WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology emission controls

  1. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  2. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  3. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, includimg uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  4. Acidic emissions control technology and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmel, T.E.; Waddell, J.T.; Adams, R.C. (Radian Corp. (US))

    1989-01-01

    This book describes acidic emissions control technology and costs. The objectives are: to identify and characterize stationary combustion and industrial sources of directly emitted acidic materials in the United States; to evaluate the feasibility of control technologies for these sources; and to estimate the costs of applying these control technologies. This book gives results of estimates, using a model plant approach, of costs for retrofitting selected acidic emission control systems to utility and industrial boilers, Claus sulfur recovery plants, catalytic cracking units, primary copper smelters, coke oven plants, primary aluminum smelters, and municipal solid waste incinerators.

  5. Emission Control Technologies for Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihalani, S. A.; Mishra, Y.; Juremalani, J.

    2018-03-01

    Coal thermal power plants are one of the primary sources of artificial air emissions, particularly in a country like India. Ministry of Environment and Forests has proposed draft regulation for emission standards in coal-fired power plants. This includes significant reduction in sulphur-dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and mercury emissions. The first step is to evaluate the technologies which represent the best selection for each power plant based on its configuration, fuel properties, performance requirements, and other site-specific factors. This paper will describe various technology options including: Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA), Circulating Dry Scrubber (CDS), Limestone-based Wet FGD, Low NOX burners, Selective Non Catalytic Reduction, Electrostatic Precipitator, Bag House Dust Collector, all of which have been evaluated and installed extensively to reduce SO2, NOx, PM and other emissions. Each control technology has its advantages and disadvantages. For each of the technologies considered, major features, potential operating and maintenance cost impacts, as well as key factors that contribute to the selection of one technology over another are discussed here.

  6. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.

    1997-01-01

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates

  7. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  8. An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, H.N.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

  9. Technological substitution options for controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.B.; Burgess, J.C.; Pearce, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with technological options for greenhouse gas substitution. The authors interpret the term substitution to exclude energy conservation/efficiency measures, investments in afforestation (sinks), and greenhouse gas removal or abatement technologies. Their working definition of greenhouse gas substitution includes (1) replacement technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with a nongreenhouse gas technology; and (2) reduction technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with an alternative technology that reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Essentially, replacement technologies involve 100 percent reduction in CO 2 ; reduction technologies involve a partial reduction in CO 2 . Of the man-made sources of greenhouse gases, energy is the most important and is expected to contribute to at least half of the global warming effect in the near future. The majority of this impact is from fossil fuel combustion as a source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), although fossil fuels also contribute significantly to methane (CH 4 ), to nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and to low-level ozone (O 3 ) through production of various nitrogen gases (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO). This study analyzes the available greenhouse gas substitutions and their costs. The authors concentrate particularly on substitutions for fossil-fuel combustion and CFC production and consumption. They conclude by summarizing the potential for greenhouse gas substitution, the cost-effectiveness of the various options and the design of incentives for substitution

  10. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  11. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  12. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables

  13. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  14. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology for Controlling/Recycling Chromium Electroplating Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hay, K

    1999-01-01

    ...) above the plating tank. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology (VVST) was designed to control chromium electroplating emissions by collecting the gas bubbles before they burst at the solution's surface...

  15. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  16. PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY AND MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents estimates of the performance and cost of both powdered activated carbon (PAC) and multipollutant control technologies that may be useful in controlling mercury emissions. Based on currently available data, cost estimates for PAC injection range are 0.03-3.096 ...

  17. Characterization of particle bound organic carbon from diesel vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbin, Payam; Ning, Zhi; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    A chassis dynamometer study was carried out by the University of Southern California in collaboration with the Air Resources Board (CARB) to investigate the physical, chemical, and toxicological characteristics of diesel emissions of particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles. These heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) were equipped with advanced emission control technologies, designed to meet CARB retrofit regulations. A HDDV without any emission control devices was used as the baseline vehicle. Three advanced emission control technologies; continuously regenerating technology (CRT), zeolite- and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction technologies (Z-SCRT and V-SCRT), were tested under transient (UDDS) (1) and cruise (80 kmph) driving cycles to simulate real-world driving conditions. This paper focuses on the characterization of the particle bound organic species from the vehicle exhaust. Physical and chemical properties of PM emissions have been reported by Biswas et al. Atmos. Environ. 2008, 42, 5622-5634) and Hu et al. (Atmos. Environ. 2008, submitted) Significant reductions in the emission factors (microg/mile) of particle bound organic compounds were observed in HDDV equipped with advanced emission control technologies. V-SCRT and Z-SCRT effectively reduced PAHs, hopanes and steranes, n-alkanes and acids by more than 99%, and often to levels below detection limits for both cruise and UDDS cycles. The CRT technology also showed similar reductions with SCRT for medium and high molecular weight PAHs, acids, but with slightly lower removal efficiencies for other organic compounds. Ratios of particle bound organics-to-OC mass (microg/g) from the baseline exhaust were compared with their respective ratios in diesel fuel and lubricating oil, which revealed that hopanes and steranes originate from lubricating oil, whereas PAHs can either form during the combustion process or originate from diesel fuel itself. With the introduction of emission control

  18. Technology Reinvestment Program/Advanced ``Zero Emission'' Control Valve (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Napoleon

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this effort are to determine, develop and demonstrate the feasibility of significantly reducing the cost and expanding the applications for a family of Advanced Zero Emissions Control Valves that meets the fugitive emissions requirements of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. This program is a direct technology spin-off from the valve technology that is critical to the US Navy's Nuclear Powered Fleet. These zero emissions valves will allow the Hydrocarbon and Chemical Processing Industries, etc., to maintain their competitiveness and still meet environmental and safety requirements. Phase 2 is directed at refining the basic technologies developed during Phase 1 so that they can be more readily selected and utilized by the target market. In addition to various necessary certifications, the project will develop a full featured digital controller with ``smart valve'' growth capability, expanding valve sizes/applications and identifying valve materials to permit applications in severe operational environments.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  20. Process and technological options for odorous emissions control in wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernuschi, S.; Torretta, V.

    1996-01-01

    The emissions of odorous substances together with noise and issues related to proper architectural design within the existing territorial context, have certainly to be considered one of the most significant environmental effects determined by wastewater treatment plants particularly in the most frequent case of their localization in dense urban areas. Following a brief introduction on the chemical properties of odorous compounds and the corresponding methods for representing their concentration levels in air, present work reports on the main qualitative and quantitative characteristics of odorous emissions originating from single unit operations of typical wastewater treatment plants and on the technological and process options available for their control

  1. Radiative forcing associated with particulate carbon emissions resulting from the use of mercury control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E; Clack, Herek L

    2014-09-02

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents into the flue gas of coal fired power plants with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the most mature technology to control mercury emissions for coal combustion. However, the PAC itself can penetrate ESPs to emit into the atmosphere. These emitted PACs have similar size and optical properties to submicron black carbon (BC) and thus could increase BC radiative forcing unintentionally. The present paper estimates, for the first time, the potential emission of PAC together with their climate forcing. The global average maximum potential emissions of PAC is 98.4 Gg/yr for the year 2030, arising from the assumed adoption of the maximum potential PAC injection technology, the minimum collection efficiency, and the maximum PAC injection rate. These emissions cause a global warming of 2.10 mW m(-2) at the top of atmosphere and a cooling of -2.96 mW m(-2) at the surface. This warming represents about 2% of the warming that is caused by BC from direct fossil fuel burning and 0.86% of the warming associated with CO2 emissions from coal burning in power plants. Its warming is 8 times more efficient than the emitted CO2 as measured by the 20-year-integrated radiative forcing per unit of carbon input (the 20-year Global Warming Potential).

  2. Electron beam technology for multipollutant emissions control from heavy fuel oil-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Ostapczuk, Anna; Licki, Janusz

    2010-08-01

    The electron beam treatment technology for purification of exhaust gases from the burning of heavy fuel oil (HFO) mazout with sulfur content approximately 3 wt % was tested at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology laboratory plant. The parametric study was conducted to determine the sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, absorbed irradiation dose, and ammonia stoichiometry process parameters. In the test performed under optimal conditions with an irradiation dose of 12.4 kGy, simultaneous removal efficiencies of approximately 98% for SO2, and 80% for NO(x) were recorded. The simultaneous decrease of PAH and one-ringed aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, and xylenes [BTX]) concentrations was observed in the irradiated flue gas. Overall removal efficiencies of approximately 42% for PAHs and 86% for BTXs were achieved with an irradiation dose 5.3 kGy. The decomposition ratio of these compounds increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The decrease of PAH and BTX concentrations was followed by the increase of oxygen-containing aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. The PAH and BTX decomposition process was initialized through the reaction with hydroxyl radicals that formed in the electron beam irradiated flue gas. Their decomposition process is based on similar principles as the primary reaction concerning SO2 and NO(x) removal; that is, free radicals attack organic compound chains or rings, causing volatile organic compound decomposition. Thus, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology ensures simultaneous removal of acid (SO2 and NO(x)) and organic (PAH and BTX) pollutants from flue gas emitted from burning of HFO. This technology is a multipollutant emission control technology that can be applied for treatment of flue gas emitted from coal-, lignite-, and HFO-fired boilers. Other thermal processes such

  3. Alternative control technology document: Control of VOC emissions from the application of agricultural pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    In many States, some of the ozone nonattainment areas are comprised primarily of agricultural counties where a potentially significant contribution to the ozone may result from area sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emissions. A potential source of VOC emissions in agricultural counties is the release of organic compounds from the application of agricultural pesticides. The report provides technical information that State and local agencies can consider while developing strategies for reducing VOC emissions

  4. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  5. Control technology for fine-particulate emissions. [71 references; novel devices considered but rejected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a detailed review and critical evaluation of current control technologies as applied to fine particulate emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Topics reviewed are: sources and characteristics of coals and fly ash; performance characteristics of various types of coal-fired utility boilers; design, operation, performance and maintenance features of the conventional control devices (electrostatic precipitator, fabric filter baghouse, wet scrubber), and descriptions of (and where available, performance data on) novel control devices. The report also includes quantitative assessments of the capabilities of both conventional novel devices to meet three different performance standards - the present New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) of 0.1 lb particulate per MBtu heat input, and standards of 0.05 and 0.03 lb particulate per MBtu. Each of the three conventional devices is compared and rated with respect to eight different performance categories. This information is presented in charts, which can be used to determine the relative effectiveness and attractiveness of these three control devices. The novel devices are compared and rated in the same manner. The major conclusions of the report are: (1) The use of conventional scrubbers for fine particulate control on coal-fired utility boilers will no longer be feasible should a more stringent NSPS be promulgated. (2) At the present NSPS, conventional electrostatic precipitators and baghouses are competitive. For a stricter standard, however, the baghouse will become a more attractive alternative than the precipitator. (3) Novel devices appear to offer almost no hope for this particular application (at a commercial level) between now and 1985 and only little hope before 1990.

  6. Technology for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen from supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.; Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Various experiments are sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling aircraft engine emissions into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  7. Power train and emission control: allocation procedure by OBD-II system for automotive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Porag

    2017-06-01

    OBD-II, systems were designed to maintain low emissions of in use vehicles, including light and medium duty vehicles. In 1989, the California code of Regulations (CCR) known as OBD - II was adopted by the California Air Resource Board (CARB) and the objective to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emission caused by malfunction of the vehicles emission control systems. OBD-II provides additional information to engineer for diagnosis and repair of emissions related problems. OBD-II, standardizes on the amount of memory (Freeze Frame) it uses to store the readings of the vehicle sensor when it logs on emission related Intermittent Trouble code (IT). The intent of OBD-II, systems is to detect most vehicle malfunctions when performance of a power train component or system deteriorates to the point that the vehicle’s HC emission exceed standard. The vehicle operator is notified at the time when the vehicle begins to marginally exceed emission standards, by illuminating the Malfunctions Indicator Light (MIL).

  8. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  9. Variable Emissivity Through MEMS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrin, Ann Garrison; Osiander, Robert; Champion, John; Swanson, Ted; Douglas, Donya; Grob, Lisa M.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses a new technology for variable emissivity (vari-e) radiator surfaces, which has significant advantages over traditional radiators and promises an alternative design technique for future spacecraft thermal control systems. All spacecraft rely on radiative surfaces to dissipate waste heat. These radiators have special coatings, typically with a low solar absorptivity and a high infrared-red emissivity, that are intended to optimize performance under the expected heat load and thermal sink environment. The dynamics of the heat loads and thermal environment make it a challenge to properly size the radiator and often require some means of regulating the heat rejection rate of the radiators in order to achieve proper thermal balance. Specialized thermal control coatings, which can passively or actively adjust their emissivity offer an attractive solution to these design challenges. Such systems would allow intelligent control of the rate of heat loss from a radiator in response to heat load and thermal environmental variations. Intelligent thermal control through variable emissivity systems is well suited for nano and pico spacecraft applications where large thermal fluctuations are expected due to the small thermal mass and limited electric resources. Presently there are three different types of vari-e technologies under development: Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) louvers, Electrochromic devices, and Electrophoretic devices. This paper will describe several prototypes of micromachined (MEMS) louvers and experimental results for the emissivity variations measured on theses prototypes. It will further discuss possible actuation mechanisms and space reliability aspects for different designs. Finally, for comparison parametric evaluations of the thermal performances of the new vari-e technology and standard thermal control systems are presented in this paper.

  10. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  11. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and

  12. Preliminary survey report: control technology for formaldehyde emissions at Jasper Laminates, Jasper, Indiana, October 19, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, V.D.

    1983-07-29

    An onsite visit was made to Jasper Laminates, Jasper, Indiana to observe the processes used in veneering wood panels by a heater platen press method, and methods of controlling formaldehyde emissions. The facility produced panels for pianos, organs, office furniture and other wood products, using primarily the hot press process along with some radiofrequency (RF) pressing of curved panels and small parts. The glue most often used was a urea/formaldehyde resin adhesive. The hot presses were located under one large ventilated enclosure, measuring about 20 by 150 feet. There were also eight ventilation fans in the ceiling and auxiliary fans used to provide additional cooling air for workers and for the caul plates. Therefore, the primary methods of controlling formaldehyde exposure were dispersion, using auxiliary fans, and area ventilation. No partial-shift-time weighted-average formaldehyde concentrations were measured at over 1 part per million (ppm). For two workers unloading different hot presses, short-term breathing-zone concentrations occasionally reached 2 ppm. The author concludes that this facility offers the opportunity to study large-scale area ventilation with passive make-up air supply, and the appropriate use of auxiliary fans.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  14. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) with var...

  15. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  16. Application of automobile emission control technology to light piston aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, D.; Kittredge, G.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility was evaluated for achieving the EPA Standards for HC and CO emissions through the use of air-fuel ratio enleanment at selected power modes combined with improved air-fuel mixture preparation, and in some cases improved cooling. Air injection was also an effective approach for the reduction of HC and CO, particularly when combined with exhaust heat conservation techniques such as exhaust port liners.

  17. Acoustic Emission Technology and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Y. S.; Lim, S. H.; Eom, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Jung, H. K.

    2003-10-01

    Acoustic emission is the elastic wave that is generated by the rapid release of energy from the localized sources within a material. After the observation of acoustic emission phenomenon in 1950, the research and further investigation had been performed. Acoustic emission examination becomes a rapidly matured nondestructive testing method with demonstrated capabilities for characterizing material behavior and for detecting the defect. It is of interest as a possible passive monitoring technique for detecting, locating and characterizing the defects in component and structure. Acoustic emission technology has recently strengthened the on-line monitoring application for the detection of incipient failures and the assurance of structural integrity. The field of acoustic emission testing is still growing vigorously and presents many challenges. Especially, acoustic emission has been successfully applied in the leak detection of primary pressure boundary of nuclear power plants. In this state-of-art report, the principle, measurement and field applications of acoustic emission technique is reviewed and summarized. Acoustic emission technology will contribute to the assurance of nuclear safety as the on-line monitoring technique of structural integrity of NSSS components and structures

  18. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  19. Air ionization as a control technology for off-gas emissions of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Kumar, Pawan; Kwon, Eilhann E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Reddy, Police Anil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    High energy electron-impact ionizers have found applications mainly in industry to reduce off-gas emissions from waste gas streams at low cost and high efficiency because of their ability to oxidize many airborne organic pollutants (e.g., volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) to CO 2 and H 2 O. Applications of air ionizers in indoor air quality management are limited due to poor removal efficiency and production of noxious side products, e.g., ozone (O 3 ). In this paper, we provide a critical evaluation of the pollutant removal performance of air ionizing system through comprehensive review of the literature. In particular, we focus on removal of VOCs and odorants. We also discuss the generation of unwanted air ionization byproducts such as O 3 , NOx, and VOC oxidation intermediates that limit the use of air-ionizers in indoor air quality management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Preliminary survey report: control technology for formaldehyde emissions at Hoosier Panel, New Albany, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, V.D.

    1982-12-01

    An onsite visit was made to the Hoosier Panel Company, New Albany, Indiana to observe processes and controls in the veneering of wood panels. Most of the bonding of the veneer to the core was accomplished through use of a urea/formaldehyde resin and a hot press method. Some work was done using a cold-press process in which the glue was heated with radio-frequency radiation. Banding of the core with solid-wood edges prior to veneering also used an adhesive that may contain formaldehyde. At least five different recipes were used for panel glue, all of which involve the Perkins L-100 urea/formaldehyde resin. A canopy hood was installed over each press. There were six wall fans in the plate cooling rooms. Airflow across the glue room was also aided by auxiliary fans. Routine air sampling was not performed. A safety committee inspected the site monthly. The local exhaust ventilation hoods had an insufficient flow rate to capture vapors beyond the boundary of the canopy openings. The facility offered a unique approach to caul plate cooling which also provided a large quantity of the general ventilation airflow. The author recommends that the auxiliary fans might be better positioned to contribute more effectively to controlling exposures.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION--TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES, CUMMINS EMISSION SOLUTIONS AND CUMMINS FILTRATION DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST AND CLOSED CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. ETV seeks to provide high-quality, peer-reviewed data on technology performance. The Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, a center under the ETV Program, is operated by Res...

  2. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  3. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: AN UPDATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents estimates of performance levels and related costs associated with controlling mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants using either powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection or multipollutant control in which Hg capture is enhanced in existing and ne...

  4. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  5. Emission Inventory Development and Application Based On an Atmospheric Emission Source Priority Control Classification Technology Method, a Case Study in the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Cheng, S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to investigate the emission source control of the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations (MRYRUA), one of the national urban agglomerations in China. An emission inventory of the MRYRUA was the first time to be developed as inputs to the CAMx model based on county-level activity data obtained by full-coverage investigation and source-based spatial surrogates. The emission inventory was proved to be acceptable owing to the atmospheric modeling verification. A classification technology method for atmospheric pollution source priority control was the first time to be introduced and applied in the MRYRUA for the evaluation of the emission sources control on the region-scale and city-scale. MICAPS (Meteorological Information comprehensive Analysis and Processing System) was applied for the regional meteorological condition and sensitivity analysis. The results demonstrated that the emission sources in the Hefei-center Urban Agglomerations contributed biggest on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA and should be taken the priority to control. The emission sources in the Ma'anshan city, Xiangtan city, Hefei city and Wuhan city were the bigger contributors on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA among the cities and should be taken the priority to control. In addition, the cities along the Yangtze River and the tributary should be given the special attention for the regional air quality target attainments. This study provide a valuable preference for policy makers to develop effective air pollution control strategies.

  6. Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.

    1999-01-01

    The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

  7. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  8. Aviation and climate change : aircraft emissions expected to grow, but technological and operational improvements and government policies can help control emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    A number of policy options to address aircraft emissions are available to governments and can be part of broader policies to address emissions from many sources including aircraft. Market-based measures can establish a price for emissions and provide...

  9. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the needed technologies

  10. Development of technologies for control of N{sub 2}O emissions associated with adipic acid manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, R.A.; Slaten, C.S.; Seapan, M.; Koch, T.A.; Tomlinson, P.E. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Orange TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Manufacture of adipic acid (AA) results in the production of off-gases containing ca. 0.3 ton of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) per ton of AA. In the past, many AA producers have disposed of this N{sub 2}O via atmospheric vents after treatment to abate NO and NO{sub 2} (NO{sub x}). Some producers treat AA off-gas streams in reducing furnaces which destroy both N{sub 2}O and NO{sub x}. At present, net of N{sub 2}O by the adipic acid industry account for about 5-8 % of worldwide anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emissions. Since it is recognized that this N{sub 2}O makes a minor contribution to global warming and ozone depletion, major AA producers worldwide have agreed to substantially reduce these emissions by 1996-98. Technology alternatives currently being developed and designed by producers include improved thermal destruction, conversion to NO{sub x} for recycle, and catalytic N{sub 2}O decomposition. (orig.)

  11. Preliminary survey report: control technology for formaldehyde emissions at Drexel Heritage Plant 60, Morganton, North Carolina, August 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, V.D.

    1983-07-08

    A visit was made to the Drexel Heritage Facility No. 60, Morganton, North Carolina for the purpose of observing the processes and associated controls for veneering wood panels using heated platen presses. Specific concern was expressed about controlling formaldehyde emissions. At this specific site, veneered panels were produced by both the hot press and the radiofrequency (R/F) press methods. A canopy hood exhausted through a duct to a roof fan was installed about 4 feet above the inspection platform of each feed through press. A small canopy hood covers a small mixer on the main floor. Auxiliary fans were placed throughout the facility. A few ceiling vents were noted, but the only makeup air was the filtered air returned from the dust collection system in winter. Each canopy hood captured only part of the emissions which rose from the platform. The volumetric airflow rate was not sufficient to capture vapors much beyond the boundary of the large canopy opening. Partial shift time weighted average formaldehyde concentrations were all less than 0.5 parts per million (ppm), except around the large R/F press where some peak concentrations were 3 ppm. The author concludes that this facility offers a unique opportunity to study the effectiveness of a canopy hood over an unloading platform.

  12. Assessment of the controllability of condensible emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shareef, G.S.; Waddell, J.T.

    1990-10-01

    The report gives results of a study to gain insights into the condensible emissions area from an air toxics perspective, with emphasis on controllability and chemical composition of these emissions. The study: compiled existing data on condensible emissions; determined the chemical composition of condensible emissions, where possible; identified source categories that are major emitters of condensibles; evaluated the effectiveness of various control devices in reducing condensible emissions; and evaluated how the performance of currently available control technologies can be improved to better control condensible emissions. Two data bases were developed: the Condensibles Data Base contains 43 emission source categories; the Specialized Condensibles Data Base focuses on the chemical composition of condensible emissions.

  13. A technical and economic assessment of fuel oil hydrotreating technology for steam power plant SO2 and NOx emissions control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    peiman pourmoghaddam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a simulation approach to the design and economic evaluation of fuel oil hydrotreating processes for the control of SO2 and NOx emission in an Iranian steam power plant. The percent of fuel oil desulphurization was estimated from the SO2 emissions standards for power plants. Based on two different scenarios according to (I European and (II Iranian standards, the design and simulation of hydrodesulphurization reactors, separation, heat recovery, and amine gas sweetening sections were performed and an economic assessment of the plant was investigated for each scenario. The results indicated the following: the cost price of each barrel of low sulfur fuel oil produced in such plants was estimated at  4.24 US$ for scenario (I and 3.17 US$ for scenario (II; the levelized cost of desulfurization in power production was estimated at 0.618 c/kWh for (I and 0.463 c/kWh for (II; and the social cost savings of replacing every barrel of low sulfur fuel oil instead of one barrel of high sulfur fuel oil were estimated at 26.7 US$ for (I and 13.6 US$ (II.

  14. Preliminary survey report: control technology for formaldehyde emissions at Baker Furniture Company, Mocksville, North Carolina, September 2, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, V.D.

    1983-07-28

    An on-site visit was made to the Baker Furniture Company, Mocksville, North Carolina to observe the processes and associated controls for veneering wood panels using heated platen presses. The facility manufactured furniture and produced veneered panels. For flat panels, the hot-press process was used exclusively. There was some radiofrequency (RF) laminating of small parts and frames. Less than 5,000 square feet of panels were produced per day. The veneer department consisted of 35 workers, eight assigned to the hot press operation. For most applications, a urea/formaldehyde resin was used as the adhesive. There were canopy hoods over the feed-through press and the shuttle press. General ventilation was provided mainly by open doors and an extensive local exhaust ventilation for controlling sawdust. Formaldehyde concentrations ranging from less than 1 part per million (ppm) to between 1 and 2 ppm were noted around the feed-through press in the morning. Concentrations of 1 to 3 ppm were noted at the glue mixing station, loading platform, and unloading area in the afternoon. The general airflow through the space between the press and face of the canopy appeared to carry some emission into the work place. The author notes that this facility offers the opportunity to study a canopy hood over a feed-through press, but the low production rate may preclude an accurate evaluation of control-system effectiveness.

  15. DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-10-26

    The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

  16. Control and reduction of NOx emissions on light hydrocarbons combustion in fluidized bed combustors: a technological prospection surveys; Controle e reducao de emissoes de NOx durante queima de hidrocarbonetos leves em combustores a leito fluidizado: um estudo de prospeccao tecnologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Douglas Alves; Winter, Eduardo [Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper aims a technological prospecting study of the main technological agents involved in industrial light hydrocarbons combustion process. More specifically, the work approaches technologies applied to nitrogen oxides emissions control and reduction. Nitrogen oxides are typically known as 'NOx' (NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}). 'NOx' are byproducts from fuel burning in combustion systems, including also in fluidized bed combustion systems. The technological prospecting study employed 'technology foresight' as tool for evaluating the technological perspectives of the thermal generation, basis on environment protection. Such technological perspectives of the thermal generation were evaluated through invention patent documents. The query methodology for obtaining of patent documents employed a free patent base, known as ESPACENET. Additionally, the documents obtained were evaluated, considering beyond the countries and the publication dates, technological perspectives employed to 'NOx' emissions control and reduction. It is very important to highlight around 70% of the industrial technological information are just found in invention patent documents. (author)

  17. Controlling fugitive emissions from mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that enactment of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Amendments will sharply focus efforts in the process industries to reduce fugitive emissions. Moreover, state and local governments may be imposing stricter laws and regulations which will affect allowable fugitive emissions from U.S. refineries and process plants. Plants outside the U.S. have similar concerns. Clearly, mechanical seals for process pumps represent an enormous population and is one category of equipment destined for careful evaluation as a means to control fugitive emissions. Fugitive are unintentional emissions from valves, pumps, flanges, compressors, etc., as opposed to point-source emissions from stacks, vents and flares. Fugitive emissions do not occur as a part of normal plant operations, but result from the effects of: Malfunctions, Age, Lack of proper maintenance, Operator error, Improper equipment specification, Use of inferior technology, and externally caused damage

  18. Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy High-Speed Marine Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    marine engine emissions in “nonattainment” area counties with active ports is much higher. Concentrations of marine engine emissions in 2001/2002...can range to greater than 42% of NOx and 53% of PM2.5 from domestic mobile sources. Projected 2030 concentrations of Houston counties’ marine...Installed on a Legacy Marine Diesel Engine 6 2. Criteria gaseous and PM emissions on a gravimetric basis in accordance with ISO 8178

  19. Life cycle emissions from renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.; Watkiss, P.; Thorpe, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in the ETSU review, together with the detailed results for three of the technologies studied: wind turbines, photovoltaic systems and small, stand-alone solar thermal systems. These emissions are then compared with those calculated for both other renewables and fossil fuel technology on a similar life cycle basis. The life cycle emissions associated with renewable energy technology vary considerably. They are lowest for those technologies where the renewable resource has been concentrated in some way (e.g. over distance in the case of wind and hydro, or over time in the case of energy crops). Wind turbines have amongst the lowest emissions of all renewables and are lower than those for fossil fuel generation, often by over an order of magnitude. Photovoltaics and solar thermal systems have the highest life cycle emissions of all the renewable energy technologies under review. However, their emissions of most pollutants are also much lower than those associated with fossil fuel technologies. In addition, the emissions associated with PV are likely to fall further in the future as the conversion efficiency of PV cells increases and manufacturing technology switches to thin film technologies, which are less energy intensive. Combining the assessments of life cycle emissions of renewables with predictions made by the World Energy Council (WEC) of their future deployment has allowed estimates to be made of amount by which renewables could reduce the future global emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. It estimated that under the WEC's 'Ecologically Driven' scenario, renewables might lead to significant reductions of between 3650 and 8375 Mt in annual CO 2 emissions depending on the fossil fuel technology they are assumed to displace. (author)

  20. Carbon emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  1. US carbon emissions, technological progress and economic growth since 1870

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    The long-term US experience emphasises the importance of controlling for electrification and other major technology transformations when evaluating the growth of carbon emissions at different stages of development. Prior to World War I, carbon emissions grew faster than economic growth by 2.3% per year. As electricity use expanded and steam engines became much larger, carbon emissions began to grow slower than economic growth by 1.6% per year. Adjusting to this technological shift, an expanding economy continues to increase carbon emissions by about 9% for each 10% faster growth. There is little evidence of a decline in this elasticity as the income level rises. These results suggest that the USA today will need to find additional policies to curb carbon emissions if it wishes to prevent any further increase in its per capita emissions, and if its per capita economy grows by more than 1.8% per year. (Author)

  2. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    policies of emissions control required for achieving the social goal in a private context. The results suggest that the efficiency of abatement technology is crucial for the timing of executing the emission tax. And emission tax is preferred to an input tax, as long as the detection of emissions is not costly and abatement technology is efficient. Keywords: Economic growth, Carbon emission, Power generation, Joint production, China

  3. Ferroelectric Electron Emission Principles and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Riege, H

    1997-01-01

    The spontaneous electrical polarization of ferroelectric materials can be changed either by reversal or by phase transition from a ferroelectric into a non-ferroelectric state or vice versa. If spontaneous polarization changes are induced with fast heat, mechanical pressure, laser or electric field pulses on a submicrosecond time scale, strong uncompensated surface charge densities and related polarization fields are generated, which may lead to the intense self-emission of electrons from the negatively charged free surface areas of the ferroelectric sample. Hence, electron guns can be built with extraction-field-free ferroelectric cathodes, which may be easily separated from the high-field regions of post-accelerating gap structures. The intensity, the energy, the temporal and spatial distribution, and the repetitition rate of the emitted electron beams can be controlled within wide limits via the excitation pulses and external focusing and accelerating electromagnetic fields. The technological advantages an...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES/CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL BORNE CATALYST WITH CLEANAIR SYSTEM'S DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES: CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL-BORNE CATALYST WITH MITSUI/PUREARTH CATALYZED WIRE MESH FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with Mitsui/PUREarth Catalyzed Wire Mesh Filter manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a platinum/cerium fuel-borne catalyst in commerci...

  6. Optimal deployment of emissions reduction technologies for construction equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Zietsman, Josias; Quadrifoglio, Luca; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a multiobjective optimization model to deploy emissions reduction technologies for nonroad construction equipment to reduce emissions in a cost-effective and optimal manner. Given a fleet of construction equipment emitting different pollutants in the nonattainment (NA) and near -nonattainment (NNA) counties of a state and a set of emissions reduction technologies available for installation on equipment to control pollution/emissions, the model assists in determining the mix of technologies to be deployed so that maximum emissions reduction and fuel savings are achieved within a given budget. Three technologies considered for emissions reduction were designated as X, Y, and Z to keep the model formulation general so that it can be applied for any other set of technologies. Two alternative methods of deploying these technologies on a fleet of equipment were investigated with the methods differing in the technology deployment preference in the NA and NNA counties. The model having a weighted objective function containing emissions reduction benefits and fuel-saving benefits was programmed with C++ and ILOG-CPLEX. For demonstration purposes, the model was applied for a selected construction equipment fleet owned by the Texas Department of Transportation, located in NA and NNA counties of Texas, assuming the three emissions reduction technologies X, Y, and Z to represent, respectively, hydrogen enrichment, selective catalytic reduction, and fuel additive technologies. Model solutions were obtained for varying budget amounts to test the sensitivity of emissions reductions and fuel-savings benefits with increasing the budget. Different mixes of technologies producing maximum oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) reductions and total combined benefits (emissions reductions plus fuel savings) were indicated at different budget ranges. The initial steep portion of the plots for NO(x) reductions and total combined benefits against budgets

  7. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  8. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  9. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buil...

  10. Tourism Transport, Technology, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Technological development from horse-drawn carriages to the new Airbus A380 has led to a remarkable increase in both the capacity and speed of tourist travel. This development has an endogenous systemic cause and will continue to increase carbon dioxide emissions/energy consumption if left

  11. Prospects of utilization of electron beam irradiation technology to augment control of SO2 and other emissions from Chilean copper smelting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, L.; Ahumada, L.; Ellison, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of potential utilization of applicable SO 2 -removal process for reduced-SO 2 -strength off-gases, including electron-beam irradiation, for incrementally improving overall abatement of SO 2 /SO 3 emissions from existing copper smelting facilities in Chile has been carried out. Off-gases are characterized by SO 2 content higher than 3,000 ppm, a complex chemical composition and highly oxidizing conditions, along with cyclical and fluctuating generation, reflecting relatively severe service. Laboratory tests with simulated high-SO 2 -strength process gas were performed at Polish Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. Test work proved the technical feasibility of removing SO 2 from ultra-high SO 2 content smelter gases by E-beam irradiation with ammonia injection. A laboratory unit with flow rate of 20 Nm 3 /h equipped with electron accelerator of 800 keV beam energy was used. Influence of different parameters on SO 2 removal efficiency, like temperature, dose, ammonia stoichiometry and water vapor content, has been established. Tests covered a high SO 2 content range, 2,000 to 10,000 ppm. A generic design has been deviced to address system arrangement, performance and control requirements. It encompasses upgrading of in-plant ventilation to the extent required by health standards, together with gas cleaning system based on EB Process. The arrangement of the facilities provides for gathering and treating off-gas from selected fugitive emission sources on a continuous basis, at the same time in-drafting a minimum amount of tramp air. An introductory dry dedusting stage uses activated coke injection in conjunction with a fabric filter to efficiently treat raw gas to remove heavy metals, including arsenic, along with particulate matter. Main conclusion of the two major stages of this work, i.e. experimental tests and engineering oriented studies, is that the EB Process is a simple and appropriate, cost-effective, chemical process that would, on a site

  12. Emissions control for sensitive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The Gorgon project needs almost no introduction. Located off the north-west coast of Western Australia, it is one of the world's largest natural gas projects, set on the environmentally sensitive Barrow Island. To protect the island's unique habitats, stringent environmental conditions have been imposed in terms of air, noise and light emissions, making the emission control system critical to the project's viability. Luhr Filter, specialists in dust and fume control solutions, were chosen by KMH Environmental to supply an emission control system for a waste incinerator facility serving the LNG processing plant on Barrow Island. KMH's preference was for a 'one stop' supplier of the entire pollution control system. This included a heat exchanger which had the added benefit of a compact build to fit in the limited real estate. The solution put forward was tailored to the unique environmental requirements of the Gorgon project. It was very much about collaboration and innovation to achieve the requisite results. KMH were also keen to limit the number of sub-contractors they had to deal with, and Luhr offered them a turn-key plant for the gas cleaning, integrating design and supply of all the equipment. Among the environmental requirements was that all putrescible waste created on-site - from the accommodation camps during the construction and, eventually, production phases - had to be incinerated rather than sent to landfill. The flue gas from the incinerators had to be treated in order to meet world-class environmental standards for emission of particulate, acid gases, metals and dioxins. KMH designed an incinerator system with primary and secondary combustion chambers in modular units to minimise labour requirements on site. The dry absorption system integrates Luhr's unique technologies for heat exchangers, absorption reactors, utilisation of the absorbent and the baghouse style filters with reverse pulse bag cleaning

  13. Summary of performance data for technologies to control gaseous, odor, and particulate emissions from livestock operations: Air management practices assessment tool (AMPAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin L. Maurer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The livestock and poultry production industry, regulatory agencies, and researchers lack a current, science-based guide and data base for evaluation of air quality mitigation technologies. Data collected from science-based review of mitigation technologies using practical, stakeholders-oriented evaluation criteria to identify knowledge gaps/needs and focuses for future research efforts on technologies and areas with the greatest impact potential is presented in the Literature Database tab on the air management practices tool (AMPAT. The AMPAT is web-based (available at www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat and provides an objective overview of mitigation practices best suited to address odor, gaseous, and particulate matter (PM emissions at livestock operations. The data was compiled into Excel spreadsheets from a literature review of 265 papers was performed to (1 evaluate mitigation technologies performance for emissions of odor, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, ammonia (NH3, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, particulate matter (PM, and greenhouse gases (GHGs and to (2 inform future research needs.

