WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology electrical equipment

  1. Technological Process and Equipment for Electric-local Softening Soil of Different Strength and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizun, A.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric-discharge technology for soil local softening is developed; the pre-production model of mobile high-energy electric-discharge generator with the controlled energy release is produced. Application of the proposed equipment and technology will allow essentially reduce construction materials and cost of the installation and construction works, in particular, capital investments in alternative energy, industrial, residential construction, and hydraulic engineering in general.

  2. Electric Ground Support Equipment Advanced Battery Technology Demonstration Project at the Ontario Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Jeremy Diez; Jeffrey Wishart; James Francfort

    2013-07-01

    The intent of the electric Ground Support Equipment (eGSE) demonstration is to evaluate the day-to-day vehicle performance of electric baggage tractors using two advanced battery technologies to demonstrate possible replacements for the flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries utilized throughout the industry. These advanced battery technologies have the potential to resolve barriers to the widespread adoption of eGSE deployment. Validation testing had not previously been performed within fleet operations to determine if the performance of current advanced batteries is sufficient to withstand the duty cycle of electric baggage tractors. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. The demonstration project also grew the relationship with Southwest Airlines (SWA), our demonstration partner at Ontario International Airport (ONT), located in Ontario, California. The results of this study have encouraged a proposal for a future demonstration project with SWA.

  3. Sustainable energy conversion for electricity and coproducts principles, technologies, and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Provides an introduction to energy systems going on to describe various forms of energy sources Provides a comprehensive and a fundamental approach to the study of sustainable fuel conversion for the generation of electricity and for coproducing synthetic fuels and chemicals Covers the underlying principles of physics and their application to engineering including thermodynamics of combustion and power cycles, fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer Details the coproduction of fuels and chemicals including key equipment used in synthesis and specific examples of coproduction in integrated

  4. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  5. Development and Prospect of Installation Technology of Electrical and Mechanical Equipment in Hydropower Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yuanchu

    2005-01-01

    The hydropower installed capacity in China exceeded 100 GW by the end of 2004. With the develop-ment of hydropower construction cause, the contingents of electrical and mechanical installation also grew steadily.The installation and debugging techniques made great strides in aspects of different conventional hydrogeneratorsets, reversible pumped-storage units and their rotor spiders, runners, bearings, penstocks as well as controlequipment, such as computerized governors, intelligent monitoring devices. Major technical innovations werebrought about in the electrical and mechanical installation. For an arduous task to construct hydropower projectsof over 50 GW confronts hydropower installation enterprises at the beginning of 21 st century, the installationtechnologies will certainly develop around the projects.

  6. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  7. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  8. Japanese National Safety Standards for Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junkichi Sumiya

    2006-01-01

    @@ I am working in Japan electrical safety & environment technology laboratory, which is called JET for short. In JET, we are carrying out the safety test of electrical equipment according to Japanese domestic standards or IEC standards. And in my section, our stuff is drafting some national safety standards harmonized with IEC in cooperation with the government. The standards are applied for the mandatory regulation and other schemes.

  9. 30 CFR 77.1914 - Electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical equipment. 77.1914 Section 77.1914... Shaft Sinking § 77.1914 Electrical equipment. (a) Electric equipment employed below the collar of a.... (b) The insulation of all electric conductors employed below the collar of any slope or shaft...

  10. Electrical Appliances and other Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    After some reflection on the efficiency concept, the paper first outlines how the most important electrical end-use technologies, used in households as well as in many service institutions, can be designed to consume much less energy than they do today. This is based on techno-physical analyses...... combined with some consideration on the future human need for the energy service output from the technologies. On the above basis is suggested one set of energy services, which a family in a cold climate can enjoy from just annually consuming 250 kWh of electricity per person. This is actually sufficient......-use technologies, are here suggested progressive electricity taxes, followed by critical reflections on the use of energy suppliers to promote selling less energy. Finally are suggested how research can be most effective and useful by being more interdisciplinary and less dependent on business interests...

  11. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husler, R.O. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Weir, T.J. (Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  12. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  13. Electrical Appliances and other Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    -use technologies, are here suggested progressive electricity taxes, followed by critical reflections on the use of energy suppliers to promote selling less energy. Finally are suggested how research can be most effective and useful by being more interdisciplinary and less dependent on business interests...

  14. Electrical installation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Electrical Installation Technology, Third Edition covers the wide range of subjects that come under the headings of electrical science, installations, and regulations. The book discusses electromagnetism; inductance; static electricity; d.c. circuits; voltage drop and current rating; distribution; and wiring techniques. The text also describes o.c. motors and generators; a.c. motors, transformers; power-factor improvement; earthing and earth-leakage protection; testing; illumination; and the general principles of temperature and heat. Communication systems and equipment; electronics; and site

  15. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  16. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  17. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husler, R.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Weir, T.J. [Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  18. Electrical Ground Support Equipment Fabrication, Specification for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Erik C.

    2014-01-01

    This document specifies parts, materials, and processes used in the fabrication, maintenance, repair, and procurement of electrical and electronic control and monitoring equipment associated with ground support equipment (GSE) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  19. Environmentally conscious management of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Prades Costa, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Rapid technological change, low initial cost, and the fast obsolescence of the electrical and electronic equipments have resulted in a fast‐growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Electronic waste, e‐waste, e‐scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, broken, electrical or electronic devices. The processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems because electronic...

  20. NAFTA opportunities: Electrical equipment and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provides significant commercial opportunities in Mexico and Canada for the United States electric equipment and power generation industries, through increased goods and services exports to the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) and through new U.S. investment in electricity generation facilities in Mexico. Canada and Mexico are the United States' two largest export markets for electrical equipment with exports of $1.53 billion and $1.51 billion, respectively, in 1992. Canadian and Mexican markets represent approximately 47 percent of total U.S. exports of electric equipment. The report presents an economic analysis of the section.

  1. 46 CFR 153.466 - Electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical equipment. 153.466 Section 153.466 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.466 Electrical equipment. A tankship carrying...

  2. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  3. Analysis of Application of Installation Technology of Building Automation Electrical and Mechanical Equipment%建筑自动化机电设备安装技术探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海洋

    2016-01-01

    文章主要研究建筑自动化机电设备安装技术,介绍了建筑自动化机电设备的特点和现阶段机电设备安装施工中存在的问题,并对建筑自动化机电设备安装技术进行了讨论。%The paper mainly researches building automation electrical and mechanical equipment installation technology,in-troduces the features of building automation mechanical and electrical equipment and the present problems existing in the electri-cal and mechanical equipment installation construction,and discusses the technology of building automation electrical and me-chanical equipment installation.

  4. [Equipment and technology in robotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan; Challacombe, Ben; Nedas, Tim; Elhage, Oussama; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2007-05-01

    We review the evolution and current status of robotic equipment and technology in urology. We also describe future developments in the key areas of virtual reality simulation, mechatronics and nanorobotics. The history of robotic technology is reviewed and put into the context of current systems. Experts in the associated fields of nanorobotics, mechatronics and virtual reality simulation simulation review the important future developments in these areas.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  6. Research Progress of Recycling Technology for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipments%我国电子废弃物回收工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蕾; 许振明

    2012-01-01

    The recycling technology for waste electrical and electronic equipments attracts domestic and international attentions. The basic recycling methods and their characteristics are summaizedi and the new recycling processes for waste electrical and electronic equipments are reviewed, especially the integrated recycling processes for waste domestic appliances, waste batteries and waste PCBs. Some new trends and potential problems are also discussed.%总结了处理电子废弃物的传统基本技术及其特点.针对传统工艺的缺陷综述了我国具有处理流程简单、成本低、资源利用率较高等优点的电子废弃物回收新工艺的研究进展,重点介绍了机械物理复合工艺处理废旧家电、废旧电池及废旧PCB板.同时提出了我国电子废弃物资源化方面的一些新动向和潜在的问题.

  7. 14 CFR 29.1353 - Electrical equipment and installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical equipment and installations. 29... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1353 Electrical equipment and installations. (a) Electrical equipment, controls, and...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1353 - Electrical equipment and installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical equipment and installations. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1353 Electrical equipment and installations. (a) Electrical equipment and controls must...

  9. Fault diagnosis methods and technology of electrical equipments%电气设备的故障诊断方法与技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永飚

    2015-01-01

    分析了常用电气设备故障诊断方法。包括电气设备故障的种类及特点,查找电气故障的方法及手段,电气设备维修的十项基本原则等。%The fault diagnosis methods of commonly used electrical equipments are analyzed, which include the types and characteristics, finding methods and means of electrical faults, and ten basic principles of electrical equipment maintenance, etc..

  10. Analysis on installation new technology of super high-rise buildings electrical and mechanical equipments%超高层建筑机电设备的安装新技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维国

    2014-01-01

    主要介绍了高层建筑机电设备安装新技术的特点,分析了高层建筑机电设备安装中存在的种种问题,提出了高层建筑机电设备安装技术的改进措施,最后介绍了超高层建筑机电设备的安装新技术,以促进机电设备安装质量的提高。%Introduced the characteristics of installation new technology of electrical and mechanical equipment of high-rise buildings,analyzed the existing various problems in mechanical and electrical equipment installation of high-rise buildings,put forward the improvement measures of electrical and mechanical equipment installation technology of high-rise buildings,finally introduced the installation new technology of electrical and mechanical equipment of super high-rise buildings,promote the improvement of installation quality of electrical and mechanical equipments.

  11. 14 CFR 23.1365 - Electric cables and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Electrical cables must be installed such that the risk of mechanical damage and/or damage cased by fluids... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables and equipment. 23.1365... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1365 Electric cables and equipment. (a) Each electric connecting...

  12. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done...

  13. Electrical installations technology

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1968-01-01

    Electrical Installations Technology covers the syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute course No. 51, the "Electricians B Certificate”. This book is composed of 15 chapters that deal with basic electrical science and electrical installations. The introductory chapters discuss the fundamentals and basic electrical principles, including the concept of mechanics, heat, magnetic fields, electric currents, power, and energy. These chapters also explore the atomic theory of electric current and the electric circuit, conductors, and insulators. The subsequent chapter focuses on the chemis

  14. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  15. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  16. 46 CFR 105.30-5 - Grounding of electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding of electrical equipment. 105.30-5 Section 105... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Electrical Requirements § 105.30-5 Grounding of electrical equipment. (a) All electrical equipment shall be grounded to the vessel's...

  17. 30 CFR 75.509 - Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuit and electric equipment...-General § 75.509 Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization. All power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done on such circuits and equipment, except...

  18. Stationary fuel cell applications: electrical equipment requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand-Schmutz, C.; Buchsbaum, L.; Lacarnoy, A. [Schneider Electric, Research Center, 38 - Grenoble (France); Kuzkin, G. [US Research Center, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Schneider Electric is a global company providing market leadership in two core businesses: Electrical Distribution, and Industrial Control and Automation. Schneider operates within four main markets: private residences, commercial buildings, industrial control, and electrical infrastructure. Schneider teams, on both sides of the Atlantic, have used their technical knowledge and global market vision to optimize fuel cell system performance and cost, and to present a power system solution that contains the best global architecture. This work includes high efficiency power conversion modules designed for low voltage / high current fuel cells, grid connection devices that integrate new functionality such as energy optimization and secure power, protection apparatus, advanced control-command strategies, and system optimization hardware. All of this equipment will provide beneficial cost and efficiency impacts to the end user. (authors)

  19. The practical application analysis on building mechanical and electrical engineering equipment installation technology%建筑机电工程设备安装技术实际应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平

    2016-01-01

    Discussed the characteristics of building mechanical and electrical engineering equipment installation technology,from the technical personnel,drawing design,infrastructure and other aspects,analyzed the existing problems in building mechanical and electrical engineering e-quipment installation,and put forward specific solutions,to effectively improve the installation quality of mechanical and electrical engineering.%论述了建筑机电工程设备安装技术的特点,从技术人员、图纸设计、基础设施等方面,分析了建筑机电工程设备安装中存在的问题,并提出了具体的解决措施,以有效提高机电工程的安装质量。

  20. Authorisation for work with electrical equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Balle, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of training needs must be conducted by the Group Leader for every employee who could potentially be exposed to an electrical hazard. An analysis must be performed taking into account: • the voltage range (TBT, BT, HTA, HTB) • the type of work to be done (for example, work on a low-voltage line) • the type and the characteristics of the structures, installations and equipment • the type of current (alternating or direct) • the person’s ability to perform the operation

  1. Present situation and Countermeasures of management of mechanical and electrical equipment maintenance technology in coal mine%煤矿机电设备维修技术管理的现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超

    2016-01-01

    Coal Mine Electrical and mechanical equipment maintenance in place, proper maintenance will greatly improve work efifciency, prolong the use of coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment in a certain extent for a long time, so coal mine electrical and mechanical equipment maintenance technology in the present stage of production and life is very important. However, there are still many problems in the coal mining enterprises, coal mining machinery and electrical equipment maintenance. to solve these problems is an important prerequisite for the healthy and safe development of coal mine enterprises.%煤矿机电设备养护到位、维修得当是提高其工作效率的根本保证,也会在一定程度上延长煤矿机电设备的使用寿命。但是在煤矿企业,煤矿机电设备的维修管理仍然存在许多问题,解决这些问题是煤矿企业健康、安全发展的重要前提。

  2. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANAKA,TINA J.; BAYNES JR.,EDWARD E.; NOWLEN,STEVEN P.; BROCKMANN,JOHN E.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.; SHADDIX,CHRISTOPHER R.

    2000-03-01

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke.

  3. Workshop on environmental qualification of electric equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofaro, R.; Gunther, W.; Villaran, M.; Lee, B.S.; Taylor, J. [comps.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Questions concerning the Environmental Qualification (EQ) of electrical equipment used in commercial nuclear power plants have recently become the subject of significant interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Initial questions centered on whether compliance with the EQ requirements for older plants were adequate to support plant operation beyond 40 years. After subsequent investigation, the NRC Staff concluded that questions related to the differences in EQ requirements between older and newer plants constitute a potential generic issue which should be evaluated for backfit, independent of license renewal activities. EQ testing of electric cables was performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under contract to the NRC in support of license renewal activities. Results showed that some of the environmentally qualified cables either failed or exhibited marginal insulation resistance after a simulated plant life of 20 years during accident simulation. This indicated that the EQ process for some electric cables may be non-conservative. These results raised questions regarding the EQ process including the bases for conclusions about the qualified life of components based upon artificial aging prior to testing.

  4. Electric Equipment Diagnosis based on Wavelet Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavitsky Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to electric equipment development and complication it is necessary to have a precise and intense diagnosis. Nowadays there are two basic ways of diagnosis: analog signal processing and digital signal processing. The latter is more preferable. The basic ways of digital signal processing (Fourier transform and Fast Fourier transform include one of the modern methods based on wavelet transform. This research is dedicated to analyzing characteristic features and advantages of wavelet transform. This article shows the ways of using wavelet analysis and the process of test signal converting. In order to carry out this analysis, computer software Mathcad was used and 2D wavelet spectrum for a complex function was created.

  5. An Assessment of the Electric Power Quality and Electrical Installation Impacts on Medical Electrical Equipment Operations at Health Care Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C.G. Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Medical electrical equipments at health care facilities presented malfunction and wrong medical information due to poor electric power quality and to inadequate electrical Installations. Some equipment such as X-ray, computerized axial tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are considered as polluting ones due to their high amount of harmonics and voltage transients produced on the electrical power supply when in operation, while other equipments, connected to the same power supply, are considered sensitive or victim ones, presenting failure or producing wrong. Approach: The effects on some sensitive medical electrical equipment were verified in a controlled environment at energy quality technological center of the technical school of the University of Sao Paulo. A heart monitor, pulmonary ventilator and pulse oxymeter equipment types were submitted to a controlled voltage supply with high harmonic content and voltage sags. The test methodology used simulated conditions based on Brazilian NBR standards, ANSI/IEEE Std. 519, IEC 60601 and IEC 61000-4-11 standards. Results: The results of the polluting equipment current consumption measurements as well as the three sensitive equipments tested were presented and discussed. The pulmonary ventilator presented problems that range from stoppage to expiratory valve blockage and alarm system failures. The pulse oxymeter presented display malfunctions and it was extremely sensitive to voltage sags. The heart monitor maintained steady operation in all test cases. Conclusion/Recommendations: In spite of several existing recommendations and standards for testing medical electrical equipments, there is a lack of standard related to test cases considering the effects of high harmonic and voltage sags. The quality of electrical installation in health care facilities needs to be improved to reduce risks to the patients and to provide better health treatment.

  6. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution... the equipment-testing requirements of the Standard. Electric Power Generation, Transmission,...

  7. Safety standards of electrical equipment in surface mines. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, V.O.; Il' in, Yu.N.; Neyaskin, D.V.

    1985-03-01

    Modified safety regulations developed by the VostNII Institute are discussed. The safety regulations for electrical equipment used in surface coal mines are modifications of general safety regulations in coal surface mining. The modified regulations cover: improved protection from short circuits and grounds in electrical systems with voltage higher than 1000 V, protection systems for heavy-duty electric motors and motors with thyristor control, operation of power shovels on benches with contact systems (hazards of damage to electric cables caused by moving mining equipment), operation of electrical equipment and contact systems on benches at which trucks are used for mine haulage (hazards of damage to electric cables by moving trucks).

  8. Service Offering at Electrical Equipment Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Kaňovská

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The aim of the paper is to uncover ways of managing service offering provid-ed by electrical equipment manufactures in the Czech Republic. The segment is extremely important for Czech industry nowadays, especially because of many companies being subcontractors for the car industry and mechanical engineering. The producers of electric equipment comply with the Czech in-dustry classification CZ-NACE 27. Methodology/methods: The questionnaire in the form of the Likert scale was prepared to gather in-formation about customer services. The respondents were usually directors or managers, e.g. employ-ees with high competencies of knowing customer services in this particular market. The total of 22 companies were included in the survey. Research was focused on the following industries classifica-tions belonging to CZ-NACE 27: CZ-NACE 27, CZ-NACE 271 and CZ-NACE 273. According to Czech Statistical Office the total number of companies belonging to these 3 segments is 136. It means 16,2 % companies belonging to CZ-NACE 27 participated in our research. Basic statistical methods were used to analyse the complete database. Scientific aim: The paper deals with the problem of service offering provided by today’s manufactur-ers. Global understanding of services that manufacturers really develop, sell, deliver and manage is still limited. Findings: Managing service offering provided by today‘s manufacturers shows that 1 Manufacturers not offer only tangible products, but also wide range of services and even information and support. 2 New products are not designed only according to company technicians, but also according to their cus-tomers. Their products and services are developed, tested and improved according to their needs. 3 Services provide complex customer care from time product selection to its end. Conclusions: Manufacturers of tangible products need to enlarge their product offering to be able to satisfy customers. Therefore

  9. Development of nuclear equipment qualification technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heon O; Kim, Wu Hyun; Kim, Jin Wuk; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Kyu; Kim, Yong Han; Jeong, Hang Keun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    In order to enhance testing and evaluation technologies, which is one of the main works of the Chanwon branch of KIMM(Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials), in addition to the present work scope of the testing and evaluation in the industrial facilities such as petroleum and chemical, plants, the qualification technologies of the equipments important to safety used in the key industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants should be localized: Equipments for testing and evaluation is to be set up and the related technologies must be developed. In the first year of this study, of vibration aging qualification technologies of equipments important to safety used in nuclear power plants have been performed. (author). 27 refs., 81 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with collision-reaction interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirian C; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Cadore, Solange

    2011-06-15

    A procedure based on the use of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) for control of spectral overlap interferences was developed for simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The injection of H(2) and He (80 and 60 mL min(-1), respectively) into the sampled plasma, colliding and reacting with potentially interfering polyatomic ions, allows interference-free determination of chromium via its isotopes (52)Cr and (53)Cr that are freed from overlap due to the occurrence of (40)Ar(12)C(+), (40)Ar(12)C(1)H(+), (36)S(16)O(+) or (1)H(36)S(16)O(+). Cadmium, Hg and Pb were directly determined via their isotopes (110)Cd, (111)Cd, (112)Cd, (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg, (202)Hg, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb, without using CRI. The CRI can be quickly activated or deactivated before each analyte measurement. Limits of detection for (52)Cr were 0.04 or 0.14 μg L(-1) with He or H(2) injected in CRI. Cadmium and Pb have LODs between 0.02 and 0.08 μg L(-1) and Hg had 0.93-0.98 μg L(-1), without using CRI. Analyte concentrations for samples varied from 16 to 43, 1 to 11, 4 to 12, and 5 to 13 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  11. 46 CFR 189.25-30 - Electrical engineering equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering equipment. 189.25-30 Section 189.25-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-30 Electrical engineering equipment. (a) For inspection procedures of...

  12. 46 CFR 91.25-30 - Electrical engineering equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering equipment. 91.25-30 Section 91.25-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-30 Electrical engineering equipment. For inspection procedures of...

  13. 30 CFR 75.503 - Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-General § 75.503 Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance. The operator of each coal mine shall... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; maintenance. 75.503 Section 75.503 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  14. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  15. Study and application of harmonic mitigation technology of electrical and mechanical equipment%机电加工设备谐波抑制方法的研究和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋德明

    2009-01-01

    随着电力电子技术的迅速发展,大量新型电力电子设备在机电加工行业获得了广泛应用,给电网带来了严重的谐波污染,引起一系列用电质量问题,严重地危害了电网的安全可靠运行.为解决电力电子装置应用中带来的谐波污染问题,介绍了利用数字有源电力滤波器装置来治理谐波污染的方法,很好地解决了电力电子设备对机电设备的谐波污染问题.%With the development of the technology of power electronics, plenty of power electronic equipments have been widely used in the field of the electrical and mechanical manufacture today. It has brought a series of power quality problem and heavy harmonic pollution to power systems, and has lessened the security running of power systems. For the purpose of solving the harmonic pollution by the application of power electronic devices, this paper introduces a method of using digital active power filter, therefore the harmonic pollution problem of power electronic equipment to the electrical and mechanical equipment is well solved.

  16. The implementation of the infrared thermal imaging technology in the fault diagnosis of the electrical equipment%红外热成像技术在电力设备故障诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代青昊; 谢子芳

    2011-01-01

    红外热成像技术可实现电力设备在运行状态时以非接触的快速、在线监测方式获取设备的运行状态信息,通过对电力设备的异常温升来发现和诊断设备故障,从而实现隐患、故障的提早发现。%Nowadays, as the market competition being more and more vehement and the electric power change from sellerg market to buyerg market, the acquirement of the electrical reliability is higher and higher. The fault diagnosis in the electrical equipment is more and more important. As we all know, the thermal effect is the normal outer reflect of the various fault and anomaly. The infrared thermal imaging technology can realizes the non - contact, fast and on - line monitoring methods to acquire the operation situation of the elec- trical equipment when it is working. Through the unusual temperature rise to find the device fault, it can realizes the advancing discov- ery of the hidden trouble and fault.

  17. Grounding devices of electrical equipment's installation and check to maintain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏

    2009-01-01

    At this stage in real life,the incidents of electricity are increasing,the main reason is that the subjective sense is weak,non-importance,especially the operation and maintenance is more neglected,and even there is no sense in this area.In this paper,based on electrical equipment grounding system for use in practice,simple introdusing grounding device of electrical equipment's installation and maintenance checks.

  18. 基于红外热成像技术的电气设备预知维护专家系统%Predictive Maintenance Expert System for ElectricalEquipments Based on Infrared Thermal Imaging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓东; 李书臣

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种以红外热成像技术为基础的电气设备预知维护专家系统的应用设计方案,对电气设备运行维护的现状、预知维护的概念和红外热成像技术进行了简要分析,详细说明了预知维护专家系统的构成、开发过程和实际应用作,重点阐述了如何利用红外热成像技术,建立状态分析专家系统,实现电气设备的预知维护.%The application scheme for electrical equipments predictive maintenance expert system based on infrared thermal imaging technology was introduced, including the concept of predictive maintenance and infrared thermal imaging technology, and the structure of predictive maintenance expert system, and its development and application; then a state analysis expert system was built to implement predictive maintenance of e-lectrical equipments.

  19. Measuring and Test Equipment through barcode technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, J.D.; Carr, C.C.

    1993-06-01

    Over the past several years, the use, trace methodology, and documentation of Measuring and Test Equipment has become a major concern. Current regulations are forcing companies to develop new policies, providing use history and traceability of Measuring and Test Equipment. The US Department of Energy and Environmental Organizations are driving Westinghouse Hanford Company to comply with the more stringent environmental guidelines and recent modifications in Department of Energy Orders. This paper discusses how the Fast Flux Test Facility at Westinghouse Hanford Company overcame these obstacles by using a computerized system through barcode technology.

  20. ELECTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY, TRAINING, AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TREMEL, CHARLES L

    2007-06-28

    The objective of this Electric Infrastructure Technology, Training and Assessment Program was to enhance the reliability of electricity delivery through engineering integration of real-time technologies for wide-area applications enabling timely monitoring and management of grid operations. The technologies developed, integrated, tested and demonstrated will be incorporated into grid operations to assist in the implementation of performance-based protection/preventive measures into the existing electric utility infrastructure. This proactive approach will provide benefits of reduced cost and improved reliability over the typical schedule-based and as needed maintenance programs currently performed by utilities. Historically, utilities have relied on maintenance and inspection programs to diagnose equipment failures and have used the limited circuit isolation devices, such as distribution main circuit breakers to identify abnormal system performance. With respect to reliable problem identification, customer calls to utility service centers are often the sole means for utilities to identify problem occurrences and determine restoration methodologies. Furthermore, monitoring and control functions of equipment and circuits are lacking; thus preventing timely detection and response to customer outages. Finally, the two-way flow of real-time system information is deficient, depriving decision makers of key information required to effectively manage and control current electric grid demands to provide reliable customer service in abnormal situations. This Program focused on advancing technologies and the engineering integration required to incorporate them into the electric grid operations to enhance electrical system reliability and reduce utility operating costs.

  1. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  2. Installation and Assembly, Electrical Ground Support Equipment (GSE), Specification for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Erik C.

    2014-01-01

    This specification covers the general workmanship requirements and procedures for the complete installation and assembly of electrical ground support equipment (EGSE) such as terminal distributors, junction boxes, conduit and fittings, cable trays and accessories, interconnecting cables (including routing requirements), motor-control equipment, and necessary hardware as specified by the applicable contract and drawings.

  3. Sectoral Innovation Performance in the Electrical and Optical Equipment Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The Electrical and Optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  4. Identification of potential locations of electric vehicle supply equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, R. Paul; Qin, Nan

    2015-12-01

    Proper placement of electric vehicle supply equipment (charging stations) requires an understanding of vehicle usage patterns. Using data from the National Household Travel Survey on vehicle mileage and destination patterns, analyses were performed to determine electric vehicles' charging needs, as a function of battery size and state of charge. This paper compares electric vehicle charging needs with Department of Energy electric vehicle charging data from real-world charging infrastructure. By combining the electric vehicles charging needs with charging data from real-world applications, locations with high electric vehicle charging likelihood are identified.

  5. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  6. 30 CFR 18.91 - Electric equipment for which field approvals will be issued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment for which field approvals... OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Field Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.91 Electric equipment...

  7. Hyperbaric intensive care technology and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ian L

    2015-03-01

    In an emergency, life support can be provided during recompression or hyperbaric oxygen therapy using very basic equipment, provided the equipment is hyperbaric-compatible and the clinicians have appropriate experience. For hyperbaric critical care to be provided safely on a routine basis, however, a great deal of preparation and specific equipment is needed, and relatively few facilities have optimal capabilities at present. The type, size and location of the chamber are very influential factors. Although monoplace chamber critical care is possible, it involves special adaptations and inherent limitations that make it inappropriate for all but specifically experienced teams. A large, purpose-designed chamber co-located with an intensive care unit is ideal. Keeping the critically ill patient on their normal bed significantly improves quality of care where this is possible. The latest hyperbaric ventilators have resolved many of the issues normally associated with hyperbaric ventilation, but at significant cost. Multi-parameter monitoring is relatively simple with advanced portable monitors, or preferably installed units that are of the same type as used elsewhere in the hospital. Whilst end-tidal CO₂ readings are changed by pressure and require interpretation, most other parameters display normally. All normal infusions can be continued, with several examples of syringe drivers and infusion pumps shown to function essentially normally at pressure. Techniques exist for continuous suction drainage and most other aspects of standard critical care. At present, the most complex life support technologies such as haemofiltration, cardiac assist devices and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation remain incompatible with the hyperbaric environment.

  8. 30 CFR 77.501 - Electric distribution circuits and equipment; repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric distribution circuits and equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.501 Electric distribution circuits and equipment; repair. No electrical work shall be performed on electric distribution circuits or...

  9. 77 FR 59345 - Environmental Qualifications of Electrical Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... revise the regulatory requirements for the environmental qualification of electrical equipment important... Design Criterion (GDC) 2, Design Bases for Protection Against Natural Phenomena, and GDC 4, Environmental... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50, 52, 54, and 100 [Docket No. PRM-50-106; NRC-2012-0177]...

  10. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  11. Engineering electrodynamics electric machine, transformer, and power equipment design

    CERN Document Server

    Turowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Due to a huge concentration of electromagnetic fields and eddy currents, large power equipment and systems are prone to crushing forces, overheating, and overloading. Luckily, power failures due to disturbances like these can be predicted and/or prevented.Based on the success of internationally acclaimed computer programs, such as the authors' own RNM-3D, Engineering Electrodynamics: Electric Machine, Transformer, and Power Equipment Design explains how to implement industry-proven modeling and design techniques to solve complex electromagnetic phenomena. Considering recent progress in magneti

  12. Technology review of commercial food service equipment - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, S.; Krsikapa, S. [Canadian Gas Research Inst., Don Mills, ON (Canada); Fisher, D.; Nickel, J.; Ardley, S.; Zabrowski, D. [Fisher Consultants (Canada); Barker, R.F. [ed.

    1996-05-15

    Market and technical information on gas fired equipment used in the commercial food service sector in Canada and in each province or territory was presented. Results of a market study and technology review were integrated to establish energy consumption and energy saving potential in this sector. Eight categories of commercial cooking appliances were studied. They were: fryers, griddles, broilers, ranges, ovens, tilting skillets, steam kettles and steamers. Focus was on gas fired appliances, although electric appliances were also included. The total energy consumption of the appliances was estimated at 76,140.37 GBtu in 1994. Gas appliances accounted for 63 per cent of the total inventory and consumed 83 per cent of the total energy used. Cooking energy efficiencies for the gas fired commercial cooking equipment ranged from 10 per cent to 60 per cent. The electric appliances had cooking energy efficiencies ranging from 35 per cent to 95 per cent. A list of recommendations were made for the many opportunities to introduce higher efficiency commercial cooking appliances, essential to slow down or to stabilize the energy consumption of cooking appliances over the next decade. 66 refs., 14 tabs., 18 figs.

  13. 30 CFR 75.523-2 - Deenergization of self-propelled electric face equipment; performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deenergization of self-propelled electric face... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.523-2 Deenergization of self-propelled electric face equipment; performance requirements. (a) Deenergization of the tramming motors of self-propelled electric face equipment, required...

