sites after closure. New or extended/modernised uranium production sites are based on modern semi- or fully automated technologies. Exposure to radiation and environmental effects are minimised by avoidance of tailings (in situ leaching), by relocation of preparation partial processes underground or by storage of the residues from conventional plants according to international standards. In addition to a rough prediction based on currently available data trends in resource development, uranium production, fuel production and the energy yield from uranium including the option of utilisation of transuranic elements for energy production in order to minimise the radioactive waste are discussed and applied qualitatively to estimation of the reserves. (orig.)

  6. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  7. Renewable energy sources and climate protection. Background information - technologies - projecting - economic efficiency. 2. upd. ed.; Erneuerbare Energien und Klimaschutz. Hintergruende - Techniken - Anlagenplanung - Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW), Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet ' ' Regenerative Energiesysteme' '

    2010-07-01

    Every year, it becomes clearer that the global climate change has already started. As an effective countermeasure, experts have long been calling for a fast restructuring of our power supply system. Renewable energy sources will be capable of taking over completely within just a few decades. This new edition of the book outlines the vast spectrum of renewable energy sources, from solar and wind power to geothermal heat and biomass. The technologies are described, along with information on their current state of the art and future prospects, and information is provided for projecting and construction of renewable power supply systems. Legal regulations and available financial incentives are listed. Environmental aspects and interdependences between the various technologies are discussed as well as their economic efficiency. In spite of the wealth of information it provides, the book is written in a clear and sometimes even humorous manner and addresses experts as well as the lay public. (orig.)

  8. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  9. Technological Change During the Energy Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, G.C.; Smulders, Sjak A.

    2014-01-01

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources has important consequences for technological change and resource extraction. We examine these consequences by incorporating a non-renewable resource and an alternative energy source in a market economy model of endogenous growth

  10. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is a pleading in favor of hydroelectric power which in Romania originated more than 100 y ago. The hydroelectric potential of this country amounts to about 40 TWh / year. The hydroelectric yield is currently 15.5 TWh / year, 11.5 TWh / year of which being supplied by the Danube Power Plants. The hydroelectric power has a number of advantages: it is renewable, can be stocked and distributed according to the daily, weekly or seasonal energy demand, the energetic output is 82-89 %, if the project is carefully worked out the hydroelectric system has a small environmental impact, the service life can reach over 80 years, while the maintaining and operation costs are low. Some drawbacks are listed: the problems related to the population relocation, the environmental effects, especially the forest clearing, salt enrichment of affected soils. Arguments are presented from the economic point of view, backed up by ecological and technological advantages in favor of developing the micro hydroelectric power facilities

  11. Renewable Energy Sources Brno '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest. (J.B.)

  12. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.B.; McCleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Brief discussions of research progress on the following topics are given: (1) lasers and laser applications, (2) advanced energy systems, (3) science and technology, and (4) national security. Some experiments on the in-flight laser irradiation of ammonia pellets are discussed

  13. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory publishes the Energy and Technology Review Monthly. This periodical reviews progress mode is selected programs at the laboratory. This issue includes articles on in-situ coal gasification, on chromosomal aberrations in human sperm, on high speed cell sorting and on supercomputers.

  14. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory publishes the Energy and Technology Review Monthly. This periodical reviews progress mode is selected programs at the laboratory. This issue includes articles on in-situ coal gasification, on chromosomal aberrations in human sperm, on high speed cell sorting and on supercomputers

  15. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  16. Renewable energy sources. Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    To judge future trends in work on the exploitation of renewable energy sources for overall energy supply, it is necessary to know the following: the rules that nature abides by, the principles of technical exploitation of these energies, and the basic data for the current state of development. The above information is compiled in this publication for those renewable energy sources on which topical discussion centres: solar radiation and wind. For the remaining renowable energy sources (e.g. biomass, tidal power, geothermal energy), some examples of use are mentioned and advanced literature is indicated. (orig./HSCH).

  17. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Research programs at LLNL are reviewed. This issue discusses validation of the pulsed-power design for FXR, the NOVA plasma shutter, thermal control of the MFTF superconducting magnet, a low-energy x-ray spectrometer for pulsed-source diagnostics, micromachining, the electronics engineer's design station, and brazing with a laser microtorch

  18. Health risks of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    This volume examines occupational, public health, and environmental risks of the coal fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle, and unconventional energy technologies. The 6 chapters explore in detail the relationship between energy economics and risk analysis, assess the problems of applying traditional cost-benefit analysis to long-term environmental problems (such as global carbon dioxide levels), and consider questions about the public's perception and acceptance of risk. Also included is an examination of the global risks associated with current and proposed levels of energy production and comsumption from all major sources. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 6 chapters; all are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA) and four in Energy Research Abstracts

  19. New energy technologies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the conclusions of the working group, decided by the french government to identify the objectives and main axis for the french and european research on the new energy technologies and to propose recommendations on the assistance implemented to reach these objectives. The three main recommendations that the group drawn concern: the importance of the research and development on the energy conservation; a priority on the renewable energies, the sequestration and the nuclear power; the importance of the France for the research programs on the hydrogen, the fuel cells, the photovoltaic, the electric power networks and storage, the production of liquid fuels from fossil fuels, the underground geothermal energy, the fusion and the offshore wind power. (A.L.B.)

  20. Flywheel Energy Storage technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Howell, D. [comps.

    1993-12-31

    Advances in recent years of high strength/lightweight materials, high performance magnetic bearings, and power electronics technology has spurred a renewed interest by the transportation, utility, and manufacturing industries in Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) technologies. FES offers several advantages over conventional electro-chemical energy storage, such as high specific energy and specific power, fast charging time, long service life, high turnaround efficiency (energy out/energy in), and no hazardous/toxic materials or chemicals are involved. Potential applications of FES units include power supplies for hybrid and electric vehicles, electric vehicle charging stations, space systems, and pulsed power devices. Also, FES units can be used for utility load leveling, uninterruptable power supplies to protect electronic equipment and electrical machinery, and for intermittent wind or photovoltaic energy sources. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum to highlight technologies that offer a high potential to increase the performance of FES systems and to discuss potential solutions to overcome present FES application barriers. This document consists of viewgraphs from 27 presentations.

  1. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.; Crawford, R.B.; Esser, M.A.; Lien, P.L.; O'Neal, E.; Van Dyke, P.

    1982-07-01

    The state of the laboratory address by LLNL Director Roger Batzel is summarized, and a breakdown of the laboratory funding is given. The Livermore defense-related committment is described, including the design and development of advanced nuclear weapons as well as research in inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnance, and particle beam technology. LLNL is also applying its scientific and engineering resources to the dual challenge of meeting future energy needs without degrading the quality of the biosphere. Some representative examples are given of the supporting groups vital for providing the specialized expertise and new technologies required by the laboratory's major research programs

  2. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowers, I.F.; Crawford, R.B.; Esser, M.A.; Lien, P.L.; O' Neal, E.; Van Dyke, P. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    The state of the laboratory address by LLNL Director Roger Batzel is summarized, and a breakdown of the laboratory funding is given. The Livermore defense-related committment is described, including the design and development of advanced nuclear weapons as well as research in inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnance, and particle beam technology. LLNL is also applying its scientific and engineering resources to the dual challenge of meeting future energy needs without degrading the quality of the biosphere. Some representative examples are given of the supporting groups vital for providing the specialized expertise and new technologies required by the laboratory's major research programs. (GHT)

  3. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.S.

    1983-06-01

    Research activities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are described in the Energy and Technology Review. This issue includes articles on measuring chromosome changes in people exposed to cigarette smoke, sloshing-ion experiments in the tandem mirror experiment, aluminum-air battery development, and a speech by Edward Teller on national defense. Abstracts of the first three have been prepared separately for the data base

  4. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.S. (ed.)

    1983-06-01

    Research activities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are described in the Energy and Technology Review. This issue includes articles on measuring chromosome changes in people exposed to cigarette smoke, sloshing-ion experiments in the tandem mirror experiment, aluminum-air battery development, and a speech by Edward Teller on national defense. Abstracts of the first three have been prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  5. Superconductivity in energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Four years after the sensational discovery the purpose of this book is to show the current state of the art, the technical-physical concepts and new aspects of the technical application and use of superconductors, in the field of energy technologies. The book will focus primarily on the following topics: general introductions; materials: requirements, properties, manufacture, processing; cryotechnology; machines, cables, switches, transformers; energy storage; magnetic engineering for fusion, transport and mass separation; magnets for particle accelerators; promotional activities, economy, patents. This book has been written by and for scientists and engineers working in industry, large-scale research institutions, universities and other research and application fields to help further their knowledge in this field. Apart from the current state of the art, the book also describes future application and development possibilities for the superconductor in power engineering. (orig.)

  6. A comparative table of various energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This table provides wide informations on the technological facets of various sources of primary energy. One of the outstanding features of this table is that it exposes and compares various technological problems involved in the energy conversion processes. The primary energy sources treated here are the solar energy (heat and light are treated separately), the geothermal energy, coal (gasification and liquefaction are treated separately), oil, natural gas, oceano-energy (tidal energy, temperature difference, and wave energy are treated separately), organic wastes, oil shale, tar sand, hydraulic power, wind power, biomass, uranium, thorium, and deuterium and lithium. On the other hand, the comparisons are made in three major items, i.e. charactersitics as natural resources, conversion or refinement to secondary energy sources, and economical characteristics. The first item includes the estimated and recognized amount of deposits, easiness of mining, storage, and transportation, and cleanliness and safety. As for conversion characteristics, the easiness, controlability, efficiency, cleanliness, and safety of various conversion processes are compared. Finally, as for economical problems, cost comparisons are made for gathering or mining those resources, including required energy input, man power, required facilities, and site conditions. (Aoki, K.)

  7. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, P. C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  8. Models for evaluation of energy technology and policy options to maximize low carbon source penetration in the United States energy supply.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, Paul S.; Kataoka, Dawn; Reno, Marissa Devan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Roach, Jesse D.; Brainard, James Robert; West, Todd H.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2009-12-01

    An initial version of a Systems Dynamics (SD) modeling framework was developed for the analysis of a broad range of energy technology and policy questions. The specific question selected to demonstrate this process was 'what would be the carbon and import implications of expanding nuclear electric capacity to provide power for plug in hybrid vehicles?' Fifteen SNL SD energy models were reviewed and the US Energy and Greenhouse gas model (USEGM) and the Global Nuclear Futures model (GEFM) were identified as the basis for an initial modeling framework. A basic U.S. Transportation model was created to model U.S. fleet changes. The results of the rapid adoption scenario result in almost 40% of light duty vehicles being PHEV by 2040 which requires about 37 GWy/y of additional electricity demand, equivalent to about 25 new 1.4 GWe nuclear plants. The adoption rate of PHEVs would likely be the controlling factor in achieving the associated reduction in carbon emissions and imports.

  9. Energy and Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.J. [ed.

    1993-08-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was established in 1952 to do research on nuclear weapons and magnetic fusion energy. Since then, we other major programs have been added including laser fusion, and laser isotope separation, biomedical and environmental science, strategic defense and applied energy technology. These programs, in turn, require research in basic scientific disciplines, including chemistry and materials science, computer science and technology, engineering and physics. In this issue, Herald Brown, the Laboratory`s third director and now counselor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, reminisces about his years at Livermore and comments about the Laboratory`s role in the future. Also an article on visualizing dynamic systems in three dimensions is presented. Researchers can use our interactive algorithms to translate massive quantities of numerical data into visual form and can assign the visual markers of their choice to represent three- dimensional phenomena in a two-dimensional setting, such as a monitor screen. Major work has been done in the visualization of climate modeling, but the algorithms can be used for visualizing virtually any phenomena.

  10. Fourteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Presented are many short articles on various aspects of energy production, use, and conservation in industry. The impacts of energy efficient equipment, recycling, pollution regulations, and energy auditing are discussed. The topics covered include: New generation sources and transmission issues, superconductivity applications, integrated resource planning, electro technology research, equipment and process improvement, environmental improvement, electric utility management, and recent European technology and conservation opportunities. Individual papers are indexed separately

  11. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  12. Energy consumption and technological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.R.

    1990-02-01

    The paper determines an outline of the world energy prospects based on principal trends of the development of energy consumption analysed over the long past period. According to the author's conclusion the development of energy systems will be determined in the nearest future (30 - 40 years) by contemporary energy technologies based on the exploitation of traditional energy resources but in the far future technologies based on the exploitation of thermonuclear and solar energy will play the decisive role. (author)

  13. People-Technology-Ecosystem Integration: A Framework to Ensure Regional Interoperability for Safety, Sustainability, and Resilience of Interdependent Energy, Water, and Seafood Sources in the (Persian) Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkati, Najmedin; Tabibzadeh, Maryam; Farshid, Ali; Rahimi, Mansour; Alhanaee, Ghena

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the interdependencies of human and organizational subsystems of multiple complex, safety-sensitive technological systems and their interoperability in the context of sustainability and resilience of an ecosystem. Recent technological disasters with severe environmental impact are attributed to human factors and safety culture causes. One of the most populous and environmentally sensitive regions in the world, the (Persian) Gulf, is on the confluence of an exponentially growing number of two industries--nuclear power and seawater desalination plants--that is changing its land- and seascape. Building upon Rasmussen's model, a macrosystem integrative framework, based on the broader context of human factors, is developed, which can be considered in this context as a "meta-ergonomics" paradigm, for the analysis of interactions, design of interoperability, and integration of decisions of major actors whose actions can affect safety and sustainability of the focused industries during routine and nonroutine (emergency) operations. Based on the emerging realities in the Gulf region, it is concluded that without such systematic approach toward addressing the interdependencies of water and energy sources, sustainability will be only a short-lived dream and prosperity will be a disappearing mirage for millions of people in the region. This multilayered framework for the integration of people, technology, and ecosystem--which has been applied to the (Persian) Gulf--offers a viable and vital approach to the design and operation of large-scale complex systems wherever the nexus of water, energy, and food sources are concerned, such as the Black Sea. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  15. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggio, A.J. (ed.)

    1988-10-01

    This issue of Energy and Technology Review contains: Neutron Penumbral Imaging of Laser-Fusion Targets--using our new penumbral-imaging diagnostic, we have obtained the first images that can be used to measure directly the deuterium-tritium burn region in laser-driven fusion targets; Computed Tomography for Nondestructive Evaluation--various computed tomography systems and computational techniques are used in nondestructive evaluation; Three-Dimensional Image Analysis for Studying Nuclear Chromatin Structure--we have developed an optic-electronic system for acquiring cross-sectional views of cell nuclei, and computer codes to analyze these images and reconstruct the three-dimensional structures they represent; Imaging in the Nuclear Test Program--advanced techniques produce images of unprecedented detail and resolution from Nevada Test Site data; and Computational X-Ray Holography--visible-light experiments and numerically simulated holograms test our ideas about an x-ray microscope for biological research.

  16. SIHTI - Energy and environmental technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estlander, A.; Pietilae, S.

    1993-01-01

    The research and development program SIHTI was carried out during 1991-1992, mainly concentrating on energy and environmental technology. SIHTI focused on examining emissions from various sources of energy in all stages of the production chain. The objective was to create new methods and equipment, with which the environmental drawbacks of energy production can be reduced. Also a development work aiming at reduced traffic emissions was included in the program. Totally the program included 53 projects, which were divided into the following subsections: energy production, traffic, fuel chains and other projects. In the energy production projects the main attention was paid to reduction of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and particulate emissions. Furthermore waste utilization and possibilities of reducing carbon dioxide emissions were studied. The traffic study was focused on developing of more environmental-friendly liquid fuels. The research of emissions at low ambient temperatures was developed to an international level. Further the use of gases and the rape seed oil ester as traffic fuel was studied in practical tests. In the fuel chain study the emissions from the most important fuel chains were examined all the way from the purchase of the primary energy to the final end product. Methods for further reduction of water discharges from peat production were developed. The other projects were concentrated on modelling development, environmental impact assessment and emission surveys

  17. Kassel symposium on energy systems technology: renewable energy sources and efficient utilization of energy. Proceedings '97; Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik. Erneuerbare Energien und Rationelle Energieverwendung. Tagungsband '97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R. [comp.

    1998-07-01

    With the support of the FORSCHUNGSVERBUND SONNENENERGIE (RESEARCH ASSOCIATION SOLAR ENERGY) and the VDE association of the district Kassel the Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology (ISET) managed to close a gap in the list of events dealing with electric energy supply including the use of renewable energies. Another considerable increase in the number of participants at the 2nd Kassel symposium on energy systems technology compared to the previous year confirms the chosen direction and the selected major topic of discussion. Numerous studies - among others those from Shell, Esso and BP - predict the competitiveness of renewable energies in the next 20 to 30 years. Their share in the consumption of primary energies will increase considerably until the year 2005. Two tendencies can be noticed in the expansion of renewable energies in the field of electric current generation. On the one hand the increasing number of private as well as commercial offers of decentrally generated electric power leads to a higher supply into the public grid. On the other hand renewable energy carriers are more and more used for an autonomous energy supply in regions, which are not connected to the grid. In order to foster both tendencies and to support the combination of different approaches not only technical requirements but also the interfaces of components must be clearly defined. (orig.) [German] Mit Unterstuetzung des FORSCHUNGSVERBUND SONNENENERGIE, und des VDE Bezirksvereins Kassel ist es dem ISET gelungen, eine Luecke im Veranstaltungsangebot zur elektrischen Energieversorgung mit Einbindung erneuerbarer Energien zu schliessen. Die erneute deutliche Steigerung der Teilnehmerzahl beim 2. Kasseler Symposium zur Energie-Systemtechnik gegenueber dem Vorjahr bestaetigt den eingeschlagenen Weg und den gewaehlten Themenschwerpunkt. Zahlreiche Studien - darunter auch die von Shell, Esso und BP - sagen den erneuerbaren Energien eine Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit in den naechsten 20

  18. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, de T.Z.D.; Graaff, de M.S.; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Mels, A.R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lier, van J.B.; Lettinga, G.

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas

  19. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  20. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  1. Appendix A: Energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The project financial evaluation section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  2. Progress in sustainable energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim; Kucuk, Haydar

    2014-01-01

    This multi-disciplinary volume presents information on the state-of-the-art in sustainable energy technologies key to tackling the world's energy challenges and achieving environmentally benign solutions. Its unique amalgamation of the latest technical information, research findings and examples of successfully applied new developments in the area of sustainable energy will be of keen interest to engineers, students, practitioners, scientists and researchers working with sustainable energy technologies. Problem statements, projections, new concepts, models, experiments, measurements and simula

  3. Technology data for energy plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-06-15

    The Danish Energy Agency and Energinet.dk, the Danish electricity transmission and system operator, have at regular intervals published a catalogue of energy producing technologies. The previous edition was published in March 2005. This report presents the results of the most recent update. The primary objective of publishing a technology catalogue is to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for energy planning activities, such as future outlooks, evaluations of security of supply and environmental impacts, climate change evaluations, and technical and economic analyses, e.g. on the framework conditions for the development and deployment of certain classes of technologies. With this scope in mind, it has not been the intention to establish a comprehensive catalogue, including all main gasification technologies or all types of electric batteries. Only selected, representative, technologies are included, to enable generic comparisons of e.g. thermal gasification versus combustion of biomass and electricity storage in batteries versus hydro-pumped storage. It has finally been the intention to offer the catalogue for the international audience, as a contribution to similar initiatives aiming at forming a public and concerted knowledge base for international analyses and negotiations. A guiding principle for developing the catalogue has been to rely primarily on well-documented and public information, secondarily on invited expert advice. Since many experts are reluctant in estimating future quantitative performance data, the data tables are not complete, in the sense that most data tables show several blank spaces. This approach has been chosen in order to achieve data, which to some extent are equivalently reliable, rather than to risk a largely incoherent data set including unfounded guesstimates. The ambition of the present publication has been to reduce the level of inconsistency to a minimum without compromising the fact that the real world

  4. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  5. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  6. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    energy sources in relation to other energy sources. The objective in the long term is to make them as competitive as possible in the open energy market. Among those measures of crucial importance included in the Action Plan, we can mention development and commercialisation of new technology as well as several financial measures, of which taxation and investment aid are considered to have the greatest effect. In addition, the Action Plan presents several administrative measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. A separate assessment of the environmental impact of the Action Plan has been made resulting in an environmental impact statement (EIS) that contains a detailed account of the environmental impacts of the use of renewable energy sources and the use of peat in energy production. The most important environmental impact of the implementation of the Action Plan will be a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the intensified measures to be taken in accordance with the Action Plan, carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to be reduced at least by 2 million tons per year compared with the outlook presented in the Energy Strategy. Further, the use of waste, which otherwise would have been transported to tips, in energy production is estimated to reduce methane emissions by 1 million ton per year (C0 2 equivalent). The reduction might be even much bigger in the next few years. To ensure that the objectives of the Action Plan will be achieved, the contribution by the State (tax subsidies, investment aid and other forms of aid) should be approx. FIM 500 million on an average per year in the next ten years. In 1998, the State's contribution exceeded FIM 300 million. Further, financing amounting to approx. FIM 200 million is channelled to the research on and the development of energy production technology, which in the future to a larger extent than now will be channelled to the development of such forms of energy production technology that are using

  7. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    competitiveness of renewable energy sources in relation to other energy sources. The objective in the long term is to make them as competitive as possible in the open energy market. Among those measures of crucial importance included in the Action Plan, we can mention development and commercialisation of new technology as well as several financial measures, of which taxation and investment aid are considered to have the greatest effect. In addition, the Action Plan presents several administrative measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. A separate assessment of the environmental impact of the Action Plan has been made resulting in an environmental impact statement (EIS) that contains a detailed account of the environmental impacts of the use of renewable energy sources and the use of peat in energy production. The most important environmental impact of the implementation of the Action Plan will be a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the intensified measures to be taken in accordance with the Action Plan, carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to be reduced at least by 2 million tons per year compared with the outlook presented in the Energy Strategy. Further, the use of waste, which otherwise would have been transported to tips, in energy production is estimated to reduce methane emissions by 1 million ton per year (C0{sub 2} equivalent). The reduction might be even much bigger in the next few years. To ensure that the objectives of the Action Plan will be achieved, the contribution by the State (tax subsidies, investment aid and other forms of aid) should be approx. FIM 500 million on an average per year in the next ten years. In 1998, the State's contribution exceeded FIM 300 million. Further, financing amounting to approx. FIM 200 million is channelled to the research on and the development of energy production technology, which in the future to a larger extent than now will be channelled to the development of such forms of energy

  8. Fuel cells as renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciola, G.; Passalacqua, E.

    2001-01-01

    The technology level achieved in fuel cell (FC) systems in the last years has significantly increased the interest of various manufacturing industries engaged in energy production and distribution even under the perspectives that this technology could provide. Today, the fuel cells (FCs) can supply both electrical and thermal energy without using moving parts and with a high level of affordability with respect to the conventional systems. FCs can utilise every kind of fuel such as hydrocarbons, hydrogen available from the water through renewable sources (wind, solar energy), alcohol etc. Thus, they may find application in many field ranging from energy production in large or small plants to the cogeneration systems for specific needs such as for residential applications, hospitals, industries, electric vehicles and portable power sources. Low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC, DMFC) are preferred for application in the field of transportation and portable systems. The CNR-ITAE research activity in this field concerns the development of technologies, materials and components for the entire system: electrocatalysts, conducting supports, electrolytes, manufacturing technologies for the electrodes-electrolyte assemblies and the attainment of fuel cells with high power densities. Furthermore, some activities have been devoted to the design and realisation of PEFC fuel cell prototypes with rated power lower than I kW for stationary and mobile applications [it

  9. Industrial Energy Conservation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 55 papers presented in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 18 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  10. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selden, R.W.

    1977-05-01

    Topics covered include: geothermal energy development at LLL, energy conversion engineering, continuing education at LLL, and the Western states uranium resource survey. Separate abstracts were prepared for 3 sections. (MCG)

  11. Industrial energy conservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P.S.; Williams, M.A. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 60 papers included in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 21 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  12. Morgantown Energy Technology Center, technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. METC's R ampersand D programs are focused on commercialization of technologies that will be carried out in the private sector. META has solicited two PRDAs for EM. The first, in the area of groundwater and soil technologies, resulted in twenty-one contact awards to private sector and university technology developers. The second PRDA solicited novel decontamination and decommissioning technologies and resulted in eighteen contract awards. In addition to the PRDAs, METC solicited the first EM ROA in 1993. The ROA solicited research in a broad range of EM-related topics including in situ remediation, characterization, sensors, and monitoring technologies, efficient separation technologies, mixed waste treatment technologies, and robotics. This document describes these technology development activities

  13. Smart City Energy Interconnection Technology Framework Preliminary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guotai; Zhao, Baoguo; Zhao, Xin; Li, Hao; Huo, Xianxu; Li, Wen; Xia, Yu

    2018-01-01

    to improve urban energy efficiency, improve the absorptive ratio of new energy resources and renewable energy sources, and reduce environmental pollution and other energy supply and consumption technology framework matched with future energy restriction conditions and applied technology level are required to be studied. Relative to traditional energy supply system, advanced information technology-based “Energy Internet” technical framework may give play to energy integrated application and load side interactive technology advantages, as a whole optimize energy supply and consumption and improve the overall utilization efficiency of energy.

  14. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  15. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I.W.; Yoon, K.S.; Cho, B.W. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The sharp increase in energy usage according to the industry development has resulted in deficiency of energy resources and severe pollution problems. Therefore, development of the effective way of energy usage and energy resources of low pollution is needed. Development of the energy conversion technology by chemical processes is also indispensable, which will replace the pollutant-producing and inefficient mechanical energy conversion technologies. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes directly converts chemical energy to electrical one, or converts heat energy to chemical one followed by heat storage. The technology includes batteries, fuel cells, and energy storage system. The are still many problems on performance, safety, and manufacturing of the secondary battery which is highly demanded in electronics, communication, and computer industries. To overcome these problems, key components such as carbon electrode, metal oxide electrode, and solid polymer electrolyte are developed in this study, followed by the fabrication of the lithium secondary battery. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, as an advanced power generating apparatus with high efficiency, no pollution, and no noise, has many applications such as zero-emission vehicles, on-site power plants, and military purposes. After fabricating the cell components and operating the single cells, the fundamental technologies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell are established in this study. Energy storage technology provides the safe and regular heat energy, irrespective of the change of the heat energy sources, adjusts time gap between consumption and supply, and upgrades and concentrates low grade heat energy. In this study, useful chemical reactions for efficient storage and transport are investigated and the chemical heat storage technology are developed. (author) 41 refs., 90 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Emerging wind energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  17. Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Charles Chamberlin; Robert Chaney; Gang Chen; Godwin Chukwu; James Clough; Steve Colt; Anthony Covescek; Robert Crosby; Abhijit Dandekar; Paul Decker; Brandon Galloway; Rajive Ganguli; Catherine Hanks; Rich Haut; Kristie Hilton; Larry Hinzman; Gwen Holdman; Kristie Holland; Robert Hunter; Ron Johnson; Thomas Johnson; Doug Kame; Mikhail Kaneveskly; Tristan Kenny; Santanu Khataniar; Abhijeet Kulkami; Peter Lehman; Mary Beth Leigh; Jenn-Tai Liang; Michael Lilly; Chuen-Sen Lin; Paul Martin; Pete McGrail; Dan Miller; Debasmita Misra; Nagendra Nagabhushana; David Ogbe; Amanda Osborne; Antoinette Owen; Sharish Patil; Rocky Reifenstuhl; Doug Reynolds; Eric Robertson; Todd Schaef; Jack Schmid; Yuri Shur; Arion Tussing; Jack Walker; Katey Walter; Shannon Watson; Daniel White; Gregory White; Mark White; Richard Wies; Tom Williams; Dennis Witmer; Craig Wollard; Tao Zhu

    2008-12-31

    The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory was created by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in response to a congressionally mandated funding opportunity through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), specifically to encourage research partnerships between the university, the Alaskan energy industry, and the DOE. The enabling legislation permitted research in a broad variety of topics particularly of interest to Alaska, including providing more efficient and economical electrical power generation in rural villages, as well as research in coal, oil, and gas. The contract was managed as a cooperative research agreement, with active project monitoring and management from the DOE. In the eight years of this partnership, approximately 30 projects were funded and completed. These projects, which were selected using an industry panel of Alaskan energy industry engineers and managers, cover a wide range of topics, such as diesel engine efficiency, fuel cells, coal combustion, methane gas hydrates, heavy oil recovery, and water issues associated with ice road construction in the oil fields of the North Slope. Each project was managed as a separate DOE contract, and the final technical report for each completed project is included with this final report. The intent of this process was to address the energy research needs of Alaska and to develop research capability at the university. As such, the intent from the beginning of this process was to encourage development of partnerships and skills that would permit a transition to direct competitive funding opportunities managed from funding sources. This project has succeeded at both the individual project level and at the institutional development level, as many of the researchers at the university are currently submitting proposals to funding agencies, with some success.

  18. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  19. Wearable Biomechanical Energy Harvesting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Man Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has been attracting attention as a technology that is capable of replacing or supplementing a battery with the development of various mobile electronics. In environments where stable electrical supply is not possible, energy harvesting technology can guarantee an increased leisure and safety for human beings. Harvesting with several watts of power is essential for directly driving or efficiently charging mobile electronic devices such as laptops or cell phones. In this study, we reviewed energy harvesting technologies that harvest biomechanical energy from human motion such as foot strike, joint motion, and upper limb motion. They are classified based on the typical principle of kinetic energy harvesting: piezoelectric, triboelectric, and electromagnetic energy harvesting. We focused on the wearing position of high-power wearable biomechanical energy harvesters (WBEHs generating watt-level power. In addition, the features and future trends of the watt-level WBEHs are discussed.