  14. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  15. Technological options for acid rain control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Princiotta, F.T.; Sedman, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust collector, with additional air toxics legislation looming ahead. A number of likely SO2 and NOx retrofit technologies and estimated costs are presented, along with results of retrofit case studies. New hybrid particulate controls are also being developed to meet future requirements

  16. Savannah River Plant airborne emissions and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.; Benjamin, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) was established to produce special nuclear materials, principally plutonium and tritium, for national defense needs. Major operating facilities include three nuclear reactors, two chemical separations plants, a fuel and target fabrication plant, and a heavy-water rework plant. An extensive environmental surveillance program has been maintained continuously since 1951 (before SRP startup) to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in a 1200-square-mile area centered on the plant, and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. This report provides data on SRP emissions, controls systems, and airborne radioactive releases. The report includes descriptions of current measurement technology. 10 references, 14 figures, 9 tables

  17. Investment Strategy of Emission-Reduction Technology in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Xiang Lou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions have serious impacts on the natural environment. Therefore, the restrictions imposed on carbon emission force enterprises to take carbon emission into consideration when making production decisions. In this paper, in the context of allowing emission trading and investment of emission reduction technology, models were presented for a two-stage supply chain to analyze the optimal investment and pricing decisions. The results indicate that manufacturer’s endurance capacity of reduction difficulty is higher in the cooperation model than in the Stackelberg game model, and that perfect coordination of supply chains can be realized by a revenue sharing contract. From the perspective of a consumer, low-carbon products mean higher price, so that subsidies or tax exemptions should be provided to keep low prices. Meanwhile, the government can promote investment in emission-reduction technologies and achieve its emission reduction targets by controlling emission trading price, strengthening emission reduction publicity and providing technology investment subsidies.

  18. A FUEL-RICH PRECOMBUSTOR. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS - VOLUME IV. ALTERNATE CON- CEPTS FOR SOX, NOX, AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results a study of the use of precombustors for the simultaneous control of S02, NOx, and ash emissions from coal combustion. In Phase 1, exploratory testing was conducted on a small pilot scale--293 kW (million Btu/hr)-pulverized-coal-fired precombustor to ident...

  19. Towards Ideal NOx and CO2 Emission Control Technology for Bio-Oils Combustion Energy System Using a Plasma-Chemical Hybrid Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, M; Fujishima, H; Yamato, Y; Kuroki, T; Tanaka, A; Otsuka, K

    2013-01-01

    A pilot-scale low-emission boiler system consisting of a bio-fuel boiler and plasma-chemical hybrid NO x removal system is investigated. This system can achieve carbon neutrality because the bio-fuel boiler uses waste vegetable oil as one of the fuels. The plasma-chemical hybrid NO x removal system has two processes: NO oxidation by ozone produced from plasma ozonizers and NO 2 removal using a Na 2 SO 3 chemical scrubber. Test demonstrations of the system are carried out for mixed oils (mixture of A-heavy oil and waste vegetable oil). Stable combustion is achieved for the mixed oil (20 – 50% waste vegetable oil). Properties of flue gas—e.g., O 2 , CO 2 and NO x —when firing mixed oils are nearly the same as those when firing heavy oil for an average flue gas flow rate of 1000 Nm 3 /h. NO x concentrations at the boiler outlet are 90 – 95 ppm. Furthermore, during a 300-min continuous operation when firing 20% mixed oil, NO x removal efficiency of more than 90% (less than 10 ppm NO x emission) is confirmed. In addition, the CO 2 reduction when heavy oil is replaced with waste vegetable oil is estimated. The system comparison is described between the plasma-chemical hybrid NO x removal and the conventional technology.

  20. Most effective combustion technologies for reducing Nox emissions in aero gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ommi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth in air transportation volume has important global environmental impacts associated with the potential for climate change. Jet aircraft emissions are deposited directly into the upper atmosphere and some of them have a greater warming effect than gases emitted closer to the surface. One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every aero gas turbine application is emissions, particularly Nox emissions. There are different technologies for nitrogen oxide emission control in aircraft gas turbines. In this paper, we have briefly reviewed the technologies with the greatest potential to reduce Nox emissions in aero engines.

  1. Environmental control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    During this report period, Chem Tech identified environmental control technology (ECT) as an area of emphasis for future planning and resource allocation. The Division plans to continue to perform R and D activities in ECT for external sponsors such as the DOE Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) while striving for recognition as an R and D center for ECT within the Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Complex. Chem Tech has already played supporting roles in this area for the Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) and is currently expanding its support to organizations within ORNL responsible for environmental matters. Over the long term, the Division hopes to achieve recognition as a center for R and D in ECT within the wider DOE system. Recent initiatives supporting these plans are discussed below

  2. Technology Demonstration of the Zero Emissions Chromium Electroplating System; Appendix I: CHPPM Report on Air Sampling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hay, K. J; Maloney, Stephen W; Cannon, John J; Phelps, Max R; Modrell, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This volume is an Appendix to the main report, Volume 1, which documents the demonstration of a technology developed by PRD, Inc, for control of chromium emissions during hard chromium electroplating...

  3. Environmental control technology for biomass flash pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Seward, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies will raise questions concerning the environmental impacts of these systems and the associated costs for appropriate control technologies. This study concentrates on characterizing the effluent emissions and control technologies for a dual fluid-bed pyrolysis unit run by Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. The ASU system produces a raw product gas that is passed through a catalytic liquefaction system to produce a fuel comparable to No. 2 fuel oil. Argonne National Laboratory is conducting a program that will survey several biomass systems to standardize the sampling techniques, prioritize standard analyses and develop a data base so that environmental issues later may be addressed before they limit or impede the commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies. Emissions will be related to both the current and anticipated emissions standards to generate material balances and set design parameters for effluent treatment systems. This will permit an estimate to be made of the capital and operating costs associated with these technologies.

  4. Developing a "Research Test Bed" to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen J.

    2012-05-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's "clean and green" image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water & Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal "vehicle emissions research environment" supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

  5. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  6. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near...

  7. [Technology-based emission inventory of particulate matters (PM) from cement industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; He, Ke-bin; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Zuo-yi

    2008-08-01

    A bottom-up PM emission model was developed based on the production technologies and PM emission control devices in Chinese cement industry. Through analyzing the historical distribution of technologies in cement producing and the impact of standards on PM emission control from cement industry, emission factors of cement industry in China during 1990-2004 were generated by this technology-based model, and emission inventories were developed thereby. Emission factor decreased from 27.9 kg x t(-1) cement in 1990 to 8.05 kg x t(-1) cement in 2004. Emissions of PM from cement industry in China reached the peak value in 1997, with 1044 x 10(4) t of TSP, 716 x 10(4) t of PM10, 436 x 10(4) t of PM2.5 emitted, then decreased until 2001, and increased slowly again during 2001-2004. The distribution of PM emissions among provinces is uneven. Shandong, Guangdong, Hebei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Henan contribute more than 50% of emissions of China. Rapid spread of pre-calcining kilns in China and implementation of Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry in 2004 will probably decrease PM emissions from cement industry to a large extent, leading to obvious variation on PM pollution characteristics in China.

  8. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  9. Reburning technology - a means to reduce NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, H.; Lorra, M.

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen oxide emission control technologies can be classified as either combustion modifications to minimize the NO production or post-combustion flue gas treatment to reduce the NO concentration afterwards. The techniques for minimizing NOx Production includes the use of low-NOx burners, overfire air (staged combustion) and boiler combustion optimization. Procedures for flue gas treatment can be subdivided into selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). The re burning process is a selective non-catalytic technology which is applicable to a wide variety of boilers and can be implemented within a relatively short period of time. The NOx reduction potential of this technique is in the range of 50 % up to 70 %. (author)

  10. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  11. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  12. Features and Technology of Ferroelectric Electron Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, I; Herleb, U; Riege, H

    1998-01-01

    Spontaneous electrical polarization of ferroelectric materials can be changed either by reversal or by phase transition from a ferroelectric into a non-polar state or vice versa. If spontaneous polarization changes are induced at a submicrosecond time-scale, strong uncompensated surface charge densities and related fields are generated, which may lead to the intense self-emission of electrons from the negatively-charged free surface areas of the ferroelectric cathode. The nature of this self-emission differs essentially from other methods of ferroelectric electron emission and from conventional electron emission in that the latter methods are only achieved by extracting electrons with externally applied electric fields. When electron guns are constructed with ferroelectric cathodes, new design criteria have to be taken into account. The intensity, the energy, the temporal and spatial distribution and the repetition rate of the emitted electron beams can be adjusted within wide limits. The advantages of ferroe...

  13. Control of Jovian Radio Emission by Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Christopher, I.

    2001-01-01

    Galileo has been in orbit around Jupiter since December 1995 and a large database has been collected. We present the results of a survey of the plasma wave data for the frequency range 2.0 MHz to 5.6 MHz, the low frequency decametric (DAM) emissions. While the control of a portion of the radio emission by the moon lo is well known, and Ganymede control has been more recently indicated, we report that a small but significant portion of DAM emission is seen to be correlated with the orbital phase of Callisto. While the occurrence rate of emission controlled by Ganymede and Callisto is considerably less than for lo, the power levels can be nearly the same. We estimate the power of the Callisto-dependent emission to be approx. 70% of the Io-dependent radio emission and about the same as the Ganymede-dependent radio emission. This result indicates an Alfven current system associated with Callisto, and thus a significant interaction of the magnetosphere of Callisto with that of Jupiter as is believed to exist for both lo and Ganymede.

  14. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  15. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  16. Mechatronics control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-15

    This book consists six chapters, which are an assembler grammar and practical use on Z801 8041/8048 and kind of assemblers and how to use, control of a microprocessor and mechatro with application of 8255, interface circuit and direction of DA converter, control of stepping motor such as introduction of it, sequence switch, drive program of stepping motor, control for DC motor such as normal rotation and abnormal rotation operation of DC motor by personal computer, control AC motor like PWM inverter and data communication among systems such as RS-232C and INTEL-HEXA format program.

  17. Mechatronics control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This book consists six chapters, which are an assembler grammar and practical use on Z801 8041/8048 and kind of assemblers and how to use, control of a microprocessor and mechatro with application of 8255, interface circuit and direction of DA converter, control of stepping motor such as introduction of it, sequence switch, drive program of stepping motor, control for DC motor such as normal rotation and abnormal rotation operation of DC motor by personal computer, control AC motor like PWM inverter and data communication among systems such as RS-232C and INTEL-HEXA format program.

  18. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION--TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES, FLINT HILLS RESOURCES, LP, CCD15010 DIESEL FUEL FORMULATION WITH HITEC4121 ADDITIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. ETV seeks to ach...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES--PUREM NORTH AMERICA LLC, PMF GREENTEC 1004205.00.0 DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program to provide high quality, peer reviewed data on technology performance to those involved in the design, distribution, financing, permitting, purchase, and use of environmental technologies. The Air Po...

  1. Acoustic emission experiments for PHWR technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellionisz, P.; Jha, S.K.; Goswami, G.L.

    1992-06-01

    An Indian-Hungarian joint research project has been started with the aim of applying acoustic emission testing to solve specific problems of nuclear power plants. Acoustic emission measurement and analyzing instrumentation and software have been provided by the Hungarian side, while the measurements have been performed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India. The first task of the project was to check the capability of the method for leakage detection and shuttle movement monitoring of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR), and for monitoring manufacturing processes as laser welding. The preliminary measurements and results are presented. (R.P.) 15 refs.; 11 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Emissions control of volatile organic compounds in petroleum industry; Controle de emissoes de compostos organicos volateis na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierres, Ricardo; Moreira, Andrea Cristina de Castro Araujo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). P e D de Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel (PDEDS)

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds are among the most common pollutants emitted by refining processes. The sources of these emissions should be controlled for preserving the ambient air quality. This article outlines the main factors to be considered for defining an effective emissions control strategy and compares the major characteristics of the available control technologies. (author)

  3. Emerging Engine Control Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Chevalier, Alain

    1996-01-01

    as nonlinear observer based air/fuel ratio and advanced idle speed control. After a brief review of this model, it will be compared with other similar models which can be found in the literature. The attempt will be made to point out the differences between the new modified MVEM and those developed elsewhere...

  4. Using Technology to Control Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simon; Schoenberg, Doug; Richards, Dan; Morath, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examines the use of technology to control costs in the child care industry. One of these technology solutions is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). SaaS solutions can help child care providers save money in many aspects of center management. In addition to cost savings, SaaS solutions are also particularly appealing to…

  5. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  6. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Harley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation.

    Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass−1 h−1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b, with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production

  7. Emission control strategies for short-chain chloroparaffins in two semi-hypothetical case cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, M.; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    2012-01-01

    The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas...... Technologies (BAT) and stormwater/CSO management were the most favorable in reducing emissions into the environment....

  8. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key

  9. Evaluation of EDAR vehicle emissions remote sensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, Karl; DeFries, Timothy H; Pope, Francis; Green, David C; Kemper, Jim; Kishan, Sandeep; Fuller, Gary W; Li, Hu; Sidebottom, Jim; Crilley, Leigh R; Kramer, Louisa; Bloss, William J; Stewart Hager, J

    2017-12-31

    Despite much work in recent years, vehicle emissions remain a significant contributor in many areas where air quality standards are under threat. Policy-makers are actively exploring options for next generation vehicle emission control and local fleet management policies, and new monitoring technologies to aid these activities. Therefore, we report here on findings from two separate but complementary blind evaluation studies of one new-to-market real-world monitoring option, HEAT LLC's Emission Detection And Reporting system or EDAR, an above-road open path instrument that uses Differential Absorption LIDAR to provide a highly sensitive and selective measure of passing vehicle emissions. The first study, by Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment and Eastern Research Group, was a simulated exhaust gas test exercise used to investigate the instrumental accuracy of the EDAR. Here, CO, NO, CH 4 and C 3 H 8 measurements were found to exhibit high linearity, low bias, and low drift over a wide range of concentrations and vehicle speeds. Instrument accuracy was high (R 2 0.996 for CO, 0.998 for NO; 0.983 for CH 4 ; and 0.976 for C 3 H 8 ) and detection limits were 50 to 100ppm for CO, 10 to 30ppm for NO, 15 to 35ppmC for CH 4 , and, depending on vehicle speed, 100 to 400ppmC 3 for C 3 H 8 . The second study, by the Universities of Birmingham and Leeds and King's College London, used the comparison of EDAR, on-board Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) and car chaser (SNIFFER) system measurements collected under real-world conditions to investigate in situ EDAR performance. Given the analytical challenges associated with aligning these very different measurements, the observed agreements (e.g. EDAR versus PEMS R 2 0.92 for CO/CO 2 ; 0.97 for NO/CO 2 ; ca. 0.82 for NO 2 /CO 2 ; and, 0.94 for PM/CO 2 ) were all highly encouraging and indicate that EDAR also provides a representative measure of vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. Copyright

  10. Agricultural technologies and carbon emissions: evidence from Jordanian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Mohanad; Srouji, Fathi; Boutabba, Mohamed Amine

    2018-04-01

    Theoretically, agriculture can be the victim and the cause of climate change. Using annual data for the period of 1970-2014, this study examines the interaction between agriculture technology factors and the environment in terms of carbon emissions in Jordan. The results provide evidence for unidirectional causality running from machinery, subsidies, and other transfers, rural access to an improved water source and fertilizers to carbon emissions. The results also reveal the existence of bidirectional causality between the real income and carbon emissions. The variance error decompositions highlight the importance of subsidies and machinery in explaining carbon emissions. They also show that fertilizers, the crop and livestock production, the land under cereal production, the water access, the agricultural value added, and the real income have an increasing effect on carbon emissions over the forecast period. These results are important so that policy-makers can build up strategies and take in considerations the indicators in order to reduce carbon emissions in Jordan.

  11. Approach of field-emission display toward technology status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrayeb, Joseph; Jackson, Timothy W.; Hopper, Darrel G.; Daniels, Reginald

    1998-09-01

    Flat panel display (FPD) technologies have emerged with smaller depth, size, and power than the cathode ray tube technology that now dominates the display market. Liquid crystal displays in general and active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD), in particular, are the FPD technology of choice. The AMLCD technology is well established has undergone dramatic improvements in the past few years, a trend which is likely to continue. In recent years some potential or want-to- be ('wanabe') alternate technologies, such as field emission displays (FED), high gain emissive displays and vacuum fluorescent displays (VFD), have received substantial investments. For example, the VFD knowledge level has reached technology status as segmented displays in automotive and instrumentation applications. Much work has been done to improve FED technology status, resulting in many attempts to build production quality prototypes. However, no FED has actually gone into production. The question still remains: how close to production are these nascent technologies? This paper will examine how fast field emission displays are progressing towards technology status, which is defined as a display technology that is incorporated in products accepted by the market. This paper will provide a status update of where FED companies are and where they may be heading. Current development programs, recent demonstrations, and possible future product offerings will be discussed.

  12. Technologies for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulica Arsenie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to gas turbines, their main problem concerning pollutant emissions is represented by nitric oxides. Among other emissions, sulphur oxides being much reduced due to the use of liquid distilled and gas fuels with a low content of sulphur. Using water or steam injection became the favourite method during the '80s and especially the '90s since "dry" methods and catalytic reduction were both at the beginning of the development phase. Catalytic convertors have been used since the '80s and they are still used although the costs of renewing the catalyst are very high. In the last twenty years a gradual decrease has been registered on the limits of nitric oxides from 75 ppm to 25 ppm, and now the target is oriented towards the 9 ppm level. The evolution of burning technologies of combustion makes it possible to control the level of production of nitric oxides even from the source without being necessary to use "humid" methods. This, of course, opened the market for gas turbines because they can function even in areas with limited quality water reserves, such as maritime platforms and in the desert. In this paper, we are going to show that, although water injection is still used, "dry" control technologies of burning became favourite methods for the majority of users on the industrial power generators market. The great dependency between the creation of nitric oxides and the temperature reveals the effect of direct water or steam injection on reducing nitric oxides. Recent research showed that a reduction up to 85% of nitric oxides may be obtained by using the water or steam injection all together with the improvement of aerodynamic character of the burning room.

  13. The role of new technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the use of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldthorpe, S.; Buwalda, H. [Woodward-Clyde (New Zealand) Ltd. (New Zealand)

    1995-12-31

    Concern over the possibility of climate change associated with the emission of greenhouse gases (principally CO{sub 2}) has become an issue for all coal using businesses to address. Government obligations under the Framework Convention on Climate Change are feeding through to companies as a need to review their activities, to determine emissions and to examine how the application of efficiency measures and new technologies can contribute to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper describes strategies that can be implemented in the short term as least regrets measures which have low cost and other economic or environmental benefits in addition to emissions reduction. Protection of the long term market for coal in a world where CO{sub 2} emissions may have to be more tightly controlled may require the application of new technologies of CO{sub 2} abatement. Some options are described. Procedures to assist with the implementation of new technologies for the control of greenhouse gas emissions are required. At a national level a system for voluntary agreements on CO{sub 2} emissions is in place. At an international level, protocols for the facilitation of technology transfer are in the process of being developed. These mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Soil acidification in China: is controlling SO2 emissions enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Duan, Lei; Xing, Jia; Larssen, Thorjorn; Nielsen, Chris P; Hao, Jiming

    2009-11-01

    Facing challenges of increased energy consumption and related regional air pollution, China has been aggressively implementing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and phasing out small inefficient units in the power sector in order to achieve the national goal of 10% reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions from 2005 to 2010. In this paper, the effect of these measures on soil acidification is explored. An integrated methodology is used, combining emission inventory data, emission forecasts, air quality modeling, and ecological sensitivities indicated by critical load. National emissions of SO(2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), particulate matter (PM), and ammonia (NH(3)) in 2005 were estimated to be 30.7, 19.6, 31.3, and 16.6 Mt, respectively. Implementation of existing policy will lead to reductions in SO(2) and PM emissions, while those of NO(X) and NH(3) will continue to rise, even under tentatively proposed control measures. In 2005, the critical load for soil acidification caused by sulfur (S) deposition was exceeded in 28% of the country's territory, mainly in eastern and south-central China. The area in exceedance will decrease to 26% and 20% in 2010 and 2020, respectively, given implementation of current plans for emission reductions. However, the exceedance of the critical load for nitrogen (N, combining effects of eutrophication and acidification) will double from 2005 to 2020 due to increased NO(X) and NH(3) emissions. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the benefits of SO(2) reductions during 2005-2010 will almost be negated by increased N emissions. Therefore abatement of N emissions (NO(X) and NH(3)) and deposition will be a major challenge to China, requiring policy development and technology investments. To mitigate acidification in the future, China needs a multipollutant control strategy that integrates measures to reduce S, N, and PM.

  15. Environmental Technology Verification: Test Report of Mobile Source Emission Control Devices--Johnson Matthey PCRT2 1000, Version 2, Filter + Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Johnson Matthey PCRT2 1000, v.2 system is a partial continuously regenerating technology (PCRT) system that consists of a flow-through partial filter combined with a DOC. The system is designed for low temperature exhaust resulting from intermittent loads from medium and heav...

  16. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed

  17. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  18. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Federico [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  19. Cycle update : advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, G. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provided a summary of key achievements of the Program of Energy Research and Development advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction (AFTER) program over the funding cycle from fiscal year 2005/2006 to 2008/2009. The purpose of the paper was to inform interested parties of recent advances in knowledge and in science and technology capacities in a concise manner. The paper discussed the high level research and development themes of the AFTER program through the following 4 overarching questions: how could advanced fuels and internal combustion engine designs influence emissions; how could emissions be reduced through the use of engine hardware including aftertreatment devices; how do real-world duty cycles and advanced technology vehicles operating on Canadian fuels compare with existing technologies, models and estimates; and what are the health risks associated with transportation-related emissions. It was concluded that the main issues regarding the use of biodiesel blends in current technology diesel engines are the lack of consistency in product quality; shorter shelf life of biodiesel due to poorer oxidative stability; and a need to develop characterization methods for the final oxygenated product because most standard methods are developed for hydrocarbons and are therefore inadequate. 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  20. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  1. New technologies reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oravainen, H.

    1997-01-01

    In reducing CO 2 emissions, bioenergy will be the most important source of renewable energy in the next few decades. In principle, combustion of biomass is friendly to the environment because CO 2 released during combustion is recycled back into natural circulation. Biofuels normally contain little nitrogen and sulphur. However, depending on the combustion technology used, emissions may be quite high. This is true of combustion of biomass fuels in small appliances like wood stoves, fireplaces, small boilers etc. When fuels having high content of volatile matter are burnt in appliances using batch type combustion, the process is rather an unsteady-state combustion. Emissions of carbon monoxide, other combustible gases and particulates are quite difficult to avoid. With continuous combustion processes this is not normally a problem. This conference paper presents some means of reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels. 5 refs., 4 figs

  2. Towards a sustainable automotive industry : experiences from the development of emission control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bauner, David

    2007-01-01

    From the mid-1970s and on, the contribution to air pollution of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from gasoline passenger cars in the developed world has been reduced through co-evolution of regulation and commercial introduction of catalytic emission control technology, now part of hundreds of millions of cars, trucks and buses worldwide. This dissertation is a disaggregated study of the global introduction of catalytic emission control technology as a measure to reduce local...

  3. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  4. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  5. Export controls on high technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    A overview of the Export Administration Act of 1979 and subsequent regulations and amendments focuses on how licensing requirements and restrictions against boycott affect high technology exports. The purpose of these controls is to limit the export of technology with possible military applications, as well as to advance US foreign policy and protect the economy without imposing too great a restriction on the principles of free trade. Thus, the act encompasses political, economic, and security goals. Problems of predictability arise when embargoes or other controls are imposed for political or foreign policy reasons without regard to economic impacts. Amendments have attempted to streamline the exporting process, particularly in the area of computer and software licensing.

  6. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions. Modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines are equipped with multiple after-treatment systems and complex control strategies aimed at meeting both the performance standards for the end user and meeting stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulation. Compared to older technology diesel and natural gas engines, modern engines and after-treatment technology have reduced unregulated emissions to levels close to detection limits. However, brief periods of inefficiencies related to low exhaust thermal energy have been shown to

  7. A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; impact agriculture productivity, soiling of buildings; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. The review covers important recent developments on technologies for control of particulate matter (PM; diesel particulate filters (DPFs, summarizing new filter and catalyst materials and DPM measurement. DPF technology is in a state of optimization and cost reduction. New DPF regeneration strategies (active, passive and plasma-assisted regenerations as well as the new learning on the fundamentals of soot/catalyst interaction are described. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC are also summarized showing potential issues with advanced combustion strategies, important interactions on NO2 formation, and new formulations for durability. Finally, systematic compilation of the concerned newer literature on catalytic oxidation of soot in a well conceivable tabular form is given. A total of 156 references are cited. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 2nd June 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010; Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2010. Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 69-86. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86 || or local:   http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/794 ]Cited by in: ACS 1 |

  8. Control Robotics Programming Technology. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This Technology Learning Activity (TLA) for control robotics programming technology in grades 6-10 is designed to teach students to construct and program computer-controlled devices using a LEGO DACTA set and computer interface and to help them understand how control technology and robotics affect them and their lifestyle. The suggested time for…

  9. Technology of environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    This book aims to be a comprehensive reference for technological advances in pollution control and abatement and pollution regulations. The first chapter, 'The dilemma of environmental pollution' summarises pollution legislation in the United States and discusses worldwide interest in pollution abatement. Chapter 2 describes some recent environmental disasters and discusses the major air pollutants and their harmful effects. Chapters 3 and 4 assess the various techniques for air pollution control and water pollution control. Chapter 5 is devoted to oil pollution impact and abatement. Solid waste management and methods of solid waste disposal are discussed in chapter 6, and noise pollution, its harmful effects and its control are dealt within chapter 7. Appendices contain a glossary, a summary of the US Clean Air Act and the US drinking water regulations and reference figures and tables relating to energy and the environment. Individual chapters contain many references

  10. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  11. Evaluation of complementary technologies to reduce bio engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowes, J.H.

    2003-09-01

    This report summaries the results of a study examining the technical and economic feasibility of exhaust gas treatment technologies for reducing emissions from diesel engines burning pyrolysis oil to within internationally recognised limits. Details are given of the burning of pyrolysis oils in reciprocating engines, the reviewing of information on pyrolysis oils and engines, and the aim to produce detailed information for securing investment for a British funded diesel project. The burning of the pyrolysis oils in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to allow efficient combustion with acceptable exhaust emission limits is discussed along with the problems caused by the deterioration of the injection system.

  12. Challenges in Implementing Emission Mitigation Technologies in Indonesia Agricultural Sector: Criticizing the Available Mitigation Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahayati Marissa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of Green House Gas (GHG emissions in the agricultural sector is the main target for reducing non-CO2 emissions. In Indonesia, the agricultural sector is the third largest GHG emitter, far behind that from Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF and the energy sector. However, the agricultural sector is the biggest contributor of non-CO2 emissions and is also the most vulnerable sector to climate change. The Indonesian government is committed to reduce total emission inform current levels by 29% by 2030 under Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC. This will require reductions in emissions from all sectors including agriculture. Several mitigation technologies have been recommended by UNFCCC for implementation such as replacing urea with ammonium sulfate fertilizer; replacing nitrogen fertilizer with multicontent fertilizer; water irrigation management; replacing roughage with concentrate as livestock feed; and building biogas digesters. From our Computer General Equilibrium (CGE simulation, if the focus of mitigation technology implementation in agriculture is to reduce non-CO2 emissions gases such as CH4 and N2O, then a comprehensive approach is needed. If the government implements the technology partially, we predict there will be a trade-off between CH4 and N2O emission. However, our simulation shows the loss to GDP caused by a new emission mitigation policy is very high even though Indonesia has invested for mitigation technology in agriculture. This is because we consider the additional investment needed will be costly and some technologies may not be suitable for implementation in Indonesia. In this research, we review current literature and examine each technology and its cost and compatibility with Indonesian situations in order to make policy recommendations for implementation by the Indonesia government.

  13. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  14. Measuring and controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Herve; LAFONT, Bruno; Fischer, Severin; Leonard, Damien; Tutenuit, Claire

    2011-05-01

    As providing a reporting of their greenhouse gas emissions has become mandatory for a large number of French companies, this publication proposes a methodology to perform an assessment or measurement, and a control of such emissions. In its first part, it explains why measurements are required: indication of concerned gases, international consensus to limit temperature rise, definition and chronology of the main steps adopted at the international level and which must be considered in the approach adopted by enterprises in this respect. It outlines the benefits of such a measurement for the enterprise in terms of competitiveness, personnel commitment, new markets and products, image, compliance with the law, operational and financial aspects, and so on. It identifies the various stakeholders to be informed: civil society, financial community, public authorities, clients and consumers, personnel, suppliers. It outlines the diversity and evolution of legal frameworks at the international level as well as at national levels. While evoking many examples of French companies (SNCF, EDF, Seche Environnement, RTE, Michelin, Arcelormittal, AREVA, Air France, EADS-Airbus, AXA, Veolia, and so on), the next part addresses how to measure emissions. It outlines the complexity of the methodological landscape with its various criteria, evokes the various existing standards, outlines the distinction between organisation-based, product-based and project-based approaches, and the distinction between direct and indirect emissions in relationship with the notion of scope. It comments the existence of sector-based methodologies and guidelines, and discusses some difficulties and methodological decisions. The third part proposes some lessons learned from the experience which could lead to a harmonisation of methodologies, proposes a synthesis of reporting approaches, outlines risks and opportunities related to communication

  15. Probabilistic and technology-specific modeling of emissions from municipal solid-waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Annette; Peyer, Fabio; Salzmann, Christoph; Saner, Dominik

    2011-04-15

    The European legislation increasingly directs waste streams which cannot be recycled toward thermal treatment. Models are therefore needed that help to quantify emissions of waste incineration and thus reveal potential risks and mitigation needs. This study presents a probabilistic model which computes emissions as a function of waste composition and technological layout of grate incineration plants and their pollution-control equipment. In contrast to previous waste-incineration models, this tool is based on a broader empirical database and allows uncertainties in emission loads to be quantified. Comparison to monitoring data of 83 actual European plants showed no significant difference between modeled emissions and measured data. An inventory of all European grate incineration plants including technical characteristics and plant capacities was established, and waste material mixtures were determined for different European countries, including generic elemental waste-material compositions. The model thus allows for calculation of country-specific and material-dependent emission factors and enables identification and tracking of emission sources. It thereby helps to develop strategies to decrease plant emissions by reducing or redirecting problematic waste fractions to other treatment options or adapting the technological equipment of waste incinerators.

  16. The role of transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of passenger transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The technologies considered in the report were those that affect ground transportation of passengers and were in at least the early stages of development in 1995. They were: (1) technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks, (2) alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, (3) electric hybrid vehicles, (4) advanced technology transit buses, (5) intelligent transportation systems, (6) high speed rail, and (7) bicycles. For each option, the advantages and disadvantages were described. The feasibility of establishing a high-speed rail system serving Canada's most densely populated region, the Windsor to Quebec City corridor, was discussed. Economic and environmental studies of such a proposal are underway. tabs

  17. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    global CO and THC emissions in the year 2010; this dominance shifts to Africa and South Asia in the future. By the year 2050, for CO and THC emissions, non-road engines contribute the greatest fraction in Asia and the Former USSR, while on-road vehicles make the largest contribution in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East; for NOx and PM emissions, shipping controls the trend in most regions. These forecasts include a formal treatment of the factors that drive technology choices in the global vehicle sector and therefore represent a more realistic projection of what future emissions are likely to be. These results have important implications for emissions of gases and aerosols that influence air quality, human health, and climate change.

  18. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    largest contributors to global CO and THC emissions in the year 2010; this dominance shifts to Africa and South Asia in the future. By the year 2050, for CO and THC emissions, non-road engines contribute the greatest fraction in Asia and the former USSR, while on-road vehicles make the largest contribution in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East; for NOx and PM emissions, shipping controls the trend in most regions. These forecasts include a formal treatment of the factors that drive technology choices in the global vehicle sector and therefore represent a robust and plausible projection of what future emissions may be. These results have important implications for emissions of gases and aerosols that influence air quality, human health, and climate change.

  19. Emission allowance trading under the Clean Air Act Amendments: An incentive mechanism for the adoption of Clean Coal Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) uses tradeable SO 2 allowances as a means of reducing acidic emissions from the electricity generating industry. The use of emission allowances generates two important results; first, utilities are given the flexibility to choose their optimal (least cost) compliance strategies and second, the use of emission allowances creates greater incentives for the development and commercialization of innovative emissions control technology. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) are able to generate electricity more efficiently, use a wide variety of coal grades and types, and dramatically reduce emissions of SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , and PM per kWh. However, development and adoption of the technology is limited by a variety of regulatory and technological risks. The use of SO 2 emission allowances may be able to provide incentives for utility (and nonutility) adoption of this innovative technology. Emission allowances permit the utility to minimize costs on a systemwide basis and provides rewards for addition emission reductions. As CCTs are a more efficient and low emitting source of electricity, the development and implementation of this technology is desirable. This paper will explore the relationship between the incentives created by the SO 2 allowance market and CCT development. Regulatory hindrances and boons for the allowance market shall also be identified to analyze how market development, state mandates, and incentive regulation will effect the ability of allowances to prompt CCT adoption

  20. Exploring the comparative cost-effectiveness of economic incentive and command-and-control instruments, and of renewable energy technologies in PM10 emission control: A case study of Lima-Callao, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Timm

    Much economic literature expounds the superior cost-effectiveness of economic incentive (EI) policies over command-and-control (CAC) ones, based on appealing theoretical arguments. However, one of the assumptions underlying much of this literature is that monitoring and enforcement (M&E) of policies are not only feasible, but essentially costless. In reality, M&E are never costless and sometimes infeasible, and, crucially, M&E requirements vary across policy types. Furthermore, in technical economic terms, cost-effectiveness is defined with respect to variable costs only; however, in choosing among policies, the objective generally is to identify that with the lowest total (variable plus fixed) cost per unit abatement, which in its own right may be termed cost-effective. The neglect of M&E and of fixed costs throws up the question of the validity of much of the policy advice that draws on the environmental economics literature for developing countries, where the institutional capacity for effective M&E often is strongly limited, and where creating this capacity will require considerable infrastructure investments. The limited institutional capacity also has led to the suggestion that in developing countries, conventional environmental policies, such as input or output taxes, emission charges, or standards, may be less cost-effective than non-conventional environmental policies, such as direct public provision of electricity from renewable sources, because the M&E capacity required for the implementation of non-conventional policies is often less stringent. I test the hypotheses of superior cost-effectiveness of EI over CAC and of non-conventional over conventional environmental policy instruments. The samples of pollution control policies used to test the hypotheses are drawn from a list of frequently recommended urban air pollution abatement measures for developing countries, plus two renewable energy sources. Both sets of environmental policy types are compared

  1. Electrically heated catalysts for cold-start emission control on gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimrich, M.J.; Albu, S.; Ahuja, M.

    1992-01-01

    Cold-start emissions from current technology vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can account for over 80 percent of the emissions produced during the Federal Test Procedure (FTP). Excessive pollutants can be emitted for a period of one to two minutes following cold engine starting, partially because the catalyst has not reached an efficient operating temperature. Electrically heated catalysts, which are heated prior to engine starting, have been identified as a potential strategy for controlling cold-start emissions. This paper summarizes the emission results of three gasoline-fueled and three methanol-fueled vehicles equipped with electrically heated catalyst systems. Results from these vehicles demonstrate that heated catalyst technology can provide FTP emission levels of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) that show promise of meeting the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standards established by the California Air Resources Board

  2. Pulsed Corona Plasma Technology for Treating VOC Emissions from Pulp Mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Alexander A.; Gutsol, Alexander; Kennedy, Lawrence A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Korobtsev, Sergey V.; Shiryaevsky, Valery L.; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2004-01-01

    Under the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies Forest Products program various plasma technologies were evaluated under project FWP 49885 ''Experimental Assessment of Low-Temperature Plasma Technologies for Treating Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Pulp Mills and Wood Products Plants''. The heterogeneous pulsed corona discharge was chosen as the best non-equilibrium plasma technology for control of the vent emissions from HVLC Brownstock Washers. The technology for removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from gas emissions with conditions typical of the exhausts of the paper industry by means of pulsed corona plasma techniques presented in this work. For the compounds of interest in this study (methanol, acetone, dimethyl sulfide and ? -pinene), high removal efficiencies were obtained with power levels competitive with the present technologies for the VOCs removal. Laboratory experiments were made using installation with the average power up to 20 W. Pilot plant prepared for on-site test has average plasma power up to 6.4 kW. The model of the Pilot Plant operation is presented

  3. Pulsed Corona Plasma Technology for Treating VOC Emissions from Pulp Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, Alexander A.; Gutsol, Alexander; Kennedy, Lawrence A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Korobtsev, Sergey V.; Shiryaevsky, Valery L.; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2004-07-28

    Under the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies Forest Products program various plasma technologies were evaluated under project FWP 49885 ''Experimental Assessment of Low-Temperature Plasma Technologies for Treating Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Pulp Mills and Wood Products Plants''. The heterogeneous pulsed corona discharge was chosen as the best non-equilibrium plasma technology for control of the vent emissions from HVLC Brownstock Washers. The technology for removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from gas emissions with conditions typical of the exhausts of the paper industry by means of pulsed corona plasma techniques presented in this work. For the compounds of interest in this study (methanol, acetone, dimethyl sulfide and ? -pinene), high removal efficiencies were obtained with power levels competitive with the present technologies for the VOCs removal. Laboratory experiments were made using installation with the average power up to 20 W. Pilot plant prepared for on-site test has average plasma power up to 6.4 kW. The model of the Pilot Plant operation is presented.

  4. Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics.......The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....