  14. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  15. Tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowicz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment was investigated. Study was carried out using basic physical and chemical methods, ie. mechanical separation via crushing, leaching of silver layer in diluted HNO3, grinding and oxidation of anodes and thermic reduction with metallic reducing agent. A recovery rate of anodes was determined at 96%, and recycling efficiency of tantalum to pure form was determined more than 50%. Also was made mass balance.

  16. Electrical circuit theory and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    This much-loved textbook explains the principles of electrical circuit theory and technology so that students of electrical and mechanical engineering can master the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions help you to learn and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have fully understood each subject. In total the book contains 800 worked problems, 1000 further problems and 14 revision tests with answers online. This an ideal text for foundation and undergraduate degree students and those on upper level vocational engineering courses, in particular electrical and mechanical. It provides a sound understanding of the knowledge required by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. This edition has been updated with developments in key areas such as semiconductors, transistors, and fuel cells, along with brand new material on ABCD parameters and Fourier's An...

  17. 电气设备状态维修技术的现状及发展%The Present State and Development Trend of Condition-based Maintenance Technology for Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白凤雷

    2015-01-01

    状态维修与定期维修相结合已成为电气设备检修的必然趋势,分析了电气设备的现状、维修制度和状态维修的相关问题。探讨了实际工作中如何合理开展电气设备状态维修工作,如何成功地向状态维修过渡的问题。%Combination of condition-based maintenance and regular maintenance has be-come the inevitable trend of electrical equipment maintenance. Various related problems in the current state, maintenance system and condition-based maintenance of electrical equipment were analyzed. The issue of how to reasonably carry out condition-based maintenance for electric equipment maintenance in practice work and how to successfully transit to condi-tion-based maintenance was also discussed.

  18. [Introduction of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming

    2013-07-01

    The article introduces the requirements of accompanying documents on the new EMC standard of medical electrical equipment (YY 0505-2012), hope it can be useful for the manufacturers of medical electrical equipment.

  19. 46 CFR 154.1010 - Electrical equipment in gas-dangerous space or zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical equipment in gas-dangerous space or zone. 154.1010 Section 154.1010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK..., Construction and Equipment Electrical § 154.1010 Electrical equipment in gas-dangerous space or zone....

  20. 30 CFR 18.51 - Electrical protection of circuits and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical protection of circuits and equipment... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.51 Electrical protection of circuits and equipment. (a) An...

  1. 30 CFR 75.512 - Electric equipment; examination, testing and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-General § 75.512 Electric equipment; examination, testing and maintenance. All electric equipment shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment; examination, testing and maintenance. 75.512 Section 75.512 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  2. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  3. Assessment of conducting polymer applications in power equipment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch, K.F. Jr.; Bennett, A.I.; Burghardt, R.R.; Cookson, A.H.; Kennedy, W.N.; Oommen, T.V.; Saunders, H.E.; Smith, J.D.B.; Voshall, R.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Fort, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (USA)); Robbins, B. (Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    This report describes for the first time the state-of-the-art in conducting polymer technology specifically relating to electric power apparatus for transmission, distribution and generation. Thirty-two new applications in power equipment are proposed and assessed. The areas of the proposed applications include solid dielectric cable, oil-filled cable, capacitors, transformers, rotating machines, bushings, surge supressors, vacuum interrupters, gas-insulated equipment, and miscellaneous applications. The best applications will result in improved reliability and efficiency, design innovations, and simpler manufacturing procedures by taking advantage of the particular characteristics of conducting polymers. These characteristics include good control of conductivity over a range of 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup 3} S/cm, compatibility with organic compounds, simple preparation and development of anisotropic conductivity by polymer orientation. The proposed applications were evaluated according to technical impact, probability of success, economic impact, and time frame for implementation. The state-of-the-art of conducting polymers is also reviewed and areas requiring further research for these applications are discussed. Because of substantial recent progress is developing more practical conducting polymer materials, now is an excellent time to pursue the additional research needed. 37 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-05-30

    The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low

  5. Disciplinary Technologies and Pupil Redisposition: School Equipment and Homework Diaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowski, Katrin U.; Breidenstein, Georg

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores disciplinary technologies and pupil redisposition through school and teacher focus on school equipment and homework diaries. During our field research in two contrasting secondary schools, we experienced the importance of missing school equipment to teacher and school control. We also concluded that forgotten or missing school…

  6. Analysis on Technology Roadmap of Agricultural Equipment Industry in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Jin; YE; Shi; YANG

    2014-01-01

    Since the subsidizing agricultural machine purchase was launched in 2004,the agriculture equipment industry in Chongqing has progressed by leaps and bounds,but it is still faced with a few urgent problems,which requires the coordination of stakeholders,with an aim to establish a clear direction of the development of industry and a technology route. With planting industry as an example,this paper applies the principle and method of industry technology roadmap to analyse the market demand,industry target,technology barrier and R & D demand of agricultural equipment industry in Chongqing. Based on the results,the top technology R & D items of agricultural equipment industry in Chongqing are obtained. Finally,the following suggestions are put forward: integrating resources,constructing platform and improving innovation ability; constructing agricultural industry park and promoting clustered development of agricultural equipment industry; strengthening finance and taxation support; strengthening construction of agricultural mechanization infrastructure; substantially developing socialized service of agricultural machinery.

  7. Roadmap for Process Equipment Materials Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-10-01

    This Technology Roadmap addresses the ever-changing material needs of the chemical and allied process industries, and the energy, economic and environmental burdens associated with corrosion and other materials performance and lifetime issues. This Technology Roadmap outlines the most critical of these R&D needs, and how they can impact the challenges facing today’s materials of construction.

  8. Characteristics of wastes from electric and electronic equipment in Greece: results of a field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, Avraam; Perkoulidis, George; Papadopoulos, Agis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Tsatsarelis, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    The lifespan of electric and electronic equipment is becoming shorter and the amount of related waste is increasing. This study aimed to contribute to the knowledge about qualitative and quantitative characteristics of such wastes in Greece. Specifically, results are presented from a field survey, which took place in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, during the year 2002. The survey was conducted with suitable questionnaires in department stores and in households of various municipalities. Household appliances were grouped as follows: (A) large (refrigerator, freezer, washing machine, clothes dryer, electric cooker, microwave oven, electric heater), (B) small (vacuum cleaner, electric iron, hair dryer), (C) information technology and telecommunication equipment (PC, laptop, printer, phone) and (D) consumer equipment (radio, TV, video, DVD, console). The analysis indicated that the lifespan of all new goods is gradually reducing (apart from refrigerators, for which the lifespan was surprisingly found to be increasing) and provided linearized functions for predicting the lifespan, according to the year of manufacture, for certain large appliances.

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Engineering & Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    then the power might initially not only not increase, but actually decrease. This effect is known as the "iodine pit." But an electrical network...reason for this is perhaps the fact that it was created by Salieri-scientists, instead of Mozart -inventors. An inventor is sometimes helped by a child’s...will be purified in large measure, leaving a significant amount of their deleteri- ous admixtures in the stratum. The effectiveness of water

  10. Mechanical and thermal recycling of waste from electric and electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohka, A.; Lehto, H.

    2006-07-01

    Consumption of electric and electrical equipment in Europe has risen from 5.8 million tons per year in 1980 to 13.6 tons in 2000. It is estimated that over 6 million tons of waste from electrical and electronic equipment is produced annually and a part of that is considered to be hazardous waste. Amounts of waste from electric and electrical equipment are also increasing significantly faster than average municipal waste. The amounts of hazardous substances per appliance are not large. but the total sum is significant and cannot be neglected. In addition. these equipment contain various precious metals such as silver. gold and platinum. Material streams of copper and aluminium containing waste from electric and electrical waste are also considerable and give a possibility to cost efficient recycling. The handling of this waste fraction will and already has become an important issue to manage and process. WEEE is very interesting and challenging substance as a raw material group and its processing point of view. It is quite easy and obvious to mention that it is very unhomogenious and complex, but its challenging issue is that it contains many valuable material components still not properly recycled today. New EU directives on waste from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are setting certain demands for recycling of WEEE and restrictions on handling of hazardous substances. There are similar requirements also outside the EU for example Japan's law on Electrical Household Appliance Recycling (EHAR). These new regulations are giving very challenging tasks to both product manufacturers and people who are responsible for recycling end of life products. There are still many fractions of WEEE waste that are land filled after mechanical recycling. These residues still consist valuable metals that are difficult to extract from treated scrap. Some of the WEEE fractions that have organic parts, such as plastic, have been incinerated in order to get energy and

  11. [Study on selection of the EMC test system of medical electrical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming

    2011-11-01

    The article introduces the EMC tests involved in YY0505-2005 (standard of Medical electrical equipment about EMC), and the requirements of test equipment meet the standard and practical tests. I hope it can be useful for select the EMC test system of Medical electrical equipment.

  12. 30 CFR 75.506-1 - Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment-General § 75.506-1 Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements. (a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric face equipment; permissible condition; maintenance requirements. 75.506-1 Section 75.506-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  13. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection....

  14. 红外成像检漏技术在青海电网SF6电气设备泄漏检测中的应用%Application of Infrared Imaging Leakage Detection Technology to SF6 Electric Equipment Leakage Detection in Qinghai Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉海; 路自强; 李后顺; 周尚虎

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces an infrared imaging technology adopting in SF6 electric equipment gas leakage detection, and makes test and study on suitable testing distance for different SF6 electric equipment through applying SF6 gas leakage analog device. The method can locate the SF6 leakage point fast and accurately in practical application.%笔者介绍了一种用于检测SF6电气设备气体泄漏的红外成像技术,并通过SF6气体泄漏模拟装置,对不同SF6电气设备适用的测试距离等进行试验研究.通过在现场实际应用,该方法可以快速、准确地对SF6泄漏点进行定位.

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Engineering & Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-10

    when our machine shop made a fixture from free-hand sketches by an innovative milling machine operator here. It was smaller than a stool , even...aesthetically or ergonomically . The main thing is that it perform its technological function. And if the primary Gidroavtomatika products were to reach the

  16. Identification and recovery of rare-earth permanent magnets from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, A; Venkatesan, P; Jönsson, C; Poenaru, I; Hall, B; Yang, Y; Walton, A; Güth, K; Gauß, R; Gutfleisch, O

    2017-10-01

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are a strategic material for a number of emerging technologies. They are a key component in the most energy efficient electric motors and generators, thus, they are vital for energy technologies, industrial applications and automation, and future forms of mobility. Rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, dysprosium and praseodymium are also found in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in volumes that grow with the technological evolution, and are marked as critical elements by the European Commission due to their high economic importance combined with significant supply risks. Recycling could be a good approach to compensate for the lack of rare earths (REs) on the market. However, less than 1% of REs are currently being recycled, mainly because of non-existing collection logistics, lack of information about the quantity of RE materials available for recycling and recycling-unfriendly product designs. To improve these lack of information, different waste streams of electrical and electronic equipment from an industrial recycling plant were analyzed in order to localize, identify and collect RE permanent magnets of the Nd-Fe-B type. This particular type of magnets were mainly found in hard disk drives (HDDs) from laptops and desktop computers, as well as in loudspeakers from compact products such as flat screen TVs, PC screens, and laptops. Since HDDs have been investigated thoroughly by many authors, this study focusses on other potential Nd-Fe-B resources in electronic waste. The study includes a systematic survey of the chemical composition of the Nd-Fe-B magnets found in the selected waste streams, which illustrates the evolution of the Nd-Fe-B alloys over the years. The study also provides an overview over the types of magnets integrated in different waste electric and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we comprehensively map and estimate the flows of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and the corresponding waste (WEEE) in Denmark. The quantitative analysis is supplemented with a thorough diagnosis of the WEEE management system. Dynamic material flow analysis (MFA) is used...... time, and their corresponding revenues are evaluated. The results show that the amount of WEEE generated per year increased from 45 to 81 kilo tons (kt) between 1990 and 2015. The amount of EEE put on market (PoM), on the other hand, peaked to 101 kt in 2006 from 61 kt in 1991, but declined to 84 kt...... in 2015. In terms of the PoM quantity, the EEE market is found saturated, and can be expected to remain largely unchanged over the next decade. Consequently, there will not be any significant increase in WEEE quantities. Denmark has a well-established WEEE management system that has been performing...

  18. Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan S.

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center, I engaged in the research and development of electrical ground support equipment for NASA's Constellation Program. Timing characteristics playa crucial role in ground support communications. Latency and jitter are two problems that must be understood so that communications are timely and consistent within the Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS). I conducted latency and jitter tests using Alien-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs) so that these two intrinsic network properties can be reduced. Time stamping and clock synchronization also play significant roles in launch processing and operations. Using RSLogix 5000 project files and Wireshark network protocol analyzing software, I verified master/slave PLC Ethernet module clock synchronization, master/slave IEEE 1588 communications, and time stamping capabilities. All of the timing and synchronization test results are useful in assessing the current KGCS operational level and determining improvements for the future.

  19. 30 CFR 77.516 - Electric wiring and equipment; installation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric wiring and equipment; installation and maintenance. 77.516 Section 77.516 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.516 Electric wiring and...

  20. 30 CFR 75.505 - Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.505 Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mines classed gassy; use and maintenance of permissible electric face equipment. 75.505 Section 75.505 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  1. 30 CFR 75.523-1 - Deenergization of self-propelled electric face equipment installation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... after December 15, 1974, for self-propelled cutting machines, shuttle cars, battery-powered machines... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deenergization of self-propelled electric face... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.523-1 Deenergization of self-propelled electric face equipment installation...

  2. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  3. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments.

  4. Municipal solid waste disposal by using metallurgical technologies and equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuju Cai, Wenqiang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste can take full advantage of energy and resource and avoid producing hazardous material during this period. In combination with mature metallurgical technologies of coking by coke oven, regenerative flame furnace technology and melting by electric arc furnace, technologies of regenerative fixed bed pyrolysis technology for household waste, co-coking technology for waste plastic and blend coal, and incineration ash melting technology by electric arc technology for medical waste were respectively developed to improve current unsatisfied sorting status of waste. The investigation results of laboratory experiments, semi-industrial experiments and industrial experiments as well as their economic benefits and environmental benefits for related technologies were separately presented.

  5. Discussion on the Condition Based Maintenance of Electrical Equipment%论述电气设备的状态维修技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令奇

    2011-01-01

    With the development of scientific technology, the electrical equipment inspection and maintenance technology have also greatly improved.Through the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of electrical equipment periodical maintenance and fault maintenance, the paper proposed the necessarity of electrical equipment condition based maintenance.%随着科学技术的发展,电气设备检测维护技术也大大提高,通过分析电气设备定期维修和故障维修的优点和弊端,提出了电气设备状态维修技术发展的必然性.

  6. Super plastic forming technology applied to aeroengine and space equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandai, Katsumi

    1992-03-01

    Titanium alloys, especially Ti-6Al-4V, are widely used for the aeroengine and space equipment because of their high strength ratio and excellent resistance to heat and corrosion. But this material is difficult to manufacture by conventional plastic forming technology. It has been reported that Ti-6Al-4V shows extensive ductility (superplasticity), more than 1000 percent under the condition of both low straining rate and high temperature ranges. Superplastic forming technology applying this characteristic is widely known as one of the most cost-effective methods to save material. At the plant, gas argon blowing equipment for the superplastic forming technology has been developed and 'V2500 nose fairing' and 'fuel tank of the H-II rocket second stage reaction control system' have been manufactured. This paper describes the superplastic forming equipment and the two products above.

  7. Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the U.S.: Detailed report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Kaoru; Koomey, Jonathan G.; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.; Piette, Mary Ann; Ting, Michael; Meier, Alan K.

    2001-02-01

    In spite of the recent explosive growth in the use of office and network equipment, there has been no recent study that estimates in detail how much electricity is consumed by that equipment in the United States. In this study, we examined energy use by office equipment and network equipment at the end of 1999. We classified office equipment into 11 types; for each type we estimated annual energy consumption for residential, commercial, and industrial use by combining estimates of stock, power requirements, usage, and saturation of power management. We also classified network equipment into six types and estimated the annual energy consumption for each type. We found that total direct power use by office and network equipment is about 74 TWh per year, which is about 2% of total electricity use in the U.S. When electricity used by telecommunications equipment and electronics manufacturing is included, that figure rises to 3% of all electricity use (Koomey 2000). More than 70% of the 74 TWh/year is dedicated to office equipment for commercial use. We also found that power management currently saves 23 TWh/year, and complete saturation and proper functioning of power management would achieve additional savings of 17 TWh/year. Furthermore, complete saturation of night shutdown for equipment not required to operate at night would reduce power use by an additional 7 TWh/year. Finally, we compared our current estimater with our 1995 forecast for 1999. We found that the total difference between our current estimate and the previous forecast is less than 15% and identified the factors that led to inaccuracies in the previous forecast. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties in our current forecast and identified the data sets that have the largest impact on our current estimate of energy use.

  8. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menad, N; Guignot, S; van Houwelingen, J A

    2013-03-01

    Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink-float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC-ABS, PS and rest product. The fractions were characterised by using the methodology described in this paper. The results show that the grade and liberation degree of the plastic products ABS, PC-ABS and PS are close to 100%. Sink-float separation and infrared plastic identification equipment confirms the high plastic quality. On the basis of these findings, a global

  9. 基于电气设备的维修检查与实践技术探索%Research on maintenance inspection and practical technology based on electrical equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克南

    2016-01-01

    Because of the unfamiliar circuit,if at the same time appear a variety of fault,under the premise of the electrical principle diagram,clarify ideas, carefully analysis principle of electrical control,and no electrical principle diagram,we must first according to previous experience to draw a simple electrical diagram to analyze the specific situation.If it is divided into familiar with the circuit principle, according to the fault situation,determine the location of the fault,determine the side of the amount of points,through the side to find fault.In continuous contact with the supporting,engineering,design, production and research and development and other aspects of the work under the premise of the accumulation of experience.This paper briefly expounds the methods and practices of electrical equipment maintenance.%因为对电路生疏,如果同时出现多种故障,在有电气原理图的前提下,就要理清思路,认真地分析电气控制原理,在没有电气原理图的情况下,首先要根据以往的经验画出简单的电气图来分析具体情况。如果是分熟悉电路原理,根据故障情况,确定故障的位置,确定侧量点,通过侧量找出故障。在不断地接触配套、工程、设计、生产及研发等多部门多方面的工作的前提下,积累经验。本文简要阐述了电气设备维修的方法与实践技术。

  10. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocoiu, Carmen Nadia; Colesca, Sofia Elena; Rudăreanu, Costin; Popescu, Maria-Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Around the world there are growing concerns for waste electrical and electronic equipment. This is motivated by the harmful effects of waste electrical and electronic equipment on the environment, but also by the perspectives of materials recovery. Differences between countries regarding waste electrical and electronic equipment management are notable in the European Union. Romania is among the countries that have made significant efforts to comply with European Union regulations, but failed reaching the collection target. The article presents a mini review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system in Romania, based on legislation and policy documents, statistical data, research studies and reports published by national and international organisations. The article debates subjects like legislative framework, the electrical and electronic equipment Romanian market, the waste electrical and electronic equipment collection system, waste electrical and electronic equipment processing and waste electrical and electronic equipment behaviour. The recast of the European directive brings new challenges to national authorities and to other stakeholders involved in the waste electrical and electronic equipment management. Considering the fact that Romania has managed a collection rate of roughly 1 kg capita(-1) in the last years, the new higher collection targets established by the waste electrical and electronic equipment Directive offer a serious challenge for the management system. Therefore, another aim of the article is to highlight the positive and negative aspects in the Romanian waste electrical and electronic equipment field, in order to identify the flows that should be corrected and the opportunities that could help improve this system to the point of meeting the European standards imposed by the European Directive.

  11. Study on Modern Agriculture Equipment and Technology Coordinating Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weilong; WANG; Zulin; DA

    2013-01-01

    As the material foundation of agriculture modernization, the modernization level of agricultural equipment and technology is the significant signal of agricultural modernization, and the advancement of agricultural modernization is the important content of building a well-off society in an all-around way. Upgrading key technology research ability and promoting agricultural mechanization and industry development not only can shorten the gap between agricultural development level in China and that in developed countries, but also can advance the modernization process of China.

  12. Optimal deployment of emissions reduction technologies for construction equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Zietsman, Josias; Quadrifoglio, Luca; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a multiobjective optimization model to deploy emissions reduction technologies for nonroad construction equipment to reduce emissions in a cost-effective and optimal manner. Given a fleet of construction equipment emitting different pollutants in the nonattainment (NA) and near -nonattainment (NNA) counties of a state and a set of emissions reduction technologies available for installation on equipment to control pollution/emissions, the model assists in determining the mix of technologies to be deployed so that maximum emissions reduction and fuel savings are achieved within a given budget. Three technologies considered for emissions reduction were designated as X, Y, and Z to keep the model formulation general so that it can be applied for any other set of technologies. Two alternative methods of deploying these technologies on a fleet of equipment were investigated with the methods differing in the technology deployment preference in the NA and NNA counties. The model having a weighted objective function containing emissions reduction benefits and fuel-saving benefits was programmed with C++ and ILOG-CPLEX. For demonstration purposes, the model was applied for a selected construction equipment fleet owned by the Texas Department of Transportation, located in NA and NNA counties of Texas, assuming the three emissions reduction technologies X, Y, and Z to represent, respectively, hydrogen enrichment, selective catalytic reduction, and fuel additive technologies. Model solutions were obtained for varying budget amounts to test the sensitivity of emissions reductions and fuel-savings benefits with increasing the budget. Different mixes of technologies producing maximum oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) reductions and total combined benefits (emissions reductions plus fuel savings) were indicated at different budget ranges. The initial steep portion of the plots for NO(x) reductions and total combined benefits against budgets

  13. 30 CFR 75.1002 - Installation of electric equipment and conductors; permissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors; permissibility. 75.1002 Section 75.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1002 Installation of electric equipment and conductors... equipment is located within 150 feet of pillar workings or longwall faces. (b) Electric conductors...

  14. 30 CFR 77.502 - Electric equipment; examination, testing, and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., testing, and maintenance. Electric equipment shall be frequently examined, tested, and properly maintained... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment; examination, testing, and maintenance. 77.502 Section 77.502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  15. Ways to control quality of electric equipment in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipilov, A.D.; Nabokov, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    A structure is proposed for organization in the coal industry of a permanent service for controlling quality of electrical engineering equipment. A form was developed for introduction of recommendations to improve quality. Methods are suggested for evaluating the quality level as applied to specific tasks of controlling quality of the electrical equipment used in mining.

  16. 试析电子与电器废弃物资源化处理技术%Analysis on Waste Resource Treatment Technology of Electronic and Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘有成

    2016-01-01

    电子、电器设备的更新换代可谓是飞速发展,而这急速的产品更替产生了大量的电子与电器废弃物(waste electric and electronic equipment,WEEE).而WEEE含有大量的重金属、贵金属以及塑料、玻璃等物质,一旦遗漏在外,将带来无法想象的环境破坏问题,因此,目前社会各界对于W EEE进行回收利用的资源化处理成为了人们关注的热点.文章在介绍电子、电器废弃物的特点的基础上,主要分析了目前社会上对于电子、电器设备废弃物资源化处理的主要技术,进而分析各种处理技术对提高电子与电器废弃物的利用效果.

  17. Electrical Power Budgeting Analysis for LSA-02 UAV Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranoto, F. S.; Wirawan, A.; Purnamasari, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses the calculation of the LSA-02 UAV electrical power requirement as a technology demonstrator. To answer this issue, the method from ASTM F2490 Standard is used. By adopting that method, the condition of aircraft operation must be defined. Therefore, there are 2 aircraft conditions that will be investigated further. First, the LSA-02 aircraft will be fitted with EO/IR camera and support payload for conducting real-time surveillance system. The other condition is conducting the aerial photography mission to investigate the vegetation condition by equipping the aircraft with a multispectral camera. The results show that the real-time mission will need bigger electrical power requirement comparing to aerial photography mission. To support the mission without sacrificing the other electrical equipment for functioning, the onboard power generator system inside LSA-02 aircraft should be upgraded, at least with 3.5 kVA capacity.

  18. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  19. Electric arc spraying for restoration and repair of metallurgical equipment parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В’ячеслав Олександрович Роянов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the electric arc spraying with the use of powder wires can be used to repair and restore parts of metallurgical equipment. The technology of spraying parts by means of the cored wire Steelcored M8TUV; T462MMIN5 and combinations of steel and aluminum wires to restore shaft-gears, shaft-beams, cranes axles for the foundry of the Moldavian Metallurgical Plant has been introduced. The composition of the flux-cored wires MMP-2,3 developed at the Department of Equipment and welding production technology of PSTU that provides the required hardness and adhesion of the coating and the substrate have been shown and the results of the coatings properties studies have been published. Studies have shown matching properties of the coatings to be used for details of the metallurgical equipment working under difficult conditions, including the rolls of rolling mills. Cored wire was used for pilot plating of the rolls surface of the skin-rolling stand at the cold-rolling mill at Illich Steel and Iron Works, Mariupol. Residual coating thickness ranged from 15 to 25 microns. Strip sized 0,9 × 1025 mm has been rolled, the squeezing is equal to 0,8...1,0%.

  20. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) estimation: A case study of Ahvaz City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Babaei, Aliakbar; Takdastan, Afshin; Bagheri, Nastaran

    2015-03-01

    The development of new technologies and the increasing consumption of electronic and electrical equipment have led to increased generation of e-waste in the municipal waste streams. This waste due to the presence of hazardous substances in its composition needs specific attention and management. The present study was carried out in Ahvaz metropolis using a survey method in 2011. For estimating the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) generated, the "use and consumption" method was used. In order to determine the amounts of the electrical and electronic equipment that were used and their lifetime, and for investigating the current status of e-waste management in Ahvaz, an appropriate questionnaire was devised. In 2011, the total number of discarded electronic items was 2,157,742 units. According to the average weight of the equipment, the total generation of e-waste was 9952.25 metric tons per year and was 9.95 kg per capita per year. The highest e-waste generated was related to air conditioners, with 3125.36 metric tons per year, followed by the wastes from refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, and televisions. The wastes from desktop computers and laptops were 418 and 63 metric tons/year, respectively, and the corresponding values per capita were 0.42 and 0.063 kg, respectively. These results also showed that 10 tons fixed phones, 25 tons mobile phones, and by considering an average lifetime of 3 years for each lamp about 320 tons lamps were generated as e-waste in Ahvaz in the year 2011. Based on this study, currently there is not an integrated system for proper management of WEEE in Ahvaz, and this waste stream is collected and disposed of with other municipal waste. Some measures, including a specific collection system, recycling of valuable substances, and proper treatment and disposal, should be done about such waste. Ahvaz is one of the most important economic centers of Iran, and to the best of our knowledge, no study has been

  1. Suitable features selection for monitoring thermal condition of electrical equipment using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A. S. N.; Taib, S.

    2013-11-01

    Monitoring the thermal condition of electrical equipment is necessary for maintaining the reliability of electrical system. The degradation of electrical equipment can cause excessive overheating, which can lead to the eventual failure of the equipment. Additionally, failure of equipment requires a lot of maintenance cost, manpower and can also be catastrophic- causing injuries or even deaths. Therefore, the recognition processof equipment conditions as normal and defective is an essential step towards maintaining reliability and stability of the system. The study introduces infrared thermography based condition monitoring of electrical equipment. Manual analysis of thermal image for detecting defects and classifying the status of equipment take a lot of time, efforts and can also lead to incorrect diagnosis results. An intelligent system that can separate the equipment automatically could help to overcome these problems. This paper discusses an intelligent classification system for the conditions of equipment using neural networks. Three sets of features namely first order histogram based statistical, grey level co-occurrence matrix and component based intensity features are extracted by image analysis, which are used as input data for the neural networks. The multilayered perceptron networks are trained using four different training algorithms namely Resilient back propagation, Bayesian Regulazation, Levenberg-Marquardt and Scale conjugate gradient. The experimental results show that the component based intensity features perform better compared to other two sets of features. Finally, after selecting the best features, multilayered perceptron network trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm achieved the best results to classify the conditions of electrical equipment.

  2. 30 CFR 77.506-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and...-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements... minimum requirements for protection of electric circuits and equipment of the National Electric Code, 1968....

  3. ELECTRIC WELDING EQUIPMENT AND AUTOMATION OF WELDING IN CONSTRUCTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    WELDING , *ARC WELDING , AUTOMATION, CONSTRUCTION, INDUSTRIES, POWER EQUIPMENT, GENERATORS, POWER TRANSFORMERS, RESISTANCE WELDING , SPOT WELDING , MACHINES, AUTOMATIC, STRUCTURES, WIRING DIAGRAMS, USSR.

  4. Forecasting Electrical Energy Consumption of Equipment Maintenance Using Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Xunlin Jiang; Haifeng Ling; Jun Yan; Bo Li; Zhao Li

    2013-01-01

    Accurate forecasting of electrical energy consumption of equipment maintenance plays an important role in maintenance decision making and helps greatly in sustainable energy use. The paper presents an approach for forecasting electrical energy consumption of equipment maintenance based on artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). A multilayer forward ANN is used for modeling relationships between the input variables and the expected electrical energy consumption, ...

  5. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection.

  6. Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical Impendance Tomography (EIT) utilizes a series of electrodes in a circumferential band-like device feeding these signals to a portable computer that...

  7. The formalization of innovative processes of food technology equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Panfilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the efficiency of scientific and engineering work to develop methods for converting agricultural raw materials into food is the most important condition of output processing and food sectors of agriculture in the sixth technological structure. The purpose of this article is to formalize the process of creating a progressive technique of food technologies. The process of self-organizing technological systems, presents a model of dual mechanism of control with regard to the processes of food technology. It is shown that in the process of adaptation development of the technological system as purposefully improving the structure and functioning of the system: increases the efficiency of interaction with the external environment. This smoothed out the contradictions of the technological system and its the main thing, the main technical contradiction: «productivity – quality». The steps to be taken to ensure that the technological system of conditions for intensive development. It is concluded that the potential development of some technological systems is hidden in the perspective of automation, and others – is associated with adaptive development processes, in particular machines, devices and bioreactors. The paper shows that innovative and truly breakthrough developments leading to the creation of fundamentally new equipment and new generations of technological systems, possible only with the establishment of patterns of organization, structure, functioning and development of open systems, which are modern technologies of agriculture. The mechanism of control of technological object acts as a core of adaptive development, which implements the anti-entropic entity management object, formalizing the innovation process of innovative food processing technologies.

  8. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Technology for Decontamination of Space Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Thoma, Markus; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Müller, Meike; Semenov, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is very fast and effective in inactivation of all kinds of pathogens. It is used in hygiene and especially in medicine, since the plasma treatment can be applied to sensitive surfaces, like skin, too. In a first study to use CAP for the decontamination of space equipment we could show its potential as a quite promising alternative to the standard "dry heat" and H2O2 methods [Shimizu et al. Planetary and Space Science, 90, 60-71. (2014)]. In a follow-on study we continue the investigations to reach high application level of the technology. First, we redesign the actual setup to a plasma-gas circulation system, increasing the effectivity of inactivation and the sustainability. Additionally, we want to learn more about the plasma chemistry processes involved in the inactivation. Therefore, we perform detailed plasma and gas measurements and compare them to numerical simulations. The latter will finally be used to scale the decontamination system to sizes useful also for larger space equipment. Typical materials relevant for space equipment will be tested and investigated on surface material changes due to the plasma treatment. Additionally, it is planned to use electronic boards and compare their functionality before and after the CAP expose. We will give an overview on the status of the plasma decontamination project funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economics.