  20. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Research is described in three areas, high-technology design of unconventional, nonnuclear weapons, a model for analyzing special nuclear materials safeguards decisions, and a nuclear weapons accident exercise (NUWAX-81)

  1. Nuclear energy versus other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear and other sources of energy as they relate to the production of electricity. It first examines the current role of electricity in the world and its means of production and how future economic growth, associated with growing populations striving for better living conditions, will lead to increased demands for new electricity generation. The second part of the paper deals with the health and environmental impacts of the major options for generating electricity likely to be used to meet this need, and how a comparative assessment of these impacts is important to understand the full implications of electricity generation planning decisions. 6 refs, 12 figs

  2. Renewable sources of energy in Austria 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1993-07-01

    Present contribution of renewable sources of energy to the overall energy requirements in Austria. Estimated potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria: firewood and biogeneous fuels, environmental energy, combustible wastes. Ecological aspects of utilising renewable sources of energy. Market barriers and strategies for overcoming them

  3. Learning in renewable energy technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.

    2005-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are: to investigate technological change and cost reduction for a number of renewable electricity technologies by means of the experience curve approach; to address related methodological issues in the experience curve approach, and, based on these insights; and to analyze the implications for achieving the Dutch renewable electricity targets for the year 2020 within a European context. In order to meet these objectives, a number of research questions have been formulated: What are the most promising renewable electricity technologies for the Netherlands until 2020 under different technological, economic and environmental conditions?; To what extent is the current use of the experience curve approach to investigate renewable energy technology development sound, what are differences in the utilization of this approach and what are possible pitfalls?; How can the experience curve approach be used to describe the potential development of partially new energy technologies, such as offshore wind energy? Is it possible to describe biomass fuel supply chains with experience curves? What are the possibilities and limits of the experience curve approach when describing non-modular technologies such as large (biomass) energy plants?; What are the main learning mechanisms behind the cost reduction of the investigated technologies?; and How can differences in the technological progress of renewable electricity options influence the market diffusion of renewable electricity technologies, and what implications can varying technological development and policy have on the implementation of renewable electricity technologies in the Netherlands? The development of different renewable energy technologies is investigated by means of some case studies. The possible effects of varying technological development in combination with different policy backgrounds are illustrated for the Netherlands. The thesis focuses mainly on the development of investment

  4. Health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is needed to sustain the economy, health and welfare of nations. As a consequence of this, energy consumption figures are frequently used as an index of a nation's advancement. As a result of the global energy crisis, almost every nation has had to develop all its available energy resources and plan its future use of energy. The planners of national and international energy policies are however often faced with a problem of 'public acceptance' arising from the potential health and environmental impacts of developing energy resources. The public's desire to preserve the quality of man's health and his environment frequently results in opposition to many industrial innovations, including the generation and use of energy. Reliable, quantitative data and information are needed on the risks to health and the environment of different contemporary energy systems, to improve public understanding, and to serve as the basis from which national planners can choose between different energy supply options. With the exception of nuclear energy, even in technologically advanced countries little systematic research and development has been done on the quantitative assessment of the effects on health and the environment of the conventional energy sources. The need for this information has only been realized over the past decade as the climate and environment in many regions of the world has deteriorated with the unabated release of pollutants from factories and energy generating plants in particular. A number of countries have started national environmental health research programmes to monitor and regulate toxic emissions from industry and energy plants. Energy-related environmental health research has been supported and co-ordinated by various international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). WHO has supported expert reviews on the potential health risks posed

  5. Energy and Technology Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Three articles and two briefs discuss ongoing research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics in this issue include: construction of human chromosome library (brief); dispersion of liquified gases (brief); magma evolution; energy flow diagrams; and computer simulation of particulate flow

  6. Nuclear power: tomorrow's energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In France, 76% of electricity is produced by nuclear power. The industry's pricing levels are among the most competitive in Europe. Thanks to its 58 nuclear reactors France enjoys almost 50% energy autonomy thus ensuring a highly stable supply. Equally, as a non-producer of greenhouse gases, the nuclear sector can rightfully claim to have an environmentally friendly impact. Against a background to increasing global demand with predictions that fossil fuels will run out and global warming a central issue, it is important to use production methods which face up to problems of this nature. There is no question that nuclear energy has a vital role to play alongside other energy sources. (authors)

  7. Energy and Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookless, W.A.; McElroy, L.; Wheatcraft, D.; Middleton, C.; Shang, S. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    Two articles are included: the industrial computing initiative, and artificial hip joints (applying weapons expertise to medical technology). Three research highlights (briefs) are included: KEN project (face recognition), modeling groundwater flow and chemical migration, and gas and oil national information infrastructure.

  8. Energy and Technology Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bookless, W.A.; McElroy, L.; Wheatcraft, D.; Middleton, C.; Shang, S.

    1994-10-01

    Two articles are included: the industrial computing initiative, and artificial hip joints (applying weapons expertise to medical technology). Three research highlights (briefs) are included: KEN project (face recognition), modeling groundwater flow and chemical migration, and gas and oil national information infrastructure

  9. Renewable energy sources in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Balducchi, R.; Bernardini, A.; Dondi, F.; Di Carlo, F.; Genovese, A.; Scoccianti, M.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions. [it

  10. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  11. Biological sources of energy from the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlips, E. J.

    1982-02-01

    The use of marine plants and microscopic organisms as possible future energy sources is examined. Parallels are drawn between the coming depletion of fossil fuel resources and the first energy crisis on earth, when evolving cells began to use up the stores of organic molecules in the ocean, and photosynthesis, in the form of plant biomass, is considered as a possible solution to the present energy crisis. The energy potential of marine biomass, specifically the seaweeds, microscopic algae and photosynthetic bacteria, is then assessed, and experimental attempts at the culturing of such organisms, are noted. Microbial energy technologies, principally the replacement of chemical processes requiring fossil fuels with biological conversion systems and direct biomass conversion into hydrogen and methane fuels, are then examined. Possible applications of techniques involving genetic engineering and cell-free systems to future bioenergy research are indicated, and the impetus to the rapid development of solar energy posed by the problems of pollution and availability of present energy sources is emphasized.

  12. Gas and energy technology 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    Norway has a long tradition as an energy producing nation. No other country administers equally large quantities of energy compared to the number of inhabitants. Norway faces great challenges concerning the ambitions of utilizing natural gas power and living up to its Kyoto protocol pledges. Tekna would like to contribute to increased knowledge about natural gas and energy, its possibilities and technical challenges. Topics treated include carrying and employing natural gas, aspects of technology, energy and environment, hydrogen as energy carrier, as well as other energy alternatives, CO{sub 2} capture and the value chain connected to it.

  13. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  14. Wind energy technology developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2014-01-01

    turbine blades and towers are very large series-produced components, which costs and quality are strongly dependent on the manufacturing methods. The industrial wind energy sector is well developed in Denmark, and the competitive advantage of the Danish sector and the potential for job creation...

  15. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.J.; Canada, J.; de Vore, L.; Gleason, K.; Kirvel, R.D.; Kroopnick, H.; McElroy, L.

    1994-04-01

    This issue highlights the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s 1993 accomplishments in our mission areas and core programs: economic competitiveness, national security, energy, the environment, lasers, biology and biotechnology, engineering, physics, chemistry, materials science, computers and computing, and science and math education. Secondary topics include: nonproliferation, arms control, international security, environmental remediation, and waste management.

  16. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    Three areas of research are discussed: microcomputer technology applied to inspecting machined parts to determine roundness in ultraprecision measurements; development of an electrolytic technique for preparing dinitrogen pentoxide as a potentially less expensive step in the large-scale synthesis of the explosive HMX; and the application of frequency conversion to short wavelengths in the Novette and Nova lasers to improve the performance of inertial-confinement fusion targets. (GHT)

  17. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Three areas of research are discussed: microcomputer technology applied to inspecting machined parts to determine roundness in ultraprecision measurements; development of an electrolytic technique for preparing dinitrogen pentoxide as a potentially less expensive step in the large-scale synthesis of the explosive HMX; and the application of frequency conversion to short wavelengths in the Novette and Nova lasers to improve the performance of inertial-confinement fusion targets

  18. Advanced technologies and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The expert committee on the research 'Application of advanced technologies to nuclear power' started the activities in fiscal year 1994 as one of the expert research committees of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The objective of its foundation is to investigate the information on the advanced technologies related to atomic energy and to promote their practice. In this fiscal year, the advanced technologies in the fields of system and safety, materials and measurement were taken up. The second committee meeting was held in March, 1995. In this report, the contents of the lectures at the committee meeting and the symposium are compiled. The topics in the symposium were the meaning of advanced technologies, the advanced technologies and atomic energy, human factors and control and safety systems, robot technology and microtechnology, and functionally gradient materials. Lectures were given at two committee meetings on the development of atomic energy that has come to the turning point, the development of advanced technologies centering around ULSI, the present problems of structural fine ceramics and countermeasures of JFCC, the material analysis using laser plasma soft X-ray, and the fullerene research of advanced technology development in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. (K.I.)

  19. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...

  20. Global energy and technology trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2008-01-01

    from the world's nuclear power reactors has continued to climb steadily, although the amount of new nuclear capacity coming on line each year has dropped substanially since its peak in 1980s. Looking ahead to nuclear power's prospects in the new century, four features stand out: (1) new nuclear power plants are not being built fast enough to maintain nuclear power's 16% share of global electricity generation; (2) current expansion, as well as near-term and long term growth prospects, are centered in Asia; (3) but 2002 also saw some signs of revitalized growth in Western Europe and North america, where growth has stagnated because of economics, market liberalization, and excess capacity; (4) long-term projections for nuclear power, particularly in the event of international agreement to significantly limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, are more bullish than near term trends. The key determining factor will be economics. In considering how to meet the world's growing need for enegy, it is important to recognize that each country is unique in itself and that every country uses a mix of energy supplies because: (1) different technologies are needed to meet diferent needs, e.g. for baseload power in contrast to peak power, or for meeting concentrated demand in megacities in contrast to that required by small users in remote areas; (2) evolution of the energy supply is uneven, and new technologies replace older ones in fits and starts and with overlaps; (3) different investors choose different technologies based on different requirements and perceptions about profitability and risk; (4) fast growing countries like China may need to expand all energy sources simultaneously just to keep up with growing demand. Moreover, the right mix for each country depends partly on how fast a country's energy demand is growing; on the country's energy resources and alternatives; on the available financing options and whether the investment is in a deregulated market that values rapid

  1. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    Three review articles are presented. The first describes the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory role in the research and development of oil-shale retorting technology through its studies of the relevant chemical and physical processes, mathematical models, and new retorting concepts. Second is a discussion of investigation of properties of dense molecular fluids at high pressures and temperatures to improve understanding of high-explosive behavior, giant-planet structure, and hydrodynamic shock interactions. Third, by totally computerizing the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer system, the laboratory has produced a general-purpose instrument of unrivaled speed, selectivity, and adaptability for the analysis and identification of trace organic constituents in complex chemical mixtures. (GHT)

  2. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Three review articles are presented. The first describes the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory role in the research and development of oil-shale retorting technology through its studies of the relevant chemical and physical processes, mathematical models, and new retorting concepts. Second is a discussion of investigation of properties of dense molecular fluids at high pressures and temperatures to improve understanding of high-explosive behavior, giant-planet structure, and hydrodynamic shock interactions. Third, by totally computerizing the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer system, the laboratory has produced a general-purpose instrument of unrivaled speed, selectivity, and adaptability for the analysis and identification of trace organic constituents in complex chemical mixtures

  3. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  4. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowers, I.F. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    Three research programs at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are described. (1) The solid-state microscope, specifically designed for computer input, enables automated high-resolution population screening for blood-cell abnormalities or early signs of cancer. Nonmedical applications appear possible in powder metallurgy, geology, and semiconductor fabrication. (2) The studies of ion-atom collisions have led to improved atomic-structure measurements, new techniques for determining elemental composition, and better x-ray detector calibrations. (3) A new and promising source of high-power laser radiation has characteristics that may make it feasible for the production of fusion power on a commercial scale. (GHJ)

  5. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.

    1982-01-01

    Three research programs at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are described. (1) The solid-state microscope, specifically designed for computer input, enables automated high-resolution population screening for blood-cell abnormalities or early signs of cancer. Nonmedical applications appear possible in powder metallurgy, geology, and semiconductor fabrication. (2) The studies of ion-atom collisions have led to improved atomic-structure measurements, new techniques for determining elemental composition, and better x-ray detector calibrations. (3) A new and promising source of high-power laser radiation has characteristics that may make it feasible for the production of fusion power on a commercial scale

  6. Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Bauer, Ch.; Burgherr, P.; Stucki, S.; Vogel, F.; Biollaz, S.; Schulz, T.; Durisch, W.; Hardegger, P.; Foskolos, K.; Meier, A.; Schenler, W.

    2005-02-01

    This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

  7. Energy and Technology Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    A specialized laser amplifier for use with velocity-measuring systems is described which makes possible detailed measurements of explosion-driven targets extending over long times. The experimental and diagnostic facilities of the Bunker 801 project enables sensitive and thorough hydrodynamics tests on the high-explosive components of nuclear devices. An improved spectrometry system has been developed covering the energy range from 0.025 eV to 20 MeV for use in radiation monitoring, and a new material is being tested for the neutron dosimeter worn with identification badges

  8. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierker,S.; Bergmann, U.; Corlett, J.; Dierker, S.; Falcone, R.; Galayda, J.; Gibson, M.; Hastings, J.; Hettel, B.; Hill, J.; Hussain, Z.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirx, J.; Long, G.; McCurdy, B.; Raubenheimer, T.; Sannibale, F.; Seeman, J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Shenoy, g.; Schoenlein, B.; Shen, Q.; Stephenson, B.; Stohr, J.; Zholents, A.

    2008-12-01

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects. The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee [1]. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of

  9. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Dierker, Steve; Falcone, Roger; Galayda, John; Gibson, Murray; Hastings, Jerry; Hettel, Bob; Hill, John; Hussain, Zahid; Kao, Chi-Chang; Kirz, Janos; Long, Danielle; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Sannibale, Fernando; Seeman, John; Shen, Z. -X.; Schenoy, Gopal; Schoenlein, Bob; Shen, Qun; Stephenson, Brian; Stohr, Joachim; Zholents, Alexander

    2009-01-28

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of

  10. Energy and Technology Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This journal contains 7 articles pertaining to astrophysics. The first article is an overview of the other 6 articles and also a tribute to Jim Wilson and his work in the fields of general relativity and numerical astrophysics. The six articles are on the following subjects: (1) computer simulations of black hole accretion; (2) calculations on the collapse of the iron core of a massive star; (3) stellar-collapse models which reveal a possible site for nucleosynthesis of elements heavier than iron; (4) modeling sources for gravitational radiation; (5) the development of a computer program for finite-difference mesh calculations and its applications to astrophysics; (6) the existence of neutrinos with nonzero rest mass are used to explain the universe. Abstracts of each of the articles were prepared separately. (SC)

  11. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgarensky, Mihael

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  12. Geothermal energy, what technologies for what purposes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This book, fully illustrated and rich of concrete examples, takes stock of the different technologies implemented today to use the Earth's heat: geothermal heat pumps for domestic, tertiary and collective residential uses, geothermal district heating networks and geothermal power plants for power generation. This overview is completed by a description of the future perspectives offered by this renewable energy source in the World and in France in terms of energy independence and technological innovation: geo-cooling, hybrid systems, absorption heat pumps or stimulated geothermal systems. (J.S.)

  13. Renewable energy sources, finance and sustainability outlook and latest evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paesani, P.

    2008-01-01

    Environment-related reasons, pressure by public opinion, and above all the strong belief that green technologies will be highly profitable pave the way to higher investments of private finance on renewable energy sources [it

  14. Risoe energy report 6. Future options for energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2007-11-15

    Fossil fuels provide about 80% of the global energy demand, and this will continue to be the situation for decades to come. In the European Community we are facing two major energy challenges. The first is sustainability, and the second is security of supply, since Europe is becoming more dependent on imported fuels. These challenges are the starting point for the present Risoe Energy Report 6. It gives an overview of the energy scene together with trends and emerging energy technologies. The report presents status and trends for energy technologies seen from a Danish and European perspective from three points of view: security of supply, climate change and industrial perspectives. The report addresses energy supply technologies, efficiency improvements and transport. The report is volume 6 in a series of reports covering energy issues at global, regional and national levels. The individual chapters of the report have been written by staff members from the Technical University of Denmark and Risoe National Laboratory together with leading Danish and international experts. The report is based on the latest research results from Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, together with available internationally recognized scientific material, and is fully referenced and refereed by renowned experts. Information on current developments is taken from the most up-to-date and authoritative sources available. Our target groups are colleagues, collaborating partners, customers, funding organizations, the Danish government and international organizations including the European Union, the International Energy Agency and the United Nations. (au)

  15. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffour, Noreddine; Lattemann, Sabine; Missimer, Thomas; Ng, Kim Choon; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Amy, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable energy-driven desalination technologies are highlighted. • Solar, geothermal, and wind energy sources were explored. • An innovative hybrid approach (combined solar–geothermal) has also been explored. • Innovative desalination technologies developed by our group are discussed. • Climate change and GHG emissions from desalination are also discussed. - Abstract: Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m 3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3–4 kW h e /m 3 ). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h e /m 3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source

  16. Nuclear energy such as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, D.B.; Stecher, L.C.; Menzel, F.; Coelho, T.S.; Giariola, R.S

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power is still an unknown subject to many and ends up being left out when it comes to alternative energy sources and environmental preservation. Unfamiliarity and the disclosures information that are not always correct end up not to show the public the true risks and benefits of this source. The strength of public opinion is the main barrier to the advancement of this technology. So, this paper aims to demystify the villain aspect of nuclear energy that could become a major source for power generation. For this, will be made a historical retrospective of the theories that enabled the field of nuclear fission, the authors and key points, such as will be described how nuclear fission reaction is produced, controlled and sustained and how energy is produced, will be also made an argument on key facts that lead public opinion to stand up against nuclear power, as the generation of radioactive waste and nuclear weapons. Are presented possible solutions beyond the learning and improvements resulting from the occurred accidents. After these analyzes was observed that, besides being a potentially clean source for power generation, it can be safe in order that the waste generated are already safely managed and intelligence groups also monitor terrorist groups, seeking to ensure global security in relation to nuclear weapons and, at the issue of accidents, each event has brought learning and became the nuclear industry today, one of the safest. (author)

  17. Commercialization of sustainable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.; Kristle Nathan, Hippu Salk; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2010-01-01

    Commercialization efforts to diffuse sustainable energy technologies (SETs) have so far remained as the biggest challenge in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Limited success of diffusion through government driven pathways urges the need for market based approaches. This paper reviews the existing state of commercialization of SETs in the backdrop of the basic theory of technology diffusion. The different SETs in India are positioned in the technology diffusion map to reflect their slow state of commercialization. The dynamics of SET market is analysed to identify the issues, barriers and stakeholders in the process of SET commercialization. By upgrading the 'potential adopters' to 'techno-entrepreneurs', the study presents the mechanisms for adopting a private sector driven 'business model' approach for successful diffusion of SETs. This is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development with innovative regulatory, marketing, financing, incentive and delivery mechanisms leading to SET commercialization. (author)

  18. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imiere, E.E.; Ojih, V.B.; Esiekpe, L.E.; Okafor, M.C.; Attoh, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  19. Future prospects for renewable energy sources in a global frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the possibilities of some new energy sources (solar, wind) in the future world energy supply. We intend to prepare future projections accounting for limitations in infrastructure, time and material inputs. One underlying assumption in the analyses is that new technologies will see an early market introduction in the near future which would continue up to year 2020. During these 30 years, there will still be technological developments leading to a much better manufacturability, mass production, and hence reduced costs. In year 2020, the industrial and economic infrastructure of new energy sources would be mature for a major penetration into the world energy market starting to substitute existing energy sources mainly for environmental reasons. This scenario will be suported by more factual information and data in the following chapters. Each new energy technology will be handled separately. (Quittner)

  20. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2014-04-13

    Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group\\'s contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.

    2000-01-01

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  2. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  3. Balmorel open source energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Frauke; Bramstoft, Rasmus; Koduvere, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    As the world progresses towards a cleaner energy future with more variable renewable energy sources, energy system models are required to deal with new challenges. This article describes design, development and applications of the open source energy system model Balmorel, which is a result of a l...... transport of local biomass as part of the optimisation and speeding up the model....

  4. Energy sources and power plants; Energiequellen und Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Detlef [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ. / Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany). Professur fuer Elektrische Energiesysteme; Schulz, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [German] Energie wird aus verschiedenen Energietraegern gewonnen (Kohle, Erdoel, Erdgas, Kernbrennstoffe, Windenergie, Solarenergie, Wasserkraft, Biomasse, Geothermie). Diese unterscheiden sich jeweils hinsichtlich ihrer Verfuegbarkeit, der Methoden ihrer Gewinnung und der benoetigten Kraftwerkstechnologien. Als Zukunftstechnologien werden Brennstoffzellen und Kernfusion gehandelt.

  5. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  6. Hybrid energy sources for electric and fuel cell vehicle propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, N; Yap, H T; Bingham, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Given the energy (and hence range) and performance limitations of electro-chemical batteries, hybrid systems combining energy and power dense storage technologies have been proposed for electric vehicle propulsion. The paper will discuss the application of electro-chemical batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells in single and hybrid source configurations for electric vehicle drive-train applications. Simulation models of energy sources are presented and used to investigate the design optimi...

  7. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  8. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, E.

    1998-01-01

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  9. GLOBAL ENERGY CRISIS AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Piechota

    2013-01-01

    The sudden development of the mankind at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries brought along the growth in importance of exploiting the energy of different type. When uninterruptedly a demand for the energy is growing, and abilities of increasing the supply for her are limited, we can deal with the occurrence of an energy crisis. The article is moving the subject matter of an global energy crisis. A definition of an energy crisis, his genesis and effects were included in it for world econom...

  10. Contemporary energy storage sources. Energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy system for electricity production is impede because of needs to be stabilized with nearly equivalent installed power of energy storage devices. The development of more electrical energy storage facilities will be extremely important for electricity generation in the future. Using hydro pumping, combined with a long life and fast charge/discharge rate, highly efficient contemporary power energy storage as Altairnano lithium ion battery, currently is seems to be the best solution for fast penetration rate of wind and solar energy systems

  11. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  12. Project plan hydrogen energy systems technology. Phase 1: Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An overview of the potential need for hydrogen as a source of energy in the future was presented in order to identify and define the technology requirements for the most promising approaches to meet that need. The following study objectives were discussed: (1) determination of the future demand for hydrogen, based on current trends and anticipated new uses, (2) identification of the critical research and technology advances required to meet this need considering, to the extent possible, raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects, and (3) definition and recommendation of the scope and space of a National Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology Program and outline of a Program Development Plan.

  13. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...... to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid......The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...

  14. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid......The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...... renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...

  15. World Energy Resources and New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of civilisation is linked inextricably with growing demand for electricity. Thus, the still-rapid increase in the level of utilisation of natural resources, including fossil fuels, leaves it more and more urgent that conventional energy technologies and the potential of the renewable energy sources be made subject to re-evaluation. It is estimated that last 200 years have seen use made of more than 50% of the available natural resources. Equally, if economic forecasts prove accurate, for at least several more decades, oil, natural gas and coal will go on being the basic primary energy sources. The alternative solution represented by nuclear energy remains a cause of considerable public concern, while the potential for use to be made of renewable energy sources is seen to be very much dependent on local environmental conditions. For this reason, it is necessary to emphasise the impact of research that focuses on the further sharpening-up of energy efficiency, as well as actions aimed at increasing society's awareness of the relevant issues. The history of recent centuries has shown that rapid economic and social transformation followed on from the industrial and technological revolutions, which is to say revolutions made possible by the development of power-supply technologies. While the 19th century was "the age of steam" or of coal, and the 20th century the era of oil and gas, the question now concerns the name that will at some point come to be associated with the 21st century. In this paper, the subjects of discussion are primary energy consumption and energy resources, though three international projects on the global scale are also presented, i.e. ITER, Hydrates and DESERTEC. These projects demonstrate new scientific and technical possibilities, though it is unlikely that commercialisation would prove feasible before 2050. Research should thus be focused on raising energy efficiency. The development of high-efficiency technologies that

  16. Light Sources Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsinelis, Spyridon

    2010-01-01

    From the dialogues of the ancient Greek philosophers right up through the physical laws of Newton, the experiments of Thomas Young and the quantum physics pioneers, the study of light was all about observing its characteristics and defining its behavior. At the end of the 19th century, wicks, wax, and oil gave way to electricity, filaments, and gases, and scientific minds began to focus on the technological creation of light, as well as its control and diverse uses. Yet, despite more than a century of profound research and development, until now, the most complete resources on lighting technol

  17. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  18. Tidal energy - a technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.

    1991-01-01

    The tides are caused by gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon acting upon the world's oceans. This creates a clean renewable form of energy which can in principle be tapped for the benefit of mankind. This paper reviews the status of tidal energy, including the magnitude of the resource, the technology which is available for its extraction, the economics, possible environmental effects and non-technical barriers to its implementation. Although the total energy flux of the tides is large, at about 2 TW, in practice only a very small fraction of this total potential can be utilised in the foreseeable future. This is because the energy is spread diffusely over a wide area, requiring large and expensive plant for its collection, and is often available remote from centres of consumption. The best mechanism for exploiting tidal energy is to employ estuarine barrages at suitable sites with high tidal ranges. The technology is relatively mature and components are commercially available now. Also, many of the best sites for implementation have been identified. However, the pace and extent of commercial exploitation of tidal energy is likely to be significantly influenced, both by the treatment of environmental costs of competing fossil fuels, and by the availability of construction capital at modest real interest rates. The largest projects could require the involvement of national governments if they are to succeed. (author) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 19 refs

  19. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Gekas, Vassilis

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  20. Sustaining with efficiency the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, L.; Lorenzoni, A.

    2008-01-01

    European energy policy requires actions, in favour of a more widespread diffusion of renewable energy sources. Is essential to have an efficient financial support to reduce costs. Are presented an estimated of electric power from renewable energy sources and some criticism. Is proposed a modification of green certificates market based on bilateral tradable agreements [it

  1. Boosting the adoption and the reliability of renewable energy sources: Mitigating the large-scale wind power intermittency through vehicle to grid technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2017-01-01

    The integration of wind energy in the electricity sector and the adoption of electric vehicles in the transportation sector both have the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions individually as well as in tandem with Vehicle-to-Grid technology. This study aims to evaluate the greenhouse gas emission savings of mitigating intermittency resulting from the introduction of wind power through Vehicle-to-Grid technologies, as well as the extent to which the marginal electricity consumption from charging an electric vehicle fleet may weaken this overall environmental benefit. To this end, the comparisons are conducted in seven independent system operator regions. The results indicate that, in most cases, the emission savings of a combination of wind power and Vehicle-to-Grid technology outweighs the additional emissions from marginal electricity generation for electric vehicles. In addition, the fluctuations in newly-integrated wind power could be balanced in the future using EVs and V2G technology, provided that a moderate portion of EV owners is willing to provide V2G services. On the other hand, such a combination is not favorable if the Vehicle-to-Grid service participation rate is less than 5% of all electric vehicle owners within a particular region. - Highlights: • The environmental benefit of vehicle to grid systems as grid stabilizer is analyzed. • Emission savings of vehicle to grid and impacts of electric vehicles are compared. • Seven independent system operator regions are studied. • Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are performed through a Monte Carlo Simulation.

  2. Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The simplest fusion fuels, the heavy isotopes of

  3. Environmental protection congress M-V. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2010. Proceedings; Klimaschutzkongress M-V. Nutzung regenerativer Energiequellen und Wasserstofftechnik 2010. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luschtinetz, Thomas; Lehmann, Jochen (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the Environmental Protection Congress M-V from 4th to 6th November, 2010, in Stralsund (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Conception for climate production in Stralsund (Matthias Ahlhaus); (2) Regenerative energies in the power land North Rhine Westfalia (Frank-Michael Baumann); (3) Heat storages - Supporting pillars of the comprehensive utilization of regenerative ideas (Juergen Buehl); (4) Logistics analysis of rice straw for power exploitations and potential green house gas mitigations - An example in Thailand (Mitra Kami Delivand); (5) The Heatpipe-Reformer registered - Development, start-up and testing (Andreas Dengel); (6) The ecological cost of the use of biomass of plants for energy production (Bohdan Deptula); (7) Hydrogen as fuel and energy storage: Strategy and implementation in NIP (Oliver Ehret); (8) The ORGA test: Development of a testing procedure for a practical evaluation of the fermenter biology and NaWaRo biogas plants (Nils Engler); (9) Large scale integration of offshore wind power through wind farm clusters (Alejandro J. Gesino); (10) NANOSITR - Healt, coldness and electricity from one biomass vessel (Bodo Gross); (11) OPTISTRAHL - A two-stage washer unit for biogas (Bodo Gross); (12) Innovation development for renewable energies (Bernward Janzing); (12) Strategic action options for energy supply utilities at renewable energies (Patrick Kemnitz); (13) Hydrogen - An option for a sustainable storage of wind power (Martin Kleimaier); (14) Small parabolic trough power plants - Actual technology and outlook (Joachim Krueger); (15) A photocatalytic generation of hydrogen: Efficient iron-based water reduction catalysts (Sebastian Losse); (16) Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste management in Sri Lanka and India in a life cycle perspective (Samanthi Nirmala M. Menikpura); (17) High temperature low sag conductors in power system with wind power farms (Olgierd Malyszka); (18) Wind

  4. Energy models for commercial energy prediction and substitution of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniyan, S.; Suganthi, L.; Samuel, Anand A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, three models have been projected namely Modified Econometric Mathematical (MEM) model, Mathematical Programming Energy-Economy-Environment (MPEEE) model, and Optimal Renewable Energy Mathematical (OREM) model. The actual demand for coal, oil and electricity is predicted using the MEM model based on economic, technological and environmental factors. The results were used in the MPEEE model, which determines the optimum allocation of commercial energy sources based on environmental limitations. The gap between the actual energy demand from the MEM model and optimal energy use from the MPEEE model, has to be met by the renewable energy sources. The study develops an OREM model that would facilitate effective utilization of renewable energy sources in India, based on cost, efficiency, social acceptance, reliability, potential and demand. The economic variations in solar energy systems and inclusion of environmental constraint are also analyzed with OREM model. The OREM model will help policy makers in the formulation and implementation of strategies concerning renewable energy sources in India for the next two decades

  5. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  6. Sources of capabilities, integration and technology commercialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahra, Shaker A.; Nielsen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    of internal and external sources on multiple dimensions of successful technology commercialization (TC). The study also explores the moderating role of formal vs. informal integration mechanisms on these relationships. Applying a longitudinal design and data from 119 companies, the results show that internal...... human and technology-based manufacturing sources are positively associated with successful TC. Formal and informal integration mechanisms also significantly moderate the relationships observed between capability sources and TC. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.......In recent years, companies have increased their use of internal and external sources in pursuit of a competitive advantage through the effective and timely commercialization of new technology. Grounded in the resource-based view of the firm, this study examines the effect of a company's use...