  5. Carbon emissions linked to capital and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Reducing carbon dioxide emissions, and hence global warming, could be achieved by placing a carbon budget on buildings and light vehicles. In this scheme, a building or vehicle is allocated an annual carbon budget expressed as kg/carbon. The user of the building or vehicle is then taxed for every carbon unit used over its budget limit. The aim of this paper is to extend this carbon budget idea in order to set up a formula for achieving capital and technology transfer from industrialized countries to developing countries. In addition, the author proposes a mechanism for linking historic carbon emissions caused in the industrialized world with compensation strategies for the developing nations. (UK)

  6. Technologies and policies for "hard to scrub" emissions sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    The science of climate change yields harsh math regarding atmospheric accumulations of GHGs. The world is far from target trajectories for 2C or 1.5C, and the global carbon budget is severe. To achieve those targets requires two things. First, we must field technologies that reduce emissions from the "hard to scrub" parts of the US and global economies, such as heavy industry (cement and steel), aviation, ocean shipping, and household cooking and heating. Second, we will likely need negative emissions pathways for those sources that prove extremely difficult to remove or reduce - the climate equivalent of adding revenue to one's budget. Such pathways may well need to convert GHG emissions (especially CO2 and methane) into useful products with minimal infrastructure builds. Dramatic advances in advanced manufacturing, 3D printing, simulation, modeling, and data analytics have made possible solutions which were previously unthinkable or impossible. This include "bespoke reactors", which can simultaneously perform separations and conversions; low-cost modular chemical systems of any scale; biologically inspired or biologically mediated energy services; direct air carbon-capture systems; and electrochemical pathways for emissions reduction and conversion. However, these approaches are unlikely to be fielded without policy actions or reforms that support such systems in competitive global energy markets. Such policy measures do NOT require a carbon price. Rather, they could include individual or combined measures such as emission or performance standards, financial incentives (like tax credits or low-cost access to capital), border adjustable tariffs, creation of CO2 utilities, ands public good surcharges. Innovation in both technical and policy arenas are needed to achieve the goals of the Paris agreement signatories, and these innovations can be simultaneously configured to deliver substantive greenhouse gas mitigation.

  7. A Pilot-Scale Evaluation of a New Technology to Control NO(x) Emissions from Boilers at KSC: Hydrogen Peroxide Injection into Boiler Flue Gases Followed by Wet Scrubbing of Acid Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. David

    1997-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides NO(x) are a significant problem in the United States. NO(x) are formed in any combustion process, therefore it is not surprising that NO(x) are emitted from the boilers at KSC. Research at UCF has shown (in the laboratory) that injecting H2O2 into hot simulated flue gases can oxidize the NO and NO2 to their acid gas forms, HNO2 and HNO3, respectively. These acid gases are much more water soluble than their counterparts, and theoretically can be removed easily by wet scrubbing. This technology was of interest to NASA, both for their boilers at KSC, and for their combustion sources elsewhere. However, it was necessary to field test the technology and to provide pilot-scale data to aid in design of full-scale facilities. Hence this project was initiated in May of 1996.

  8. Control of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions from restaurant operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynot, J; Quinn, G; Perryman, P; Votlucka, P

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes efforts to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions from restaurant operations, including application of an existing control method to a new equipment type. Commercial charbroiling in the South Coast Air Basin results in emissions of approximately 10 tons/day of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and 1.3 tons/day of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over a seven-year period, the South Coast Air Quality Management District worked with industry to develop test methods for measuring emissions from various cooking operations, evaluate control technologies, and develop a rule to reduce these emissions. Of the two basic types of charbroilers--chain-driven and underfired--underfired produce four times the emissions when equivalent amounts of product are cooked. Cost-effective control technology is currently available only for chain-driven charbroilers. The application of flameless catalytic oxidizers to chain-driven charbroilers was found to effectively reduce emissions by at least 83% and is cost-effective. The catalysts have been used worldwide at restaurants for several years. Research efforts are underway to identify control options for underfired charbroilers. Implementation of Rule 1138, Control of Emissions from Restaurant Operations, adopted November 14, 1997, will result in reductions of 0.5 tons/day of PM2.5 and 0.2 tons/day of VOCs. Future rules will result in reductions from underfired charbroilers and possibly other restaurant equipment when cost-effective solutions are available.

  9. Emissions inventories and options for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In 1990, little was known about the emissions of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands, notably those of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. Uncertainties included the causes, the emissions factors and the regional distribution of emissions. The main objectives of the project at that time were formulated as follows: (a) provide information for prioritizing greenhouse gas emissions research in the Netherlands; (b) provide input data for global models (later shifted to the EDGAR-project); and (c) support national and international policy development. The emphasis of the project was on non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases, notably methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). While state-of-the-art information from international research would be used and analyzed, the focus of the project was on the Dutch emissions and their causes. Information was drawn from literature research, discussions with national and international experts, and experimental information from several projects. 2 figs., 12 refs.

  10. Recent Technology Advances in Distributed Engine Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work performed at NASA Glenn Research Center in distributed engine control technology. This is control system hardware technology that overcomes engine system constraints by modularizing control hardware and integrating the components over communication networks.

  11. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  12. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  13. Zero-emission vehicle technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T.

    1995-08-01

    This is the final report in the Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Technology Assessment, performed for NYSERDA by Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. Booz-Allen wrote the final report, and performed the following tasks as part of the assessment: assembled a database of key ZEV organizations, their products or services, and plans; described the current state of ZEV technologies; identified barriers to widespread ZEV deployment and projected future ZEV technical capabilities; and estimated the cost of ZEVs from 1998 to 2004. Data for the ZEV Technology Assessment were obtained from several sources, including the following: existing ZEV industry publications and Booz-Allen files; major automotive original equipment manufacturers; independent electric vehicle manufacturers; battery developers and manufacturers; infrastructure and component developers and manufacturers; the U.S. Department of Energy, the California Air Resources Board, and other concerned government agencies; trade associations such as the Electric Power Research Institute and the Electric Transportation Coalition; and public and private consortia. These sources were contacted by phone, mail, or in person. Some site visits of manufacturers also were conducted. Where possible, raw data were analyzed by Booz-Allen staff and/or verified by independent sources. Performance data from standardized test cycles were used as much as possible.

  14. Genetic mitigation strategies to tackle agricultural GHG emissions: The case for biological nitrification inhibition technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Arango, J; Masahiro, K; Hooper, A M; Yoshihashi, T; Ando, Y; Nakahara, K; Deshpande, S; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Ishitani, M; Peters, M; Chirinda, N; Wollenberg, L; Lata, J C; Gerard, B; Tobita, S; Rao, I M; Braun, H J; Kommerell, V; Tohme, J; Iwanaga, M

    2017-09-01

    Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment. This will reinforce the adaptation or mitigation impact of other climate-smart agriculture technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,...

  16. Control and treatment of sulfur oxides emissions; Prevention et traitement des emissions d`oxydes de soufre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The conference on the control and treatment of sulfur oxides emissions has held in Le Havre the 4. and 5. december, 1997. The aim of this conference was to promote the information on the different treatment technologies and to contribute on the one hand to the supporting and revival of the environmental protection and on the other hand to the desulfurization programs. It has allowed to recall too the technical and financial support of the Ademe to the manufacturers. (O.M.)

  17. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  18. Estimation of automobile emissions and control strategies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesamani, K S

    2010-03-15

    Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution of scientific methods for emission inventory is crucial. Therefore, an attempt has been made to estimate the emissions (running and start) from on-road vehicles in Chennai using IVE model in this paper. GPS was used to collect driving patterns. The estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Chennai in 2005 were 431, 119, 46, 7, 4575, 29, and 0.41 tons/days respectively for CO, VOC, NO(x), PM, CO(2,) CH(4) and N(2)O. It is observed from the results that air quality in Chennai has degraded. The estimation revealed that two and three-wheelers emitted about 64% of the total CO emissions and heavy-duty vehicles accounted for more than 60% and 36% of the NO(x) and PM emissions respectively. About 19% of total emissions were that of start emissions. It is also estimated that on-road transport contributes about 6637 tons/day CO(2) equivalent in Chennai. This paper has further examined various mitigation options to reduce vehicular emissions. The study has concluded that advanced vehicular technology and augmentation of public transit would have significant impact on reducing vehicular emissions.

  19. Technology advance and the carbon dioxide emission in China – Empirical research based on the rebound effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lisha; Li, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    At present, technology advance is the greatest contributor to the carbon dioxide mitigation. However, the real effect of technology advance on mitigation is worth further studying due to the existence of rebound effect (RE). A key issue is how to quantify the relationship between technology advance and carbon dioxide emission accurately. This paper figures out a comprehensive and modified framework involving around the RE of carbon emission from the macroeconomic perspective. Using this framework, this paper quantitatively evaluates the relationship between technical change and carbon emission based on the data of 30 provinces in China. It is founded that: (1) the carbon RE is about 10–60% in Chinese provinces; (2) the RE of carbon emission differs among the regions in China; (3) carbon reduction and environment issues should be solved step by step regionally in China. (4) According to our results, a reasonable control on total energy consumption and fossil-energy pricing adjustment, should be taken as the supplementary policy in China; at the same time, carbon financing, carbon trading and other aspects of institutional innovation should be taken into account at the appropriate time. - Highlights: • Build a macroresearch framework for carbon emission rebound effect. • Further extend the definition of the technological progress. • The macrocarbon emission rebound effect is distributed between 10% and 60%. • Confirms the regional differences of the carbon emission rebound effect in China.

  20. The international research progress of Ammonia(NH3) emissions and emissions reduction technology in farmland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. Z.; Jiao, Y.

    2017-03-01

    NH3 is the important factor leading to the grey haze, and one of the main causes of environmental problems of serious ecological imbalance, such as acid rain and air quality deterioration. The fertilizer excessive application of the current farmland results NH3 emissions intensity greatly. In order to clear the farmland NH3 emissions research status and achievements, the literature of farmland NH3 emission related were retrievaled by the SCI journals and Chinese science citation database. Some factors of NH3 emission were analyzed such as soil factors, climate factors and farmland management measures. The research progress was inductived on farmland NH3 emission reduction technology. The results will help to clarify farmland NH3 emissions research progress. The theoretical guidance was provided on the future of farmland NH3 emissions research.

  1. Reactions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) leading to the formation of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) in non-thermal plasmas (NTPs). White paper for the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) (Compliance Project CP-1038: Development of non-thermal plasma reactor technology for control of atmospheric emissions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miziolek, A.W.; Nusca, M.J. [Army Research Lab., Watertown, MA (United States); Chang, J.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Herron, J.T. [National Inst. for Standards and Technology (United States)

    1998-08-17

    SERDP Compliance Project CP-1038 (Development of Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor Technology for Control of Atmospheric Emissions) has been commissioned to evaluate and develop non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor technology, a form of low-temperature plasma chemical processing, for Department of Defense (DoD) applications. The primary emphasis is on the control of emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), with a secondary emphasis on hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission control (primarily volatile organic compounds--VOCs). In this white paper, as a SERDP-requested deliverable, the authors will verify the NO{sub x} removal reactions in NTPs, especially those converging on nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) as a primary reaction product. The benefit of making HNO{sub 3} as a primary terminal de-NO{sub x} product is that it can be easily neutralized by relatively simple caustic (base) scrubbers--although the economics of scrubber systems needs to be compared with the conversion to particles that can be filtered or precipitated. Jet engines also emit a significant amount of SO{sub x} in their exhaust; NTPs also remove SO{sub x} and actually do it more effectively in combination with NO{sub x}. This will not be dealt with in this particular white paper.

  2. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  3. Auto-vehicles and environment: Emission limits and innovative technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchera, G.

    1992-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the main design and performance characteristics and maintenance requirements of the principal types of catalytic converters currently being marketed in Italy. An assessment is made of the contribution of these devices to air pollution abatement in Italy as car owners conform to recently passed stricter emission limits. A historical review is made of trends in auto-vehicle pollution limits in the USA and Italy. Comparisons are made of efforts by industrialized countries to reduce air pollution in the transportation sector. Here, the author notes the slowness of Italy's response to the air pollution problem, in particular, this foreign-oil-dependent Nation's over-emphasis on energy consuming and highly polluting road transport systems, as well as, its lack of technology utilization and commercialization in the pollution equipment sector. Suggestions are made as to ways to overcome the worsening situation with regard to urban area traffic derived air pollution, e.g., the bolstering of mass transit systems and more R ampersand D investment in pollution abatement technologies

  4. Technology of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is presented of the following topics treated at the meeting (invited papers and sessions): international programs (Japanese, Joint European Tokamak, Euratom non-JET, ERDA magnetic, ERDA laser, and Electric Power Research Institute programmes); non-commercial reactor designs; commercial reactor designs; radiation damage; plasma engineering; tritium and neutronics; confinement system technology; environment and safety; blanket engineering and materials testing; fusion-fission hybrid reactors

  5. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  6. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  7. Emission control with route optimization in solid waste collection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emission control with route optimization in solid waste collection process: A case study. Omer Apaydin M Talha Gonullu ... This study was performed in Trabzon City with 39 districts, a shortest path model was used in order to optimize solid waste collection/hauling processes to minimize emission. Unless it performs route ...

  8. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  9. Vehicular Diesel control emissions benefit assessment in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reynoso, J.; Jazcilevich, A. D.; Ruiz-Suarez, L.; Cruz-Nuñez, X.; Rojas, A. R.; Tripp, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel vehicles contribute in an important proportion to the particle and black carbon (BC) ambient concentrations in urban areas. These pollutants can effect the climate and health. The average age of the Diesel fleet in Mexico is 15 year-old. An introduction of new technologies and retrofit systems can reduce emissions from this type of vehicles. A set of policies were selected and applied in order to identify their economic benefits in health. An air quality model was used to obtain ambient concentrations from the emissions and specific methodology for emissions inventory adjustment was developed for this project. Preliminary results show an important benefit due to the improvement of the emissions reduction from the Diesel fleet. PM2.5 differences for reduction scenario case 1 and base case. Output from WRF-chem using 2005 Naional Emissions Inventory Reductions obtained using data from the initial fleet, fleet temporal variation and substitution policies.

  10. Effects of FAME biodiesel and HVORD on emissions from an older-technology diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarski, A D; Hummer, J A; Vanderslice, S E

    2017-12-01

    The results of laboratory evaluations were used to compare the potential of two alternative, biomass-derived fuels as a control strategy to reduce the exposure of underground miners to aerosols and gases emitted by diesel-powered equipment. The effects of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil renewable diesel (HVORD) on criteria aerosol and gaseous emissions from an older-technology, naturally aspirated, mechanically controlled engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalytic converter were compared with those of widely used petroleum-derived, ultralow-sulfur diesels (ULSDs). The emissions were characterized for four selected steady-state conditions. When fueled with FAME biodiesel and HVORD, the engine emitted less aerosols by total particulate mass, total carbon mass, elemental carbon mass and total number than when it was fueled with ULSDs. Compared with ULSDs, FAME biodiesel and HVORD produced aerosols that were characterized by single modal distributions, smaller count median diameters, and lower total and peak concentrations. For the majority of test cases, FAME biodiesel and HVORD favorably affected nitric oxide (NO) and adversely affected nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) generation. Therefore, the use of these alternative fuels appears to be a viable tool for the underground mining industry to address the issues related to emissions from diesel engines, and to transition toward more universal solutions provided by advanced engines with integrated exhaust after treatment technologies.

  11. Procedures for identifying reasonably available control technology for stationary sources of PM-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ellefson, R.

    1992-09-01

    The guidance document sets forth procedures and identifies sources of information that will assist State and local air pollution control agencies in determining Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for PM-10 (particulate matter having a nominal aerometric diameter of 10 microns or less) emission from existing stationary sources on a case-by-case basis. It provides an annotated bibliography of documents to aid in identifying the activities that cause PM-10 emissions as well as applicable air pollution control measures and their effectiveness in reducing emissions. The most stringent state total particulate matter (PM) emission limits are identified for several categories of PM-10 sources and compared to available emission test data. Finally, guidance is provided on procedures for estimating total capital investment and total annual cost of the control measures which are generally used to control PM-10 emissions

  12. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  13. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diffusion and Evaporation-Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus

    is proposed. The interest has been focused on the emission of vapours and gases as no particulate emissions have been considered. The methods used are numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full-scale laboratory experiments. It was found that the emission is a strong function of air...... change rate, local air velocity and local turbulence intensity as the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to these parameters. The experimental results moreover exhibit the behaviour of a diffusion-controlled emission process at the end of the experiments. A simplified version of the model...... proposed was applied to investigate the influence of source diffusion coefficient and air velocity on the concentration distribution. The findings show that the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to the velocity when the emission is controlled by evaporation from the surface. As to diffusion...

  15. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  16. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, Mikhail; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Tagesson, Torbern

    2013-01-01

    controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...... short-term control factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems....

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  18. Fighter aircraft flight control technology design requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of fighter aircraft flight control technology is briefly surveyed. Systems engineering, battle damage considerations for adaptive flutter suppression, in-flight simulation, and artificial intelligence are briefly discussed.

  19. Site-specific weed control technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Søgaard, Henning Tangen; Kudsk, Per

    2009-01-01

    Site-specific weed control technologies are defined as machinery or equipment embedded with technologies that detect weeds growing in a crop and, taking into account predefined factors such as economics, takes action to maximise the chances of successfully controlling them. In the article, we...... describe the basic parts of site specific weed control technologies, comprising of weed sensing systems, weed management models and precision weed control implements. A review of state-of-the-art technologies shows that several weed sensing systems and precision implements have been developed over the last...... two decades, though barriers prevent their breakthrough. Most important among these is the lack of a truly robust weed recognition method, owing to mutual shading among plants and limitations in the capacity of highly accurate spraying and weeding apparatuses.   Another barrier is the lack...

  20. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  1. Control of environmental impact with modern chemical technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1986-03-01

    Here are assembled representative excerpts from a new text in applied chemistry. They illustrate the well-referenced treatment of industrial processes that are here considered with their related emission control problems and solutions. A brief account of general aspects of the industry is followed by surveys of the significance and technical aspects of air and water pollution chemistry. Consideration is given to emission avoidance or containment, waste treatment, and waste disposal options as they relate to both of these environmental areas. Details of salt recovery and the products of brine electrolysis plus environmental aspects of these operations are treated as examples of some of the processes discussed. Also covered are fertilizer constituent preparation, formulation, and use with consideration of the large-scale effects of each of these activities. Detailed reference is made to the chemical technology and emission control aspects of the pulp and paper industry and refinery operations. Throughout, integral process changes and waste recycling practices are directly related to emission control aspects of each process in a way to be useful to the student and professional alike. These excerpts are extracted from one of the first, single volume accounts to take this unified approach to the subject.

  2. Diesel Catalytic Converters As Emission Control Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Banna, S.; El Deen, O.N.

    2004-01-01

    Internal combustion engines are devices that generate work from combustion reactions. Combustion products under high pressure produce work by expansion through a turbine or piston. The combustion reactions inside these engines are not necessarily neutralizing or complete and air pollutants are produced. There are three major types of internal combustion engine(l) in use today: I) the spark ignition engine, which is used primarily in automobiles; 2) the diesel engine, which is used in large vehicles and industrial systems where cycle efficiency offers advantages over the more compact and lighter-weight spark ignition engine and; 3) the gas turbine, which is used in aircraft due to its high power/weight ratio and is also used for stationary power generation. Each of these types of engine is an important source of atmospheric pollutants. Automobiles are the one of the major source of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. Probably more than any other combustion system, the design of automobile engines is now being guided by requirements to reduce emissions of these pollutants. While substantial progress has been made in emission reduction, automobiles remain important sources of air pollutants

  3. Optimization and reconstruction technology of SCR flue gas denitrification ultra low emission in coal fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhao

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from thermal power plant increased year by year in China. A large number of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions caused by the growing environmental problems have been widely attached importance to people. SCR denitrification technology has the advantages of cleanliness and high efficiency. At present, it has been the major technology to control NOx emission because of its high denitrification efficiency, reliable operation, no by-products and simple structure of the device. The denitrification efficiency can be stabilized at 70%. In this paper, three different denitrification methods are compared. The factors influencing the denitrification efficiency, the system arrangement and the key factors of the denitrification system are discussed in detail. And the numerical simulation of how to use this calculation software in the SCR reactor flue, baffle, reactor, spray ammonia grille and spray ammonia, mixer, etc. are reviewed, as well as the effect of system operation control on the deoxidation performance.

  4. NASA Thermal Control Technologies for Robotic Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D.; Birur, Gajanana C.

    2003-01-01

    Technology development is inevitably a dynamic process in search of an elusive goal. It is never truly clear whether the need for a particular technology drives its development, or the existence of a new capability initiates new applications. Technology development for the thermal control of spacecraft presents an excellent example of this situation. Nevertheless, it is imperative to have a basic plan to help guide and focus such an effort. Although this plan will be a living document that changes with time to reflect technological developments, perceived needs, perceived opportunities, and the ever-changing funding environment, it is still a very useful tool. This presentation summarizes the current efforts at NASA/Goddard and NASA/JPL to develop new thermal control technology for future robotic NASA missions.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in China by cleaner coal technology towards 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Chen, Sha

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese energy system, a major CO2 emitter, relies heavily on fossil fuels, especially coal. Coal will continue to play a major role in the new installed power generation capacity in the future, which will cause unavoidable environmental problems. Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are essential...... for emissions reduction in the power sector. In general, CCTs cover coal upgrading, efficiency improvements, advanced technologies and zero emissions technologies. Besides these, CCTs also include other emissions reduction technologies and comprehensive utilization technologies in China.This paper review...... generation technology, CO2 emissions reduction is 6.4% for super-C, 37.4% for USC and 61.5% for IGCC. Four coal power scenarios are developed based on the assumption of potential investment power for CCTs in 2020, which are super-C, USC, USC and old low efficiency generation substitution by USC, IGCC...

  6. The role of accelerated power generation technology development to carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, P.

    2004-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role of advanced power generation technology in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. In order to quantify the importance of these technologies a scenario approach is applied comparing a 'business as usual' scenario with technology cases which assume the accelerated development and earlier availability of certain advanced technologies. The simulations with the POLES world energy model demonstrate that the availability of advanced technology for power generation alone does not lead to emission reductions needed to stabilise carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere at a sustainable level. To achieve that additional policy measures are necessary. It is however shown, that the availability of advanced technology has a crucial impact on the cost to meet emission reduction targets. (Author)

  7. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  8. Environmental products from EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andes, G.M.; Maybach, G.B. [Electric Power Research Inst., Barker, NY (United States). Environmental Control Technology Center

    1994-12-31

    Since 1987, developments from the research at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) have been applied to coal-fired utility power plants to maximize emissions control systems, decrease capital and operating costs, and increase system reliability. The ECTC has made several significant advancements in both wet and dry FGD technologies over the years and is currently being utilized to investigate many future environmental issues, such as the measurement and control of toxic compounds and SOx/NOx emissions. This paper discusses the equipment capabilities of the ECTC, the scope of ongoing research, and the industry benefits resulting from the EPRI products generated from the Center. Two specific case studies of environmental products from the Center are profiled to describe the development of products at the ECTC, and the transition of research products to commercial prototypes. One such product, the On-Line Chemistry Monitor, allows for real-time monitoring of critical FGD chemistry parameters, while the other, the Automatic Limestone Grind Control system, provides for precise control of reagent grind to maximize performance, cost, and utilization.

  9. Control strategies for vehicular NOx emissions in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Min; Zhang Yuanhang; Raufer, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Guangzhou is a city in southern China that has experienced very rapid economic development in recent years. The city's air has very high concentrations of various pollutants, including sulphur dioxide (SO 2 , oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone (O 3 ) and particulate. This paper reviews the changes in air quality in the city over the past 15 years, and notes that a serious vehicular-related emissions problem has been superimposed on the traditional coal-burning problem evident in most Chinese cities. As NOx concentrations have increased, oxidants and photochemical smog now interact with the traditional SO 2 and particulate pollutants, leading to increased health risks and other environmental concerns. Any responsible NOx control strategy for the city must include vehicle emission control measures. This paper reviews control strategies designed to abate vehicle emissions to fulfill the city's air quality improvement target in 2010. A cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that, while NOx emission control is expensive, vehicular emission standards could achieve a relatively sizable emissions reduction at reasonable cost. To achieve the 2010 air quality target of NOx, advanced implementation of EURO3 standards is recommended, substituting for the EURO2 currently envisioned in the national regulations Related technical options, including fuel quality improvements and inspection/maintenance (I/M) upgrades (ASM or IM240) are assessed as well. (author)

  10. Wireless communication technology for modular mechatronic controllers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bright, G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available ). Communication technology allows for the remote, real-time control of mechatronics systems e.g. the use of communication to send control signals from haptic device and feedback signals from robotic manipulator in robotics-aided surgery where the surgeon...

  11. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  12. Historic and future trends of vehicle emissions in Beijing, 1998-2020: A policy assessment for the most stringent vehicle emission control program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Wu, Xiaomeng; Li, Mengliang; Ge, Yunshan; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yueyun; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Huan; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2014-06-01

    As a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, Beijing released the Clean Air Action Plan 2013-2017 document in August 2013 to improve its urban air quality. It has put forward this plan containing the most stringent emission control policies and strategies to be adopted for on-road vehicles of Beijing. This paper estimates the historic and future trends and uncertainties in vehicle emissions of Beijing from 1998 to 2020 by applying a new emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet (EMBEV). Our updated results show that total emissions of CO, THC, NOx and PM2.5 from the Beijing vehicle fleet are 507 (395-819) kt, 59.1 (41.2-90.5) kt, 74.7 (54.9-103.9) kt and 2.69 (1.91-4.17) kt, respectively, at a 95% confidence level. This represents significant reductions of 58%, 59%, 31% and 62%, respectively, relative to the total vehicle emissions in 1998. The past trends clearly posed a challenge to NOx emission mitigation for the Beijing vehicle fleet, especially in light of those increasing NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) which have partly offset the reduction benefit from light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs). Because of recently announced vehicle emission controls to be adopted in Beijing, including tighter emissions standards, limitations on vehicle growth by more stringent license control, promotion of alternative fuel technologies (e.g., natural gas) and the scrappage of older vehicles, estimated vehicle emissions in Beijing will continue to be mitigated by 74% of CO, 68% of THC, 56% of NOx and 72% of PM2.5 in 2020 compared to 2010 levels. Considering that many of the megacities in China are facing tremendous pressures to mitigate emissions from on-road vehicles, our assessment will provide a timely case study of significance for policy-makers in China.

  13. Review of modern low emissions combustion technologies for aero gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yize; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Sethi, Vishal; Nalianda, Devaiah; Li, Yi-Guang; Wang, Lu

    2017-10-01

    Pollutant emissions from aircraft in the vicinity of airports and at altitude are of great public concern due to their impact on environment and human health. The legislations aimed at limiting aircraft emissions have become more stringent over the past few decades. This has resulted in an urgent need to develop low emissions combustors in order to meet legislative requirements and reduce the impact of civil aviation on the environment. This article provides a comprehensive review of low emissions combustion technologies for modern aero gas turbines. The review considers current high Technologies Readiness Level (TRL) technologies including Rich-Burn Quick-quench Lean-burn (RQL), Double Annular Combustor (DAC), Twin Annular Premixing Swirler combustors (TAPS), Lean Direct Injection (LDI). It further reviews some of the advanced technologies at lower TRL. These include NASA multi-point LDI, Lean Premixed Prevaporised (LPP), Axially Staged Combustors (ASC) and Variable Geometry Combustors (VGC). The focus of the review is placed on working principles, a review of the key technologies (includes the key technology features, methods of realising the technology, associated technology advantages and design challenges, progress in development), technology application and emissions mitigation potential. The article concludes the technology review by providing a technology evaluation matrix based on a number of combustion performance criteria including altitude relight auto-ignition flashback, combustion stability, combustion efficiency, pressure loss, size and weight, liner life and exit temperature distribution.

  14. Heat pumps and tradable emission permits: On the carbon dioxide emissions of technologies that cross a tradable emission market boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Marcus; Vamling, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    Since January 2005, there is a system with tradable emission permits/allowances in the European Union. Currently, power producers and district heating plants are included in the system, but not the residential sector. In this analytical study, it is discussed how a separation between a trading sector, in which power producers are participating and a non-trading residential sector affect carbon dioxide emissions consequences from heat pumps in households. It is concluded that a replacement of heat pumps in the residential sector results in a leakage of emissions. The emission target in the trading sector is partly achieved at the expense of increased emissions in the residential sector

  15. Air pollutant emissions and their control with the focus on waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschau, Margit [Wandschneider + Gutjahr, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    This text and practical handbook thoroughly presents the control of air pollutant emissions from combustion processes focusing on waste incinerators. Special characteristics are emphasised and the differences to emission control from combustion processes with other fuels are explained. The author illustrates the origin and effects of air pollutants from incineration processes, the mechanics of their appearance in the incineration process, primary and secondary measures for their reduction, processes of measuring the emissions as well as the methods of disposing the residues. In particular, the pros and cons of procedural steps and their appropriate combination under various conditions are emphasised. Moreover, the book contains information and analyses of the emissions situation, the consumption of operating materials and of backlog quantities as well as of the cost structure of waste incinerators with regard to their applied control system. Furthermore, the author explicates the contemporary legal, scientific and technological developments and their influence on air pollutant emission control. An evaluation of the status quo of air pollutant control at waste incinerators in Germany, practical examples about possible combinations and typical performance data complete the content. Accordingly, this book is a guideline for planing a reasonable overall concept of an air pollutant control that takes the location and the segregation tasks into consideration.

  16. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly

  17. Towards an Integrated Assessment Model for Tropospheric Ozone-Emission Inventories, Scenarios and Emission-control Options

    OpenAIRE

    Olsthoorn, X.

    1994-01-01

    IIASA intends to extend its RAINS model for addressing the issue of transboundary ozone air pollution. This requires the development of a VOC-emissions module, VOCs being precursors in ozone formation. The module should contain a Europe-wide emission inventory, a submodule for developing emission scenarios and a database of measures for VOC-emission control, including data about control effectiveness and control costs. It is recommended to use the forthcoming CORINAIR90 inventory for construc...

  18. Nuclear technology and the export control laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, J.L.; Pankratz, M.C.; Hogsett, V.H.; Lundy, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three basic US laws regulate the export of commodities, services, and technical data. People working in nuclear fields need to know of these laws and their impact on professional endeavors. Export of technical data means the communication of any information by oral, written, or any other means to foreign nationals within or outside the US. The medium for the communication may be a model, blueprint, sketch, or any other device that can convey information. If the data relates to items on one of the control lists, a license must be sought from the appropriated federal agency. The Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL), though not itself a control list, plays a major role in determining what technical data will require a validated license. The US Department of Energy (DOE), through Technical Working Gorup (TWG) 11, is responsible for the Nuclear Technology chapter of the MCTL. TWG 11 also prepares the Nuclear Technology Reference Book (NTRB), a classified guide to sensitive nuclear technology

  19. Evaluation of diesel fleet emissions and control policies from plume chasing measurements of on-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Townsend, Thomas; Brimblecombe, Peter; Chan, Tat Leung; Yam, Yat Shing; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are an important source of urban air pollution. Diesel fuelled vehicles, although constituting a relatively small fraction of fleet population in many cities, are significant contributors to the emission inventory due to their often long mileage for goods and public transport. Recent classification of diesel exhaust as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization also raises attention to more stringent control of diesel emissions to protect public health. Although various mandatory and voluntary based emission control measures have been implemented in Hong Kong, there have been few investigations to evaluate if the fleet emission characteristics have met desired emission reduction objectives and if adoption of an Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programme has been effective in achieving these objectives. The limitations are partially due to the lack of cost-effective approaches for the large scale characterisation of fleet based emissions to assess the effectiveness of control measures and policy. This study has used a plume chasing method to collect a large amount of on-road vehicle emission data of Hong Kong highways and a detailed analysis was carried out to provide a quantitative evaluation of the emission characteristics in terms of the role of high and super-emitters in total emission reduction, impact of after-treatment on the multi-pollutants reduction strategy and the trend of NO2 emissions with newer emission standards. The study revealed that not all the high-emitters are from those vehicles of older Euro emission standards. Meanwhile, there is clear evidence that high-emitters for one pollutant may not be a high-emitter for another pollutant. Multi-pollutant control strategy needs to be considered in the enactment of the emission control policy which requires more comprehensive retrofitting technological solutions and matching I/M programme to ensure the proper maintenance of fleets. The plume chasing approach used in this study also

  20. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    During the fourth reporting period, the project team investigated the Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction technologies that are in use on rich-burn four-stroke cycle engines. Several engines were instrumented and data collected to obtain a rich set of engine emissions and performance data. During the data collection, the performance of the catalyst under a variety of operating conditions was measured. This information will be necessary to specify a set of sensors that can then be used to reliably implement NSCRs as plausible technologies to reduce NOx emissions for four-stroke cycle engines used in the E&P industry. A complete summary all the technologies investigated to data is included in the report. For each technology, the summary includes a description of the process, the emission reduction that is to be expected, information on the cost of the technology, development status, practical considerations, compatibility with other air pollutant control technologies, and any references used to obtain the information.

  1. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  2. Emissions inventories and options for control. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C.

    1995-10-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project `Social causes of the greenhouse effect, emissions inventories and options for control`. The objectives of the project, that started in 1990, were to support the development of a comprehensive Dutch climate policy and to identify gaps in the knowledge about sources of greenhouse gases. The four phases of the project are summarized. In the first phase, a first national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions was made, capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the ozone precursors carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). In the second phase, the acquired expertise was used to support the development of Guidelines for National Emissions Inventories by the joint OECD/IPCC programme through workshop organization and participation in the international planning group. In the third phase, a detailed analysis was performed of the sources of methane, its current and future emissions and the options for control. Finally, a similar analysis was performed for nitrous oxide. In these studies, it was found that policies not specifically aiming at mitigating climate change, would help to control the emissions of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. While for methane, national emissions would even decrease because of measures in the livestock management and waste disposal sectors, for nitrous oxide the reductions in agricultural emissions would be outweighed by increases, especially in the transportation sector. The project shows that the application of more detailed information leads to differences with the Guidelines, both because of the limited number of source categories in the Guidelines and because of different, locally specific emissions factors. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  3. Air pollution emission under control?; Luchtverontreinigende emissies onder controle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Smokers, R. [TNO Mobility / Sustainable Transport and Logistics, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The air-polluting emissions of lorries and inland shipping needs to adhere to increasingly strict requirements. As a result, the emissions of new vehicles and vessels in 2020 will only be a fraction of the emissions of for example 1990. How does it work out in practice? Is it useful to switch to alternative fuels in the coming years, such as for example natural gas and biofuels? Or will all air-polluting emission problems have been solved in the near future, allowing for full focus on energy use and CO2 reduction?. [Dutch] De luchtverontreinigende emissies van vrachtauto's en binnenvaartschepen moeten aan steeds strengere eisen voldoen. Daardoor zullen de emissies van nieuwe voer- en vaartuigen in 2020 nog maar een fractie zijn in vergelijking tot bijvoorbeeld 1990. Werkt het allemaal goed in de praktijk? En heeft het de komende jaren nog zin om over te stappen naar alternatieve brandstoffen zoals aardgas en biobrandstoffen? Of zijn alle problemen rond de luchtverontreinigende emissies straks van de baan en kunnen we de focus geheel richten op energieverbruik en CO2-reductie?.

  4. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  5. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  6. Regional on-road vehicle running emissions modeling and evaluation for conventional and alternative vehicle technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Zhai, Haibo; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2009-11-01

    This study presents a methodology for estimating high-resolution, regional on-road vehicle emissions and the associated reductions in air pollutant emissions from vehicles that utilize alternative fuels or propulsion technologies. The fuels considered are gasoline, diesel, ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity. The technologies considered are internal combustion or compression engines, hybrids, fuel cell, and electric. Road link-based emission models are developed using modal fuel use and emission rates applied to facility- and speed-specific driving cycles. For an urban case study, passenger cars were found to be the largest sources of HC, CO, and CO(2) emissions, whereas trucks contributed the largest share of NO(x) emissions. When alternative fuel and propulsion technologies were introduced in the fleet at a modest market penetration level of 27%, their emission reductions were found to be 3-14%. Emissions for all pollutants generally decreased with an increase in the market share of alternative vehicle technologies. Turnover of the light duty fleet to newer Tier 2 vehicles reduced emissions of HC, CO, and NO(x) substantially. However, modest improvements in fuel economy may be offset by VMT growth and reductions in overall average speed.

  7. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  8. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photonic bandgap crystals were proposed almost two decades ago as a unique tool for controlling propagation and emission of light. Since then the research field of photonic crystals has exploded and many beautiful demonstrations of the use of photonic crystals and fibers for molding light...... propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...... publication in Nature, we have demonstrated experimentally that both the direction and time of spontaneous emission can be controlled, thereby confirming the original proposal by Eli Yablonovich that founded the field of photonic crystals. We believe that this work opens new opportunities for solid...

  9. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  10. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine, and effe......Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine......, and effects of increasing urinary N to 1000 kg N ha−1 or delaying nitrification by amendment of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). Soil N2O concentration profiles and mineral N dynamics were monitored. The study was a randomized block experiment initiated in May 2012, in which urine deposition...... vegetation index (RVI). Compared to unamended urine, emissions of N2O were significantly higher with urea-amendment, and lower with DCD amendment, also when expressed as proportions of N applied. Soil mineral N dynamics showed that N2O emissions were closely linked to nitrification activity...