  9. Report: recycling of flame-retarded plastics from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Leitner, Thomas; Spruzina, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Shredder residues produced in plants processing waste electric and electronic equipment are excluded from material recycling due to a variety of polymeric materials and the presence of brominated flame retardants (BFR), which might contain banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers or toxic polybrominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F). Herein we present a technological approach to transfer a significant portion of the shredder residue into recycled polymers. The technological approach consists of a density-based enrichment of styrenics, which are subjected to a solvolysis process (CreaSolv process) in a second stage. This stage allows the elimination of non-target polymers and extraction of BFR and PBDD/F. Pilot processing of 11.5 and 50 kg shredder residues indicated a material yield of about 50% in the density stage and 70-80% in the CreaSolv process, and an effective removal of BFR additives. The recycled products were proved to comply with threshold values defined by the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and the German Chemikalienverbotsverordnung. Mechanical material properties exhibited high tensile and flexural modules as well as slight impact strength, which qualify the products for applications in new electronic equipment.

  10. 30 CFR 75.518-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements. 75.518-1 Section 75.518-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.518-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload...

  11. Study of seismic response and vibration control of High voltage electrical equipment damper based on TMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuncheng; Wang, Chongyang; Mao, Long; Zha, Chuanming

    2016-11-01

    Substation high voltage electrical equipment such as mutual inductor, circuit interrupter, disconnecting switch, etc., has played a key role in maintaining the normal operation of the power system. When the earthquake disaster, the electrical equipment of the porcelain in the transformer substation is the most easily to damage, causing great economic losses. In this paper, using the method of numerical analysis, the establishment of a typical high voltage electrical equipment of three dimensional finite element model, to study the seismic response of a typical SF6 circuit breaker, at the same time, analysis and contrast the installation ring tuned mass damper (TMD damper for short), by changing the damper damping coefficient and the mass block, install annular TMD vibration control effect is studied. The results of the study for guiding the seismic design of high voltage electrical equipment to provide valuable reference.

  12. III-Nitride advanced technologies and equipment for microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, S. I.; Alexeev, A. N.; Mamaev, V. V.; Krasovitsky, D. M.; Chaly, V. P.

    2016-12-01

    Using of complex equipment SemiTEq shown in example of a closed cycle of basic technological operations for production of high-power field microwave transistors based on gallium nitride in the "Svetlana-Rost" JSC. Basic technological operations are shown: MBE growth of heterostructures, metal deposition of contacts using electron-beam evaporation system, thermal annealing of ohmic contacts, meza-isolation plasma-chemical etching and dielectric plasma deposition. The main problems during the technological route as well as ways to solve are discussed. In particular, ways to reduce the dislocation density in the active region of the transistor heterostructures grown on the mismatched substrates are described in detail. Special attention given to the homogeneity and reproducibility both after some manufacturing operations and applied to the end product.

  13. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors wit

  14. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  15. Port of Electrical and Mechanical Equipment Installation and Commissioning Analysis%港口机电设备的安装及调试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波

    2015-01-01

    Port of electromechanical equipment installation, commissioning work directly related to the mechanical and electrical equipment operating status and life and, therefore, must be strictly mechanical and electrical installation and commissioning process port equipment, the use of advanced technology to improve the quality of electrical and mechanical equipment installation and commissioning, so mechanical and electrical equipment to fully play its role. A brief analysis of the factors affecting the port installation and commissioning of mechanical and electrical equipment, describes the mechanical and electrical equipment to ensure that the port installation and commissioning of an effective strategy level.%港口机电设备的安装、调试工作直接关系着机电设备的运行状态和使用寿命,因此,必须严格把关港口机电设备的安装和调试过程,采用先进的技术手段,提高机电设备安装和调试质量,使机电设备充分发挥其作用。简要分析了港口机电设备安装和调试的影响因素,阐述了保证港口机电设备安装和调试水平的有效策略。

  16. The influence of residents' behaviour on waste electrical and electronic equipment collection effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    Government agencies have implemented regulations to reduce the volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment to protect the environment and encourage recycling. The effectiveness of systems through which waste electrical and electronic equipment is collected and recycled depends on (a) the development and operation of new programmes to process this material and (b) on information dissemination programmes aimed at manufacturers, retail sellers, and the consuming public. This study analyses these two elements. The main focus is to better understand household residents' behaviour in regards to the proper methods of handling waste electrical and electronic equipment and possible storage of the obsolete equipment that brings disturbances with collection of the waste equipment. The study explores these issues depending on size of municipality and the household residents' knowledge about legal methods of post-consumer management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Poland, where the collection rate of that type of waste is about 40% of the total mass of waste electrical and electronic equipment appearing in the market.The research was informed by various sources of information, including non-government organisations, Inspectorate of Environmental Protection and Central Statistics Office in Poland, questionnaires, and interviews with the household residents. The questionnaires were distributed to daytime and vocational students from different universities and the customers of an electronic equipment superstore. The results show that a resident's behaviour in regards to the handling of obsolete waste electrical and electronic equipment can significantly reduce the collection rate, especially when the waste is discarded improperly - mixed with municipal waste or sold in scrapyards. It is possible to identify points that are necessary to be improved to achieve a higher collection rate.

  17. Renewable Electricity Use by the U.S. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gorham, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The information and communication technology (ICT) sector continues to witness rapid growth and uptake of ICT equipment and services at both the national and global levels. The electricity consumption associated with this expansion is substantial, although recent adoptions of cloudcomputing services, co-location data centers, and other less energy-intensive equipment and operations have likely reduced the rate of growth in this sector. This paper is intended to aggregate existing ICT industry data and research to provide an initial look at electricity use, current and future renewable electricity acquisition, as well as serve as a benchmark for future growth and trends in ICT industry renewable electricity consumption.

  18. Leakage current measurement of protective equipment insulating materials used in electrical installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buică, G.; Dobra, R.; Păsculescu, D.; Tătar, A.

    2016-06-01

    This research describes the behaviour of equipment and safety devices during use in extreme environmental conditions, in order to establish the technical conditions and additional health and safety requirements during operation, to ensure the health and safety of users, regardless of conditions and working environment in which they are use. The studies have been conducted both on new equipment and means of protection used in electrical installations. There has been evaluated protective equipment made of insulating rubber, reinforced fiberglass or PVC. They have been followed the technical characteristics and protection against electric shock by measuring the leakage current of different insulating materials.

  19. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  20. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  1. Innovative Mechanical Engineering Technologies, Equipment and Materials-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnaz Izailovich, Fayrushin; Nail Faikovich, Kashapov; Mahmut Mashutovich, Ganiev

    2014-12-01

    In the period from 25 to 27 September 2013 the city of Kazan hosted the International Scientific Conference "Innovative mechanical engineering technologies, equipment and materials - 2013" (IRTC "IMETEM - 2013"). The conference was held on the grounds of "Kazanskaya Yarmarka" (Kazan). The conference plenary meeting was held with the participation of the Republic of Tatarstan, breakout sessions, forum "Improving the competitiveness and efficiency of engineering enterprises in the WTO" and a number of round tables. Traditionally, the event was followed by the 13th International specialized exhibition "Engineering. Metalworking. Kazan ", in which were presented the development of innovative enterprises in the interests of the Russian Federation of Industry of Republic of Tatarstan, to support the "Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology" and the 8th specialized exhibition "TechnoWelding". Kashapov Nail, D.Sc., professor (Kazan Federal University)

  2. Technical Achievements in Communist China’s Electrical Equipment Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-09-15

    Francisco San Francisco 17, California McKissick Memorial Library University of South Carolina Colombia 1, South Carolina University of Southern Calif...were manufactured at the Li-ling Electric Porcelain Planta December 1958: A 72,500-kilowatt water turbine generator, the largest in Communist

  3. 46 CFR 169.685 - Electric heating and cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electric space heater for heating rooms and compartments must be provided with thermal cutouts to prevent overheating. Each heater must be so constructed and installed as to prevent the hanging of towels, clothing, etc., on the heater, and to prevent overheating of heater parts and adjacent bulkheads or decks. (b...

  4. Forecasting Electrical Energy Consumption of Equipment Maintenance Using Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunlin Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecasting of electrical energy consumption of equipment maintenance plays an important role in maintenance decision making and helps greatly in sustainable energy use. The paper presents an approach for forecasting electrical energy consumption of equipment maintenance based on artificial neural network (ANN and particle swarm optimization (PSO. A multilayer forward ANN is used for modeling relationships between the input variables and the expected electrical energy consumption, and a new adaptive PSO algorithm is proposed for optimizing the parameters of the ANN. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach provides much better accuracies than some other competitive methods on the test data.

  5. 78 FR 37760 - Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... follows. \\12\\ Estimate provided by Regulatory Advisor--MWCS, Exxon Mobil, 8/14/2012. Recertification of... under Executive Order 13211. L. Technical Standards The National Technology Transfer and Advancement...

  6. Electrical principles and technology for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to introduce students to the basic electrical and electronic principles needed by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. The emphasis is on the practical aspects of the subject, and the author has followed his usual successful formula, incorporating many worked examples and problems (answers supplied) into the learning process.Electrical Principles and Technology for Engineering is John Bird's core text for Further Education courses at BTEC levels N11 and N111 and Advanced GNVQ. It is also designed to provide a comprehe

  7. Disassembly properties and material characterisation of household small waste electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This paper is focused on characterising small waste electric and electronic equipment, specifically small household appliances, from two different points of views: disassembly properties and material identification. The sample for this characterisation was obtained from a selective collection campaign organised in Castellón de la Plana (Spain). A total amount of 833.7kg (749 units) of small waste electric and electronic equipment was collected, of which 23.3% by weight and 22.4% by units belonged to the subcategory household equipment. This subcategory, composed of appliances such as vacuum cleaners, toasters, sandwich makers, hand blenders, juicers, coffee makers, hairdryers, scales, irons and heaters, was first disassembled in order to analyse different aspects of the disassembly process for each equipment type: type of joints, ease of identification of materials, ease of access to joints for extracting components, ease of separation of components from the whole, uniformity of tools needed for the disassembly process and possibility of reassembly after disassembly. Results show that the most common joints used in these equipment types are snap-fits and screws, although some permanent joints have also been identified. Next, the material composition of each component of each appliance belonging to each equipment type was identified visually and with additional mechanical trials and testing. It can be observed that plastic and electric/electronic components are present in all the equipment types analysed and are also the material fractions that appear with higher percentages in the material composition: 41.1wt% and 39.1wt% for the plastic fraction and electric/electronic components, respectively. The most common plastics are: polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC), while the most common electric/electronic components are: cable, plug and printed circuit boards. Results also show that disassembly properties and material

  8. Brominated flame retardants in waste electrical and electronic equipment: substance flows in a recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morf, Leo S; Tremp, Josef; Gloor, Rolf; Huber, Yvonne; Stengele, Markus; Zennegg, Markus

    2005-11-15

    octaBDE. Roughly 60% of the total bromine input determined by SFA based on X-ray fluorescence analysis of the output materials of the recycling plant cannot be assigned to the selected BFRs. This is an indication for the presence of other brominated substances as substitutes for PBDEs in electrical and electronic equipment. The presence of BFRs, in particular PBDEs in the low grams per kilogram concentration range, in the fine dust fraction recovered in the off-gas purification system of the recycling plant reveals a high potential for BFR emissions from WEEE management and point out the importance for environmentally sound recycling and disposal technologies for BFR-containing residues.

  9. Technology Roadmaps: Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Buildings account for almost a third of final energy consumption globally and are an equally important source of CO2 emissions. Currently, both space heating and cooling as well as hot water are estimated to account for roughly half of global energy consumption in buildings. Energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies for buildings have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 2 gigatonnes (Gt) and save 710 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of energy by 2050. Most of these technologies -- which include solar thermal, combined heat and power (CHP), heat pumps and thermal energy storage -- are commercially available today. The Energy-Efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment Roadmap sets out a detailed pathway for the evolution and deployment of the key underlying technologies. It finds that urgent action is required if the building stock of the future is to consume less energy and result in lower CO2 emissions. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap's vision.

  10. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management in Botswana: Prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmereki, Daniel; Li, Baizhan; Li'ao, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The management of waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) is a major challenge in developing and transition countries. The paper investigates recent strategies to manage this waste stream in an environmentally sound way. Obsolete electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) are a complex waste category containing both hazardous and valuable substances. Many countries and regions in the world are undertaking extensive scientific research to plan and develop effective collection and treatment systems for end-of-life EEE. In developing countries such as Botswana, effective strategies that cover all stages throughout the lifecycle of products, particularly at the end-of-life, still lag behind. Infrastructure, pre-processing, and end-processing facilities and innovative technologies for end-of-life management of e-waste are noticeably absent due to lack of investment and high costs of its management. The objective of the paper is to present the e-waste situation in Botswana, highlighting (a) measures taken in the form of legislative and policy regulations; (b) existing practices to manage e-waste; and (c) effective solutions for e-waste management in emerging economies. Studies from other countries on e-waste management issues provided insights on the "best" technical and logistical pre-processing and end-processing strategies to treat hazardous waste. The paper also highlights key societal factors that affect successful implementation of cost-effective collection and value recovery of end-of-life EEE. These include unavailability of national "e-waste policy," absence of formal take-back system, absence of financing and subsidies, inadequate source separation programmes, absence of technical and logistical integration of pre-processing and end-processing facilities, and limited infrastructure and access to technologies and investment. Effective strategies such as an "integrated approach" (mixed options), access to technologies, establishment of pre-processing and

  11. Latest Technologies and Equipment to Obtain High Quality Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharuk, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A principally new concept of providing the Ukrainian population with quality drinking water have been proposed. It is based on a system of autonomous complexes for water purification in places of direct consumption. Water treatment autonomous complexes for collective and individual use with biotesting and analytical quality control of drinking water have been developed. The choice of the cleaning methods of tap and other waters up to the quality of genetic safe is performed in accordance with its composition and is based on a block concept that provides the possibility of varying the number of units depending on the composition of the source water. The proposed technology and equipment at cost and complex problems to be solved have no analogues in the world. Over thousand of modular installations «Vega» and disinfecting vehicles «Promin» are implemented in many settlement in all regions of Ukraine.

  12. Competitiveness through cooperation between electricity and information technology. TESLA - Information technology and electric power systems technology programme 1998-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The electricity markets are being opened up to competition all round the world. To succeed in competition electricity sellers want new information technology tools to use in managing the sale of electricity. The network companies are aiming to step up utilization of their distribution capacity and to optimize power quality and the reliability of supply. Consumers need solutions with which they can manage their own power consumption and tendering sellers. The Nordic countries have been the first to deregulate their electricity markets. This head start in time is being made use of to generate a head start in technology. Tekes has initiated a technology programme for the years 1998 to 2002, named TESLA - Information Technology and Electric Power Systems, to promote the competitiveness of the Finnish electricity industry in changing conditions. The objective of the programme is to adapt information technology extensively to power distribution and thus develop the potential for Finland`s electricity industry to succeed on world markets. At the moment power distribution technology forms about one third of Finland`s energy technology exports. The programme is also aimed at developing new data transfer and data processing applications for companies in information technology clusters. For Finnish parties in the electricity markets the programme will produce ways and means of (1) improving management and use of distribution networks, (2) implementing competition in electricity sales, and (3) increasing the efficiency of electricity use

  13. Technology opportunities in a restructured electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the Strategic Research & Development (SR&D) program of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The intent of the program is to anticipate and shape the scientific and technological future of the electricity enterprise. SR&D serves those industry R&D needs that are more exploratory, precompetitive, and longer-term. To this end, SR&D seeks to anticipate technological change and, where possible, shape that change to the advantage of the electric utility enterprise and its customers. SR&D`s response to this challenge is research and development program that addresses the most probable future of the industry, but at the same time is robust against alternative futures. The EPRI SR&D program is organized into several vectors, each with a mission that relates directly to one or more EPRI industry goals, which are summarized in the paper. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Characterisation and materials flow management for waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics from German dismantling centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Dagmar; Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Markowski, Jens; Wagenknecht, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment is a complex waste stream and treatment options that work for one waste category or product may not be appropriate for others. A comprehensive case study has been performed for plastic-rich fractions that are treated in German dismantling centres. Plastics from TVs, monitors and printers and small household appliances have been characterised extensively. Based on the characterisation results, state-of-the-art treatment technologies have been combined to design an optimised recycling and upgrade process for each input fraction. High-impact polystyrene from TV casings that complies with the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) was produced by applying continuous density separation with yields of about 60%. Valuable acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polycarbonate can be extracted from monitor and printer casings by near-infrared-based sorting. Polyolefins and/or a halogen-free fraction of mixed styrenics can be sorted out by density separation from monitors and printers and small household appliances. Emerging separation technologies are discussed to improve recycling results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Improving electrical equipment and control systems for shield integrated mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovich, Z.M.; Starikov, B.Ya.; Kibrik, I.S.

    1984-06-01

    The design and operation are discussed for electrical equipment and control systems for the 1AShchM, the ANShch and the 2ANShch shield integrated face systems consisting of shield supports, coal plow and chain conveyor. The shield system is used for mining inclined and steep coal seams endangered by coal dust explosions, methane or rock bursts. Control and electrical system for 3 types of shield face mining systems is similar. It cuts energy supply when methane content at working faces exceeds the maximum permissible level, controls haulage rate and cutting rate of a coal plow, controls operation of shield supports (using the Sirena system), controls dust suppression system and its water consumption. The system is also equipped with communications equipment. Tests of the control and electrical system for the integrated shield system carried out in the im. Gagarin mine in the Ukraine are described. The VAUS III control system developed by Dongiprouglemash was tested.

  16. Advanced risk assessment of the effects of graphite fibers on electronic and electric equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocinki, L.; Cornell, M.; Kaplan, L.

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the risk associated with accidents involving aircraft with carbon fiber composite structural components is examined. The individual fiber segments cause electrical and electronic equipment to fail under certain operating conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation model was used to computer the risk. Aircraft accidents with fire, release of carbon fiber material, entrainment of carbon fibers in a smoke plume transport of fibers downwind, transfer of some fibers/into the the interior of buildings, failures of electrical and electronic equipment, and economic impact of failures are discussed. Risk profiles were prepared for individual airports and the Nation. The vulnerability of electrical transmission equipment to carbon fiber incursion and aircraft accident total costs is investigated.

  17. 基于物联网技术的电力设备状态检修研究%Research on condition based maintenance of electric power equipment based on Internet of things technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝琛石

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,the rapid development of Internet of things technology.Based on the advantages of the Internet of things,China's power development in the integration of the Internet of things technology. In this paper,the application of the Internet of things technology in power system is analyzed, and the related cases are demonstrated.%近年来,物联网技术迅速发展.基于物联网的优越性,我国在电力发展中融入的了物联网技术.藉此,本文分析了物联网技术在电力系统中的应用,并以相关案例对其进行了展示.

  18. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  19. Environmental Strategies for Electrical and Electronic Equipment Supply Chains: Which to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patroklos Georgiadis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment is one of the major world-wide waste streams triggering the emergence of environmental strategies. Environmental regulations, closed-loop supply chain (CLSC activities and design-for-environment (DfE practices are environmental friendly strategies being implemented by governments and industry. In this paper, we apply a System Dynamics model to a CLSC of electrical and electronic equipment in Greece. Extensive numerical investigation provides insights regarding the impact of different legislative measures, CLSC activities and DfE practices on the environmental (availability of natural resources and landfills and economic sustainability.

  20. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  1. Qualification of Electrical Equipment in Nuclear Power Plants - Management of ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaang, Kjell [KS Miltek, Vaestra Froelunda, Goeteborg (Sweden); Staahl, Gunnar [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to describe programs and tools for assessment of accomplished and documented qualification with respect to ageing of electrical equipment and for development of complimentary ageing management programs. In addition to description of complete programs for management of ageing, tools for validation of the status with regard to ageing of installed ('old') equipment and, where needed, for complementation of their qualification are also included. The report is restricted to safety related equipment containing ageing sensitive parts, mainly organic materials. To this category belong cables and cable joints and a number of equipment containing oils, seals (o-rings), etc. For equipment located in the containment, the possibilities of continuous supervision are limited. The accessibility for regular inspections is also limited in many cases. The main part of this report deals with the qualification of such equipment. Some safety related equipment outside the containment can be located in areas where they are subjected to high temperature and other excessive environmental stresses during normal operation and in areas affected by an accident. Therefore, some material is given also on qualification of equipment located outside containment with better possibilities for frequent inspection and supervision. Part 1 of the report is an executive summary with a general review of the methodologies and their application. The more detailed description of the programs and underlying material, useful data, etc. is given in Part 2.

  2. [Meet the challenge of the implementation of the EMC standard for medical electrical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Lin, Weizeng; Liu, Jingling

    2011-03-01

    This paper reveals the EMC quality situation of China's medical electrical equipment and the existing security risks in order to arouse the concerns of the government supervision departments, technical inspection units, the production enterprises and the users. It also serves as a reference when formulating related policies and measures.

  3. Traveling wire electrode increases productivity of Electrical Discharge Machining /EDM/ equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotora, J., Jr.; Smith, S. V.

    1967-01-01

    Traveling wire electrode on electrical discharge machining /EDM/ equipment reduces the time requirements for precision cutting. This device enables cutting with a minimum of lost material and without inducing stress beyond that inherent in the material. The use of wire increases accuracy and enables tighter tolerances to be maintained.

  4. Extent of Utilizing Electrical Equipment in Poultry Production in Ebonyi State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogba, E. I.; Ogbu, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent of utilizing electrical equipment in poultry production in the rural areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions guided the study. The population for the study was 46 respondents comprising 16 Extension agents and 30 Poultry farmers.…

  5. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the...

  6. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  7. DESIGNING FEATURES OF POWER OPTICAL UNITS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Afanasiev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the question of an optical unit designing for transmitting power laser radiation through an optical fiber. The aim of this work is designing a simple construction unit with minimized reflection losses. The source of radiation in the optical unit described below is an ultraviolet laser with diode pumping. We present the general functioning scheme and designing features for the three main parts: laser beam deflecting system, laser beam dump and optical unit control system. The described laser beam deflection system is composed of a moving flat mirror and a spherical scattering mirror. Comparative analysis of the production technology for such mirrors was carried out, and, as a result, the decision was made to produce both mirrors of 99.99 % pure molybdenum without coating. A moving mirror deflects laser emission from a source through a fiber or deflects it on a spherical mirror and into the laser beam dump, moreover, switching from one position to another occurs almost immediately. It is shown that a scattering mirror is necessary, otherwise, the absorbing surface of the beam dump is being worn out irregularly. The laser beam dump is an open conical cavity, in which the conical element with its spire turned to the emission source is placed. Special microgeometry of the internal surface of the beam dump is suggested for the better absorption effect. An optical unit control system consists of a laser beam deflection system, laser temperature sensor, deflection system solenoid temperature sensor, and deflection mirror position sensor. The signal processing algorithm for signals coming from the sensors to the controller is described. The optical unit will be used in special technological equipment.

  8. Innovative approach for the valorization of useful metals from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Dumitrescu, D. V.; Constantin, I.; Soare, V.; Popescu, A.-M. J.; Carcea, I.

    2016-08-01

    Waste electric and electronic equipment are an important secondary source of rare and precious metals and their processing through ecological technologies constitutes a major concern in the European Union and significantly contributes to the reduction of environmental pollution and to the preservation of valuable resources of nonferrous metals. The paper presents an innovative approach for the complex valorization of useful metals contained in WEEE. The method consists in the melting of WEEE in a furnace in a microwave field at temperatures of 1000 ÷1200°C, for the complete separation of the metallic fraction from the organic components. The gases resulting from the melting process were also treated/neutralized in a microwave environment and the obtained metallic bulk (multi-component alloy) was processed through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods. The major elements in the metallic bulk (Cu, Sn, Zn, Pb) were separated/recovered by anodic dissolution, respectively by leaching in nitric acid followed by cementation using various agents, or by electrodeposition. Depending on the electrochemical parameters, cathodic deposits consisting of Cu, with a purity higher than 99.9%, or of Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Zn alloys were obtained. Silver was valorized by leaching/precipitation with NaCl and the gold concentrated in the anodic slime will be recovered by thiourea extraction. The experiments performed demonstrate the possibility of ecological and efficient processing of WEEE in a microwave field and the recovery of nonferrous and precious metals through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods.

  9. The status and development of treatment techniques of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-04-01

    A large quantity of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is being generated because technical innovation promotes the unceasing renewal of products. China's household appliances and electronic products have entered the peak of obsolescence. Due to lack of technology and equipment, recycling of WEEE is causing serious environment pollution. In order to achieve the harmless disposal and resource utilization of WEEE, researchers have performed large quantities of work, and some demonstration projects have been built recently. In this paper, the treatment techniques of typical WEEE components, including printed circuit boards, refrigerator cabinets, toner cartridges, cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal display panels, batteries (Ni-Cd and Li-ion), hard disk drives, and wires are reviewed. An integrated recycling system with environmentally friendly and highly efficient techniques for processing WEEE is proposed. The orientation of further development for WEEE recycling is also proposed.

  10. The Discussion about Installation, Maintenance and Management of Electrical and Mechanical Equipment%机电设备的安装、维修与管理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍华

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of scientific technology,information and automation technologies are becoming increasingly important.Meanwhile,mechanical and electrical equipment have been widely applied in all walks of life due to the reasonthat mechanical and electrical equipment can reduce human cost significantly.In addition,the operation of mechanical and electrical equipment connects closely with every links of production process,exerting great influence on producing operation. Therefore,enterprises should pay high attention to installation,maintenance and management of mechanical and electrical equipment,and put forward practical strategies according to main problems remain in current mechanical and electrical equipment, in case the occurrence of equipment breakdown and safety accident due to bad equipment operation.%随着科学技术的不断进步,信息和自动化技术也变得日益重要,与此同时机电设备已经在生产生活的各个领域得到了普遍的应用,这在某种程度上是由于机电设备可以显著减少人力成本.此外,机电设备的运行与生产的各个环节紧密相连,对生产运行状况产生重大影响.因此,企业必须高度重视机电设备的安装、维修与管理工作,针对当前机电设备主要存在的问题提出切实可行的对策,以免设备不良运行诱发故障甚至安全事故.

  11. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  12. Design of efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Deng, Chao; Tian, Jing; Mao, Yao

    2016-10-01

    Interface testing for opto-electric tracking system is one important work to assure system running performance, aiming to verify the design result of every electronic interface matching the communication protocols or not, by different levels. Opto-electric tracking system nowadays is more complicated, composed of many functional units. Usually, interface testing is executed between units manufactured completely, highly depending on unit design and manufacture progress as well as relative people. As a result, it always takes days or weeks, inefficiently. To solve the problem, this paper promotes an efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system, consisting of optional interface circuit card, processor and test program. The hardware cards provide matched hardware interface(s), easily offered from hardware engineer. Automatic code generation technique is imported, providing adaption to new communication protocols. Automatic acquiring items, automatic constructing code architecture and automatic encoding are used to form a new program quickly with adaption. After simple steps, a standard customized new interface testing equipment with matching test program and interface(s) is ready for a waiting-test system in minutes. The efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system has worked for many opto-electric tracking system to test entire or part interfaces, reducing test time from days to hours, greatly improving test efficiency, with high software quality and stability, without manual coding. Used as a common tool, the efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system promoted by this paper has changed traditional interface testing method and created much higher efficiency.

  13. Development of 3 D Electric Field Analysis Program under Power System Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, S. H.; Lee, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Ha, T. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Recently, as the effects of electric fields on animals, human beings and sensitive equipment have been reported, the study on electric fields has become more important. Transmission lines and substation among power facilities are dominant parts related to electrical environment. Electric field analysis of transmission line has been made using image charge method or CSM since 1970`s, however electric field analysis in substation has been rarely studied due to the complexity of three dimensional evaluation of an electric field in substation. For the rather complicated and time-consuming three-dimensional electric field calculation in the vicinity of transmission lines and substations, this study proposes an effective numerical calculation method based on Charge Simulation Method(CSM). In order to represent non-uniform charge distribution on an electrode better, it is subdivided into small segments with linear charge density. Each segment with linear charge density can be easily represented by a generalized finite line type of charge whose expressions for potential and electric field were analytically derived and which was named {sup f}inite slant line charge in this study. As for the arrangement of small segments of a subdivided electrode, it has been found that unequally spaced arrangement method is superior to equally spaced one. In order to arrange segments fast and effectively, effective formulas were derived from multiple regression analysis of many simulations. The proposed method is applied to the electric field calculation around the transmission lines with significant change in direction and substation busbars. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  14. A model for estimation of potential generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Marcelo Guimarães; Magrini, Alessandra; Mahler, Cláudio Fernando; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Sales of electrical and electronic equipment are increasing dramatically in developing countries. Usually, there are no reliable data about quantities of the waste generated. A new law for solid waste management was enacted in Brazil in 2010, and the infrastructure to treat this waste must be planned, considering the volumes of the different types of electrical and electronic equipment generated. This paper reviews the literature regarding estimation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), focusing on developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It briefly describes the current WEEE system in Brazil and presents an updated estimate of generation of WEEE. Considering the limited available data in Brazil, a model for WEEE generation estimation is proposed in which different methods are used for mature and non-mature market products. The results showed that the most important variable is the equipment lifetime, which requires a thorough understanding of consumer behavior to estimate. Since Brazil is a rapidly expanding market, the "boom" in waste generation is still to come. In the near future, better data will provide more reliable estimation of waste generation and a clearer interpretation of the lifetime variable throughout the years.

  15. 77 FR 75071 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Electrical/Electronic Equipment Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...; Electrical/Electronic Equipment Bay Fire Detection and Smoke Penetration AGENCY: Federal Aviation... conditions for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have novel or unusual design features, specifically distributed electrical and electronic equipment bays in pressurized areas of...

  16. Recycling-oriented characterization of small waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancerel, Perrine; Rotter, Susanne

    2009-08-01

    As a result of the continuous change in the design and function of consumer electrical and electronic products, the mechanical and material properties of the obsolete products, called waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), are highly variable. The variability within WEEE is explained by the number of different appliances, and the heterogeneity in composition of any given appliance. This paper reports on an extended investigation of the properties of WEEE, in particular small appliances. The investigation focuses on the analysis of the composition of about 700 single appliances. Firstly, analytical methods to characterize the waste equipment are described. The results of the experimental analyses show that the mechanical properties, the material composition, the polymer composition and the chemical composition of WEEE vary not only between equipment types with different functions, but also between single appliances within one equipment type. Data on hazardous and valuable substances in selected equipment types are presented. Using detailed data on the composition of individual appliances to calculate rates of recovery for assumed recycling processes demonstrates that the performance of recycling processes depends strongly on the composition of WEEE. Recycling-oriented characterization is, therefore, a systematic approach to support the design and the operation of recycling processes.