  7. Small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2002-01-01

    The small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies is considered in the report. The electron source consists of pulsed high voltage Marx generator and vacuum diode with explosive emission cathode. The main parameters of electron source are next: kinetic energy is 100-150 keV, beam current is 5-200 A and pulse duration is 100-400 nsec. The distribution of absorbed doses in irradiated materials is considered. The physical feasibility of pulsed low energy electron beam for applications is considered

  8. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  9. Dynamics of energy technologies and global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubler, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Victor, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Technological choices largely determine the long-term characteristics of industrial society, including impacts on the natural environment. However, the treatment of technology in existing models that are used to project economic and environmental futures remains highly stylized. Based on work over two decades at IIASA, we present a useful typology for technology analysis and discuss methods that can be used to analyze the impact of technological changes on the global environment, especially global warming. Our focus is energy technologies, the main source of many atmospheric environmental problems. We show that much improved treatment of technology is possible with a combination of historical analysis and new modeling techniques. In the historical record, we identify characteristic 'learning rates' that allow simple quantified characterization of the improvement in cost and performance due to cumulative experience and investments. We also identify patterns, processes and timescales that typify the diffusion of new technologies in competitive markets. Technologies that are long-lived and are components of interlocking networks typically require the longest time to diffuse and co-evolve with other technologies in the network; such network effects yield high barriers to entry even for superior competitors. These simple observations allow three improvements to modeling of technological change and its consequences for global environmental change. One is that the replacement of long-lived infrastructures over time has also replaced the fuels that power the economy to yield progressively more energy per unit of carbon pollution - from coal to oil to gas. Such replacement has 'decarbonized' the global primary energy supply 0.3% per year. In contrast, most baseline projections for emissions of carbon, the chief cause of global warming, ignore this robust historical trend and show Iittle or no decarbonization. A second improvement is that by incorporating learning curves and

  10. Energy sources for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.L.; Cloutier, R.J. (eds.)

    1977-04-01

    The symposium program was designed for college faculty members who are teaching or plan to teach energy courses at their educational institutions. Lectures were presented on socio-economic aspects of energy development, fusion reactors, solar energy, coal-fired power plants, nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, and radiation hazards. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 16 of the 18 papers presented; two papers were processed earlier: Residential Energy Use Alternatives to the Year 2000, by Eric Hurst (EAPA 2:257; ERA 1:25978) and The Long-Term Prospects for Solar Energy, by W. G. Pollard (EAPA 3:1008). Fourteen of the papers are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. (EAPA).

  11. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IDAE.

    1994-01-01

    IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects

  12. New energy technologies in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Singapore is considered as an interesting example: this country has become the third world oil refining centre and the first Asian oil trade place, but has also implemented a series of strategic measures to promote a sustainable development. The Singapore Green Plan was launched in 1992 and defines important objectives in terms of reduction of carbon emissions, of water consumption, of improvement of waste management services, and so on. This policy results in investments in experimental programs for the development of new energy technologies. This paper presents the public actors (institutions and public agencies) and their projects, the academic projects and programs, and the private sector projects. These programs and projects are concerning the search for clean energies, the development of the solar capacity, various renewable energies, or the automotive industry (projects conducted by Bosch, Renault and Nissan, Daimler, this last one on biofuels)

  13. Nuclear energy: A female technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennenbaum, J.

    1994-01-01

    Amongst the important scientific and technological revolutions of history there is none in which women have played such a substantial and many-sided role as in the development of nuclear energy. The birth of nuclear energy is not only due to Marie Curie and Lise Meitner but also to a large number of courageous 'nuclear women' who decided against all sorts of prejudices and resistances in favour of a life in research. Therefore the revolution of the atom has also become the greatest breakthrough of women in natural sciences. This double revolution is the subject of this book. Here the history of nuclear energy itself is dealt with documented with the original work and personal memories of different persons - mainly women - who have been substantially involved in this development. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Energy technology characterizations handbook: Environmental pollution and control factors, third edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Energy technologies and pollution control technologies are reviewed. Technology characterizations are given for the following energy sources: nuclear energy, synthetic fuels, coal, petroleum, natural gas, solar energy, geothermal energy, and hydroelectric energy. Air, water, and solid waste pollution control devices and mechanisms are presented for coal-fired power plants and industrial boilers and for synthetic fuel production from coal and oil shale.

  15. Renewable energy for rural development to protect environmental pollution from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Energy is the key input for technological industrial, social and economical development of a nation. The present energy scenario is heavily biased towards the conventional energy sources, such as petroleum products, coal, atomic energy, etc., which are finite in nature and causes environmental pollution. The energy utilization pattern is also meant for the energy requirement in urban areas. To meet the growing energy requirement of rural areas through the conventional energy sources will cause serious harmful effect on the environmental pollution. The man's thurst to use more energy after about 150 thousand years ago, invention of wheel, use of petroleum products for power generation and invention of steam and coal has brought him to use the energy sources for his comfort irrespective of the environmental consideration. The extensive use of energy operated devices in domestic, industrial, transport and for agriculture sectors in urban and rural areas have resulted in economical development of the society

  16. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  17. Innovation in nuclear energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dujardin, Th.; Bertel, E.; Kwang Seok, Lee; Foskolos, K.

    2007-01-01

    Innovation has been a driving force for the success of nuclear energy and remains essential for its sustainable future. Many research and development programmes focus on enhancing the performance of power plants in operation, current fuel design and characteristics, and fuel cycle processes used in existing facilities. Generally performed under the leadership of the industry. Some innovation programmes focus on evolutionary reactors and fuel cycles, derived from systems of the current generation. Such programmes aim at achieving significant improvements, in the field of economics or resource management for example, in the medium term. Often, they are undertaken by the industry with some governmental support as they require basic research together with technological development and adaptation. Finally, large programmes, often undertaken in an international, intergovernmental framework are devoted to design and development of a new generation of systems meeting the goals of sustainable development in the long term. Driving forces for nuclear innovation vary depending on the target technology, the national framework and the international context surrounding the research programme. However, all driving factors can be grouped in three categories: market drivers, political drivers and technology drivers. Globally, innovation in the nuclear energy sector is a success story but is a lengthy process that requires careful planning and adequate funding to produce successful outcomes

  18. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sudip K [Chicago, IL; Burra, Rajni K [Chicago, IL; Acharya, Kaustuva [Chicago, IL

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  20. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biofuel Production is the topic covered in this edition.

  1. Advances in wind energy conversion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyajith, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The technology of generating energy from wind has significantly changed during the past five years. The book brings together all the latest aspects of wind energy conversion technology - from wind resource analysis to grid integration of generated electricity.

  2. New energy technologies. Report; Nouvelles technologies de l'energie. Rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report on the new energy technologies has been written by a working group on request of the French ministry of economy, finances and industry, of the ministry of ecology and sustainable development, of the ministry of research and new technologies and of the ministry of industry. The mission of the working group is to identify goals and priority ways for the French and European research about the new technologies of energy and to propose some recommendations about the evolution of research incentive and sustain systems in order to reach these goals. The working group has taken into consideration the overall stakes linked with energy and not only the climatic change. About this last point, only the carbon dioxide emissions have been considered because they represent 90% of the greenhouse gases emissions linked with the energy sector. A diagnosis is made first about the present day context inside which the new technologies will have to fit with. Using this diagnosis, the research topics and projects to be considered as priorities for the short-, medium- and long-term have been identified: energy efficiency in transports, in dwellings/tertiary buildings and in the industry, development for the first half of the 21. century of an energy mix combining nuclear, fossil-fuels and renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  3. Hybrid Energy: Combining Nuclear and Other Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Suk; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2015-02-01

    The leading cause of global climate change is generally accepted to be growing emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) as a result of increased use of fossil fuels [1]. Among various sources of GHG, the global electricity supply sector generates the largest share of GHG emissions (37.5% of total CO2 emissions) [2]. Since the current electricity production heavily relies on fossil fuels, it is envisioned that bolstering generation technologies based on non-emitting energy sources, i.e., nuclear and/or renewables could reduce future GHG emissions. Integrated nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems HES) are very-low-emitting options, but they are capital-intensive technologies that should operate at full capacities to maximize profits. Hence, electricity generators often pay the grid to take electricity when demand is low, resulting in negative profits for many hours per year. Instead of wasting an excess generation capacity at negative profit during off-peak hours when electricity prices are low, nuclear-renewable HES could result in positive profits by storing and/or utilizing surplus thermal and/or electrical energy to produce useful storable products to meet industrial and transportation demands. Consequently, it is necessary (1) to identify key integrated system options based on specific regions and (2) to propose optimal operating strategy to economically produce products on demand. In prioritizing region-specific HES options, available resources, markets, existing infrastructures, and etc. need to be researched to identify attractive system options. For example, the scarcity of water (market) and the availability of abundant solar radiation make solar energy (resource) a suitable option to mitigate the water deficit the Central-Southern region of the U.S. Thus, a solar energy-driven desalination process would be an attractive option to be integrated into a nuclear power plant to support the production of fresh water in this region. In this work, we introduce a

  4. Upgrading the Glycerol from Biodiesel Production as a Source of Energy Carriers and Chemicals—A Technological Review for Three Chemical Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel obtained from biomass, accounting for 10% of the biodiesel production. In the context of a green economy, aiming for a reduction of the emission of atmospheric greenhouse gases emissions, the demand of biodiesel is expected to increase vastly, in parallel with a side glut supply of glycerol. Given the high cost of biodiesel compared with its fossil congener, upgrading of glycerol into added-value products can represent a secondary income source and turn the production of such alternative fuels economically sustainable in the long term. The glycerol obtained as by-product of biodiesel from biomass is in a crude form and must be purified. Some industrial solutions and applications were therein geared. The survey presented in this work, based on a reviewing of the existing literature, examines three routes for the valuing glycerol into energy carriers and chemicals, namely, carbonation, acylation, and steam reforming to hydrogen. The latter is embodied of great interest and importance, insofar that hydrogen by itself is considered as straighforward clean fuel for transportation uses, due to its high calorific power and to recent advances in fuel cells. We also have focused on the chain value from biomass to energies carriers through these pathways.

  5. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  6. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  7. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala

    2010-09-15

    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  8. Energy outlook for fusion in comparison with other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.

    1982-10-01

    Long-term forecasting involving changes in population levels and world-energy consumption are first recalled. The reserves and resources of the world's main energy sources are then examined: oil, gas, coal, nuclear fission as well as the solar energy potential and other renewable energy sources. The principles of nuclear fusion are first recalled; the problem of the world's lithium resources is then examined; the energy contents of natural lithium and other uses of this metal are also discussed. Finally, considerations on the impact of fusion on the energy outlook are discussed [fr

  9. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  10. Management of development of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper: 'Management of development of renewable energy sources is to point out the possible solutions for neutralizing the threat of energy shortages. The paper outlines major short and long term energy problems facing humanity. The increase of world human population is, inevitably, accompanied by higher energy consumption. Reserves decrease of nonrenewable energy sources like oil, gas, and coal is a major threat to maintaining current living conditions, and thus requires solutions in order to neutralize the threat. This is why the management of development of renewable energy sources is an imperative for Serbia. The paper emphasizes the use of solar energy, because the annual average of solar radiation in Serbia is about 40% higher than the European average, however, the actual use of the sun's energy to generate electricity in Serbia is far behind the countries of the European Union. Solar energy is clean, renewable, and the fact that 4.2 kilowatt-hours are received daily per square meter averaged over the entire surface of the planet, makes it an almost unused energy source, Compared to EU countries, the price of non-renewable derived energy is, on average, higher in Serbia. Taking this into consideration, the use of solar energy, as an unused resource, imposes itself as indispensable.

  11. Engineering economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denno, K.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook presents a comprehensive picture of the economic aspects, feasibility and adaptability of alternative energy sources and their interconnections. The author intends for this treatment of energy sources to be total and complete. It therefore includes such topics as low temperature and high temperature fuel cells, rechargeable storage batteries (including lead acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium, and sodium-sulfur), Redox flows cells energy system in compatibility with fuel cells and storage batteries, MHD energy systems using non-fossil renewable fuels, solar energy system using direct thermal units and photovoltaic generators, wind energy conversion systems, tidal ocean wave energy converters, geothermal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. The book is structured so that each major energy source is given one chapter. Each chapter begins with a discussion of the basic structural components of the energy source, as well as operational and fuel characteristics. This is followed by an economic analysis, which includes incremental energy cost curves and economic coordination equations for each possible system of operation. Where appropriate, economic scheduling of generation is applied to several modes of system consumption (e.g., localized dispersed systems, interconnected load centers, and central systems)

  12. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  13. Recent Progress on PZT Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gyu Kang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is the most effective way to respond to the energy shortage and to produce sustainable power sources from the surrounding environment. The energy harvesting technology enables scavenging electrical energy from wasted energy sources, which always exist everywhere, such as in heat, fluids, vibrations, etc. In particular, piezoelectric energy harvesting, which uses a direct energy conversion from vibrations and mechanical deformation to the electrical energy, is a promising technique to supply power sources in unattended electronic devices, wireless sensor nodes, micro-electronic devices, etc., since it has higher energy conversion efficiency and a simple structure. Up to now, various technologies, such as advanced materials, micro- and macro-mechanics, and electric circuit design, have been investigated and emerged to improve performance and conversion efficiency of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. In this paper, we focus on recent progress of piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies based on PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT materials, which have the most outstanding piezoelectric properties. The advanced piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies included materials, fabrications, unique designs, and properties are introduced to understand current technical levels and suggest the future directions of piezoelectric energy harvesting.

  14. Noise-control needs in the developing energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, D.N.

    1978-03-01

    The noise characteristics of existing energy conversion technologies, e.g., from obtaining and processing fossil fuels to power plants operations, and of developing energy technologies (wind, geothermal sources, solar energy or fusion systems) are discussed in terms of the effects of noise on humans, animals, structures, and equipment and methods for noise control. Regulations for noise control are described. Recommendations are made for further research on noise control and noise effects. (LCL)

  15. Technology Learning Ratios in Global Energy Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.

    2001-01-01

    The process of introduction of a new technology supposes that while its production and utilisation increases, also its operation improves and its investment costs and production decreases. The accumulation of experience and learning of a new technology increase in parallel with the increase of its market share. This process is represented by the technological learning curves and the energy sector is not detached from this process of substitution of old technologies by new ones. The present paper carries out a brief revision of the main energy models that include the technology dynamics (learning). The energy scenarios, developed by global energy models, assume that the characteristics of the technologies are variables with time. But this trend is incorporated in a exogenous way in these energy models, that is to say, it is only a time function. This practice is applied to the cost indicators of the technology such as the specific investment costs or to the efficiency of the energy technologies. In the last years, the new concept of endogenous technological learning has been integrated within these global energy models. This paper examines the concept of technological learning in global energy models. It also analyses the technological dynamics of the energy system including the endogenous modelling of the process of technological progress. Finally, it makes a comparison of several of the most used global energy models (MARKAL, MESSAGE and ERIS) and, more concretely, about the use these models make of the concept of technological learning. (Author) 17 refs

  16. Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Peter [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Under the umbrella of RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) the RAG Deutsche Steinkohle (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany), RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbueren (Ibbenbueren, Federal Republic of Germany), the RAG Montan Immobilien (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the RAG Mining Solutions (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) are unified. With their activities in the German coal mining industry RAG contributes to the national energy security and create employment effects far beyond the mining regions.

  17. Energy - Resources, technologies and power issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucchi, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    For a better understanding of complex relationships between States, enterprises and international bodies, the author proposes a detailed analysis of power issues which structure the energy sector at the world level. He first considers the energy policy of a country as a result of an arbitration between three main concerns (access to energy, energy security, and struggle against climate change) which are differently addressed depending on consumption and production profiles of the country, and on its geographic and political characteristics. The author then proposes a synthetic overview of this landscape by analysing the history of exploitation of different energy sources (oil, coal, gas, uranium) and by proposing a regional analysis of resources. In the next part, he addresses various aspects of energy transports (bottlenecks of sea transport, trans-national grids, geopolitical restructuring of pipelines in front of the development of new LNG terminals). Then, for different regions, he describes the various modes of energy consumption, and challenges related to the transformation of this consumption due to the emergence of renewable energies. He analyses and discusses international mechanisms which underlie energy markets, and power issues which govern them. He shows that nuclear and renewable energies in fact strengthen the dependence on strategic materials and on technological companies. A chapter proposes an analysis of relationships between three prevailing actors in the elaboration of energy policies (enterprises, State and civil society) with their reciprocal influences, moments of collaboration, and information exchange or withholding. The last chapter addresses the study of power rivalries in the elaboration of policies for the struggle against climate change, and proposes a critical review of international organisations which square them

  18. Alternative energy sources in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The hereby presented report was elaborated for the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Prague, Czech Republic by the Netherlands Chamber of Commerce in Prague from July to October 1999. The report is constituted so as to provide a complete introductory overview of the situation in the Czech Republic relating to alternative energy sources. For the purposes of this report, the term alternative energy sources is conceived as renewable energy sources and combined generation of heat and electricity. Renewable energy sources comprise sun, water, wind, geothermal energy and energy generated from biomass or waste. The report features a glimpse at the history of alternative energy sources' utilisation in the Czech Republic, a description of the current state and an extrapolation of existing trends into expectable medium- and long-run developments. The report also includes an insight into the relevant legal framework and a general scan of market opportunities. The objective of the report is to prepare a solid starting platform for Dutch companies which specialise in renewable energy sources and/or cogeneration and which may be interested in extending their scope of activities to the Czech Republic

  19. Environmental consequences of new energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Torbjoern

    1991-09-01

    This report summarises and assesses the environmental consequences associated with new energy technologies, with particular emphasis on their use for space heating supplies in the built environment. In the case of solar heating, it is primarily the processes associated with the production of the necessary materials and ground use requirements that can adversely affect the environment. There is also a certain risk associated with the leakage of heat transfer fluid. For heat stores, problem areas are primarily those associated with heating of the ground, discharge of foreign substances in connection with water treatment and conflicts of other users of ground water. The main adverse effects of heat pumps are their emissions of CFCs, which damage the ozone layer, utilisation of certain types of heat sources and the need to provide primary energy for mechanical drive of the pumps. All three of these new energy technologies are regarded as having less environmental consequences than conventional alternatives, although this assumes a change to less hazardous working media in heat pumps. A mutual comparison of the three technologies indicates that solar heating and heat stores have somewhat better environmental characteristics than heat pumps

  20. Dynamics of energy technologies and global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, P.R. [Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands). International Energy Studies

    1999-11-01

    The author comments on the paper with the same title published in Energy Policy, volume 27, part 5, page 247-280, May 1999 by Gruebler, Nakicenovic and Vidor. Peter Odell says that the article incorporates an inherent internal contradiction between their acceptance of the status quo view of oil and gas and their insistence on the power of the 'incentives for innovation... to enable new technologies (such as solar and nuclear) to diffuse into widespread use'. He concludes that Gruebler et al.'s recommendation for a frontal approach to global change, requiring attention more directly to technology policy with specific reference to the development of solar and nuclear sources of energy, is unlikely to be the preferred 21st option. Instead, a technologically oriented frontal approach which concentrates first, on enhancing the efficiency of the exploration for, and the exploration of, the world's remaining large (or even unlimited) reserves of oil and gas; and second, on the abatement of atmospheric emissions from the use of these energy resources, would seem to offer a more certain and lower cost way of tackling global change problems in the 21st century: a century in which dependence on liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons will be the natural sequel to the world's previous near-200 years' dependence on coal. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Energy Technology Programmes 1993-1998. Intermediate report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Tekes energy technology research programmes were launched in 1993. The aim is to produce innovative solutions that are efficient, environmentally sound and widely - even globally - applicable. Now Tekes manages a total of 12 energy technology research programmed. Research programmed form a network linking academia and industry. Total funding for the energy technology programmed during the years 1993-1998 is estimated at some FIM 1.5 billion, about half of which will be put up by the Tekes and the rest by the industry. Funding by the Ministry of Trade and Industry covers the first full-scale applications (demonstrations) resulting from the research and development activities. Finnish technology is front-ranking in the efficient use of energy, combustion technology, renewable energy sources and environmental technology. In this report the results and the research activities of the separate programmes is presented and discussed

  2. Energy harvesting through piezoelectricity - technology foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laumann, Felix; Sørensen, Mette Møller; Hansen, Tina Mølholm

    2017-01-01

    scientific articles. In contrast to this, is found a low level of ability to convert the technology from academia to commercialization. A decision making model is proposed including a requirement for better understanding of niches, niche definitions and configuration of energy harvesting design......Energy harvesting is important in designing low power intelligent networks, such as Internet-of-Things. Energy harvesting can ensure wireless and lossless energy supply to energy dependent technological solutions with independence of infrastructure. Electrical energy created through...

  3. Tapping a new energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Sable Offshore Energy Project is one of Canada's largest construction projects which is bringing a new industry to Nova Scotia. A five-party consortium comprised of Mobil Oil Canada, Shell Canada, Imperial Oil, Nova Scotia Resources and Mosbacher, has formed an enterprise called Sable Offshore Energy Inc. The consortium plans to bring natural gas to markets in Canada and the United States before the end of 1999. The Santa Fe Galaxy II is one of the world's most modern marine all-weather drilling rigs that will soon begin the drilling of wells. Once in production, the project will produce half a billion cubic feet of natural gas daily from three production platforms that will tap three separate undersea natural gas fields. The gas will then be transported 200 km to shore near Goldboro, Nova Scotia, through an undersea pipeline. There, it will be treated to remove any remaining water and to separate liquid natural gas from the gas proper. The natural gas liquids will then be carried by an onshore pipeline to a new facility at Point Tupper where they will be processed into propane, butane and condensate. There will be enough gas to meet the potential demand in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Large urban centres such as Halifax and Saint John will be served by secondary lines that branch off the main pipeline, but developing smaller markets will take time because the necessary infrastructure does not yet exist. The project has already created thousands of jobs in the province. 5 figs

  4. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  5. Exploiting Sun's Energy Effectively as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renewable energy, solar energy, photosynthesis, electrolysis, photocatalysis, photovoltaic cell. Abstract. Using Sun's energy effectively to drive important, industriallyrelevant chemical reactions is currently an area of researchthat is attracting a large attention. This route circumventsour reliance on non-renewable sources of ...

  6. Energy storage technologies;Technologies du stockage d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, Y.

    2009-07-01

    This book takes stock of the advantages and drawbacks of the different energy storage solutions apart from the classical fossil fuels (oil, uranium, gas), and details the technologies developed for an electric end-use. Storage is one of the most critical point for the development of new energy technologies, in particular those that use the electricity vector all along the energy source chain (generation, production, transport, utilisation). Storage is important not only for individual or independent applications, that use renewable energies or not, often intermittent, but also to secure coupled systems like power transportation and distribution systems. The development and choice of the most relevant technologies is dependent of technical-economical parameters. It can also supply new services, in particular in the framework of new electricity markets. Content: power film-capacitors, magnetic storage, kinetic energy storage, compressed air energy storage (CAES), hydro-pneumatic storage, high-temperature thermal storage of electricity, hydraulic gravity storage, power electronic systems for energy storage. (J.S.)

  7. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological...... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  8. Microinstallations Based on Renewable Energy Sources in the Construction Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzak, Lucjan

    2017-10-01

    The focus of this paper is on the status and prognoses of the use of microinstallations based on renewable energy sources to supply heat and power. The technologies that have been important in Europe and Poland for microgeneration of electricity include photovoltaic systems, micro wind turbines and co-generation systems. Solar collectors, heat pumps and biomass have also been used to generate heat. Microinstallations for renewable energy sources represent the initial point and the foundation for the development of micro networks, intelligent networks and the whole prosumer energy sector.

  9. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  10. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  11. Developing a framework for energy technology portfolio selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Ashrafi, Maryam

    2012-11-01

    Today, the increased consumption of energy in world, in addition to the risk of quick exhaustion of fossil resources, has forced industrial firms and organizations to utilize energy technology portfolio management tools viewed both as a process of diversification of energy sources and optimal use of available energy sources. Furthermore, the rapid development of technologies, their increasing complexity and variety, and market dynamics have made the task of technology portfolio selection difficult. Considering high level of competitiveness, organizations need to strategically allocate their limited resources to the best subset of possible candidates. This paper presents the results of developing a mathematical model for energy technology portfolio selection at a R&D center maximizing support of the organization's strategy and values. The model balances the cost and benefit of the entire portfolio.

  12. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-04-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we investigated knowledge and attitudes of secondary school teachers in Greece towards renewable energy sources, particularly wind and solar energy systems. A questionnaire with both open and close questions was used as the main methodological instrument. Findings revealed that although teachers were informed about renewable energy sources and well disposed towards these sources, they hardly expressed clear positions regarding several issues about wind and solar energy technologies and farms. Moreover such themes are limited integrated in teaching either as extra curricular educational programs or through the curriculum. These findings cannot confirm that teachers could influence students' opinion towards renewable energy systems. Thus, authorities should invest more in Environmental Education and relevant Teachers' Education.

  13. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  14. Selected aspects of cogeneration technology in distributed energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchora, Konrad

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents an opinion on the use of distributed cogeneration technologies in the power industry. It offers worked out experiences and views on the idea of using renewable energy sources in the conventional power industry. The effects of the work done are analysed arguments concerning the use of cogeneration and renewable energy sources in the micropower industry, and developed ways of the functioning of the distributed energy generation system. The publication presents conclusions and simulation results of the criterial work of a micropower system containing in its structure renewable energy sources and a cogeneration unit.

  15. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs

  17. Energy: Costs of energy sources and of dual energy. Energie: Couts des sources d'energie et du bi-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report, published by the Quebec Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, provides a method of comparing the costs of producing a given amount of useful energy from various energy sources, given the specific cost of each energy source and the efficiency of the transformation of one form of energy into another. The energy sources considered are propane, natural gas, number 2 oil, softwood, hardwood and electrical power. A special calculation is presented for dual energy, i.e. electrical power plus another form of energy, for which the elctricity rate is lower. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Energy sources and energy generation in the future; Fuentes de energia y la generacion del futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Pelegry, E.

    2001-07-01

    With this article, that gathers the conference imparted inside of the cycle Technologies and Power Supply Development: Gas or Coal, complementary alternatives, organized by the Spanish Club of the Energy (ENERCLUB), the author plants a series of questions over the sources of energy and the its generation in the future, in order to wake the reflections over the theme. (Author)

  19. Energy. From natural sources to production challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Human beings have always needed energy to feed themselves and move about. Energy can be found in various forms. Today's technologies are capable of tapping all possible resources (e.g. fossil fuels, water, wind, sun) to produce large quantities of energy. Now, at the start of the 21. century, energy remains essential for mankind. It represents a major political, economic, scientific and environmental challenge. Of the many properties found in material objects, energy is not only one of the most important but also one of the most abstract, since it is not actually tangible. (authors)

  20. Very High Energy -rays from Galactic Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The field of Very High Energy (VHE) gamma ray astronomy using the Atmospheric Cerenkov Technique has entered an interesting phase with detection of various galactic and extragalactic sources. Among galactic sources, only the Crab nebula has been established as a standard candle.

  1. Future of nuclear energy technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberini, A.; Brogli, R.; Jermann, M.; Alder, H.P.; Stratton, R.W.; Troyon, F.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the present gloom surrounding the nuclear option for electricity and heat generation, there are still people in Switzerland in industry, research, banking and even politics willing and capable to think in terms of long-range projections. The basis for these projections is the belief that a well-functioning and prosperous society always needs large and reliable sources of acceptably priced energy, which must be generated with a high respect for the necessity of a clean environment. Being aware of the current low acceptance level of the nuclear option, efforts to keep this option open are directed to achieving the following goals: to maintain and improve the country's capabilities to safely operate the four existing nuclear power plants of Beznau (twin units), Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt; to keep the capability of extending the applications of nuclear energy technology. In practice, this could be in the fields of district heating, fusion, and advanced power reactors

  2. Environmental aspects of solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strojan, C.L.

    1980-09-01

    Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technologies differ is that no unresolvable technological problems (e.g., CO/sub 2/ emissions) or sociopolitical barriers (e.g., waste disposal, catastrophic accidents) have been identified. This report reviews some of the environmental aspects of solar energy technologies and ongoing research designed to identify and resolve potential environmental concerns. It is important to continue research and assessment of environmental aspects of solar energy to ensure that unanticipated problems do not arise. It is also important that the knowledge gained through such environmental research be incorporated into technology development programs and policy initiatives.