  11. Acidification policy - control of acidifying emissions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties total annual acidifying emissions have started to decline in West Germany. There was considerable impact on this positive trend in air pollution by the control of SO 2 and NO x emissions from large boilers, which were reduced by more than 80%. Corresponding control programmes have been established for other groups of sources as well as other pollutants and - with unification - for East Germany. The driving force behind this development was and still is first of all the legal principle of anticipatory action or precaution which means in practical terms 'emission minimization'. This cornerstone of German clean air legislation is the most powerful components of Germany's 'acidification policy', as it requires policy-makers to draw up new or review existing regulations for emission reduction based on requirements according to the state of the art and forces operators to apply the most modern ways and means of operation. This paper describes the system used in Germany to deal with air pollution, the emission minimization strategy, and the actions against acidifying emissions based thereon. In addition, an outlook on what might be necessary to cope with the challenges of a sustainable development concerning acidification is given. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Evolution of NOx emissions in Europe with focus on road transport control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available European emission trends of nitrogen oxides since 1880 and up to present are presented here and are linked to the evolution of road transport emissions. Road transport has been the dominating source of NOx emissions since 1970, and contributes with 40% to the total emissions in 2005. Five trend regimes have been identified between 1880 and 2005. The first regime (1880–1950 is determined by a slow increase in fuel consumption all over Europe. The second regime (1950–1980 is characterized by a continued steep upward trend in liquid fuel use and by the introduction of the first regulations on road traffic emissions. Reduction in fuel consumption determines the emission trends in the third regime (1980–1990 that is also characterized by important differences between Eastern and Western Europe. Emissions from road traffic continue to grow in Western Europe in this period, and it is argued here that the reason for this continued NOx emission increase is related to early inefficient regulations for NOx in the transport sector. The fourth regime (1990–2000 involves a turning point for road traffic emissions, with a general decrease of emissions in Europe during that decade. It is in this period that we can identify the first emission reductions due to technological abatement in Western Europe. In the fifth regime (2000–2005, the economic recovery in Eastern Europe imposes increased emission from road traffic in this area. Western European emissions are on the other hand decoupled from the fuel consumption, and continue to decrease. The implementation of strict measures to control NOx emissions is demonstrated here to be a main reason for the continued Western European emission reductions. The results indicate that even though the effectiveness of European standards is hampered by a slow vehicle turnover, loopholes in the type-approval testing, and an increase in diesel consumption, the effect of such technical abatement measures is traceable

  13. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-01-01

    The northern latitudes are experiencing disproportionate warming relative to the mid-latitudes, and there is growing concern about feedbacks between this warming and methane production and release from high-latitude soils. Studies of methane emissions carried out in the Arctic, particularly those....... The measurements show clear seasonal dynamics in methane emission. The start of the growing season and the increase in CH4 fluxes were strongly related to the date of snowmelt. Within each particular growing season, CH4 fluxes were highly correlated with the soil temperature (R-2 > 0.75), which is probably...... controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...

  14. Mechanical Seal Opening Condition Monitoring Based on Acoustic Emission Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erqing Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the measurement of mechanical sealing film thickness and just-lift-off time is very difficult, the sealing film condition monitoring method based on acoustic emission signal is proposed. The mechanical seal acoustic emission signal present obvious characteristics of time-varying nonlinear and pulsating. In this paper, the acoustic emission signal is used to monitor the seal end faces just-lift-off time and friction condition. The acoustic emission signal is decomposed by empirical mode decomposition into a series of intrinsic mode function with independent characteristics of different time scales and different frequency band. The acoustic emission signal only generated by end faces friction is obtained by eliminating the false intrinsic mode function components. The correlation coefficient of acoustic emission signal and Multi-scale Laplace Wavelet is calculated. It is proved that the maximum frequency (8000 Hz of the correlation coefficient is appeared at the spindle speed of 300 rpm. And at this time (300 rpm the end faces have just lifted off. By a set of mechanical oil seal running test, it is demonstrated that this method could accurately identify mechanical seal end faces just-lift-off time and friction condition.

  15. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  16. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  17. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  18. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-11-01

    small. The potential to reduce the CH{sub 4} emissions from enteric fermentation in Finland is not known. If measures to reduce these emissions prove efficient and economically promising in future studies, the total reduction in the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions will be higher and in the long run the halving of the emission level of 1990 seems achievable. The anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emissions in Finland are considerably smaller than the CH{sub 4} emissions, around 20 Gg per year during the 1990`s, but the greenhouse impact of the Finnish N{sub 2}O emissions is of similar magnitude as that of the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions. The most important anthropogenic N{sub 2}O emission sources in Finland are nitrogen fertilisation, nitric acid production and burning processes in the energy sector. The indirect emissions caused by nitrogen deposition due to NH{sub 3} and NO{sub x} emissions are also of significance. The N{sub 2}O emissions are estimated to grow due to the increasing use of fluidized bed combustion and catalytic converters in the energy sector. These otherwise environmentally friendly technologies produce significantly more N{sub 2}O than the corresponding conventional technologies. Measures for N{sub 2}O emission control are not known very well and many of the measures are still at an experimental stage. Promising measures to reduce the N{sub 2}O emissions from nitric acid production and fluidized bed combustion have been put forward but plant scale applications of the measures are still lacking. If the measures can be implemented on plant scale, emission reductions of the same order of magnitude as the estimated growth in the emissions are anticipated. The CFCs and other considered halocarbons are already partly phased out. The halocarbons that destroy stratospheric O{sub 3} are subject to regulations under the Montreal protocol and in Finland most of the consumption ceased in 1996. The O{sub 3} depleting substances are partly substituted with substances that are

  20. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [VOC emission situation and control measures of gas station in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min-Jia; Hao, Ji-Ming; Wang, Li-Tao

    2006-08-01

    The emission factor is used to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission caused by gas station. After considering the economical, social and population factors, the activity rate was modified, and then the fuel consumption and VOC emission trend in the next 20 years can be predicted. The result shows the VOC emission from gas station in China 2002 was 187.6kt and this number will increase to 1196kt in 2030 if no further control measures will be implemented. And the economic loss caused by gasoline vapor arrived to 0.75 billion RMB in 2002 and will be 4.78 billion RMB in 2030. The cost-benefit approach of the commercially available gasoline vapor recovery technologies in China included Stage I, Stage II and on-board refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) were analyzed, and the result shows introducing these three systems will bring larger reduce of VOC emission, and the combination of them can do a even better job. Compared with Stage II, ORVR is more efficient and cheaper, but it will take long time to implement ORVR. And it will take at least 11 years in China to convert to ORVR above 80%. So Stage II vapor recovery system may be a short term option while ORVR should be treated as the ultimate solution for controlling the vapor emission from gas stations in the future.

  2. Greenhouse Gas and Particulate Emissions and Impacts from Cooking Technologies in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, D. M.; Bailis, R.; Kituyi, E.; Ezzati, M.

    2003-12-01

    In much of Africa, the largest fraction of energy consumption occurs within the residential sector and is derived primarily from woodfuels burned in simple stoves with poor combustion characteristics. Many of the products of incomplete combustion (PICs) are damaging to human health, particularly when they are concentrated in poorly ventilated indoor environments. Incomplete combustion also has potentially harmful impacts on the climate. Prevalent PICs include methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is among the pollutants subject to controls under the Kyoto Protocol as well as carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulate matter (PM), which can all have an effect on climate, but are not subject to controls under Kyoto. In addition, when woodfuels are used at a rate that reduces standing stocks of trees over the medium or long term, the CO2 released by combustion also has an impact. The choice of stove and fuel technology can have a significant impact on the emission of GHGs as well as on human exposure to health damaging pollutants. In this paper we analyze the emissions of different household energy technologies on a life-cycle basis. We use emission factors to estimate the emissions associated with production, distribution and end-use of common household fuels and assess the likely impacts of these emissions on public health and the global environment. We focus largely on charcoal, a popular fuel in many sub-Saharan African countries. Charcoal is produced by heating wood in the absence of sufficient air for complete combustion to occur. This process removes moisture and most of the volatile compounds. The compounds driven off in the process consist of condensable tars as well as many gaseous hydrocarbons, including ~40 g CH4 per kg of charcoal produced. Combining upstream and end-use emissions, every meal cooked with charcoal has 2-10 times the global warming effect of cooking the same meal with firewood and 5-12 times the effect of

  3. Emissions inventories and options for control SUMMARY REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Amstel AR van; Born GJ van den; Kroeze C; MTV; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project "Social causes of the greenhouse effect ; emissions inventories and options for control", funded by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and the Environment Directorate of the Ministry of Housing,

  4. Development and Evaluation of an Emissions Control Decision Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    AA-AO67 358 DECISION- CIENCE APPLICATIONS INC ARLINGTON VA F/S 17/9 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN EMISSIONS CONTROL DECISION AID--ETC(U) JUL 80 a F...Association Office of Educational Affairs LCDR J. A. Sears 1200 17th Street, N.W. Department of MIS Washington, D.C. 20036 College of Business

  5. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  6. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above

  7. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  8. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  9. A Comparative Energetic Analysis of Active and Passive Emission Control Systems Adopting Standard Emission Test Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Algieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at analysing and comparing the thermal performances of active and passive aftertreatment systems. A one-dimensional transient model has been developed in order to evaluate the heat exchange between the solid and the exhaust gas and to estimate the energy effectiveness of the apparatus. Furthermore, the effect of the engine operating conditions on the performances of emission control systems has been investigated considering standard emission test cycles. The analysis has demonstrated that the active flow control presents the higher thermal inertia and it appears more suitable to maintain the converter initial temperature level for a longer time after variations in engine load. Conversely, the traditional passive flow control is preferable when rapid “cooling” or “heating” of the solid phase is requested. Moreover, the investigation has highlighted the significant influence of the cycle time and converter length on the energetic performances of the aftertreatment apparatus.

  10. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process vents... process vent, reduce organic HAP emissions for the batch cycle by 90 weight percent using a control device... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference...

  11. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy, and powertrain technology trends for new personal vehicles in the United States. The ??Trends?? report has been published annually since 1975 and covers all passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and all but the largest pickup trucks and vans. This report does not provide formal compliance values for EPA CO2 emissions standards and NHTSA CAFE standards. The downloadable data are available in PDF or spreadsheet (XLS) formats.

  12. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  13. Development of emissions inventory and identification of sources for priority control in the middle reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Lang, Jianlei; Ren, Zhenhai; Sun, Chao

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to investigate the emission source control of the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations (MRYRUA), one of the national urban agglomerations in China. An emission inventory of the MRYRUA was developed as inputs to the CAMx model based on county-level activity data obtained by full-coverage investigation and source-based spatial surrogates. A classification technology method for priority control of atmospheric emission sources was introduced and applied in the MRYRUA for the evaluation of the emission sources control on the region-scale and city-scale, respectively. The results demonstrated that the emission sources in the Hefei-centered urban agglomerations contributed the biggest on the mean PM 2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA and should be taken the priority to control. The emission sources in the Ma'anshan city, Xiangtan city, Hefei city and Wuhan city were the bigger contributors on the mean PM 2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA among the cities and should be taken the priority to control. In generally, emission sources in cities along the Yangtze River and the tributary should be given the special attention for the regional air quality target attainments. This study can give an understanding of Chinese emissions and provide a valuable preference to policy makers for finding effective mitigation measures and control strategies for reducing national and regional air pollution in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  15. Characterization and Control of Nanoparticle Emission during 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ohhun; Yoon, Chungsik; Ham, Seunghon; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Jinho; Yoo, Danbi; Kim, Yoojin

    2017-09-19

    This study aimed to evaluate particle emission characteristics and to evaluate several control methods used to reduce particle emissions during three-dimensional (3D) printing. Experiments for particle characterization were conducted to measure particle number concentrations, emission rates, morphology, and chemical compositions under manufacturer-recommended and consistent-temperature conditions with seven different thermoplastic materials in an exposure chamber. Eight different combinations of the different control methods were tested, including an enclosure, an extruder suction fan, an enclosure ventilation fan, and several types of filter media. We classified the thermoplastic materials as high emitter (>10 11 #/min), medium emitters (10 9 #/min -10 11 #/min), and low emitters (HEPA) filter had the highest removal effectiveness (99.95%) of nanoparticles. Our recommendations for reducing particle emissions include applying a low temperature, using low-emitting materials, and instituting control measures like using an enclosure around the printer in conjunction with an appropriate filter (e.g., HEPA filter) during 3D printing.

  16. Robotics-Control Technology. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the materials required for presenting an 8-day competency-based technology learning activity (TLA) designed to introduce students in grades 6-10 to advances and career opportunities in the field of robotics-control technology. The guide uses hands-on exploratory experiences into which activities to help students develop…

  17. Protection and Control with FPGA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, K. Y.; Yi, W. J.; Koo, I. S.

    2012-01-01

    To cope with the experiences such as unsatisfied response time of control and protection system, components obsolescence of those systems, and outstanding coercion of system modernization, nuclear society is striving to resolve this issue fundamentally. The reports and standards issued from IAEA and other standard organization like IBC is interested in the FPGA technology, which is fairly mature technology in other fields of industry. Intuitively it is replacing the high level of micro-processor type equipped with various software and hardware, which causes to accelerate the aging and obsolescence, and demands for system modernization in I and C system in Nuclear Power Plant. Thus utility has to spend much time and effort to upgrade I and C system throughout a decease. This paper summarizes the need of FPGA technology in Nuclear Power Plant, describing the characteristics of FPGA, test methodology and design requirements. Also the specific design and implementation experiences brought up in the course of FPGA-based controller, which has been conducted in KoRTS. The certification and verification and validation process to ensure the integrity of FPGA-based controller will be addressed. After that, Diverse Protection System (DPS) for YGN Unit 3 and 4 that is implemented via VHDL through SDLC is loaded on FPGA-based controller for run-time experimentations such as functionality, performance, integrity and reliability. Some of the test data is addressed in this paper

  18. Protection and Control with FPGA technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, K. Y.; Yi, W. J. [Korea Reliability Technology and System, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Koo, I. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To cope with the experiences such as unsatisfied response time of control and protection system, components obsolescence of those systems, and outstanding coercion of system modernization, nuclear society is striving to resolve this issue fundamentally. The reports and standards issued from IAEA and other standard organization like IBC is interested in the FPGA technology, which is fairly mature technology in other fields of industry. Intuitively it is replacing the high level of micro-processor type equipped with various software and hardware, which causes to accelerate the aging and obsolescence, and demands for system modernization in I and C system in Nuclear Power Plant. Thus utility has to spend much time and effort to upgrade I and C system throughout a decease. This paper summarizes the need of FPGA technology in Nuclear Power Plant, describing the characteristics of FPGA, test methodology and design requirements. Also the specific design and implementation experiences brought up in the course of FPGA-based controller, which has been conducted in KoRTS. The certification and verification and validation process to ensure the integrity of FPGA-based controller will be addressed. After that, Diverse Protection System (DPS) for YGN Unit 3 and 4 that is implemented via VHDL through SDLC is loaded on FPGA-based controller for run-time experimentations such as functionality, performance, integrity and reliability. Some of the test data is addressed in this paper.

  19. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  20. Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cording, Dean

    2002-12-01

    The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the 'dot.com' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

  1. Water pollution control technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This work is a compilation by members of the Committee for Studying Transfer of Environmental Technology on the expertise and technology developed by the members for controlling water pollution in Japan, together with consideration of issues concerning the transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries. The committee is composed of representatives for the Environment Agency, Japan, Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka Municipal Government, and 25 companies such as manufacturers of environmental equipment. The document contains a total of 93 short papers grouped into sections on: industrial wastewater treatment; sewage treatment; right soil treatment; sludge treatment; and miscellaneous. One paper by the Kausai Electric Power Co., Inc., discusses waste water treatment systems in oil-fired thermal power plants; another describes an internally circulating fluidized bed boiler for cocombusting coal with industrial wastes.

  2. Carbon emissions reductions and technology gaps in the world's factory, 1990–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Chen, Zhongfei

    2016-01-01

    China's manufacturing industries are traditionally energy-intensive sectors and are responsible for over half of the country's total CO 2 emissions. In this paper, we propose a global meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function approach to measure the CO 2 emissions performance of Chinese manufacturing sectors during the period of 1990–2012. This approach allows us to simultaneously consider technological heterogeneity in manufacturing, non-radial slacks, and undesirable outputs. The global level of environmental technology is incorporated into the efficiency model to improve discriminating power and comparability. The results indicate significant differences in CO 2 -emissions-reduction performance among five broad groups of Chinese manufacturing industries. The “global technologies/ innovators group” is the most efficient under meta-frontier technologies, with the smallest technology gap. Meanwhile, the “energy-/resource-intensive commodities group” is, on average, the least efficient. Therefore, the Chinese government should implement targeted policies that encourage firms in the global technologies/innovators group to increase market share while supporting those in the energy-/resource-intensive commodities group to upgrade their technologies. - Highlights: • Global meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function approach is proposed. • It measures CO 2 emissions performance of Chinese manufacturing during 1990–2012. • The impact of group heterogeneity is incorporated. • Global technologies/innovators group is the most efficient under meta-frontier. • Energy-/resource-intensive commodities group is, on average, the least efficient.

  3. IMPACTS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDING TECHNOLOGIES ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Rolinski, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Until 2050, the global population is projected to reach almost 9 billion people resulting in a rising demand and competition for biomass used as food, feed, raw material and bio-energy, while land and water resources are limited. Moreover, agricultural production will be constrained by the need to mitigate dangerous climate change. The agricultural sector is a major emitter of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG). It is responsible for about 47 % and 58 % of total anthropogenic emissions of m...

  4. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene, sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide, 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  5. Potential methane emission reductions for two manure treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderZaag, Andrew C; Baldé, Hambaliou; Crolla, Anna; Gordon, Robert J; Ngwabie, N Martin; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Desjardins, Ray; MacDonald, J Douglas

    2018-04-01

    The effect of two dairy manure treatments, solid-liquid separation (SLS) and anaerobic digestion (AD), on methane potential and the speed of production was evaluated. Assays were performed in the lab to measure methane (CH 4 ) production over 202 d from dairy manure samples taken before and after each treatment. Compared to raw manure, CH 4 emissions on a per-L basis were reduced 81% by SLS and 59% by AD, on average. The mean (SD) ultimate CH 4 emission potential (B 0 ) per kg of volatile solids (VS) was 247 (8) L CH 4  kg -1  VS for raw manure, 221 (9) L CH 4  kg -1  VS for separated liquid, and 160 (4) L CH 4  kg -1  VS for anaerobic digestate. Thus, SLS reduced the B 0 of the liquid fraction by 11% and AD reduced B 0 by up to 35% compared to raw manure. Manure treatment affected the speed of CH 4 production: SLS increased the CH 4 production rate and thus separated liquid manure was the fastest to produce 90% of the ultimate CH 4 production. Therefore, both the speed of degradation and B 0 should be considered when assessing these techniques for farm-scale manure storages, because actual emission reductions will depend on storage conditions.

  6. The future for weed control and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Dale L; Beckie, Hugh J

    2014-09-01

    This review is both a retrospective (what have we missed?) and prospective (where are we going?) examination of weed control and technology, particularly as it applies to herbicide-resistant weed management (RWM). Major obstacles to RWM are discussed, including lack of diversity in weed management, unwillingness of many weed researchers to conduct real integrated weed management research or growers to accept recommendations, influence or role of agrichemical marketing and governmental policy and lack of multidisciplinary research. We then look ahead to new technologies that are needed for future weed control in general and RWM in particular, in areas such as non-chemical and chemical weed management, novel herbicides, site-specific weed management, drones for monitoring large areas, wider application of 'omics' and simulation model development. Finally, we discuss implementation strategies for integrated weed management to achieve RWM, development of RWM for developing countries, a new classification of herbicides based on mode of metabolism to facilitate greater stewardship and greater global exchange of information to focus efforts on areas that maximize progress in weed control and RWM. There is little doubt that new or emerging technologies will provide novel tools for RMW in the future, but will they arrive in time? © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Pest Management Science © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Energy scenarios for Switzerland and emission control, estimated with a normative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.

    1990-06-01

    The reported work presents results of the IEA-ETSAP project (International Energy Agency - Energy Technology Systems Analysis Project) concerning the interrelations among energy use, emissions to the atmosphere and the cost of emission control. The energy simulation model SMEDE, which has been developed at PSI and applies the engineering simulation (bottom up) approach, and the IEA optimization model MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) have been used to analyse the energy demand and supply system of Switzerland. The purpose of this analysis is to identify technical options and their cost for reducing the energy dependent atmospheric emissions in Switzerland to the levels of the 'clean air concept'. The study addresses also the question of the feasibility and the economic implications of reducing the CO 2 emissions to the levels recommended by the Toronto conference. The implications of a stringent 'clean air concept' and these of the Toronto recommendations have been analysed under different nuclear supply options i.e. an unconstrained nuclear supply case (reference), a nuclear status-quo (moratorium) and under the conditions of a nuclear phase-out programme by the year 2025. The main conclusions of this analysis indicate that the emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide could be reduced back to the levels of 1950 respectively 1960, by the introduction of emission control technologies which go above the present performance limits defined by the 'clean air ordinance' (LRV). A probable time horizon to satisfy the NO x constraints is the year 2000 and not 1995. Organizational measures necessary to improve the air quality in cities are complementary to the measures proposed in this analysis. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs

  9. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Technologies to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions at North American Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motazedi, Kavan; Abella, Jessica P; Bergerson, Joule A

    2017-02-07

    A petroleum refinery model, Petroleum Refinery Life-cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM), that estimates energy use and CO 2 emissions was modified to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of a set of technologies to reduce CO 2 emissions at refineries. Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), carbon capture at fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) units, and alternative hydrogen production technologies were considered in the analysis. The results indicate that a 3-44% reduction in total annual refinery CO 2 emissions (2-24% reductions in the CO 2 emissions on a per barrel of crude oil processed) can be achieved in a medium conversion refinery that processes a typical U.S. crude slate obtained by using the technologies considered. A sensitivity analysis of the quality of input crude to a refinery, refinery configuration, and prices of natural gas and electricity revealed how the magnitude of possible CO 2 emissions reductions and the economic performance of the mitigation technologies can vary under different conditions. The analysis can help inform decision making related to investment decisions and CO 2 emissions policy in the refining sector.

  10. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  11. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting.

  12. Recent developments in technologies and policies in Germany to control acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1995-01-01

    In Germany, acidifying emissions have decreased since the mid-eighties, but are still at levels that cause environmentally harmful acid deposition and thus make further action necessary. The driving force behind such actions is the precautionary principle laid down in pollution control legislation. It is implemented as a requirement to minimize emissions and mandates the parties concerned to formulate and implement emission control requirements based on the state of the art, and to update them as technological advances are made. As the scope for restructuring energy supply and switching to environmentally friendlier sources is very limited in Germany, strategies for controlling inevitable NO x and SO 2 emissions will continue to be directed at further improving the technical systems (besides necessary changes in lifestyle). Since the large-scale retrofit programmes were initiated in the eighties, technological advances have provided some scope for a further tightening of emission reduction requirements for SO 2 and NO x . In addition, there is some potential for further reducing these emissions through more energy-efficient demand- and supply-side technology

  13. Integrated Dry NOx/SO2 Emissions Control System, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round III, the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System (IDECS), as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1991). The desire to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO, nitric oxide, and NO{sub 2}, nitrogen dioxide, collectively referred to as NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) by up to 70 percent at a minimum capital expenditure, while limiting waste production to dry solids that can be handled by conventional ash-removal equipment, prompted Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCC) to submit the proposal for the IDECS project. In March 1991, PSCC entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct the study. The project was sited at PSCC's Arapahoe Steam Electric Generating Station in Denver, Colorado. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate the reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions by installing a combination of existing and emerging technologies, which were expected to work synergistically to reduce emissions. The technologies were low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBS), overfire air (OFA), and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} reduction; and dry sorbent injection (DSI), both with and without flue-gas humidification (FGH), for SO{sub 2} reduction. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding of $26.2 million.

  14. Is Optical Gas Imaging Effective for Detecting Fugitive Methane Emissions? - A Technological and Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, A. P.; Wang, J.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mitigating fugitive methane emissions from the oil and gas industry has become an important concern for both businesses and regulators. While recent studies have improved our understanding of emissions from all sectors of the natural gas supply chain, cost-effectively identifying leaks over expansive natural gas infrastructure remains a significant challenge. Recently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended the use of optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies to be used in industry-wide leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs. However, there has been little to no systematic study of the effectiveness of infrared-camera-based OGI technology for leak detection applications. Here, we develop a physics-based model that simulates a passive infrared camera imaging a methane leak against varying background and ambient conditions. We verify the simulation tool through a series of large-volume controlled release field experiments wherein known quantities of methane were released and imaged from a range of distances. After simulator verification, we analyze the effects of environmental conditions like temperature, wind, and imaging background on the amount of methane detected from a statistically representative survey program. We also examine the effects of LDAR design parameters like imaging distance, leak size distribution, and gas composition. We show that imaging distance strongly affects leak detection - EPA's expectation of a 60% reduction in fugitive emissions based on a semi-annual LDAR survey will be realized only if leaks are imaged at a distance less than 10 m from the source under ideal environmental conditions. Local wind speed is also shown to be important. We show that minimum detection limits are 3 to 4 times higher for wet-gas compositions that contain a significant fraction of ethane and propane, resulting a significantly large leakage rate. We also explore the importance of `super-emitters' on the performance of an OGI-based leak

  15. Diffusion-controlled toluene reference material for VOC emissions testing: international interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Liu, Zhe; Cox, Steven; Leber, Dennis; Samarov, Dan; Little, John C

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from building products and materials by manufacturers and testing laboratories, and the use of the test results for labeling programs, continue to expand. One issue that hinders wide acceptance for chamber product testing is the lack of a reference material to validate test chamber performance. To meet this need, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Virginia Tech (VT) have developed a prototype reference material that emits a single VOC similar to the emissions of a diffusion-controlled building product source with a dynamic emissions profile. The prototype material has undergone extensive testing at NIST and a pilot interlaboratory study (ILS) with four laboratories. The next development step is an evaluation of the prototype source in multiple-sized chambers of 14 laboratories in seven countries. Each laboratory was provided duplicate specimens and a test protocol. Study results identified significant issues related to the need to store the source at a subzero Celsius temperature until tested and possible inconsistencies in large chambers. For laboratories using a small chamber and meeting all the test method criteria, the results were very encouraging with relative standard deviations ranging from 5% to 10% across the laboratories. Currently, the chamber performance of laboratories conducting product VOC emissions testing is assessed through interlaboratory studies (ILS) using a source with an unknown emission rate. As a result, laboratory proficiency can only be based on the mean and standard deviation of emission rates measured by the participating ILS laboratories. A reference material with a known emission rate has the potential to provide an independent assessment of laboratory performance as well as improve the quality of interlaboratory studies. Several international laboratories with different chamber testing systems demonstrated the ability to measure the emission rate

  16. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, E; Revitt, D M; Ledin, A; Lundy, L; Holten Lützhøft, H C; Wickman, T; Mikkelsen, P S

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on 'Source control options for reducing emissions of Priority Pollutants' (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECSs) were developed and tested within a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCC) to evaluate their potential to reduce the emission of selected European priority hazardous substances (PHSs) to surface waters. The ECSs included (1) business-as-usual, (2) full implementation of relevant European (EU) directives, (3) ECS2 in combination with voluntary options for household, municipalities and industry, (4) ECS2 combined with industrial treatment and best available technologies (BAT), (5) ECS2 in combination with stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment, (6) ECS2 in combination with advanced wastewater treatment, and (7) combinations of ECS3-6. The SHCC approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to allow compensating for data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PHSs: cadmium (Cd), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), nonylphenol (NP) and pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE) differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in surface waters to differing extents in response to the application of alternative ECS. To achieve the required reduction in PHS levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is prioritised and feasible combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant for mitigating releases.

  17. Zero emissions trucks. An overview of state-of-the-art technologies and their potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.; Aarnink, S. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Kleiner, F.; Pagenkopf, J. [German Aerospace Center DLR, Cologne (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The study by CE Delft and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), surveys the technology potential for zero-emission road freight transport in the EU. For short distance transport, battery electric technology is feasible, as distribution trucks have lower range requirements and recharging can occur at scheduled downtimes (e.g. overnight). For long haul applications, battery electric vehicles coupled with overhead wires (catenary) or in-road charging (dynamic) infrastructure are possible, as well as fuel cell drivelines. The cost differential between conventional and zero emission HDVs will diminish over the next 10-15 years, as fuel savings offset other costs. If zero-emission technologies are introduced on a large scale in the onroad freight transport sector beginning in 2020, the total end-user costs will not significantly increase. The total cost of ownership within this study do not consider required infrastructure investments. All zero emission technologies require major infrastructure investments, whether hydrogen refuelling stations, in-road inductive charging, or other systems. Broad policy support is needed to encourage the development and evaluation of various technology options. Over time, the policy focus must shift from stimulating innovation and technology adoption to regulation, if it is to spur a successful transformation of the truck market.

  18. Reducing automotive emissions-The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Christian; Magnusson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes takin...

  19. Control technology for integrated circuit fabrication at Micro-Circuit Engineering, Incorporated, West Palm Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihlan, G. I.; Mitchell, R. I.; Smith, R. K.

    1984-07-01

    A survey to assess control technology for integrated circuit fabrication was conducted. Engineering controls included local and general exhaust ventilation, shielding, and personal protective equipment. Devices or work stations that contained toxic materials that were potentially dangerous were controlled by local exhaust ventilation. Less hazardous areas were controlled by general exhaust ventilation. Process isolation was used in the plasma etching, low pressure chemical vapor deposition, and metallization operations. Shielding was used in ion implantation units to control X-ray emissions, in contact mask alignes to limit ultraviolet (UV) emissions, and in plasma etching units to control radiofrequency and UV emissions. Most operations were automated. Use of personal protective equipment varied by job function.

  20. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, William E.

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above.

  1. Application of advanced technology to LMR control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Key issues must be resolved to preserve the nuclear option; including new considerations for safety, economics, waste, transportation, diversion, etc. The programs at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are now carefully focused to provide answers to the above concerns in connection with the Integral Fast Reactor program at Argonne. Safety features that are inherent in plant design, coupled with automating plant control to help achieve the above objectives are more than just an issue of installing controllers and exotic algorithms, they include the complete integration of plant design, control strategy, and information presentation. Current technology development, both at Argonne and elsewhere includes efforts relating to the use of Artificial Intelligence, sensor/signal validation in many forms, pattern recognition, optimal develop and/or adopt promising technologies, and integrate them into an operating power plant for proof of value. After they have proven useful at EBR-II, it is expected that they can be incorporated into advanced designs such as PRISM and/or included in backfit activities as well. 6 refs

  2. Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An IntegratedScenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible "technology paths" to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of "alternative" electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic.

  3. Technology Roadmap: High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal is the largest source of power globally and, given its wide availability and relatively low cost, it is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. The High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation Roadmap describes the steps necessary to adopt and further develop technologies to improve the efficiency of the global fleet of coal. To generate the same amount of electricity, a more efficient coal-fired unit will burn less fuel, emit less carbon, release less local air pollutants, consume less water and have a smaller footprint. High-efficiency, low emissions (HELE) technologies in operation already reach a thermal efficiency of 45%, and technologies in development promise even higher values. This compares with a global average efficiency for today’s fleet of coal-fired plants of 33%, where three-quarters of operating units use less efficient technologies and more than half is over 25 years old. A successful outcome to ongoing RD&D could see units with efficiencies approaching 50% or even higher demonstrated within the next decade. Generation from older, less efficient technology must gradually be phased out. Technologies exist to make coal-fired power generation much more effective and cleaner burning. Of course, while increased efficiency has a major role to play in reducing emissions, particularly over the next 10 years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be essential in the longer term to make the deep cuts in carbon emissions required for a low-carbon future. Combined with CCS, HELE technologies can cut CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation plants by as much as 90%, to less than 100 grams per kilowatt-hour. HELE technologies will be an influential factor in the deployment of CCS. For the same power output, a higher efficiency coal plant will require less CO2 to be captured; this means a smaller, less costly capture plant; lower operating costs; and less CO2 to be transported and stored.

  4. Application of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, P M; Dawande, S D

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum products have wide range of volatility and are required to be stored in bulk. The evaporation losses are significant and it is a economic as well as environmental concern, since evaporative losses of petroleum products cause increased VOC in ambient air. Control of these losses poses a major problem for the storage tank designers. Ever rising cost of petroleum products further adds to the gravity of the problem. Condensation is one of the technologies for reducing volatile organic compounds emissions. Condensation is effected by condenser, which is basically a heat exchanger and the heat exchanger configuration plays an important role. The horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger is a promising configuration that finds an application in VOC control. This paper attempts to understand underlying causes of emissions and analyse the option of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger as vent condenser.

  5. Fundamental research on sintering technology with super deep bed achieving energy saving and reduction of emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongliang Han; Shengli Wu; Gensheng Feng; Luowen Ma; Weizhong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In the general frame of energy saving, environment protection and the concept of circular economy, the fundamental research on the sintering technology with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and emission reduction, was carried out. At first, the characteristics of the process and exhaust emission in the sintering with super deep bed was mastered through the study of the influence of different bed depths on the sintering process. Then, considering the bed permeability and the fuel combustion, their influence on the sinter yield and quality, their potential for energy saving and emission reduction was studied. The results show that the improvement of the bed permeability and of the fuel combustibility respectively and simultaneously, leads to an improvement of the sintering technical indices, to energy saving and emission reduction in the condition of super deep bed. At 1000 mm bed depth, and taking the appropriate countermeasure, it is possible to decrease the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 10.08%, 11.20%, 22.62% and 25.86% respectively; and at 700 mm bed depth, it is possible to reduce the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 20.71%, 22.01%, 58.86% and 13.13% respectively. This research provides the theoretical and technical basis for the new technology of sintering with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and reduction of emission. (authors)

  6. The status of development of energy technologies to reduce greenhousegas emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salokoski, P.; Aeijaelae, M.

    1997-01-01

    In Finland there is a versatile energy production in which the combined heat and power production (CHP) plays a remarkable role. In the total power supply, the CHP production accounts for about 30 %. Biomass is also widely used. In all fuels, wood and peat accounts for 21 %, the largest share in Western Countries. The utilization of wood based fuels is also remarkable, about 16 %. The high rate of CHP production and the utilization of biomass have contributed to the lower CO 2 -emissions. In future, fossil fuels will probably be utilized in larger volumes because there are limits to the increasing of the capacity of the CHP production, biomass utilization, nuclear power and hydro power. Consequently added use of fossil fuels will increase the CO 2 -emissions. The methods with most potential in reducing CO 2 -emissions in Finland are an increased use of biomass, an expanding production of nuclear power, a larger number of CHP plants and an increase in the utilization of natural gas. Other important methods with a minor effect are technologies which increase the power/heat ratio or the efficiency. These technologies include the IGCC-technologies, the gasification-diesel or the diesel technology in general with small heat loads. These technologies will grow in importance if the substitutive fuel is biomass. Most of the technologies mentioned above are in use in Finland and, in our experience, can be recommended to other countries. Viable commercial technologies are, for example, the CHP techniques in both district heating and industrial processes, various small-scale power plants integrated to CHP or condensate power plants, the fluidized-bed technology in power production or heat production only the diesel technology; the cofiring of biomass and coal as well as the harvesting, handling, drying and utilization technologies of biomass. Technologies still in the developmental stage include the IGCC-technology for biomasses, the gasification-diesel, and the production

  7. Organic light emission structures — XXI century technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokin V. M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The given review allows to believe, that the decision of a complex technological, materialstechnological, technical problems at creation modern OLED- and PLED-devices in nearest 5—10 years will result in creation of devices with power efficiency more than 100 lm/W and service life till 100 000 hours. The realization of such parameters will allow to expand area of application of the considered systems and to create in the future unique flat powereffective organic lighting systems of new generation — light sources XXI of century.

  8. Analysis on energy saving and emission reduction of clean energy technology in ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Qin, Cuihong; Peng, Chuansheng

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the application of clean energy technology in ports. Using Ningbo port Co. Ltd. Beilun second container terminal branch as an example, we analyze the effect of energy saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2 by clean energy alternative to fuel oil, and conclude that the application of clean energy technology in the container terminal is mature, and can achieve effect of energy-saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2. This paper can provide as a reference for the promotion and application of clean energy in ports.

  9. Recent activities at MIT in the applications of acoustic emission technology for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasa, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Recent activities at MIT in the applications of acoustic emission (AE) technology are presented. Specifically these activities include: acoustic- emission-technology based monitoring of and results from SCC dipole magnets, at both room temperature and 4.2 K, and the analytical and experimental study of acoustic signals emitted by epoxy-impregnated adiabatic superconducting magnets. The authors' preliminary results from the SSC dipoles support the notion that the principal source of premature quenches in these dipoles is dissipative mechanical events taking place within the winding and that the performance of these dipoles is furthermore critically dependent on the mechanical stiffness of the magnet structure

  10. Optimization of technology and boiler control to improve economical and environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stosek, V.; Neuman, P.; Mechura, V.; Masek, Z. [EGU Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    For cutting emissions NO{sub x} and CO in the Czech Republic are mostly applied primary measurers. At the same time measuring and control systems are innovated. Analog control systems are replaced by digital and computer network is developed in the power energy generation. It enables application of sophisticated information and diagnostic systems. It is shown how the EGU designs modification of technology equipment, measurement and control systems to increase efficiency and cut NO{sub x} emission levels at 110 MWe units at Prunerov power station and 200 MWe units at Tusimice before and after reconstruction are presented.

  11. New Possibilities for Technology Development in the Auspices of Low-Emission EU Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car, S.; Jelavic, V.