  17. A Failing Grade for WEEE Take-Back Programs for Information Technology Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2005-01-01

    Product take-back (also called extended producer responsibility) has become a trend for dealing with the garbage resulting from categories of problematic products. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one such category with computer equipment being of particular significance. This article provides a description of the European…

  18. Electrical and electronic principles and technology

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2013-01-01

    This much-loved textbook introduces electrical and electronic principles and technology to students who are new to the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions really help aid your understanding and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have mastered each subject. In total the books contains 410 worked problems, 540 further problems, 340 multiple-choice questions, 455 short-answer questions, and 7 revision tests with answers online.This an ideal text for vocational courses enabling a s

  19. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  20. Automatic Distance Monitoring System of Contact Connections in High Voltage Equipment of Electric Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Diachenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed automatic distance monitoring system of contact connections in high voltage equipment is based on technology of sensor circuits. The paper shows application of control methodology for contact connections in accordance with time rate of conductor temperature changes and contact connection and also direct measurement of transient resistance.

  1. New high-speed line Nuremberg - Ingolstadt - Electrical engineering equipment; Neubaustrecke (NBS) Nuernberg - Ingolstadt - Technische Ausruestung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krems, S. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, U. [DB Projektbau GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Bavarian fast railway line Nuremberg - Ingolstadt is equipped with most recent railway infrastructure for a 300 km/h fast high-speed traffic. The electrical engineering installations were implemented within a seven years period. Since December 2006 the line has been integrated into scheduled services and operated with high-speed trains. So far, the installations complied fully with all the requirements. (orig.)

  2. Metallurgical use of glass fractions from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghel, Sina; Samuelsson, Caisa

    2010-01-01

    Within the European Union, it is estimated that between 8 and 9 million tons of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) arises annually, of which television sets and computers account for an important part. Traditionally, Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) have been used for TVs and computer monitors, but are rapidly being replaced by flat-screen technology. Only part of the discarded CRT glass is being recycled. Primary smelters use large amounts of silica flux to form iron-silicate slag, and can, in most cases, tolerate lead input. Use of discarded CRT glass in copper smelting is a potential alternative for utilization of the glass. The mineralogical composition of a slag sampled during ordinary slag praxis has been compared with that of a mixture of slag and CRT glass when re-melted and slowly cooled. Slag (iron-silicate slag) from Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden, was used for the experiments. Slag and glass have been mixed in various proportions: pure slag, pure glass, 90% slag-10% glass and 65% slag-35% glass, and heated in an inert atmosphere up to 1400 degrees C in a Netzsch Thermal Analysis (TA) instrument. The re-melted material has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine changes in mineralogical composition after mixing with glass. The results show that the main mineralogical component of the slag is fayalite; the CRT glass is amorphous. The main crystalline phases of the slag do not change with addition of glass. An amorphous phase appears when the addition of glass is increased, which gives the sample a different structure.

  3. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view.

  4. Recovering metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment by a novel vibration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Muddasar, E-mail: muddasar77@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar (Pakistan); Miles, Nicholas J.; Hall, Philip [Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► This work focuses on demonstrating a new scaled up technology to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. ► PCBs comminuted to <1 mm in size resulted in metallic grade concentration of 95% in some of the recovered products. ► Good separation was observed at 40 mm particle bed height due to the formation of well-structured global convection currents. ► The work reported here contributes to the development of a new approach to dry, fine particle separation. - Abstract: The need to recover and recycle valuable resources from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of growing importance as increasing amounts are generated due to shorter product life cycles, market expansions, new product developments and, higher consumption and production rates. The European Commission (EC) directive, 2002/96/EC, on WEEE became law in UK in January 2007 setting targets to recover up to 80% of all WEEE generated. Printed Wire Board (PWB) and/or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an important component of WEEE with an ever increasing tonnage being generated. However, the lack of an accurate estimate for PCB production, future supply and uncertain demands of its recycled materials in international markets has provided the motivation to explore different approaches to recycle PCBs. The work contained in this paper focuses on a novel, dry separation methodology in which vertical vibration is used to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. When PCBs were comminuted to less than 1 mm in size, metallic grades as high as 95% (measured by heavy liquid analysis) could be achieved in the recovered products.

  5. Technology review of commercial food service equipment - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, S.; Krsikapa, S. [Canadian Gas Research Inst., Don Mills, ON (Canada); Fisher, D.; Nickel, J.; Ardley, S.; Zabrowski, D. [Fisher Consultants (Canada); Barker, R.F. [ed.

    1996-05-15

    Technical information on commercial gas cooking appliances was presented. This second volume provided an appliance-by-appliance comprehensive assessment of the energy performance of commercial food service equipment. Energy assessments were made for the following categories of cooking equipment: fryers, griddles, broilers, ranges, Chinese ranges, ovens, steamers, steam kettles, and braising pans. Recommendations were made for improving the energy efficiency and overall performance of gas appliances to support of the Canadian gas utilities marketing and energy conservation initiatives. 71 refs., 37 tabs., 58 figs.

  6. Survey on requirements for independent reviews and inspections of electrical and I and C equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byman, Karin; Groenkvist, Stefan; Egerbo, Anders; Nilsson, Thomas (AaF Consult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    In this survey, licensing procedures for the implementation of different kinds of components and systems in nuclear power plants have been studied in four European countries: Belgium (Finland), Germany, and Switzerland. The main focus has been to describe the general features of the licensing procedures for electrical and for instrumentation and control (IandC) equipment and systems. The regulatory framework for the operation of nuclear power plants in Belgium is based on the American regulations. The licensing procedure for each modification of significance for the safety of a plant is carried out by the authorised inspection organisation (AVN), which follows its own procedures for the review of the modification file, the commissioning, and conformity check of the installation. These procedures are general and independent of the technical domain of the equipment or system and AVN uses the US regulations standard review plan (SRP) as a reference for technical reviews. The Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) is responsible for the surveillance of all nuclear activities in Belgium, but the private non-profit authorised inspection organisation (AVN) does perform inspections and other regulatory tasks delegated by FANC. Controls of electrical components and systems with regard to the general Belgian electrical regulations are performed by accredited inspection organisations. The regulatory framework for the safety of nuclear activities in Finland is domestic and detailed safety requirements are provided by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). They cover specific requirements for the licensing procedure for electrical and IandC equipment. In Finland, there are no general differences in the licensing procedure for electrical, instrumentation, and mechanical equipment and the licensing procedure is basically the same for all types of systems, structures and equipment. STUK has the responsibility for the regulatory control in Finland and may seek

  7. Evaluation of Electrical Characteristics of Protective Equipment - a Prerequisite for Ensuring Safety and Health of Workers at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buică, G.; Beiu, C.; Antonov, A.; Dobra, R.; Păsculescu, D.

    2017-06-01

    The protecting electrical equipment in use are subject to various factors generated by the use, maintenance, storage and working environment, which may change the characteristics of protection against electric shock. The study presents the results of research on the behaviour over time of protective characteristics of insulating covers of material of work equipment in use, in order to determine the type and periodicity of safety tests. There were tested and evaluated safety equipment with plastic and insulating rubber covers used in operations of verifying functionality, safety and maintenance of machinery used in manufacturing industries and specific services from electric, energy and food sector.

  8. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Barney Carlson; Don Scoffield; Brion Bennett

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  9. ELECTRIC FIELD SENSORS BASED ON MEMS TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Chao; Xia Shanhong; Deng Kai; Bai Qiang; Chen Shaofeng

    2005-01-01

    The design and optimization of two types of novel miniature vibrating Electric Field Sensors (EFSs) based on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology are presented.They have different structures and vibrating modes. The volume is much smaller than other types of charge-induced EFSs such as field-mills. As miniaturizing, the induced signal is reduced enormously and a high sensitive circuit is needed to detect it. Elaborately designed electrodes can increase the amplitude of the output current, making the detecting circuit simplified and improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Computer simulations for different structural parameters of the EFSs and vibrating methods have been carried out by Finite Element Method (FEM). It is proved that the new structures are realizable and the output signals are detectable.

  10. Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Pires, Ana; Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production.

  11. Harmonics in power systems of ships with electrical propulsion drives. Effects on the equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-11-01

    In this report the effect of harmonics on the power system equipment and loads, with special attention given to the circumstances in ships, is discussed. Some guidelines are given for the computation of additional harmonic losses in power cables and transformers. It is also shown, that if the system is rich in harmonics, these losses must be taken into account when sizing the equipment. The effect of harmonics on electrical machines is also discussed. The influence on induction machines is usually small. However, in large synchronous machines a significant degree of harmonic losses may be expected. Especially in the high voltage system the harmonics must be taken into account when selecting the machine ratings. Also the harmonic resonances, which may arise when using reactive power compensation capacitors, are discussed. Due to the risk of harmonic resonances, the use of capacitors is not recommended in marine power systems. Also the immunity of different load devices to harmonic distortion is discussed. The equipment considered are resistive loads, discharge lamps, universal machines and electronic equipment. Finally a brief survey is given on the standards and recommendations for the maximum distortion levels allowed. (author)

  12. Hall-Effect Based Semi-Fast AC On-Board Charging Equipment for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva González-Romera

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  13. Study on Miniaturized UHF Antennas for Partial Discharge Detection in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingcun; Zhang, Guogang; Dong, Jinlong; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-11-20

    Detecting partial discharge (PD) is an effective way to evaluate the condition of high-voltage electrical equipment insulation. The UHF detection method has attracted attention due to its high sensitivity, strong interference resistance, and ability to locate PDs. In this paper, a miniaturized equiangular spiral antenna (ESA) for UHF detection that uses a printed circuit board is proposed. I-shaped, L-shaped, and C-shaped microstrip baluns were designed to match the impedance between the ESA and coaxial cable and were verified by a vector network analyzer. For comparison, three other types of UHF antenna were also designed: A microstrip patch antenna, a microstrip slot antenna, and a printed dipole antenna. Their antenna factors were calibrated in a uniform electric field of different frequencies modulated in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell. We performed comparison experiments on PD signal detection using an artificial defect model based on the international IEC 60270 standard. We also conducted time-delay test experiments on the ESA sensor to locate a PD source. It was found that the proposed ESA sensor meets PD signal detection requirements. The sensor's compact size makes it suitable for internal installation in high-voltage electrical equipment.

  14. Study on Miniaturized UHF Antennas for Partial Discharge Detection in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcun Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detecting partial discharge (PD is an effective way to evaluate the condition of high-voltage electrical equipment insulation. The UHF detection method has attracted attention due to its high sensitivity, strong interference resistance, and ability to locate PDs. In this paper, a miniaturized equiangular spiral antenna (ESA for UHF detection that uses a printed circuit board is proposed. I-shaped, L-shaped, and C-shaped microstrip baluns were designed to match the impedance between the ESA and coaxial cable and were verified by a vector network analyzer. For comparison, three other types of UHF antenna were also designed: A microstrip patch antenna, a microstrip slot antenna, and a printed dipole antenna. Their antenna factors were calibrated in a uniform electric field of different frequencies modulated in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell. We performed comparison experiments on PD signal detection using an artificial defect model based on the international IEC 60270 standard. We also conducted time-delay test experiments on the ESA sensor to locate a PD source. It was found that the proposed ESA sensor meets PD signal detection requirements. The sensor’s compact size makes it suitable for internal installation in high-voltage electrical equipment.

  15. Hall-effect based semi-fast AC on-board charging equipment for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  16. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babkin, K. V., E-mail: babkin@uztec.ru; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V. [SC “South-West CHP” (Russian Federation); Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V. [JSC “Interautomatika” (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described.

  17. United States geothermal technology: Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This document has two intended audiences. The first part, ``Geothermal Energy at a Glance,`` is intended for energy system decision makers and others who are interested in wide ranging aspects of geothermal energy resources and technology. The second part, ``Technology Specifics,`` is intended for engineers and scientists who work with such technology in more detailed ways. The glossary at the end of the document defines many of the specialized terms. A directory of US geothermal industry firms who provide goods and services for clients around the world is available on request.

  18. Electricity producing property and bacterial community structure in microbial fuel cell equipped with membrane electrode assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaba, Owen; Araki, Yoko; Yamamoto, Shuji; Suzuki, Kei; Sakamoto, Hisatoshi; Matsuda, Atsunori; Futamata, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-01

    It is important for practical use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to not only develop electrodes and proton exchange membranes but also to understand the bacterial community structure related to electricity generation. Four lactate fed MFCs equipped with different membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were constructed with paddy field soil as inoculum. The MEAs significantly affected the electricity-generating properties of the MFCs. MEA-I was made with Nafion 117 solution and the other MEAs were made with different configurations of three kinds of polymers. MFC-I equipped with MEA-I exhibited the highest performance with a stable current density of 55 ± 3 mA m⁻². MFC-III equipped with MEA-III with the highest platinum concentration, exhibited the lowest performance with a stable current density of 1.7 ± 0.1 mA m⁻². SEM observation revealed that there were cracks on MEA-III. These results demonstrated that it is significantly important to prevent oxygen-intrusion for improved MFC performance. By comparing the data of DGGE and phylogenetic analyzes, it was suggested that the dominant bacterial communities of MFC-I were constructed with lactate-fermenters and Fe(III)-reducers, which consisted of bacteria affiliated with the genera of Enterobacter, Dechlorosoma, Pelobacter, Desulfovibrio, Propioniferax, Pelosinus, and Firmicutes. A bacterium sharing 100% similarity to one of the DGGE bands was isolated from MFC-I. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate shared 98% similarity to gram-positive Propioniferax sp. P7 and it was confirmed that the isolate produced electricity in an MFC. These results suggested that these bacteria are valuable for constructing the electron transfer network in MFC. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Offshore Equipment Industry Won the First Prize of National Science and Technology Progress Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The "key design and manufacturing technology of deep sea cylinder type drilling unit with high stability" researched and developed by COSCOShipyard Group Co., Ltd. won the first prize of 2011 annual national science and technology progress award in the national science and technology awards conference held on February 14, 2012. This is the first national technology award for domestic offshore engineering equipment manufacturing enterprises, which indicates that China's deep sea drilling equipment design has achieved significant breakthrough. It will promote the development of advanced offshore engineering manufacturing industry, and will have profound influence on China's deep sea energy development strategy and national energy security strategy.

  20. Scientific Bases of Innovation Technology of Drill-Hole Equipment by Cryogenic-Gravel Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коzhevnikov, А.А.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing technologies of cryogenic-gravel filter element and equipment of drill-hole water receiving part by a cryogenic-gravel filter are described. Compoundings of mineral binder and cryogenically-gravel composition are substantiated. Patterns of physical fields influence on the change of their properties and technological operations of equipping drill-hole water receiving part on changes of physical, mechanical, thermal and technological properties of experimental cryogenic gravel filter element are established. Parameters of delivery technology of cryogenicgravel filter to drill-hole water receiving part are theoretically and experimentally worked out.

  1. Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation in Electrical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation in Electrical Engineering includes select presentations on measuring technology and mechatronics automation related to electrical engineering, originally presented during the International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechanatronics Automation (ICMTMA2012). This Fourth ICMTMA, held at Sanya, China, offered a prestigious, international forum for scientists, engineers, and educators to present the state of the art of measuring technology and mechatronics automation research.

  2. Status of HIGISOL, a New Version Equipped with SPIG and Electric Field Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraud, R.; Canchel, G.; Emsallem, A. [IN2P3-CNRS et Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); Dendooven, P.; Huikari, J.; Huang, W.; Wang, Y.; Peraejaervi, K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Nieminen, A.; Penttilae, H.; Szerypo, J.; Aystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Bruyneel, B. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica (Belgium); Popov, A. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2001-01-15

    A new HIGISOL chamber devoted to the study of short-lived products from heavy-ion-induced fusion-evaporation reactions is proposed. It enables, via the extraction of ions by means of a SPIG (SextuPole rf Ion Guide), to improve the mass resolving power by a factor 2.5 compared to the previous system using a skimmer-ring assembly. The gas cell was also equiped with an electric field for faster transportation of recoiling ions to the nozzle where they are ejected with the gas jet. The first results obtained both with a radioactive {alpha}-source and cyclotron beam will be reported.

  3. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Electrical fabrication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the electrical equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  4. Method of boundary testing of the electric circuits and its application for calculating electric tolerances. [electric equipment tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redkina, N. P.

    1974-01-01

    Boundary testing of electric circuits includes preliminary and limiting tests. Preliminary tests permit determination of the critical parameters causing the greatest deviation of the output parameter of the system. The boundary tests offer the possibility of determining the limits of the fitness of the system with simultaneous variation of its critical parameters.

  5. Development & Implementation of Electric Tram System with Wireless Charging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongHo Cho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an electric tram system with a wireless power transfer system based on SMFIR technology is presented. The detailed technology of power-line infra, regulator, and pick-up device is described for train application, respectively. Furthermore, implementation and experimental results for wireless power transfer electric tram are presented

  6. Onset of ischemic colitis following use of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) exercise equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tatsuhiro; Takano, Masato; Ishikawa, Masatoshi; Tsuruzono, Takuya; Matsumura, Yoshinobu; Kitano, Hiroyuki; Yoneda, Satoshi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Yamao, Junichi; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2004-08-01

    Our patient was a 71-year-old man who presented with lower abdominal pain, and bloody and white mucosal stools. He purchased by mail-order an electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) device, which he strapped onto his lower abdomen, and for 2 consecutive days he underwent muscle stimulation comprising 600 contractions at 2.40 mA and 1.20 V over a 10 minute period. He experienced the onset of lower abdominal pain immediately following muscle stimulation on the second day, and then passed stools containing blood and white mucus. The cause was thought to be electrical and mechanical stimulation of the lower abdomen by the EMS equipment, either inducing colonic or vascular spasm, or dislodging thrombi associated with atrial fibrillation or atherosclerosis. This is the first known report of ischemic colitis associated with the use of EMS exercise equipment. We report this case in the belief that this condition is likely to become more common with increasing use of such devices.

  7. Influence of impurities on the performances of HIPS recycled from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Didier; Mantaux, Olivier; Ienny, Patrick; Léger, Romain; Dumon, Michel; Lopez-Cuesta, José-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In order to produce a high quality recycled material from real deposits of electric and electronic equipment, the rate of impurities in different blended grades of reclaimed materials has to be reduced. Setting up industrial recycling procedures requires to deal with the main types of polymers presents in WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment), particularly High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) as well as other styrenic polymers such as Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) but also polyolefin which are present into WEEE deposit as Polypropylene (PP). The production of a substantial quantity of recycled materials implies to improve and master the compatibility of different HIPS grades. The influence of polymeric impurities has to be studied since automatic sorting techniques are not able to remove completely these fractions. Investigation of the influence of minor ABS, PS and PP polymer fractions as impurities has been done on microstructure and mechanical properties of HIPS using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) in order to determine the maximum tolerated rate for each of them into HIPS after sorting and recycling operations.

  8. Environmental issues and management strategies for waste electronic and electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-06-01

    Issues surrounding the impact and management of discarded or waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) have received increasing attention in recent years. This attention stems from the growing quantity and diversity of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) used by modern society, the increasingly rapid turnover of EEE with the accompanying burden on the waste stream, and the occurrence of toxic chemicals in many EEE components that can pose a risk to human and environmental health if improperly managed. In addition, public awareness of the WEEE or "e-waste" dilemma has grown in light of popular press features on events such as the transition to digital television and the exportation of WEEE from the United States and other developed countries to Africa, China, and India, where WEEE has often not been managed in a safe manner (e.g., processed with proper safety precautions, disposed of in a sanitary landfill, combusted with proper air quality procedures). This paper critically reviews current published information on the subject of WEEE. The definition, magnitude, and characteristics of this waste stream are summarized, including a detailed review of the chemicals of concern associated with different components and how this has changed and continues to evolve over time. Current and evolving management practices are described (e.g., reuse, recycling, incineration, landfilling). This review discusses the role of regulation and policies developed by governments, institutions, and product manufacturers and how these initiatives are shaping current and future management practices.

  9. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... an opportunity to participate in #0;the rule making prior to the adoption of the final rules. #0; #0... Equipment and Technology ACTION: Notice; request for information. SUMMARY: The FAA seeks information from industry developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and...

  10. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Department of Energy. 2007. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. “Freedom CAR and vehicle technology program; Plug-In hybrid- electric vehicle R&D Plan...ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES by Eddie E. McCown September 2014 Thesis...HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Eddie E. McCown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  11. Electrical hand tools and techniques: A compilation. [utilization of space technology for tools and adapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Space technology utilization for developing tools, adapters, and fixtures and procedures for assembling, installing, and servicing electrical components and equipment are discussed. Some of the items considered are: (1) pivotal screwdriver, (2) termination locator tool for shielded cables, (3) solder application tools, (4) insulation and shield removing tool, and (5) torque wrench adapter for cable connector engaging ring. Diagrams of the various tools and devices are provided.

  12. [Reference the YY/T 0841-2011 standard to improve preventive maintenance of medical electrical equipment and experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Ge, Bin; Liu, Jinchu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we interpret the new YY/T 0841-2011 standard and contrast the difference between it and GB9706.1-2007 standard. Then, we improved the current preventive maintenance work. After the improvement, we not only have more effective detection of the electrical safety performance of all kinds of medical electrical equipment, but also reduce the workload of clinical engineers, improve efficiency, and reduce the risk of electrical shock.

  13. RoHS regulated substances in mixed plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Schluep, Mathias; Müller, Esther; Gloor, Rolf

    2012-01-17

    The disposal and recovery of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are of considerable importance, both from an environmental and an economic perspective. This paper presents the results of a study investigating current concentrations of hazardous substances in mixed plastics from WEEE and their implications for an environmentally sound recovery. The study included 53 sampling campaigns for mixed plastics from WEEE. The samples were analyzed with regard to heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead) and flame retardants (PentaBDE, OctaBDE, DecaBDE, DecaBB) regulated in the RoHS Directive. Besides these substances, other brominated flame retardants known to occur in electronics (HBCD, TBBPA) as well as the total bromine and phosphorus contents were considered. Results show that no mixed plastics fraction from WEEE is completely free from substances regulated in the RoHS Directive. The lowest number and average concentrations were found in flat screen monitors. The highest concentrations were found in mixed plastics from CRT monitors and TVs. Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of heavy metals originate from the treatment of small household appliances (cadmium), ICT equipment (lead), and consumer equipment (lead). Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of brominated flame retardants mainly originate from the treatment of small household appliances for high temperature applications (DecaBDE), CRT monitors (OctaBDE and DecaBDE) and consumer equipment (DecaBDE), in particular CRT TVs (DecaBDE). To avoid a dissipation of hazardous substances into plastics and the environment, it is recommended that mixed plastics from WEEE are subject to a strict quality management.

  14. The Effect of Current-Limiting Reactors on the Tripping of Short Circuits in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, M. S.; Gusev, Yu. P., E-mail: GusevYP@mpei.ru; Monakov, Yu. V.; Cho, Gvan Chun [National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The insertion of current-limiting reactors into electrical equipment operating at a voltage of 110 and 220 kV produces a change in the parameters of the transient recovery voltages at the contacts of the circuit breakers for disconnecting short circuits, which could be the reason for the increase in the duration of the short circuit, damage to the electrical equipment and losses in the power system. The results of mathematical modeling of the transients, caused by tripping of the short circuit in a reactive electric power transmission line are presented, and data are given on the negative effect of a current-limiting resistor on the rate of increase and peak value of the transient recovery voltages. Methods of ensuring the standard requirements imposed on the parameters of the transient recovery voltages when using current-limiting reactors in the high-voltage electrical equipment of power plants and substations are proposed and analyzed.

  15. Potential reuse of small household waste electrical and electronic equipment: Methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a general methodology for assessing and estimating the potential reuse of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE), focusing on devices classified as domestic appliances. Specific tests for visual inspection, function and safety have been defined for ten different types of household appliances (vacuum cleaner, iron, microwave, toaster, sandwich maker, hand blender, juicer, boiler, heater and hair dryer). After applying the tests, reuse protocols have been defined in the form of easy-to-apply checklists for each of the ten types of appliance evaluated. This methodology could be useful for reuse enterprises, since there is a lack of specific protocols, adapted to each type of appliance, to test its potential of reuse. After applying the methodology, electrical and electronic appliances (used or waste) can be segregated into three categories: the appliance works properly and can be classified as direct reuse (items can be used by a second consumer without prior repair operations), the appliance requires a later evaluation of its potential refurbishment and repair (restoration of products to working order, although with possible loss of quality) or the appliance needs to be finally discarded from the reuse process and goes directly to a recycling process. Results after applying the methodology to a sample of 87.7kg (96 units) show that 30.2% of the appliances have no potential for reuse and should be diverted for recycling, while 67.7% require a subsequent evaluation of their potential refurbishment and repair, and only 2.1% of them could be directly reused with minor cleaning operations. This study represents a first approach to the "preparation for reuse" strategy that the European Directive related to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment encourages to be applied. However, more research needs to be done as an extension of this study, mainly related to the identification of the feasibility of repair or refurbishment operations

  16. High Value Recycling of Plastics in Electrical and Electronic Equipment%电子电器用塑料的高值化再利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜拴丽; 李迎春; 李洁; 王志强

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of plastics in electrical and electronic equipment, the prospects and process route for re-use and recycling technology of the plastics were discussesed. Respectively according to thermosetting plastics and thermoplastics among the plastics, different recycling methods were used to achieve the high value recycling of the electrical and electronic equipment plastics .%介绍了电子电器用塑料的特点、回收再利用的前景以及回收再利用的工艺流程.分别针对其中的热固性塑料和热塑性塑料,采用不同的回收再利用的方法,实现了电子电器用塑料的高值化回收再利用.

  17. Equipment Maintenance: Interservice of Technical Manuals and Related Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    TX 78241-5990 (d) Sacramento ALC/MMEDT McClellan AFB CA 95652-5990 (e) Warner Robins ALC/MMEDT Robins AFB GA 31098-5990 Appendix B Attachment 2 Section...the chairperson, Interservice Group on the Exchange of Technical Manual Technology, HQ AFLC/MMERD, Wright-Patter- son AFB OH 45433-5001. b. Joint...MMEDU, Tinker AFB OK 73145- 5979, except when the requesting activity has an assigned Technical Order Distribution Office (TODO) Code (Account). b

  18. Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityagin A. Yu.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement of the processed plates and control of roughness parameters are developed. Some experimental results are given.

  19. Frontiers of Offshore Oil Equipment and Engineering Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From a worldwide perspective, offshore gas and oil fields account for about 60% of the total. At present, more than 100 countries are going in for offshore oil and gas exploration, among which over 50 countries are exploring ocean floor. With the continuous innovation of engineering technology, the exploration of submarine oil and gas will develop toward deep water area. The reserves are expected to continue to increase in the future. The discovery rate of oil and gas in China's sea area merely amounts to 18.5% and 9.2% respectively. Compared with land exploration,offshore exploration has a great potential.

  20. Putting agricultural equipment and digital technologies at the cutting edge of agroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellon Maurel Véronique

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The agro-ecological transition is an ambitious challenge. It can be met by implementing the fundamentals of agroecology (use of biodiversity, integration of agriculture in landscapes, closure of flow loops in the context of a broad and renewed offer of technologies: agro-equipment, biotechnology, digital technologies… This article explores the role that agro-equipment and digital services can play in this transition. These technologies contribute through various levers to the agro-ecological transition: by improving farming efficiency (more service rendered for the same environmental impact, by precision farming (adaptation of the operations to the needs of the plant or the animal based on a monitoring–diagnosis–recommendation cycle and by the development of specialized machinery helping the farmer to achieve “flow loop-closing” (at the plot level, by maintaining the soil quality, or at the farm level, with the recycling of organic effluents or to take advantage of biodiversity (e.g., with agro-equipment adapted to mixed crops. The technological bricks that are requested and for which advances are expected are: sensors (to measure plant or animal needs and associated digital technologies (information transfer, data processing, precision technologies for input application, robotics, specialized machines to manage soil cover and weeds, or for agroforestry. The brakes and engines for innovation in agro-equipment are studied. The brakes are the generally small structure of the farm manufacturing companies, the deficit of the demand from farmers and the complexity − either real or perceived − of these equipments. To encourage innovation, several levers are to be used: involving users in the design of agro-equipments, creating financial incentives for innovative equipment purchase, and training end-users, prescribers and dealers to the high potential of these new technologies. In conclusion, putting agro-equipment and digital technology

  1. Not-In-Kind Technologies for Residential and Commercial Unitary Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.K.

    2001-01-11

    This project was initiated by the Department of Energy in response to a request from the HVAC industry for consolidated information about alternative heating and cooling cycles and for objective comparisons of those cycles in space conditioning applications. Twenty-seven different heat pumping technologies are compared on energy use and operating costs using consistent operating conditions and assumptions about component efficiencies for all of them. This report provides a concise summary of the underlying principals of each technology, its advantages and disadvantages, obstacles to commercial development, and economic feasibility. Both positive and negative results in this study are valuable; the fact that many of the cycles investigated are not attractive for space conditioning avoids any additional investment of time or resources in evaluating them for this application. In other cases, negative results in terms of the cost of materials or in cycle efficiencies identify where significant progress needs to be made in order for a cycle to become commercially attractive. Specific conclusions are listed for many of the technologies being promoted as alternatives to electrically-driven vapor compression heat pumps using fluorocarbon refrigerants. Although reverse Rankine cycle heat pumps using hydrocarbons have similar energy use to conventional electric-driven heat pumps, there are no significant energy savings due to the minor differences in estimated steady-state performance; higher costs would be required to accommodate the use of a flammable refrigerant. Magnetic and compressor-driven metal hydride heat pumps may be able to achieve efficiencies comparable to reverse Rankine cycle heat pumps, but they are likely to have much higher life cycle costs because of high costs for materials and peripheral equipment. Both thermoacoustic and thermionic heat pumps could have lower life cycle costs than conventional electric heat pumps because of reduced equipment and

  2. Teaching Mathematics to Electrical Engineering Students by Electrical Engineering Staff in College of Technology in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Fujimoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical engineering staff (reorganized to Electrical and Computer engineering in 2004 has taught electrical engineering students for mathematics classes in Wakayama National College of Technology (WNCT in Japan from 2007. Effects of the mathematics classes by the electrical engineering staff were evaluated by using the results of the mathematics placement tests. The results of the tests are compared with averages of other National Colleges of Technology in Japan and other divisions of WNCT. As a result, an ability of electrical engineering students for mathematics improved dramatically with increasing the ratio of mathematics classes by the electrical engineering staff. It should seem that these good results were achieved by eagerness and strong motivation of the staff with electrical specialty for improving the ability of their division's students. The reasons for the improvement are discussed and the unique class of mathematics for college of technology is also introduced.