  3. Market-based support schemes for renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union set ambitious goals regarding the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and the majority of European governments have implemented policies stimulating investments in such technologies. Support schemes differ in many aspects, not only in their effectivity and

  4. Technology, energy and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Glenn Terry

    This dissertation consists of three distinct papers concerned with technology, energy and the environment. The first paper is an empirical analysis of production under uncertainty, using agricultural production data from the central United States. Unlike previous work, this analysis identifies the effect of actual realizations of weather as well as farmers' expectations about weather. The results indicate that both of these are significant factors explaining short run profits in agriculture. Expectations about weather, called climate, affect production choices, and actual weather affects realized output. These results provide better understanding of the effect of climate change in agriculture. The second paper examines how emissions taxes induce innovation that reduces pollution. A polluting firm chooses technical improvement to minimize cost over an infinite horizon, given an emission tax set by a planner. This leads to a solution path for technical change. Changes in the tax rate affect the path for innovation. Setting the tax at equal to the marginal damage (which is optimal in a static setting with no technical change) is not optimal in the presence of technical change. When abatement is also available as an alternative to technical change, changes in the tax can have mixed effects, due to substitution effects. The third paper extends the theoretical framework for exploring the diffusion of new technologies. Information about new technologies spreads through the economy by means of a network. The pattern of diffusion will depend on the structure of this network. Observed networks are the result of an evolutionary process. This paper identifies how these evolutionary outcomes compare with optimal solutions. The conditions guaranteeing convergence to an optimal outcome are quite stringent. It is useful to determine the set of initial population states that do converge to an optimal outcome. The distribution of costs and benefits among the agents within an

  5. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  6. Sources, availability and costs of future energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.G.

    1977-08-01

    An attempt is made to put the future energy scene in perspective by quantitatively examining energy resources, energy utilization and energy costs. Available data on resources show that conventional oil and gas are in short supply and that alternative energy sources are going to have to replace oil and gas in the not too distant future. Cost/applications assessments indicate that a mix of energy sources are likely to best meet our energy needs of the future. Hydro, nuclear and coal are all practical alternatives for meeting electrical needs and electricity is a practical alternative for space heating. Coal appears to be the most practical alternative for meeting much of the industrial energy need and frontier oil or oil from the tar sands appear to be the most practical alternatives for meeting the transportation need. Solar energy shows promise of meeting some of the space heating load in Canada if economical energy storage systems can be developed. The general conclusion is that the basic energy problem is energy conversion. (author)

  7. Renewable energy systems advanced conversion technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion techniques are key in power electronics and even more so in renewable energy source systems, which require a large number of converters. Renewable Energy Systems: Advanced Conversion Technologies and Applications describes advanced conversion technologies and provides design examples of converters and inverters for renewable energy systems-including wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. Learn Cutting-Edge Techniques for Converters and Inverters Setting the scene, the book begins with a review of the basics of astronomy and Earth physics. It then systematically introduc

  8. Energy from Biomass Research and Technology Transfer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Dorin

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of CPBR is to foster and facilitate research that will lead to commercial applications. The goals of CPBR’s Energy from Biomass Research and Technology Transfer Program are to bring together industry, academe, and federal resources to conduct research in plant biotechnology and other bio-based technologies and to facilitate the commercialization of the research results to: (1) improve the utilization of plants as energy sources; (2) reduce the cost of renewable energy production; (3) facilitate the replacement of petroleum by plant-based materials; (4) create an energy supply that is safer in its effect on the environment, and (5) contribute to U.S. energy independence.

  9. Fuel Cells and Other Emerging Manportable Power Technologies for the NATO Warfighter. Part 1: Power Sources for Manportable/Manwearable Applications (Piles a combustible et autres technologies portatives d’alimentation en energie pour les combattants de l’OTAN - Partie 1: Sources d’alimentation pour les applications transportables/portables par l’homme)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Manwearable Applications ( Piles à combustible et autres technologies portatives d’alimentation en énergie pour les combattants de l’OTAN − Partie...Power Technologies for the NATO Warfighter – Part I: Power Sources for Manportable/ Manwearable Applications ( Piles à combustible et autres... Piles à combustible et autres technologies portatives d’alimentation en énergie pour les combattants de l’OTAN – Partie I : Sources

  10. Multi-source energy harvester for wildlife tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Zuo, Lei; Zhou, Wanlu; Liang, Changwei; McCabe, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Sufficient power supply to run GPS machinery and transmit data on a long-term basis remains to be the key challenge for wildlife tracking technology. Traditional way of replacing battery periodically is not only time and money consuming but also dangerous to live-trapping wild animals. In this paper, an innovative wildlife tracking device with multi-source energy harvester with advantage of high efficiency and reliability is investigated and developed. This multi-source energy harvester entails a solar energy harvester and an innovative rotational electromagnetic energy harvester is mounted on the "wildlife tracking collar" which will remarkably extend the duration of wild life tracking. A feedforward and feedback control of DC-DC converter circuit is adopted to passively realize the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) logic for the solar energy harvester. The rotational electromagnetic energy harvester can mechanically rectify the irregular bidirectional motion into unidirectional motion has been modeled and demonstrated.

  11. Nuclear technologies for local energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.; Lynch, G.F.

    1990-03-01

    If nuclear energy is to realize its full potential as a safe and cost-effective alternative to fossil fuels, applications beyond those that are currently being serviced by large, central nuclear power stations must be identified and appropriate reactors developed. The Canadian program on reactor systems for local energy supply is at the forefront of these developments. This program emphasizes design simplicity, low power density and fuel rating, reliance on natural processes, passive systems, and reduced reliance on operator action. The first product, the SLOWPOKE Energy System, is a 10 MW heat source specifically designed to provide hot water to satisfy the needs of local heating systems for building complexes, institutions and municipal district heating systems. A demonstration heating reactor has been constructed at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in Manitoba and has been undergoing an extensive test program since first operation in 1987 July. Based on the knowledge learned from the design, construction, licensing and operational testing of this facility, the design of the 10 MW commercial-size unit is well advanced, and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is prepared to commit the construction of the first commercial unit. Although the technical demonstration of the concept is important, it is recognized that another crucial element is the public and regulatory acceptance of small nuclear systems in urban areas. The decision by a community to commit the construction of a SLOWPOKE Energy System brings to a sharp focus the current public apprehension about nuclear technologies

  12. Nuclear fusion: the energy source of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.; Jacquet, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear fusion reactors are safer and do not produce any long-lived radioactive waste, unlike nuclear fission reactors. Moreover, their energy source is endless. In the strive for a sustainable energy future, rather a lot of eyes are turned towards nuclear fusion technology that is also CO 2 -neutral. In 2009, Belgium decided to actively participate in the international 'Broader Approach' nuclear fusion programme, a partnership between the EU and Japan, with SCK-CEN playing the Belgian lead role.

  13. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  14. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwin Kyi

    1995-01-01

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region's vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  15. 77 FR 74520 - Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation; Order Withdrawing Trading Suspension as to Extensions, Inc. December 12...

  16. On the economics of technology diffusion and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy is an essential factor that fuels economic growth and serves human well-being. World energy use has grown enormously since the middle of the 19th century. This increase in the scale of energy demand comes at a certain price, including environmental externalities, such as the enhanced greenhouse effect. Notwithstanding the need for renewable energy sources, these environmental problems also necessitate further improvements in energy efficiency. Technological change plays a crucial role in realizing energy efficiency improvements and, hence, in ameliorating the conflict between economic growth and environmental quality. At the same time, it is known that not only innovation, but also diffusion of new technologies is a costly and lengthy process, and that many firms do not invest in best-practice technologies. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the inter. play between economic growth, energy use and technological change, with much emphasis on the adoption and diffusion of energy-saving technologies. The thesis presents a mix of theoretical and empirical analyses inspired by recent developments in economic theorizing on technological change that stress the role of accumulation and distribution of knowledge (learning), uncertainty, path dependency and irreversibility. The theoretical part of the study examines how several characteristics of technological change as well as environmental policy affect the dynamics of technology choice. The empirical part of the study explores long-run trends in energy- and labour productivity performance across a range of OECD countries at a detailed sectoral level

  17. Innovation, Diffusion, and Regulation in Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, Theodore Robert

    diffusion facilitated by environmental regulation. In my third paper, I address a broader scale of technology change, looking for evidence that improved technologies for energy generation and consumption have allowed less energy-intensive or pollution-intensive growth in developing countries. I analyze panel data on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and national energy consumption to look for evidence of technology "leapfrogging" (i.e., decreased intensity of energy consumption for a given level of economic growth). I combine 1960-2014 data on energy consumption from the International Energy Agency with historical data that extends back to 1861 for several countries on energy consumption and fuel source, as well as GDP. I compare countries at the same income level and test whether energy consumption and energy intensity are different for today's less-developed countries compared to today's industrialized countries when they had similar income levels. Compared to prior analysis, my much longer time series allows me to test for leapfrogging over a scale appropriate to the pace of widespread technological change.

  18. New technologies of the energy 1. The renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabonnadiere, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This book, devoted to the renewable energies, is the first of three volumes taking stock on the new technologies of the energy situation. The first part presents the solar energy (thermal photovoltaic and thermodynamic), completed by a chapter on the wind energy. An important part is devoted to new hydraulic energies with the sea energies and the very little hydroelectricity and in particular the exploitation of the energy of the drinking water and wastes water pipelines. (A.L.B.)

  19. Renewable energy sources for tenable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manazza, G.

    1992-01-01

    Planning criteria for feasible tenable development strategies for industrialized and developing countries are discussed. Attention is given to the role to be played by industrial countries in renewable energy source development and technology transfer to curb the onslaught of global greenhouse effects related environmental problems. The paper cautions against the use of the expression 'tenable' in combination with 'growth'. It recommends, instead, the substitution of the expression, 'tenable growth', which implies the indefinite growth of something which is physical, with 'tenable development', a preferred term, since it denotes the realization of an optimum strategy, compatible with environmental ecosystems, for the betterment of living conditions. An assessment is made of the overall social-economic impacts of such a strategy on the proposed European free trade market and on developing countries struggling to survive in a fiercely competitive world. Here, the paper notes that, for the effective implementation of a tenable development strategy, it is of prime importance to make optimum use of the education system to instil a new set of social values and modify individual behaviour relative to the development and use of natural resources

  20. Integration of new distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Bakken, Bjoern H.; Hetland, Jens

    2001-01-01

    In years with average runoff, Norway will be a net importer of electric power. The use of electric energy is not declining and so the gap between supply and demand is increasing. A large-scale increase of the production of new hydroelectric power is unlikely for political reasons. Gas power by today's technology is controversial and basing the national energy supply on import is undesirable. It is possible to concentrate on decentralized electricity production in small units. On the supply side, increased taxation can be used to reduce consumption; but this may hit unfairly. Direct regulation to limit consumption is undesirable in a free market. One solution on the consumer side may be a more flexible energy use by way of new technology, incorporating thermal energy. Research and development in a united energy sector is needed to realize the potential of small combined heating and power units connected to the existing system. Some efforts have already been made

  1. Evaluating the Best Renewable Energy Technology For Sustainable Energy Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Demirtas, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Energy is one of the main factors that must be considered in the discussions of sustainable development. The basic dimensions of sustainability of energy production are environmentally, technically, economically and socially sustainable supply of energy resources that, in the long term, is reliable, adequate and affordable. Renewable, clean and cost effective energy sources are preferred but unfortunately no one of the alternative energy sources can meet these demands solely. So, the problem ...

  2. Evaluating the Best Renewable Energy Technology for Sustainable Energy Plannin

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgur Demirta

    2013-01-01

    Energy is one of the main factors that must be considered in the discussions of sustainable development. The basic dimensions of sustainability of energy production are environmentally, technically, economically and socially sustainable supply of energy resources that, in the long term, is reliable, adequate and affordable. Renewable, clean and cost effective energy sources are preferred but unfortunately no one of the alternative energy sources can meet these demands solely. So, the problem ...

  3. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV, and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energy yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of 25 years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 200 kW input power from the mains, only 5 kW of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of loses during the idle time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical than that of linacs in case of objects of specific type. At the first stage already, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating Bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of technologies, which make possible a control of the shape of the processed object are stressed. Special attention is focused to the relation between the yield of processing and the ratio between the maximum to the minimum dose in the object under the irradiation. (author). 14 refs, 14 figs

  4. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if

  5. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliott, Neal; Shipley, Anna; Thorn, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    For this study, we identified about 175 emerging energy-efficient technologies in industry, of which we characterized 54 in detail. While many profiles of individual emerging technologies are available, few reports have attempted to impose a standardized approach to the evaluation of the technologies. This study provides a way to review technologies in an independent manner, based on information on energy savings, economic, non-energy benefits, major market barriers, likelihood of success, and suggested next steps to accelerate deployment of each of the analyzed technologies. There are many interesting lessons to be learned from further investigation of technologies identified in our preliminary screening analysis. The detailed assessments of the 54 technologies are useful to evaluate claims made by developers, as well as to evaluate market potentials for the United States or specific regions. In this report we show that many new technologies are ready to enter the market place, or are currently under development, demonstrating that the United States is not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency and economic and environmental performance, and will not run out in the future. The study shows that many of the technologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reduced environmental impact to improved productivity. Several technologies have reduced capital costs compared to the current technology used by those industries. Non-energy benefits such as these are frequently a motivating factor in bringing technologies such as these to market. Further evaluation of the profiled technologies is still needed. In particular, further quantifying the non-energy benefits based on the experience from technology users in the field is important. Interactive effects and inter-technology competition have not been accounted for and ideally should be included in any type of integrated technology scenario, for it may help to better evaluate market

  6. Exploiting Sun's Energy Effectively as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepa Khushalani is currently an Associate. Professor at TIFR, Mumbai. Her area of specialization involves materials chemistry with emphasis on exploiting alternate sources of clean energy involving photovoltaics and energy storage devices. Her group also works on drug delivery devices, photocatalysis, and.

  7. Exploiting Sun's Energy Effectively as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using Sun's energy effectively to drive important, industriallyrelevant chemical reactions is currently an area of researchthat is attracting a large attention. This route circumventsour reliance on non-renewable sources of energy and moreimportantly prevents the release of hazardous pollutants as abyproduct. One such ...

  8. Conditioning technology of spent radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Sik; Kim, K. J.; Jang, K. D.

    2001-03-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could be resulted from improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for safe conditioning of spent radium sources by IAEA has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this report is to understand well and apply the technology that was applied in conditioning the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in Myanmar, as a part of IAEA's project by the Korean expert team. The report is the result that the Korean expert team carried out in Myanmar under the project title 'Radium Conditioning Service in Myanmar(INT4131-06646C)'. As a result of the mission, a whole inventory, 1,429.5 mCi of spent radium sources was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the manual under the supervision of IAEA's technical officer, Mr. Al-Mughrabi, and under the control of DAE authority. These sources were encapsuled in 27 small capsules and 3 large capsules, and conditioned in 3 lead shields, producing 3 packages. The inventories were distributed into 3 shielding devices, holding 500, 459.5, and 470 mCi

  9. The new energy technologies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gleuher, M.; Farhi, R.

    2005-06-01

    The large dependence of Australia on the fossil fuels leads to an great emission of carbon dioxide. The Australia is thus the first greenhouse gases emitter per habitant, in the world. In spite of its sufficient fossil fuels reserves, the Australia increases its production of clean energies and the research programs in the domain of the new energies technology. After a presentation of the australia situation, the authors detail the government measures in favor of the new energy technologies and the situation of the hydroelectricity, the wind energy, the wave and tidal energy, the biomass, the biofuels, the solar energy, the ''clean'' coal, the hydrogen and the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  10. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  11. Risk of energy sources and their acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Dimitrov, D.; Peshevski, V.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992 a special international commission of the World Energy Council finished the three years old study of the world energy future. 48 world known experts took part in the study, divided in nine regional groups and being coordinators of teams with 500 collaborators. The commission developed four possible cases for the world energy future until 2020 as an analysis support, which are presented in this paper. Also a review for the Macedonian energy sources is given. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs., 3 ills

  12. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  13. The nuclear energy: an essential source of the energy package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the energy consumption facing the environmental quality, the author presents the energy sources, used and possible. He shows the necessity to reduce the dependency towards the fossil fuels. He discusses the possibility of the CO 2 storage, the electric power use to decrease the CO 2 emissions. He then analyses the cogeneration alternative, the hybrid vehicles and the advantages of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  14. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  15. Writable electrochemical energy source based on graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2015-10-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was mainly used as raw material for various types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a cost effective method to make graphene like materials. However, applications of its own unique properties such as extraordinary proton conductivity and super-permeability to water were overlooked. Here GO based battery-like planar energy source was demonstrated on arbitrary insulating substrate (e.g. polymer sheet/paper) by coating PEDOT, GO ink and rGO on Ag charge collectors. Energy from such GO battery depends on its length and one unit cell with length of 0.5 cm can generate energy capacity of 30 Ah/L with voltage up to 0.7 V when room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is added. With power density up to 0.4 W/cm3 and energy density of 4 Wh/L, GO battery was demonstrated to drive an electrochromic device. This work is the first attempt to generate decent energy using the fast transported water molecules inside GO. It provides very safe energy source that enables new applications otherwise traditional battery technology can not make including building a foldable energy source on paper and platform for futuristic wearable electronics. A disposable energy source made of GO was also written on a plastic glove to demonstrate wearability.

  16. Residential/commercial market for energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M M

    1979-08-01

    The residential/commercial market sector, particularly as it relates to energy technologies, is described. Buildings account for about 25% of the total energy consumed in the US. Market response to energy technologies is influenced by several considerations. Some considerations discussed are: industry characteristics; market sectors; energy-consumption characeristics; industry forecasts; and market influences. Market acceptance may be slow or nonexistent, the technology may have little impact on energy consumption, and redesign or modification may be necessary to overcome belatedly perceived market barriers. 7 figures, 20 tables.

  17. Renewable sources of electric energy: state and prospects (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan

    1995-01-01

    Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements, have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of electric energy. This is even more relevant fore Macedonia, with the only fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted, the environment notably polluted and energy strategy absent. Concerning indigenous renewable sources of electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, as well as to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab., 3 ills

  18. Solar energy versus nuclear energy as energy sources at the transition period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastroamidjojo, MSA.

    Technical aspects and social aspects of nuclear power plants and solar energy system as energy sources, were comparatively evaluated. The evaluation proves that solar energy is better than nuclear energy. (SMN)

  19. Assessment on health and energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Yvon, M.

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled some issues related to the prevention of environmental health risks and mentioned in the preparation of the debate on energy transition in France, this document gathers actual objective elements for an assessment of health impact of the different energy sources. It discusses the impacts on health (mortality, sicknesses and diseases) of fossil fuels (coal and its wastes, gas), of renewable energies, of nuclear energy. For this last one, the document outlines the lack of documentation for various topics, discusses some results published on the dose impact of nuclear operation, and comment the issue of waste storage. It also recalls the main accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) and some of the known and assessed impacts. The third part proposes comparisons between the different energy sources in terms of deadly accidents, of pollution and greenhouse effect (current and late mortality), of released radioactivity (release sources and collective dose). In conclusion, the authors outline that the impact on health of environmental risks must be one of the essential issues for the definition of energy policy, and discuss the resulting implications. Various data are provided in appendix: energy in France and in the world, origins of radioactivity

  20. Spallation sources in support of technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this contribution I summarize a number of recent experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) that have contributed to strategic and applied research. A number of new tools have been developed to address these problems, including software that allows materials texture to be obtained during Rietveld refinement, Bragg-edge diffraction, resonant-neutron and proton radiography. These tools have the potential to impact basic as well as applied research. It is clear that a new, more powerful neutron source such as the planned Japanese Hadron Project will be able to use these and other techniques to contribute in a direct way to important industrial technologies. (author)

  1. Spallation sources in support of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this contribution the author summarise a number of recent experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) that have contributed to strategic and applied research. A number of new tools have been developed to address these problems, including software that allows materials texture to be obtained during Rietveld refinement, Bragg-edge diffraction, resonant-neutron and proton radiography. These tools have the potential to impact basic as well as applied research. It is clear that a new, more powerful neutron source such as the planned Japanese Hadron Project will be able to use these and other techniques to contribute in a direct way to important industrial technologies

  2. Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodrom, Andrei; Federenciuc, Dumitru; Ignat, Vasile; Dobre, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass

  3. Renewable energy technology acceptance in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardooni, Roozbeh; Yusoff, Sumiani Binti; Kari, Fatimah Binti

    2016-01-01

    Despite various policies, renewable energy resources have not been developed in Malaysia. This study investigates the factors that influence renewable energy technology acceptance in Peninsular Malaysia and attempts to show the impact of cost and knowledge on the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of renewable energy technology. The results show that cost of renewable energy has an indirect effect on attitudes towards using renewable energy through the associated impact on the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. The results also indicate that public knowledge in Peninsular Malaysia does not affect perceived ease of use, although the positive impact of knowledge on perceived usefulness is supported. Furthermore, our results show that the current business environment in Peninsular Malaysia does not support the adoption of renewable energy technology, and thus, renewable energy technology is not commercially viable in Peninsular Malaysia. Additionally, the population of Peninsular Malaysia associates the use of renewable energy with a high level of effort and therefore has a negative attitude towards the use of renewable energy technology. There is, therefore, a definite need to pay more attention to the role of public perception and awareness in the successes and failures of renewable energy policy. - Highlights: • Public acceptance is an essential element in the diffusion of renewable energy. • Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness affect intention to use renewables. • It is important to reduce the cost of renewable energy, particularly for end users. • Renewable energy policies should address issues of public perception and awareness.

  4. Health evaluation of energy-generating sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The American Medical Association's House of Delegates, at its December 1976 Clinical Convention, requested that an evaluation be made of the health hazards of nuclear, fossil, and alternative energy-generating sources, for employees of energy-producing facilities as well as for the general population. This report is a summary evaluation of such hazards prepared in response to that request. This report, which was adopted by the House of Delegates on June 21, 1978, appears here in a revised and corrected version

  5. Seawater desalination using renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogirou, S.A. [Higher Technical Inst., Nicosia, Cyprus (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The origin and continuation of mankind is based on water. Water is one of the most abundant resources on earth, covering three-fourths of the planet's surface. However, about 97% of the earth's water is salt water in the oceans, and a tiny 3% is fresh water. This small percentage of the earth's water - which supplies most of human and animal needs - exists in ground water, lakes and rivers. The only nearly inexhaustible sources of water are the oceans, which, however, are of high salinity. It would be feasible to address the water-shortage problem with seawater desalination; however, the separation of salts from seawater requires large amounts of energy which, when produced from fossil fuels, can cause harm to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to employ environmentally-friendly energy sources in order to desalinate seawater. After a historical introduction into desalination, this paper covers a large variety of systems used to convert seawater into fresh water suitable for human use. It also covers a variety of systems, which can be used to harness renewable energy sources; these include solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar ponds and geothermal energy. Both direct and indirect collection systems are included. The representative example of direct collection systems is the solar still. Indirect collection systems employ two sub-systems; one for the collection of renewable energy and one for desalination. For this purpose, standard renewable energy and desalination systems are most often employed. Only industrially-tested desalination systems are included in this paper and they comprise the phase change processes, which include the multistage flash, multiple effect boiling and vapour compression and membrane processes, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The paper also includes a review of various systems that use renewable energy sources for desalination. Finally, some general guidelines are given for selection of

  6. Application-driven development of plasma source technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J.; Mantei, T. D.

    2003-09-01

    This article reviews major developments in etch- and deposition-driven plasma source technology over the past decades. We first review the radio-frequency parallel plate diode, summarizing its great impact but also its inherent problems. Ensuing sections then treat microwave plasma generation, electron cyclotron resonance power transfer enhancement, inductively coupled plasma sources, and (very briefly) the radio-frequency helicon source. We then introduce the important and relatively new issues of control of the ion energy distribution function and the tailoring of plasma chemistry, including the decoupling of chemistry from pressure and power. The emerging areas of ambient pressure plasma sources and miniature ``plasmas on a chip'' are summarized, and we conclude with a brief view to the future.

  7. Energy technologies and the environment: Environmental information handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This revision of Energy Technologies and the Environment reflects the changes in energy supply and demand, focus of environmental concern, and emphasis of energy research and development that have occurred since publication of the earlier edition in 1980. The increase in availability of oil and natural gas, at least for the near term, is responsible in part for a reduced emphasis on development of replacement fuels and technologies. Trends in energy development also have been influenced by an increased reliance on private industry initiatives, and a correspondingly reduced government involvement, in demonstrating more developed technologies. Environmental concerns related to acid rain and waste management continue to increase the demand for development of innovative energy systems. The basic criteria for including a technology in this report are that (1) the technology is a major current or potential future energy supply and (2) significant changes in employing or understanding the technology have occurred since publication of the 1980 edition. Coal is seen to be a continuing major source of energy supply, and thus chapters pertaining to the principal coal technologies have been revised from the 1980 edition (those on coal mining and preparation, conventional coal-fired power plants, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction) or added as necessary to include emerging technologies (those on oil shale, combined-cycle power plants, coal-liquid mixtures, and fuel cells).

  8. Workshop on power conditioning for alternative energy technologies. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    As various alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaics, wind, fuel cells, and batteries are emerging as potential sources of energy for the future, the need arises for development of suitable power-conditioning systems to interface these sources to their respective loads. Since most of these sources produce dc electricity and most electrical loads require ac, an important component of the required power-conditioning units is a dc-to-ac inverter. The discussions deal with the development of power conditioners for each alternative energy technology. Discussion topics include assessments of current technology, identification of operational requirements with a comparison of requirements for each source technology, the identification of future technology trends, the determination of mass production and marketing requirements, and recommendations for program direction. Specifically, one working group dealt with source technology: photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries, and wind followed by sessions discussing system size and application: large grid-connected systems, small grid-connected systems, and stand alone and dc applications. A combined group session provided an opportunity to discuss problems common to power conditioning development.

  9. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  10. Renewable energy sources cost benefit analysis and prospects for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariemma, A.; Montanino, G.

    1992-01-01

    In light of Italy's over-dependency on imported oil, and due to this nation's commitment to the pursuit of the strict environmental protection policies of the European Communities, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has become actively involved in research efforts aimed at the commercialization of renewable energy sources - photovoltaic, wind, biomass, and mini-hydraulic. Through the use of energy production cost estimates based on current and near- future levels of technological advancement, this paper assesses prospects for the different sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each source in its use as a suitable complementary energy supply satisfying specific sets of constraints regarding siting, weather, capital and operating costs, maintenance, etc., are pointed out. In comparing the various alternatives, the paper also considers environmental benefits and commercialization feasibility in terms of time and outlay

  11. Wind energy. Technology and Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    On this bilingual CD-ROM (English and German), we would like to offer you information on all different aspects of wind energy utilisation. Our aim is the worldwide spread of know-how on wind energy - one basic aim of WWEA. The CD-ROM and the correspondent website www.world-wind-energy.info addresses all who are interested in wind energy, especially on students and learners, staff members of administrations, companies, associations, etc, who want to inform themselves and further their education of wind energy. We hope that this CD-ROM may be use to you and we would appreciate your feedback and comments. (orig.)

  12. Bioethanol as a major source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagha, Phani

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Achieving sustainability in agriculture requires taking into account many different factors: global climate, pollution, better use of industrial water, options regarding the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, and also economic sustainability in terms of costs, competitiveness, and the number and quality of jobs created. The sugarcane industry is a good example of the integration of such concerns. It also illustrates what can be attained when people in developing countries receive the training they need to develop their own technologies. Bioethanol has taken precedence as Prime Biofuel after lot of controversy erupted on international food shortages and spiraling food prices. In spite of all the controversy Shrouding Biofuels, there has been universal acceptance and understanding that we need to continually look at alternate sources of fuels and feed stock's which are non food and this has seen visible interest for Sugarcane based Bioethanol to wheat, Maize and other food crops. In July 2008 alone, big investments in sugarcane/ethanol production were announced across the globe in sugar producing countries in the order of over 500 million dollars. The preceding months saw planned investment in the billions of dollars in the sector. The International Energy Agency sees world Biofuels production rising from 1.35 million barrels a day in 2008 to 1.95 million barrels a day in 2013- only five years away- and it is a safe bet that most of this increase will come from sugarcane ethanol. Dow Jones notes the sector seems impervious to the liquidity crunch with new investment being announced in Brazil despite high levels of existing debt. Pressure is also mounting on the developed countries to free up current import. (author)

  13. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors

  14. High energy cosmic rays: sources and fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the production of a unique energy spectrum of the high energy cosmic rays detected with air showers by shifting the energy estimates of different detectors. After such a spectrum is generated we fit the spectrum with three or four populations of cosmic rays that might be accelerated at different cosmic ray sources. We also present the chemical composition that the fits of the spectrum generates and discuss some new data sets presented this summer at the ICRC in Rio de Janeiro that may require new global fits.