    2016-01-01

    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has elevated the level of responsibility of the international community for implementation of measures for climate preservation and CO2 reduction. After the Paris Agreement, the base for carrying out the measures lies in the following: contribution to emissions reduction determined on a national level, establishing new platforms for energy management based on low-emission development, new technological and economy development and technology transfer. European Development Fund is an opportunity for accelerating the technological development of Croatian economy and to coordinate it with EU low-emission strategy, taking into account the advanced specialization economy strategy which was recently approved by the EC and adopted in the Parliament. Technological development, based on available local resources, new technologies, innovations and global market, is a basis of a long-term sustainable development and it is expected that it will be supported not just from the EU funds but also with local fiscal and other measures. Visions for development of some technologies will be shown, as well as examples of new possibilities for Croatian electro industry that is already present on the global market and only confirms the possibility and necessity of such technological development.(author).

  12. Optimal Path for Controlling Sectoral CO2 Emissions Among China’s Regions: A Centralized DEA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoren Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a centralized data envelopment analysis (DEA model for industrial optimization based on several different production technologies among several regions. We developed this model based on improved Kuosmanen environmental DEA technology, which avoids positive shadow price on undesirable outputs. We also designed a dual model for our centralized DEA model, and used it to analyze shadow prices on CO2 emissions. We further employed the proposed model to determine the optimal path for controlling CO2 emissions at the sector level for each province in China. At sectoral level, manufacturing showed the highest potential emissions reduction, and transportation was the largest accepter of emission quotas. At regional level, western and northeastern areas faced the largest adjustments in allowable emissions, while central and eastern areas required the least amount of adjustment. Because our model represents increase or decrease in emissions bidirectionally in terms of shadow price analysis, this setting makes the shadow price on CO2 emissions lower than strong regulation (decreasing CO2 emissions along with increasing value added used by directional distance function (DDF.

  13. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  14. Efficient EGR technology for future HD diesel engine emission targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Beckman, D.E.; Veen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Different systems for achieving short-route cooled EGR on turbocharged and aftercooled heavy-duty diesel engines have been tested on a 12 litre 315 kW engine with 4 valves per cylinder and an electronically controlled unit pump fuel injection system. In all of these systems the exhaust gas was

  15. Valuation of clean energy investments: The case of the Zero Emission Coal (ZEC) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Frank Ernest

    Today, coal-fired power plants produce about 55% of the electrical energy output in the U.S. Demand for electricity is expected to grow in future. Coal can and will continue to play a substantial role in the future global energy supply, despite its high emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 etc.) and low thermal energy conversion efficiency of about 37%. This is due to the fact that, it is inexpensive and global reserves are abundant. Furthermore, cost competitive and environmentally acceptable energy alternatives are lacking. New technologies could also make coal-fired plants more efficient and environmentally benign. One such technology is the Zero Emission Carbon (ZEC) power plant, which is currently being proposed by the ZECA Corporation. How much will such a technology cost? How competitive will it be in the electric energy market when used as a technology for mitigating CO2 emission? If there were regulatory mechanisms, such as carbon tax to regulate CO2 emission, what would be the minimum carbon tax that should be imposed? How will changes in energy policy affect the implementation of the ZEC technology? How will the cost of the ZEC technology be affected, if a switch from coal (high emission-intensive fuel) to natural gas (low emission-intensive fuel) were to be made? This work introduces a model that can be used to analyze and assess the economic value of a ZEC investment using valuation techniques employed in the electric energy industry such as revenue requirement (e.g. cost-of-service). The study concludes that the cost of service for ZEC technology will be about 95/MWh at the current baseline scenario of using fuel cell as the power generation system and coal as the primary fuel, and hence will not be competitive in the energy markets. For the technology to be competitive, fuel cell capital cost should be as low as 500/kW with a lifetime of 20 years or more, the cost of capital should be around 10%, and a carbon tax of 30/t of CO2 should be in place

  16. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials...... to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed....

  17. Development of aromatic VOC control technology by electron beam hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, Ki-Joon

    2006-01-01

    As a fundamental study, the decomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using electron beam (EB) irradiation has been extensively investigated. EB treatments of VOCs such as toluene and styrene are discussed. The degradation characteristics were intensively investigated under various concentrations and irradiation doses to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. This work illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs generally increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Based on these basic studies, it was found that by-products produced from EB irradiation of VOCs would cause a secondary pollution problem. Therefore, a novel hybrid technology has been applied to control aromatic VOC emissions by annexing the catalyst technique with conventional treatment study using EB technology. The experiments were carried out using a bench-scale at first, then a pilot-scale system was followed. Toluene was selected as a typical VOC for EB hybrid control to investigate by-products, effects of ceramic and catalyst, and factors affecting overall efficiency of degradation. It was concluded that VOCs could be destroyed more effectively by a novel hybrid system than single EB irradiation. (author)

  18. Emissions from international shipping: 2. Impact of future technologies on scenarios until 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, V.; KöHler, H. W.; Lauer, A.; Lemper, B.

    2005-09-01

    In this study the today's fleet-average emission factors of the most important ship exhausts are used to calculate emission scenarios for the future. To develop plausible future technology scenarios, first upcoming regulations and compliance with future regulations through technological improvements are discussed. We present geographically resolved emission inventory scenarios until 2050, based on a mid-term prognosis for 2020 and a long-term prognosis for 2050. The scenarios are based on some very strict assumptions on future ship traffic demands and technological improvements. The four future ship traffic demand scenarios are mainly determined by the economic growth, which follows the IPCC SRES storylines. The resulting fuel consumption is projected through extrapolations of historical trends in economic growth, total seaborne trade and number of ships, as well as the average installed power per ship. For the future technology scenarios we assume a diesel-only fleet in 2020 resulting in fuel consumption between 382 and 409 million metric tons (Mt). For 2050 one technology scenario assumes that 25% of the fuel consumed by a diesel-only fleet can be saved by applying future alternative propulsion plants, resulting in a fuel consumption that varies between 402 and 543 Mt. The other scenario is a business-as-usual scenario for a diesel-only fleet even in 2050 and gives an estimate between 536 and 725 Mt. Dependent on how rapid technology improvements for diesel engines are introduced, possible technology reduction factors are applied to the today's fleet-average emission factors of all important species to estimate future ship emissions. Combining the four traffic demand scenarios with the four technology scenarios, our results suggest emissions between 8.8 and 25.0 Tg (NO2) in 2020, and between 3.1 to 38.8 Tg (NO2) in 2050. The development of forecast scenarios for CO2, NOx, SOx, CO, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter is driven by the requirements for global model

  19. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  20. Device-technological simulation of field emission silicon microcathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhynin А. A.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The system structure of the topological information transformation for digital lithography is offered. The formation method of local three-dimensional SOI structures, which allows creating both planar and three-dimensional device elements and contacts, is developed. The controlled high-voltage MOS transistor and a cell of memory with signal shaper for topological information storage are developed on SOI structures. Expert optimization of a memory cell topology has allowed reducing its area considerably.

  1. Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; John, Sajeev

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent control of spontaneous emission for a three-level atom located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material, with one resonant frequency near the edge of the PBG. Spontaneous emission from the three-level atom can be totally suppressed or strongly enhanced depending on the relative phase between the steady-state control laser coupling the two upper levels and the pump laser pulse used to create an excited state of the atom in the form of a coherent superposition of the two upper levels. Unlike the free-space case, the steady-state inversion of the atomic system is strongly dependent on the externally prescribed initial conditions. This non-zero steady-state population is achieved by virtue of the localization of light in the vicinity of the emitting atom. It is robust to decoherence effects provided that the Rabi frequency of the control laser field exceeds the rate of dephasing interactions. As a result, such a system may be relevant for a single-atom, phase-sensitive optical memory device on the atomic scale. The protected electric dipole within the PBG provides a basis for a qubit to encode information for quantum computations. A detailed literature survey on the nature, fabrication and applications of PBG materials is presented to provide context for this research. (phd tutorial)

  2. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  3. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Passenger Traffic Fleets in Asian Cities: Technology, Driving Activities, and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Huynh, H. V.; Saikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    The road transport sector is the major emission source of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large Asian cities. This paper comparatively analyzed on-road passenger traffic fleets (cars, buses, taxis, motorcycles), using local data collected in cities of Bangkok (BKK), Kathmandu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Yangon. Surveys were done in 2010-2014 to obtain information on vehicle technology, driving activities (speed, distance, number, and types of starts), traffic density, and fuel characteristics. Large shares of pre-Euro vehicles were still observed, especially for public buses. The most advanced technology was Euro4, which was observed in small shares (traffic jams. Natural gas and LPG had considerable shares in BKK and Yangon while for other cities diesel and gasoline were still the two major fuels used in transportation. Running emission factors (EF) of buses and taxis in Kathmandu were considerably higher than other cities due to its hilly topography, low speeds, high mileage, and less advanced vehicle technologies. The number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people were 400-500 in HCMC and Hanoi (mainly by MC) and in BKK (also by cars), moderate in Kathmandu (200) and the lowest in Yangon (40) because of the MC ban. Annual emissions of the passenger fleets were calculated for each city using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) for 14 species. BC and OC emissions were estimated using their fractions of PM10 emission. Annual emission per capita of toxic air pollutants and GHGs was analyzed. For example, the emission in kg/year/person for CO, VOC, NOx and PM10 in these cities was 24-150 for CO, 0.9-23 for VOC, 2.1-8.2 for NOx and 0.2-1.1 for PM10. The highest per capita emissions of CO and VOC were found for HCMC and the lowest for Yangon, which showed the influence of MC fleet. The per capita emission of Kathmandu was ranked second among the cities. Our results were also analyzed in comparison with the per capita emission estimated

  5. The political economy of negative emissions technologies: consequences for international policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honegger, Matthias; Reiner, David

    2018-01-01

    Negative emissions technologies (NETs), especially bioenergy with carbon capture and storage and direct air capture and storage, have been invoked as necessary to achieve the aspirational 1.5°C target of the Paris Agreement. However, currently their costs are estimated to be very high, NETs do not

  6. The Impact of Near-term Climate Policy Choices on Technology and Emissions Transition Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Jiyong; Edmonds, James A.; Krey, Volker; Johnson, Nils; Longden, Thomas; Luderer, Gunnar; Riahi, Keywan; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of delays associated with currently formulated climate policies (compared to optimal policies) for long-term transition pathways to limit climate forcing to 450ppm CO2e on the basis of the AMPERE Work Package 2 model comparison study. The paper highlights the critical importance of the 2030-2050 period for ambitious mitigation strategies. In this period, the most rapid shift to non-greenhouse gas emitting technology occurs. In the delayed response emissions mitigation scenarios, an even faster transition rate in this period is required to compensate for the additional emissions before 2030. Our physical deployment measures indicate that, without CCS, technology deployment rates in the 2030-2050 period would become considerably high. Yet the presence of CCS greatly alleviates the challenges to the transition particularly after the delayed climate policies. The results also highlight the critical role that bioenergy and CO2 capture and storage (BECCS) could play. If this technology is available, transition pathways exceed the emissions budget in the mid-term, removing the excess with BECCS in the long term. Excluding either BE or CCS from the technology portfolio implies that emission reductions need to take place much earlier.

  7. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  8. Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases 2050: Technological wedges - Input to the Commission on Low Emissions; Reduserte klimagassutslipp 2050: Teknologiske kiler - Innspill til Lavutslippsutvalget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt; Finden, Per; Hageman, Rolf; Stenersen, Dag

    2006-09-15

    The Commission on Low Emissions was established in March 2005 and has been charged with the task of describing how Norway can achieve a 50-80 percent reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The commission describes the desired total reduction in emissions to be a set of actions or 'wedges', meaning that the reduction in emissions are linked to an array of technological and behavioural changes. The technological wedges are described here, while the behavioural wedges are treated in a different report. The potentials described are based on the Low Emission's reference line. Possible changes in the reference line will result in changed potentials. The technological wedges studied comprise to a great extent a potential of 50-80 percent reduction in greenhouse gases by 2050. This depends on considerable effort from research and development, and a determination to change external conditions.

  9. New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Feng; Dou, Zheng-Xia; He, Pan; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Powlson, David; Chadwick, Dave; Norse, David; Lu, Yue-Lai; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Liang; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cassman, Kenneth G; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2013-05-21

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world's population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st century. China's participation is essential to global efforts in reducing N-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because China is the largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N. To evaluate the impact of China's use of N fertilizer, we quantify the carbon footprint of China's N fertilizer production and consumption chain using life cycle analysis. For every ton of N fertilizer manufactured and used, 13.5 tons of CO2-equivalent (eq) (t CO2-eq) is emitted, compared with 9.7 t CO2-eq in Europe. Emissions in China tripled from 1980 [131 terrogram (Tg) of CO2-eq (Tg CO2-eq)] to 2010 (452 Tg CO2-eq). N fertilizer-related emissions constitute about 7% of GHG emissions from the entire Chinese economy and exceed soil carbon gain resulting from N fertilizer use by several-fold. We identified potential emission reductions by comparing prevailing technologies and management practices in China with more advanced options worldwide. Mitigation opportunities include improving methane recovery during coal mining, enhancing energy efficiency in fertilizer manufacture, and minimizing N overuse in field-level crop production. We find that use of advanced technologies could cut N fertilizer-related emissions by 20-63%, amounting to 102-357 Tg CO2-eq annually. Such reduction would decrease China's total GHG emissions by 2-6%, which is significant on a global scale.

  10. Systems for the reduction and control of pollutants emission in cogeneration power plants; Sistemas de controle e reducao de emissoes de poluentes em plantas de cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avellar, Luis Henrique Nobre; Oliva, Vagner Jose; Silveira, Jose Luz; Carrocci, Luiz Roberto [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia

    1997-12-31

    In this article it is shown the main technologies used to control and reduce the pollutant emissions to the atmosphere, originated from the gases generated at the combustion equipment. Other item of this work is to show the limits of the pollutants emissions in many countries, including Brazil, more restringently the Vale do Paraiba region, in the state of Sao Paulo. In the final part of this paper, it`s made a comparison of the energy production costs using natural gas as fuel with the energy production costs using biogas like flue. The energy production costs is calculated for the thermic energy and the electric/mechanical energy showing the influence of the one of the technologies of control and reduction of the pollutant emissions in the generation costs. (author) 7 refs., 4 figs.; e-mail: lavellar at feg.unesp.br

  11. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  12. Long-term implications of alternative light-duty vehicle technologies for global greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, Page; Kim, Son H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses global light-duty vehicle (LDV) transport in the upcoming century, and the implications of vehicle technology advancement and fuel-switching on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands. Five different vehicle technology scenarios are analyzed with and without a CO 2 emissions mitigation policy using the GCAM integrated assessment model: a reference internal combustion engine vehicle scenario, an advanced internal combustion engine vehicle scenario, and three alternative fuel vehicle scenarios in which all LDVs are switched to natural gas, electricity, or hydrogen by 2050. The emissions mitigation policy is a global CO 2 emissions price pathway that achieves 450 ppmv CO 2 at the end of the century with reference vehicle technologies. The scenarios demonstrate considerable emissions mitigation potential from LDV technology; with and without emissions pricing, global CO 2 concentrations in 2095 are reduced about 10 ppmv by advanced ICEV technologies and natural gas vehicles, and 25 ppmv by electric or hydrogen vehicles. All technological advances in vehicles are important for reducing the oil demands of LDV transport and their corresponding CO 2 emissions. Among advanced and alternative vehicle technologies, electricity- and hydrogen-powered vehicles are especially valuable for reducing whole-system emissions and total primary energy. - Highlights: → Alternative-fuel LDVs reduce whole-system CO 2 emissions, even without carbon pricing. → Alternative-fuel LDVs enhance the CO 2 mitigation capacity of the transportation sector. → Electric and hydrogen vehicles reduce whole-system primary energy supporting LDV transport.

  13. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  14. Division of Environmental Control Technology program, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Environmental engineering programs are reviewed for the following technologies; coal; petroleum and gas; oil shale; solar; geothermal and energy conservation; nuclear energy; and decontamination and decommissioning. Separate abstracts were prepared for each technology. (MHR)

  15. Precision Agriculture Technologies Positively Contributing to GHG Emissions Mitigation, Farm Productivity and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Balafoutis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a short description of the technology and the impacts that have been reported in literature on greenhouse gases reduction and the associated impacts on farm productivity and economics. The technologies presented span all agricultural practices, including variable rate sowing/planting, fertilizing, spraying, weeding and irrigation.

  16. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  17. Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atreya, Arvind

    2013-04-15

    -dimensional parameters controlling RFC in furnaces were identified. These are: (i) The Boltzmann number; (ii) The Damkohler number, (iii) The dimensionless Arrhenius number, and (iv) The equivalence ratio. Together they define the parameter space where RFC is possible. It was also found that the Damkohler number must be small for RFC to exist and that the Boltzmann number expands the RFC domain. The experimental data obtained during the course of this work agrees well with the predictions made by the theoretical analysis. Interestingly, the equivalence ratio dependence shows that it is easier to establish RFC for rich mixtures than for lean mixtures. This was also experimentally observed. Identifying the parameter space for RFC is necessary for controlling the RFC furnace operation. It is hoped that future work will enable the methodology developed here to be applied to the operation of real furnaces, with consequent improvement in efficiency and pollutant reduction. To reiterate, the new furnace combustion technology developed enables intense radiation from combustion products and has many benefits: (i) Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions; (ii) Uniform and intense radiation to substantially increase productivity; (iii) Oxygen-free atmosphere to reduce dross/scale formation; (iv) Provides multi-fuel capability; and (v) Enables carbon sequestration if pure oxygen is used for combustion.

  18. Crankcase oils and engine design : system technologies for improving emissions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, B. [Lubrizol Corp., (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This power point presentation provided an overview of how crankcase oil is formulated to meet current demands in emission standards for trucks and cars. Some system approaches were proposed to develop technologies that will meet all the performance demands of internal combustion engines. Most of the critical functions in a lubricant are controlled by the performance of additives. Additives made up 10 to 30 per cent of commercial crankcase oils for passenger cars and heavy duty diesel engines. Dispersants are used to suspend contaminants such as oxidized gasoline fuel products or diesel soot. However, these typically add nitrogen and sometimes boron to the formulation. It was concluded that engine oil chemistry is complex and changes with use, conditions and time. Much of the source of lubricant phosphorus and sulphur is from ZDP which performs several important functions in engine designs. The selection of ZDP type can have an impact on the exposure of after treatment devices to undesirable elements. The function of ZDP could be circumvented with changes to engine hardware and lubricant formulation which may not be compatible with current or past designs. 6 tabs., 11 figs.

  19. ETV TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES: LUBRIZOL ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMS PURIFILTER SC17L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Lubrizol Engine Control Systems Purifilter SC17L manufactured by Lubrizol Engine Control Systems. The technology is a precious and base metal, passively regenerated particulate filter...

  20. How to Collect National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceable Fluorescence Excitation and Emission Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Adam Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary spectrofluorimeters comprise exciting light sources, excitation and emission monochromators, and detectors that without correction yield data not conforming to an ideal spectral response. The correction of the spectral properties of the exciting and emission light paths first requires calibration of the wavelength and spectral accuracy. The exciting beam path can be corrected up to the sample position using a spectrally corrected reference detection system. The corrected reference response accounts for both the spectral intensity and drift of the exciting light source relative to emission and/or transmission detector responses. The emission detection path must also be corrected for the combined spectral bias of the sample compartment optics, emission monochromator, and detector. There are several crucial issues associated with both excitation and emission correction including the requirement to account for spectral band-pass and resolution, optical band-pass or neutral density filters, and the position and direction of polarizing elements in the light paths. In addition, secondary correction factors are described including (1) subtraction of the solvent's fluorescence background, (2) removal of Rayleigh and Raman scattering lines, as well as (3) correcting for sample concentration-dependent inner-filter effects. The importance of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable calibration and correction protocols is explained in light of valid intra- and interlaboratory studies and effective spectral qualitative and quantitative analyses including multivariate spectral modeling.

  1. Greenhouse-gas emissions from biomass energy use: Comparison with other energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.; Norman, N.A.; Gleick, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recently a major new concern has arisen: the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is now generally believed that continued emissions of these gases are current or increasing levels will lead to significant climatic changes with the potential for dramatic, adverse impacts. Since the major anthropogenic source of greenhouse gas emissions is energy production and use, it is essential to future energy policy to understand how energy sources differ with respect to greenhouse gas emissions. Characterizing the greenhouse gas emissions associated with biomass energy use is extremely complicated. It is necessary to consider both the source and alternative use of the biomass material and its alternative disposal (if any), as well as the biomass energy application itself. It is desirable also to consider not just CO 2 emissions, but also CH 4 and N 2 O, both potent greenhouse gases. The authors' analysis shows that in many cases biomass energy use can actually help to ameliorate the greenhouse effect by converting emissions that would have been CH 4 into the less potent greenhouse gas CO 2 . In many cases the beneficial effect is very dramatic. This major new research result should help increase public support for biomass research and development, and for further development of waste conversion technology and installations

  2. Preliminary performance and operating results from the integrated dry NOx/SO2 emissions control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, T.; Schott, G.; Smith, R.; Muzio, L.; Jones, D.; Mali E.; Arrigoni, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Dry NO x /SO 2 Emissions Control System was installed at Public Service Company of Colorado's Arapaho 4 generating station in 1992 in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This full scale 100 MWe demonstration combines low-NO x burners, overfire air, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO x control and dry sorbent injection with humidification for SO 2 control. Operation and testing of the Integrated Dry NO x /SO 2 Emissions Control System began in August 1992 and will continue through mid 1994. Preliminary results of the NO x control technologies show that the original system goal of 70% NO x removal has been easily met and that NO x removals of up to 80% are possible at full load with the combustion and SNCR systems. Testing of the dry sorbent injection system with low sulfur coal began in April 1993 using a calcium-based reagent. A maximum SO 2 removal of 40% has been achieved with duct injection of commercial calcium hydroxide and humidification to a 25 degrees F approach to saturation. Sodium-based dry sorbent injection is expected to achieved up to a 70% SO 2 reduction

  3. The evolution of shipping emissions and the costs of recent and forthcoming emission regulations in the northern European emission control area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Kalli, J.; Kukkonen, J.

    2013-06-01

    An extensive inventory of marine exhaust emissions is presented in the northern European emission control area (ECA) in 2009 and 2011. The emissions of SOx, NOx, CO2, CO and PM2.5 were evaluated using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM). We have combined the information on individual vessel characteristics and position reports generated by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The emission limitations from 2009 to 2011 have had a significant impact on reducing the emissions of both SOx and PM2.5. The predicted emissions of SOx originated from IMO-registered marine traffic have been reduced by 33%, from 322 ktons to 217 ktons, in the ECA from 2009 to 2011. The corresponding predicted reduction of PM2.5 emissions was 20%, from 74 ktons to 59 ktons. The highest CO2 and PM2.5 emissions in 2011 were located in the vicinity of the coast of the Netherlands, in the English Channel, near the South-Eastern UK and along the busiest shipping lines in the Danish Straits and the Baltic Sea. The changes of emissions and the financial costs caused by various regulative actions since 2005 were also evaluated, based on the increased direct fuel costs. We also simulated the effects and direct costs associated with the forthcoming switch to low-sulfur distillate fuels in 2015. According to the projections for the future, there will be a reduction of 85% in SOx emissions and a~reduction of 50% in PM2.5 emissions in 2015, compared with the corresponding shipping emissions in 2011 in the ECA. The corresponding relative increase in fuel costs for all shipping varied between 10% and 63%, depending on the development of the prices of fuels and the use of the sulfur scrubber equipment.

  4. Ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions by stabilized conventional nitrogen fertilizers and controlled release in corn crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The market of stabilized, slow and controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers represents 1% of the world fertilizer consumption. On the other hand, the increase in availability, innovation and application of these technologies could lead to the improvement of N use efficiency in agroecossystems and to the reduction of environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to quantify agronomic efficiency relative index, ammonia volatilization, and CO2 emissions from conventional, stabilized and controlled release N fertilizers in corn summer crop. The experiment was carried out in a corn crop area located in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, without irrigation. All treatments were applied in topdressing at rate of 150 kg ha-1 N. N-NH3 losses from N fertilizers were: Granular urea (39% of the applied N = prilled urea (38% > urea coated with 16% S0 (32% = blend of urea + 7.9% S0 + polymers + conventional urea (32% > prilled urea incorporated at 0.02 m depth (24% > urea + 530 mg kg-1 of NBPT (8% = Hydrolyzed leather (9% > urea + thermoplastic resin (3% = ammonium sulfate (1% = ammonium nitrate (0.7%. Thermoplastic resin coated urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate presented low values of cumulative CO2 emissions in corn crop. On the other hand, hydrolyzed leather promoted greater C-CO2 emission, when compared with other nitrogen fertilizers.

  5. Emerging technologies in microguidance and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Marc S.

    1993-01-01

    Employing recent advances in microfabrication, the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory has developed inertial guidance instruments of very small size and low cost. Microfabrication employs the batch processing techniques of solid state electronics, such as photolithography, diffusion, and etching, to carve mechanical parts. Within a few years, microfabricated gyroscopes should perform in the 10 to 100 deg/h range. Microfabricated accelerometers have demonstrated performance in the 50 to 500 microgravity range. These instruments will result in not only the redesign of conventional military products, but also new applications that could not exist without small, inexpensive sensors and computing. Draper's microfabricated accelerometers and gyroscopes will be described and test results summarized. Associated electronics and control issues will also be addressed. Gimballed, vibrating gyroscopes and force rebalance accelerometers constructed from bulk silicon, polysilicon surface-machined tuning fork gyroscopes, and quartz resonant accelerometers and gyroscopes are examined. Draper is pursuing several types of devices for the following reasons: to address wide ranges of performance, to realize construction in a flat pack, and to lessen the risks associated with emerging technologies.

  6. MATURING ECRF TECHNOLOGY FOR PLASMA CONTROL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALLIS, R.W.; CARY, W.P.; CHU, S.; LOANE, J.L.; ELLIS, R.A.; FELCH, K.; GORELOV, Y.A.; GRUNLOH, H.J.; HOSEA, J.; KAJIWARA, K.; LOHR, J.; LUCE, T.C.; PEAVY, J.J.; PINSKER, R.I.; PONCE, D.; PRATER, R.; SHAPIRO, M.; TEMKIN, R.J.; TOOKER, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 MUTURING ECRF TECHNOLOGY FOR PLASMA CONTROL. Understanding of the physics of internal transport barriers (ITBs) is being furthered by analysis and comparisons of experimental data from many different tokamaks worldwide. An international database consisting of scalar and 2-D profile data for ITB plasmas is being developed to determine the requirements for the formation and sustainment of ITBs and to perform tests of theory-based transport models in an effort to improve the predictive capability of the models. Analysis using the database indicates that: (a) the power required to form ITBs decreases with increased negative magnetic shear of the target plasma, and: (b) the E x B flow shear rate is close to the linear growth rate of the ITG modes at the time of barrier formation when compared for several fusion devices. Tests of several transport models (JETTO, Weiland model) using the 2-D profile data indicate that there is only limited agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results for the range of plasma conditions examined for the different devices (DIII-D, JET, JT-60U). Gyrokinetic stability analysis (using the GKS code) of the ITB discharges from these devices indicates that the ITG/TEM growth rates decrease with increased negative magnetic shear and that the E x B shear rate is comparable to the linear growth rates at the location of the ITB

  7. Recent developments in radiation field control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry has been remarkably successful in reducing worker radiation exposures over the past ten years. There has been over a fourfold reduction in the person-rem incurred for each MW.year of electric power generated: from 1.8 in 1980, to only 0.39 person-rems in 1991 and 1992. Preliminary data for 1993 are even lower: approximately 0.37 person-rem.MW.year. Despite this substantial improvement, challenges for the industry remain. Individual exposure limits have been tightened in ICRP 60 and there will be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts with be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts will be required to meet the industry goals for 1995. Reducing out-of-core radiation fields offer the best chance of continuing the downward trend in exposures. To assist utilities select the most economic technology for their specific plants, EPRI has published a manual capturing worldwide operating experience with radiation-field control techniques (TR-100265). No one method will suffice, but implementing suitable combinations from this collection will enable utilities to achieve their exposure goals. Radiation reduction is generally cost-effective: outages are shorter, manpower requirements are reduced and work quality is improved. Despite the up front costs, the benefits over the following 1-3 years typically outweigh the expenses.

  8. Recent developments in radiation field control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry has been remarkably successful in reducing worker radiation exposures over the past ten years. There has been over a fourfold reduction in the person-rem incurred for each MW.year of electric power generated: from 1.8 in 1980, to only 0.39 person-rems in 1991 and 1992. Preliminary data for 1993 are even lower: approximately 0.37 person-rem.MW.year. Despite this substantial improvement, challenges for the industry remain. Individual exposure limits have been tightened in ICRP 60 and there will be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts with be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts will be required to meet the industry goals for 1995. Reducing out-of-core radiation fields offer the best chance of continuing the downward trend in exposures. To assist utilities select the most economic technology for their specific plants, EPRI has published a manual capturing worldwide operating experience with radiation-field control techniques (TR-100265). No one method will suffice, but implementing suitable combinations from this collection will enable utilities to achieve their exposure goals. Radiation reduction is generally cost-effective: outages are shorter, manpower requirements are reduced and work quality is improved. Despite the up front costs, the benefits over the following 1-3 years typically outweigh the expenses

  9. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  10. Trajectories towards clean technology. Example of volatile organic compound emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belis-Bergouignan, Marie-Claude; Oltra, Vanessa; Saint Jean, Maider [IFREDE-E3i, University Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV, Avenue Leon Duguit, Pessac 33608 (France)

    2004-02-20

    This article is based on the observation that, up until now, corporate investment has been limited in clean technologies despite the will of governmental authorities to stimulate them in order to cope with the demands of sustainable development. The paper deals with the issue of the development of clean technologies and the role of regulations as clean technology promoters. It tries to apprehend the characteristics and specificity of clean technology from both an empirical and a theoretical point of view, so as to understand which are the most favourable (or inversely, the most detrimental) conditions for their development. We use case studies concerning the reduction of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in the chemical and metallurgical industries. These two examples highlight the problems created by the shift from a 'with-solvent paradigm' to a 'solvent-free paradigm' and the way clean technology trajectories may spread within such paradigms. We show that the problem of clean technology development primarily resides in some factors that impede technological adoption, although a strong and mixed incentives framework prevails. Such impediments are sector-specific, leading to different clean technology trajectories among sectors and indicating areas of sectoral intervention that could become the cornerstones of complementary technology policy.

  11. Emission spectra of dimethoxybenzenes by controlled electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Teiichiro; Imasaka, Totaro; Toyoda, Minoru; Tsuji, Masaharu; Ishibashi, Nobuhiko

    1975-01-01

    The emission spectra of o-, m-, and p-dimethoxybenzenes under controlled electron impact excitation (200 eV) were measured in the 220 - 450 nm region at very low pressures. The photoemissions of the excited parent species and such fragment species as H, CH, CO, and CO + were observed and assigned. The relative intensities of the photoemissions of the parent species were compared with those of the fluorescence spectra (photoexcitation) in an n-hexane solution. The excited parent species, H, and CH were concluded to be produced in one-electron processes; however, the CO + species were assumed to be produced in both one- and two-electron processes, and the relative contributions are evaluated. It was concluded that the rate of the predissociation of o-dimethoxybenzene was faster than those of the other two isomers, and the observed characteristics of o-dimethoxybenzene had something to do with this faster rate. (auth.)

  12. Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora T.; Rakke, Jørgen G.

    2015-01-01

    Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about...... minimizing their costs, it is likely that speed and routing decisions will change because of this. In this paper, we develop an optimization model to be applied by ship operators for determining sailing paths and speeds that minimize operating costs for a ship along a given sequence of ports. We perform...... a computational study on a number of realistic shipping routes in order to evaluate possible impacts on sailing paths and speeds, and hence fuel consumption and costs, from the ECA regulations. Moreover, the aim is to examine the implications for the society with regards to environmental effects. Comparisons...

  13. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the mutual benefits of integrating strategies for future energy and transport CO2 emissions control. The paper illustrates and quantifies the mutual benefits of integrating the transport and the energy sector in the case of Denmark. Today this issue is very relevant in Denmark...... due to the high share of fluctuating renewable energy produced in the country. In the future, such issue will apply to other countries who plan to use a high share of renewable energy. In short, the energy sector can help the transport sector to replace oil by renewable energy and combined heat...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  14. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  15. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforc...

  16. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Impacts of Aging Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems have become standard equipment on new trucks. Particle filters can also be installed as a retrofit on older engines. Prior work has shown that exhaust filters and SCR systems effectively reduce BC and NOx emission rates by up to 90 and 80%, respectively (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). There is concern, however, that DPFs may promote the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) and increase tailpipe emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Additionally, urea-based SCR systems for NOx control may form nitrous oxide (N2O), an important contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. The effectiveness of these emission controls has been thoroughly evaluated in the laboratory, but the long-term durability of in-use systems and their impacts on co-emitted species have not been well characterized. To evaluate the in-use performance of DPF and SCR systems, pollutant emissions from thousands of diesel trucks were measured over several years at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pollutants present in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks were measured at high time resolution (≥1 Hz) as trucks passed under a mobile lab stationed on an overpass. Fuel-based emission factors (g pollutant emitted per kg fuel burned) were calculated for individual trucks and linked via recorded license plates to vehicle attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control systems. Use of DPFs reduced the BC emission rate by up to 95% at both locations. SCR systems were more effective at reducing NOx emissions under the uphill, highway driving conditions at the Caldecott Tunnel. The emission rates of co-emitted species NO2, UFP, and N2O depended on driving

  18. Impact of improved technology on industrial greenhouse-gas emissions in developing countries. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    In response to a formal request by the Group of 77 and China, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) initiated a study to identify opportunities to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from energy-intensive industries in developing countries. These sectors currently include iron and steel, petroleum refining, cement, paper and pulp and nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this first phase was to describe: how energy is used in the energy-intensive industries in developing countries today; what current trends indicate for the future; the potential contribution of improved technologies and practices to moving toward more sustainable industrial production in developing countries, and to provide developing countries with an analytical tool for evaluating opportunities to limit industrial greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in their industrial sectors through the transfer of improved technologies and processes. The immediate objectives of Phase 1 were twofold: to provide information to developing countries in the form of an inventory of energy-efficient, best-available technologies and processes that can be used to abate greenhouse-gas emissions in the most energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors as well as cross-cutting measures applicable in a range of sub-sectors, and; to provide an analytical methodology in the form of a software tool that enables the user to evaluate and compare the costs, energy requirements, and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with scenarios of specific technology and process options. To meet these objectives, the first phase of the study comprised: a Report entitled Industrial Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Developing Countries; a Software Package containing, an Industrial Technology Inventory, and an Analysis Tool, and; Industry/country-specific Case Studies. The Report describes current energy use and greenhouse-gas emissions in energy-intensive industries in developing countries, and similar industries exemplifying good

  19. Alignment of policies to maximize the climate benefits of diesel vehicles through control of particulate matter and black carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minjares, Ray; Blumberg, Kate; Posada Sanchez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Diesel vehicles offer greater fuel-efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions at a time when national governments seek to reduce the energy and climate impacts of the vehicle fleet. Policies that promote diesels like preferential fuel taxes, fuel economy standards and greenhouse gas emission standards can produce higher emissions of diesel particulate matter if diesel particulate filters or equivalent emission control technology is not in place. This can undermine the expected climate benefits of dieselization and increase impacts on public health. This paper takes a historical look at Europe to illustrate the degree to which dieselization and lax controls on particulate matter can undermine the potential benefits sought from diesel vehicles. We show that countries on the dieselization pathway can fully capture the value of diesels with the adoption of tailpipe emission standards equivalent to Euro 6 or Tier 2 for passenger cars, and fuel quality standards that limit the sulfur content of diesel fuel to no greater than 15 ppm. Adoption of these policies before or in parallel with adoption of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas standards can avert the negative impacts of dieselization. - Highlights: ► Preferential tax policies have increased the dieselization of some light-duty vehicle fleets. ► Dieselization paired with lax emission standards produces large black carbon emissions. ► Diesel black carbon undermines the perceived climate benefits of diesel vehicles. ► Stringent controls on diesel particulate emissions will also reduce black carbon. ► Euro 6/VI equivalent emission standards can preserve the climate benefits of diesel vehicles

  20. The ecotherm control technology applied to MSWC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, L.B.M. van; Annunziato, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimisation of municipal solid waste combustion (MSWC), processes is an impor tant issue due to the ever-lasting need for emission reduction, more optimal use of raw materials and overall cost reduction. Due to the complexity of the MSWC process, classical optimisa tion strategies will lead to

  1. Nuclear Power Technology With and Without Policies to Limit Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 21st century will see dramatic changes in the global energy system. The precise nature of those changes is impossible to see clearly. Energy supply technologies may become more diverse as the century progresses. That diversity will be driven by both energy supply challenges and by policies such as those associated with climate change. Technology deployment will depend on the outcome of developments in both economic and non-economic dimensions. This paper will explore the economic dimension of the potential nuclear power technology deployment in a future with and without policies to limit fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The analysis is predicated on the presumption that issues associated with safety, health, waste, and weapons are successfully addressed. The potential role of nuclear power will be examined against a background in which other technologies compete for markets.