  3. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E{sub 1} (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E{sub 3} (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council`s regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  4. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E{sub 1} (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E{sub 3} (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council`s regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  5. Impact of Auxiliary Equipments Consumption on Electricity Generation Cost in Selected Power Plants of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILEEP KUMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on higher generation cost of electricity in selected TPPs (Thermal Power Plants in Sindh, Pakistan. It also investigates the energy consumed by the auxiliary equipment of the selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan. The AC (Auxiliary Consumption of selected TPPs is compared with that in UK and other developed countries. Results show that the AC in selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan exceeds the average AC of the TPPs situated in developed countries. Many energy conservation measures such as impeller trimming and de-staging, boiler feed pump, high voltage inverter, variable frequency drive, and upgrading the existing cooling tower fan blades with fiber reinforced plastic are discussed to overcome higher AC. This study shows that harnessing various available energy conservative measures the AC and unit cost can be reduced by 4.13 and 8.8%; also adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated. Results show that the unit cost of electricity can be reduced from Rs.20 to19/kWh in JTPP (Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant, Rs.9 to 8.8/kWh in GTPS (Gas Turbine Power Station Kotri and Rs. 11 to 10.27/ kWh in LPS (Lakhara Power Station. Thus, electricity production can be improved with the existing capacity, which will eventually assist to manage the current energy crisis and ensure its conservation

  6. Composite technology in radar equipment. Dopler Meteo radar reflector device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shumov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted features of the application composite materials in radar technology for example adjustment of the development technology of the reflector antenna device DMRL-S - radar for monitoring meteorological conditions.Russian and foreign analogues DMRL-S are made of aluminum, which no longer meets modern requirements for strength and weight. Also aluminum reflectors are not temperature stable. Composite materials are characterized by higher values of specific characteristics: temporary resistance, endurance limit, stiffness, elastic modulus, and less prone to cracking. The use of such materials improves the strength, rigidity and durability.For the manufacture of the DMRL-C reflector used composite materials based on epoxy resins reinforced with fiberglass (both unidirectional and woven. To increase the rigidity and weight reflector is made in the form of three-layer sandwich fiberglass panels with honeycomb core variable height. Design work was carried out in a CAD Siemens NX8.0 / Unigraphics, through which was established mathematical model layered reflector, as well as all accessories used in the manufacture. With the program NX Nastran was held strength calculation and analysis of stiffness on the finite element method.After the manufacture of the product, we measured the standard deviation of the working surface of the reflector from the theoretical surface using a three-dimensional laser scanner. Measurements were made at different angular positions of the reflector, and when loading. It is shown that the maximum strain in the operating modes of operation across the surface of the product does not exceed 4%, which will provide the most accurate operation of the product in any position of the antenna system.As a result of this work reflector design was developed, created and verified by experimental data calculation model. Reflector antenna device of the DMRL-S was manufactured and tested. The reflector was made of reinforced

  7. Effective solutions for monitoring the electrostatic separation of metal and plastic granular waste from electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senouci, Khouira; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    The variability of the quantity and purity of the recovered materials is a serious drawback for the application of electrostatic separation technologies to the recycling of granular wastes. In a series of previous articles we have pointed out how capability and classic control chart concepts could be employed for better mastering the outcome of such processes. In the present work, the multiple exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is introduced and shown to be more effective than the Hotelling T2 chart for monitoring slow varying changes in the electrostatic separation of granular mixtures originating from electric and electronic equipment waste. The operation of the industrial process was simulated by using a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator and granular samples resulting from shredded electric cable wastes. The 25 tests carried out during the observation phase enabled the calculation of the upper and lower control limits for the two control charts considered in the present study. The 11 additional tests that simulated the monitoring phase pointed out that the MEWMA chart is more effective than Hotelling's T(2) chart in detecting slow varying changes in the outcome of a process. As the reverse is true in the case of abrupt alterations of monitored process performances, simultaneous usage of the two control charts is strongly recommended. While this study focused on a specific electrostatic separation process, using the MEWMA chart together with the well known Hotelling's T(2) chart should be applicable to the statistical control of other complex processes in the field of waste processing.

  8. Advanced electric powertrain technology: ADEPT platform overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipetic, S.; Miebach, W.; Wilkins, S.; Lomonova, E.A.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Tegenbosch, J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of high performance, low cost and clean propulsion systems requires multiple disciplines such as physics, mathematics, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and specialisms like control engineering and safety. This paper details the program of EU FP7 Multi-ITN project ADvanced Electr

  9. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research.

  10. Applied Physics Modules Selected for Electrical and Electronic Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Gene

    Designed for individualized use in an applied physics course in postsecondary vocational-technical education, this series of twenty-three learning modules is equivalent to the content of two quarters of a five-credit hour class in electrical technology, electronic service technology, electronic engineering technology, or electromechanical…

  11. Investigation Results on Solar Array Thermal & Electrical Imbalance Phenomenon on Power Systems Equipped with MPPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, F.; Samaniego, B.; Soriano, T.; Beaufils, G.; Fernandez Lisbona, E.; Dettlaff, K.; Jensen, H.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal / electrical imbalance phenomenon on the satellite solar arrays is a common issue inherent to the negative thermal voltage coefficient of the triple junction cells, which is usually already taken into account with basic precautions on the solar panel layout.In the frame of the ESA TRP study "Investigation on Solar Array thermal and electrical imbalance phenomenon on power systems equipped with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)" performed by Airbus Defence & Space (former Astrium Toulouse and Ottobrunn) and TERMA, in-depth analyses were conducted for the first time to better understand and characterize the secondary maximum power point phenomenon for various representative mission cases, whether in Earth vicinity or not. With the help of a newly developed detailed thermo-electrical coupled solver and a wide range of solar cell characterizations in flux and temperature, multiple sets of simulations were run to simulate realistic solar panel characteristics.The study showed that no secondary false maximum power point can be created on the solar panel characteristic IV curve for missions around Earth vicinity, at the sole exception of critical shadowing cases. Furthermore, the same conclusions apply for missions up to Mars orbit. The only potential threats come from the missions further than Mars (typically Jupiter missions) where various very high heterogeneities could lead to multiple maxima. This is deeply linked to the LILT (low illumination low temperature) conditions applied to the current solar cell triple junction characteristics and shape. Moreover, thermo-electrical imbalances that do not create secondary power point can still seriously grieve the solar array power output performances. This power loss can however be accurately assessed by the newly developed solver in support of in-development missions like Juice.

  12. Behavior of urban residents toward the discarding of waste electrical and electronic equipment: a case study in Baoding, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Liu, Lili; Ren, Junshu; Duan, Huabo; Zheng, Lixia

    2012-11-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is growing rapidly worldwide, making its management difficult; therefore, this should be improved as a matter of urgency. WEEE includes both essential household appliances [including televisions, refrigerators, and washing machines; but not air conditioners, where the consumption mode is more like information, communication and technology (ICT)] ICT equipment (also called high-tech household appliances). In the present study, Baoding, a medium-sized, prefecture-level city in north central China with a population of 11 million, including 1.1 million urban residents, was selected as a representative city for an investigation of recycling behaviors. A valid sample size of 346 households in Baoding was investigated, and categorized into various income and educational levels. The results showed that the major reason for discarding WEEE was malfunction of the appliance, accounting for 52% of disposals. Surveyed households with either high income or good education were more likely to consume high-tech household appliances, attracted by advanced technology, versatile functions or flexibility of use. Personal computer ownership rates were highest in households with a high income and good education-1.2 and 0.9 per home respectively. WEEE was most often sold to peddlers or hawkers from where the WEEE flowed into the second-hand market to be refurbished or repaired, and then re-sold. However, 56.3% of residents in the college community were in support of charging consumers for disposal and 61.7% were in support of including a disposal surcharge in the purchase price of new products-a percentage approximately three times that for high-income residents. Thus, high educational level appears to be currently the most important factor in raising the potential of a household's willingness to pay for WEEE treatment cost. The findings of this study can be used to develop sound recycling systems for WEEE in mainland China.

  13. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...... any digital communication between the grid-tied and FESS converters. Detailed system modeling and dynamics analysis of the controller are carried out for the different operating modes of the FCS system. A lab-scale prototype was built to validate the proposal. The presented experimental results proved...... power ancillary service to the overhead power system. In that sense, when the active power is not being extracted from the grid, FESS provides the power required to sustain the continuous charging process of PEV battery. A key characteristic of the whole control system is that it is able to work without...

  14. A thin silicon thermoelectric nanowire characterization platform (TNCP) equipped with nanoporous electrodes for electrical contact formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoda Moosavi, S.; Kroener, Michael; Frei, Maxi; Frick, Fabian; Kerzenmacher, Sven; Woias, Peter

    2016-10-01

    We report on the fabrication of a silicon platform for the thermoelectric and structural characterization of single nanowires, equipped with nanoporous electrodes. Controlled wafer thinning to a thickness of 160 μm results in platform chips, which can be inserted into Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM) for the nanowire's structural composition analysis. Our fabrication approach comprises the Bosch process (ICP), and "dicing before grinding" techniques to achieve this small thickness. To study the idea of developing a “plug-and-measure” platform, we have developed a novel approach for selfadhesion between a contact electrode and a nanowire by nanoporous electrodes. Due to the increased surface-to-volume ratio and increased van-der-Walls forces nanowires stick firmly to the electrodes for a good thermal and electrical connection. This innovative technique does also avoids, in best case, separate steps for contact formation.

  15. EIRP Characterization of Electrically Large Wireless Equipment with Integrated Signal Generator in a Compact Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Soo Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a measurement technique to characterize the equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP of electrically large wireless equipment in a compact environment. A modified phase-measurement method was proposed and, thus, the separation of the signal generator and radiating element was not required during the measurement. A Fresnel-to-far-field transformation was used for the fast measurement time in a compact anechoic chamber. An experimental verification of the method was carried out in a compact anechoic chamber, where the source-detector separation was approximately 1/5 of the far-field distance. The measured magnitude and phase pattern exhibited only a small error. The EIRP obtained using a Fresnel-to-far-field transformation was compared with a reference value, and the error was within 0.5 dB.

  16. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  17. WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FRAMEWORK LEGISLATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Loredana NICOLESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become one of the most significant waste streams due to the increasing amounts and environmental impact. It is very important to know how to manage the WEEE quantities, what laws are in force in this field and what policies are available to apply. This paper presents the e-waste legislation and management system from some of the European countries, as examples. The hierarchy of the management systems is presented according to the framework Directive and legislative approaches. There are also shown the "take-back" policy, the "polluter pays" principle and the "extended producer responsibility" principle. The goal of this research is to highlight the WEEE framework legislation in Europe and to present the EU policies for the WEEE management system.

  18. Regenerative braking control strategy in mild hybrid electric vehicles equipped with automatic manual transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Datong; YE Ming; LIU Zhenjun

    2007-01-01

    The actual regenerative braking force of an integrated starter/generator (ISG),which is varied with desired braking deceleration and vehicle speed,is calculated based on an analysis of the required deceleration,maximum braking force of ISG,engine braking force and state of charge (SOC) of battery.Braking force distribution strategies are presented according to the actual regenerative braking force of ISG.To recover the vehicle's kinetic energy maximally,braking shift rules for a mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) equipped with automatic manual transmission (AMT) are brought forward and effects of transmission ratios are considered.A test-bed is built up and regenerative braking tests are carried out.The results show that power recovered by the braking shift rules is more than that recovered by the normal braking control rules.

  19. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  20. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED TO THE MODERN LOGISTICS OF MILITARY SYSTEMS/EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile ŞERBĂNESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nations that achieve cyberpower will command influence in global affairs economically, culturally, militarily, and politically in the decades ahead. Military cyberpower is the application of the domain of cyberspace to operational concepts to accomplish military objectives and missions, and influence operations, as well as warfighting. Infotronics Technologies intertwine advanced information and electronics systems intelligence and enable autonomous business functions and objectives through the use of internet and other tether-free technologies (i.e. wireless, web,…. The modern logistics of military systems / equipment imply core technologies such as Watchdog Agent for Predictive Prognostics, Web-enabled Smart D2B (device to business, Platform and Tools for Data Transformation, Optimization, and Synchronization, Applied Wireless Technologies and Logistics Infotronics Agent (LIA. The hereby article argues that traceability, predictability and diagnosticability through advanced technologies will lead the armed forces to the life cycle logistics approach for interoperability and optimal cost of military systems / equipment.

  1. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  2. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  3. DECISION ANALYSIS SCIENCE MODELING FOR APPLICATION AND FIELDING SELECTION APPLIED TO EQUIPMENT DISMANTLEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The dismantlement of radioactively contaminated process equipment is a major concern during the D&D process. There are an estimated 1,200 buildings in the DOE-EM complex that will require the dismantlement of equipment and various metal structures. As buildings undergo the D&D process, this metallic equipment contaminated with radionuclides such as uranium and plutonium must be size-reduced before final disposal. A single information source comparing dismantlement technologies in the areas of safety, cost, and performance is needed by DOE managers and is not currently available. The selection of the appropriate technologies to meet the dismantlement objectives for a given site is a difficult process in the absence of comprehensive and comparable data. Choosing the wrong technology could result in increased exposure of personnel to contaminants and an increase in D&D project costs. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate commercially available and innovative technologies for equipment dismantlement and provide a comprehensive source of information to the D&D community in the areas of technology performance, cost, and health and safety.

  4. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  5. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  6. FY2015 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-29

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  7. FY2014 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  8. An Analysis on Common Technical Problems in Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Installation and Improvement Measures%机电设备安装常见技术问题及改善对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛战波

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical and electrical equipment instal ation is very common during the construction of engineering, to ensure the safety of the construction and finish construction on time,at ention shal be paid to the instal ation technology for mechanical and electrical equipment.This paper expounded the characteristics of mechanical and electrical equipment instal ation and the dif iculties in mechanical and electrical equipment instal ation,and proposed rational solutions,it was believed that it would be of important significance to the improvement of instal ation technology for mechanical and electrical equipment.%机电设备安装在工程施工过程中是常见之事,要确保施工的安全和工期的准时完成,机电设备的安装技术必需要得到重视。通过对机电设备安装的特性进行阐述,分析设备安装中遇到的困难,并提出合理的解决方案,对于机电设备安装技术的改进有着重要意义。

  9. Electrostatic separator for micronized mixtures of metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messal, Sara; Corondan, Razvan; Chetan, Ionut; Ouiddir, Rabah; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2015-10-01

    In spite of their extensive use for processing mixtures of granules exceeding 1 mm in size, very few industrial electrostatic separators are capable of handling micronized metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment. The aim of the present work is to validate the possibility of using a novel belt-type electrostatic separator for the selective sorting of such particulate mixtures, the dimensions of which are in the order of 0.1 mm. In this type of separator, the metal particles get charged by electrostatic induction in contact with the grounded metal belt electrode, while the plastics remain uncharged in the electric field and are collected separately. The experiments are performed with 2-g samples of a mixture composed in equal proportions (50% - 50%) of Aluminium and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) particles of average diameter ranging between 125 μm and 250 μm. They enabled the evaluation of the effects and the interaction of two control variables of the process: the angle of inclination of the roll-type electrode and the high voltage applied to it.

  10. Usage of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Along the Corridors between the EV Project Major Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindy Kirkpatrick

    2012-05-01

    The report explains how the EVSE are being used along the corridors between the EV Project cities. The EV Project consists of a nationwide collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), ECOtality North America, Nissan, General Motors, and more than 40 other city, regional and state governments, and electric utilities. The purpose of the EV Project is to demonstrate the deployment and use of approximately 14,000 Level II (208-240V) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and 300 fast chargers in 16 major cities. This research investigates the usage of all currently installed EV Project commercial EVSE along major interstate corridors. ESRI ArcMap software products are utilized to create geographic EVSE data layers for analysis and visualization of commercial EVSE usage. This research locates the crucial interstate corridors lacking sufficient commercial EVSE and targets locations for future commercial EVSE placement. The results and methods introduced in this research will be used by INL for the duration of the EV Project.

  11. Characterisation of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and implications for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Mäurer, Andreas; Wolz, Gerd; van Eldik, Rudi

    2007-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in the end-of-life management of polymers present in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This is mainly due to high recycling and recovery quotas set by the European WEEE directive, which can only be fulfilled by including the plastic fraction in recycling and recovery approaches. Previous studies identified a high material diversity and various contaminants in WEEE plastics, including heavy metals, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), diphenyl ethers (PBDE), as well as polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/F). These substances are regulated by European directives that limit their levels in marketable products. Consequently, both material diversity and contaminants are strong arguments against material recycling and point to hazardous waste treatment. However, recent developments in the production of flame retardants and electrical and electronic goods aimed to reduce contaminants and material diversity. Thus, the present study summarises updated contaminant levels of plastic fractions of European WEEE, as well as data on materials in waste housing polymers. Material characterisation revealed housing fractions to be interesting sources for polymer recycling, which however has to implement potent material separation and/or bromine elimination techniques. With respect to contaminants, our data indicate an effective phase-out of PBB, but still high levels of PBDE and PBDD/F are found. Sources and implications for the material recycling and thermal recovery approaches are discussed in detail.

  12. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savi, Daniel, E-mail: d.savi@umweltchemie.ch [Dipl. Environmental Sci. ETH, büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Kasser, Ueli [Lic. Phil. Nat. (Chemist), büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Ott, Thomas [Dipl. Phys. ETH, Institute of Applied Simulation, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We’ve analysed data on the dismantling of electronic and electrical appliances. • Ten years of mass balance data of more than recycling companies have been considered. • Percentages of dismantled batteries, capacitors and PWB have been studied. • Threshold values and benchmarks for batteries and capacitors have been identified. • No benchmark for the dismantling of printed wiring boards should be set. - Abstract: The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given.

  13. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.; Murphy, M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated

  14. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.; Murphy, M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated

  15. Electricity and the environment: Building partnerships through technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, K.E.; Torrens, I. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The vision for electricity in the world today transcends its role as just an energy medium and focuses on its ability to furnish ever greater productivity of labor, capital and primary energy resources. Its efficiency and precision, through innovative technology, have become essential assets for resolving the interrelated economic, environmental and energy security issues facing the world. As a result, electricity has become a major differentiating factor in the global economy. For example, the fraction of all primary energy converted to electricity is typically used as a rough indication of regional prosperity. This index reflects the importance of electricity in both creating and harvesting technological innovation. Electricity`s advantages in focusing and amplifying physical power during the first century are being complemented in the second by its even greater advantages for focusing and amplifying the power of knowledge. As its importance grows, electricity will likely expand in the next half-century to provide over half the world`s energy demands while providing the means for the most effective conservation of natural resources. Collaborative R&D organizations such as EPRI are acting as new catalysts and partners to transfer technology on a world-wide basis. With respect to Central and Eastern Europe, this effort focuses on new, more cost-effective innovations for the generation and delivery of electricity because obsolete and inefficient technology is contrary to our mutual interest in achieving efficient and sustainable economic development. EPRI stands ready to assist in this international endeavor.

  16. Internet of things and Big Data as potential solutions to the problems in waste electrical and electronic equipment management: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fu; Ma, Buqing; Guo, Jianfeng; Summers, Peter A; Hall, Philip

    2017-10-01

    Management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a vital part in solid waste management, there are still some difficult issues require attentionss. This paper investigates the potential of applying Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data as the solutions to the WEEE management problems. The massive data generated during the production, consumption and disposal of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) fits the characteristics of Big Data. Through using the state-of-the-art communication technologies, the IoT derives the WEEE "Big Data" from the life cycle of EEE, and the Big Data technologies process the WEEE "Big Data" for supporting decision making in WEEE management. The framework of implementing the IoT and the Big Data technologies is proposed, with its multiple layers are illustrated. Case studies with the potential application scenarios of the framework are presented and discussed. As an unprecedented exploration, the combined application of the IoT and the Big Data technologies in WEEE management brings a series of opportunities as well as new challenges. This study provides insights and visions for stakeholders in solving the WEEE management problems under the context of IoT and Big Data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 浅谈机械电气一体化设备安装技术要点%Technical Points of Mechanical Electrical Integration Equipment Installation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄宁

    2014-01-01

    随着市场经济及科学技术的不断发展,使得机械电气一体化市场需求及生产技术也得到了迅猛发展。本文主要对机械电气一体化设备安装技术要点进行系统分析,以其提高同行施工人员安装质量。%With the development of market economy and scie-nce and technology, the market demand and production techn-ology of electrical integration has been rapid development. Th-is paper mainly analyzes the techniques of mechanical and ele-ctrical integration equipment instal ation and system, to impr-ove the installation quality of peer construction personnel.

  18. Fiscal 1994 research report. Demonstration test for establishing technology for peakload shaving with dispersed small residential PV systems (Evaluation of weatherability of house-use solar light electric power generating system equipment); 1994 nendo jutakuyo taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu nado kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka no uchi jutakuyo taiyoko hatsuden system kiki no taikosei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Weatherability tests such as exposure to the atmosphere are conducted to collect and accumulate information on the degradation of house-use photovoltaic equipment expected to come into use in areas where weather conditions are hostile. Based on the thus collected data, analysis and evaluation are conducted about the mechanisms of corrosion and degradation for the establishment of designing and evaluating methods for maintaining weatherability. Since fiscal 1994 is the first year of the project, preparations are made for tests to be conducted. In carrying out research activities, a Weatherability Evaluation Committee for House-Use Solar Light Electric Power Generating System Equipment is organized, who discuss implementation of the project. Discussion is made on the shape and structural materials of the exposure rack. An aluminum alloy coated with a clear coating of alumite sulfate is selected, and a rack is built. Specifications of a sea salt particle collector are discussed, and preparations are made for arresting and quantifying sea salt particles under the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) dry gauze method and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) wet candle method. Solar cell module initial characteristics are measured. (NEDO)

  19. Environmental Policy Coordination in ASEAN: The Case of Waste From Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ibitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among numerous environmental challenges in the ASEAN region, the rapid growth of volumes of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste has increasingly drawn international attention. Economies face huge demands for electrical and electronic products, while governments are confronted with difficulties dealing with mounting volumes of e-waste. Furthermore, lucrative transnational shipment of discarded electric and electronic devices calls for a regional response to the issue. While ASEAN has failed to come up with a common policy response, certain member states have pushed ahead with their own legislation in an attempt to address this urgent issue. This study sets out to identify the determining factors which have disabled ASEAN in terms of agreeing on a common policy response in the case of dealing with e-waste. Based on the assumption that states act according to expected gains, the study applies a game theoretical approach to analyse the developments. ----- Die Bewältigung der rasant anwachsenden Menge an Elektroschrott zählt zu den großen umweltpolitischen Herausforderungen der ASEAN-Staaten. Während sich die Volkswirtschaften einer immer größer werdenden Nachfrage nach elektrischen und elektronischen Geräten gegenübergestellt sehen, vermögen es die meisten Länder nicht adäquate Entsorgungswege für Altgeräte aufzubauen. Zusätzlich zur inländischen Produktion gilt es auch mit oftmals als Gebrauchtprodukt getarntem, importiertem Elektroschrott umzugehen. Eine dringend notwendige regionale Koordinierung wurde von ASEAN noch nicht in Angriff genommen. Diese Studie geht der Frage nach, warum auf Ebene von ASEAN keine Lösungsansätze zu dieser Problematik zu erwarten sind. Zur Analyse der Entwicklungen bedient sich die Arbeit eines spieltheoretischen Ansatzes.

  20. Measuring treatment costs of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment: A pre-research for Chinese policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Dong, Qingyin; Liu, Lili; Song, Qingbin

    2016-11-01

    Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volume is increasing, worldwide. In 2011, the Chinese government issued new regulations on WEEE recycling and disposal, establishing a WEEE treatment subsidy funded by a levy on producers of electrical and electronic equipment. In order to evaluate WEEE recycling treatment costs and revenue possibilities under the new regulations, and to propose suggestions for cost-effective WEEE management, a comprehensive revenue-expenditure model (REM), were established for this study, including 7 types of costs, 4 types of fees, and one type of revenue. Since TV sets dominated the volume of WEEE treated from 2013 to 2014, with a contribution rate of 87.3%, TV sets were taken as a representative case. Results showed that the treatment cost varied from 46.4RMB/unit to 82.5RMB/unit, with a treatment quantity of 130,000 units to 1,200,000 units per year in China. Collection cost accounted for the largest portion (about 70.0%), while taxes and fees (about 11.0 %) and labor cost (about 7.0 %) contributed less. The average costs for disposal, sales, and taxes had no influence on treatment quantity (TQ). TQ might have an adverse effect on average labor and management costs; while average collection and purchase fees, and financing costs, would vary with purchase price, and the average sales fees and taxes would vary with the sales of dismantled materials and other recycled products. Recycling enterprises could reduce their costs by setting up online and offline collection platforms, cooperating with individual collectors, creating door-to-door collection channels, improving production efficiency and reducing administrative expenditures. The government could provide economic incentives-such as subsidies, low-cost loans, tax cuts and credits-and could also raise public awareness of waste management and environmental protection, in order to capture some of the WEEE currently discarded into the general waste stream. Foreign companies with

  1. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012......In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...

  2. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...... developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012...

  3. TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC HEALTH SECTOR: PROFESSIONAL VIEW FROM EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE EXPERTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Kachieng’a

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has tried various strategies to improve access, quality and cost-efficiency in the health care delivery systems. However it is clear that the optimal approach has yet to be found. It has been recognised that health technology is an important element of this transformation, and will continue to play a vital role.
    It is almost evident that the way health technology is managed in health care institutions directly affects the quality of treatment patients receive. Although strategic importance of technology in health care has been documented widely in scientific literature; technology planning, procurement and management have not received the attention they deserve in the transformation of health care services in the country.
    The survey discussed in this paper investigated health care equipment maintenance problems and associated technological constraints from point of view of health technology managers, biomedical and clinical engineers. It also provides recommendations for competitive utilisation of technology in the public health sector.

  4. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-08-05

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy.

  5. Simulation of Mine Electrical Penetration Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-xin; YUE Jian-hua; LIU Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    Based on the principle of electrical penetration, the reflection characteristics of collapse columns at different locations of a working face is numerically simulated by using a 3D finite element method. The data collected by the electrical penetration is processed and interpreted using "tunnel penetration" which is similar to radio wave penetration. Reflection characteristics of collapse columns at different locations below floors of coal seams are analyzed, providing a new paradigm and a theoretical foundation for processing and interpreting electrical penetration data. The tomography analysis is made based on data simulation and calculation results and alltransmitting-receiving points are analyzed for their corresponding maximum attenuation values and maximum absorption coefficients. On the basis of this, a new method for precisely interpreting the spatial positions of geological anomalous bodies is suggested. The simulation shows that 1) the detection result of both roof and floors of the working face by electrical penetration is a volumetric effect and 2) there exists a corresponding relation between the detection depth and the working face width, with the optimal detection depth within 40% of the working face width.

  6. TARDEC Hybrid Electric (HE) Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-05

    System Generator /Motor...ireDifferential Differential Energy Storage System Generator / Motor Inverter Engine Generator/Motor Transmission 3-Phase AC power into Motor Inverter When...Hybrid Electric Drive Propulsion TireTire Tire Energy Storage System Generator Controller 3Ø A/C to HV DC Generator Controller rectifies AC to DC

  7. State evaluation-based electrical equipment integrity management%基于状态评价的电气设备完整性管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏建峰; 张建军; 李智勇; 梁柱添; 单海鸥

    2012-01-01

    Based on current situations of equipment management and preventive experimental work in the pipeline company, state evaluation-based electrical equipment integrity management systems have been built. Through analysis on the preventive test data and the equipment operation and monitoring data, state evaluation system of equipment is built. In accordance with equipment state evaluation, risk assessment, maintenance strategy and slate maintenance decision-making results, it is explored to convert equipment periodic maintenance into state maintenance and implement electrical equipment integrity management. And through computer communications technology and database network functions, sharing of electrical equipment and its preventive test data, automatic conversion, uniform reporting format, storage and statistical analysis of historical data to evaluate equipment state are achieved, including closed-loop management of equipment defects, which can provide ancillary support function to functional departments to determine equipment state and make decisions, promote standardization and scientization of management and improve overall level of management. The paper introduces the application effects of equipment integrity management system in saving equipment maintenance capital, extending equipment service life, improving personal safety, and achieving paperless testing and maintenance.%针对管道公司电气设备管理和预防性试验工作的现状,建立了基于状态评价的电气设备完整性管理系统.通过对预防性试验数据和设备运行、监测数据进行分析,建立了设备的状态评价系统,根据设备状态评价、风险评估、检修策略建议和状态检修决策结果,探索将设备周期性检修转变为状态检修,实施电气设备完整性管理.通过计算机通信技术和数据库网络功能实现电力设备及其预防性试验数据共享,自动换算,统一报告格式,保存和统计分析历史数据,评价设

  8. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  9. Broadband Electric-Field Sensor Array Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-05

    the RF DUT. The RF receiver measures the power output from the photodiode, Prf. Fringing RF electric fields from a microstrip resonator circuit ...are measured by placing the ring resonators on top of the circuit . A photograph of the microstrip resonator circuit is shown in Fig. 6(b). The... circuit is a one port device and consists of a 50 Ω input line gap-coupled to a second 50 Ω microstrip line resonator. From vector network analyzer (VNA

  10. Application technology in coffee (Coffea arabica L.: effect of air assistance with manually driven equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Miguel Francisco Ruas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Small farmers in various parts of Brazil, based the application of pesticides exclusively by a coastal manual sprayers. How it is simple equipment, there are few resources available to improve the quality of the application. The aim of this paper was to study the effect of air assistance, with manual override, in the deposition and percentage of coverage applied on the leaves of coffee plants, situated internally and externally. The equipment consisted of a sprayer coastal pressurized by CO2 attached to an air assistance equipment. At the exit of air assistance equipment a hose was adapted for driving the air flow emitted to the nozzle of the sprayer coastal (XR 110-02, expanded jet plane. It was used a solution of water + potassium chloride + fluorescent dye to the application. The levels of deposits were measured by electrical conductivity of the solution from the washing leaves and the percentage of coverage by ultraviolet light. The deposition was higher in leaves positioned externally to the plant, as well as the coverage percentage. The percentage of coverage was greater for the adaxial side of the coffee leaves. There was no difference for the use or not of the air assistance. Improvements in the generation and distribution of air in manually equipments may be necessary, in order to improve its use in the application of spray liquids.

  11. RESEARCH OF RUSSIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MARKET: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otstavnov Stanislav Sergeevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data obtained from comprehensive study of russian hi-tech medical equipment market. The size and the structure of Russian medical equipment market in 2005-2011 were investigated and market size forecast for 2012-2015 was given. Priority segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market were identified (products with a high degree of visualization, anesthetic and ventilation equipment, patient monitors based on the analysis of literature sources and morbidity structure. Key players in key segments of the market were identified and their financial performance such as number of employees, revenue, net profit, researches and development expenses were compared (according to actual annual reports. Research allowed to draw the following conclusion: today in the key segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market the leadership of foreign companies (Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric, Dräger is indisputable, objective preconditions for the fundamental change of the situation are absent. Import substitution requires the consolidation of domestic producers, adequate funding and human resource. The results can be used in practice by medical industry companies and State authorities on purpose to upgrade the medical industry.