  15. Technology sourcing over the technology life cycle : A study about the moderating effect of the technology life cycle on the relation between technology sourcing and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    How do external and internal technology sourcing influence the innovative and market performance of firms over the technology life-cycle? The impact of technology sourcing on firm performance during different phases of the technology life cycle represents a gap in academic literature. Practically,

  16. Power Technologies Energy Data Book - Third Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aabakken, J.

    2005-04-01

    This report, prepared by NREL's Energy Analysis Office, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, and conversion factors.

  17. Technological learning in the energy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.; Lako, P.; Lensink, S.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Weiss, M.

    2008-01-01

    Technology learning is a key driver behind the improvement of (energy) technologies available to mankind and subsequent reduction of production costs. Many of the conventional technologies in use today have already been continuously improved over decades, sometimes even a century. In contrast, many

  18. Power Technologies Energy Data Book - Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aabakken, J.

    2006-08-01

    This report, prepared by NREL's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, and conversion factors.

  19. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.C.; Hauserman, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  20. Power electronics - key technology for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Kerekes, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    are changing and challenging the future electrical infrastructure but also contributes steadily more to non-carbon based electricity production. Most focus in the paper is on the power electronics technologies used. In the case of photovoltaics transformer-less systems are discussed as they have the potential...... as efficient as possible. Further, the emerging climate changes is arguing to find sustainable future solutions. Of many options, two major technologies will play important roles to solve parts of those future problems. One is to change the electrical power production from conventional, fossil based energy...... sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss trends of the most emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics...

  1. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic, and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.

  2. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as

  3. SO2 - An indirect source of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriek, R.J.; Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Potgieter, M.

    2013-01-01

    -related processes 12.8 Mt. As a well-known gaseous pollutant, SO2 is not per se known as a source of energy. However, in the presence of water SO2 can be electro-oxidized at the anode of an electrolyser to produce hydrogen ions, which in turn can be reduced at the cathode of the electrolyser to produce hydrogen gas...

  4. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  5. Solid waste as an energy source for the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.

    1976-06-01

    This report, one of a series prepared for the BNL study of the Energy Future of the Northeastern United States, presents an assessment of the potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal refuse to energy supply in the region. A brief review of the present and likely future quantity and composition of municipal refuse and the technologies available for energy recovery (Chapters II and III) is followed by a comparison of the potential contributions to energy supply of the various recovery options including direct firing in utility boilers, pyrolysis to oil or gas, and steam generation for industrial process heat or district space heating (Chapter IV). The relationship of refuse energy recovery to market conditions for alternative energy sources is considered in Chapter V, which also includes an analysis of the impact of haul costs, interest rates, and delivered prices of the major fuels. Institutional barriers to implementation of energy recovery are reviewed in Chapter VI, and the environmental implications of the concept are addressed in Chapter VII. In the concluding chapters, scenarios of energy recovery are developed for 1985 and 2000, and the sensitivity of overall energy yield to projections and assumptions is examined. Although even under the most optimistic assumptions, refuse energy recovery is found to contribute only some 5 percent of total regional consumption, the economic and environmental benefits, coupled with the increasing difficulty of finding other refuse disposal alternatives, make energy recovery a very attractive policy choice for helping to relieve future energy supply difficulties in the Northeast. (auth)

  6. Energy technology review, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.C. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This issue of Energy Technology Review'' gives the annual review of the programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This State of the Laboratory issue includes discussions of all major programs: Defense Systems; Laser Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Energy and Earth Sciences; Environmental Technology Program; Biomedical and Environmental Science; Engineering; Physics; Chemistry and Materials Science; Computations; and Administrative and Institutional Services. An index is also given of the 1991 achievements with contact names and telephone number.

  7. Source Taxation of Technological Services in Finnish Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I analyze the various means of source taxation of technological and other services permitted by Finnish double taxation conventions and the future of source taxation of technological and other services. I attempt to shed light on the various means of source taxation of technological services permitted by Finnish tax treaties and by tax treaties also more generally. I analyze 1) the taxation of technological services in the source country as the profits of a permanent establishm...

  8. Technological Aspects of Russian Energy Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Z. Zhiznin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the impact of technology on the development of world energy in the world, as well as on the development of international energy relations. The important role of international cooperation in the field of energy technologies as a key factor in the development and global deployment of energy technologies in the industry. The most effective technology in the world of multilateral cooperation under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA and other international organizations. It allows the joint efforts of the countries concerned to develop new technologies, test them and implement in production. For Russia, it is very important, because at the moment our country is not only a leading exporter of energy resources, but also has a significant impact on global energy security. At the same time Russia's FEC requires urgent and serious modernization through the development and introduction of innovative technologies on the basis of the study of international experience. Therefore the question of modernization of Russian fuel and energy complex has an international character. One way to accelerate the process of modernization of the organization is a public-private partnership that will largely depend on the nature and possibilities of Russian energy diplomacy, given the geopolitical and economic realities in connection with the sanctions imposed by Western countries against our country.

  9. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis, and explores the markets, policies and prospects for a number of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a discussion of ten technology areas: bioenergy for electricity and heat, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro energy, ocean energy, solar energy (solar photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, and solar heating), and wind energy (onshore and offshore). Each technology discussion includes: the current technical and market status; the current costs of energy production and cost trends; the policy environment; the potential and projections for the future; and an analysis of the prospects and key hurdles to future expansion.

  10. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  11. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The costs for hydrogen production through water electrolysis are estimated, assuming the electricity is produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the power generation, heat and transportation sectors are also calculated, based on a state of the art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The costs for hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) are shown to be higher than current prices for fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen shall not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  12. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.-M.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of hydrogen from water electrolysis is estimated, assuming that the electricity was produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the sectors of power generation, heat and transportation are calculated, based on a state-of-the-art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The cost of hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) is higher than the current price of fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen will not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. (Author)

  13. Nordic Energy Technologies : Enabling a sustainable Nordic energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vik, Amund; Smith, Benjamin

    2009-10-15

    A high current Nordic competence in energy technology and an increased need for funding and international cooperation in the field are the main messages of the report. This report summarizes results from 7 different research projects relating to policies for energy technology, funded by Nordic Energy Research for the period 2007-2008, and provides an analysis of the Nordic innovation systems in the energy sector. The Nordic countries possess a high level of competence in the field of renewable energy technologies. Of the total installed capacity comprises a large share of renewable energy, and Nordic technology companies play an important role in the international market. Especially distinguished wind energy, both in view of the installed power and a global technology sales. Public funding for energy research has experienced a significant decline since the oil crisis of the 1970s, although the figures in recent years has increased a bit. According to the IEA, it will require a significant increase in funding to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit further climate change. The third point highlighted in the report is the importance of international cooperation in energy research. Nordic and international cooperation is necessary in order to reduce duplication and create the synergy needed if we are to achieve our ambitious policy objectives in the climate and energy issue. (AG)

  14. The future of coal as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the future of such coal as an energy source which the author believes, is inextricably related to its economic and environmental acceptability. Technologies have been - and are being - developed that will help assure that coal retains its traditional share of the United States energy market. In addition, there are some 900 million tons per year of coal equivalent oil and gas currently being consumed (22.5 quads of 12.500 BTU/lb coal) in the United States that may be considered for potential coal conversion. Lastly, one can see trends emerging that may justify reconsideration of coal as a source of hydrocarbon to substitute for petrochemical industry feedstocks in addition to its customary role as a BTU supplier. The balance of this report will provide a background on environmental and legislative initiatives and discuss some of these technologies and new directions for coal research in the 1990s and beyond

  15. Economic aspects of advanced energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, R.; Rodriguez, A.P.; Venkata, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced energy technologies span a wide variety of resources, techniques, and end-user requirements. Economic considerations are major factors that shape their harnessing and utilization. A discussion of the basic factors in the economic arena is presented, with particular emphasis on renewable energy technologies--photovoltaics, solar-thermal, wind-electric conversion, biomass utilization, hydro, and tidal and wave energy systems. The following are essential to determine appropriate energy system topologies: proper resource-need matching with an eye on the quality of energy requirements, integrated use of several resources and technologies, and a comprehensive consideration which includes prospecting, collection, conversion, transportation, distribution, storage and reconversion, end use, and subsequent waste management aspects. A few case studies are included to apprise the reader of the status of some of the key technologies and systems

  16. Energy policy. Technical developments, political strategies, and concepts of action regarding renewable energy sources and rational energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauch, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study book deals with problems from the history of energy, energy sytems, energy engineering, and the potential of renewable energy sources: hydro and wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaics and solar thermal conversion; the improvement of boundary conditions for their transfer to market; concepts of action and project funding preferences of the EU, USA and Japan in this sector; relevant activities of the federal German government and proposals by non-governmental players in the field as well as strategies for rational energy use; methods for building an energy consensus and criteria for valuating energy systems; concepts of action and proposals for extending solar energy use in the Mediterranean and Afrika, as well as political factors governing the market introduction and export promotion of renewable energy technologies in this triad: the USA, Japan, and the European Union. Seven of the papers contained in the book are individually recorded. (orig./RHM). 76 figs., 100 tabs [de

  17. Exploiting Sun's Energy Effectively as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    relevant chemical reactions is currently an area of research that is attracting a large attention. This route circumvents our reliance on non-renewable sources of energy and more importantly prevents the release of hazardous pollutants as a byproduct. One such reaction that has a large industrial rele- vance is the splitting of ...

  18. Energy and economic milestones in Nigeria: Role of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahunsi, S.O.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric power supply could be the driving force critical to poverty reduction, economic growth and sustainable development in developing countries like Nigeria. Comparative analysis of several promising technologies that could be explored to achieve energy sufficiency however shows that nuclear power is more economically competitive and outstanding despite the relatively high initial capital cost. Furthermore, one of the critical conditions in deciding to invest in a specific electric power technology is the overall cost component of the new technology, nuclear therefore is in many places competitive with other forms of electricity generation. The fundamental attraction is about harnessing the sources of energy which takes cognizance of the environmental effects of burning fossil fuel and its security of supply. This paper therefore highlights the benefits of inclusion of nuclear energy in the Nigeria energy mix, a sine qua non for economic and social development, safer environment, wealth creation and a long term energy security.

  19. Energy & technology review, April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookless, W.A.; Stull, S. [eds.

    1995-04-01

    This publication presents research overviews on projects from the Lawrence Livermore laboratory. This issue provides information on microsphere targets for inertial confinement fusion experiments; laser fabrication of berllium components; and the kinetic energy interceptor.

  20. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hirata, Chris [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Roodman, Aaron [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Seljak, Uroš [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Slosar, Anže [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Trodden, Mark [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-04-26

    A strong instrumentation and detector R&D program has enabled the current generation of cosmic frontier surveys. A small investment in R&D will continue to pay dividends and enable new probes to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. Instrumentation and detector R&D provide critical training opportunities for future generations of experimentalists, skills that are important across the entire Department of Energy High Energy Physics program.

  1. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  2. Market introduction of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    On 11 and 12 November 1997 the VDI Society for Energy Technology (VDI-GET) held a congress in Neuss on the ''Market introduction of renewable energy technologies'' The focal topics of the congress were as follows: market analyses for renewable energy technologies, the development of markets at home and abroad, and the framework conditions governing market introduction. Specifically it dealt with the market effects of national and international introduction measures, promotion programmes and their efficiency, the legal framework conditions governing market introduction, advanced and supplementary training, market-oriented research (e.g., for cost reduction), and improved marketing [de

  3. Integrating energy and environmental goals. Investment needs and technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    , since their shares of global energy demand and emissions are expected to grow rapidly. Over the next thirty years, developing countries are expected to account for 70% of the growth in global energy demand and for two-thirds of the growth in global emissions. Section six looks at some of the challenges regarding investment and energy access. Security of energy supply is an important component in the planning of future technology options, because long-term security calls for a balance between energy sources and technologies. Governments have a role to play in tipping this balance, and this role is examined in section seven. A final section examines the uncertainties and costs of various policy initiatives over the long term

  4. Renewable energy technology handbook for military engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Renewable energy applications are introduced that are considered promising for military use in the 1980s. These are: solar hot water for buildings, active solar hot water and space heating for buildings, passive solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar industrial process heata, solar ponds, photovoltaic power for homes, photovoltaic power for remote applications, parabolic dish solar systems for remote applications, wind energy for buildings, wind energy for central power plants, wind energy for water pumping, biomass energy systems for buildings, biomass energy systems for central power plants, geothermal energy for process heat, and geothermal energy for central power plants. For each of these is given: a brief history of the technology and information on how the technology works; a detailed technical and economic profile of an operating system; and a summary listing of operating civilian and military systems that are open for public viewing.

  5. Technological research on alternative energy sources in Brazil: the case of biodiesel; Pesquisas tecnologicas sobre fontes alternativas de energia no Brasil: o caso do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Franca; Souza, Cristina Gomes de; Peixoto, Jose Antonio Assuncao [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article aims to map the main characteristics of research projects promoted in Brazil on biodiesel, as part of the National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB), aiming to identify issues, such as: what are the types of plants studied, which is being searched and what the different partners involved. The survey was made on the basis of data available on the web site of the government www.biodiesel.gov.br, and showed the existence of 118 searches registered on the subject. The contents of the study addresses initially some relevant information on biodiesel and its peculiarities in Brazil. In the following sections are identified actions taken by the Brazilian government to create an environment to encourage technological development related to biodiesel, with emphasis on the PNPB and its lines of research. Finally, the results obtained from the database found are presented and discussed. Among other information, the study reveals that: the plants most studied are castor bean, soybeans and cotton, and the research on the biodiesel has focused on improvements in its characterization and quality control as well as in the production of the fuel itself. (author)

  6. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  7. Hawai‘i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-09-30

    HNEI has conducted research to address a number of issues important to move Hawai‘i to greater use of intermittent renewable and distributed energy resource (DER) technologies in order to facilitate greater use of Hawai‘i's indigenous renewable energy resources. Efforts have been concentrated on the Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, and O‘ahu, focusing in three areas of endeavor: 1) Energy Modeling and Scenario Analysis (previously called Energy Road mapping); 2) Research, Development, and Validation of Renewable DER and Microgrid Technologies; and 3) Analysis and Policy. These efforts focused on analysis of the island energy systems and development of specific candidate technologies for future insertion into an integrated energy system, which would lead to a more robust transmission and distribution system in the state of Hawai‘i and eventually elsewhere in the nation.

  8. Prospects of renewable energy sources in India: Prioritization of alternative sources in terms of Energy Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shibani K.; Puppala, Harish

    2017-01-01

    The growing energy demand in progressing civilization governs the exploitation of various renewable sources over the conventional sources. Wind, Solar, Hydro, Biomass, and waste & Bagasse are the various available renewable sources in India. A reliable nonconventional geothermal source is also available in India but it is restricted to direct heat applications. This study archives the status of renewable alternatives in India. The techno economic factors and environmental aspects associated with each of these alternatives are discussed. This study focusses on prioritizing the renewable sources based on a parameter introduced as Energy Index. This index is evaluated using cumulative scores obtained for each of the alternatives. The cumulative score is obtained by evaluating each alternative over a range of eleven environmental and techno economic criteria following Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process. The eleven criteria's considered in the study are Carbon dioxide emissions (CO 2 ), Sulphur dioxide emissions (SO 2 ), Nitrogen oxide emissions (NO x ), Land requirement, Current energy cost, Potential future energy cost, Turnkey investment, Capacity factor, Energy efficiency, Design period and Water consumption. It is concluded from the study that the geothermal source is the most preferable alternative with highest Energy Index. Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar sources are subsequently preferred alternatives. - Highlights: • FAH process is used to obtain cumulative score for each renewable alternative. • Cumulative score is normalized by highest score of ideal source. • Energy Index shows how best a renewable alternative is. • Priority order is obtained for alternatives based on Energy Index. • Geothermal is most preferable source followed by Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar.

  9. Environmental regulation and the export dynamics of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Valeria; Crespi, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The pollution haven hypothesis affirms that an open market regime will encourage the flow of low-technology polluting industries towards developing countries because of potential comparative advantages related to low environmental standards. In contrast, the hypothesis suggested by Porter and van der Linde claims that innovating firms operate in a dynamic competitive situation which allows global diffusion of environmental-friendly technologies. Environmental regulation may represent a relevant mechanism through which technological change is induced. In this way, countries that are subject to more stringent environmental regulations may become net exporters of environmental technologies. This paper provides new evidence on the evolution of export flows of environmental technologies across different countries for the energy sector. Advanced economies, particularly the European Union, have increasingly focused on the role of energy policies as tools for sustaining the development path. The Kyoto Protocol commitments, together with growing import dependence on energy products, have brought attention to the analysis of innovation processes in this specific sector. The analysis uses a gravity model in order to test the determinants and the transmission channels through which environmental technologies for renewable energies and energy efficiency are exported to advanced and developing countries. Our results are consistent with the Porter and van der Linde hypothesis where environmental regulation represents a significant source of comparative advantages. What strongly emerges is that the stringency of environmental regulation supplemented by the strength of the National Innovation System is a crucial driver of export performance in the field of energy technologies. (author)

  10. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder; Giddey, Sarbjit; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand; Hollenkamp, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation and storage; pollution control / monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges.

  11. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P. S.; Giddey, Sarbjit S.; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation, and storage; pollution control/monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time, and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges. PMID:25309898

  12. Energy technology X: a decade of progress. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.F. (ed.)

    1983-06-01

    The characterization, development, and availability of various energy sources for large scale energy production are discussed. Attention is given to government, industry, and international policies on energy resource development and implementation. Techniques for energy analysis, planning, and regulation are examined, with consideration given to conservation practices, military energy programs, and financing schemes. Efficient energy use is examined, including energy and load management, building retrofits, and cogeneration installations, as well as waste heat recovery. The state of the art of nuclear, fossil, and geothermal power extraction is investigated, with note taken of synthetic fuels, fluidized bed combustion, and pollution control in coal-powered plants. Finally, progress in renewable energy technologies, including solar heating and cooling, biomass, and large and small wind energy conversion devices is described.

  13. Energy efficiency: a source of savings; a priority objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethencourt, Anne de; Chorin, Jacky

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency is defined as consumption of less energy whilst delivering the same service. Significant progress has been made through the impact of technology, price increases and awareness of waste. Too often viewed as a constraint, energy efficiency nonetheless constitutes the leading potential source of domestic energy for the 2020 goal. Energy efficiency is or will be (depending on the will of the stakeholders, public authorities and society as a whole) a key market for the future and a pathway to creative innovation. Everything is pointing in that direction: the obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions fourfold, the new European Directive on Energy Efficiency to be incorporated, the expected increase in energy prices, the presence in France of industry leaders and of a small-scale but important industry in this sector. The goals in energy efficiency entail: - at Community level, that the objective of 20% energy savings for the 2020 goal becomes binding; - at national level, that public policies for energy efficiency are part of a long-term vision, based on the achievements of the Grenelle Environment Forum and avoid sending out any wrong signals which might adversely affect progress. The ESEC proposals are built around the following four themes: - (residential and service sector) buildings: Make energy efficiency into a real sector and a new opportunity 'work together', Optimise tools and regulations, Be innovative in terms of financial support; - fuel poverty; - industry and agriculture; - the particular situation of the overseas departments

  14. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  15. Status of geothermal energy amongst the world's energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    2003-01-01

    The world primary energy consumption is about 400 EJ/year, mostly provided by fossil fuels (80%), The renewables collectively provide 14% of the primary energy, in the form of traditional biomass (10%), large (>10 MW) hydropower stations (2%), and the ''new renewables''(2%). Nuclear energy provides 6%. The World Energy Council expects the world primary energy consumption to have grown by 50-275% in 2050, depending on different scenarios. The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the primary energy in 2050 and 30-80% in 2100. The technical potential of the renewables is estimated at 7600 EJ/year, and thus certainly sufficiently large to meet future world energy requirements. Of the total electricity production from renewables of 2826 TWh in 1998, 92% came from hydropower, 5.5% from biomass, 1.6% from geothermal and 0.6% from wind. Solar electricity contributed 0.05% and tidal 0.02%. The electricity cost is 2-10 UScents/kWh for geothermal and hydro, 5-13 UScents/kWh for wind, 5-15 UScents/kWh for biomass, 25-125 UScents/kWh for solar photovoltaic and 12-18 UScents/kWh for solar thermal electricity. Biomass constitutes 93% of the total direct heat production from renewables, geothermal 5%, and solar heating 2%. Heat production from renewables is commercially competitive with conventional energy sources. Direct heat from biomass costs 1-5 UScents/kWh, geothermal 0.5-5 UScents/kWh, and solar heating 3-20 UScents/kWh. (author)

  16. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  17. Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    2002-01-01

    There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry

  18. Physics and technology of spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S.

    1998-08-01

    Next to fission and fusion, spallation is an efficient process for releasing neutrons from nuclei. Unlike the other two reactions, it is an endothermal process and can, therefore, not be used per se in energy generation. In order to sustain a spallation reaction, an energetic beam of particles, most commonly protons, must be supplied onto a heavy target. Spallation can, however, play an important role as a source of neutrons whose flux can be easily controlled via the driving beam. Up to a few GeV of energy, the neutron production is roughly proportional to the beam power. Although sophisticated Monte Carlo codes exist to compute all aspects of a spallation facility, many features can be understood on the basis of simple physics arguments. Technically a spallation facility is very demanding, not only because a reliable and economic accelerator of high power is needed to drive the reaction, but also, and in particular, because high levels of radiation and heat are generated in the target which are difficult to cope with. Radiation effects in a spallation environment are different from those commonly encountered in a reactor and are probably even more temperature dependent than the latter because of the high gas production rate. A commonly favored solution is the use of molten heavy metal targets. While radiation damage is not a problem in this case, except for the container, a number of other issues are discussed. (author)

  19. Demand for Clean Energies Efficient Development in Buildings Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa Omer, Abdeen

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Purpose: The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment, and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that green energies like wind, solar, ground source heat pumps, and biomass must be promoted, implemented, and demonstrated from the economic and/or environmental point view. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas. Study design: Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect or global warming) are comprehensively discussed in this article. Place and Duration of Study: National Centre for Research, Energy Research Institute (ERI), between January 2014 and July 2015. (author)

  20. Cooperative technology development: An approach to advancing energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, T.

    1989-09-01

    Technology development requires an enormous financial investment over a long period of time. Scarce national and corporate resources, the result of highly competitive markets, decreased profit margins, wide currency fluctuations, and growing debt, often preclude continuous development of energy technology by single entities, i.e., corporations, institutions, or nations. Although the energy needs of the developed world are generally being met by existing institutions, it is becoming increasingly clear that existing capital formation and technology transfer structures have failed to aid developing nations in meeting their growing electricity needs. This paper will describe a method for meeting the electricity needs of the developing world through technology transfer and international cooperative technology development. The role of nuclear power and the advanced passive plant design will be discussed. (author)

  1. White paper for the exploitation of the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, L.; Avella, R.; Braccio, G.; Caserta, G.; Chiado' Rana, M.; Ciciolla, C.; Conte, G.; De Lillo, A.; Gerardi, V.; Giuliani, G.; Pignatelli, V.; Pirazzi, L.; Ricci, A.; Sarno, A.; Sonnino, A.; Viggiano, D.; Pazzi, V.; Silvestrini, G.; Morselli, F.; Gomboli, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Italian government attributes at the renewable energy sources a remarkable strategy. Therefore supports the progressive integration of this energy sources in energy market and develop the co-operation with Mediterranean area countries [it

  2. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they are not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.

  3. Energy Technologies Research and Education Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, Abbas [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ranade, Satish [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2014-12-31

    For this project, the intended goal of the microgrid component was to investigate issues in policy and technology that would drive higher penetration of renewable energy, and to demonstrate implementation in a utility system. The work accomplished on modeling the dynamics of photovoltaic (PV) penetration can be expanded for practical application. Using such a tool those involved in public policy can examine what the effect of a particular policy initiative, e.g., renewable portfolio standards (RPS) requirements, might be in terms of the desired targets. The work in the area of microgrid design, protection, and operation is fundamental to the development of microgrids. In particular the “Energy Delivery” paradigm provides new opportunities and business models for utilities. Ultimately, Energy Delivery could accrue significant benefits in terms of costs and resiliency. The experimental microgrid will support continued research and allow the demonstration of technology for better integration of renewables. The algal biofuels component of the project was developed to enhance the test facility and to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a commercial-scale geothermal algal biofuels operation for replication elsewhere in the arid Southwest. The project was housed at New Mexico State University’s (NMSU’s) Geothermal Aquaculture Facility (GAF) and a design for the inoculation train and algae grow-out process was developed. The facility was upgraded with modifications to existing electrical, plumbing and structural components on the GAF and surrounding grounds. The research work was conducted on biomass-processing, harvesting, dewatering, and extraction. Additionally, research was conducted to determine viability of using low-cost, wastewater from municipal treatment plants in the cultivation units as make-up water and as a source of nutrients, including nitrogen and soluble phosphorus. Data was collected on inputs and outputs, growth evaluation and

  4. The economic conditions for the application of advanced energy technologies (Clean Coal Technologies in the Slovakia´s energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šalamonová Alena

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled “The economic conditions for the application of advanced energy technologies (clean coal technologies in the Slovakia`s energy sector” is based on the development program for the Slovakia`s energy industry, which includes the implementation of the advanced energy technologies (CCT in utilities. It quantifies the needs of the implementation of projects applying such technologies and specifies a rough production costs for the energy produced by different types of energy facilities. The current economic conditions of the CCT operation are decribed along with the definition of the conditions for their future efficient application. The authors outline expected system measures aimed at enhancing the application of highly efficient technologies in the energy industry, including renewable energy sources. The article, in a transparent form, makes a realistic evaluation of the current situation and a likely development in the application of clean energy technologies.

  5. Environmental and policy analysis of renewable energy enabling technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Paul L.

    For intermittent electricity generation sources such as wind and solar energy to meet a large fraction (>20%) of the nation's electricity supply, two enabling technologies, energy storage and long distance transmission, will need to be deployed on a large scale. A life-cycle study was performed to evaluate the environmental performance of energy storage and transmission technologies in terms of compatibility with the goals of deploying renewable energy systems. Metrics were developed to evaluate net efficiency, fossil fuel use, and greenhouse gas emissions that result from the use of enabling technologies with conventional and renewable energy sources. Storage technologies evaluated in this study include pumped hydro storage, compressed air energy storage, and battery energy storage. Three combinations of renewable energy generation and storage were evaluated. Wind/CAES is a likely candidate for large scale deployment, and delivers more than 5 times the amount of electrical energy from a unit of fossil fuel than the most efficient combustion system available, with about 20% of GHG emissions. Both wind/PHS and Solar PVBES also demonstrate superior performance to fossil energy systems in terms of energy sustainability and GHG emissions. Near term deployment of energy storage will likely take advantage of low cost off-peak energy from existing coal plants, which can result in increases in harmful air emissions. The "grandfathering" provisions of the U.S. Clean Air Act allow for increased output from these older plants that produce high levels of emissions. Energy storage provides a loophole that could be used to increase output from these plants, instead of building cleaner alternatives. The unique hybrid-CAES system has lower life-cycle emissions than any other storage technologies when coupled to coal, but effectively produces emissions that far exceed standards for any new source. A new CAES plant in the Midwestern U.S. will effectively produce SO2 at a rate more

  6. Emerging energy technologies impacts and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    Technical change is a key factor in the energy world. Failure to recognize the potential for technical change, and the pace at which it may occur, has limited the accuracy and usefulness of past energy projections. conversely, programs to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies have often proved disappointing in the face of technical and commercial obstacles. This book examines important new and emerging energy technologies, and the mechanisms by which they may develop and enter the market. The project concentrates on the potential and probable role of selected energy technologies-which are in existence and likely to be of rapidly growing importance over the next decade-and the way in which market conditions and policy environment may affect their implementation

  7. Energy management under policy and technology uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylock, Steven M.; Seager, Thomas P.; Snell, Jeff; Bennett, Erin R.; Sweet, Don

    2012-01-01

    Energy managers in public agencies are subject to multiple and sometimes conflicting policy objectives regarding cost, environmental, and security concerns associated with alternative energy technologies. Making infrastructure investment decisions requires balancing different distributions of risks and benefits that are far from clear. For example, managers at permanent Army installations must incorporate Congressional legislative objectives, executive orders, Department of Defense directives, state laws and regulations, local restrictions, and multiple stakeholder concerns when undertaking new energy initiatives. Moreover, uncertainty with regard to alternative energy technologies is typically much greater than that associated with traditional technologies, both because the technologies themselves are continuously evolving and because the intermittent nature of many renewable technologies makes a certain level of uncertainty irreducible. This paper describes a novel stochastic multi-attribute analytic approach that allows users to explore different priorities or weighting schemes in combination with uncertainties related to technology performance. To illustrate the utility of this approach for understanding conflicting policy or stakeholder perspectives, prioritizing the need for more information, and making investment decisions, we apply this approach to an energy technology decision problem representative of a permanent military base. Highlights: ► Incorporate disparate criteria with uncertain performance. ► Analyze decisions with contrasting stakeholder positions. ► Interactively compare alternatives based on uncertain weighting. ► User friendly multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tool.

  8. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  10. BPS, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for buildings greening and zero energy cities planning harmony and ethics of sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, Marija S. [University of Belgrade, Serbia and Southeast University (China)

    2011-07-01

    Traditional village houses now use renewable materials and energy sources and this paper presents the intrinsic harmony of these buildings' greening and their sustainability. The paper covers building technical systems, sustainable energy supply, and the importance of renewable raw materials (RMS) for sustainable development. This study investigated the role of building dynamic behavior and optimized energy efficiency in reducing thermal loads significantly. A preliminary design for sustainable energy efficient settlements with net zero energy buildings is proposed and a comprehensive multidisciplinary engineering study was done which identified the technical feasibility of sustainable village energy and water supplies using solar or wind technologies. Overall, through analysis of sustainability definitions and possible ways to achieve sustainability, the study demonstrated that this can only be brought about by interdisciplinary interaction and finding the right balance between materiality and spirituality, science and art, and between technological development and concern for cultural and other human values.