  2. The potential role of nuclear power in controlling CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Jones, J.E.; Delene, J.G.; Perry, A.M.; Cantor, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power currently reduces CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel burning worldwide by about 8% (0.4 Gt(C)/yr). It can continue to play an important role only if it can grow substantially in the next 50 years. For such growth to occur public confidence will need to improve throughout the world. That might happen if (a) other non-fossil alternatives are inadequate to meet electricity demand growth, (b) the risks to society from global warming are perceived to be very high, (c) nuclear technology improves substantially, and (d) an international institutional setting is devised to manage the nuclear enterprise so that the technology is available to all nations while catastrophic accidents and proliferation of nuclear weapon capabilities are avoided. It seems feasible that the necessary technological and institutional advances can be devised and tested over the next 20 years. It is also plausible that the direct costs of electricity produced by the system would be in the range of 50-100 mills/kWhr (1990 dollars) delivered to the grid. In other words, the direct costs of nuclear power should not be greater than they are today. Achieving such an outcome will require aggressive technical and institutional RD ampersand D performed in a cooperative international setting. If rapid growth of nuclear power can begin again in 15-20 years it could supply 30-50% of world electricity in 50 years and cut CO 2 emission rates by up to 2.5 Gt(C)/yr. This would be a substantial contribution to controlling greenhouse gases, but it is not sufficient. Improved efficiency and various renewable energy sources must also grow rapidly if CO 2 emission rates from electricity generation are to be reduced from the current value of about 2 Gt(C)/yr. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  3. The potential role of nuclear power in controlling CO sub 2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulkerson, W.; Jones, J.E.; Delene, J.G.; Perry, A.M.; Cantor, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power currently reduces CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel burning worldwide by about 8% (0.4 Gt(C)/yr). It can continue to play an important role only if it can grow substantially in the next 50 years. For such growth to occur public confidence will need to improve throughout the world. That might happen if (a) other non-fossil alternatives are inadequate to meet electricity demand growth, (b) the risks to society from global warming are perceived to be very high, (c) nuclear technology improves substantially, and (d) an international institutional setting is devised to manage the nuclear enterprise so that the technology is available to all nations while catastrophic accidents and proliferation of nuclear weapon capabilities are avoided. It seems feasible that the necessary technological and institutional advances can be devised and tested over the next 20 years. It is also plausible that the direct costs of electricity produced by the system would be in the range of 50-100 mills/kWhr (1990 dollars) delivered to the grid. In other words, the direct costs of nuclear power should not be greater than they are today. Achieving such an outcome will require aggressive technical and institutional RD D performed in a cooperative international setting. If rapid growth of nuclear power can begin again in 15-20 years it could supply 30-50% of world electricity in 50 years and cut CO{sub 2} emission rates by up to 2.5 Gt(C)/yr. This would be a substantial contribution to controlling greenhouse gases, but it is not sufficient. Improved efficiency and various renewable energy sources must also grow rapidly if CO{sub 2} emission rates from electricity generation are to be reduced from the current value of about 2 Gt(C)/yr. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Technology for reduced emission of climate gases; Teknologi for reduserte klimagassutslipp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerheim, Hans-Roar [Christian Michelsen Research A/S, Bergen (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    The presentation discusses the emission sources and possible technological measures, describes the KLIMATEK programme, surveys status and results and points out further challenges. Instruments are green taxes and quota systems, regulations and voluntary agreements, research and development and new technology, and flexible implementation mechanisms. In Norway, possible measures can be taken in (1) offshore oil and gas production, (2) refineries and gas processing plants, (3) petrochemical industry, (4) aluminium and ferro-industry, (5) cement production, (6) ammonia production, (7) production of nitric acid, (8) pulp and paper industry, (9) landfills and waste processing, (10) transport.

  5. Study of the technology of the plasma nanostructuring of silicon to form highly efficient emission structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, V. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P. [“Technological Center” Research-and-Production Company (Russian Federation); Pavlov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nanotechnologies in Microelectronics (Russian Federation); Shamanaev, A. A., E-mail: artemiy.shamanaev@tcen.ru [“Technological Center” Research-and-Production Company (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    New methods for silicon nanostructuring and the possibility of raising the aspect ratios of the structures being formed are considered. It is shown that the technology developed relates to self-formation methods and is an efficient tool for improving the quality of field-emission cathodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by increasing the Si–CNT contact area and raising the efficiency of the heat sink.

  6. Technological Improvements for Digital Fire Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Initiative Information Develop and fabricate next generation designs using advanced materials and processes. This will include but is not limited to...component fabrication ; process integration, configuration management, materials development, coatings technology, packaging technology and overall...systems engineering. Prototype and integrated system components shall be produced for developmental test units, production test units and

  7. Canadian CO2 Capture and Storage Technology Network : promoting zero emissions technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This brochure provided information on some Canadian initiatives in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage. There has been growing interest in the implementation of components of CO 2 capture, storage and utilization technologies in Canada. Technology developments by the CANMET Energy Technology Centre concerning CO 2 capture using oxy-fuel combustion and amine separation were examined. Techniques concerning gasification of coal for electricity production and CO 2 capture were reviewed. Details of a study of acid gas underground injection were presented. A review of monitoring technologies in CO 2 storage in enhanced oil recovery was provided. Issues concerning the enhancement of methane recovery through the monitoring of CO 2 injected into deep coal beds were discussed. Storage capacity assessment of Canadian sedimentary basins, coal seams and oil and gas reservoirs were reviewed, in relation to their suitability for CO 2 sequestration. Details of the International Test Centre for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Regina, Saskatchewan were presented, as well as issues concerning the sequestration of CO 2 in oil sands tailings streams. A research project concerning the geologic sequestration of CO 2 and simultaneous CO 2 and methane production from natural gs hydrate reservoirs was also discussed. 12 figs.

  8. Method of gas emission control for safe working of flat gassy coal seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, E. A.; Yaroshenko, V. V.; Kislicyn, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The main problems at intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining are considered. For example, mine Kotinskaja JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass” shows that when conducting the work on the gassy coal seams, methane emission control by means of ventilation, degassing and insulated drain of methane-air mixture is not effective and stable enough. It is not always possible to remove the coal production restrictions by the gas factor, which leads to financial losses because of incomplete using of longwall equipment and the reduction of the technical and economic indicators of mining. To solve the problems, the authors used a complex method that includes the compilation and analysis of the theory and practice of intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining. Based on the results of field and numerical researches, the effect of parameters of technological schemes on efficiency of methane emission control on longwall panels, the non-linear dependence of the permissible according to gas factor longwall productivity on parameters of technological schemes, ventilation and degassing during intensive mining flat gassy coal seams was established. The number of recommendations on the choice of the location and the size of the intermediate section of coal heading to control gassing in the mining extracted area, and guidelines for choosing the parameters of ventilation of extracted area with the help of two air supply entries and removal of isolated methane-air mixture are presented in the paper. The technological scheme, using intermediate entry for fresh air intake, ensuring effective management gassing and allowing one to refuse from drilling wells from the surface to the mined-out space for mining gas-bearing coal seams, was developed.

  9. An introduction to acoustic emission technology for in-process inspection of welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Weld quality monitoring, as it stands today, is primarily done by X-ray radiography and ultrasonic testing which is applied after welding is complete. Acoustic Emission Technique (AET) also presents a possible substitute for weld quality monitoring which can be used during welding. Acoustic signals are generated during welding and the sound waves of weld defects are picked up by using AE sensors. With the introduction of sophisticated instrumentation in AET, it is possible to carry out the test even in noisy shop floor environments. Large number of reports on the subject of acoustic emission in recent years is a clear indication that it is gaining importance in welding industry. The present day status of the acoustic emission technology as an on-line weld quality monitoring technique has been reviewed. This report discusses the technique and system along with the acoustic emission parameters important for weld quality analysis. This also deals with the application of this technique in different welding processes like TIG, resistance, electro slag and submerged arc. It has been reported that monitoring of emission during welding can detect crack formation, crack growth and lack of fusion precisely. Static defects like porosity and inclusion do not generate very strong acoustic signals and are therefore difficult to intercept, but, however, lately they have detected successfully. (author)

  10. Lifestyles, technology and CO2 emissions in China. A regional comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Guan, Dabo

    2009-01-01

    With rapid economic development, higher income levels, urbanization and other socio-economic drivers, people's lifestyles in China have changed remarkably over the last 50 years. This paper uses the IPAT model (where I = Impact representing CO 2 emissions, P = Population, A = Affluence, and T = emission intensity) to analyze how these main drivers contributed to the growth of CO 2 emissions over this time period. Affluence or lifestyle change has been variously recognized as one of the key factors contributing to CO 2 emissions. Through comparative analysis of the development of five regions in China, we trace lifestyle changes since the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949 until 2002. We find that household consumption across the five regions follows similar trajectories, driven by changes in income and the increasing availability of goods and services, although significant differences still exist between and within regions due to differential policies in China and different possibilities for social mobility. There are considerable differences between the southeast and northwest and between urban and rural areas. We also found that technological improvements have not been able to fully compensate for the increase of emissions due to population growth and increasing wealth, which is also in line with results from other studies. Finally, this paper emphasizes that developing countries such as China, which is home to 22% of the world population and a growing middle class, and which is on a fast track to modernization, need to ensure that people's lifestyles are changing towards more sustainable ways of living. China has been investing heavily in infrastructure and thus creating the emissions of tomorrow. Thus investing, for example, in public transport and low energy building today will help reduce emissions in the future and will support more sustainable lifestyles. (author)

  11. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  12. NOx Emission in Iron and Steel Production: A Review of Control Measures for Safe and Eco-Friendly Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Mukhtar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron and steel manufacturing involved preparation of raw materials through processes such as sintering, pelletizing and coke making. During these processes, pollutants such as Sulphur (iv oxides (SO2 Carbon II oxides (CO, Nitrogen oxides (NOX, Volatile organic compounds (VOC and Particulate matter (PM etc. are emitted. The present work is aimed at describing some mitigation technologies of controlling emissions in iron and steel production. The processes involved in the production of iron and steel using Blast Furnace (BF and Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF has been described. The mitigation technologies of controlling emissions were analyzed and discussed with environmental impacts based on the economical and technical factors. In this work, the data presented is based on existing reviews. The combination of low NOX burner (LNB and Selective catalytic reduction (SCR is capable of reducing emission for up to 90% and above. Emissions of other pollutants into the atmosphere as a result of ammonia slip, formation of acids and other gases are harmful to the environment and causes damage to the SCR systems. Installation and operation cost are the major impacts of the SCR technology in the process of iron and steel production.

  13. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  14. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  15. The impact of technology availability on the timing and costs of emission reductions for achieving long-term climate targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, J.; Hof, Andries|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/240412397; Mendoza Beltran, A.; van den Berg, M..; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.; Lucas, P.L.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2014-01-01

    While most long-term mitigation scenario studies build on a broad portfolio of mitigation technologies, there is quite some uncertainty about the availability and reduction potential of these technologies. This study explores the impacts of technology limitations on greenhouse gas emission

  16. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide...

  17. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ingyu; Kim, Enhan; Keum, Dongkwon

    2012-04-01

    To develop the comprehensive environmental radiation management technology, - An urban atmospheric dispersion model and decision-aiding model have been developed. - The technologies for assessing the radiation impact to non-human biota and the environmental medium contamination have developed. - The analytical techniques of the indicator radionuclides related to decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste repository have been developed. - The national environmental radiation impact has been assessed, and the optimum management system of natural radiation has been established

  18. profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    study was to estimate the profitability of application of SLM in the form of soil erosion control technologies by ... of the costs and benefits associated with utilisation of a new technology is as one of the major obstacles to farmers adopting improved technologies. Similarly ..... acceptable financial returns despite increases in.

  19. Fugitive emissions control on dry copper tailing with crushed rock armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    Four inactive copper tailing impoundments totalling 1,900 acres near Ajo in southwestern Arizona were covered on horizontal surfaces with a 2 in. nominal thickness of crushed rock to control particulate emissions. The tailings are typically dominated by sand-sized particles but may also include significant PM 10 fractions towards the centers of the impoundments. The technology was selected by Phelps Dodge Corporation, after investigation of several alternatives, as a permanent and practical cover that essentially eliminates fugitive emissions. It simulates the natural desert pavement that characterizes this arid area of the Sonoran Desert. Rocky overburden was crushed to minus 3 in. diameter and broadcast on dry surfaces of tailing impoundments with all-terrain, balloon-tired spreaders. Stony residues in the rock armor tend to cement together following rainfall, forming a crust that enhances surface stability and erosion control. Slopes with windblown tailing deposition were covered to a nominal 6 in. thickness by conventional dozer pushing and blading of minus 10 in. rock over the sides. Athel trees, planted extensively since 1970 on two of the four inactive impoundments, provided partial control of fugitives, but were subjected to harsh environmental conditions, including abrasion from saltating particles. The rock armor functions as a mulch which is expected to improve water relations for existing vegetation and areas seeded with native species. New surface microenvironments, and the virtual elimination of surface creep and saltation, are expected to support native plant growth under favorable climatic conditions

  20. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European emission control areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N.P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the

  1. Alternative control technologies: Technologies de contrôle non conventionnelles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudgins, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    .... Through different chapters, the various human factors issues related to the introduction of alternative control technologies into military cockpits are reviewed, in conjunction with more technical...

  2. Bank-to-turn control technology survey for homing missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    The potential advantages of bank-to-turn control are summarized. Recent and current programs actively investigating bank-to-turn steering are reviewed and critical technology areas concerned with bank-to-turn control are assessed.

  3. Treatment of rosacea patients with broadband pulse light emission using smooth pulse and photon recirculation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the study. To assess the efficacy and safety of using broadband pulse light emission with smooth pulse and photon recirculation technologies in the treatment of patients suffering from erythematous and papulous subtypes of rosacea. Materials and methods. Sixty rosacea patients (21 male and 39 female at the age of 25-65 including 38 patients with erythematous and 22 patients with papulous subtypes of rosacea underwent treatment using broadband pulse light emission (5-8 treatment sessions. Results. After one month of treatment with broadband pulse light emission using smooth pulse and photon recirculation technologies: 68.4% of patients with the erythematous subtype had clinical recovery, and 31.6% - improvement; 27.2% of patients with the papulous subtype - clinical recovery, 54.5% - improvement, and 18.3% had no effect. After 5 months of treatment most of the patients still had a positive effect of the therapy, yet 21.1% of patients with the erythematous subtype and 11% of patients with the papulous subtype had single telangiectasias, increased erythema and single papules. After 10 months of treatment 44.7% of patients with the erythematous subtype of rosacea had an increase in the number of enlarged vessels, and 18.3% of patients with the papulous subtype had signs of a recurrence of the disease. Conclusion. The use of broadband pulse light emission with smooth pulse and photon recirculation technologies has a multiple, painless and significant effect on large lesions in the treatment of patients suffering from erythematous and papulous subtypes of rosacea.

  4. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  5. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  6. STATE-OF-THE-ART AND EMERGING TRUCK ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OPTIMIZED PERFORMANCE, EMISSIONS AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittler, M

    2003-08-24

    The challenge for truck engine product engineering is not only to fulfill increasingly stringent emission requirements, but also to improve the engine's economical viability in its role as the backbone of our global economy. While societal impact and therefore emission limit values are to be reduced in big steps, continuous improvement is not enough but technological quantum leaps are necessary. The introduction and refinement of electronic control of all major engine systems has already been a quantum leap forward. Maximizing the benefits of these technologies to customers and society requires full use of parameter optimization and other enabling technologies. The next big step forward will be widespread use of exhaust aftertreatment on all transportation related diesel engines. While exhaust gas aftertreatment has been successfully established on gasoline (Otto cycle) engines, the introduction of exhaust aftertreatment especially for heavy-duty diesel engines will be much mo re demanding. Implementing exhaust gas aftertreatment into commercial vehicle applications is a challenging task but the emission requirements to be met starting in Europe, the USA and Japan in the 2005-2007 timeframe require this step. The engine industry will be able to implement the new technology if all stakeholders support the necessary decisions. One decision has already been taken: the reduction of sulfur in diesel fuel being comparable with the elimination of lead in gasoline as a prerequisite for the three-way catalyst. Now we have the chance to optimize ecology and economy of the Diesel engine simultaneously by taking the decision to provide an additional infrastructure for a NOx reduction agent needed for the introduction of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology that is already implemented in the electric power generation industry. This requires some effort, but the resulting societal benefits, fuel economy and vehicle life cycle costs are significantly better

  7. Fine and nanometer scaled particle behavior characterization and control for sustainable energy and environmental technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidehiro Kamiya; Mayumi Tsukada; Wuled Lenggoro; Wladyslaw W. Szymanski [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Characterization and control of fine and nanometer scaled particles are essential technological fundamentals for understanding and development of various approaches concerned with sustainable energy and environmental technology, for example, PM10/PM2.5 and nanoparticle emission, clean and high efficiency power generation systems from biomass and solid waste combustion. The standard measuring methods for PM10/PM2.5 and nanoparticle emission behavior from stationary sources, such as coal-fired power plants and waste incinerators, have been discussed in ISO and numerous countries. However, it is difficult to evaluate the actual emission amount and particle size distribution, such as condensable suspended particulate matter, condensable SPM, which is nucleated and grow during cooling and diluting process from flue to atmosphere. High temperature gas cleaning using rigid ceramic filters is an important technology to develop high efficiency power generation system. In this paper, based on the review of background and recent research works of each subject, mass concentration measurement method of PM10/PM2.5 and size distribution of condensable SPM from stationary sources are introduced. Subsequently, research results with focus on ash adhesion behavior characterization and control for the development of dust collection and gas cleaning technology at high temperature conditions in high efficiency power generation systems by coal, biomass and solid waste combustion are presented. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Control technology for nuclear power system of next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report is the summary of the results obtained by the investigation activities for two years carried out by the expert committee on investigation of control technology for nuclear power system of next generation. The course of investigation is outlined, and as the results, as advanced control technologies, adaptive control. H sub (infinite) control, fuzzy control and the application of autonomous distributed system and genetic algorithm to control; as operation support technology, the operation and monitoring system for nuclear power plants and safety support system; as interface technology which is the basic technology of them, virtual reality, multimedia and so on; further, various problems due to human factors, computer technology, artificial intelligence and others were taken up, and the grasp of the present status and the future subjects was carried out, including the information in international conferences. The items of the investigation are roughly divided into measurement and control technologies, interface technology and operation support, human factors, computer technology and artificial intelligence, and the trend in foreign countries, and the results of investigation for respective items are reported. (K.I.)

  9. PROCESS CONTROL IN THE EDUCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Csontos, lstván; Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics; Marosi, György; Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics; Faigl, Ferenc; Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory practices for demonstrating the importance of advanced process control methods in the organic chemical technologies have been elaborated. It required the development of a system tha tintegrates the advantages of a reaction calorimeter and a model system of industrial controlled reactors. The hardware and software configuration support the transfer of elaborated control programs of reactions from laboratory level to the industrial technology. General control algorithms of diazotizat...

  10. Analysis of motorcycle fleet in Hanoi for estimation of air pollution emission and climate mitigation co-benefit of technology implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Phuong, Mai Thi; Permadi, Didin Agustian

    2012-11-01

    A fleet of over two million motorcycles (MC) in Hanoi is believed to contribute a substantial emission of air pollutants and climate forcers but has not been thoroughly characterized. This study conducted a survey of the MC technologies and activities in Hanoi using questionnaires, GPS monitoring, and video camera in 2008. The data were collected for three typical road types (highways, arterials, residential streets) in 3 zones of the city. Majority of MC in Hanoi were relatively new (3.6 years), had 4-stroke engine, but only 6% was equipped with catalyst exhaust control devices. About 35% of the fleet did not comply with any EURO standards. The MC daily driving was 20 km, mostly done on arterial streets. The main driving features in Hanoi arterials and residential streets were of low speeds with frequent starts/stops and idling. International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model produced adjusted emission factors (EFs) that were compared with the limited available measurement data. The fleet emission was estimated for 2008 as a base case and for two “what-if” faster technology implementation scenarios: scenario 1 assumed that the entire fleet in 2008 conformed at least EURO2 and scenario 2 assumed 100% MC met the EURO3 standard. Total emissions from the fleet in 2008 of CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, PM10, and CH4 were 158, 51.5, 9.5, 0.17, 2.4 and 9.5 kt, respectively. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehydes, formaldehydes and benzene were 0.26, 1.2, 4.9 and 2.1 kt, respectively. Faster EURO3 technology intrusion in scenario 2 would significantly reduce the emission of pollutants (by 53-94%) and climate forcers in CO2-equivalent (53% for 20-year and 38% for 100-year horizon), which tripled the reductions obtained under scenario 1. Substantial co-benefits for air quality and climate forcer mitigation could be achieved by the faster technology implementation.

  11. Control of odour emission in wastewater treatment plants by direct and undirected measurement of odour emission capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarra, T; Giuliani, S; Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

    2012-01-01

    Odour emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be the main causes of disturbance noticed by the exposed population and have relevant impacts on both tourism economy and land costs. Odour impact from WWTPs is generated by primary and secondary odour emissions. Primary odour emissions are related especially to the wastewater type and variability discharged into the sewer and directed to the WWTP, and to the wastewater collection and sewage system. Secondary odours are related to the treatment units of the plant. Several studies describe the key role of primary odour emissions and how they are strongly related to odour impacts of WWTPs. In this way, a opportune characterization of the emission capacity of primary odour could be an effective way to control odour emission in the WWTPs. In this study the odour emission capacity (OEC) of different domestic sewers was described and investigated; a correlation between the OEC and the main physical-chemical parameters of wastewater quality was also carried out. Results of this study identify the optimum conditions for sampling and measuring OEC in wastewaters and define its dependence by wastewater quality. These results can contribute to setting the standards for the maximum odourant content of wastewater that are discharged into the publicly owned sewage system.

  12. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  13. EVALUATION OF INNOVATIVE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND AND HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR U.S. AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of an evaluation of carbon paper adsorption catalytic incineration (CPACI) and fluidized-bed catalytic incineration (FBCI) as control technologies to reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from paint spray booths.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Songolzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  15. Control of processes using isotopic diagnostic's technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Celso; Chaverri, Oscar; Chine, Bruno; Conejo, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The Escuela de Ciencias e Ingenieria de los Materiales of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica, in cooperation with OIEA, develops a project of dowry of capacity oriented to the formation of professionals and equipment for the use of two important technologies of isotopic diagnostic. The first of them is the technology of tracers that operates the unique properties that present different radioactive isotopics like open sources. The second one well known as scanning or profile gamma, uses sealed source, of the some nature that the previous ones, to obtain profiles in different processes and thus to determine its internal condition and operation. The objective of this article is to present both technologies, its benefits and to promote the use in the country [es

  16. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  17. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  18. Cost-effective control of SO2 emissions in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofala, J.; Amann, M.; Gyarfas, F.; Schoepp, F.; Boudri, J.C.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.; Li Junfeng,; Dai Lin, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Gupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to limit the growth of SO2 emissions in Asia, the negative environmental effects of sulphur emissions are likely to further increase in the future. This paper presents an extension of the RAINS-Asia integrated assessment model for acidification in Asia with an optimisation

  19. Fugitive Emission Control for the APE 1236 Deactivation Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    at Tooele Army Depot ( TEAD ) to contain fugitive emissions. A monitoring system was designed and installed to measure and record the effects of...door brought the average pressure to negative and the TEAD furnace into compliance with fugitive emissions requirements. DISCLAIMER: The contents...Pollutants NI National Instruments Corporation RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act TEAD Tooele Army Depot UPS uninterrupted power supply

  20. Reviews on current carbon emission reduction technologies and projects and their feasibilities on ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Zhou, Peilin; Wang, Zhongcheng

    2017-06-01

    Concern about global climate change is growing, and many projects and researchers are committed to reducing greenhouse gases from all possible sources. International Maritime (IMO) has set a target of 20% CO2 reduction from shipping by 2020 and also presented a series of carbon emission reduction methods, which are known as Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Energy Efficiency Operation Indicator (EEOI). Reviews on carbon emission reduction from all industries indicate that, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an excellent solution to global warming. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review of EEDI and EEOI and CCS is conducted and involves reviewing current policies, introducing common technologies, and considering their feasibilities for marine activities, mainly shipping. Current projects are also presented in this paper, thereby illustrating that carbon emission reduction has been the subject of attention from all over the world. Two case ship studies indicate the economic feasibility of carbon emission reduction and provide a guide for CCS system application and practical installation on ships.

  1. Technology for Intensive Poultry Production as a Source of Odour Emissions with Time-Varying Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuneš Radim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology for intensive broiler breeding using deep litter method provides convenient conditions for production of odour substances inside the barn. As a consequence, there are relatively high odour emissions in the breeding area and its surrounding, which has significant impacts on the life quality of both people and animals. The amount of produced emissions increases in time because it is closely related to the amount of poultry droppings accumulated in litter inside the barn. This paper deals with changes in odour intensity depending on time measured since the beginning of broiler fattening. Odour intensity was measured by methods of dynamic olfactometry. The estimated values gradually increased from 45 ouE·m-3 to the highest value of 259 ouE·m-3, which was determined in the final fattening phase (broilers’ age 33 days. The calculated odour substances emission values were in range from 0.02 ouE·s-1·bird-1 at the beginning of fattening up to 0.10 ouE·s-1·bird-1 in the final fattening phase. Odour emissions increased five times during the fattening period.

  2. New trends in emission control in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Radzimirski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses recent changes in the European legislation for exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. It starts with a comprehensive explanation of both the structure and range of applicability of new regulations, such as Euro 5 and Euro 6 for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI for heavy-duty vehicles. Then it introduces the most important issues in in-service conformity and conformity of production for vehicles, describing the latest procedures for performing exhaust emissions tests under both bench and operating conditions. Subsequently, it reports on portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) and their application for assessing the emissions of gaseous and particulate matter alike, under actual operating conditions and in all transport modes. Lastly, the book presents selected findings from exhaust emissions research on engines for a variety of transport vehicles, such as light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as non-road vehicles, which include farm tractors, groundwork and forest machinery, diese...

  3. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2008-05-31

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new

  4. Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Annual Technology Review covers the period from October 1983 to September 1984. Topics reviewed include Nuclear Criticality Information System, nuclear dosimetry, personnel dosimetry, laser chemistry, electric filters and neutron spectrometry. Individual papers are indexed and abstracted for the data base. (DT)

  5. Telescience and payload control support technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, P.; Macavero, E.

    1988-10-01

    Technological options and their utilization scenarios for telescience implementation in manned space stations are outlined. On board and ground based data acquisition systems (SIMD and MIMD architecture, digital signal processing); and real time knowledge based systems to support principal investigators and payload specialists are discussed.

  6. Applying Trusted Network Technology To Process Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhravi, Hamed; Nicol, David

    Interconnections between process control networks and enterprise networks expose instrumentation and control systems and the critical infrastructure components they operate to a variety of cyber attacks. Several architectural standards and security best practices have been proposed for industrial control systems. However, they are based on older architectures and do not leverage the latest hardware and software technologies. This paper describes new technologies that can be applied to the design of next generation security architectures for industrial control systems. The technologies are discussed along with their security benefits and design trade-offs.

  7. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, D. Mike; Ledin, Anna; Lundy, Lian; Holten Lützhøft, Hans-Christian; Wickman, Tonie; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on ‘Source control options for reducing emissions of Priority Pollutants’ (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECSs) were developed and tested within a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCC) to evaluate their potential to reduce the emission of selected Eur...

  8. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimpel, George E; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D; Ragsdale, David W

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Heimpel

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor micro cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, B.

    Spontaneous emission of light can be controlled, cavity quantum electrodynamics tells us, and many experiments in atomic physics demonstrated this fact. In particular, coupling an emitter to a resonant photon mode of a cavity can enhance its spontaneous emission rate: this is the so-called Purcell effect. Though appealing it might seem to implement these concepts for the benefit of light-emitting semiconductor devices, great care has to be taken as to which emitter/cavity system should be used. Semiconductor quantum boxes prove to be good candidates for witnessing the Purcell effect. Also, low volume cavities having a high optical quality in other words a long photon storage time are required. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of such cavities are presented and discussed.We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement for InAs/GaAs quantum boxes in time-resolved and continuous-wave photoluminescence experiments. This is done for two kinds of cavities, namely GaAs/AlAs micropillars (global enhancement by a factor of 5), and GaAs microdisks (global enhancement by a factor of 20). Prospects for lasers, light-emitting diodes and single photon sources based on the Purcell effect are discussed. L'émission spontanée de lumière peut être contrôlée, ainsi que nous l'enseigne l'électrodynamique quantique en cavité, ce fait a été démontré expérimentalement en physique atomique. En particulier, coupler un émetteur à un mode photonique résonnant d'une cavité peut exalter son taux d'émission spontanée : c'est l'effet Purcell. Bien qu'il semble très prometteur de mettre en pratique ces concepts pour améliorer les dispositifs semi-conducteurs émetteurs de lumière, le choix du système émetteur/cavité est crucial. Nous montrons que les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des bons candidats pour observer l'effet Purcell. Il faut par ailleurs des cavités de faible volume ayant une grande qualité optique en d'autres mots un long temps de

  11. Economic, energy and greenhouse emissions impacts of some consumer choice, technology and government outlay options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Dey, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of selected spending options in the Australian economy are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and a range of economic parameters. Six case studies of one current-practice and one alternative, environmentally motivated spending option are carried out, describing consumer choices, technologies and government outlays. The assessment method is based on input-output theory and, as such, enables both the direct and indirect effects of spending to be quantified. In general, the results indicate that pro-environmental objectives, such as reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, are compatible with broad socio-economic benefits, such as increases in employment and income, and reductions in imports

  12. Integrated technology selection for energy conservation and PAHs control in iron and steel industry: Methodology and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Lu, Yonglong; Shi, Yajuan; Wang, Tieyu; Luo, Wei; Gosens, Jorrit; Chen, Peng; Li, Haiqian

    2013-01-01

    Energy conservation and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) control are two challenges for the iron and steel industry, especially where the industry has developed at high speed. How to select appropriate technologies to improve energy efficiency and control pollution from PAHs simultaneously is encountered by both the researchers and the decision makers. This study sets up a framework on technology selection and combination which integrates technology assessment, multiple objective programming and scenario analysis. It can predict proper technology combination for different emission controls, energy conservation targets and desired levels of production. An iron and steel factory in Southwestern China is cited as a case. It is shown that stricter PAHs control will drive the transformation from process control technology to alternative smelting technology. In low PAHs limit, 25% energy reduction is a threshold. Before inclusion of a restraint on energy consumption at 25% reduction, PAHs emission is the key limiting factor for the technology selection; while after inclusion of this restraint, energy consumption becomes the key limiting factor. The desired level of production will also influence the technology selection. This study can help decision makers to select appropriate technologies to meet the PAHs control objectives and energy conservation strategies in energy-intensive industries. - Highlights: ► We predict technical strategy for energy and PAHs reduction in iron and steel mill. ► With low PAHs control objectives, process control technologies are preferable. ► With medium and high PAHs control goals, alternative smelting technology is dominate. ► In low PAHs control objective, 25% energy reduction is a threshold

  13. Radiation processes for the control of NOx/SO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, L.W.; Singh, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of the use of radiation for the treatment of flue gases and identifies areas for additional research. Two different radiation-based processes have been developed for the removal of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide from the flue gases of coal-fired boilers. In the technique developed by the Ebara Corporation and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, ammonia is injected prior to the irradiation step to enhance the process efficiency and to yield a solid ammonium sulphate - ammonium nitrate product that may be used as a fertilizer. The process developed by the Research-Cottrell Corporation uses electron-beam irradiation downstream of a lime spray dryer to remove nitrogen oxides and to enhance the sulphur dioxide removal efficiency. Both of these processes require large quantities of electron-beam power and are currently expected to be more expensive than other available sulphur dioxide emission control technologies. Present emission control regulations in North America do not require the high degree of nitrogen oxide removal provided by the radiation-based processes. Research into the radiolytic oxidation of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide, the radiolytic oxidation of NO x /SO 2 on solid sorbents, and the radiolytic oxidation of NO x /SO 2 in electric fields may lead to the development of more economical radiation treatment processes for flue gases. 44 refs

  14. Proceedings of the 10th world clean air congress. Emissions and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolvanen, M.; Anttila, P.; Kaemaeri, J.

    1995-01-01

    Rapid economical growth and expansion of human population have produced a number of environmental problems with varying geographic dimensions. While local problems remain near the pollution sources, the focus of the scientific community is more and more shifted towards regional, continental and global consequences of air pollutants. The theme of the 10th Clean Air Congress 'Growing Challenges from Local to Global' reflects the growing demand from the scientific and professional community working in air pollution prevention and environmental protection - more and more complex mechanisms should be understood on a growing spatial scale. The 10th World Clean Air Congress addresses in its more than 400 presentations, documented in three Volumes of Proceedings, the history, the present and the potential futures of the air pollution problems. Air has during different times always represented something valuable to people: the logo of the Congress, the octahedron sign, sympolizes the element of air in acient Greek philosophy. Today air quality is not only valued as important, it is a death serious matter. This Volume includes the presentations of the path A 'Emissions and Control' of the Congress. This path deals with issues related to measurement, monitoring and inventories of air pollutants from mobile and stationary sources, and the various ways to control the emissions of acidifying pollutants, air toxics and aerosols, volatile organic compounds, and odours. Integrated approaches to pollution prevention and non-waste technologies in various industrial sectors, have recently obtained special attention

  15. Wireless technology for command control and communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.

    1993-09-01

    There are many different views on exactly what is personal communication services (PCS). But the majority agree that 'integrated access,' 'personalized identification,' and 'mobile roaming' are the themes of PCS. Personalized services means that identification is not based on a terminal but instead on a person. PCS will use digital technology, standard procedures, and air interface for universal roaming. This means a tetherless connection through all the infrastructure for voice, data, image, and video services. The intensive development can be divided into the following four areas: digital cellular or digital PCS, wireless data network services (WWAN, WLAN, WPBX), land mobile radio (LMR), and mobile satellite services (MSS). These areas characterize wireless technology in their own perspectives; possible DOD applications will be discussed.

  16. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  17. technologies: controlling african cassava mosaic virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    par une mouche blanche, sont à l'origine de gros dégâts dans les champs de manioc en Ouganda avec, pour conséquences, des pénuries alimentaires et une famine dans certaines régions. Dans le but de contrôler la maladie et de restaurer la sécurité alimentaire dans le pays, des technologies appropriées doivent être.

  18. Reducing CO2 emissions in temperature-controlled road transportation using the LDVRP model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerf, Helena M.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature-controlled transport is needed to maintain the quality of products such as fresh and frozen foods and pharmaceuticals. Road transportation is responsible for a considerable part of global emissions. Temperature-controlled transportation exhausts even more emissions than ambient

  19. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood...

  20. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  1. Noise-control needs in the developing energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, D.N.

    1978-03-01

    The noise characteristics of existing energy conversion technologies, e.g., from obtaining and processing fossil fuels to power plants operations, and of developing energy technologies (wind, geothermal sources, solar energy or fusion systems) are discussed in terms of the effects of noise on humans, animals, structures, and equipment and methods for noise control. Regulations for noise control are described. Recommendations are made for further research on noise control and noise effects. (LCL)

  2. RFID Based Security Access Control System with GSM Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Adole; Joseph M. Môm; Gabriel A. Igwue

    2016-01-01

    The security challenges being encountered in many places today require electronic means of controlling access to secured premises in addition to the available security personnel. Various technologies were used in different forms to solve these challenges. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Based Access Control Security system with GSM technology presented in this work helps to prevent unauthorized access to controlled environments (secured premises). This is achieved mainly...

  3. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  4. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  5. VOZMOZHNOSTI POVYSHENIYA EFFEKTIVNOSTI UPRAVLENIYA GAZOVYDELENIYEM NA VYYEMOCHNOM UCHASTKE [OPPORTUNITIES TO INCREASE GAS EMISSION CONTROL EFFICIENCY AT THE EXTRACTION SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozyreva Ye.N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of coal deposits is always accompanied by various types of gas manifestations: from quasistatic (methane-inflow of coal mines and sections to dynamic (with increased gas emission, up to sudden outbursts of coal and gas. These phenomena parameters forecast accuracy depends on the study degree of geomechanical and gas-kinetic processes occurring in the massif intense technological disturbances zones. The level of scientific knowledge about the regularities of gas emission dynamics in these conditions determines the gas emission effective control problem solution level. In the article some possible task solutions are shown. On the example of an exact extraction section geological and technological specific features of an inclined seam working with long pillars along the strike are revealed. The results are presented on the design decisions updating to improve the extraction section gas control efficiency. A scheme is proposed for drilling the counter degassing boreholes from the mine opening to the adjacent seams, the lengths of the boreholes, the direction angles and the frequency of drilling are calculated. Usage of such a scheme will help to reduce gas emission from the adjacent underworked seams at the period of the rock pressure relief and that will cause methane inflow reduction into the very zone of air gas exchange “coal face - gob area”.