  12. RESEARCH OF RUSSIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MARKET: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Сергеевич Отставнов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data obtained from comprehensive study of russian hi-tech medical equipment market. The size and the structure of Russian medical equipment market in 2005-2011 were investigated and market size forecast for 2012-2015 was given. Priority segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market were identified (products with a high degree of visualization, anesthetic and ventilation equipment, patient monitors  based on the analysis of literature sources and morbidity structure. Key players in key segments of the market were identified and their financial performance such as number of employees, revenue, net profit, researches and development expenses were compared (according to actual annual reports.Research allowed to draw the following conclusion: today in the key segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market the leadership of foreign companies  (Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric, Dräger is indisputable, objective preconditions for the fundamental change of the situation are absent. Import substitution requires the consolidation of domestic producers, adequate funding and human resource.The results can be used in practice by medical industry companies and State authorities on purpose to upgrade the medical industry.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-31

  13. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haas, Harry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terricciano, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama called for one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 [1]. With large-scale Electric Vehicle (EV) or Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV or EV for short) or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) penetration into the US market, there will be drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, thus significantly reducing our dependency on foreign oil [2-6]. There will also be significant reduction on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and smog in the major US cities [3, 7, 8]. Similar studies have also been done other industrial counties [9]. For the fuel cost, with the home electricity rate around $0.13 per kWh, it would cost about $0.05 per mile for DC operation and $0.03 cents per mile for AC operation. But, assuming 25 miles per gallon for a typical vehicle and $4 per gallon, fossil fuel will cost $0.16 per mile [10]. The overall lifecycle cost of PEVs will be several folds lower than the existing fossil fueled vehicles. Despite the above advantages of the EVs, the current cost of EVSE is not affordable for the average consumer. Presently, the cost of installing state-of-the-art residential EVSE ranges from $1500 to $2500 [11]. Low priced EVSE technology, which is easy to install, and affordable to operate and maintain by an average consumer, is essential for the large-scale market penetration of EVs. In addition, the long-term success of this technology is contingent on the PEVs having minimal excessive load and shift impact on the grid, especially at peak times. In a report [2] published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the exiting electric power generation infrastructure, if used at its full capacity 24 hours a day, would support up to 84% of the nation’s cars, pickup trucks and SUVs for an average daily drive of 33 miles. This mileage estimate is certainly much below what an average driver would drive his/her vehicle per day. Another report [3] by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  14. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haas, Harry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terricciano, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama called for one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 [1]. With large-scale Electric Vehicle (EV) or Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV or EV for short) or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) penetration into the US market, there will be drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, thus significantly reducing our dependency on foreign oil [2-6]. There will also be significant reduction on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and smog in the major US cities [3, 7, 8]. Similar studies have also been done other industrial counties [9]. For the fuel cost, with the home electricity rate around $0.13 per kWh, it would cost about $0.05 per mile for DC operation and $0.03 cents per mile for AC operation. But, assuming 25 miles per gallon for a typical vehicle and $4 per gallon, fossil fuel will cost $0.16 per mile [10]. The overall lifecycle cost of PEVs will be several folds lower than the existing fossil fueled vehicles. Despite the above advantages of the EVs, the current cost of EVSE is not affordable for the average consumer. Presently, the cost of installing state-of-the-art residential EVSE ranges from $1500 to $2500 [11]. Low priced EVSE technology, which is easy to install, and affordable to operate and maintain by an average consumer, is essential for the large-scale market penetration of EVs. In addition, the long-term success of this technology is contingent on the PEVs having minimal excessive load and shift impact on the grid, especially at peak times. In a report [2] published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the exiting electric power generation infrastructure, if used at its full capacity 24 hours a day, would support up to 84% of the nation’s cars, pickup trucks and SUVs for an average daily drive of 33 miles. This mileage estimate is certainly much below what an average driver would drive his/her vehicle per day. Another report [3] by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  15. Influence of Power System Technology on Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric propulsion (EP) thruster technology, with efficient lightweight power systems can provide substantial reductions in propulsion system wet mass due to the high specific impulse (Isp) of the thrusters. Historically, the space power systems are too massive for many potential orbital missions. The objective of this paper is to show the impact of current power system technology on EP mission performance and determine what technology advancements are needed to make EP beneficial for earth orbital applications. The approach of the paper is to model the electric propulsion system and orbital mission using a partial parametric method. Various missions are analyzed from orbit maintenance to orbit transfer. Results portray the relationship between mission performance and power technology level. Conclusions show which mission applications currently have acceptable power technology, and which mission applications require power technology improvements.

  16. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation... Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.437 Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. (a) The minimum pipe size for the initial...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1710-1 - Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment; installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1710-1 Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered... this section, all self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle...

  18. New development of longwall mining equipment based on automation and intelligent technology for thin seam coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-fa WANG

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduced complete sets of automatic equipment and technology used in thin seam coal face,and proposed the comprehensive mechanization and automation of safe and high efficiency mining models based on the thin seam drum shearer.The key technology of short length and high power thin seam drum shearer,and new type roof support with big extension ratio and plate canopy were introduced.The new research achievement on automatic control system of complete sets of equipment for the thin seam coal,which composed of electronic-hydraulic system,compact thin seam roof supports,high effective shearer with intelligent control system,and characterized by automatical follow-up and remote control technology,was described in this paper..

  19. Wanted: rotary drilling technology for in situ mining systems. [Suggestions for imaginative use of technology and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laswell, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    It is pointed out that although available equipment and technology are not adequate for the varied requirements of the long-range in-situ recovery of our natural resources, effective programs can be accomplished now with innovative drill programs and equipment planning. The necessity of considering new and unusual techniques in order to ensure the success of an in-situ recovery program is emphasized. Three drilling concepts that are not being utilized but have in-situ applicability are discussed. They are underreaming, or chambering, dual-concentric drillpipe, and downhole tricone percussion. Various circulation media for use with in-situ drilling methods are discussed. (JGB)

  20. Hybrid Technologies for Clandestine Electric Reconnaissance Vehicles (CERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    of other on board equipment. The OPC and high voltage Energy Storage system operate in concert with the Motor-Generator and Controller to form...the Vehicle DC Bus. When operating in PHEV mode from external power, the OPC provides power to the Vehicle DC Bus if either the Energy Storage System...commercial electric and hybrid buses. He has designed several motor drives including a 500 HP drive for sonar pulse power using a flywheel for energy

  1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN CUTTING PROCESS OF COMPONENT BILLET SURFACE ON ANALYSIS BASIS FOR ENERGY-CONSUMPTION INDICES OF TECHNOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Adamenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains investigation results and proposes a method for calculation of optimum cutting rate. The method takes into account energy-consumption indices of technological equipment that permits to improve technological energy efficiency of cutting process.

  2. Recovery of gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate, Andrea; López, Maria Esperanza; Serna, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology to recover gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8). Gold was recovered as a fine coating using substrate oxidation without shredding or grinding process. The WEEE sample was characterized giving values of Au: 1.05g/kg, Fe: 86.00g/kg, Ni: 73.64g/kg, Cu: 26.65g/kg. The effect of (NH4)2S2O8 concentration (0.22-1.10M), oxygen (0.0-1.4L/min) and L/S ratio (10-30mL/g) on the main responses (substrate oxidation and Au recovery) was investigated implementing response surface methodology with numerical optimization. A quadratic model was developed and quantities greater than 98% of Au were recovered. The findings presented suggest that, optimized quantities of ammonium persulfate in aqueous highly oxygenated media could be used to extract superficial gold from WEEE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the existing knowledge on the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatment options of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.), flame retardants (e.g., pentabromophenol, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), etc.) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. If improperly managed, the substances may pose significant human and environmental health risks. The review describes the potentially hazardous content of e-waste, examines the existing e-waste management practices and presents scientific data on human exposure to chemicals, workplace and environmental pollution associated with the three major e-waste management options, i.e., recycling, incineration and landfilling. The existing e-waste management practices and associated hazards are reviewed separately for developed and developing countries. Finally, based on this review, the paper identifies gaps in the existing knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep problems in white-collar male workers in an electric equipment manufacturing company in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, A; Haratani, T; Kawakami, N; Miki, A; Kurabayashi, L; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    In order to clarify poor sleep habits and prevalence in sleep problems (disturbances) of healthy male white-collar workers and the relationship of these to age and job type, a total of 1,161 Japanese employees of an electric equipment manufacturing company (aged 23 to 59, mean 37 years) were surveyed by means of a mailed questionnaire. The workers were asked about eleven sleep habits. They were also divided into four groups according to age and job type: 23-29 (n = 226), 30-39 (n = 597), 40-49 (n = 225) and 50-59 (n = 113); managerial (n = 209), professional (n = 336), technical (n = 475) and clerical (n = 134). In this study, the sleep problems were defined as who had at least one of the following four poor sleep habits: 1) taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep, 2) awakening during sleep (ADS) almost every day, 3) early morning awakening (EMA) almost every day, and 4) excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) at work almost every day. Analyses showed that sleep problems were present in 26.0% of workers; the problems were most serious among workers aged 50 years and more (36.0%) which may be due to a significant increase in the prevalence rate of EMA. The results revealed that sleep problems are common in male white-collar daytime workers. The findings also suggest a need for increased attention to sleep problems in older workers and younger ones with EDS at work.

  5. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry.

  6. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in two EU countries: A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Insubria University of Varese, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy); Ragazzi, Marco [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Istrate, Irina Aura [Department of Energy Production and Use, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Rada, Elena Cristina [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review on data regarding WEEE management in Italy and in Romania. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems that countries that will enter in the EU will have to solve facing with the WEEE management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot experiences useful for the awareness campaign of the population. - Abstract: The paper presents some data regarding waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) management in one of the founding countries of the EU, Italy, and in a recent entry into the EU, Romania. The aim of this research was to analyze some problems that countries entering the EU will have to solve with respect to WEEE management. The experiences of Italy and Romania could provide an interesting reference point. The strengths and weaknesses that the two EU countries have encountered can be used in order to give a more rational plan for other countries. In Italy the increase of WEEE collection was achieved in parallel with the increase of the efficiency of selective Municipal Solid Waste collection. In Romania, pilot experiences were useful to increase the awareness of the population. The different interests of the two populations towards recyclable waste led to a different scenario: in Romania all types of WEEE have been collected since its entrance into the EU; in Italy the 'interest' in recycling is typically related to large household appliances, with a secondary role of lighting equipment.

  7. GREEN ECONOMY AND THE REVERSE LOGISTICS OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Silva Marins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the way globally accepted for economic growth representation of evolution of a country related to the findings of non consideration of environmental assets and liabilities as a measure of occupancy in the economy of the countries, this study suggests a paradigm shift in the operation of the world economy with the implementation of the Green Economy concept seeking the achievement of environmental goals necessary to a level considered optimal in terms of pollution at lower cost to society. The focus of the study is given to the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, particularly in the reverse logistics of WEEE as a potential tool for economic growth maintenance condition with sustainability. A diagnosis on the use of reverse logistics of WEEE in the world is also presented based on research conducted in countries on five continents. At the end of the study it was concluded that the application of reverse logistics in the world is still incipient with no evidence of the use of economic instruments that give opportunity for growth and sustainability. Accordingly, it is emphasized that the management of WEEE practiced in most countries has shown motivation solely on financial profit based on the export / import of waste in a kind of ruse coated green taking into account the environmental and health risks of the population in developing countries or in development, which are the main final destination of WEEE.

  8. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Daniel; Kasser, Ueli; Ott, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given.

  9. Software for improving the quality of project management, a case study: international manufacture of electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preradović, D. M.; Mićić, Lj S.; Barz, C.

    2017-05-01

    Production conditions in today’s world require software support at every stage of production and development of new products, for quality assurance and compliance with ISO standards. In addition to ISO standards such as usual metrics of quality, companies today are focused on other optional standards, such as CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integrated) or prescribing they own standards. However, while there is intensive progress being made in the PM (project management), there is still a significant number of projects, at the global level, that are failures. These have failed to achieve their goals, within budget or timeframe. This paper focuses on checking the role of software tools through the rate of success in projects implemented in the case of internationally manufactured electrical equipment. The results of this research show the level of contribution of the project management software used to manage and develop new products to improve PM processes and PM functions, and how selection of the software tools affects the quality of PM processes and successfully completed projects.

  10. Independent Power Generation in a Modern Electrical Substation Based on Thermoelectric Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. M.; Zhao, Y. Q.; Liu, W.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Lai, X. K.

    2016-10-01

    Because of many types of electrical equipment with high power in substations, the potentiality of energy conservation is quite large. From this viewpoint, thermoelectric materials may be chosen to produce electrical energy using the waste heat produced in substations. Hence, a thermoelectric generation system which can recycle the waste heat from electric transformers was proposed to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the burden of the oil cooling system. An experimental prototype was fabricated to perform the experiment and to verify the feasibility. The experimental results showed that the output power could achieve 16 W from waste heat of 900 W, and that the power conversion efficiency was approximately 1.8%. Therefore, power generation is feasible by using the waste heat from the transformers based on thermoelectric technology.

  11. Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology (EITT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Development of a portable, lightweight device providing two-dimensional tomographic imaging of the human body using impedance mapping. This technology can be developed to evaluate health risks and provide appropriate medical care on the ISS, during space travel and on the ground.

  12. BMDO Technology and the Electric Utility Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    diameters, both units were continuously wound solenoids using low-temperature niobium- titanium (Nb-Ti) superconducting materials cooled by superfluid...for Electromechanics (page 71) Technology: Air-core compulsator Dr. Theodore Aanstoos (principal investigator) JJ. Pickle Research Campus Mail Code

  13. Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study Equipment Testing at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, BL

    2001-02-27

    This report provides a summary of the cold tests performed on the equipment to be used in the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study. The testing was performed from June 1996 to May 1997 at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility located at the 7600 complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Testing of specific equipment grouped into the following sections: (1) Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm Testing, (2) Remotely Operated Vehicle Testing, (3) Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System and Balance of Plant Equipment Testing, (4) Camera and Lighting System Testing, and (5) Characterization End-Effector Testing. Each section contains descriptions of a series of tests that summarize the test objectives, testing performed, and test results. General conclusions from the testing are also provided.

  14. Improving the Thermal Testing Technology of Technological Equipment of Autonomous Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chugunkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental conditions of autonomous objects of different-purpose technical complexes are in close relationship with increased values of operating temperatures. This requires thermal pretesting of the process equipment. The publication [1] considers the thermal test conditions in which the equipment elements under test are placed in a heated water tank covered by the globe insulators where, under automatic temperature control using a block of heaters, they are then kept for a specified period of time at a specified temperature range. Such an approach to the thermal tests of equipment allows us to reduce, but not eliminate completely the mass flows of water from evaporation with reducing power consumption of test equipment.Despite the results achieved, even a little bit of water vapor available when conducting the thermal tests may cause a failure of equipment. Therefore, there is a need in test equipment modernization for complete eliminating the fluxes of mass water and better power consumption in the test process. To this end, it is proposed to place a three-layer bubble wrap on the open surface of water.To justify an efficiency of the proposed option was developed a mathematical model of heat and mass transfer processes that occur during thermal tests, taking into account the geometric and thermo-physical characteristics of test tank, polymer film, and equipment. Using the laws and equations of heat and mass transfer enabled us to determine the required capacities for heating the tank with water and equipment to the required temperature range for a specified time, as well as the mass flows of water when evaporating from the tank surface.The efficiency of the three-layer bubble film as compared with the globe insulators as the elements for covering the test tank the surface has been analysed on the basis of the results obtained.The proposed film coating allowed almost complete elimination of evaporation losses of water mass and almost 8

  15. Use of technological equipment in critical care units: nurses' perceptions in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Karga, Maria; Poulopoulou, Maria; Karpouhtsi, Irini; Papadoulas, Vasileios; Koutsojannis, Constantinos

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of nurses who work in critical care units about positive and negative effects related to the use of technological equipment and identify relationships between these perceptions and demographic characteristics of participants. Previous researchers have investigated the perceptions of nursing personnel about the effects of technology on clinical practice. However, most of them focus on specific negative effects. Positive and negative effects have never been studied as a whole. Critical care nurses were surveyed to elicit their perceptions regarding the use of technological equipment. The instrument comprised a 14-item questionnaire and a series of demographic characteristics. A five-point Likert scale was used for each of these 14 questions. The questionnaire was administered to 122 nurses working at the four critical care units of a major academic hospital in Patras, Greece, from 1/10/2003 to 31/12/2003. The completion of the questionnaires was achieved by means of a personal interview. A total of 118 questionnaires were completed. The majority of nurses recognized the positive effects of equipment regarding patient care and clinical practice. At the same time, they agreed that use of equipment possibly leads to increased risk due to human errors or mechanical faults, increased stress and restricted autonomy of nursing personnel. The use of machines does not add to nursing prestige and this may be related to decreased autonomy. Human errors, mechanical faults and increased stress do not seem to come as a result of time constriction but rather of inadequate education. Undergraduate and continuing education should respond efficiently to the needs of contemporary critical care. Recognition of positive and negative effects of machines through the investigation of perceptions of nurses is the first step before looking for ways of maximizing advantages and facing disadvantages of equipment use.

  16. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Järvelä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive feed-in tariffs that ensure a certain price for the energy. On the other hand, electricity markets operate on a supply-demand principle and a typical imbalance settlement period is one hour. This paper presents the energy, power and corresponding requirements for an energy storage system in a solar PV power plant to feed the power to the grid meeting the electricity spot markets practices. An ideal PV energy production forecast is assumed to be available to define reference powers of the system for the studied imbalance settlement periods. The analysis is done for three different PV system sizes using the existing irradiance measurements of the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant.

  17. On Global Electricity Usage of Communication Technology: Trends to 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S. G. Andrae

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an estimation of the global electricity usage that can be ascribed to Communication Technology (CT between 2010 and 2030. The scope is three scenarios for use and production of consumer devices, communication networks and data centers. Three different scenarios, best, expected, and worst, are set up, which include annual numbers of sold devices, data traffic and electricity intensities/efficiencies. The most significant trend, regardless of scenario, is that the proportion of use-stage electricity by consumer devices will decrease and will be transferred to the networks and data centers. Still, it seems like wireless access networks will not be the main driver for electricity use. The analysis shows that for the worst-case scenario, CT could use as much as 51% of global electricity in 2030. This will happen if not enough improvement in electricity efficiency of wireless access networks and fixed access networks/data centers is possible. However, until 2030, globally-generated renewable electricity is likely to exceed the electricity demand of all networks and data centers. Nevertheless, the present investigation suggests, for the worst-case scenario, that CT electricity usage could contribute up to 23% of the globally released greenhouse gas emissions in 2030.

  18. Development of an Improved Process for Installation Projects of High Technology Manufacturing Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, Sarah V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-30

    High technology manufacturing equipment is utilized at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support nuclear missions. This is undertaken from concept initiation where equipment is designed and then taken through several review phases, working closely with system engineers (SEs) responsible for each of the affected systems or involved disciplines (from gasses to HVAC to structural, etc.). After the design is finalized it moves to procurement and custom fabrication of the equipment and equipment installation, including all of the paperwork involved. Not only are the engineering and manufacturing aspects important, but also the scheduling, financial forecasting, and planning portions that take place initially and are sometimes modified as the project progresses should requirements, changes or additions become necessary. The process required to complete a project of this type, including equipment installation, is unique and involves numerous steps to complete. These processes can be improved and recent work on the Direct Current Arc (DC Arc) Glovebox Design, Fabrication and Installation Project provides an opportunity to identify some important lessons learned (LL) that can be implemented in the future for continued project improvement and success.

  19. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

    2005-07-05

    Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

  20. 煤矿机电设备的维护保养%The Maintenance of Coal Mine Electric Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席文财

    2011-01-01

    煤矿机电设备的维护保养是设备管理中的重要环节,是技术人员的主要工作内容之一.一台精心维护的设备可以在较长的时间保持良好的性能,而忽视了维护保养.就会在很短的时间内损坏甚至报废及发生事故,本文主要阐述了煤矿机电设备的维护保养要求和设备维护保养制度等问题.%The repair and maintenance of coal mine electrical equipment is the important part of equipment management and is one of technician's main work.Well-maintained equipments can maintain a good performance in a long period of time.While if the maintenance is ignored, the equipment will be damaged in a short period of time or even ruined and there tend to be accidents.The paper mainly discussed the requirement of maintenance of coal mine electrical equipment and the system of maintenance.

  1. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  2. The application of active noise control technology to reduce noise from air pollution control equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depies, C. R.; Kapsos, D. W.

    1996-08-01

    The basic concept of active noise control, i. e. to create a noise field in a space in order to destructively interfere with an existing noise, and in the process create a quieter space, was explained. The manner in which noise control technology can be used in air pollution control equipment was described and guidelines for application were provided. A number of case studies were used to illustrate the suitability of active noise control for low frequency noise problems, especially in the area of air pollution control equipment. Impressive reduction of low frequency noise, energy efficiency, ability to retrofit into an existing duct system, and the hardware`s insensitivity to dirty exhaust environments were cited as the principal reasons for the success of active noise control technology over more traditional in-line passive silencers. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  3. Pulsed electric field technology: Modeling of electric field and temperature distributions within continuous flow PEF treatment chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Salengke, dkk

    2012-01-01

    Innovations and technology developments in the field of food pasteurization and sterilization are continuously evolving. These include innovations in thermal processing technologies such as aseptic processing, ohmic technology, and microwave technology, as well as non-thermal processing technologies which include pulsed electric field technology and high pressure processing technology. This paper discussed the results of a study on mathematical modeling of electric field and temperature distr...

  4. Electrical System Technology Working Group (WG) Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, S.; Ford, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The technology needs for space power systems (military, public, commercial) were assessed for the period 1995 to 2005 in the area of power management and distribution, components, circuits, subsystems, controls and autonomy, modeling and simulation. There was general agreement that the military requirements for pulse power would be the dominant factor in the growth of power systems. However, the growth of conventional power to the 100 to 250kw range would be in the public sector, with low Earth orbit needs being the driver toward large 100kw systems. An overall philosophy for large power system development is also described.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP), FINAL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS GROUP TAGNITE--TESTING AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN (T/QAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of the Environmental Testing and Verification Coatings and Coating Equipment Program is to verify pollution prevention and performance characteristics of coating technologies and make the results of the testing available to prospective coating technology use...

  6. Advanced electric motor technology flux mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Dean, Garvin

    1993-01-01

    Design of electric motors which fulfill the needs of Thrust Vector Control (TVC) actuators used in large rocket propelled launch vehicles is covered. To accomplish this end the methodology of design is laid out in some detail. In addition a point design of a motor to fulfill the requirements of a certain actuator specified by MSFC is accomplished and reported upon. In the course of this design great stress has been placed on ridding the actuator of internally generated heat. To conduct the heat out of the motor use is made of the unique properties of the in house MSFC designed driving electronics. This property is that as along as they are operated in a quasi-linear mode the electronics nullify the effects of armature inductance as far as the phase of the armature current versus the rotor position is concerned. Actually the additional inductance due to the extended end turns in this design is of benefit because in the shorted armature failure mode the armature current in the fault (caused by the rotor flux sweeping past the armature) is diminished at a given rotor speed when compared to a more conventional motor with lower inductance. The magnetic circuit is analyzed using electromagnetic finite element methods.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Jamie [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Drury, Easan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Brown, Stephen R. [HDR/DTA, Portland, ME (Untied States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felker, Fort [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goodrich, Alan C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hagerman, George [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neil, Sean [Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, Portland, OR (United States); Paquette, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  9. Discussion on mechanical and electrical maintenance technology of coal mine%浅议煤矿机电设备维修技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程燕妮

    2015-01-01

    该文从矿井在机电设备检测方面存在的问题谈起,阐述了矿井机电设备的维修技术、方法,重点论述矿井机电设备维修的改进,以保障煤矿机电设备维修管理工作的质量。%This paper discusses the problems of the mechanical and electrical equipment in the mine, and expounds the maintenance technology and method of the mechanical and electrical equipment, focus on the improvement of the mine mechanical and electrical equipment maintenance to protect the quality of the coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment maintenance.

  10. Environmental Regulations on Waste Electrical Equipment Industry: The Production Chain to the Final Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Tunes Mazon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the electronics industry requires its transition to sustainable production patterns, as defined by the European directives WEEE, RoHS, and the National Policy on Solid Waste. In 2010, the group began a national project whose purpose is to support sustainability with a focus on the triple bottom line Brazilian electronics industry. The implementation of these proposals began with the implementation of a pilot project with nine companies of electromedical equipment, chosen because they are technology intensive, and require exporters suit environmental regulations. This paper aims to present the main results obtained in the studies with these nine companies in the period Apr/2011 Mar/2012 regarding the suitability of its products, processes, management systems and supply chains. The study was divided into three stages: an assessment to identify general aspects of each organization, a thorough assessment to understand the characteristics of each organization ahead of the general characteristics of the group analyzed and a detailed diagnosis, performed individually during visits in companies. The main findings were that the waste management and reverse logistics associated are still incipient, the products still have dangerous substances and supply chain is still very poorly prepared for the challenges. The level of employment of employees and costs associated with the adequacy of its products and processes, constitute the two biggest problems for companies fit the relevant environmental legislation.

  11. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  12. Fundamentals of electroheat electrical technologies for process heating

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the main electrical technologies for process heating, which tend to be treated separately in specialized books. Individual chapters focus on heat transfer, electromagnetic fields in electro-technologies, arc furnaces, resistance furnaces, direct resistance heating, induction heating, and high-frequency and microwave heating. The authors highlight those topics of greatest relevance to a wide-ranging teaching program, and at the same time offer a detailed review of the main applications of the various technologies. The content represents a synthesis of the extensive knowledge and experience that the authors have accumulated while researching and teaching at the University of Padua’s Engineering Faculty. This text on industrial electroheating technologies is a valuable resource not only for students of industrial, electrical, chemical, and material science engineering, but also for engineers, technicians and others involved in the application of electroheating and...

  13. Development of mining technology and equipment for seafloor massive sulfide deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaojun; Hu, Jianhua; Zhang, Ruiqiang; Dai, Yu; Yang, Hengling

    2016-09-01

    Seafloor massive sulfide(SMS) deposits which consist of Au, Ag, Cu, and other metal elements, have been a target of commercial mining in recent decades. The demand for established and reliable commercial mining system for SMS deposits is increasing within the marine mining industry. The current status and progress of mining technology and equipment for SMS deposits are introduced. First, the mining technology and other recent developments of SMS deposits are comprehensively explained and analyzed. The seafloor production tools manufactured by Nautilus Minerals and similar mining tools from Japan for SMS deposits are compared and discussed in turn. Second, SMS deposit mining technology research being conducted in China is described, and a new SMS deposits mining tool is designed according to the environmental requirement. Finally, some new trends of mining technology of SMS deposits are summarized and analyzed. All of these conclusions and results have reference value and guiding significance for the research of SMS deposit mining in China.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP) HIGH TRANSFER EFFICIENCE SPRAY EQUIPMENT--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program has been established to verify the performance characteristics of innovative environmental technologies and report this objective information, thus, accelerating the entrance of these new technologies into the marketplace. V...

  15. Cost Benefit Analysis Modeling Tool for Electric vs. ICE Airport Ground Support Equipment – Development and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Francfort; Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard

    2007-02-01

    This report documents efforts to develop a computer tool for modeling the economic payback for comparative airport ground support equipment (GSE) that are propelled by either electric motors or gasoline and diesel engines. The types of GSE modeled are pushback tractors, baggage tractors, and belt loaders. The GSE modeling tool includes an emissions module that estimates the amount of tailpipe emissions saved by replacing internal combustion engine GSE with electric GSE. This report contains modeling assumptions, methodology, a user’s manual, and modeling results. The model was developed based on the operations of two airlines at four United States airports.

  16. Design of online monitoring and forecasting system for electrical equipment temperature of prefabricated substation based on WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiran; Miao, Hongxia; Miao, Xuejiao; Xiao, Xuanxuan; Yan, Kuo

    2016-10-01

    In order to ensure the safe and stable operation of the prefabricated substations, temperature sensing subsystem, temperature remote monitoring and management subsystem, forecast subsystem are designed in the paper. Wireless temperature sensing subsystem which consists of temperature sensor and MCU sends the electrical equipment temperature to the remote monitoring center by wireless sensor network. Remote monitoring center can realize the remote monitoring and prediction by monitoring and management subsystem and forecast subsystem. Real-time monitoring of power equipment temperature, history inquiry database, user management, password settings, etc., were achieved by monitoring and management subsystem. In temperature forecast subsystem, firstly, the chaos of the temperature data was verified and phase space is reconstructed. Then Support Vector Machine - Particle Swarm Optimization (SVM-PSO) was used to predict the temperature of the power equipment in prefabricated substations. The simulation results found that compared with the traditional methods SVM-PSO has higher prediction accuracy.

  17. Advancing the Frontier of Extended Producer Responsibility: The management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in non-OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Manomaivibool, Panate

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a salient issue in non-OECD countries. With a growing awareness about serious damages to the environment and human health from a lack of safe treatment and recycling of WEEE, there has been a search for policy responses in several of these countries. This research finds that extended producer responsibility (EPR), a policy principle that underpins WEEE programmes in many OECD countries, can help solve the WEEE problem in non-OECD cou...

  18. Theories and technologies of electronic-electrical-mechanical integrated(EEMI)transmission system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ EEMI is one of the hot spots in cross-disciplinary research. The research in this topic was to discard the traditional mechanical gear reducer, integrate electrical motor with mechanical load, control the electrical motor by electrical power generated by microelectronics and electrical electronics; namely, form a EEMI transmission system in the mechanical equipments with low rotation rate and large rotation torque.

  19. Network effects in the operation of electrical equipment; Efectos de la red en la operacion del equipo electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia T, Arturo; Rosales S, Inocente; Garcia P, Job; Ruiz F, L. Ivan; Robles P, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In the nineties, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) Electrical Equipment Management (GEE) was restricted to make the diagnosis of generators, transformers, switch boards and cables, without considering the global operating conditions. With the experience acquired in different services it was verified that, inclusively when this equipment is correctly designed, it can be subjected to unfavorable operative conditions, which causes an accelerated deterioration to the degree of producing a fault. In agreement with this, the GEE settled down new line of development named Analysis of the network effect on the electrical equipment, that analyzes the behavior of the equipment originated by work abnormal causes, including the network configuration effect. [Spanish] En la decada de los noventa, la Gerencia de Equipos Electricos (GEE) del IIE se limitaba a realizar el diagnostico de generadores, transformadores, tableros de distribucion y cables, sin considerar las condiciones globales de operacion. Con la experiencia adquirida en diferentes servicios se comprobo que, inclusive cuando estos equipos esten correctamente disenados, pueden verse sometidos a condiciones de operacion desfavorables, lo que ocasiona un deterioro acelerado al grado de producir una falla. De acuerdo con esto, la GEE establecio una nueva linea de desarrollo de nominada Analisis del efecto de la red en los equipos electricos, que analiza el comportamiento de los equipos originado por causas anormales de trabajo, incluido el efecto de la configuracion de la red.

  20. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan M

    2004-01-01

    Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment sh

  1. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-03-29

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified.

  2. Polymers in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) contain PBDD/F in the ppb-range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlummer, M.; Brandl, F.; Maeurer, A.; Gruber, L.; Wolz, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung (IVV), Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) consists of metals (60%), polymers (20%) and residual materials as wood or glass (20%). Whereas state-of the art-technologies are able to recover most of the metals present, recovery rates for polymers and residuals are negligible low. Primarily, this is due to low disposal costs, which refers to landfill or incineration depending on geographic circumstances. The European WEEE directive, which assesses material recovery rates above 70%, and changes in the German disposal regulation, which will prohibit the landfill of organic materials starting 2005, currently alter the legislative conditions. This leads to an increased interest in polymer recovery strategies. Approaches discussed include polymer recycling and pyrolysis-based material recovery, both characterised by temperatures below 240 C or 600 C, respectively. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and/or diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in these waste streams complicate waste treatment techniques, since they are known to form brominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F) under thermal stress, either in polymer recyclates or in pyrolysis products. Additionally, polymer recycling is affected by European directive 2003/11/EC, restricting the distribution of products containing more than 0.1% of octa- or pentabrominated diphenyl ethers, respectively. Aim of this study was to determine concentration levels of polybrominated compounds including PBDD/F and brominated flame retardants in polymers from WEEE. Both, mixed polymer waste and pre-sorted polymer fractions consisting mainly of monitors, TV-sets or telecommunication housings, were examined. Furthermore, the dependency of PBDD/F concentrations on waste source, pre-treatment and flame retardant system was investigated, implication on waste treatment alternatives are discussed.