  11. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  12. Advanced nuclear energy analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Murata, Kenneth K.; Romero, Vicente Josce; Young, Michael Francis; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2004-01-01

    A two-year effort focused on applying ASCI technology developed for the analysis of weapons systems to the state-of-the-art accident analysis of a nuclear reactor system was proposed. The Sandia SIERRA parallel computing platform for ASCI codes includes high-fidelity thermal, fluids, and structural codes whose coupling through SIERRA can be specifically tailored to the particular problem at hand to analyze complex multiphysics problems. Presently, however, the suite lacks several physics modules unique to the analysis of nuclear reactors. The NRC MELCOR code, not presently part of SIERRA, was developed to analyze severe accidents in present-technology reactor systems. We attempted to: (1) evaluate the SIERRA code suite for its current applicability to the analysis of next generation nuclear reactors, and the feasibility of implementing MELCOR models into the SIERRA suite, (2) examine the possibility of augmenting ASCI codes or alternatives by coupling to the MELCOR code, or portions thereof, to address physics particular to nuclear reactor issues, especially those facing next generation reactor designs, and (3) apply the coupled code set to a demonstration problem involving a nuclear reactor system. We were successful in completing the first two in sufficient detail to determine that an extensive demonstration problem was not feasible at this time. In the future, completion of this research would demonstrate the feasibility of performing high fidelity and rapid analyses of safety and design issues needed to support the development of next generation power reactor systems

  13. New energy technologies. Research program proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the most promising program propositions of research and development and the public financing needed for their realization. The concerned technologies are: the hydrogen and the fuel cell PAN-H, the separation and the storage of the CO 2 , the photovoltaic solar electricity, the PREBAT program of the building energy recovery and the bio-energies. (A.L.B.)

  14. Finnish energy technologies for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The global energy sector is going through major changes: the need for energy is growing explosively, while at the same time climate change is forcing US to find new, and cleaner, ways to generate energy. Finland is one of the forerunners in energy technology development, partly because of its northern location and partly thanks to efficient innovations. A network of centres of expertise was established in Finland in 1994 to boost the competitiveness and internationalisation of Finnish industry and, consequently, that of the EU region. During the expertise centre programme period 2007-2013, substantial resources will be allocated to efficient utilisation of top level expertise in thirteen selected clusters of expertise. The energy cluster, focusing on developing energy technologies for the future, is one of these

  15. Energy sources policies in terms of environment [Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Safak Gokhan [Etibank Research Centre, Izmir (Turkey); Tuncer, Gungor; Ipekoglu, Bedri [Istanbul Univ., Mining Engineering Dept., Istanbul (Turkey)

    1998-09-01

    The energy sources available in Turkey are reviewed. Currently most of the country`s power is generated in hydroelectric and coal fired power plants, but this is not adequate to meet energy demand. Indigenous oil and gas deposits are small on a global scale but Turkey has 54% of the world`s thorium deposits. Nuclear technology is only at the research stage at present however so that nuclear power is not an immediate possibility. The present reliance on hydro and coal will continue therefore with efforts to enhance petroleum and natural gas production and to develop all other existing resources such as solar, geothermal and biomass where some potential exists. In addition, the need to promote energy conservation and energy efficiency is seen as a priority. (UK)

  16. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid...... expansion of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV). The International Energy Agency's 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook stated that the rapid increases in RES integration are underpinned by falling technology costs as well as rising fossilfuel prices and carbon pricing, but RES integration is also...

  17. Energy & Technology Review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.J.; Canada, J.; de Vore, L.; Gleason, K.; Kirvel, R.D.; Kroopnick, H.; McElroy, L.; Van Dyke, P. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    This monthly report of research activities at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory highlights three different research programs. First, the Forensic Science Center supports a broad range of analytical techniques that focus on detecting and analyzing chemical, biological, and nuclear species. Analyses are useful in the areas of nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and law enforcement. Second, starting in 1977, the laboratory initiated a series of studies to understand a high incidence of melanoma among employees. Continued study shows that mortality from this disease has decreased from the levels seen in the 1980`s. Third, to help coordinate the laboratory`s diverse research projects that can provide better healthcare tools to the public, the lab is creating the new Center for Healthcare Technologies.

  18. Impacts of non-nuclear energy sources on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavkaya, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal) , which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. If humankind is going to have a future on this planet, at least a high-technology future, with a significant population of several billions of humans continuing to inhabit the Earth, it is absolutely inevitable that we will have to find another energy source. Table 1: The environmental effects for some energy systems; SOURCES: Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas and coal) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Ozone layer depletion - Changes of atmospheric conditions - Decrease of air quality (Coal , petroleum) - Acid rains and destroy of forests (coal, petroleum ) - Pollution from toxic wastes (coal ash, slag and smoke hole gases) - Pollution of surface water - Seaside and sea pollutions (petroleum) - Terrain devolution - Large amount of fuel and transportation requirements - Sources depletion SOURCES: Hydroelectric ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - Large area requirements - Population situation changes - Erosion and usage changes - Ecosystem changes and health effects - Disappearing of biological variety - Downfall of dams - Leave out of production SOURCES: Renewable (sun, wind, geothermal, biomass) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Decrease of air quality (geothermal, biomass) - Large area usage - Ecologic system changes - Fabrication effects (CO 2 effect due to production of photovoltaic cells that work with sun) - Noise (wind) SOURCES: Nuclear (All energy chain) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Radioactive oscillation because of serious reactor accident - Radiation of waste storage. In this study, the environmental effects for some energy systems are investigated with all details

  19. Coal: an economic source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coal, in spite its abundance availability in Pakistan, is a neglected source of energy. Its role as fuel is not more than five percent for the last four decades. Some of the coal, mined, in used as space heating in cold areas of Pakistan but more than 90% is being used in brick kilns. There are 185 billion tonnes of coal reserves in the country and hardly 3 million tonnes of coal is, annually, mined. Lakhra coal field is, presently, major source of coal and is considered the largest productive/operative coal field of Pakistan. It is cheaper coal compared to other coals available in Pakistan. As an average analysis of colas of the country, it shows that most of the coals are lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur content. The energy potential is roughly the same but the cost/ton of coal is quite different. It may be due to methods of mining. There should be some criteria for fixing the cost of the coal. It should be based on energy potential of unit mass of coal. (author)

  20. Evaluating Internal Technological Capabilities in Energy Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingook Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As global competition increases, technological capability must be evaluated objectively as one of the most important factors for predominance in technological competition and to ensure sustainable business excellence. Most existing capability evaluation models utilize either quantitative methods, such as patent analysis, or qualitative methods, such as expert panels. Accordingly, they may be in danger of reflecting only fragmentary aspects of technological capabilities, and produce inconsistent results when different models are used. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a comprehensive framework for evaluating technological capabilities in energy companies by considering the complex properties of technological knowledge. For this purpose, we first explored various factors affecting technological capabilities and divided the factors into three categories: individual, organizational, and technology competitiveness. Second, we identified appropriate evaluation items for each category to measure the technological capability. Finally, by using a hybrid approach of qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed an evaluation method for each item and suggested a method to combine the results. The proposed framework was then verified with an energy generation and supply company to investigate its practicality. As one of the earliest attempts to evaluate multi-faceted technological capabilities, the suggested model can support technology and strategic planning.

  1. Learning in renewable energy technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dutch energy policy is directed at 17 percent of electricity demand being covered by renewable energy sources by 2020. Martin Junginger has demonstrated that this can be achieved at considerably lower costs than is the case now. He also found that it might be more financially advantageous to realize

  2. Electric energy storage - Overview of technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage is a challenging and costly process, as electricity can only be stored by conversion into other forms of energy (e.g. potential, thermal, chemical or magnetic energy). The grids must be precisely balanced in real time and it must be made sure that the cost of electricity is the lowest possible. Storage of electricity has many advantages, in centralized mass storages used for the management of the transmission network, or in decentralized storages of smaller dimensions. This article presents an overview of the storage technologies: mechanical storage in hydroelectric and pumped storage power stations, compressed air energy storage (CAES), flywheels accumulating kinetic energy, electrochemical batteries with various technologies, traditional lead acid batteries, lithium ion, sodium sulfur (NaS) and others, including vehicle to grid, sensible heat thermal storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), super-capacitors, conversion into hydrogen... The different technologies are compared in terms of cost and level of maturity. The development of intermittent renewable energies will result in a growing need for mechanisms to regulate energy flow and innovative energy storage solutions seem well positioned to develop. (author)

  3. Wind Energy Workforce Development: Engineering, Science, & Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, George A.; Stewart, Susan W.; Bridgen, Marc

    2013-03-29

    Broadly, this project involved the development and delivery of a new curriculum in wind energy engineering at the Pennsylvania State University; this includes enhancement of the Renewable Energy program at the Pennsylvania College of Technology. The new curricula at Penn State includes addition of wind energy-focused material in more than five existing courses in aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, engineering science and mechanics and energy engineering, as well as three new online graduate courses. The online graduate courses represent a stand-alone Graduate Certificate in Wind Energy, and provide the core of a Wind Energy Option in an online intercollege professional Masters degree in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Systems. The Pennsylvania College of Technology erected a 10 kilowatt Xzeres wind turbine that is dedicated to educating the renewable energy workforce. The entire construction process was incorporated into the Renewable Energy A.A.S. degree program, the Building Science and Sustainable Design B.S. program, and other construction-related coursework throughout the School of Construction and Design Technologies. Follow-on outcomes include additional non-credit opportunities as well as secondary school career readiness events, community outreach activities, and public awareness postings.

  4. Correlation between renew able energy source's energy output and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, G.H.M.; El-Zeftawy, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The common problem to all renew energy sources (RESs) is the mismatch between their energy output and load demand. In remote areas, the solution of this problem is in general employing a small diesel-generator or a storage battery. But, the storage battery is a major cost element of RESs and small diesel-generator is unreliable and costly. Therefore, a proposed technique has been introduced in this work to determine correlation between the energy output of wind energy systems (WES) and isolated loads. solar photovoltaic power system (PVS) and two of energy storage facilities are used here for this correlation. The proposed technique includes also two models for optimizing the generation and costs of WES accompanied with PVS, storage battery and water storage (reservoir) to accommodate an isolated load. The proposed technique is applied with the dynamic programming to coordinate the energy output of a WES with residential and pumping load in remote area of egypt. The results of this application reveal that minimization of both capacity of the storage battery and the whole power system cost are obtained. 4 figs

  5. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  6. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  7. Life cycle emissions from renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.; Watkiss, P.; Thorpe, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in the ETSU review, together with the detailed results for three of the technologies studied: wind turbines, photovoltaic systems and small, stand-alone solar thermal systems. These emissions are then compared with those calculated for both other renewables and fossil fuel technology on a similar life cycle basis. The life cycle emissions associated with renewable energy technology vary considerably. They are lowest for those technologies where the renewable resource has been concentrated in some way (e.g. over distance in the case of wind and hydro, or over time in the case of energy crops). Wind turbines have amongst the lowest emissions of all renewables and are lower than those for fossil fuel generation, often by over an order of magnitude. Photovoltaics and solar thermal systems have the highest life cycle emissions of all the renewable energy technologies under review. However, their emissions of most pollutants are also much lower than those associated with fossil fuel technologies. In addition, the emissions associated with PV are likely to fall further in the future as the conversion efficiency of PV cells increases and manufacturing technology switches to thin film technologies, which are less energy intensive. Combining the assessments of life cycle emissions of renewables with predictions made by the World Energy Council (WEC) of their future deployment has allowed estimates to be made of amount by which renewables could reduce the future global emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. It estimated that under the WEC's 'Ecologically Driven' scenario, renewables might lead to significant reductions of between 3650 and 8375 Mt in annual CO 2 emissions depending on the fossil fuel technology they are assumed to displace. (author)

  8. Industrial ion sources broadbeam gridless ion source technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhurin, Viacheslav V

    2012-01-01

    Due to the large number of uses of ion sources in academia and industry, those who utilize these sources need up to date and coherent information to keep themselves abreast of developments and options, and to chose ideal solutions for quality and cost-effectiveness. This book, written by an author with a strong industrial background and excellent standing, is the comprehensive guide users and developers of ion sources have been waiting for. Providing a thorough refresher on the physics involved, this resource systematically covers the source types, components, and the operational parameters.

  9. Policies for the Energy Technology Innovation System (ETIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubler, A.; Aguayo, F.; Gallagher, K.; Hekkert, M.P.; Jiang, K.; Mytelka, L.; Neij, L.; Nemet, G.; Wilson, C.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation and technological change are integral to the energy system transformations described in the Global Energy Assessment (GEA) pathways. Energy technology innovations range from incremental improvements to radical breakthroughs and from technologies and infrastructure to social institutions

  10. an assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    these energy types/sources, seasons and the disappearing forest. KEYWORDS: Energy, Types, Sources, Household, Consumption. INTRODUCTION. The running of any given economic sector. (industrial, domestic) is powered by various forms of energy that can be sourced from renewable and non-renewable sources ...

  11. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity. 11 refs

  12. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  13. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  14. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J; Steinberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  15. Welding technology for energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Quest for efficiency leads to extremes of operating temperature both high and low, at which for reasons of safety there must be adequate strengths and ductilities of materials under transient as well as steady conditions. The demand for large unit plant sizes arises from the need to achieve economies of scale. It has the effect of progressively increasing the section sizes over which such material properties must be sustained, and also leads to a preference for welded joints which approach the homogeneity of parent materials. The economic pressure to use impure sources of fuels creates problems of erosion and corrosion. The approach to materials and joining must be interdisciplinary and must also have regard to the broad classification of components. This paper is concerned with the present development and future prospects of the newer welding processes such as electron beam, friction and diffusion bonding, in comparison with the range of arc fusion processes, together with the joint properties that are obtained. It also makes reference to particular problems such as site construction, repair, remote welding and heat treatment

  16. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  17. Metal oxide electrocatalysts for alternative energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquette, Adele Lawren

    This dissertation focuses on the development of metal oxide electrocatalysts with varying applications for alternative energy technologies. Interest in utilizing clean, renewable and sustainable sources of energy for powering the planet in the future has received much attention. This will address the growing concern of the need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The facile synthesis of metal oxides from earth abundant metals was explored in this work. The electrocatalysts can be incorporated into photoelectrochemical devices, fuel cells, and other energy storage devices. The first section addresses the utilization of semiconductors that can harness solar energy for water splitting to generate hydrogen. An oxysulfide was studied in order to combine the advantageous properties of the stability of metal oxides and the visible light absorbance of metal chalcogenides. Bi 2O2S was synthesized under facile hydrothermal conditions. The band gap of Bi2O2S was smaller than that of its oxide counterpart, Bi2O3. Light absorption by Bi 2O2S was extended to the visible region (>600 nm) in comparison to Bi2O3. The formation of a composite with In 2O3 was formed in order to create a UV irradiation protective coating of the Bi2O2S. The Bi2O2S/In 2O3 composite coupled with a dye CrTPP(Cl) and cocatalysts Pt and Co3O4 was utilized for water splitting under light irradiation to generate hydrogen and oxygen. The second section focuses on improving the stability and light absorption of semiconductors by changing the shapes and morphologies. One of the limitations of semiconductor materials is that recombination of electron-hole pairs occur within the bulk of the materials instead of migration to the surface. Three-dimensional shapes, such as nanorods, can prevent this recombination in comparison to spherical particles. Hierarchical structures, such as dendrites, cubes, and multipods, were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, in order to reduce recombination and improve

  18. An Open Source Extensible Smart Energy Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, Linda [V-Squared, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Aggregated distributed energy resources are the subject of much interest in the energy industry and are expected to play an important role in meeting our future energy needs by changing how we use, distribute and generate electricity. This energy future includes an increased amount of energy from renewable resources, load management techniques to improve resiliency and reliability, and distributed energy storage and generation capabilities that can be managed to meet the needs of the grid as well as individual customers. These energy assets are commonly referred to as Distributed Energy Resources (DER). DERs rely on a means to communicate information between an energy provider and multitudes of devices. Today DER control systems are typically vendor-specific, using custom hardware and software solutions. As a result, customers are locked into communication transport protocols, applications, tools, and data formats. Today’s systems are often difficult to extend to meet new application requirements, resulting in stranded assets when business requirements or energy management models evolve. By partnering with industry advisors and researchers, an implementation DER research platform was developed called the Smart Energy Framework (SEF). The hypothesis of this research was that an open source Internet of Things (IoT) framework could play a role in creating a commodity-based eco-system for DER assets that would reduce costs and provide interoperable products. SEF is based on the AllJoynTM IoT open source framework. The demonstration system incorporated DER assets, specifically batteries and smart water heaters. To verify the behavior of the distributed system, models of water heaters and batteries were also developed. An IoT interface for communicating between the assets and a control server was defined. This interface supports a series of “events” and telemetry reporting, similar to those defined by current smart grid communication standards. The results of this

  19. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  20. Energy technologies at the cutting edge: international energy technology collaboration IEA Implementing Agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottinger, C. (ed.)

    2007-05-15

    Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change issues in a cost-effective way are the main challenges of energy policies and in the longer term will be solved only through technology cooperation. To encourage collaborative efforts to meet these energy challenges, the IEA created a legal contract - Implementing Agreement - and a system of standard rules and regulations. This allows interested member and non-member governments or other organisations to pool resources and to foster the research, development and deployment of particular technologies. For more than 30 years, this international technology collaboration has been a fundamental building block in facilitating progress of new or improved energy technologies. There are now 41 Implementing Agreements. This is the third in the series of publications highlighting the recent results and achievements of the IEA Implementing Agreements. This document is arranged in the following sections: Cross-cutting activities (sub-sectioned: Climate technology initiative; Energy Technology Data Eexchange; and Energy technology systems analysis programme); End-use technologies (sub-sectioned: Buildings; Electricity; Industry; and Transport; Fossil fuels (sub-sectioned: Clean Coal Centre; Enhanced oil recovery Fluidized bed conversion; Greenhouse Gas R & D; Multiphase flow sciences); Fusion power; Renewable energies and hydrogen; and For more information (including detail on the IEA energy technology network; IEA Secretariat Implementing Agreement support; and IEA framework. Addresses are given for the Implementing Agreements. The publication is based on core input from the Implementing Agreement Executive Committee.

  1. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU), “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analy...

  2. Prospective of the nuclear energy, technological tendency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz F, G. De la; Salaices A, M.

    2004-01-01

    The world's concern about the energy supply in the near future, has had as an answer diverse proposals in which two multinational initiatives are highlighted, that of the International Project on Nuclear Innovative Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) and that of the Generation-l V International Forum (GIF). Both initiatives direct their efforts to the development of new technologies in nuclear energy that would satisfy the energy requirements of the future. In this article, an analysis based on a) the available information on these technologies, b) a joint study (IEA/OECD/IAEA) on the new technologies regarding its capacity to confront the current challenges of the nuclear energy, and c) the authors' experience and knowledge about the phenomenology, design and security of nuclear facilities, is presented. Moreover, the technologies that, in the authors' opinion, will have the better possibilities to compete successfully in the energy markets and could be one of the viable options to satisfy the energy demands of the future, are described. (Author)

  3. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  4. Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies: Wave Energy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, wave energy conversion could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that, due to a lack of technical certainty, many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood,. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based assessment to the emerging hydrokinetic technology sector in order to evaluate the potential impact of these technologies on the marine environment and navigation constraints. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental effects and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential range of technical attributes and potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders on the critical issues that need to be addressed. By identifying and addressing navigational and environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development, serious mistakes that could potentially derail industry-wide development can be avoided. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two

  5. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, marine and hydrokinetic technologies could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood, due to a lack of technical certainty. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based approach to the emerging wave and tidal technology sectors in order to evaluate the impact of these technologies on the marine environment and potentially conflicting uses. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios will capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental impacts and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders onto the critical issues that need to be addressed. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two other project teams funded by DoE which are focused on regulatory and navigational issues. The results of this study are structured into three reports: 1. Wave power scenario description 2. Tidal power scenario description 3. Framework for

  6. Dynamics of energy technologies and global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebler, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Victor, D.G. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria). Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies Project

    1999-05-01

    Based on work at IIASA, typology for technology analysis is presented and methods to analyze the impact of technological changes on the global environment, especially global warming are discussed, focusing on energy technologies. Much improved treatment of technology is possible using both historical analysis and new modeling techniques. In the historical record characteristic `learning rates` are identified that allow simple quantified characterization of the improvement in cost and performance due to cumulative experience and investments. Patterns, processes and timescales typifying the diffusion of new technologies in competitive markets are identified. Technologies that are long-lived and are components of interlocking networks require the longest time to diffuse and co-evolve with other technologies in the network; such network effects yield high barriers to entry even for superior competitors. These observations allow improvements to modeling of technological change and its consequences for global environmental change. One is that the replacement of long-lived infrastructures over time has also replaced the fuels that power the economy to yield progressively more energy per unit of carbon pollution - from coal to oil to gas. Such replacement has `decarbonized` the global primary energy supply 0.3% per year. Most baseline projections for emissions of carbon ignore this historical trend and show little decarbonization. A second improvement is that by incorporating learning curves and uncertainty into micro scale models it is possible to endogenously generate patterns of technological choice that mirror the real world. Thirdly, learning phenomena can be included stylistically in macro-scale models. Arriving on that path by the year 2100 depends on intervening actions, such as incentives to promote greater diversity in technology. 112 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Inter-technology knowledge spillovers for energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemet, Gregory F.

    2012-01-01

    Both anecdotal evidence and the innovation literature indicate that important advances in energy technology have made use of knowledge originating in other technological areas. This study uses the set of U.S. patents granted from 1976 to 2006 to assess the role of knowledge acquired from outside each energy patent's technological classification. It identifies the effect of external knowledge on the forward citation frequency of energy patents. The results support the claim above. Regression coefficients on citations to external prior art are positive and significant. Further, the effect of external citations is significantly larger than that of other types of citations. Conversely, citations to prior art that is technologically near have a negative effect on forward citation frequency. These results are robust across several alternative specifications and definitions of whether each flow of knowledge is external. Important energy patents have drawn heavily from external prior art categorized as chemical, electronics, and electrical; they cite very little prior art from computers, communications, and medical inventions.

  8. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy crisis, high fuel costs and slow progress in the development of alternative energy sources, e.g. solar energy have given further impetus to nuclear power generation. The Swiss nuclear energy programme is discussed and details are given of nuclear station in operation, under construction, in the project stage and of Swiss participation in foreign nuclear stations. Reference is made to the difficulties, delays and resulting cost increases caused by local and regional opposition to nuclear power stations. The significant contributions made by Swiss industry and Swiss consulting engineers are discussed. (P.G.R.)

  9. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  10. Energy technology transfer to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives some examples of how technology transfer can successfully be given to third world countries to allow them to benefit in their quest for economic growth and better standards of living through reduced energy consumption and environmental pollution. It also suggests methods by which obstacles such as high investment costs, lack of information, market demand, etc., can be overcome in order to motivate technological transfer by industrialized countries

  11. Nuclear energy technology transfer: the security barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    The problems presented by security considerations to the transfer of nuclear energy technology are examined. In the case of fusion, the national security barrier associated with the laser and E-beam approaches is discussed; for fission, the international security requirements, due to the possibility of the theft or diversion of special nuclear materials or sabotage of nuclear facilities, are highlighted. The paper outlines the nuclear fuel cycle and terrorist threat, examples of security barriers, and the current approaches to transferring technology. (auth)

  12. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources: A White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Dierker, Steve; Falcone, Roger; Galayda, John; Gibson, Murray; Hastings, Jerry; Hettel, Bob; Hill, John; Hussain, Zahid; Kao, Chi-Chang; Kirz, a= Janos; Long, Gabrielle; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Sannibale, Fernando; Seeman, John; Shen, Z.-X.; Shenoy, Gopal; Schoenlein, Bob; Shen, Qun; /Argonne /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-02-03

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects (Figure 1.1). The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee [1]. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter

  13. SIHTI 2 - Energy and environmental technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saviharju, K.; Johansson, A.

    1993-01-01

    The programme is divided into system and technology parts. The aim of system studies is to determine, on the basis of lifecycle analyses, long-term environmental-technological aims for various fields (energy, industry) and to find out an optimum strategy for reaching these aims. The analysis will give data on emission reduction costs and on fields, where technical improvements are required, and will determine the limits set by environmental factors for future technical development. Environmental impacts will be discussed from national and economic viewpoints. Technological development is dependent on new ideas. The aim is to indicate possibilities for reducing emissions from energy use of peat and wood, for low-emission production at least on one industrial field (wood-processing industry), to establish emission measuring and control methods, to indicate utilization alternatives for solid matter separated at power plants, and to find out operable alternatives for the energy use of wastes. Other ventures of significance will also be financed: survey of 'new' emissions and development of their measuring and purification methods. The field of the programme will be divided into synergic sub-fields: systematics of emission chains, fields of operation (energy and environment problems in the wood-processing industries), development of flue gas purification technology, measuring and control technology, by-products of power plants, emissions from peat production, etc

  14. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  15. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  16. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  17. Data on development of new energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The paper compiles data on the trend of development of new energy technologies into a book. By category, renewable energy is solar energy, wind power generation, geothermal power generation, ocean energy, and biomass. As a category of fuel form conversion, cited are coal liquefaction/gasification, coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and natural gas liquefaction/decarbonization. The other categories are cogeneration by fuel cell and ceramic gas turbine, district heat supply system, power load leveling technology, transportation-use substitution-fuel vehicle, and others (Stirling engine, superconducting power generator, etc.). The data are systematically compiled on essential principles, transition of introduction, objectives of introduction, status of production, cost, development schedule, performance, etc. The paper also deals with the related legislation system, developmental organizations, and a menu for power companies' buying surplus power.

  18. NEDO's white paper on renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of a 'white paper' published by the Japanese institution NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) on the development of technologies in the field of renewable energies. For the various considered energies, this report gives indications of the world market recent evolutions, of Japanese productions and objectives in terms of productions and costs. The different energies treated in this report are: solar photovoltaic, wind, biomass, solar thermal, waves, seas, hydraulic, geothermal, hot springs, snow and ice, sea currents, electricity production by thermo-electrical effect or by piezoelectric modules, reuse of heat produced by factories, use of the thermal gradient between air and water, intelligent communities and networks

  19. A personal history: Technology to energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1995-01-01

    This personal history spans a half century of participation in the frontiers of applies science and engineering ranging from the nuclear weapons project of World War II, through the development of nuclear power, engineering education, and risk analysis, to today's energy research and development. In each of these areas, this account describes some of the exciting opportunities for technology to contribute to society's welfare, as well as the difficulties and constraints imposed by society's institutional and political systems. The recounting of these experiences in energy research and development illustrates the importance of embracing social values, cultures, and environmental views into the technologic design of energy options. The global importance of energy in a rapidly changing and unpredictable world suggests a strategy for the future based on these experiences which emphasizes the value of applied research and development on a full spectrum of potential options

  20. Promoting exports in the energy technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Oettli, B.; Jochem, E.; Mannsbart, W.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion

  1. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, K.D.; Filios, P.G.; Gullickson, R.L.; Hebert, M.P.; Rowley, J.E.; Schneider, R.F.; Summa, W.J.; Vitkovski, I.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs

  2. Comparing the health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive intercomparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulphate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear power plant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal-mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. Several methods must be compared if decision-making is to be realistic. (author)

  3. Overview of Energy Storage Technologies for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao

    2006-01-01

    This presentations gives an overview of the energy storage technologies that are being used in space applications. Energy storage systems have been used in 99% of the robotic and human space missions launched since 1960. Energy storage is used in space missions to provide primary electrical power to launch vehicles, crew exploration vehicles, planetary probes, and astronaut equipment; store electrical energy in solar powered orbital and surface missions and provide electrical energy during eclipse periods; and, to meet peak power demands in nuclear powered rovers, landers, and planetary orbiters. The power source service life (discharge hours) dictates the choice of energy storage technology (capacitors, primary batteries, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, regenerative fuel cells, flywheels). NASA is planning a number of robotic and human space exploration missions for the exploration of space. These missions will require energy storage devices with mass and volume efficiency, long life capability, an the ability to operate safely in extreme environments. Advanced energy storage technologies continue to be developed to meet future space mission needs.