  6. Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by solar water heating systems and passive technologies in social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Vanessa M.T.; Prado, Racine T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Growing global concern regarding climate change motivates technological studies to minimize environmental impacts. In this context, solar water heating (SWH) systems are notably prominent in Brazil, primarily because of the abundance of solar energy in the country. However, SWH designs have not always been perfectly developed. In most projects, the installation option of the solar system only considers the electric power economy aspects and not the particular characteristics of each climatic zone. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to assess the potential of carbon dioxide reduction with the use of SWH in comparison with electric showers in social housing in several Brazilian climatic zones. The Brazilian government authorities have created public policies to encourage the use of these technologies primarily among the low-income population. The results of this paper indicate that hot climactic regions demonstrate a low reduction of CO 2 emissions with SWH installations. Thus, solar radiation is not useful for water heating in those regions, but it does lead to a large fraction of household cooling loads, implying a demand for electrical energy for air conditioning or requiring the adoption of passive techniques to maintain indoor temperatures below threshold values. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Brazil has created public policies to increase the use of solar water heating in social housing. •We have evaluated the potential for reduction of CO 2 emissions installing solar water heating. •We have found that the coldest regions have the greatest potential for reducing emissions. •Passive technologies for thermal comfort in hot climate households are more useful than solar water heating systems

  7. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  8. Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, K.J. (eds.)

    1988-07-01

    This document describes some of the research performed in the LLNL Hazards Control Department from October 1986 to September 1987. The sections in the Annual report cover scientific concerns in the areas of Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety, Aerosol Science, Resource Management, Dosimetry and Radiation Physics, Criticality Safety, and Fire Science. For a broader overview of the types of work performed in the Hazards Control Department, we have also compiled a selection of abstracts of recent publications by Hazards Control employees. Individual reports are processed separately for the data base.

  9. Clustering biomass-based technologies towards zero emissions - a tool how the Earth's resources can be shifted back to sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravitis, J.; Pauli, G.

    2001-01-01

    The Zero Emissions Research Initiative (ZERI) was founded on the fundamental concept that, in order to achieve environmentally sustainable development, industries must maximize the use of available raw materials and utilize their own wastes and by-products to the fullest extent possible so as to eliminate all emissions into the air, water and soil. Research focuses on what are considered to be four central components of zero emissions biobased industries: (I) integrated biosystems, (II) materials separation technologies, (III) biorefinery, and (IV) zero emissions systems design. In this way, industries may be organized into clusters within one single system, or in interdependent sets of industries. (authors)

  10. Current and advanced NO/sub x/-control technology for coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A NOx-control-technology assessment study of coal-fired industrial boilers was conducted to examine the effectiveness of combustion-modification methods, including low excess air, staged combustion, and burner modifications. Boiler types considered included overfed and underfed stokers, spreader stokers, pulverized-coal and coal-fired cyclone units. Significant variations in NOx emissions occur with boiler type, firing method, and coal type; a relative comparison of emission-control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. Baseline (as-found) emissions from grate-fired stokers were shown to be in the range of 200 to 300 ppM. Similarly, as-found emissions from suspension-fired units were quite low (350 to 600 ppM) as compared to comparably designed utility-sized units. Low excess air was shown to be the most effective method on existing units, reducing emissions by approximately 10%. Evaluation of staged combustion and burner modification, however, were limited due to current boiler designs. Major hardware modification/design and implementation are necessary before the potential of these techniques can be fully evaluated. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion-modification program, including energy considerations, incremental capital and operating costs, corrosion, secondary pollutants, and retrofit potential.

  11. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system. Final report, Volume 1: Public design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, T.; Hanley, T.J.

    1997-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and the Public Services Company of Colorado (PSCo) signed the cooperative agreement for the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System in March 1991. This project integrates various combinations of five existing and emerging technologies onto a 100 MWe, down-fired, load-following unit that burns pulverized coal. The project is expected to achieve up to 70% reductions in both oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. Various combinations of low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), overfire air (OFA) ports, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), dry sorbent injection (DSI) using both calcium- and sodium-based reagents, and flue-gas humidification are expected to integrate synergistically and control both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions better than if each technology were used alone. For instance, ammonia emissions from the SNCR system are expected to reduce NO{sub 2} emissions and allow the DSI system (sodium-based reagents) to achieve higher removals of SO{sub 2}. Unlike tangentially or wall-fired units, down-fired require substantial modification to their pressure parts to retrofit LNBs and OFA ports, substantially increasing the cost of retrofit. Conversely, the retrofitting of SNCR, DSI, or humidification systems does not require any major boiler modifications and are easily retrofitted to all boiler types. However, existing furnace geometry and flue-gas temperatures can limit their placement and effectiveness. In particular, SNCR requires injecting the SNCR chemicals into the furnace where the temperature is within a very narrow temperature range.

  12. Control system in the technological electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boriskin, V.N.; Akchurin, Yu.I.; Bahmetev, N.N.; Gurin, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The special system has been developed for linac control.It controls the electron beam current,the energy and the position,protects the accelerating and scanning systems from the damage caused by the beam;blocks the modulator and the klystron amplifier in the case of intolerable operating modes;regulates the phase and power of the HF signals in the injecting system and also regulates the source power currents in the magnetic system

  13. Predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) for emission control in biomass fired plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnevie, H.; Sarkoezi, L.; Trenkle, S.

    1996-08-01

    An alternative method for estimation of NO x -emissions from biomass fired plants has been investigated. The method, 'Predictive emission monitoring' (PEMS), implicates the creation of a mathematical formula. The formula expresses the relations between NO x -emissions and various operating and external parameters, such as flue gas temperature, excess combustion air and heat load. In this study the applicability of PEMS has been tested for two plants both of type travelling stokers. The most important results of the study are: PEMS is suitable for emission monitoring for some types of biomass fired plants (for example travelling stokers) even if the plant is fired with fuel with varying water content. In most cases it should be sufficient if the relation is based on oxygen level in the flue gas and plant load, with the possible addition of flue gas temperature and/or furnace temperature rate. These parameters are usually measured in any case, which means that no additional investment in instrumentation is necessary. In this study many measured parameters (for example the throttle levels) did not affect the NO x -emissions. A PEMS relation is only applicable for a specific plant and for a fixed validity range. Thus the function should be performed in such a way that it covers the limits of the operating parameters of the plant. Usage of different fuels or drift optimization can only be done within the validity range. Good combustion conditions could be necessary to receive a usable PEMS-function. Before creating the PEMS-function the combustion and the emission levels must be optimized. In plants with very fluctuating combustion, for example fixed stokers, it is possible that PEMS leads to not satisfying results. The total cost for a PEM-function can be calculated to be about 50-70% compared to a CEM during a period of a decade. 8 refs, 13 figs, 15 tabs, 8 appendices

  14. Laser cleaning of steam generator tubing based on acoustic emission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Su-xia; Luo, Ji-jun; Shen, Tao; Li, Ru-song

    2015-01-01

    As a physical method, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect. The experimental apparatus for laser cleaning of heat tubes in the steam generator was designed according to the results of theoretical analysis. There are two conclusions; one is that laser cleaning technology is attached importance to traditional methods. Which has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes. The other is that the acoustic emission signal includes lots of information on the laser cleaning process, which can be used as real-time monitoring in laser cleaning processes. When the laser acts for 350 s, 100 % contaminants of heat tubes is cleaned off, and the sensor only receives weak AE signal at that time.

  15. Laser cleaning of steam generator tubing based on acoustic emission technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Su-xia; Luo, Ji-jun; Shen, Tao; Li, Ru-song [Xi' an Hi-Tech Institute, Xi' an (China)

    2015-12-15

    As a physical method, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect. The experimental apparatus for laser cleaning of heat tubes in the steam generator was designed according to the results of theoretical analysis. There are two conclusions; one is that laser cleaning technology is attached importance to traditional methods. Which has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes. The other is that the acoustic emission signal includes lots of information on the laser cleaning process, which can be used as real-time monitoring in laser cleaning processes. When the laser acts for 350 s, 100 % contaminants of heat tubes is cleaned off, and the sensor only receives weak AE signal at that time.

  16. A Modeled Carbon Emission Analysis Of Rampal Power Plant In Bangladesh And A Review Of Carbon Reduction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gour Chand Mazumder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available todays most important concern of Bangladesh is power generation. Government has planned a 1320 MW coal-fired power station at Rampal near Sundarbans. Environmentalists have indicated that this plant will face environmental issues. So we tried finding the capability of Sundarbans to face carbon emissions. We figured out approximate carbon emission of that power plant using an arbitrary operational model. We found 3.16MKg of carbon emission daily. We used mangroves carbon sequestration rate to calculate the carbon tolerance level of Sundarbans and found approximately 4.2 MKg of carbon per day.The amount of emission we found here is marginal with the ability of Sundarbans as it is already contributing to sequester carbon from other sources. We studied and showed technology wise carbon reductions. It is possible to reduce 90 to 95 carbon emissioby using these technologies. We recommend these advanced technologies to ensure sundarbans environmental safety.

  17. Non-destructive control: technologies, applications and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A description of NDC - nondestructive controls - (acoustic emission, Eddy currents, infrared and thermal, liquid penetrants, magnetic particles, radiographic, ultrasonic, visual and optical techniques) is given with various industrial applications and market trends. Some research projects, contacts and a list of NDC systems main manufacturers are given. (A.B.). 37 figs. and tabs

  18. Research on Emissions, Air quality, Climate, and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana (REACCTING): study rationale and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Katherine L; Kanyomse, Ernest; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Coffey, Evan; Rivera, Isaac J; Adoctor, James; Alirigia, Rex; Muvandimwe, Didier; Dove, MacKenzie; Dukic, Vanja; Hayden, Mary H; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Abisiba, Adoctor Victor; Anaseba, Dominic; Hagar, Yolanda; Masson, Nicholas; Monaghan, Andrew; Titiati, Atsu; Steinhoff, Daniel F; Hsu, Yueh-Ya; Kaspar, Rachael; Brooks, Bre'Anna; Hodgson, Abraham; Hannigan, Michael; Oduro, Abraham Rexford; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2015-02-12

    Cooking over open fires using solid fuels is both common practice throughout much of the world and widely recognized to contribute to human health, environmental, and social problems. The public health burden of household air pollution includes an estimated four million premature deaths each year. To be effective and generate useful insight into potential solutions, cookstove intervention studies must select cooking technologies that are appropriate for local socioeconomic conditions and cooking culture, and include interdisciplinary measurement strategies along a continuum of outcomes. REACCTING (Research on Emissions, Air quality, Climate, and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana) is an ongoing interdisciplinary randomized cookstove intervention study in the Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana. The study tests two types of biomass burning stoves that have the potential to meet local cooking needs and represent different "rungs" in the cookstove technology ladder: a locally-made low-tech rocket stove and the imported, highly efficient Philips gasifier stove. Intervention households were randomized into four different groups, three of which received different combinations of two improved stoves, while the fourth group serves as a control for the duration of the study. Diverse measurements assess different points along the causal chain linking the intervention to final outcomes of interest. We assess stove use and cooking behavior, cooking emissions, household air pollution and personal exposure, health burden, and local to regional air quality. Integrated analysis and modeling will tackle a range of interdisciplinary science questions, including examining ambient exposures among the regional population, assessing how those exposures might change with different technologies and behaviors, and estimating the comparative impact of local behavior and technological changes versus regional climate variability and change on local air quality and health outcomes

  19. Control of technology as a public and private task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhof, P.

    1988-01-01

    In the opinion of the author the control of technology is as well a public as a private task. But due to the constitutional order first of all it is incumbent on the state to control technical installations. This state supervisory function cannot be replaced by private self-control. (WG) [de

  20. Elastic optical networks architectures, technologies, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses challenges and potential solutions surrounding the dramatic yearly increases in bandwidth demand. The editors discuss the predicament surrounding current growth, which is predicted to continue because of the proliferation of disruptive, high bandwidth applications like video and cloud applications. They also discuss that in addition to growth, traffic will become much more dynamic, both in time and direction. The contributors show how large changes in traffic magnitude during a 24-hour period can be observed, as day-time business users have very different demands to evening-time residential customers, and how this plays into addressing future challenges. In addition, they discuss potential solutions for the issues surrounding situations where multiple content and cloud service providers offer competing services, causing the traffic direction to become more dynamic. The contributors discuss that although the WDM transponder technology can be upgraded to 100Gb/s in the short to medium term, ...

  1. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M. H.; Kim, E. H.; Keum, D. K.; Kang, M. J.; Jang, B. W.

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of the study are to development of an urban atmospheric dispersion model and data assimilation technique for improving the reliability, to develop the technology for assessing the radiation impact to biota and the surface water transport model, to develop the analytical techniques for the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites and to assess of the national environmental radiation impact and establish the optimum management bases of natural radiation. The obtained results might be used; for assessing the radiological effects due to and radiological incident in an urban area, for assessing radiation doses on biota for the environmental protection from ionizing radiation with the application of new concept of the ICP new recommendation, for analyzing the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites, and for providing the natural radionuclide database of Korea to international organizations such as UNSCEAR. It can be used for emphasizing relative nuclear safety

  2. Intertemporal Permit Trading for the Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P. [Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, M.S. 6205, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rubin, J. [Margaret Chase Smith Center for Public Policy, Department of Resource, Economics and Policy, The University of Maine, 5715 Coburn, Orono, Maine (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper integrates two themes in the intertemporal permit literature through the construction of an intertemporal banking system for a pollutant that creates both stock and flow damages. A permit banking system for the special case of a pollutant that only causes stock damages is also developed. This latter, simpler case corresponds roughly to the greenhouse gas emission reduction regime proposed by the U.S. Department of State as a means of fulfilling the U.S. commitment to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. This paper shows that environmental regulators can achieve the socially optimal level of emissions and output through time by setting the correct total sum of allowable emissions, and specifying the correct intertemporal trading ratio for banking and borrowing. For the case of greenhouse gases, we show that the optimal growth rate of permit prices, and therefore the optimal intertemporal trading rate, has the closed-form solution equal to the ratio of current marginal stock damages to the discounted future value of marginal stock damages less the decay rate of emissions in the atmosphere. Given a non-optimal negotiated emission path we then derive a permit banking system that has the potential to lower net social costs by adjusting the intertemporal trading ratio taking into account the behavior of private agents. We use a simple numerical simulation model to illustrate the potential gains from various possible banking systems. 24 refs.

  3. Intertemporal Permit Trading for the Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiby, P.; Rubin, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper integrates two themes in the intertemporal permit literature through the construction of an intertemporal banking system for a pollutant that creates both stock and flow damages. A permit banking system for the special case of a pollutant that only causes stock damages is also developed. This latter, simpler case corresponds roughly to the greenhouse gas emission reduction regime proposed by the U.S. Department of State as a means of fulfilling the U.S. commitment to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. This paper shows that environmental regulators can achieve the socially optimal level of emissions and output through time by setting the correct total sum of allowable emissions, and specifying the correct intertemporal trading ratio for banking and borrowing. For the case of greenhouse gases, we show that the optimal growth rate of permit prices, and therefore the optimal intertemporal trading rate, has the closed-form solution equal to the ratio of current marginal stock damages to the discounted future value of marginal stock damages less the decay rate of emissions in the atmosphere. Given a non-optimal negotiated emission path we then derive a permit banking system that has the potential to lower net social costs by adjusting the intertemporal trading ratio taking into account the behavior of private agents. We use a simple numerical simulation model to illustrate the potential gains from various possible banking systems. 24 refs

  4. Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Enginer Emission Control: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to investigate the alternatives for producing a better replacement for the material used in catalytic converter. This paper aims at reviewing the present development and improvement on the catalytic converter used on the reduction of exhaust emission in order to meet the regulations and market demand. The use of new catalyst such as to replace the noble metal material of Platinum (Pt, Palladium (Pd and Rhodium (Rh has been reviewed. Material such as zeolite, nickel oxide and metal oxide has been found to effectively reduce the emission than the commercial converter. The preparation method of the catalyst has also evolved through the years as it is to ensure a good characteristic of a good monolith catalyst. Ultrasonic treatment with combination of electroplating technique, citrate method and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO has been found as the latest novel preparation method on producing an effective catalyst in reducing the exhaust emission.

  5. Technology Of Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Bates, Maynard E.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) for commercial production of organisms, whether plants or animals. Practiced in greenhouses to produce food on nonarable lands. Describes conceptual regenerative system that incorporates biological, physical, and chemical processes to support humans in extraterrestrial environments.

  6. Recombinant DNA technology and insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawright, J.A.; Cockburn, Andrew F.

    1989-01-01

    In the past, the most successful avenue for the use of genetics in insect control has been the employment of the sterile insect technique, in which huge numbers of a species are produced in a factory, sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation and released into the native habitat. this method is suitable for some species, but for logistical, economical, and biological reasons this control technique is not suitable for many economically important species. Our ability to use genetic approaches to cope with the myriad of insect pests will improve in the near future because of progress in the biochemical manipulation of genes. Molecular geneticists have created bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi that have useful new properties, and many of these are being used or tested for commercial use. A reasonable forecast is that a virtual revolution will occur in the way that we currently practice and perceive the genetic control of insects. Using genetic engineering manipulations to develop control techniques for insects of agricultural and public health importance is an exciting prospect and a highly desirable goal

  7. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Locus of Control and Technology Adoption in Developing Country Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Blalock, Garrick; Berhane, Guush

    2017-01-01

    and psychological explanations for the low rates of adoption of profitable agricultural technologies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results highlight that improving farmers’ non-cognitive skills (locus of control) may facilitate technology adoption and agricultural transformation. More generally, the results suggest...

  9. Profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of farmer awareness of costs and benefits associated with the use of sustainable land management (SLM) technologies is one of the major constraints to technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to estimate the profitability of application of SLM in the form of soil erosion control ...

  10. Adaptive Controller Design for Faulty UAVs via Quantum Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyang Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive controller is designed for a UAV flight control system against faults and parametric uncertainties based on quantum information technology and the Popov hyperstability theory. First, considering the bounded control input, the state feedback controller is designed to make the system stable. The model of adaptive control is introduced to eliminate the impact by the uncertainties of system parameters via quantum information technology. Then, according to the model reference adaptive principle, an adaptive control law based on the Popov hyperstability theory is designed. This law enable better robustness of the flight control system and tracking control performances. The closed-loop system's stability is guaranteed by the Popov hyperstability theory. The simulation results demonstrate that a better dynamic performance of the UAV flight control system with faults and parametric uncertainties can be maintained with the proposed method.

  11. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  12. The role of nuclear power in the option zero emission technologies for fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corak, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The energy sector is one of the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions particularly carbon dioxide (CO2) increasing concerns due to their potential risk to induce global warming and climate change. The Parties having signed the Kyoto Protocol in December 1997, committed to decrease their GHG emissions. The Protocol states that countries shall undertake promotion, research, development and increased use of new and renewable forms of energy, of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies and of advanced and innovative environmentally sound technologies. The one significant option that is not specifically mentioned is nuclear energy which is essentially carbon-free. There are a number of technical options that could help reducing, or at least slowing the increase of, GHG emissions from the energy sector. The list of options includes: improving the efficiency of energy conversion and end-use processes; shifting to less carbon intensive energy sources (e.g. shifting from coal to natural gas); developing carbon-free or low-carbon energy sources; and carbon sequestration (e.g. planting forests or capturing and storing carbon dioxide). It must be pointed out that nuclear power is one of the few options that are currently available on the market, competitive in a number of countries, especially if global costs to society of alternative options are considered; practically carbon-free; and sustainable at large-scale deployment. The nuclear power could play significant role in alleviating the risk of global climate change. The main objective of the article is to present sequestration options, their cost evaluation as well as comparation with alternative possibilities of nuclear energy production. (author)

  13. APPLICATION OF MODEM INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE ENTERPRISE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Nikiforov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern technologies of the enterprise control help to make the process of taking decisions more correct and reasonable, promote better understanding of real situations and appropriate response to them.

  14. Numerical simulation of intelligent compaction technology for construction quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Intelligent compaction (IC) technique is a fast-developing technology for compaction quality control and acceptance. Proof rolling using the intelligent compaction rollers after completing compaction can eectively identify : the weak spots and sig...

  15. NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H(sub 2)S, COS, NH(sub 3), HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH(sub 3) with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H(sub 2)S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H(sub 2)S, CO(sub 2), NH(sub 3), and H(sub 2)O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H(sub 2) and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H(sub 2)S/H(sub 2) selectivities and gt;30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials. Alternatively, a regenerable

  16. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  17. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  18. ENSO controls on dust emissions from large ephemeral lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R. G.; Mahowald, N. M.; Eckardt, F.; Ross, S.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral aerosols (desert dust) interact with global climate and biogeochemistry. Recent research has suggested that the most significant sources of mineral aerosols are associated with topographic lows in drylands that contain contemporary or old ephemeral lakes, and that complex relationships may exist between surface water, hydrology and these desert dust sources. Most mineral aerosol emissions are observed in the northern hemisphere. Here, the identification of key processes acting within the dust source areas using remote sensing is far from straightforward; and currently inconclusive. This has implications for the generation and testing of dust emission models, and for estimating the relative impacts of natural and anthropogenic dust emission processes. In the southern hemisphere, dust emissions from a range of relatively discrete dust sources, centred on contemporary ephemeral lake basins, may provide an opportunity to constrain some of the emission processes and forcing mechanisms at regional scales. Research here involves the study of processes occurring within the dust source areas of southern Africa, southern America, and Australia. Using time-series of monthly TOMS, AVHRR, gridded climate data, surface climate data, and occasional gauged hydrological inputs, the relationship between dust emissions and surface processes have been investigated for a 20-year period (1982-2002) for large ephemeral lakes. The sources investigated were: (i) Etosha Pan, Namibia (location: 16oE, 18oS: area c.4800km2), (ii) The Makgadikgadi Pans, Botswana (location: 21oS, 26oE; area c.4480km2 (Ntwetwe Pan) and c.1116 km2 (Sua pan), (iii) Lake Eyre, Australia (location 27oS 137oE, area c.9300km2) and (iv) Salar de Uyuni (area c.10580km2) and Salar de Coipasa (area c.2220km2) located at approx. 20oS 67oW in Bolivia. For most of these lakes, findings show a significant relationship between anomalies in TOMS AI and the timing/extent of inundation; confirming a link between each

  19. Applications of aerospace technology in industry, a technology transfer profile: Contamination control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The strong influence NASA-sponsored research has had on the development of solutions to difficult contamination problems is considered. The contamination control field is comprised of an industrial base, supplying the tools of control; a user base, adopting control techniques; and a technical base, expanding the concepts of control. Both formal and informal mechanisms used by NASA to communicate a variety of technical advances are reviewed and certain examples of the expansion of the user base through technology transfer are given. Issues related to transfer of NASA-generated contamination control technology are emphasized.

  20. Siemens: Smart Technologies for Large Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; BAKANY, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is known to be one of the most complex scientific machines ever built by mankind. Its correct functioning relies on the integration of a multitude of interdependent industrial control systems, which provide different and essential services to run and protect the accelerators and experiments. These systems have to deal with several millions of data points (e.g. sensors, actuators, configuration parameters, etc…) which need to be acquired, processed, archived and analysed. Since more than 20 years, CERN and Siemens have developed a strong collaboration to deal with the challenges for these large systems. The presentation will cover the current work on the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems and Data Analytics Frameworks.

  1. Co-controlling CO2 and NOx emission in China's cement industry: An optimal development pathway study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhao Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is of important practical significance to reduce NOx emission and CO2 emission in China's cement industry. This paper firstly identifies key factors that influence China's future cement demand, and then uses the Gompertz model to project China's future cement demand and production. Furthermore, the multi-pollutant abatement planning model (MAP was developed based on the TIMES model to analyze the co-benefits of CO2 and NOx control in China's cement industry. During modeling analysis, three scenarios such as basic as usual scenario (BAU, moderately low carbon scenario (MLC, and radically low carbon scenario (RLC, were built according to different policy constraints and emission control goals. Moreover, the benefits of co-controlling NOx and CO2 emission in China's cement industry have been estimated. Finally, this paper proposes a cost-efficient, green, and low carbon development roadmap for the Chinese cement sector, and puts forwards countermeasures as follows: first, different ministries should enhance communication and coordination about how to promote the co-control of NOx and CO2 in cement industry. Second, co-control technology list should be issued timely for cement industry, and the R&D investment on new technologies and demonstration projects should be increased. Third, the phase-out of old cement capacity needs to be continued at policy level. Fourth, it is important to scientifically evaluate the relevant environmental impact and adverse motivation of ammonia production by NOx removal requirement in cement industry. Keywords: Cement industry, CO2 abatement, NOx reduction, Co-benefit analysis

  2. International Conference on Systems, Control and Information Technologies 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Systems, Control and Information Technologies 2016. It includes research findings from leading experts in the fields connected with INDUSTRY 4.0 and its implementation, especially: intelligent systems, advanced control, information technologies, industrial automation, robotics, intelligent sensors, metrology and new materials. Each chapter offers an analysis of a specific technical problem followed by a numerical analysis and simulation as well as the implementation for the solution of a real-world problem.

  3. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the emissions was investigated on one of the engines, and the impact of fuel quality on the other, where heavy fuel oil (HFO) with sulphur content 1% and 0.5% and marine gas oil (MGO) with sulphur content 0.1% were used. Furthermore, emissions from one auxiliary engine were studied. The measured EFs for PM mass were in the range of 0.3 to 2.7 g kg-1 fuel with the lowest values for emissions from the combustion of MGO, and the highest values for HFO with a sulphur content of 1%. The PM mass size distribution was dominated by particles in accumulation mode. Emission factors for particle numbers EF(PN) in the range of 5 × 1015-1 × 1017 # kg-1 fuel were found, the number concentration was dominated by particles in the ultrafine mode and ca. 2/3 of the particle number were non-volatile. The most abundant component of the PM mass was organic carbon, making up 25-60% of the PM. The measured EFs for organic carbon (OC) were 0.6 g kg-1 fuel for HFO and 0.2 g kg-1 fuel for MGO. Elemental carbon (EC) made up 10-38% of the PM mass, with no significant differences between HFO and MGO fuels. The concentrations of metals on sampled filters were investigated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and the detected metal elements in exhaust when using HFO was concluded to originate from both the fuel (V, Ni, Fe) and the lubricant (Ca, Zn), while for the case of MGO combustion, most of the metals were concluded to originate from the lubricants. The measured emission factors for sulphate particles, EF (SO2-4), were low, ca. 0.1-0.2 g kg-1 fuel for HFO with 1% sulphur, 0.07-0.09 g kg-1 fuel for HFO with 0.5% sulphur and 0.003-0.006 g kg-1 fuel for MGO. This corresponds to 0

  4. Diffusion-controlled reference material for VOC emissions testing: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S S; Liu, Z; Little, J C; Howard-Reed, C; Nabinger, S J; Persily, A

    2010-10-01

    Because of concerns about indoor air quality, there is growing awareness of the need to reduce the rate at which indoor materials and products emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To meet consumer demand for low emitting products, manufacturers are increasingly submitting materials to independent laboratories for emissions testing. However, the same product tested by different laboratories can result in very different emissions profiles because of a general lack of test validation procedures. There is a need for a reference material that can be used as a known emissions source and that will have the same emission rate when tested by different laboratories under the same conditions. A reference material was created by loading toluene into a polymethyl pentene film. A fundamental emissions model was used to predict the toluene emissions profile. Measured VOC emissions profiles using small-chamber emissions tests compared reasonably well to the emissions profile predicted using the emissions model, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach to create a diffusion-controlled reference material. To calibrate emissions test chambers and improve the reproducibility of VOC emission measurements among different laboratories, a reference material has been created using a polymer film loaded with a representative VOC. Initial results show that the film's VOC emission profile measured in a conventional test chamber compares well to predictions based on independently determined material/chemical properties and a fundamental emissions model. The use of such reference materials has the potential to build consensus and confidence in emissions testing as well as 'level the playing field' for product testing laboratories and manufacturers.

  5. Development of Plant Control Diagnosis Technology and Increasing Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugemoto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Hashizume, Satoru; Kageyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toru

    A plant control diagnosis technology was developed to improve the performance of plant-wide control and maintain high productivity of plants. The control performance diagnosis system containing this technology picks out the poor performance loop, analyzes the cause, and outputs the result on the Web page. Meanwhile, the PID tuning tool is used to tune extracted loops from the control performance diagnosis system. It has an advantage of tuning safely without process changes. These systems are powerful tools to do Kaizen (continuous improvement efforts) step by step, coordinating with the operator. This paper describes a practical technique regarding the diagnosis system and its industrial applications.

  6. Bioelectrochemical approach for control of methane emission from wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shentan; Feng, Xiaojuan; Li, Xianning

    2017-10-01

    To harvest electricity and mitigate methane emissions from wetlands, a novel microbial fuel cell coupled constructed wetland (MFC-CW) was assembled with an anode placing in the rhizosphere and a cathode on the water surface. Plant-mediated methane accounted for 71-82% of the total methane fluxes. The bioanode served as an inexhaustible source of electron acceptors and resulted in reduced substantial methane emissions owing to electricigens outcompeting methanogens for carbon and electrons when substrate was deficient. However, when supplying sufficient organic carbon, both electricity and methane increased, indicating that electrogenesis and methanogenesis could co-exist in harmony. Direct methane emission (diffusion/ebullition) and plant-mediated methane emission were affected by operating conditions. Methanogenesis was significantly suppressed (∼98%) at HRT of 96h and with external resistance of 200Ω, accompanied with improved coulombic efficiency of 14.9% and current density of 187mA/m 2 . Contrarily, change of electrode polarity in the rhizosphere led to more methane efflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollution control technologies applied to coal-fired power plant operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Rozpondek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Burning of fossil fuels is the major source of energy in today's global economy with over one-third of the world's powergeneration derived from coal combustion. Although coal has been a reliable, abundant, and relatively inexpensive fuel source for mostof the 20th century, its future in electric power generation is under increasing pressure as environmental regulations become morestringent worldwide. Current pollution control technologies for combustion exhaust gas generally treat the release of regulatedpollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter as three separate problems instead of as parts of one problem. Newand improved technologies have greatly reduced the emissions produced per ton of burning coal. The term “Clean Coal CombustionTechnology” applies generically to a range of technologies designed to greatly reduce the emissions from coal-fired power plants.The wet methods of desulfurization at present are the widest applied technology in professional energetics. This method is economicand gives good final results but a future for clean technologies is the biomass. Power from biomass is a proven commercial optionof the electricity generation in the World. An increasing number of power marketers are starting to offer environmentally friendlyelectricity, including biomass power, in response to the consumer demand and regulatory requirements.

  8. Optimization of Emissions Sensor Networks Incorporating Tradeoffs Between Different Sensor Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, B.; Klise, K. A.; Laird, C. D.; Ravikumar, A. P.; Brandt, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    In order to comply with current and future methane emissions regulations, natural gas producers must develop emissions monitoring strategies for their facilities. In addition, regulators must develop air monitoring strategies over wide areas incorporating multiple facilities. However, in both of these cases, only a limited number of sensors can be deployed. With a wide variety of sensors to choose from in terms of cost, precision, accuracy, spatial coverage, location, orientation, and sampling frequency, it is difficult to design robust monitoring strategies for different scenarios while systematically considering the tradeoffs between different sensor technologies. In addition, the geography, weather, and other site specific conditions can have a large impact on the performance of a sensor network. In this work, we demonstrate methods for calculating optimal sensor networks. Our approach can incorporate tradeoffs between vastly different sensor technologies, optimize over typical wind conditions for a particular area, and consider different objectives such as time to detection or geographic coverage. We do this by pre-computing site specific scenarios and using them as input to a mixed-integer, stochastic programming problem that solves for a sensor network that maximizes the effectiveness of the detection program. Our methods and approach have been incorporated within an open source Python package called Chama with the goal of providing facility operators and regulators with tools for designing more effective and efficient monitoring systems. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  9. NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

    2001-09-30

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials

  10. Design of coordinated controller in nuclear power plant based on digital instrument and control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shouyu; Peng Minjun; Liu Xinkai; Zhao Qiang; Deng Xiangxin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) is a multi-input and multi-output, no-linear and time-varying complex system. The conventional PID controller is usually used in NPP control system which is based on analog instrument. The system parameters are easy to overshoot and the response time is longer in the control mode of the conventional PID. In order to improve this condition, a new coordinated control strategy which is based on expert system and the original controllers in the digital instrument and control technology was presented. In order to verify and validate it, the proposed coordinated control technology was tested by the full-scope real-time simulation system. The results prove that using digital instrument and control technology to achieve coordinated controller is feasible, the coordinated controller can effectively improve the dynamic operating characteristics of the system, and the coordinated controller is superior to the conventional PID controller in control performance. (authors)

  11. J-shape ventilation system for controlling high gas emission at fully mechanized sub-level caving face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.; Yu, Q.; Miao, X. (and others) [CUMT, Xuzhou (China). School of Mineral and Safety Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Considering the practical condition of No. 5201 fully mechanized sub-level caving face in Wangzhuang Coal Mine of Lu'an Mining Group, and based on the successfully retaining of small section entry along gob side, a method of J-shape ventilation system and its regulating technology were put forward for controlling high gas emission at fully mechanized sub-level caving face. Essentially, the J-shape ventilation system has one intake and two returns for controlling high gas emission according to different gas sources using ventilation measure. Through practical application it is proved that local gas accumulation at coal face and its upper corner can be eliminated by adopting J-shape ventilation system, thus high-production and high-efficiency of fully mechanized sub-level caving face can be also realized. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, D. W.; Lance, M. J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Toops, T. J.

    2017-02-27

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na+K and 5 ppm Ca+Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  13. Assessment of environmental control technologies for Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Texaco coal gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1979-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, supports the Assistant Secretary for Environment in discharging responsibilities for environmental control aspects of technology in use and development. The coal gasification technologies employed by Winkler, Koppers-Totzek (K-T) and Texaco are described. Evaluation of the status of these technologies for control of major environmental pollutants indicates that a minimum risk to the environment is involved. The complete gasification process involves coal storage, coal preparation, gasification, gas cooling, particulate removal, acid gas cleanup, shift conversion, oxygen manufacture, cleanup of waste water and makeup water, and utility operation. The status of each of these technologies with respect to environmental acceptability is discussed. Very little is known about the behavior of trace elements in the K-T, Texaco and Winkler gasification systems. Airborne emissions of trace elements can occur from the utility boiler, and from wind entrainment of discharged residue and stored coal. Ash components are discharged from the gasification processes with gasifier residues and gas-cleanup sludges and residues. The trace element composition of coal is geochemically similar to the makeup of the earth's crust and includes almost all of the elements of the periodic table. The potential hazard from emissions of trace elements is mainly from long-term, low-level exposures to increased atmospheric pollution levels. Discharges from the K-T, Texaco and Winkler processes can be expected to have very minor contributions to atmospheric pollution levels of trace elements. Table 1 summarizes the status of technology and data needs for the different processing steps. The different process areas and their potential for intrusion of the environment are discussed.

  14. Integrated Tools for Future Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis; Thomas, Randy; Saus, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Turbine engines are highly complex mechanical systems that are becoming increasingly dependent on control technologies to achieve system performance and safety metrics. However, the contribution of controls to these measurable system objectives is difficult to quantify due to a lack of tools capable of informing the decision makers. This shortcoming hinders technology insertion in the engine design process. NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a Hardware-inthe- Loop (HIL) platform and analysis tool set that will serve as a focal point for new control technologies, especially those related to the hardware development and integration of distributed engine control. The HIL platform is intended to enable rapid and detailed evaluation of new engine control applications, from conceptual design through hardware development, in order to quantify their impact on engine systems. This paper discusses the complex interactions of the control system, within the context of the larger engine system, and how new control technologies are changing that paradigm. The conceptual design of the new HIL platform is then described as a primary tool to address those interactions and how it will help feed the insertion of new technologies into future engine systems.

  15. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E & P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-09-30

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub X} emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work tests non-production, prototype, mid-pressure fuel valves and begins analysis of these tests. This analysis reveals questions which must be answered before coming to any firm conclusions about the use of the180 psig fuel valve. The research team plans to continue with the remaining pre-combustion chamber tests in the coming quarter. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and a change in strategy is suggested. Although field engines are available to test, it is suggested that the final field testing be put on hold due to information from outside publications during this last quarter. Instead, KSU would focus on related field-testing and characterization in an outside project that will close an apparent technology gap. The results of this characterization will give a more solid footing to the field testing that will complete this project.

  16. Toner display based on particle control technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Toner Display is based on an electrical movement of charged particles. Two types of black toner and white particles charged in the different electric polarity are enclosed between two electrodes. The particle movement is controlled by the external electric field applied between two transparent electrodes. The toner is collected to the electrode by an electrostatic force across the insulating layer to display a black image. The toners can be put back to the counter electrode by applying a reverse electric field, and white solid image is displayed. We have studied on the movement of three color particles independently to display color image in Toner Display. Two positively charged color particles with different amount of charge to mass ratio and negatively charged white particles were enclosed in the toner display cell. Yellow, cyan and white images were displayed by an application of voltage.

  17. Field emission to control tip-sample distance in magnetic probe recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Fèbre, A.J.; Lüttge, Regina; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    An integrated method using field-emission to control the tip-sample distance for non-contact magnetic probe recording is presented, adopting the exponential relation between current and electric field as feedback. I/V characteristics that correspond well to field emission theory are measured using a

  18. Developing a Reference Material for Diffusion-Controlled Formaldehyde Emissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of formaldehyde from building materials can contaminate indoor air and create significant risks to human health. The need to control formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials is made more urgent by the prevailing drive to improve building energy by decreasing ventil...

  19. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  20. Systematic Field Study of NO(x) Emission Control Methods for Utility Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartok, William; And Others

    A utility boiler field test program was conducted. The objectives were to determine new or improved NO (x) emission factors by fossil fuel type and boiler design, and to assess the scope of applicability of combustion modification techniques for controlling NO (x) emissions from such installations. A statistically designed test program was…

  1. Soil physiochemical controls on trace gas emissions for a North Dakota mollisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantification of trace gas emissions and an increased understanding of soil controls on emissions during freeze-thaw cycles are essential to refine climate change models. Six similar, intact soil cores were collected to a depth of 80 cm from an undisturbed prairie in central North Dakota. Trace g...