  3. Design and development of electric vehicle charging station equipped with RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, C.; Murtaddo, D.; Maulana, D. W.; Irawan, S.; Joni, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of electric charging station from distributed renewable for electric vehicle (EV). This designed refer to the input voltage standard of IEC 61851, plugs features of IEC 62196 and standard communication of ISO 15118. The developed electric charging station used microcontroller ATMEGA8535 and RFID as controller and identifier of the EV users, respectively. The charging station successfully developed as desired features for electric vehicle from renewable energy resources grid with solar panel, wind power and batteries storage.

  4. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan

    2006-05-30

    Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

  5. Operation and technology development of the radioactive xenon and krypton detection equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wanno; Choi, Sangdo; Ji, Youngyong; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Young Hyun; Kang, Han Beul; Lee, Hoon; Kang, Moon Ja; Choi, Kun Sik

    2013-03-15

    Operation and technology development of the radioactive xenon and krypton detection equipment - Advancement, independence of operation technology for BfS-IAR system(the simultaneous analysis of xenon and krypton) installed after North Korea nuclear tests in 2006 and establishment of background base-line for xenon and krypton radioactivity. - Enhanced detection and analysis capabilities for neighborhood nuclear activities through advanced research of noble gas detection technology. Results of the Project · The operation of xenon and krypton analysis system (BfS-IAR) · Operation of fixed adsorption system. · Operation of portable adsorption system · Exercise of emergency response and proficiency test with SAUNA. · Measurement of noble gas background at specific region in Korea. - Radioxenon levels at Dongdu Cheon is approximately 1.6 mBq/m{sup 3} · Development of automation filling system for absorber cooling.

  6. Research on the Crucial Technology in Virtual Training System of Engineering Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tianhe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual training system involves a large number of technical problems which affect the promotion and application in our country. In this work, several key techniques for the development of engineering equipment virtual training system are addressed. Firstly, the reconstruction method for three views of machine parts is proposed based on rapid 3D surface fitting as well as NURBS composite surface. Then, the interactive control techniques for the 3D visualization interactive assembly are studied in detail. The key technology of collision detection is also illuminated in the last part. The entire engineering equipment support training system, that includes structure expressing, principle demonstration, panoramic roaming, disassembly training as well as maintenance and repair training, is developed. This facilitates the trainees in learning the support training procedures step by step, and quickly improves their technical skills.

  7. COMMERCIALIZATION DEMONSTRATION OF MID-SIZED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR ELECTRIC UTILITYAPPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARLES M. WEBER

    2008-06-24

    As an outgrowth of the Technology Reinvestment Program of the 1990’s, an Agreement was formed between BWXT and the DOE to promote the commercialization of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology. Business and marketing studies showed that the performance of electric transmission lines could be improved with this SMES technology by stabilizing the line thereby allowing the reserved stability margin to be used. One main benefit sought was to double the capacity and the amount of energy flow on an existing transmission line by enabling the use of the reserved stability margin, thereby doubling revenue. Also, electrical disturbances, power swings, oscillations, cascading disturbances and brown/black-outs could be mitigated and rendered innocuous; thereby improving power quality and reliability. Additionally, construction of new transmission lines needed for increased capacity could be delayed or perhaps avoided (with significant savings) by enabling the use of the reserved stability margin of the existing lines. Two crucial technical aspects were required; first, a large, powerful, dynamic, economic and reliable superconducting magnet, capable of oscillating power flow was needed; and second, an electrical power interface and control to a transmission line for testing, demonstrating and verifying the benefits and features of the SMES system was needed. A project was formed with the goals of commercializing the technology by demonstrating SMES technology for utility applications and to establish a domestic capability for manufacturing large superconducting magnets for both commercial and defense applications. The magnet had very low AC losses to support the dynamic and oscillating nature of the stabilizing power flow. Moreover, to economically interface to the transmission line, the magnet had the largest operating voltage ever made. The manufacturing of that design was achieved by establishing a factory with newly designed and acquired equipment

  8. Social costs of innovative electricity generation technologies in the present and in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preiss, Philipp; Friedrich, Rainer; Blesl, Markus; Wissel, Steffen; Mayer-Spohn, Oliver; Klotz, Volker [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    2008-07-01

    Social costs (costs seen from the perspective of the society) differ from private costs and thus influence the ranking of electricity generating technologies. The resulting social costs data provide a basis for the recommendation to use the potential of nuclear, wind and hydropower as far as possible, however the potential of these technologies is limited. The analysis shows, that the remaining electricity demand in the future still should be met by using lignite and coal. Depending on the stringency of the climate change aims these plants would be equipped with CCS (carbon capture and storage) or not. Only with ambitious climate change aims and if CCS turns out to be less economically or technically feasible, than the import of electricity generated by a solar through systems in Mediterranean countries would become an option. The environmental advantages of PV are too small to compensate the very high investment costs in Germany. The detailed analysis of different contributions to the social costs per kWh shows that the costs of natural gas technologies are dominated by private costs of fuel supply. If we assume 50% higher prices than in the basic assumption this increases social costs up to 30%. (orig.)

  9. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  10. Extended-Kalman-filter-based regenerative and friction blended braking control for electric vehicle equipped with axle motor considering damping and elastic properties of electric powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong

    2014-11-01

    Because of the damping and elastic properties of an electrified powertrain, the regenerative brake of an electric vehicle (EV) is very different from a conventional friction brake with respect to the system dynamics. The flexibility of an electric drivetrain would have a negative effect on the blended brake control performance. In this study, models of the powertrain system of an electric car equipped with an axle motor are developed. Based on these models, the transfer characteristics of the motor torque in the driveline and its effect on blended braking control performance are analysed. To further enhance a vehicle's brake performance and energy efficiency, blended braking control algorithms with compensation for the powertrain flexibility are proposed using an extended Kalman filter. These algorithms are simulated under normal deceleration braking. The results show that the brake performance and blended braking control accuracy of the vehicle are significantly enhanced by the newly proposed algorithms.

  11. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger

  12. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  13. Optimising reverse logistics network to support policy-making in the case of Electrical and Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Aidonis, D; Moussiopoulos, N; Iakovou, E; Banias, G

    2010-12-01

    Due to the rapid growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volumes, as well as the hazardousness of obsolete electr(on)ic goods, this type of waste is now recognised as a priority stream in the developed countries. Policy-making related to the development of the necessary infrastructure and the coordination of all relevant stakeholders is crucial for the efficient management and viability of individually collected waste. This paper presents a decision support tool for policy-makers and regulators to optimise electr(on)ic products' reverse logistics network. To that effect, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming mathematical model is formulated taking into account existing infrastructure of collection points and recycling facilities. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated employing a real-world case study for the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. The paper concludes with presenting relevant obtained managerial insights. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Technologies for Noncryogenic Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos R.; Lowe, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is researching aircraft propulsion technologies that will lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. One promising technology is noncryogenic electric propulsion, which could be either hybrid electric propulsion or turboelectric propulsion. Reducing dependence on the turbine engine would certainly reduce emissions. However, the weight of the electricmotor- related components that would have to be added would adversely impact the benefits of the smaller turbine engine. Therefore, research needs to be done to improve component efficiencies and reduce component weights. This study projects technology improvements expected in the next 15 and 30 years, including motor-related technologies, power electronics, and energy-storage-related technologies. Motor efficiency and power density could be increased through the use of better conductors, insulators, magnets, bearings, structural materials, and thermal management. Energy storage could be accomplished through batteries, flywheels, or supercapacitors, all of which expect significant energy density growth over the next few decades. A first-order approximation of the cumulative effect of each technology improvement shows that motor power density could be improved from 3 hp/lb, the state of the art, to 8 hp/lb in 15 years and 16 hp/lb in 30 years.

  15. Environmental Technology Verification Coatings and Coating Equipment Program (ETV CCEP) High Transfer Efficiency Spray Equipment--Generic Verification Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to verify the performance characteristics of innovative environmental technologies across all media and report this objective information to the states, ...

  16. Results of advanced batter technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  17. NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR RESTORATION AND PROTECTION OF POWER EQUIPMENT WITH THE AID OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ischenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of possible variants of reconstruction of the power equipment is fulfilled and the conclusion concerning the prospects of such work with the use of composite materials is reached. The data on the technical characteristics of composite repair materials for various purposes are presented, the results of repairs of power equipment, in particular the technology for the recovery of the boarding surfaces of the diffuser rings and protection of the pumps D1250 casings are provided. The technology of the recovery pneumatic cylinder, hydraulic cylinder rod, as well as the unique technology of restoration of working surfaces of the impeller vanes of transfer pump, that had been destroyed by corrosion in conjunction with the cavitation processes and were considered as not restorable is described. The restored impeller was in operation during a year and only thereafter it was removed for restoration. Another composite material discussed in the article – diagum – makes it possible to perform a series of repairs associated with restoration of the rubber-covered surfaces of pump casings as well as with restoration of various surfaces of the conveyor belts. Taking the excellent adhesive properties of this composite into account, restoration of worn stainless steel sieve screens to remove abrasive material was fulfilled with the aid of it. The restoration was accomplished via the use of the conveyor belt which application time had expired, that was glued to a metal sieve with diagum. The use of the composites is economically justified, because the application of them in repairs reduces, firstly, terms of restoration work and, secondly, the price of repairs. Third, equipment that was damaged beyond repair is being commissioned by the use of the mentioned composites. 

  18. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  19. [Rational choice of technologies and equipment in the logistic support of a pathomorphology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'kov, P G; Frank, G A; Sidorova, V P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present communication is to provide specialists with the comparative characteristics of the most important user qualities of the major histological labware by the world's leading manufacturers introduced on the market. These are comparatively estimated solely from technologically significant criteria on the basis of the materials of open references, general public technical documents, and the authors' experience. Fabric processors, embedding complexes, microtomes, autostainers, and coverslippers are comparatively characterized from the viewpoint of a practical user. The presented materials may be useful to specialties to take decisions on logistics and re-equipment of morphological laboratories.

  20. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  1. Elementary Analysis on the Technological Features of an Engineering Equipment Facile Diagnosis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the point of systemic engineering, the general properties of an engineering equipment fault diagnosis system and the studying object of diagnosis engineering were discussed. With the developing course of fault diagnosis technology, the relationship be-tween facile diagnosis system and diagnosis engineering were also discussed. The basic structure and feature of a facile diagnosis system were discussed, and the isomorphic of a facile diagnosis system and precise diagnosis system was presented. The facile diagnosis requires the perfection of method, pertinence and apriority of knowledge , adaptability of the object being diagnosed and the approach to the aim of the diagnosis result, as well as the outstanding of main functions.

  2. 电雷管脚线成型工艺设备现状与发展趋势%Present Situation and Trends of Process and Equipment of Winding Electric Detonator Lighting Blasting Cap Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨民刚; 夏光; 杨宗玲

    2014-01-01

    Basing on the production process of winding electric detonator lighting blasting cap wire, the present situation of process and equipment were discussed. With the guidance on the progress of civilian explosives materials technology, the development direction and technical ideas of process technology and equipment for winding electric detonator lighting blasting cap wire were put forward.%在简述电雷管脚线打把生产工艺的基础上,对工艺技术与设备现状进行了分析评述,结合民用爆炸物品技术进步指导意见,提出了工业电雷管脚线制作的工艺技术与设备发展方向和技术思路。

  3. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Bluestein, Joel [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Rodriguez, Nick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Knoke, Stu [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  4. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  5. CERTS: Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions - Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph

    2003-07-30

    Historically, the U.S. electric power industry was vertically integrated, and utilities were responsible for system planning, operations, and reliability management. As the nation moves to a competitive market structure, these functions have been disaggregated, and no single entity is responsible for reliability management. As a result, new tools, technologies, systems, and management processes are needed to manage the reliability of the electricity grid. However, a number of simultaneous trends prevent electricity market participants from pursuing development of these reliability tools: utilities are preoccupied with restructuring their businesses, research funding has declined, and the formation of Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to operate the grid means that control of transmission assets is separate from ownership of these assets; at the same time, business uncertainty, and changing regulatory policies have created a climate in which needed investment for transmission infrastructure and tools for reliability management has dried up. To address the resulting emerging gaps in reliability R&D, CERTS has undertaken much-needed public interest research on reliability technologies for the electricity grid. CERTS' vision is to: (1) Transform the electricity grid into an intelligent network that can sense and respond automatically to changing flows of power and emerging problems; (2) Enhance reliability management through market mechanisms, including transparency of real-time information on the status of the grid; (3) Empower customers to manage their energy use and reliability needs in response to real-time market price signals; and (4) Seamlessly integrate distributed technologies--including those for generation, storage, controls, and communications--to support the reliability needs of both the grid and individual customers.

  6. PV technology and success of solar electricity in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dung, T.Q. [Vietnam National Center for Science and Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Solarlab

    1997-12-31

    Since 1990 the PV Technology and the Solar electricity have been strongly developed in Vietnam. The PV experts of Solarlab have studied and set up an appropriate PV Technology responding to local Market needs. It has not only stood well but has been also transferred to Mali Republic and Lao P.D.R. The PV off grid systems of Solarlab demonstrate good efficiency and low prices. Over 60 solar stations and villages have been built to provide solar lighting for about 3000 families along the country in remote, mountainous areas and islands. 400 families are using stand-alone Solar Home Systems. The Solar electricity has been chosen for Rural Electrification and National Telecommunication Network in remote and mountainous regions. Many International projects in cooperation with FONDEM-France, SELF USA and Governmental PV projects have been realized by Solarlab. The experiences of maintenance, management and finance about PV development in Vietnam are also mentioned.

  7. Automotive Technology Evolved by Electrical and Electronic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teratani, Tatsuo; Okuma, Shigeru

    Automotive electrical and electronic systems, e.g. EHV, FCV, future X-By-Wire, have recently been introduced or planned in place of mechanical systems. Drivers are demanding environmental performance (fuel consumption and weight reduction), safety and comfort. For general use of the new technologies, evolution of the automotive technology is required, including energy conversion efficiency improvement, size and weight reduction of components, cost reduction and high reliability. This paper discusses and summarizes the next generation power systems, the future vehicle image, power source combinations, and problems to be solved for development of automotive electronics.

  8. Electricity in the American Economy Agent of Technological Progress

    CERN Document Server

    Schurr, Sam H; Devine, Warren S

    1990-01-01

    Electricity has penetrated deeply into virtually every aspect of American life, be it in industry, the home, or in the rapidly growing commercial and service sectors. This book documents and analyzes the existence of a strong, and growing, synergy between technological progress and the use of electrified production techniques in the United States during the twentieth century. The authors use two types of information in their work: case studies of the ways in which technological progress in particular industries and economic sectors has depended upon the adoption of electrified methods of produ

  9. Ensuring Energy Efficient 5G User Equipment by Technology Evolution and Reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2014-01-01

    Research on fifth generation (5G) radio access technology (RAT) is ramping up, with the goal of significantly improving user data rates and latency compared to previous radio generations. While energy efficiency (EE) of the user equipment (UE) was not a key optimization parameter for the current...... standards, it is anticipated to become a distinguishing factor for 5G. In this paper, we analyze established and emerging technological solutions for features such as waveform, frame structure, duplexing and multiple antenna transmission from an EE perspective. Our contribution is to identify and discuss...... the features’ pros and cons in achieving high performance in terms of data rate and/or latency while limiting their effect on the UE power consumption. Based on the discussion we give general recommendations for an energy efficient 5G design in the context of a previously proposed RAT concept....

  10. Technology and complete set of the equipment of air-plasma method for synthesis of nanoaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytin, Yurii D.; Novikov, O. G.

    2004-02-01

    The paper is aimed at studying synthesis and construction, as well as physical-chemical characteristics of nanoaerosols. The technology and product line of the Air-plasma method for synthesis of metal oxide nanopowders to obtain high-performance ceramics (PSNP) is hot and set at manufacturing different-types zirconium ceramics stabilized by yttrium and magnesium oxides, as well as other dopes. For the available equipment, the technologies of producing nanopowders of other metal oxides alongside with circonium oxide and composite oxides (Al203, Ti02, CuO, SiO2, Fe2O2, ZnO, CoO, Cr2O3, PbO, MnO, MgO, CaO, CeO, etc.) are developed and adapted.

  11. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  12. Impacts of Interior Permanent Magnet Machine Technology for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    system forms the backbone of modern society. Electricity and its accessibility is one of the major engineering achievements. In order to maintain and...Minimum weight and smallest size  Low fuel consumption rate (litre/km)  New ICE engine technology with hybrid gasoline/diesel  Homogenous...charge-compression ignition ( HCCI )  Clean and environmentally benign  Quiet, smooth and comfortable ride  Better battery power and self-charging

  13. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability...

  14. On analysis of installation technique of intelligent architectural electric equipment%智能建筑电气设备的安装技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建平

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces the main equipment components of the intelligent architectural electric system,and analyzes the technical re-quirements for the remote treatment and installation,BAS route installation,input equipment installation,output equipment installation,so as to enhance the construction technique of the electric equipment system and exert the performance of the electric equipment.%介绍了智能建筑电气系统的主要设备构成,对远程处理机安装、BAS 路线安装、输入设备安装、输出设备安装等技术要求进行了分析,以期提高电气设备系统的施工技术,更好的发挥电气设备的使用性能。

  15. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  16. Electricity Breakdown Management for Sarawak Energy: Use of Condition-Based Equipment for Detection of Defective Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. K.; Abas, N.

    2017-07-01

    Managing electricity breakdown is vital since an outage causes economic losses for customers and the utility companies. However, electricity breakdown is unavoidable due to some internal or external factors beyond our control. Electricity breakdown on overhead lines tend occur more frequently because it is prone to external disturbances such as animal, overgrown vegetation and defective pole top accessories. In Sarawak Energy Berhad (SEB), majority of the network are composed of overhead lines and hence, is more prone to failure. Conventional method of equipment inspection and fault finding are not effective to quickly identify the root cause of failure. SEB has engaged the use of corona discharge camera as condition-based monitoring equipment to carry out condition based inspection on the line in order to diagnose the condition of the lines prior to failure. Experimental testing has been carried out to determine the correlation between the corona discharge count and the level of defect on line insulator. The result shall be tabulated and will be used as reference for future scanning and diagnostic on any defect on the lines.

  17. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, F.; Turton, H.; Hirschberg, S.

    2009-12-15

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO{sub 2} prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a

  18. Fault detection and maintenance countermeasures of coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment%煤矿机电设备故障检测及维修对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷会海; 张震; 解加站

    2015-01-01

    煤炭企业的生产及经济效益越来越强烈地依赖于机电设备,这对煤矿机电设备的性能及维修管理提出了更高的要求。该文通过对煤矿机电设备故障检测的阐述,列举了煤矿机电设备主要的维修对策。%The production and economic benefit of coal enterprise is more and more strongly dependent on the mechanical and electrical equipment, which puts forward higher requirements for the performance and maintenance management of the coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment, by the elaboration to the coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment fault detection, this paper has enumerated the coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment main maintenance countermeasure.

  19. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  20. Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

  1. Economic and environmental evaluation of coal-and-biomass-to-liquids-and-electricity plants equipped with carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among various clean energy technologies, one innovative option for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the production of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. With a relatively pure CO2 strea...

  2. Economic and environmental evaluation of coal-and-biomass-to-liquids-and-electricity plants equipped with carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among various clean energy technologies, one innovative option for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the production of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. With a relatively pure CO2 strea...

  3. The tendency of medical electrical equipment - IEC 60601-2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of x-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Young Hoon; Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiologic Science School of Health and Environmental Science College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirement for basic safety and essential performance of MFDS was revised as 3th edition and Medical electrical equipment Part 2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment will be expected to be announced as notification. Therefore this technical report was written to introduce provision of the particular requirements, replacement, addition, amendment. The purpose of this particular requirements is to secure requirements for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy. X-ray high voltage generator, mechanical protective device, protection against radiation is included in this particular requirements. Medical electrical equipment - Part 1, Part 1-2, Part 1-3 is applied to this particular requirements. If the requirements is announced as notification, It is expected to widen understanding for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy and play a part to internationalize of medical equipment.

  4. METHODICS, SOFTWARE AND LABORATORY EQUIPMENT FOR AN INNOVATIVE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of innovative electrical engineering discipline «Electric Machines in Mechatronic Systems» in order to improve the training of specialists of electrical engineering specialty. Methodology. The proposed project concerns the educational reforms that promote the intensification of the educational process. Results. The structure of interactive educational and training complex, which is a computer learning tool in the form of software and methodical support, as well as data and knowledge bases and consists of functionally related multimedia learning systems, interactive learning, automated control of the learning process. Originality. To offer online training and research facilities, guidelines for laboratory and computational and graphic works. Practical value. Increase the knowledge of students of educational material related to the discipline of innovation «Electric Machines in Mechatronic Systems».

  5. Using the Antiphase for Elimination the Noise of Electrical Power Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Pokorny; Stanislav Misak

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to create functional system which eliminates the noise of electrical devices. This system works on active basis, therefore it process parasitic signal itself and use it for elimination of the noise. On the first stage it focuses on elimination of energetic devices with great intensity of noise but with small frequency deviations. The main producers of noise emissions are electrical devices, for example transformers. Nowadays, human health and wellbeing are the prio...

  6. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  7. Federal/State Jurisdictional Split: Implications for Emerging Electricity Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Jeffery S. [Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Kelly, Suedeen G. [Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Nordhaus, Robert R. [Van Ness Feldman, LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Douglas W. [Van Ness Feldman, LLP, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The first Administration-wide Quadrennial Energy Review (QER), released in April 2015, found that the “interacting and overlapping” division of authority between “federal, regional and state institutions and regulatory structures” for the electricity sector could “impede development of the grid of the future [and] . . . the development of markets that efficiently integrate” new and emerging technologies.1 While “technology is indifferent to state-Federal boundaries and jurisdictions,” the QER explained, “technology users cannot be.”2 The report concluded that “[b]oth Federal and state governments need to play constructive and collaborative roles in the future to ensure that consumers and industry are able to maximize the value of new technologies.”3 The QER recommended that the Department of Energy (“DOE”) facilitate such collaboration by playing a “convening role” to bring together state and federal regulators and other stakeholders to consider these issues.4 This paper provides background and analysis on these jurisdictional issues and the impact they may have on adoption of emerging energy technologies and coordination of markets for those technologies, in support of future dialogs on these subjects. In particular, this paper reviews the structure of the Federal Power Act (“FPA”),5 and compares the division of authority between the federal and state governments adopted there with other federal energy and energy-related statutes.

  8. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  9. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  10. 浙江电网输变电设备智能化及状态检修体系%Intelligentization and Condition-based Maintenance System of Transmission and Distribution Equipments in Zhejiang Electric Power Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少华; 胡文堂; 梅冰笑; 董建洋; 童杭伟

    2013-01-01

    Intelligentization of power transmission and distribution equipments and building of condition-based maintenance system are key links for the establishment of smart grid, and improvement of reliability and efficiency of power transmission equipment In this paper, considering the actual situation of Zhejiang electric power network, the key technologies supporting the intelligentization of power transmission and distribution equipments are described. For example, condition monitoring technology of transmission lines, intelligent detecting technology with helicopter, geographic information systems (GIS) and on-line monitoring technology of substation equipment are introduced. On this basis, the condition assessment and maintenance system of Zhejiang electric power transmission and distribution equipments are described. Besides, the works for further deepening of equipment intelligentization and condition-based maintenance equipment are pointed out, in order to offer references for the intelligentization of power transmission and distribution equipments and condition-based maintenance system of Zhejiang electric power network.%输变电设备智能化及状态检修体系的构建是建设智能电网,提高输变电设备可靠性及利用率的关键环节.结合浙江电网的实际情况,笔者阐述了支撑输变电设备智能化的关键技术,如输电线路状态监测技术、直升机智能巡检技术、地理信息系统(GIS)及变电设备在线监测技术等.在此基础上,介绍了浙江电网输变电设备状态评价及检修体系.同时,指出了在深化设备智能化及状态检修方面尚需进一步完善的一些工作,以期能为全面推进浙江电网输变电设备的智能化和状态检修提供参考.

  11. The Hacker of International Waste Electron Equipment & Electrical Equipment (WEEE) and WEEE Recycling%国际WEEE"黑客"与WEEE再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高冬华

    2001-01-01

    @@ WEEE是国际上废弃电子设备和电动产品英文名称:WASTE ELECTRON EQUIPMENT&ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT的简称.随着信息时代的到来,电脑、手机、电视等含有剧毒材料、制造复杂、难以处置的废弃垃圾正在成为人类生存环境的潜在危害.一些发达国家为了躲避昂贵的废物销毁费用和回避国内严格的公众监督,找到一条"绝好"的途径,即把这些废弃电器垃圾倾销往第三世界国家.中国时值电脑、手机一类电器普及初期,市场需求量极大,而相对廉价的二手货亦具有价格竞争优势.加之国内一些不法之徒总在伺机寻找制造假冒伪劣产品的条件,这些都为WEEE"黑客"入侵创造了市场.

  12. Investigation on end-of-life electric and electronic equipment recycling and disposal system in China: legislation, education and dissemination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese obsolete electric and electronic equipments (EEE) recycling and disposal system on the point of view of legislation, education and dissemination were discussed, because of the highly increasing volume of electric and electronic products and that of its obsoletes today in China. The legislations and responsibilities of go vernment, industry and consumer were discussed based on the balance of benefit and responsibility depending on the realization of their benefits in the whole life cycle of products and its status in the whole value chain. Not only the legislation and establishment of the so called "compulsory discarding system" will be a possible and effective solution to the difficulty of the obsolete collection and recycling for obsolete electric and electronic reclaiming industry, but also the education and dissemination. Education and dissemination were discussed as an important role which will emphasize the adjusting of policy and law on the development of electric and electronic industry production and its reclaiming. The education of stockholders' environmental responsibility and the advocating of responsibility sharing should be implement for industry and consumer. Chinese EEE industry should emphasize the control of natural source, and should implement the environmental benign design in their production, such as design for dismantling, no dismantling, thermal treatment and green design. The perspectives for the way to advocate a harmonic society for Chinese people were described.

  13. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint of Material Handling Equipment: Comparison of Electric and LPG Forklifts

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Facchini; Giovanni Mummolo; Giorgio Mossa; Salvatore Digiesi; Francesco Boenzi; Rossella Verriello

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the best Material Handling Equipment (MHE) to minimize the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities, based on the type of the warehouse (layout, facilities and order-picking strategy) as well as the weight of the loads to be handled. Design/methodology/approach: A model to select the best environmental MHE for inbound logistic activities has been developed. Environmental performance of the MHE has been evaluated in terms of carbon Footp...

  14. Minimizing the carbon footprint of material handling equipment: Comparison of electric and LPG forklifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Facchini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the best Material Handling Equipment (MHE to minimize the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities, based on the type of the warehouse (layout, facilities and order-picking strategy as well as the weight of the loads to be handled. Design/methodology/approach: A model to select the best environmental MHE for inbound logistic activities has been developed. Environmental performance of the MHE has been evaluated in terms of carbon Footprint (CF. The model is tested with a tool adopting a VBA macro as well as a simulation software allowing the evaluation of energy and time required by the forklift in each phase of the material handling cycle: picking, sorting and storing of the items. Findings: Nowadays, it is not possible to identify ‘a priori’ a particular engine equipped forklift performing better than others under an environmental perspective. Consistently, the application of the developed model allows to identify the best MHE tailored to each case analyzed.   Originality/value: This work gives a contribution to the disagreement between environmental performances of forklifts equipped with different engines. The developed model can be considered a valid support for decision makers to identify the best MHE minimizing the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities.

  15. Modern wireless telecommunication technologies and their electromagnetic compatibility with life-supporting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Mats K E B; Marve, Therese; Hakansson, Peter K

    2005-11-01

    Hospitals rely on pagers and ordinary telephones to reach staff members in emergency situations. New telecommunication technologies such as General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), the third generation mobile phone system Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) might be able to replace hospital pagers if they are electromagnetically compatible with medical devices. In this study, we sought to determine if GPRS, UMTS (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access-Frequency Division Duplex [WCDMA FDD]), and WLAN (IEEE 802.11b) transmitted signals interfere with life-supporting equipment in the intensive care and operating room environment. According to United States standard, ANSI C63.18-1997, laboratory tests were performed on 76 medical devices. In addition, clinical tests during 11 operations and 100 h of intensive care were performed. UMTS and WLAN signals caused little interference. Devices using these technologies can be used safely in critical care areas and during operations, but direct contact between medical devices and wireless communication devices ought to be avoided. In the case of GPRS, at a distance of 50 cm, it caused an older infusion pump to alarm and stop infusing; the pump had to be reset. Also, 10 cases of interference with device displays occurred. GPRS can be used safely at a distance of 1 m. Terminals/cellular phones using these technologies should be allowed without restriction in public areas because the risk of interference is minimal.

  16. PAT portable appliance testing : in-service inspection and testing of electrical equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 requires any electrical system to be constructed, maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent danger. This means that inspection and testing of systems, including portable appliances, is needed in order to determine if maintenance is required. This book explains in clear language what needs to be done and includes expert advice on legislation as well as actual testing. The book contains an appendix providing the electrical fundamentals needed by non-specialists and also has sample questions (with answers) for the C&G 2377 exam. It is also an ideal revision guide for the non-specialist, such as maintenance staff and caretakers who carry out these tasks part-time, alongside their many other duties.

  17. Hydraulic vs. Electric: A Review of Actuation Systems in Offshore Drilling Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pawlus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a survey on actuation systems encountered in offshore drilling applications. Specifically, it focuses on giving a comparison of hydraulic and electric drivetrains along with detailed explanations of their advantages and drawbacks. A significant number of industrial case studies is examined in addition to the collection of academic publications, in order to accurately describe the current market situation. Some key directions of research and development required to satisfy increasing demands on powertrains operating offshore are identified. The impact of the literature and application surveys is further strengthened by benchmarking two designs of a full-scale pipe handling machine. Apart from other benefits, the electrically actuated machine reduces the total power consumption by 70% compared to its hydraulically driven counterpart. It is concluded that electric actuation systems, among other advantages, in general offer higher efficiency and flexibility, however, in some specific applications (such as energy accumulation or translational motion control hydraulic powertrains are favorable.

  18. Power Saving Strategies and Technologies in Network Equipment Opportunities and Challenges, Risk and Rewards

    CERN Document Server

    Ceuppens, Luc; Kharitonov, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from todays best-in-class solutions, we identify power-saving strategies that have succeeded in the past and look forward to new ideas and paradigms. We strongly believe that designing energy-efficient network equipment can be compared to building sports cars, task-oriented, focused and fast. However, unlike track-bound sports cars, ultra-fast and purpose-built silicon yields better energy efficiency when compared to more generic family sedan designs that mitigate go-to-market risks by being the masters of many tasks. Thus, we demonstrate that the best opportunities for power savings come via protocol simplification, best-of-breed technology, and silicon and software optimization, to achieve the least amount of processing necessary to move packets. We also look to the future of networking from a new angle, where energy efficiency and environmental concerns are viewed as fundamental design criteria and forces that need to be harnessed to continually create more powerful networking equipment.