  4. Fifteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This year's conference, as in the past, allows upper-level energy managers, plant engineers, utility representatives, suppliers, and industrial consultants to present and discuss novel and innovative ideas on how to reduce costs effectively and improve utilization of resources. Papers are presented on topics that include: Win-win strategies for stability and growth and future success, new generation resources and transmission issues, industry and utilities working together, paper industry innovations, improving energy efficiency, industrial customers and electric utilities regulations, industrial electro technologies for energy conservation and environmental improvement, advances in motors and machinery, industrial energy audits, industrial energy auditing, process improvements, case studies of energy losses, and industrial heat pump applications. Individual papers are indexed separately

  5. Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies in Buildings Technology Characterizations for Energy Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, SW

    2004-10-11

    The energy use in America's commercial and residential building sectors is large and growing. Over 38 quadrillion Btus (Quads) of primary energy were consumed in 2002, representing 39% of total U.S. energy consumption. While the energy use in buildings is expected to grow to 52 Quads by 2025, a large number of energy-related technologies exist that could curtail this increase. In recent years, improvements in such items as high efficiency refrigerators, compact fluorescent lights, high-SEER air conditioners, and improved building shells have all contributed to reducing energy use. Hundreds of other technology improvements have and will continue to improve the energy use in buildings. While many technologies are well understood and are gradually penetrating the market, more advanced technologies will be introduced in the future. The pace and extent of these advances can be improved through state and federal R&D. This report focuses on the long-term potential for energy-efficiency improvement in buildings. Five promising technologies have been selected for description to give an idea of the wide range of possibilities. They address the major areas of energy use in buildings: space conditioning (33% of building use), water heating (9%), and lighting (16%). Besides describing energy-using technologies (solid-state lighting and geothermal heat pumps), the report also discusses energy-saving building shell improvements (smart roofs) and the integration of multiple energy service technologies (CHP packaged systems and triple function heat pumps) to create synergistic savings. Finally, information technologies that can improve the efficiency of building operations are discussed. The report demonstrates that the United States is not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency and economic and environmental performance, and will not run out in the future. The five technology areas alone can potentially result in total primary energy savings of between 2 and

  6. COSTS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Hidalgo. Debrayan

    2017-01-01

    Thermal accumulation facilities allow energy to be available in the absence of sunlight. This fact reduces the difficulty of the intermittence in the incidence of the king star in our planet. Thermal accumulation technology also contributes to smooth the fluctuations in energy demand during different times of the day. This contribution identifies the nations with the most favorable research results in this area; as well as the main research lines that are being developed today. A compendium o...

  7. The problem of valuing new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awerbuch, Shimon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief editorial outlines the concepts and challenges facing the valuation of modular, renewable energy technologies which are covered in a special issue of ''Energy Policy''. The main problem is the narrowness of the traditional discounted cash flow analysis for valuing such projects when some of the benefits (e.g. flexibility, financial risk, reduction in overhead and indirect costs) are not fully recognized at the outset. (UK)

  8. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoglund, Annika; Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael; Rehn, Alf; Lindahl, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO 2 neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy

  9. Renewable sources of energy in Africa: status of development and future contribution to the energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwanza, P.N.; Pashkov, Y.V.

    1995-01-01

    Renewable sources of energy in Africa are widely regarded as alternatives to fossil fuels. Being an abundant indigenous reserve, they offer considerable savings of foreign exchange. Also, they are usually regarded as environmentally friendly and thus do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. However, present contributions of renewable energy to the African energy supply remain negligible despite substantial claims often made about the potential scope for renewable energy forms. This paper is based on a comprehensive study undertaken by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in 1993-94. The assessment of renewable energy contributions to the energy mix has been made based on data obtained from African countries. A formula reflecting new and renewable sources of energy (NRSE) utilisation was developed and an attempt was made to delineate some zones with identical patterns of utilisation. Some of the difficulties encountered in the dissemination of NRSE and incentives introduced by African countries are also discussed. The conclusion is that African countries acknowledge the role of NRSE technologies in the development of future world energy systems. Yet the probability of NRSE assuming a greater share in energy supplies within the next two decades in Africa is doubtful. (author) 3 tabs., 1 fig., 7 refs

  10. Understanding China's renewable energy technology exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jialu; Goldstein, Don

    2013-01-01

    China became a major player in renewable energy (RE) technology during the 2000s. Chinese solar PV cell and module makers quickly dominated global sales in that industry, while the country's wind turbine producers became poised for significant exports after capturing their rapidly growing home market. In countries like the US, Chinese RE technology strength has been met with claims of excessive governmental support of exports. This study examines to what extent Chinese firms' solar PV and wind technology successes have been enabled by policy supports, and whether those policies appear to have been driven by broader goals versus RE export promotion per se. The evidence suggests that governmental policy toward both wind and solar originated in a push for export-competitive Chinese companies. But the specifics differed substantially due to the particular requirements of building technological capabilities in each: export readiness necessitated substantial support for domestic installation of wind but not solar PV power. The findings also suggest that as the decade of the 2000s progressed, environmental goals played an increasing role alongside export promotion in motivating and shaping Chinese RE technology policies. - Highlights: ► Export policy in the rise of Chinese renewable energy technologies is studied. ► Policy supported wind turbine firms' capabilities via domestic uptake, not exports. ► Pre-2009 solar module exports enjoyed, but did not depend on, export subsidies. ► Renewables development also fit wider technology and environmental policy goals.

  11. Prospects for inertial fusion as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program has been very rapid in the last few years. Target physics experiments with laboratory lasers and in underground nuclear tests have shown that the drive conditions necessary to achieve high gain can be achieved in the laboratory with a pulse-shaped driver of about 10 MJ. Requirements and designs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) have been formulated. Research on driver technology necessary for an ICF reactor is making progress. Prospects for ICF as an energy source are very promising. 11 refs., 5 figs

  12. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells

  13. Energy Technology Division research summary - 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-31

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the US Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into ten sections, five with concentrations in the materials area and five in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officers, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. The Division's capabilities are generally applied to issues associated with energy production, transportation, utilization, or conservation, or with environmental issues linked to energy. As shown in the organization chart on the next page, the Division reports administratively to the Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (EEST) through the General Manager for Environmental and Industrial Technologies. While most of our programs are under the purview of the EEST ALD, we also have had programs funded under every one of the ALDs. Some of our research in superconductivity is funded through the Physical Research Program ALD. We also continue to work on a number of nuclear-energy-related programs under the ALD for Engineering Research. Detailed descriptions of our programs on a section-by-section basis are provided in the remainder of this book.

  14. SPECIFICATION AND TECHNO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR PLANT WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this seminar paper are techno economic specification and analysis of systems with renewable energy sources. Necessary technological innovations in the manufacturing of renewable energy and economic control to produce enough energy and that this has a negative impact on the ecology and economy.

  15. A Low Carbon EU Energy System and Unconventional Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, F.; Kanudia, A.; Tosato, GC.

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the potential role of unconventional fossil fuels in a global low carbon energy system. Making use of a systemic approach, the paper presents an original application of a global partial equilibrium energy system model (TIAM-JET). In order to give a worldwide perspective with higher detail on European energy systems, the model links a set of extra-European macro-regions to the 30 European countries. First, a review of the most recent estimates of the available stocks of unconventional hydrocarbon resources is used to build the set of assumption for the scenario analysis. Secondly, a set of scenarios assuming different availability and cost of unconventional fuels are added to both a Current Trend scenario and a Carbon Constrained (CC) scenario, to explore the perspectives of unconventional gas and oil in a scenario halving CO 2 emissions by 2050, which is consistent with a 2 degree temperature increase. The results show if/how unconventional sources can contribute to the robustness of the European energy system with respect to the stress of a strong carbon constraint. We define this robustness as the capacity of the energy system to adapt its evolution to long-term constraints and keep delivering energy services to end users. In our approach robustness represents the long-term dimension of energy security. Assessing this ''system property'' requires analysing the wide range of factors that can exercise a stabilizing influence on the energy services delivery system, together with their relations, actual interactions and synergies. The energy system approach used for the analysis seeks to take into account as much of this complexity as possible. We assess the robustness of the EU system to the carbon constraint by looking at how the CC scenario affects energy system costs and energy prices under scenarios with different deployment of unconventional sources. This provides insights on the synergies and/or trade-offs between energy security and

  16. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  17. Levelised cost of storage for pumped heat energy storage in comparison with other energy storage technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Smallbone, A.; Jülch, V.; Wardle, R.; Roskilly, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Future electricity systems which plan to use large proportions of intermittent (e.g. wind, solar or tidal generation) or inflexible (e.g. nuclear, coal, etc.) electricity generation sources require an increasing scale-up of energy storage to match the supply with hourly, daily and seasonal electricity demand profiles. Evaluation of how to meet this scale of energy storage has predominantly been based on the deployment of a handful of technologies including batteries, Pumped Hydroelectricity S...

  18. Legal Framework of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Milto, Yuliya

    2017-01-01

    The thesis analyses the following issues: historical development of energy and renewable energy sources legislation in the European Economic Community (EEC): the role of energy crisis of 1973 – 1974 in development of renewable energy legislation; international cooperation in the field of energy and renewable energy between EEC and third countries and membership of the EEC in international energy organizations dealing with energy; the European Union renewable energy policy and legal fra...

  19. Electromagnetic projectile acceleration utilizing distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit equations are derived for an electromagnetic projectile accelerator (railgun) powered by a large number of capacitive discharge circuits distributed along its length. The circuit equations are put into dimensionless form and the parameters governing the solutions derived. After specializing the equations to constant spacing between circuits, the case of lossless rails and negligible drag is analyzed to show that the electrical to kinetic energy transfer efficiency is equal to sigma/2, where sigma = 2mS/Lq 2 0 and m is the projectile mass, S the distance between discharge circuit, Lthe rail inductance per unit length, and q 0 the charge on the first stage capacitor. For sigma = 2 complete transfer of electrical to kinetic energy is predicted while for sigma>2 the projective-discharge circuit system is unstable. Numerical solutions are presented for both lossless rails and for finite rail resistance. When rail resistance is included, >70% transfer is calculated for accelerators of arbitrary length. The problem of projectile startup is considered and a simple modification of the first two stages is described which provides proper startup. Finally, the results of the numerical solutions are applied to a practical railgun design. A research railgun designed for repeated operation at 50 km/sec is described. It would have an overall length of 77 m, an electrical efficiency of 81%, a stored energy per stage of 105 kJ, and a charge transfer of <50 C per stage. A railgun of this design appears to be practicable with current pulsed power technology

  20. Novel energy saving technologies evaluation tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemeš, J.; Bulatov, I.; Koppejan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The lead-time for the development of a new energy technology, from the initial idea to the commercial application, can take many years. The reduction of this time has been the main objective of the EC DGTREN, who have funded two related recent projects, EMINENT and EMINENT2 (Early Market

  1. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak

    Motivated by global climate change, enhancing innovation systems for energy technologies is seen as one of the largest public policy challenges of the near future. The role of policy in enhancing energy innovation systems takes several forms: public provision of research and develop funding, facilitating the private sector's capability to develop new technologies, and creating incentives for private actors to adopt innovative and appropriate technologies. This dissertation explores research questions that span this range of policies to develop insights in how energy technology innovation policy can be reformed in the face of climate change. The first chapter of this dissertation explores how decision making to allocate public research and development funding could be improved through the integration of expert technology forecasts. I present a framework to evaluate and optimize the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development portfolio of applied energy projects, accounting for spillovers from technical complimentary and competition for the same market share. This project integrates one of the largest and most comprehensive sets of expert elicitations on energy technologies (Anadon et al., 2014b) in a benefit evaluation framework. This work entailed developing a new method for probability distribution sampling that accommodates the information that can be provided by expert elicitations. The results of this project show that public research and development in energy storage and solar photovoltaic technologies has the greatest marginal returns to economic surplus, but the methodology developed in this chapter is broadly applicable to other public and private R&D-sponsoring organizations. The second chapter of this dissertation explores how policies to transfer technologies from federally funded research laboratories to commercialization partners, largely private firms, create knowledge spillovers that lead to further innovation. In this chapter, I study the U

  2. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance; L'energie solaire maitrise et performance photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  3. Energy: sources, economics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.

    2003-01-01

    The demands of providing energy whilst reducing greenhouse gas emissions makes the use of nuclear power and hydroelectricity a practical alternative. The Australian government accepts that present global greenhouse gas emissions produce global warming. It is not apparent that any degree of global warming can be prevented by less than global elimination of greenhouse gas emissions or even that this will remove any such global warming which has already occurred. The evidence and references discussed also indicate that the effect of the total elimination of CO 2 emissions by Australia at the 2000 rate of 279.9 million tonnes will be overwhelmed by global levels and increases, for example the present emission of 3500 million tonnes by China at 2.8 tonnes per capita from 1250 billion people and the virtual certainty of its increase . It is therefore necessary to question whether a country like Australia is otherwise justified (unless nuclear power or other measures to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions are accepted worldwide) in adopting an) energy-generating systems intended to lead to its own elimination of CO 2 emissions if they create social, economic and resource costs (and possibly other environmental non-greenhouse gas problems) exceeding those of nuclear sources

  4. Open Source Radiation Hardened by Design Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology allows use of the latest microcircuit technology with lowest power and fastest speed, with minimal delay and engineering costs, through new Radiation Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques that do not require extensive process characterization, technique evaluation and re-design at each Moore's Law generation. The separation of critical node groups is explicitly parameterized so it can be increased as microcircuit technologies shrink. The technology will be open access to radiation tolerant circuit vendors. INNOVATION: This technology would enhance computation intensive applications such as autonomy, robotics, advanced sensor and tracking processes, as well as low power applications such as wireless sensor networks. OUTCOME / RESULTS: 1) Simulation analysis indicates feasibility. 2)Compact voting latch 65 nanometer test chip designed and submitted for fabrication -7/2016. INFUSION FOR SPACE / EARTH: This technology may be used in any digital integrated circuit in which a high level of resistance to Single Event Upsets is desired, and has the greatest benefit outside low earth orbit where cosmic rays are numerous.

  5. Values and Technologies in Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    2000-01-01

    of this saving can cause what is called the rebound effect, which reduces the savings obtained from the technology. Ways to avoid this effect are suggested, and they require value changes, primarly around frugality, consumption, and hard-working. There are indications that some of the necessary changes are well......The chapter is based on the assumption, that technology improvement is not sufficient to achieve a sustainable world community. Changes in people´s values are necessary. A simple model suggest how values, together with basic needs and with the environmental and societal frames, determine people......´s behavioural pattern and lifestyles. Deliberate changes in social values are illustrated by a historical example. From the side of technology the basic principles in the economy of energy savings are briefly described. The marginally profitable energy savings provides an economic saving. The application...

  6. Trends in Wind Energy Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Madsen, Peter Hauge; Tande, John O.

    2011-01-01

    . The development of new and larger turbines to some extent stagnated, and costs even rose due to high demand and rising materials costs. We believe, however – and this is supported by recent trends – that the next decade will be a new period of technology development and further scale-up, leading to more cost-effective....... The huge potential of wind, the rapid development of the technology and the impressive growth of the industry justify the perception that wind energy is changing its role to become the future backbone of a secure global energy supply. Between the mid-1980s, when the wind industry took off, and 2005 wind...... turbine technology has seen rapid development, leading to impressive increases in the size of turbines, with corresponding cost reductions. From 2005 to 2009 the industry’s focus seems to have been on increasing manufacturing capacity, meeting market demand and making wind turbines more reliable...

  7. An Analysis of Sources of Technological Change in Efficiency Improvement of Fluorescent Lamp Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Takeo

    In Japan, energy efficient fluorescent lamp systems which use “rare-earth phosphors” and “electronic ballasts” have shown rapid diffusion since 1990s. This report investigated sources of technological change in the efficiency improvement of fluorescent lamp systems: (i) Fluorescent lamp and luminaires have been under steady technological development for getting more energy efficient lighting and the concepts to achieve high efficiency had been found in such activities; however, it took long time until they realized and become widely used; (ii) Electronic ballasts and rare-earth phosphors add fluorescent lamp systems not only energy efficiency but also various values such as compactness, lightweight, higher output, and better color rendering properties, which have also been expected and have induced research and development (R&D) (iii) Affordable electronic ballasts are realized by the new technology “power MOSFET” which is based on IC technologies and has been developed for large markets of information and communication technologies and mobile devices; and (iv) Rare-earth phosphors became available after rare-earth industries developed for the purpose of supplying rare-earth phosphors for color television. In terms of sources of technological change, (i) corresponds to “R&D” aiming at the particular purpose i.e. energy efficiency in this case, on the other hand, (ii), (iii), and (iv) correspond to “spillovers” from activities aiming at other purposes. This case exhibits an actual example in which “spillovers” were the critical sources of technological change in energy technology.

  8. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Renewable energy technologies and the European industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteley, M.; Bess, M.

    2000-01-01

    The European renewable energy industry has the potential to be a world leader. This has been achieved within the European region for specific technologies, through a set of policy activities at a national and regional level, driven primarily by employment, energy self-sufficiency and industrial competitiveness. Using the experience gained in recent years, European industry has the opportunity to continue to expand its horizons on a worldwide level. Through the use of the SAFIRE rational energy model, an assessment has been made of the future penetration of renewable energy within Europe and the effects on these socio-economic factors. In conjunction with these outputs, assessments of the worldwide markets for wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal plant and biomass have been assessed. A case study of the Danish wind industry is used as a prime example of a success story from which the learning opportunities are replicated to other industries, so that the European renewable energy industry can achieve its potential. (orig.)

  10. Information technology applications in improving energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Heine, P. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Power systems, Espoo (Finland)); Koski, P. (Motiva, Helsinki (Finland)), email: pertti.koski@motiva.fi

    2009-07-01

    The goal of the project was to study how the different statistical analysis and optimization methods can be applied in the data obtained from data systems and energy measurement databases, in order to increase the energy efficiency in small and medium size industry, in commercial and public sector and in households. The project had two subtasks: (1) Development of analysis techniques and their applications in kWh-metering databases, combined with data from various other databases, like customer data bases, data bases of building authorities etc. The aim is to identify the key technologies of energy efficiency, and their potential. (2) Development of business models for energy saving activities: How to find motivation for increasing energy efficiency, howto divide benefits, how to divide activities between different parties. (orig.)

  11. Technology Roadmaps: Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Buildings account for almost a third of final energy consumption globally and are an equally important source of CO2 emissions. Currently, both space heating and cooling as well as hot water are estimated to account for roughly half of global energy consumption in buildings. Energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies for buildings have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 2 gigatonnes (Gt) and save 710 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of energy by 2050. Most of these technologies -- which include solar thermal, combined heat and power (CHP), heat pumps and thermal energy storage -- are commercially available today. The Energy-Efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment Roadmap sets out a detailed pathway for the evolution and deployment of the key underlying technologies. It finds that urgent action is required if the building stock of the future is to consume less energy and result in lower CO2 emissions. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap's vision.

  12. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  13. Participating to the Transition Towards New Energy Technology Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosato, G.

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses possible implications for Croatia of a global transition towards new energy technology systems, as depicted by the recent report on scenarios and strategies to 2050 of the International Energy Agency [ETP2008]. The analysis is based upon the present Croatian energy balance. It takes into account some draft results of the USAID-supported Regional Energy Demand Planning (REDP) study under the South East Europe Regional Energy Market Support (SEE REMS) Project. The paper then presents ongoing EC-funded energy research projects, such as RES2020 (Monitoring and Evaluation of the Renewable Energy Sources directives implementation in EU27 and policy recommendations for 2020), REACCESS (Risk of Energy Availability: Common Corridors for Europe Supply Security) and REALISEGRID (REseArch, methodoLogIes and technologieS for the effective development of pan-European key GRID infrastructures to support the achievement of a reliable, competitive and sustainable electricity supply). The participation of Croatian research organizations to EC-funded research projects could make the transition towards new energy system an opportunity for economic development.(author)

  14. Advanced energy system with nuclear reactors as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Nikitin, K.

    2007-01-01

    About two-thirds of the energy generated in a light water reactors (LWRs) core is currently dissipated to the ocean as lukewarm water through steam condensers; more than half the energy in helium (He) gas turbine high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) is dissipated through pre-coolers and inter coolers. The new waste heat recovery system efficiently recovers the waste heat from reactors using boiling heat transfer of 20 degree C liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) instead of conventional sea water as a cooling medium. The CO 2 gasified in the cooling process is used directly as a working fluid of mechanical heat pumps for hot water supply. In LWRs, the net energy utilization fraction to total heat generation in the core exceeds 85% through the waste heat recovery. This cogeneration system is about 2.5 times more effective than current systems in reducing global warming gas emissions and long half- life radioactive material accumulation. It also increases uranium resource utilization relative to current LWRs. In the HTGR cogeneration system, the waste heat is also useful for cold water supply by introducing an adsorption refrigeration system since the gas temperature is still as high as about 190 degree Celsius. When the heat recovery system is incorporated into the HTGR, the electricity to heat-supply ratio of the HTGR cogeneration system accommodates the demand ratio in cities well; it would be suited to dispersed energy sources. The heat supply cost is expected to be lower than those of conventional fossil-fired boilers beyond operation of about four years. The waste heat recovered is able to be utilized not only for local heat supply but also for methane and methanol production from waste products of cities and farms through high-temperature fermentation, e.g., garbage, waste wood and used paper that are produced in cities, along with excreta produced through farming. The methane and methanol can be used to generate hydrogen for fuel cells. The new waste heat

  15. Microalgal hydrogen production: prospects of an essential technology for a clean and sustainable energy economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayro-Kaiser, Vinzenz; Nelson, Nathan

    2017-09-01

    Modern energy production is required to undergo a dramatic transformation. It will have to replace fossil fuel use by a sustainable and clean energy economy while meeting the growing world energy needs. This review analyzes the current energy sector, available energy sources, and energy conversion technologies. Solar energy is the only energy source with the potential to fully replace fossil fuels, and hydrogen is a crucial energy carrier for ensuring energy availability across the globe. The importance of photosynthetic hydrogen production for a solar-powered hydrogen economy is highlighted and the development and potential of this technology are discussed. Much successful research for improved photosynthetic hydrogen production under laboratory conditions has been reported, and attempts are underway to develop upscale systems. We suggest that a process of integrating these achievements into one system to strive for efficient sustainable energy conversion is already justified. Pursuing this goal may lead to a mature technology for industrial deployment.

  16. Asymptotically approaching the past: historiography and critical use of sources in art technological source research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, M.; Kroustallis, S.; Townsend, J.H.; Cenalmor Bruquetas, E.; Stijnman, A.; San Andres Moya, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that historiographic methods should be applied during art technological source research. Sources cannot always be used uncritically as being simply reliable records of contemporary workshop practice. The accuracy, date and origin of the technical information embedded within

  17. Waste-to-Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Integration of stationary fuel cells with biomass gasification is a developing technology that is in need of demonstration. Innovation for Our...the PureCell®400 Innovation for Our Energy Future Gasification of wood wastes is another potential source of useful fuel gas. Wood waste... Gasification → Cleanup → Fuel Cell Gasification uses high temperature to convert cellulosic materials to fuel gas • Hydrogen (H2) • Carbon monoxide (CO

  18. Energy Flexometer: Transactive Energy-Based Internet of Things Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Babar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective Energy Management with an active Demand Response (DR is crucial for future smart energy system. Increasing number of Distributed Energy Resources (DER, local microgrids and prosumers have an essential and real influence on present power distribution system and generate new challenges in power, energy and demand management. A relatively new paradigm in this field is transactive energy (TE, with its value and market-based economic and technical mechanisms to control energy flows. Due to a distributed structure of present and future power system, the Internet of Things (IoT environment is needed to fully explore flexibility potential from the end-users and prosumers, to offer a bid to involved actors of the smart energy system. In this paper, new approach to connect the market-driven (bottom-up DR program with current demand-driven (top-down energy management system (EMS is presented. Authors consider multi-agent system (MAS to realize the approach and introduce a concept and standardize the design of new Energy Flexometer. It is proposed as a fundamental agent in the method. Three different functional blocks have been designed and presented as an IoT platform logical interface according to the LonWorks technology. An evaluation study has been performed as well. Results presented in the paper prove the proposed concept and design.

  19. Energy and Technology Review, August--September

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefcik, J A [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of Energy and Technology Review focuses on cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs)-one of the Laboratory's most effective means of technology transfer. The first article chronicles the legislative evolution of these agreements. The second article examines the potential beneficial effects of CRADAs on the national economy and discusses their role in the development and marketing of Laboratory technologies. The third article provides information on how to initiate and develop CRADAs at LLNL, and the fourth and fifth articles describe the Laboratory's two most prominent technology transfer projects. One is a 30-month CRADA with General Motors to develop advanced lasers for cutting, welding, and heat-treating operations. The cover photograph shows this laser cutting through a piece of steel 1/16 of an inch thick. The other project is a three-year CRADA with Amoco, Chevron-Conoco, and Unocal to refine our oil shale retorting process.

  20. Ion Source Physics and Technology (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This series of lectures starts with an introduction in some aspects of atomic and plasma physics as base for the ion source physics. The main part covers aspects of ion source physics, technology and operation. Several source types are presented. Some information on infrastructure and supporting services (as high voltage, cooling, microwaves etc) are given to better understand the source environment. The last part on engineering aims to show that, in the field of ion sources, many different technologies are combined in a quite small environment, which is challenging and interesting at the same time.

  1. Ion Source Physics and Technology (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This series of lectures starts with an introduction in some aspects of atomic and plasma physics as base for the ion source physics. The main part covers aspects of ion source physics, technology and operation. Several source types are presented. Some information on infrastructure and supporting services (as high voltage, cooling, microwaves etc) are given to better understand the source environment. The last part on engineering aims to show that, in the field of ion sources, many different technologies are combined in a quite small environment, which is challenging and interesting at the same time.

  2. Industrial applications of radiotracer and sealed source technology promoted by IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joon-Ha Jin; Thereska, J.

    2004-01-01

    Great technical and economical benefits can be obtained by applying radioisotope technologies to various industries. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has contributed to the development of radiotracer and sealed source technology as applied to industry and environment through coordinated research projects (CRPs). The mature and competitive techniques have been transferred and implemented to developing countries through the Agency's technical co-operation (TC) projects. The paper presents the main achievements in radiotracer and sealed source technology promoted by IAEA as well as the perspective of the technology transfer to developing countries. (author)

  3. 77 FR 71846 - In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [ File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc... concerning the securities of Encore Clean Energy, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  4. Interactions of energy technology development and new energy exploitation with water technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Interactions of energy policies with water technology development in China are investigated using a hybrid input-output model and scenario analysis. The implementation of energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. Water saving potential of energy technology development is much larger than that of new energy exploitation. From the viewpoint of proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. From the viewpoint of proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water technology development, water sector benefits the most. Moreover, economic sectors are classified into four categories concerning co-benefits on water saving, energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in categories 1 and 2 have big direct co-benefits. Thus, they can take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. If China implements life cycle materials management, sectors in category 3 can also take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in category 4 have few co-benefits from both direct and accumulative perspectives. Thus, putting additional responsibility on sectors in category 4 might produce pressure for their economic development. -- Highlights: ► Energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. ► For proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. ► For proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water policy, water sector benefits the most. ► China’s economic sectors are classified into four categories for policy implementation at sector scale.

  5. Mesoporous materials for clean energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Noemi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana M; Serrano, Elena; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; García-Martínez, Javier

    2014-11-21

    Alternative energy technologies are greatly hindered by significant limitations in materials science. From low activity to poor stability, and from mineral scarcity to high cost, the current materials are not able to cope with the significant challenges of clean energy technologies. However, recent advances in the preparation of nanomaterials, porous solids, and nanostructured solids are providing hope in the race for a better, cleaner energy production. The present contribution critically reviews the development and role of mesoporosity in a wide range of technologies, as this provides for critical improvements in accessibility, the dispersion of the active phase and a higher surface area. Relevant examples of the development of mesoporosity by a wide range of techniques are provided, including the preparation of hierarchical structures with pore systems in different scale ranges. Mesoporosity plays a significant role in catalysis, especially in the most challenging processes where bulky molecules, like those obtained from biomass or highly unreactive species, such as CO2 should be transformed into most valuable products. Furthermore, mesoporous materials also play a significant role as electrodes in fuel and solar cells and in thermoelectric devices, technologies which are benefiting from improved accessibility and a better dispersion of materials with controlled porosity.

  6. The United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology`s Technology Benefits Recording System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, K.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology`s (OIT`s) Technology Benefits Recording System (TBRS) was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The TBRS is used to organize and maintain records of the benefits accrued from the use of technologies developed with the assistance of OIT. OIT has had a sustained emphasis on technology deployment. While individual program managers have specific technology deployment goals for each of their ongoing programs, the Office has also established a separate Technology Deployment Division whose mission is to assist program managers and research and development partners commercialize technologies. As part of this effort, the Technology Deployment Division developed an energy-tracking task which has been performed by PNL since 1977. The goal of the energy-tracking task is to accurately assess the energy savings impact of OIT-developed technologies. In previous years, information on OIT-sponsored technologies existed in a variety of forms--first as a hardcopy, then electronically in several spreadsheet formats that existed in multiple software programs. The TBRS was created in 1993 for OIT and was based on information collected in all previous years from numerous industrial contacts, vendors, and plants that have installed OIT-sponsored technologies. The TBRS contains information on technologies commercialized between 1977 and the present, as well as information on emerging technologies in the late development/early commercialization stage of the technology life cycle. For each technology, details on the number of units sold and the energy saved are available on a year-by-year basis. Information regarding environmental benefits, productivity and competitiveness benefits, or impact that the technology may have had on employment is also available.

  7. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...

  8. Open Source Interoperability: It's More than Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Sartorio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Open Solutions Alliance is a consortium of leading commercial open source vendors, integrators and end users dedicated to the growth of open source based solutions in the enterprise. We believe Linux and other infrastructure software, such as Apache, has become mainstream, and packaged solutions represent the next great growth opportunity. However some unique challenges can temper that opportunity. These challenges include getting the word out about the maturity and enterprise-readiness of those solutions, ensuring interoperability both with each other and with other proprietary and legacy solutions, and ensuring healthy collaboration between vendors and their respective customer and developer communities.