  2. Control of Atmospheric Emissions in the Wood Pulping Industry, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, E. R.; And Others

    Volume 3 contains chapters 9 through 13 of the final report on the control of atmospheric emissions in the wood pulping industry. These chapters deal with the following topics: sampling and analytical techniques; on-going research related to reduction of emissions; research and development recommendations; current industry investment and operating…

  3. Development and Application of a Virtual NOx Sensor for Robust Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Seykens, X.; Escobar Valdivieso, D.

    2017-01-01

    To meet future emission targets, it becomes increasingly important to optimize the synergy between engine and aftertreatment system. By using an integrated control approach minimal fluid (fuel and DEF) consumption is targeted within the constraints of emission legislation during real-world

  4. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hui; Huh, Young Hwan; Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Ko Ryeo; Cha, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Jae Cheol; Dong, In Sook

    1993-01-01

    This project intends to establish the basic technology of intelligent control and automation to be applied to the next generation nuclear plant. For that, the research status of those technologies is surveyed for various application areas at first. The characteristics and availability of those techniques such as neural network, fuzzy rule based control and reasoning, multimedia, real-time software and qualitative modelling are studied through a series of simulations and experiments. By integrating each technologies studied above, we developed a hierarchical, intelligent control system for an autonomous mobile robot as a test bed. The system is composed of several modules of software and hardware subsystems, which are implemented by use of the intelligent techniques. Through the analysis of the results and experiences, we investigated the feasibility of application of the basic technology to the next generation plant. (Author)

  5. New technology for BWR power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Murata, Fumio.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are facing strong demands for higher reliability and cost-performance in their control and instrumentation systems. To meet these needs, Hitachi is developing advanced control and instrumentation technology by rationalizing the conventional technology in that field. The rationalization is done through the utilization of reliable digital technology and optical transmission technology, and others, which are now commonly used in computer applications. The goal of the development work is to ensure safe, stable operation of the plant facilities and to secure harmony between man and machine. To alleviate the burdens of the operators, the latest electronic devices are being employed to create an advanced man-machine interface, and to promote automatic operation of the plant based upon the automatic operation of individual systems. In addition, the control and instrumentation system, including the safety system, incorporates more and more digital components in order to further enhance the reliability and maintainability of the plant. (author)

  6. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines-Experimental Results for an Advanced, Low-Emissions Combustor Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.; Kopasakis, George; Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; Wey, Changlie

    2012-01-01

    Lean combustion concepts for aircraft engine combustors are prone to combustion instabilities. Mitigation of instabilities is an enabling technology for these low-emissions combustors. NASA Glenn Research Center s prior activity has demonstrated active control to suppress a high-frequency combustion instability in a combustor rig designed to emulate an actual aircraft engine instability experience with a conventional, rich-front-end combustor. The current effort is developing further understanding of the problem specifically as applied to future lean-burning, very low-emissions combustors. A prototype advanced, low-emissions aircraft engine combustor with a combustion instability has been identified and previous work has characterized the dynamic behavior of that combustor prototype. The combustor exhibits thermoacoustic instabilities that are related to increasing fuel flow and that potentially prevent full-power operation. A simplified, non-linear oscillator model and a more physics-based sectored 1-D dynamic model have been developed to capture the combustor prototype s instability behavior. Utilizing these models, the NASA Adaptive Sliding Phasor Average Control (ASPAC) instability control method has been updated for the low-emissions combustor prototype. Active combustion instability suppression using the ASPAC control method has been demonstrated experimentally with this combustor prototype in a NASA combustion test cell operating at engine pressures, temperatures, and flows. A high-frequency fuel valve was utilized to perturb the combustor fuel flow. Successful instability suppression was shown using a dynamic pressure sensor in the combustor for controller feedback. Instability control was also shown with a pressure feedback sensor in the lower temperature region upstream of the combustor. It was also demonstrated that the controller can prevent the instability from occurring while combustor operation was transitioning from a stable, low-power condition to

  7. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reduction in Thai road transport by ethanol bus technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollacoop, Nuwong; Saisirirat, Peerawat; Sukkasi, Sittha; Tongroon, Manida; Fukuda, Tuenjai; Fukuda, Atsushi; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy demand modeling in Thai road transportation sector was developed. ► Such model was used to assess environment impact by ethanol bus technology (ED95). ► Ethanol bus technology (ED95) shows beneficial impacts to Thailand. ► Increase in ethanol demand and decrease in GHG emission in Thailand by ethanol bus. ► Ethanol bus (ED95) has been successfully demonstrated in Thailand. -- Abstract: Over decades, Thailand energy consumption has been concentrated in three main sectors, namely manufacturing, power and transportation. Energy consumption in transportation sector has also been dominated by road transport due to limited coverage by rail and water transportation. Hence, road transport has been a major contributor for greenhouse gas emission in Thailand over recent years. Along with global warming concern throughout the world, Thailand has taken various adaptation and mitigation measures, especially the strong policy push to use carbon–neutral biofuel in transportation sector due to Thailand competitive advantage in agriculture sector. National Renewable Energy Plan (2008–2022) has set challenging targets of 9 and 4.5 million liters/day of ethanol and biodiesel consumption by 2022, respectively. Various blends of ethanol in gasoline (10%, 20% and 85%) and biodiesel in diesel (up to 5%) have been commercially available. However, since current consumption of diesel is twice as much of gasoline, ethanol blend in gasoline would widen the imbalance consumption of gasoline and diesel. The present study however offers an insight into a possibility to use ethanol as diesel substitute. A case study of ethanol bus technology was investigated by recourse to energy demand modeling. Necessary data, such as a number of vehicles (NVs) for various vehicle types, vehicle kilometer of travel (VKT) and fuel economy (FE) were collected, with reasonable assumptions made for those unavailable data, to construct predicative energy demand model. Scenario

  8. Imaging Multimodalities for Dissecting Alzheimer's Disease: Advanced Technologies of Positron Emission Tomography and Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojo, Masafumi; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Sahara, Naruhiko

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in advanced imaging technologies has expanded our toolbox for monitoring a variety of biological aspects in living subjects including human. In vivo radiological imaging using small chemical tracers, such as with positron emission tomography, represents an especially vital breakthrough in the efforts to improve our understanding of the complicated cascade of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it has provided the most reliable visible biomarkers for enabling clinical diagnosis. At the same time, in combination with genetically modified animal model systems, the most recent innovation of fluorescence imaging is helping establish diverse applications in basic neuroscience research, from single-molecule analysis to animal behavior manipulation, suggesting the potential utility of fluorescence technology for dissecting the detailed molecular-based consequence of AD pathophysiology. In this review, our primary focus is on a current update of PET radiotracers and fluorescence indicators beneficial for understanding the AD cascade, and discussion of the utility and pitfalls of those imaging modalities for future translational research applications. We will also highlight current cutting-edge genetic approaches and discuss how to integrate individual technologies for further potential innovations.

  9. Modeling Nitrous Oxide emissions and identifying emission controlling factors for a spruce forest ecosystem on drained organic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongxing; Kasimir, Åsa; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Meyer, Astrid; Klemedtsson, Leif

    2015-04-01

    High Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emission has been identified in hemiboreal forests on drained organic soils. However, the controlling factors regulating the emissions have been unclear. To examine the importance of different factors on the N2O emission in a spruce forest on drained organic soil, a process-based model, CoupModel, was calibrated by the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method. The calibrated model reproduced most of the high resolution data (total net radiation, soil temperature, groundwater level, net ecosystem exchange, etc.) very well, as well as accumulated measured N2O emissions, but showed difficulties to capture all the measured emission peaks. Parameter uncertainties could be reduced by combining selected criteria with the measurement data. The model showed the N2O emissions during the summer to be controlled mainly by the competition between plants and microbes while during the winter season snow melt periods are important. The simulated N budget shows >100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to be in circulation between soil and plants and back again. Each year the peat mineralization adds about 60 kg N ha-1 and atmospheric deposition 12 kg N ha-1. Most of the mineralized litter and peat N is directly taken up by the plants but only a part accumulates in the plant biomass. As long as no timber is harvested the main N loss from the system is through nitrate leaching (30 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and gas emissions (20 kg N ha-1 yr-1), 55% as NO, 27% as N2O and 18% as N2. Regarding N2O gas emissions, our modeling indicates denitrification to be the most responsible process, of the size 6 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which could be compared to 0.04 kg N ha-1 yr-1 from nitrification. Our modelling also reveal 88% of the N2O mainly to be produced by denitrification in the capillary fringe (c.a. 40-60 cm below soil surface) of the anaerobic zone using nitrate produced in the upper more aerobic layers. We conclude N2O production/emission to be controlled mainly by the complex

  10. Research on NC motion controller based on SOPC technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tingbiao; Meng, Biao

    2006-11-01

    With the rapid development of the digitization and informationization, the application of numerical control technology in the manufacturing industry becomes more and more important. However, the conventional numerical control system usually has some shortcomings such as the poor in system openness, character of real-time, cutability and reconfiguration. In order to solve these problems, this paper investigates the development prospect and advantage of the application in numerical control area with system-on-a-Programmable-Chip (SOPC) technology, and puts forward to a research program approach to the NC controller based on SOPC technology. Utilizing the characteristic of SOPC technology, we integrate high density logic device FPGA, memory SRAM, and embedded processor ARM into a single programmable logic device. We also combine the 32-bit RISC processor with high computing capability of the complicated algorithm with the FPGA device with strong motivable reconfiguration logic control ability. With these steps, we can greatly resolve the defect described in above existing numerical control systems. For the concrete implementation method, we use FPGA chip embedded with ARM hard nuclear processor to construct the control core of the motion controller. We also design the peripheral circuit of the controller according to the requirements of actual control functions, transplant real-time operating system into ARM, design the driver of the peripheral assisted chip, develop the application program to control and configuration of FPGA, design IP core of logic algorithm for various NC motion control to configured it into FPGA. The whole control system uses the concept of modular and structured design to develop hardware and software system. Thus the NC motion controller with the advantage of easily tailoring, highly opening, reconfigurable, and expandable can be implemented.

  11. Diesel aftertreatment control technologies in underground mines : the NO{sub 2} issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauda, E.G.; Bugarski, A.D.; Patts, L. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Office of Mine Safety and Health Research

    2010-07-01

    Diesel engines are the main source of exposure for underground miners to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}). The exposure of underground miners to both these pollutants is regulated by the Mine Safety and Health Administration. Improvements have been made in mine ventilation in an attempt to meet more stringent emission limits. In coal mines in the United States, the exposure limits of underground miners to pollutant concentrations determine the ventilation rate specific for certified diesel engines. The ventilation rates are based on the amount of fresh air needed to dilute CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2} in the undiluted exhaust gas to the threshold limit values (TLV). This presentation described the other options available to mine operators to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions. More advanced engine technologies, aftertreatment control strategies and the use of biodiesel fuels can reduce the mass concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM). However, these strategies can also alter tailpipe emissions of NO{sub 2} and an increase in ventilation rate may be required if the concentration of NO{sub 2} exceeds the regulatory enforced limit. The effects of different exhaust aftertreatment technologies were reviewed in this presentation along with ventilation control strategies for underground mining. 43 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Distributed automatic control of technological processes in conditions of weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtenko, A. I.; Merkulov, V. I.; Samoylenko, Y. I.; Ladikov-Royev, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    Some problems associated with the automatic control of liquid metal and plasma systems under conditions of weightlessness are examined, with particular reference to the problem of stability of liquid equilibrium configurations. The theoretical fundamentals of automatic control of processes in electrically conducting continuous media are outlined, and means of using electromagnetic fields for simulating technological processes in a space environment are discussed.

  13. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  14. Advances in control system technology for aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to Control System Technology applied to aerospace and covers the four disciplines Cognitive Engineering, Computer Science, Operations Research, and Servo-Mechanisms. This edited book follows a workshop held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2012, where the today's most important aerospace challenges, including aerospace autonomy, safety-critical embedded software engineering, and modern air transportation were discussed over the course of two days of intense interactions among leading aerospace engineers and scientists. Its content provide a snapshot of today's aerospace control research and its future, including Autonomy in space applications, Control in space applications, Autonomy in aeronautical applications, Air transportation, and Safety-critical software engineering.

  15. Technology of environmental pollution control, 2nd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    The final decade of the 20th century is truly the environmental decade of the century because of the gravity of environmental challenges we are facing. This book covers the environmental spectrum in an attempt to update the reader on new technologies and topics regarding pollution control. Engineers, scientists, plant operators, and students studying the subject of pollution control will use the comprehensive text as a reference for technological advances, regulations, and pollution control. The major disasters witnessed in the last few years, such as the Bhopal gas tragedy, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the Ashland of tank collapse are described in detail

  16. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Annual Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin; Robert Erbes

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop an interoperable set of tools to provide a comprehensive, consistent implementation of cyber security and overall situational awareness of control and sensor network implementations. The operation and interoperability of these tools will fill voids in current technological offerings and address issues that remain an impediment to the security of control systems. This report provides an FY 2012 update on the Sophia, Mesh Mapper, Intelligent Cyber Sensor, and Data Fusion projects with respect to the year-two tasks and annual reporting requirements of the INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology report (July 2010).

  17. Impact of emission control on regional air quality in the Pearl Delta River region, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Xuejiao, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China has been suffering from air quality issues and the government has implemented a series of strategies in controlling emissions. In an attempt to provide scientific support for improving air quality, the paper investigates the concerning past-to-present air quality data and assesses air quality resulting from emission control. Statistical data revealed that energy consumption doubled from 2004 to 20014 and vehicle usage increased significantly from 2006 to 2014. Due to the effect of control efforts, primary emission of SO2, NOx and PM2.5 decreased resulting in ambient concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 decreased by 66%, 20% and 24%, respectively. However, O3 increased 19% because of the increase of VOC emission. A chemical transport model, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality, was employed to evaluate the responses of nitrate, ammonium, SOA, PM2.5 and O3 to changes in NOx, VOC and NH3 emissions. Three scenarios, a baseline scenario, a CAP scenario (control strength followed as past tendency), and a REF scenario (strict control referred to latest policy and plans), were conducted to investigate the responses and mechanisms. NOx controlling scenarios showed that NOx, nitrate and PM2.5 reduced by 1.8%, 0.7% and 0.2% under CAP and reduced by 7.2%, 1.8% and 0.3% under REF, respectively. The results indicated that reducing NOx emission caused the increase of atmospheric oxidizability, which might result in a compensation of PM2.5 due to the increase of nitrate or sulfate. NH3 controlling scenarios showed that nitrate was sensitive to NH3 emission in PRD, with nitrate decreased by 0 - 10.6% and 0 - 48% under CAP and REF, respectively. Since controlling NH3 emissions not only reduced ammonium but also significantly reduced nitrate, the implement of NH3 controlling strategy was highly suggested. The VOC scenarios revealed that though SOA was not the major component of PM2.5, controlling VOC emission might take effect in southwestern PRD

  18. Dust control technology usage patterns in the drywall finishing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry.

  19. Propulsion/flight control integration technology (PROFIT) software system definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, C. M.; Hastings, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Propulsion Flight Control Integration Technology (PROFIT) program is designed to develop a flying testbed dedicated to controls research. The control software for PROFIT is defined. Maximum flexibility, needed for long term use of the flight facility, is achieved through a modular design. The Host program, processes inputs from the telemetry uplink, aircraft central computer, cockpit computer control and plant sensors to form an input data base for use by the control algorithms. The control algorithms, programmed as application modules, process the input data to generate an output data base. The Host program formats the data for output to the telemetry downlink, the cockpit computer control, and the control effectors. Two applications modules are defined - the bill of materials F-100 engine control and the bill of materials F-15 inlet control.

  20. The Impact of Technological Progress in the Energy Sector on Carbon Emissions: An Empirical Analysis from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between technological progress in the energy sector and carbon emissions based on the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC and data from China during the period of 1995–2012. Our study confirms that the situation in China conforms to the EKC hypothesis and presents the inverted U-curve relationship between per capita income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, the inflection point will be reached in at least five years. Then, we use research and development (R & D investment in the energy industry as the quantitative indicator of its technological progress to test its impact on carbon emissions. Our results show that technological progress in the energy sector contributes to a reduction in carbon emissions with hysteresis. Furthermore, our results show that energy efficiency improvements are also helpful in reducing carbon emissions. However, climate policy and change in industrial structure increase carbon emissions to some extent. Our conclusion demonstrates that currently, China is not achieving economic growth and pollution reduction simultaneously. To further achieve the goal of carbon reduction, the government should increase investment in the energy industry research and improve energy efficiency.

  1. The Impact of Technological Progress in the Energy Sector on Carbon Emissions: An Empirical Analysis from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Duan, Keran; Shi, Chunming; Ju, Xianwei

    2017-12-04

    This paper investigates the relationship between technological progress in the energy sector and carbon emissions based on the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) and data from China during the period of 1995-2012. Our study confirms that the situation in China conforms to the EKC hypothesis and presents the inverted U-curve relationship between per capita income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, the inflection point will be reached in at least five years. Then, we use research and development (R & D) investment in the energy industry as the quantitative indicator of its technological progress to test its impact on carbon emissions. Our results show that technological progress in the energy sector contributes to a reduction in carbon emissions with hysteresis. Furthermore, our results show that energy efficiency improvements are also helpful in reducing carbon emissions. However, climate policy and change in industrial structure increase carbon emissions to some extent. Our conclusion demonstrates that currently, China is not achieving economic growth and pollution reduction simultaneously. To further achieve the goal of carbon reduction, the government should increase investment in the energy industry research and improve energy efficiency.

  2. The Impact of Technological Progress in the Energy Sector on Carbon Emissions: An Empirical Analysis from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Duan, Keran; Shi, Chunming; Ju, Xianwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between technological progress in the energy sector and carbon emissions based on the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) and data from China during the period of 1995–2012. Our study confirms that the situation in China conforms to the EKC hypothesis and presents the inverted U-curve relationship between per capita income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, the inflection point will be reached in at least five years. Then, we use research and development (R & D) investment in the energy industry as the quantitative indicator of its technological progress to test its impact on carbon emissions. Our results show that technological progress in the energy sector contributes to a reduction in carbon emissions with hysteresis. Furthermore, our results show that energy efficiency improvements are also helpful in reducing carbon emissions. However, climate policy and change in industrial structure increase carbon emissions to some extent. Our conclusion demonstrates that currently, China is not achieving economic growth and pollution reduction simultaneously. To further achieve the goal of carbon reduction, the government should increase investment in the energy industry research and improve energy efficiency. PMID:29207562

  3. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  4. Recent development of plasma pollution control technology: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Shih Chang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous pollution control, solid and liquid waste treatments have been commercialized based on incineration, catalysis, adsorption, disposal with landfill, etc. More recently technology based on plasmas has become significant due to the advantages such as lower costs, higher treatment and energy efficiencies, smaller space volume, etc. In order to commercialize this new technology, the treatment rate, energy efficiency of treatment, pressure drop of reactor, reusable by-products production rate, must be improved, based on the identifications of major fundamental mechanism of processes, optimizations of reactor, and power supply for an integrated system. In this work, recent development of plasma pollution control technology was critically reviewed and the principle of processes and reactor technologies were outlined. Special attention will be focused on material processing generated pollutants.

  5. The role of the Federal Relighting Initiative in emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, A.K.; Purcell, C.W.; Friedman, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI), under the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), has developed a comprehensive process to assist federal agencies in meeting the nation's energy mandate. This mandate states that federal facilities must use 20% less energy by the year 2000, based on 1985 consumption levels. Because lighting accounts for about 40% of total federal electricity consumption, the FRI was conceived to help reduce energy use in this important area while improving lighting quality and increasing productivity through relighting. Selected federal rules and regulations provide guidance on the types of energy efficiency techniques required, life-cycle costing methods and lighting levels that should be employed to achieve the federal mandate. Although the central focus of this paper is on the environment, this paper takes the perspective that the energy efficiency gains achieved through the FRI would produce both environmental and economic benefits for the United States. For example, improvements in energy efficiency would reduce electricity demand, and would consequently reduce the emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion for power production. These reduced emissions include carbon dioxide, which is associated with the potential for global climate change, and heavy metals, which pose a potential health threat to humans and aquatic ecosystems. Economic benefits of the FRI would include reduced federal expenditures on energy or, possibly, avoiding new power plant construction.This paper begins with a brief overview of the FRI process. Next, current lighting energy use in federal buildings is evaluated and the potential future energy savings achievable through full implementation of the FRI are estimated. The paper then translates these energy savings into avoided emissions of carbon dioxide and heavy metals and into avoided fuel expenditures

  6. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P [eds.

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  7. Controlling the spontaneous emission of a superconducting transmon qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, A A; Schreier, J A; Johnson, B R; Chow, J M; Koch, Jens; Gambetta, J M; Schuster, D I; Frunzio, L; Devoret, M H; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2008-08-22

    We present a detailed characterization of coherence in seven transmon qubits in a circuit QED architecture. We find that spontaneous emission rates are strongly influenced by far off-resonant modes of the cavity and can be understood within a semiclassical circuit model. A careful analysis of the spontaneous qubit decay into a microwave transmission-line cavity can accurately predict the qubit lifetimes over 2 orders of magnitude in time and more than an octave in frequency. Coherence times T1 and T_{2};{*} of more than a microsecond are reproducibly demonstrated.

  8. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assali, S.; Laehnemann, J.; Vu, Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    -blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement...... of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier...

  9. Technologies options for acid-rain control. Book chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Princiotta, F.T.

    1992-01-01

    The report discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed by EPA, selective use of gas to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in coal-fired boilers, and the use of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology

  10. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  11. Negative Emissions Technologies, the Paris Agreement, and the Need for a Human-Rights Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. C. G.

    2016-12-01

    The new Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contemplates that its prospective Parties will balance emissions and sinks by 2050 as a means to effectuate the goal of holding temperature increases to well below 2°C from pre-industrial levels, as well as the more aspirational goal of holding temperature increases to 1.5°C. Most of the IPCC's AR5 scenarios that achieve these objectives contemplate the large-scale deployment of so-called "negative emissions technologies," with an emphasis on bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (BECCS), and to a lesser degree afforestation. BECCS could assuredly help society avoid passing critical climatic thresholds, or address overshoot scenarios in this century and beyond. However, it could also profound implications for food production, the status of forests, access to lands for livelihoods by vulnerable populations, and the integrity of critical ecosystems. This, in turn could have serious ramifications for human rights of some of the world's most vulnerable populations, including the rights to food, water, livelihoods and the benefits of biodiversity. The Preamble to the Paris Agreement acknowledges the need to take into consideration the potential impact of responses to climate change, providing that "Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights." This presentation will outline how application of a human rights-based approach to assessing such options could help to reconcile the objectives of ameliorating potential climatic impacts while protecting the human rights of potentially affected individuals and groups. This will include the potential role of Human Rights Impacts Assessments and potential configuration of HRIAs at the national and international level. It will also briefly suggest how to operationalize this approach within the Paris Agreement framework, including institutional

  12. Application of Autonomous Spacecraft Power Control Technology to Terrestrial Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry M.; Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of the power campus located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio for microgrid development. First, the benefits provided by microgrids to the terrestrial power grid are described, and an overview of Technology Needs for microgrid development is presented. Next, GRC's work on development of autonomous control for manned deep space vehicles, which are essentially islanded microgrids, is covered, and contribution of each of these developments to the microgrid Technology Needs is detailed. Finally, a description is provided of GRC's existing physical assets which can be applied to microgrid technology development, and a phased plan for development of a microgrid test facility is presented.

  13. 76 FR 51901 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ...-21-25 ``Control of VOC emissions from reinforced plastic composites production operations,'' which...)(2).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... material. (A) An October 25, 2010, letter from Robert F. Hodanbosi, Chief Division of Air Pollution Control...

  14. 76 FR 20598 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... version of 3745-21-07 that is contained in Ohio's SIP. (K)(1)--Lists emission units subject to the control... approvable because it is consistent with the control requirements in the prior version of 3745-21-07 that is... control requirements in the prior version of 3745- 21-07 that is contained in Ohio's SIP. IV. Statutory...

  15. Technology in the policy process - controlling nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingridge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The discussion in this book is built around nuclear power. The technology of nuclear power is shown to have features which make it inflexible in the sense that, once built, it is difficult and expensive to control. If inflexible technology is to be avoided, it is crucially important to be able to identify this failing at an early stage in the technology's development, before it has acquired an immunity to political control. Again, this problem is approached through the example of nuclear power, in particular the breeder reactor. The breeder is shown to be even less flexible than today's nuclear technology, because it will have higher capital costs, be of greater capital intensity, longer lead time, larger unit size, and will require more infrastructure for its operation. If this is developed, the breeder will be even less open to political control than the nuclear plant of the present. To put it another way, its planning will be even more open to errors and whatever errors are made will be even more costly than for existing nuclear technology. It is therefore even less of a socially and economically acceptable technology than today's nuclear power. (author)

  16. Control of GHG emission at the microbial community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insam, H; Wett, B

    2008-01-01

    All organic material eventually is decomposed by microorganisms, and considerable amounts of C and N end up as gaseous metabolites. The emissions of greenhouse relevant gases like carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides largely depend on physico-chemical conditions like substrate quality or the redox potential of the habitat. Manipulating these conditions has a great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Such options are known from farm and waste management, as well as from wastewater treatment. In this paper examples are given how greenhouse gas production might be reduced by regulating microbial processes. Biogas production from manure, organic wastes, and landfills are given as examples how methanisation may be used to save fossil fuel. Methane oxidation, on the other hand, might alleviate the problem of methane already produced, or the conversion of aerobic wastewater treatment to anaerobic nitrogen elimination through the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process might reduce N2O release to the atmosphere. Changing the diet of ruminants, altering soil water potentials or a change of waste collection systems are other measures that affect microbial activities and that might contribute to a reduction of carbon dioxide equivalents being emitted to the atmosphere.

  17. Plant-wide modelling and control of nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo

    % of those CO2 equivalents comes from N2O emissions. It becomes therefore relevant, within the context of reducing the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment (WWT) systems, to develop control strategies aimed at the minimization of the emissions of this gas. Till now, few operation strategies have been....... However, in full-scale continuously-aerated wastewater treatment systems such control strategies cannot be implemented. Furthermore, the available control strategies developed for N2O emissions are not online, namely they do not change the operating conditions automatically as a function of on...... environments and a multi-criteria evaluation, taking into account not only the N2O emissions but also the effluent quality and the operational costs, is carried out. This is because the reduction of the carbon footprint of WWT plants cannot be achieved at the expense of worse effluent quality and unreasonably...

  18. Acoustic emission detection for mass fractions of materials based on wavelet packet technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianghong; Xiang, Jianjun; Hu, Hongwei; Xie, Wei; Li, Xiongbing

    2015-07-01

    Materials are often damaged during the process of detecting mass fractions by traditional methods. Acoustic emission (AE) technology combined with wavelet packet analysis is used to evaluate the mass fractions of microcrystalline graphite/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites in this study. Attenuation characteristics of AE signals across the composites with different mass fractions are investigated. The AE signals are decomposed by wavelet packet technology to obtain the relationships between the energy and amplitude attenuation coefficients of feature wavelet packets and mass fractions as well. Furthermore, the relationship is validated by a sample. The larger proportion of microcrystalline graphite will correspond to the higher attenuation of energy and amplitude. The attenuation characteristics of feature wavelet packets with the frequency range from 125 kHz to 171.85 kHz are more suitable for the detection of mass fractions than those of the original AE signals. The error of the mass fraction of microcrystalline graphite calculated by the feature wavelet packet (1.8%) is lower than that of the original signal (3.9%). Therefore, AE detection base on wavelet packet analysis is an ideal NDT method for evaluate mass fractions of composite materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V.

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs

  20. Comparison of pollutant emission control strategies for cadmium and mercury in urban water systems using substance flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revitt, D. M.; Lundy, L.; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    effective for one city (59% reduction of Hg; 39% reduction of Cd) and the other city being most influenced by the presence of efficient advanced wastewater treatment processes (63% reduction of Hg; 43% reduction of Cd). These reductions in receiving water loads are necessarily accompanied by either...... of urban emission control strategies (ECS) with an emphasis on the scientific and technological benefits which can be achieved. Data from the literature, in combination with expert judgement, have been used to develop two different semi-hypothetical case cities (SHCC), which represent virtual platforms...... to be particularly effective for Cd with the potential to further lower the overall emissions by between 16% and 27%. The most efficient protection of the receiving surface water environment is strongly influenced by the city characteristics with the introduction of stormwater treatment practices being particularly...

  1. Synthesis of Carbon Dots with Multiple Color Emission by Controlled Graphitization and Surface Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiang; Qu, Dan; Yang, Dongxue; Nie, Bing; Zhao, Yikang; Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2018-01-01

    Multiple-color-emissive carbon dots (CDots) have potential applications in various fields such as bioimaging, light-emitting devices, and photocatalysis. The majority of the current CDots to date exhibit excitation-wavelength-dependent emissions with their maximum emission limited at the blue-light region. Here, a synthesis of multiple-color-emission CDots by controlled graphitization and surface function is reported. The CDots are synthesized through controlled thermal pyrolysis of citric acid and urea. By regulating the thermal-pyrolysis temperature and ratio of reactants, the maximum emission of the resulting CDots gradually shifts from blue to red light, covering the entire light spectrum. Specifically, the emission position of the CDots can be tuned from 430 to 630 nm through controlling the extent of graphitization and the amount of surface functional groups, COOH. The relative photoluminescence quantum yields of the CDots with blue, green, and red emission reach up to 52.6%, 35.1%, and 12.9%, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CDots can be uniformly dispersed into epoxy resins and be fabricated as transparent CDots/epoxy composites for multiple-color- and white-light-emitting devices. This research opens a door for developing low-cost CDots as alternative phosphors for light-emitting devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Universal CNC platform motion control technology for industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Senlin; Wang Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to the more scanning methods and the higher speed of industrial CT, the higher precision of the motion location and the data collection sync-control is required at present, a new motion control technology was proposed, which was established based on the universal CNC system with high precision of multi-axis control. Aiming at the second and the third generation of CT scanning motion, a control method was researched, and achieved the demands of the changeable parameters and network control, Through the simulation of the second and the third generation of CT scanning motion process, the control precision of the rotation axis reached 0.001° and the linear axis reached 0.002 mm, Practical tests showed this system can meet the requirements of the multi-axis motion integration and the sync signal control, it also have advantages in the control precision and the performance. (authors)

  3. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindra, Navin; Dubey, Brajesh; Dutta, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. - Highlights: • Assessment of odour control technologies for organics processing facilities. • Comparative life cycle assessment of three odour control technologies was conducted

  4. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindra, Navin [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: bkdubey@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Dutta, Animesh [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. - Highlights: • Assessment of odour control technologies for organics processing facilities. • Comparative life cycle assessment of three odour control technologies was conducted

  5. Laser method of acoustical emission control from vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    For limitation of the noise in environment, the necessity occurs of determining and location of sources of sounds emitted from surfaces of many machines and devices, assuring in effect the possibility of suitable constructional changes implementation, targeted at decreasing of their nuisance. In the paper, the results of tests and calculations are presented for plane surface sources emitting acoustic waves. The tests were realized with the use of scanning laser vibrometer which enabled remote registration and the spectral analysis of the surfaces vibrations. The known hybrid digital method developed for determination of sound wave emission from such surfaces divided into small finite elements was slightly modified by distinguishing the phase correlations between such vibrating elements. The final method being developed may find use in wide range of applications for different forms of vibrations of plane surfaces.

  6. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Final report, September 20, 1989--March 20, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.

    1993-03-01

    One of the major obstacles to the successful development and commercialization of a coal-fired residential furnace is the need for a reliable, cost-effective emission control system. Tecogen is developing a novel, integrated control system to control NO{sub x}SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. Under a previous contract with PETC (Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor to control NO{sub x}emission. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emission.

  7. [Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not.

  8. Actual issues of introduction of continuous emission monitoring systems for control of negative impact of TPP to atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrateva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.; Borovkova, A. M.; Loktionov, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    Over the past 3 years there have been significant changes in Russian environmental legislation related to the transition to technological regulation based on the principles of the best available technologies (BAT). These changes also imply control and accounting of the harmful impact of industrial enterprises on the environment. Therefore, a mandatory requirement for equipping automatic continuous emission monitoring systems (ACEMS) is established for all large TPPs. For a successful practical solution of the problem of introducing such systems in the whole country there is an urgent need to develop the governing regulatory document for the design and operation of systems for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions into the air, allowing within reasonable limits to unify these systems for their work with the state data fund of state environmental monitoring and make easier the process of their implementation at operating facilities for industrial enterprises. Based on the large amount of research in the field of creation of ACEMS, which conducted in National Research University “MPEI”, a draft guidance document was developed, which includes the following regulatory provisions: goals and objectives of ACEMS, the stages of their introduction rules of carrying out preliminary inspection of energy facilities, requirements to develop technical specifications, general requirements for the operation of ACEMS, requirements to the structure and elements of ACEMS, recommendations on selection of places of measuring equipment installation, rules for execution, commissioning and acceptance testing, continuous measurement method, method for determination of the current gross and specific emissions. The draft guidance document, developed by the National Research University “MPEI”, formed the basis of the Preliminary national standards PNST 187-2017 “Automatic systems for continuous control and metering of contaminants emissions from thermal electric power stations into

  9. Energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on the adaptive neuro-controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Karandeev, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing evolution of the power system towards a Smart Grid implies an important role of intelligent technologies, but poses strict requirements on their control schemes to preserve stability and controllability. This paper presents the adaptive neuro-controller for the vector control of induction motor within Smart Gird. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on adaptive neuro-controller are verified by simulation results at different operating conditions over a wide speed range of induction motor.

  10. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogash, Kevin [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Air Products carried out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications” with subcontractors Ceramatec, Penn State, and WorleyParsons. The scope of work under this award was aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration-scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). Specific activities will help to enable design and construction of the ODF through advancement of a number of challenging technical elements that are required to manage risk in the initial deployment of ITM technology. Major objectives of the work included developing ITM Oxygen ceramic membrane materials with improved performance and reliability, optimizing ceramic module geometry and fabrication methods, testing module performance, trialing the improved fabrication process at commercial scale in the Ceramic Membrane Module Fabrication Facility (CerFab), and advancing engineering development of the ITM oxygen production process, including vessel design and contaminant control measures to prepare for deployment of the ODF. The comprehensive report that follows details the team’s work, which includes several notable accomplishments: 1) compressive creep, a likely limiter of ceramic module lifetime in service, was demonstrated to be retarded by an order of magnitude by changes in material formulation, module joining dimensions, and internal wafer geometry; 2) two promising new materials were shown to be superior to the incumbent ITM material in a key material parameter related to oxygen flux; 3) module degradation mechanisms were identified following operation in large pilot-scale equipment; 4) options for utilizing ITM in a coal-to-liquids (CTL) facility to enable liquids production with carbon capture were identified and studied; and 5) the benefits of potential improvements to the technology

  11. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogash, Kevin

    2015-12-15

    Air Products carried out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications” with subcontractors Ceramatec, Penn State, and WorleyParsons. The scope of work under this award was aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration-scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). Specific activities will help to enable design and construction of the ODF through advancement of a number of challenging technical elements that are required to manage risk in the initial deployment of ITM technology. Major objectives of the work included developing ITM Oxygen ceramic membrane materials with improved performance and reliability, optimizing ceramic module geometry and fabrication methods, testing module performance, trialing the improved fabrication process at commercial scale in the Ceramic Membrane Module Fabrication Facility (CerFab), and advancing engineering development of the ITM oxygen production process, including vessel design and contaminant control measures to prepare for deployment of the ODF. The comprehensive report that follows details the team’s work, which includes several notable accomplishments: 1) compressive creep, a likely limiter of ceramic module lifetime in service, was demonstrated to be retarded by an order of magnitude by changes in material formulation, module joining dimensions, and internal wafer geometry; 2) two promising new materials were shown to be superior to the incumbent ITM material in a key material parameter related to oxygen flux; 3) module degradation mechanisms were identified following operation in large pilot-scale equipment; 4) options for utilizing ITM in a coal-to-liquids (CTL) facility to enable liquids production with carbon capture were identified and studied; and 5) the benefits of potential improvements to the technology

  12. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Arens, Marlene [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-31

    Iron and steel manufacturing is among the most energy-intensive industries and accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. The ongoing increase in world steel demand means that this industry’s energy use and CO2 emissions continue to grow, so there is significant incentive to develop, commercialize and adopt emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for steel production. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the steel industry that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on 56 emerging iron and steel industry technologies, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, steel companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status; we also identify references for more information.

  13. Applying Distributed Object Technology to Distributed Embedded Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Dalgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our Java RMI inspired Object Request Broker architecture MicroRMI for use with networked embedded devices. MicroRMI relieves the software developer from the tedious and error-prone job of writing communication protocols for interacting with such embedded devices. MicroR...... in developing control systems for distributed embedded platforms possessing severe resource restrictions.......RMI supports easy integration of high-level application specific control logic with low-level device specific control logic. Our experience from applying MicroRMI in the context of a distributed robotics control application, clearly demonstrates that it is feasible to use distributed object technology...