  9. Sources of Ambiguity in Teaching Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The public school system is charged with the endeavor of preparing students for college and/or careers. Currently there is a shortage of qualified individuals to fill jobs in the technology field. These job opportunities will continue to grow while the amount of potential employees dwindles. There is an issue with supply and demand, what are…

  10. Nordic energy technology scoreboard. Full version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiltkou, Antje; Iversen, Eric; Scortato, Lisa

    2010-07-01

    The Nordic Energy Technology Scoreboard provides a tool for understanding the state of low-carbon energy technology development in the Nordic region. It assesses the five Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, alongside reference countries and regions including: The United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, USA, Japan and the EU 27. It focuses on five low-carbon energy technologies: Wind, photovoltaic (PV) solar, bio-fuels, geothermal, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). This scoreboard was developed as a pilot project with a limited scope of technologies, countries and indicators. In addition to providing a tool for decision-makers, it aimed to act as a catalyst for the future development of scoreboards and a vehicle to promote better data collection. Low-carbon energy technologies are not easy to measure. This is due to a variety of factors that much be kept in account when developing scoreboards for this purpose. Many low-carbon technologies are still at immature stages of development. Sound comparable data requires common definitions and standards to be adopted before collection can even take place. This process often lags behind the development of low-carbon technologies, and there are therefore considerable data availability and categorisation issues. The diversity of technologies and their different stages of development hamper comparability. The IEA classifies low-carbon technologies into three categories. The most mature includes hydropower, onshore wind, biomass CHP, and geothermal energy, the second most mature includes PV solar and offshore wind power, while the least mature includes concentrating solar power, CCS and ocean energy. This is problematic as less mature technologies are underrepresented in later stages of the innovation system. Many low-carbon technologies are systemic, meaning progress in developing one technology may hinge on developments in a connected technology

  11. Towards a European Energy Technology Policy - The European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (Set-Plan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, A.; Petric, H.; Peteves, E.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to a low carbon economy will take decades and affect the entire economy. There is a timely opportunity for investment in energy infrastructure. However, decisions to invest in technologies that are fully aligned with policy and society priorities do not necessarily come naturally, although it will profoundly affect the level of sustainability of the European energy system for decades to come. Technology development needs to be accelerated and prioritized at the highest level of the European policy agenda. This is the essence of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan). The SET-Plan makes concrete proposals for action to establish an energy technology policy for Europe, with a new mind-set for planning and working together and to foster science for transforming energy technologies to achieve EU energy and climate change goals for 2020, and to contribute to the worldwide transition to a low carbon economy by 2050. This paper gives an overview of the SET-Plan initiative and highlights its latest developments. It emphasises the importance of information in support of decision-making for investing in the development of low carbon technologies and shows the first results of the technology mapping undertaken by the newly established Information System of the SET-Plan (SETIS).(author)

  12. COSTS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal accumulation facilities allow energy to be available in the absence of sunlight. This fact reduces the difficulty of the intermittence in the incidence of the king star in our planet. Thermal accumulation technology also contributes to smooth the fluctuations in energy demand during different times of the day. This contribution identifies the nations with the most favorable research results in this area; as well as the main research lines that are being developed today. A compendium of various thermal energy storage materials, their current costs per unit mass, and their physical properties are presented. Techniques for implementing thermal accumulation technologies can be classified as areas of high, medium and low temperature. In the high temperature area, inorganic materials such as nitrate salts are the most widely used thermal energy storage materials, while in the medium and lower temperature areas; organic materials such as commercial paraffin are more common. Currently, one of the research trends in this area are the projects aimed at optimizing the chemical and physical characteristics of thermal storage materials, because the success of any thermos-energetic storage technology has a strong dependence on the cost of the materials selected for thermal storage.

  13. Valuation of environmental and societal trade-offs of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa; Ollikainen, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Use of renewable energy sources is one solution to decrease green house gas emissions and the use of polluting fossil fuels. Renewables differ in their environmental and societal impacts, and to design sound renewable energy policy, societies need to assess the trade-offs between alternative sources. To enable the evaluation and comparison of renewable energy production alternatives in Finland, this paper applies the choice experiment to elicit the monetary information on people's preferences for four renewable energy sources: wind power, hydro power and energy from crops and wood, and considers four impacts of energy production: effects on biodiversity, local jobs, carbon emissions and household's electricity bill. The nested logit analysis reveals that higher income, male gender, young age, and pro-environmental attitude increase the probability to choose renewable energy instead of the current energy mix. Wind power is, on average, the most popular renewable energy technology, but regional differences exist. Biodiversity deterioration should be avoided. The national aggregate willingness to pay, based on stated preferences rather than preferences revealed by actual market behavior, for a combination of renewable energy technologies that corresponds to Finland's climate change and energy policy is over 500 million Euros. - Highlights: • Preferences for renewable energy sources are elicited with choice experiment. • Wind power is the most popular source in general. • Regional differences exist: energy from wood is favored in rural areas. • Biodiversity deterioration should be avoided

  14. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, A; Inambao, F; Bright, G

    2014-01-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future

  15. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A.; Inambao, F.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future.

  16. Renewable Energy Systems: Technology Overview and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    topologies are included. Also, the increasing role of power electronics is explained as an enabler for renewable energy integration and for future power systems and smart grids. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants......In this chapter, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are first discussed. A state-of-the-art review section covers the fundamentals of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system...... and for residential and commercial applications, are provided. Fuel cells, solar thermal, wave generators, and energy storage systems are also briefly presented and illustrated. Challenges and future trends for the technologies in 2025 are summarized in a table for onshore and offshore wind energy; solar power...

  17. A Source-level Energy Optimization Framework for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xueliang; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency can have a significant influence on user experience of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Although energy is consumed by hardware, software optimization plays an important role in saving energy, and thus software developers have to participate in the optimization...... process. The source code is the interface between the developer and hardware resources. In this paper, we propose an energy optimization framework guided by a source code energy model that allows developers to be aware of energy usage induced by the code and to apply very targeted source-level refactoring.......2% of the CPU energy consumption in various application scenarios....

  18. Technologies of Selective Energy Supply at Evaporation of Food Solutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to create innovative evaporating equipment that can produce concentrates with a high content of solids, with a low level of thermal effects on raw materials. The significance of the solution of technological problems of the key process of food technologies - concentration of liquid solutions (juices, extracts, etc. is shown. Problems and scientific contradictions are formulated and the hypothesis on using of electromagnetic energy sources for direct energy transfer to solution’s moisture has been offered. The prospects of such an energy effect are proved by the energy management methods. The schemes of fuel energy conversion for the conventional thermal concentration technology and the innovative plant based on the electromagnetic energy generators are presented. By means of the similarity theory the obtained model is transformed to the criterial one depicted kinetic of evaporation process at the electromagnetic field action. The dimensionless capacity of the plant is expressed by the dependence between the Energetic effect number and relative moisture content. The scheme of automated experimental system for study of the evaporation process in the microwave field is shown. The experimental results of juice evaporation are presented. It has been demonstrated that the technologies of selective energy supply represent an effective tool for improvement of juice concentration evaporative plants. The main result of the research is design of the evaporator that allows reaching juice concentrates with °brix 95 at the temperature as low as 35 °С, i.e. 2…3 times superior than traditional technologies.

  19. The dual role of external technology sourcing in technological exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Li-Ying, Jason; van de Vrande, Vareska

    2013-01-01

    We refine the concept of boundary-spanning exploration, by making a distinction between explorative learning from partners and from non-partners (Partners are organizations with whom a focal firm has some kind of external venturing relations, i.e. technological alliances, corporate venturing capi...

  20. Wood-energy in Europe: resources, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defaye, S.

    1999-01-01

    A voluntaristic policy for the development of wood fuel would contribute to save energy and to protect the environment. Different strategies of development exist at the European scale as demonstrated by a recent report ordered by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME). This paper gives a synthesis of this report. It deals successively with: the European wood resources (the northern and continental forests, the mountain and bocage regions, the Mediterranean forests); the 3 main resources: forest exploitation, wood transformation, recycling of waste wood; the different economical status of wood resources; the place of wood-fuel in the economy: estimation, complementarity of industrial and energy uses; technological files and perspectives of development: collection, transport, conditioning, fuel production and supply, technologies of energy production from wood (domestic heating, collective heating, cogeneration and mixed wood-coal combustion); future markets; strategy of development: forestry and agriculture, management, producers, environmental aspects, afforestation of abandoned lands, employment...; policies of European, national and regional authorities: political and financial help, regulations and standardizations, financial helps and fiscal policy, inter-region cooperation and R and D, advice and communication; contribution of wood-fuel to the energy supply of Europe. (J.S.)

  1. The new energy technologies in Australia; Les nouvelles technologies de l'energie en Australie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gleuher, M.; Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    The large dependence of Australia on the fossil fuels leads to an great emission of carbon dioxide. The Australia is thus the first greenhouse gases emitter per habitant, in the world. In spite of its sufficient fossil fuels reserves, the Australia increases its production of clean energies and the research programs in the domain of the new energies technology. After a presentation of the australia situation, the authors detail the government measures in favor of the new energy technologies and the situation of the hydroelectricity, the wind energy, the wave and tidal energy, the biomass, the biofuels, the solar energy, the ''clean'' coal, the hydrogen and the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  2. Summary of solar energy technology characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Dr., Robert R.

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

  3. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  4. Developing markets for renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charters, W.W.S.

    2001-01-01

    Although renewable energy resources are now being utilised more on a global scale than ever before, there is no doubt their contribution to the energy economy can still be greatly increased. Recently international support for developing these relatively new sources of energy has been driven by their benefits as assessed by reduced environmental impact, particularly reduced greenhouse gas emissions. After several decades of continuous but somewhat erratic funding for research and development of renewables, it is time to take stock of the key issues to be addressed in terms of implementation of major renewable energy programmes on a large scale worldwide. One of the first steps in this process is the identification and encouragement of reliable continuous markets both in developed and developing nations. Future energy policy and planning scenarios should take into account the factors necessary to integrate renewables in all their diverse forms into the normal energy economy of the country. Other critical factors in market development will include the mass production of high quality, reliable and reasonable cost technical products and the provision of adequate finance for demonstrating market ready and near market renewables equipment. Government agencies need to aid in the removal of legislative and institutional barriers hindering the widespread introduction of non-conventional energy sources and to encourage the implementation of government purchasing schemes. Recent moves by companies in Australia to market 'green energy' to customers should also aid in the public awareness of the ultimate potential of renewables leading to greater use in the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors. (author)

  5. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, renewable biomass energy sources comprise forests, agriculture and other large vegetation units. With the increasing demand on those landscape elements, including conflicts of interest to nature conservation and food production, the research focus should also incorporate smaller vegetation entities. In this study, we highlight the availability of small-scale features like roadside vegetation or hedges, which are rarely featured in maps. Roadside vegetation, however, is well known and regularly trimmed to allow the passing of traffic but the cut material is rarely harvested. Here, we combine a remote-sensing-based approach to quantify the seasonal biomass harvests with a GIS-based method to outline optimal transportation routes to, and the location of, storage units and power plants. Our main data source will be ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 optical satellite. Spatial resolution of 10 meters in the visible and near infrared requires the use of spectral unmixing to derive end member spectra of the targeted biomass objects. Additional stereo-matching and LIDAR measurements allow the accompanying height estimate to derive the biomass volume and its changes over time. GIS data bases from the target areas allow the discrimination between traditional, large features (e.g. forests and agriculture) as well as previously unaccounted for, smaller vegetation units. With the mapped biomass occurrence and additional, GIS-based infrastructure information, we can outline transport routes that take into account local restrictions like nature reserve areas, height or weight limitations as well as transport costs in relation to potential gains. This information can then be processed to outline optimal places for power plants. To simulate the upcoming Sentinel-2 data sets, we use airborne data from the AISA Eagle, spatially and spectrally down-sampled to match Sentinel 2's resolution. Our test scenario is an area in western Germany, the Kirchheller Heide, close to the city

  6. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinhao Chong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate that Malaysia’s energy use depends heavily on fossil fuels, including oil, gas and coal. In the past 30 years, Malaysia has successfully diversified its energy structure by introducing more natural gas and coal into its power generation. To sustainably feed the rapidly growing energy demand in end-use sectors with the challenge of global climate change, Malaysia must pay more attention to the development of renewable energy, green technology and energy conservation in the future.

  7. Distributed technologies in California's energy future: A preliminary report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, M.; Craig, P.; McGuire, C.B.; Simmons, M. (eds.)

    1977-09-01

    The chapters in Volume 2 of Distributed Energy Systems in California's Future are: Environmental Impacts of Alternative Energy Technologies for California; Land Use Configurations and the Utilization of Distributive Energy Technology; Land Use Implications of a Dispersed Energy Path; Belief, Behavior, and Technologies as Driving Forces in Transitional Stages--The People Problem in Dispersed Energy Futures; Development of an Energy Attitude Survey; Interventions to Influence Firms Toward the Adoption of ''Soft'' Energy Technology; The Entry of Small Firms into Distributed Technology Energy Industries; Short-Term Matching of Supply and Demand in Electrical Systems with Renewable Sources; Vulnerability of Renewable Energy Systems; and District Heating for California.

  8. Living laboratory for Nikola Tesla. Living laboratories, Tesla, Second Life, sustainable construction technologies and renewable energy sources; Wohnlabor fuer Nikola Tesla. Ueber Wohnlabors, Tesla, Second Life, nachhaltige Bautechnologien und erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Ivan; Redi, Andrea; Jovanovic, Branimir (and others)

    2008-07-01

    Adventure is the opposite of conventional teaching. Adventure is the moment when experience alone is not enough. Sometimes, courageous people challenge the nature of things, helping us to get new insights and achieve a new viewpoint. The experience-oriented ''work in progress'' university is an adventure of this kind. The book looks into the Tesla laboratory and the Wardenclyffe Tower, both of which could not be completed for financial reasons, and addresses them from today's state of technology. The conceptional section is based on the ''Tesla doctrine'' which comprises fundamental philosophical statements on civilisatory progress. The book presents the results of the investigation. The 16 architectural projects presented here were developed live on the online platform. Second Life, ORTLOS Sim. (orig.)

  9. Energy Technology Division research summary 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-21

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the US Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into ten sections, five with concentrations in the materials area and five in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officers, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. The Division's capabilities are generally applied to issues associated with energy production, transportation, utilization or conservation, or with environmental issues linked to energy. As shown in the organization chart on the next page, the Division reports administratively to the Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (EEST) through the General Manager for Environmental and Industrial Technologies. While most of our programs are under the purview of the EEST ALD, we also have had programs funded under every one of the ALDs. Some of our research in superconductivity is funded through the Physical Research Program ALD. We also continue to work on a number of nuclear-energy-related programs under the ALD for Engineering Research. Detailed descriptions of our programs on a section-by-section basis are provided in the remainder of this book. This Overview highlights some major trends. Research related to the operational safety of commercial light water

  10. Energy Technology Division research summary 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the US Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into ten sections, five with concentrations in the materials area and five in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officers, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. The Division's capabilities are generally applied to issues associated with energy production, transportation, utilization or conservation, or with environmental issues linked to energy. As shown in the organization chart on the next page, the Division reports administratively to the Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (EEST) through the General Manager for Environmental and Industrial Technologies. While most of our programs are under the purview of the EEST ALD, we also have had programs funded under every one of the ALDs. Some of our research in superconductivity is funded through the Physical Research Program ALD. We also continue to work on a number of nuclear-energy-related programs under the ALD for Engineering Research. Detailed descriptions of our programs on a section-by-section basis are provided in the remainder of this book. This Overview highlights some major trends. Research related to the operational safety of commercial light water nuclear

  11. User innovation in sustainable home energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyysalo, Sampsa; Juntunen, Jouni K.; Freeman, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The new millennium has marked an increasing interest in citizens as energy end-users. While much hope has been placed on more active energy users, it has remained less clear what citizens can and are willing to do. We charted user inventions in heat pump and wood pellet burning systems in Finland in years 2005–2012. In total we found 192 inventions or modifications that improved either the efficiency, suitability, usability, maintenance or price of the heat pump or pellet systems, as evaluated by domain experts. Our analysis clarifies that users are able to successfully modify, improve and redesign next to all subsystems in these technologies. It appears that supplier models do not cater sufficiently for the variation in users' homes, which leaves unexplored design space for users to focus on. The inventive users can speed up the development and proliferation of distributed renewable energy technologies both through their alternative designs as well as through the advanced peer support they provide in popular user run Internet forums related to the purchase, use and maintenance of these technologies. There are several implications for how such users can be of benefit to energy and climate policy as well as how to support them. - Highlights: ► We clarify how citizen users are able to invent in home heating systems. ► We researched inventions that users did to heat pump and wood pellet burning systems. ► During the years 2005–2012 there were 192 inventions by users in Finland alone. ► Users were able to invent in practically all subsystems of these technologies. ► Users’ ability merits policy attention and can lead to new types of policy action

  12. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  13. Economic aspects and potentials of renewable energy sources in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannsbart, W.; Reichert, J.

    1992-01-01

    While there is a high theoretical potential for renewable energy sources in Germany, assessing theoretical potentials is more or less like playing with numbers; severe technical shortcomings and economic factors prevent then from being fully achieved. Unsuitable azimuth and slope of roofs, shading, absence of central hot water systems limit the application of collectors. The present storage technology is not suitable for a solar share higher than 50%. Individual space heating is not feasible under local climatic conditions. The broad application of biomass fuels fails because of limited resources. Feeding high amounts of fluctuating electricity generated by wind and photovoltaic systems into utility grids causes stability and storage problems. Insufficient training of installation personnel, lack of incentives for multi-family housing owners and high investment costs hinder the market penetration of renewable energy sources. Drastic cost reductions can only be expected from mass production. Therefore, appropriate policy measures - raised energy prices, as well as, subsidies or tax reliefs are necessary for market breakthrough

  14. 3rd programme 'Energy research and energy technologies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the light of developments in the 80s, the questions of dependence and available resources seem less grave in the long and medium term; on the other hand, a further problem has arisen which might prove even more serious with a view to the safeguarding of long-term energy supply: the use of fossil energy sources such as coal; petroleum, and natural gas involves effects constituting a considerable threat to the environment and the world climate. Examples are acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, new safety issues and, to a larger extent, also acceptance issues have arisen as regards nuclear energy utilization. To contribute towards solving these problems by research and development is the main objective of this programme. The strategy adopted comprices two approaches complementary to each other: elaboration of scientific bases, system connections, and new techniques permitting - continued use of primary and secondary energy sources to the extent required while taking into account the needs of an increasingly more vulnerable environment; - to ensure the lowest possible energy consumption in the future, reducing, at the same time, considerably the amount of greenhouse gases emitted. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Monthly progress report: Heat source technology program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.G. [comp.

    1993-05-01

    This monthly report describes activities performed in support of Cassini fueled-clad production and studies related to the use of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Applications of the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Most of the activities described are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

  16. Energy sources taxes. 1989-1992 Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pery, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    Owing to the development of nuclear power industry and energy conservation, the french energy independence has well progressed since 1973. But french imports are still higher than 50 percent of energy consumption in the country and important uncertainties exist such the cost of energy supply or the risks of supply disruption. This paper describes energy fiscal policy and taxes in France and its development possibilities

  17. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies

  18. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies.

  19. Emerging technologies for compact visible laser sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, G.T.

    1988-01-01

    A number of laser and non-linear optical technologies and converging on commercial designs. High power laser diodes and non-linear materials are being incorporated in prototype lasers, many of which will become commercially available products during the next 1-5 years. This paper reviews the output characteristics of such lasers. Lasers which are discussed include direct doubling of laser diodes based on proton exchanged lithium niobate, fiber lasers, frequency doubled diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers, and sum frequency mixed Nd:YAG lasers. Such lasers are capable of providing milliwatt output powers in the green and/or blue spectral regions

  20. Progress of liquid metal technology and application in energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Keiji; Kamei, Mitsuru; Nei, Hiromichi.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid metals are excellent energy transport media, and recently remarkable development has been observed in the technology of handling sodium and the machinery and equipment. In nuclear fusion, the development of the use of lithium as the coolant is advanced. For space technology, attention has been paid from the early stage to various liquid metals. For general industries, liquid metals have been used for high temperature heat pipes and the utilization of solar heat, and mercury vapor turbines were manufactured for trial. Besides, attention is paid anew to liquid metal MHD electric power generation. The development of the NaS batteries for electric cars and electric power storage and the interchange of liquid metal technology with the fields of iron and steel, metallurgy and so on advance. It is expected that liquid metal technology bears future advanced energy engineering while deepening the interchange with other advanced fields also in order to reactivate atomic energy technology. Liquid metals have the features of high electric and thermal conductivities, chemical activity and opaque property as metals, and fluidity and relatively high boiling point and melting point as liquids. FBRs, fusion reactors and the power sources for space use are described. (K.I.)

  1. Economic impulses to the implementation of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzela, L.

    1991-01-01

    The factors are considered of macroeconomic regulation and microeconomic incentives of the implementation of alternative energy sources in condition of prevailing utilization of conventional energy sources. The analysis concludes that both state regulation and microeconomic incentives shift a time horizon of effective implementation of alternative sources nearer to the present. (author) 6 figs

  2. Optimization of energy consumption and cost effectiveness of modular buildings by using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tauš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the temporary structures are generally dealt with by the use of modular buildings. These actually meet the terms of low costs, as appose to the terms of convenience of use, or energy efficiency in operation. Using the latest technologies in the production of the modular buildings has improved the operation sufficiently; it is now possible to use them entirely for purposes associated with the use of the buildings. Office buildings, warehouses, and conference rooms have become common standard. In Slovakia, we can already see it as a normal part of cities and municipalities: social housing, schools, and kindergartens, which were all built using this technology. During the assessment phase of these buildings, energy efficiency is always the priority. This article is aimed at establishing the economic potential of modular buildings in the field of use of renewable energy sources. For the formulation of the problem and the definition of borders of studied parameters, we proposed a four-dimensional competency decision-making space. This determines the examination process that should identify areas in which it is appropriate to consider and assess the use of renewable energy sources.

  3. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge any...

  4. Domestic energy sources urged as Middle East situation heats up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the alternatives to foreign oil as an energy source for the US in the light of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Topics addressed include the responses of organizations representing various energy sources, the public response of the Department of Energy, the response of conservation advocates, and the Administration's reaction

  5. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources for both terrestrial and space...

  6. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources. Thermo-electric power generation...

  7. Student Outreach With Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eric B. (Technical Monitor); Buffinger, D.; Fuller, C.; Kalu, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Student Outreach with Renewable Energy Technology (SORET) program is a joint grant that involves a collaboration between three HBCU's (Central State University, Savannah State University, and Wilberforce University) and NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The overall goal of the grant is to increase the interest of minority students in the technical disciplines, to encourage participating minority students to continue their undergraduate study in these disciplines, and to promote graduate school to these students. As a part of SORET, Central State University has developed an undergraduate research associates program over the past two years. As part of this program, students are required to take special laboratory courses offered at Wilberforce University that involve the application of renewable energy systems. The course requires the students to design, construct, and install a renewable energy project. In addition to the applied renewable energy course, Central State University provided four undergraduate research associates the opportunity to participate in summer internships at Texas Southern University (Renewable Energy Environmental Protection Program) and the Cleveland African-American Museum (Renewable Energy Summer Camp for High School Students) an activity co sponsored by NASA and the Cleveland African-American Museum. Savannah State University held a high school summer program with a theme of the Direct Impact of Science on Our Every Day Lives. The purpose of the institute was to whet the interest of students in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) by demonstrating the effectiveness of science to address real world problems. The 2001 institute involved the design and installation of a PV water pumping system at the Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems at Savannah State. Both high school students and undergraduates contributed to this project. Wilberforce University has used NASA support to provide

  8. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  9. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  10. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  11. Techno-economic evaluation of hybrid energy storage technologies for a solar–wind generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, L.; Tang, Y.; Shi, J.; Dou, J.; Zhou, S.; Jin, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The techno-economic feasibility of four ESSs is studied. ► The hybrid ESS applied on a renewable energy generation system is feasible. ► From the technical and economic viewpoint, case 3 is the optimal hybrid ESS. -- Abstract: Huazhong University of Science and Technology is planning to establish a hybrid solar–wind generation dynamic simulation laboratory. Energy storage technologies will be vital to this system for load leveling, power quality control and stable output. In this paper, the technical feasibility of energy storage technologies for renewable intermittent sources like wind and solar generation is analyzed. Furthermore, the different combination modes of energy storage technologies are proposed. The involved energy storage technologies include superconducting magnetic energy storage systems (SMESs), flywheels (FWs), electrochemical super-capacitors (SCs) and redox flow batteries (RFBs). Based on that, the economic analysis of hybrid energy storage technologies is conducted

  12. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program, Erie County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswanger, Robert C. [Daemen College, Amherst, NY (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings that are quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center

  13. Assessment of nuclear energy cost competitiveness against alternative energy sources in Romania envisaging the long-term national energy sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper includes some of the results obtained by RATEN ICN Pitesti experts in the IAEA.s Collaborative Project INPRO-SYNERGIES. The case study proposed to evaluate and analyze the nuclear capacity development and increasing of its share in the national energy sector, envisaging the long term national and regional energy sustainability by keeping collaboration options open for the future while bringing solutions to short/medium-term challenges. The following technologies, considered as future competing technologies for electric energy generation in Romania, were selected: nuclear technology (represented by PHWR CANDU Units 3 and 4 - CANDU new, advanced HWR - Adv. HWR, and advanced PWR - Adv. PWR) and, as alternative energy sources, classical technology (represented by Coal-fired power plant using lignite fossil fuel, with carbon capture - Coal n ew, and Gas-fired power plant operating on combined cycle, with carbon capture - Gas n ew). The study included assessment of specific economic indicators, sensitivity analyses being performed on Levelised Unit Energy Cost (LUEC) variation due to different perturbations (e.g. discount rate, overnight costs, etc). Robustness indices (RI) of LUEC were also calculated by considering simultaneous variation of input parameters for the considered power plants. The economic analyses have been performed by using the IAEA.s NEST program. The study results confirmed that in Romania, under the national specific conditions defined, electricity produced by nuclear power plants is cost competitive against coal and gas fired power plants electricity. The highest impact of considered perturbations on LUEC has been observed for capital intensive technologies (nuclear technologies) comparatively with the classic power plants, especially for discount rate changes. (authors)

  14. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia’s dependence on imported fossil fuels.

  15. Micro-sources and micro-generators of energy; Microsources et microgenerateurs d`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcar, R.; Thiery, L. [Institut de Genie Energetique, Universite de Franche-Comte, 90 - Belfort (France)

    1992-03-01

    The aim of energy micro-sources and micro-generators is to make a micro-system autonomous thanks to the on-site local energy production. A micro-source of energy is a component able to take from a macroscopic energy source the energy quantity required by the system for its functioning. The term of micro-generator is restricted to the electrical energy sources. This chapter is divided in two parts. Part 1 concerns the micro-sources of electric power: the lithium micro-batteries, the thermoelectric micro-generators, the photoelectric micro-sources, and the super-capacitors for energy storage. Part 2 deals with the direct conversion of an external or local energy source into mechanical energy: the Stirling engine, the mechanical and chemical sources. (J.S.) 35 refs.

  16. From nuclear energy to new energy sources - towards a new worldwide energy regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, P.

    1979-01-01

    This book contains the reports presented and the comments made at an international colloquium on 'nuclear energy and new energy sources'. This colloquium, which was held in Dijon in March 1979, was organised by the International Relations Institute of Dijon University and the Research Centre on the international law of contract and investments (CREDIMI). The reports dealing more specifically with nuclear energy cover its commercial organisation (economic and legal data) and its public organisation (French and international). (NEA) [fr

  17. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  18. Analysis of the prospects of solar energy and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Mogylko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The need to develop an alternative energy sources in Ukraine to increase energy efficiency and energy security it is explained in the article. The international experience of development of solar energy are analyzed. The prospects and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine are defined. The conclusions and recommendations to address the problems are identified.

  19. Essays in energy, environment and technological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yichen Christy

    This dissertation studies technological change in the context of energy and environmental economics. Technology plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Chapter 1 estimates a structural model of the car industry that allows for endogenous product characteristics to investigate how gasoline taxes, R&D subsidies and competition affect fuel efficiency and vehicle prices in the medium-run, both through car-makers' decisions to adopt technologies and through their investments in knowledge capital. I use technology adoption and automotive patents data for 1986-2006 to estimate this model. I show that 92% of fuel efficiency improvements between 1986 and 2006 were driven by technology adoption, while the role of knowledge capital is largely to reduce the marginal production costs of fuel-efficient cars. A counterfactual predicts that an additional 1/gallon gasoline tax in 2006 would have increased the technology adoption rate, and raised average fuel efficiency by 0.47 miles/gallon, twice the annual fuel efficiency improvement in 2003-2006. An R&D subsidy that would reduce the marginal cost of knowledge capital by 25% in 2006 would have raised investment in knowledge capital. This subsidy would have raised fuel efficiency only by 0.06 miles/gallon in 2006, but would have increased variable profits by 2.3 billion over all firms that year. Passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in the United States will require substantial improvements in new vehicle fuel economy over the next decade. Economic theory suggests that vehicle manufacturers adopt greater fuel-saving technologies for vehicles with larger market size. Chapter 2 documents a strong connection between market size, measured by sales, and technology adoption. Using variation consumer demographics and purchasing pattern to account for the endogeneity of market size, we find that a 10 percent increase in market size raises vehicle fuel efficiency by 0.3 percent, as compared

  20. Environmental problems connected to the use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottana, A.; Pignotti, S.

    2000-01-01

    The development of FER (renewable energy sources) can represent a fundamental answer to the growing energy need and the requirement for a new environmental quality. Also the renewable sources, however, have an environmental cost, whose amount can be considered of little importance at a world balance, but can have a large impact at a local level. Among FER the author has chosen hydroelectric source, biomass and wind energy, since they are most effective according to the aims of this discussion [it