  19. Study on the key technologies of the Transfer Equipment Cask for Tokamak Equator Port Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Buyun, E-mail: ayun@iim.ac.cn [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Gao, Lifu [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Cao, Huibin; Sun, Jian [Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, Yuxiang; Song, Quanjun; Ma, Chengxue; Chang, Li; Shuang, Feng [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Design on Intelligent Air Transfer System (IATS) for Transfer Equipment Cask (TECA). • A rhombic-like parallel robot for docking with minimum misalignment. • Design on electro-hydraulic servo system of the TECA for Tokamak Equator Port Plug (TEPP) manipulation. • A control architecture with several algorithms and information acquired from sensors could be used by the TECA for Remote Handling (RH). - Abstract: The Transfer Equipment Cask (TECA) is a key solution for Remote Handling (RH) in Tokamak Equator Port Plug (TEPP) operations. From the perspectives of both engineering and technical designs of effective experiments on the TEPP, key technologies on these topics covering the TECA are required. According to conditions in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and features of the TEPP, this paper introduces the design of an Intelligent Air Transfer System (IATS) with an adaptive attitude and high precision positioning that transports a cask system of more than 30 tons from the Tokamak Building (TB) to the Hot Cell Building (HCB). Additionally, different actuators are discussed, and the hydraulic power drive is eventually selected and designed. A rhombic-like parallel robot is capable of being used for docking with minimum misalignment. Practical mechanisms of the cask system are presented for hostile environments. A control architecture with several algorithms and information acquired from sensors could be used by the TECA. These designs yield realistic and extended applications for the RH of ITER.

  20. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads

  1. Research and technology management in the electricity industry methods, tools and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Daim, Tugrul; Kim, Jisun

    2013-01-01

    Technologies such as renewable energy alternatives including wind, solar and biomass, storage technologies and electric engines are creating a different landscape for the  electricity industry. Using sources and ideas from technologies such as renewable energy alternatives, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry explores a different landscape for this industry and applies it to the electric industry supported by real industry cases. Divided into three sections, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry introduces a range of  methods and tools includ

  2. Soft-Fault Detection Technologies Developed for Electrical Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, partner universities, and defense contractors are working to develop intelligent power management and distribution (PMAD) technologies for future spacecraft and launch vehicles. The goals are to provide higher performance (efficiency, transient response, and stability), higher fault tolerance, and higher reliability through the application of digital control and communication technologies. It is also expected that these technologies will eventually reduce the design, development, manufacturing, and integration costs for large, electrical power systems for space vehicles. The main focus of this research has been to incorporate digital control, communications, and intelligent algorithms into power electronic devices such as direct-current to direct-current (dc-dc) converters and protective switchgear. These technologies, in turn, will enable revolutionary changes in the way electrical power systems are designed, developed, configured, and integrated in aerospace vehicles and satellites. Initial successes in integrating modern, digital controllers have proven that transient response performance can be improved using advanced nonlinear control algorithms. One technology being developed includes the detection of "soft faults," those not typically covered by current systems in use today. Soft faults include arcing faults, corona discharge faults, and undetected leakage currents. Using digital control and advanced signal analysis algorithms, we have shown that it is possible to reliably detect arcing faults in high-voltage dc power distribution systems (see the preceding photograph). Another research effort has shown that low-level leakage faults and cable degradation can be detected by analyzing power system parameters over time. This additional fault detection capability will result in higher reliability for long-lived power systems such as reusable launch vehicles and space exploration missions.

  3. An in-depth literature review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment context: trends and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Belis, V; Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is continuously increasing worldwide and, consequently, so is the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) it generates at its end-of-life. In parallel to this growth, legislation related to this issue has been passed in different countries with the aim of improving the management of WEEE. In order to raise awareness about the situation in which the generation, composition, management or final treatment of this kind of waste currently finds itself, an extensive number of articles have been published around the world. The aim of this paper is to define and analyse the main areas of research on WEEE by offering a broader analysis of the relevant literature in this field published between 1992 and August 2014. The literature researched comprises 307 articles, which are analysed according to the topic they focus on (WEEE management, WEEE generation, WEEE characterisation, social aspects of WEEE, re-use of EEE or economic aspects of WEEE). In addition, a deeper analysis is also presented, which takes into account the temporal evolution (globally and by topic), location of the study, categories and subcategories analysed, etc.

  4. [Horizontal and vertical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in river sediment from a typical electrical equipment industrial area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Meng-De; Deng, Dai-Yong; Yu, Le-Huan; Sun, Guo-Ping; Mai, Bi-Xian; Xu, Mei-Ying

    2012-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sediment collected from a river in a typical electrical equipment industrial area, Ronggui, Foshan. Eight samples were collected from river sediment. The results indicated that PBDEs were presented in all samples. Spatial trends showed that the concentrations of PBDEs in all sediment samples were ranged from 62 ng x g(-1) to 349 ng x g(-1), with an average of 178 ng x g(-1). The predominant congener was BDE-209 (90% - 99%), which ranged from 56-337 ng x g(-1), with an average of 171 ng x g(-1). Some of congeners such as BDE-196, 197 and 203 may be were the degradation product of BDE-209. Vertically, the concentrations of PBDEs were increased with the depth, whereas the concentrations were 147 ng x g(-1) in layer 0-10 cm and 260 ng x g(-1) in layer 30-40 cm, respectively. Distribution profile of PBDEs in vertical direction was similar in different depths. The commercial deca-BDE (94%), which contained BDE-209, 208, 207 and 206, was the dominate pollutant with minor contributions from penta-and octa-BDEs. The results suggested that this area was polluted by PBDEs and BDE-209 was the most dominate congener, which is related with the manufacturing activities for electrical equipment.

  5. Complex of automated equipment and technologies for waveguides soldering using induction heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murygin, A. V.; Tynchenko, V. S.; Laptenok, V. D.; Emilova, O. A.; Bocharov, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    The article deals with the problem of designing complex automated equipment for soldering waveguides based on induction heating technology. A theoretical analysis of the problem, allowing to form a model of the «inductor-waveguide» system and to carry out studies to determine the form of inducing wire, creating a narrow and concentrated heat zone in the area of the solder joint. Also solves the problem of the choice of the temperature control means, the information from which is used later to generate the effective management of induction soldering process. Designed hardware complex in conjunction with the developed software system is a system of automatic control, allowing to manage the process of induction heating, to prevent overheating and destruction of the soldered products, improve the stability of induction soldering process, to improve the quality of products, thereby reducing time and material costs for the production.

  6. Pb-free production of telecommunication network equipment: Technological and logistical challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, H.J. [Siemens AG, ICN M and L TDC CE MC, Bruchsal (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Legislation in Europe and China will ban the use of SnPb solder in electronic devices by July 2006. Even though there will be an exemption for telecommunication network infrastructure equipment, component market and supply chain issues will nevertheless affect such high-tech products, and strongly influence logistics during the transition to ''Pb-free.'' The Siemens group ''Information and Communication Networks'' (ICN) produces high-technology modules for telecommunication networks. To prepare for cost-effective conversion to lead-free within ICN, an interdisciplinary team was formed. The presentation highlights critical issues and shows how the team is proceeding to confront them. (orig.)

  7. Technological review on endoscopic submucosal dissection: available equipment, recent developments and emerging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Georgios; Hochberger, Juergen; Deprez, Pierre; Shafazand, Morteza; Coumaros, Dimitri; Yamamoto, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely practiced in Japan and the Eastern World and is rapidly expanding in western countries for the management of early malignancies of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tube. In addition, novel therapeutic applications deriving from ESD have emerged including the treatment of achalasia, of submucosal tumors, of diverticula, of strictures and of reflux disease. An ESD procedure necessitates not only skills and specific training, but also familiarization with a vast spectrum of devices (endoscopes, high-frequency generators and their settings, endoknives, hoods, irrigation devices) and techniques (such as countertraction, artificial ulcer closure), that render the procedure faster, more efficient and safer. This technological article gives an overview on current and novel equipment for an ESD and associated techniques.

  8. Analysis of technological options for electric energy generation from urban solid wastes; Analise de opcoes tecnologicas para geracao de energia eletrica a partir de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, J.G. de M.; Serra, E.T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: furtado@cepel.br, etserra@cepel.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates technologically of the options existents for generation of electric power from the urban solid wastes (USW), based on application of factoring method for estimation of investments based on basic description of the plant, it main equipment and technological complexity, viewing to contribute for determination of better technical and economical form, and the energy using. The results of the effectuated analyses indicates that the most technological complexity of the gasification and thermal plasma, and be encountered on non commercial in great scale as well, make the the option present the greatest index of investment and relative cost, determining the greatest costs of electric power generated through this process.

  9. A brief review of JPL's electric propulsion technology activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, John W.; Chopra, Ann; Deininger, William D.; Garner, Charles E.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Sercel, Joel C.

    1989-01-01

    Near-term objectives and recent technological progress of JPL's electric propulsion program are discussed. Particular attention is given to accomplishments for ion, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD), electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR), and arcjet thrusters. Xenon ion thruster erosion tests indicate a 15-fold reduction in tantalum baffle erosion when nitrogen is added to the xenon propellant and steady-state cylindrical MPD thruster tests at powers up to 72 kW show distinct self-constricted and diffuse discharge modes. An ECR thruster was operated at up to 7 kW with plasma acceleration at energies up to 7 kW; there was plasma acceleration at energies approaching 100 electron volts.

  10. Systematic Benchmarking of Diagnostic Technologies for an Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Jensen, David; Poll, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Automated health management is a critical functionality for complex aerospace systems. A wide variety of diagnostic algorithms have been developed to address this technical challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of support to perform large-scale V&V (verification and validation) of diagnostic technologies continues to create barriers to effective development and deployment of such algorithms for aerospace vehicles. In this paper, we describe a formal framework developed for benchmarking of diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), a real-world electrical power system (EPS), developed and maintained at the NASA Ames Research Center. The benchmarking approach provides a systematic, empirical basis to the testing of diagnostic software and is used to provide performance assessment for different diagnostic algorithms.

  11. Environmental Technology Verification Report - Electric Power and Heat Production Using Renewable Biogas at Patterson Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

  12. Environmental Technology Verification Report - Electric Power and Heat Production Using Renewable Biogas at Patterson Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. A technology area of interest is distributed electrical power generation, particularly w...

  13. Study of a thermoelectric system equipped with a maximum power point tracker for stand-alone electric generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarel, C.; Champier, D.; Bédécarrats, J. P.; Kousksou, T.; Strub, F.

    2012-06-01

    According to the International Energy Agency, 1.4 billion people are without electricity in the poorest countries and 2.5 billion people rely on biomass to meet their energy needs for cooking in developing countries. The use of cooking stoves equipped with small thermoelectric generator to provide electricity for basic needs (LED, cell phone and radio charging device) is probably a solution for houses far from the power grid. The cost of connecting every house with a landline is a lot higher than dropping thermoelectric generator in each house. Thermoelectric generators have very low efficiency but for isolated houses, they might become really competitive. Our laboratory works in collaboration with plane`te-bois (a non governmental organization) which has developed energy-efficient multifunction (cooking and hot water) stoves based on traditional stoves designs. A prototype of a thermoelectric generator (Bismuth Telluride) has been designed to convert a small part of the energy heating the sanitary water into electricity. This generator can produce up to 10 watts on an adapted load. Storing this energy in a battery is necessary as the cooking stove only works a few hours each day. As the working point of the stove varies a lot during the use it is also necessary to regulate the electrical power. An electric DC DC converter has been developed with a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to have a good efficiency of the electronic part of the thermoelectric generator. The theoretical efficiency of the MMPT converter is discussed. First results obtained with a hot gas generator simulating the exhaust of the combustion chamber of a cooking stove are presented in the paper.

  14. 大型机电设备安装施工问题之管窥%Discussion of Problems of the Installation and Construction of Large Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温富成; 武杰

    2014-01-01

    本文从费用预算、技术培训、施工安装、设备调试和技术验收等五个方面,对大型机电设备安装施工问题进行了详细地分析,以期为提高大型机电设备安装施工质量提供参考价值。%This paper from five aspects of cost budget, tech-nical training, construction and instal ation, equipment commi-ssioning and acceptance of construction technology, analyzed in detail the problems in the instal ation of large electromec-hanical equipment, in order to provides reference value for im-proving the instal ation quality of large mechanical and elect-rical equipment.

  15. Scientific Laboratory Platform for Testing the Electric Vehicle Equipped with DC Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazis V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a test platform for the low-power DC electric motor of a traction vehicle or a high-power motor scaled in the traction and braking modes. The load emulator of the traction drive is made using an induction motor controlled by a frequency converter. A microcontroller controls the bi-directional DC/DC converter and sends a speed reference signal to the frequency converter. The test bench is meant for determination of the power consumption by motor in various speed cycles, and will be used to demonstrate the operation of electric vehicle to students and to investigate the charging/discharging strategies of energy sources.

  16. Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-yi LIANG; Jian-long ZHANG; Xi ZHANG; Shi-fei YUAN; Cheng-liang YIN

    2013-01-01

    To solve the low power density issue of hybrid electric vehicular batteries,a combination of batteries and ultracapacitors(UCs)could be a solution.The high power density feature of UCs can improve the performance of battery/UC hybrid energy storage systems(HESSs).This paper presents a parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)equipped with an internal combustion engine and an HESS.An advanced energy management strategy(EMS),mainly based on fuzzy logic,is proposed to improve the fuel economy of the HEV and the endurance of the HESS.The EMS is capable of determining the ideal distribution of output power among the internal combustion engine,battery,and UC according to the propelling power or regenerative braking power of the vehicle.To validate the effectiveness of the EMS,numerical simulation and experimental validations are carried out.The results indicate that EMS can effectively control the power sources to work within their respective efficient areas.The battery load can be mitigated and prolonged battery life can be expected.The electrical energy consumption in the HESS is reduced by 3.91%compared with that in the battery only system.Fuel consumption of the HEV is reduced by 24.3% compared with that of the same class conventional vehicles under Economic Commission of Europe driving cycle.

  17. 建筑用电设备物联网与云计算平台的融合应用%Fusion Application of Building Electrical Equipment Internet of Things and Cloud Computing Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓菲

    2014-01-01

    文章提出了建筑用电设备物联网与云计算平台融合应用的思路,通过这种途径,在降低硬件投入成本的前提下,很好地解决了大规模应用建筑用电设备物联网时,可能出现的节点错误、服务器瘫痪等现象。两者的融合应用必然具有广阔的前景。%With the development of internet of things (IoT)technology,the building electrical equip-ment IoT system,which aims at energy conservation and emissions reduction,has produced a large amount of data.However,traditional servers can hardly meet the demand of data computing and processing.Cloud computing which is characterized by virtualization,flexible expansion and distributed storage and operation is suitable to be used as a platform to support large-scale computing.Based on the analysis,this paper pro-posed an idea that combines building electrical equipment IoT and cloud computing.With this method,in the premise of reducing input costs,it is a good solution to errors happened on the note,it servers crash and other obstacles when we use building electrical equipment IoT.The combination of the building electrical e-quipment IoT and cloud computing must have a broad prospect.

  18. 煤矿机电设备维护与管理%Coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment maintenance and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王首锋

    2016-01-01

    机电设备的维护与管理作为机电设备正常运行的基础,在煤矿企业的生产中有着不可忽视的地位。本文主要强调了煤矿机电设备维护的必要性,提出了煤矿机电设备维护与管理普遍存在的问题,最后介绍了提升煤矿机电设备维护与管理水平的有效对策。%The maintenance and management of mechanical and electrical equipment is the basis for the normal operation of mechanical and electrical equipment, and has a negligible position in the production of coal enterprises. In this paper, emphasized the necessity of coal mine electrical and mechanical equipment maintenance, proposed the problem universally existing in the management of the coal mine electrical and mechanical equipment maintenance, at last, introduced the improve coal mine electrical and mechanical equipment maintenance and management level of effective countermeasures, in order to increase the production efifciency of coal mining enterprises.

  19. Application of Step Control Technology on Rolling Lines Equipment System%步进控制技术在绕线设备系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯军

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the requirements of stable and precise rolling for the rolling lines equipment sys-tem, the rolling lines equipment system based on step control technology is developed .After brief description the technology characteristics of step motor , step driver and step controller , the application of the step control technology on the rolling lines equipment system is discussed .The system constitution , working principle , technology characteristics and software and hardware implementation methods of the rolling lines equipment are introduced , and the electrical system wiring diagram and part of the control program block are given .Practical use indicates that the rolling lines equipment control system using step control technology has good real time property .The auto-parameters can be configured flexibly .The system has stable performance and high rolling precision , satisfying the technical requirements .%为了满足绕线设备系统的稳定精密绕制要求,研制了基于步进控制技术的绕线设备系统。在简述步进电机、步进驱动器及步进控制器技术特点的基础上,讲述了步进控制技术在绕线设备系统中的应用,介绍了绕线设备的系统组成、工作原理、技术特点和软硬件实现方法,并给出了设备电气系统接线图和部分系统控制程序段。使用结果表明,采用步进控制技术的绕线设备控制系统实时性好,自动参数可以灵活设置。系统性能稳定,绕线精度高,能满足工艺使用要求。

  20. Renewable Energy Technologies for Decentralised Rural Electricity Services. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Bjoern; Arvidson, Anders; Forslund, Helena; Martinac, Ivo (eds.)

    2005-02-01

    support the development of regulatory frameworks and institutions that incorporate the goals of improving the techno-economic efficiency as well as addressing social and environmental development goals in power sector reform processes. When renewable energy is economically justified, donors should support this option and be prepared to cover the transaction costs associated with introduction of a technology which has not been used earlier in the area, such as costs for workforce development. Also, electrification schemes using renewable energy which are more costly than conventional options may be given support, but in these cases the additional cost must be carried by the donor and not by the users. Donors should support the development, adaptation, testing and use of new technologies. This can stimulate business development, provide employment opportunities and generate more appropriate technologies. Donors need to accept a higher degree of risk in this context. Technologies should be developed in close cooperation and with a strong local ownership from researchers, institutions and the private sector in the countries where the technology shall be applied and in a context where electricity consumers are not exposed to any technological risk. A rural village in a developing country should not be a testing ground for unproven technology. Donors should support the local manufacturing of equipment for renewable energy, but only on strictly commercial terms. Donors should support institutions and capacity building of the actors as the electricity sector goes through restructuring. Support to national organisations which can act as advisors on legal, technical and administrative matters to small private or cooperative electric utilities, can be essential for the success of locally managed distributed electricity supply in rural areas. Significant participation of local consultants shall always be required in donor-financed projects.

  1. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Ju, E-mail: shinwooju@hanyang.ac.kr; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The optimum design of condenser cone cryogenic bushing was investigated. •Multi-layer aluminum foils in the bushing insulation body was designed and analyzed. •The optimum electric field distribution was selected by simulation. •The 60 kV FRP condenser cone cryogenic bushing was fabricated and tested. •BIL test corresponding to IEC 60137 was successfully performed for the bushing. -- Abstract: A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment.

  2. Introduction of Coal Mine Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Maintenance Management Mode%浅谈煤矿机电设备维修管理模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔二斌

    2015-01-01

    In order to scientific and efficient maintenance management of the coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment,to compare the ex post maintenance, planned maintenance, preventive maintenance management mode and diversified coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment maintenance plan these four models used in coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment maintenance and management of the advantages and disadvantages. The after maintenance management mode will accelerate equipment loss, increase maintenance costs, the planned maintenance management mode can reduce fault, save the maintenance cost, the preventive maintenance management mode to reduce the incidence of failure, but the impact the production efficiency, the diversified coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment maintenance scheme can accurately locate the fault parts, but the higher technical requirements. Establish and improve the coal mine electrical and mechanical equipment daily maintenance and maintenance regulations, improve the coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment maintenance management system, improving coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment maintenance management and continuously improve equipment maintenance and testing new methods to improve equipment repair and maintenance scheme is an effective means to improve the efficiency of maintenance management.%为了科学高效的维修管理煤矿的机电设备.比较事后维修管理模式、计划性维修管理模式、预防维修管理模式和多元化煤矿机电设备维修方案这4种模式用于煤矿的机电设备维修和管理的优缺点.事后维修管理模式会加速设备损耗,增加维修费用;计划性维修管理模式可减少故障,节省维修成本;预防维修管理模式降低故障发生率,但影响生产效率;多元化煤矿机电设备维修方案能够准确定位故障部位,但对技术要求较高.最后得出结论,建立健全煤矿机电设备日常维护与保养规范、完善

  3. Research on Gear Shifting Process without Disengaging Clutch for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Equipped with AMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Long Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic models of a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV equipped with automated mechanical transmission (AMT were described in different working stages during a gear shifting process without disengaging clutch. Parameters affecting the gear shifting time, components life, and gear shifting jerk in different transient states during a gear shifting process were deeply analyzed. The mathematical models considering the detailed synchronizer working process which can explain the gear shifting failure, long time gear shifting, and frequent synchronizer failure phenomenon in HEV were derived. Dynamic coordinated control strategy of the engine, motor, and actuators in different transient states considering the detailed working stages of synchronizer in a gear shifting process of a HEV is for the first time innovatively proposed according to the state of art references. Bench test and real road test results show that the proposed control strategy can improve the gear shifting quality in all its evaluation indexes significantly.

  4. Analysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Aguirre, Miguel; Hidalgo, Montserrat; Canals, Antonio; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R

    2013-12-15

    This study shows the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) investigation. Several emission spectra were obtained for 7 different mobiles from 4 different manufacturers. Using the emission spectra of the black components it was possible to see some differences among the manufacturers and some emission lines from organic elements and molecules (N, O, CN and C2) led to the highest contribution for this differentiation. Some polymeric internal parts in contact with the inner pieces of the mobiles and covered with a special paint presented a strong emission signal for Cr. The white pieces presented mainly Al, Ba and Ti in their composition. Finally, this study developed a procedure for LIBS emission spectra using chemometric strategies and suitable information can be obtained for identification of manufacturer and counterfeit products. In addition, the results obtained can improve the classification for establishing recycling strategies of e-waste.

  5. Valuation of Electric Power System Services and Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Homer, Juliet S.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2017-08-01

    Accurate valuation of existing and new technologies and grid services has been recognized to be important to stimulate investment in grid modernization. Clear, transparent, and accepted methods for estimating the total value (i.e., total benefits minus cost) of grid technologies and services are necessary for decision makers to make informed decisions. This applies to home owners interested in distributed energy technologies, as well as to service providers offering new demand response services, and utility executives evaluating best investment strategies to meet their service obligation. However, current valuation methods lack consistency, methodological rigor, and often the capabilities to identify and quantify multiple benefits of grid assets or new and innovative services. Distributed grid assets often have multiple benefits that are difficult to quantify because of the locational context in which they operate. The value is temporally, operationally, and spatially specific. It varies widely by distribution systems, transmission network topology, and the composition of the generation mix. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recently established a benefit-cost framework that proposes a process for estimating multiple benefits of distributed energy resources (DERs) and the associated cost. This document proposes an extension of this endeavor that offers a generalizable framework for valuation that quantifies the broad set of values for a wide range of technologies (including energy efficiency options, distributed resources, transmission, and generation) as well as policy options that affect all aspects of the entire generation and delivery system of the electricity infrastructure. The extension includes a comprehensive valuation framework of monetizable and non-monetizable benefits of new technologies and services beyond the traditional reliability objectives. The benefits are characterized into the following categories: sustainability, affordability, and

  6. Controlling and Monitoring of Electric Feeders Using GSM Network Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED Afaz Uddin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of computer interfaced controlling devices is increasingly rapidly in modern age. Analogous wired systems are substituted by computer interfaced system alternatives in growingnumber of industries. Such control systems had been developed with complex and critical high-end stuffs. In this paper, we developed an automated system that controls the switching of electric feeder power supply featuring the existing GSM technology. The target is tooperate the device according to a preset sequence of on-off mode for three feeders after a particular time interval and to monitor the running condition. The device sends short message updating the status of every action. It also warns the consumers about load shedding using GSM module via sending message. Controlling the gate pulse of a MOSFET that operates the relay, it executes on-off operation of the circuit breaker of the respective feeders. Since GSM technology is used worldwide for communication, third world countries that are still struggling to meet the power demand can use this technology to operate and monitor the condition of power distribution. To operate the GSM device, AT command of GSM location operation for SIM900 is used. This paper targets to improve the power distribution system in developing countries like India, Bangladesh, Nepal where powercrisis and load shedding is quite a common phenomenon.

  7. Technology data for electricity and heat generating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    The Danish Energy Authority and the two Danish electricity transmission and system operators, Elkraft System and Eltra, initiated updating of current technology catalogues in 2003. The first updated catalogue was published in March 2004. This report presents the results of the second phase of updating. The primary objective has been to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for energy planning activities, such as future outlooks, evaluations of security of supply and environmental impacts, climate change evaluations, and technical and economic analyses. The catalogue may furthermore be used as reference for evaluations of the development perspectives for the numerous technologies available for energy generation in relation to the programming of funding schemes for research, development and demonstration of emerging technologies. It has finally been the intention to offer the catalogue for the international audience, as a contribution to similar initiates aiming at forming a public and concerted knowledge base for international analyses and negotiations. A guiding principle for developing the catalogue has been to primarily rely on well-documented and public information, secondarily on invited expert advice. Since many experts are reluctant in estimating future quantitative performance data, the data tables are not complete, in the sense that most data tables show several blank spaces. This approach has been chosen in order to achieve data, which to some extent are equivalently reliable, rather than to risk a largely incoherent data set including unfounded guesses. (au)

  8. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawsey, R.A. (comp.)

    1993-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1992 Peer Review of Projects, conducted by DOE's Office of Program Analysis, Office of Energy Research. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making tremendous progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  9. Ontology-Based Gap Analysis for Technology Selection: A Knowledge Management Framework for the Support of Equipment Purchasing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macris, Aristomenis M.; Georgakellos, Dimitrios A.

    Technology selection decisions such as equipment purchasing and supplier selection are decisions of strategic importance to companies. The nature of these decisions usually is complex, unstructured and thus, difficult to be captured in a way that will be efficiently reusable. Knowledge reusability is of paramount importance since it enables users participate actively in process design/redesign activities stimulated by the changing technology selection environment. This paper addresses the technology selection problem through an ontology-based approach that captures and makes reusable the equipment purchasing process and assists in identifying (a) the specifications requested by the users' organization, (b) those offered by various candidate vendors' organizations and (c) in performing specifications gap analysis as a prerequisite for effective and efficient technology selection. This approach has practical appeal, operational simplicity, and the potential for both immediate and long-term strategic impact. An example from the iron and steel industry is also presented to illustrate the approach.

  10. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  11. Electrical motor current signal analysis using a modified bispectrum for fault diagnosis of downstream mechanical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, F.; Shao, Y.; Hu, N.; Naid, A.; Ball, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the use of the induction motor current to identify and quantify common faults within a two-stage reciprocating compressor based on bispectrum analysis. The theoretical basis is developed to understand the nonlinear characteristics of current signals when the motor undertakes a varying load under different faulty conditions. Although conventional bispectrum representation of current signal allows the inclusion of phase information and the elimination of Gaussian noise, it produces unstable results due to random phase variation of the sideband components in the current signal. A modified bispectrum based on the amplitude modulation feature of the current signal is then adopted to combine both lower sidebands and higher sidebands simultaneously and hence characterise the current signal more accurately. Based on this new bispectrum analysis a more effective diagnostic feature, namely normalised bispectral peak, is developed for fault classification. In association with the kurtosis value of the raw current signal, the bispectrum feature gives rise to reliable fault classification results. In particular, the low feature values can differentiate the belt looseness from the other fault cases and different degrees of discharge valve leakage and inter-cooler leakage can be separated easily using two linear classifiers. This work provides a novel approach to the analysis of stator current for the diagnosis of motor drive faults from downstream driving equipment.

  12. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV

  13. Hydraulic Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Installed Management%水利工程中机电设备的安装管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓裕

    2015-01-01

    The importance of electrical and mechanical equipment installation management starting from hydraulic engineering, analytical focus and difficult problems of the current management of mechanical and electrical equipment installed in the presence of water conservancy projects, and proposed to strengthen water conservancy project management of mechanical and electrical equipment installation coping strategies.%从水利工程中机电设备安装管理的重要性入手,分析了当前水利工程中机电设备安装管理方面存在的重点和难点问题,并提出了加强水利工程中机电设备安装管理的应对策略。

  14. 高海拔电气设备特点及设计要求%Electrical Equipment Characteristics and Design Requirements at High Altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗双华

    2014-01-01

    高海拔环境对电气设备的要求较高,其绝缘、温升等性能都有特殊性。本文简要分析高海拔环境对电气设备性能的影响,并就其环境下电气设备特点及设计要求提供部分参考。%High altitude environment has higher demand on electrical equipment, and its performances such as insulation properties, temperature rise have particularity. This paper brie-fly analyzes the effect of high altitude environment on electric equipment performance, and provides some reference on el-ectrical equipment characteristics and design requires of its en-vironment.

  15. 关于高速公路机电设备的管理与维护%The Management and Maintenance of Highway Electrical and Mechanical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫

    2011-01-01

    The highway system,the basic concepts of mechanical and electrical equipment and components are briefly introduced,and to analyze its characteristics.According to the highway management and maintenance of mechanical and electrical equipment inadequacies exist to further explore ways to make highway management and maintenance of electrical and mechanical equipment.%本文对高速公路机电设备系统的基本概念及组成进行简要介绍,并分析其特点。根据高速公路机电设备管理和维护存在的不足之处,进一步探讨如何做好高速公路机电设备的管理和维护。

  16. Discuss the impact technological advances in equipment and materials have made on the delivery and outcome of endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lababidi, Emad Aldin

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in endodontic equipment and materials have considerably changed the manner in which endodontic treatment is delivered. Specific technological advances, including nickel-titanium instruments, ultrasonic instruments and the dental operating microscope have been associated with increased efficiency and efficacy of treatment and simplification of delivery. The effects of most of these changes have been tested via in vitro studies and case reports. Ongoing studies should constantly investigate what effects technological advances might have on the outcome of endodontic treatment.

  17. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  18. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  19. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  20. TECHNOLOGICAL COMPLEX OF EQUIPMENT FOR REFINING AND CASTING OF STEEL AND ALLOYS IN THE FOUNDRY AND STEEL INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zolotukhin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulcan TM is a small innovative company, specializing in the manufacture of steel and alloys casting systems and refractory accessories.Available for foundry and metallurgical industries, special technological equipment, designed and manufactured by LLC NPP “Vulkan-TM.”

  1. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads

  2. Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT(TM) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorg Schwitzgebel; Klaus Schwitzgebel; Michael W. Bonem; Ronald E. Borah

    1998-12-09

    From September, 1996 through July, 1997, EET, Inc. conducted a series of experiments under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA). This project, entitled "Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT â Technology" was conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC21- 96MC33138, administered by the Federal Energy Technology Center. The contract is divided into two phases - a base phase during which bench scale testing was conducted; and an optional phase for a field demonstration of a full-scale system. This report documents the results from the base phase of the contract. The base phase included the following major elements: - Evaluation of the effectiveness of various decontamination options, using both surrogate and radioactively contaminated samples. - Evaluation of various methods for the treatment of the secondary waste streams from the preferred decontamination system(s). - Evaluation of decontamination effectiveness for concrete rubble. - Preliminary engineering design and cost estimation for a full-scale system. - Preliminary economic analysis of the proposed system versus other currently available options for disposition of the materials. Results from the base phase, which are described in the following report, are very positive. Testing has shown that free release requirements and extremely high decontamination factors can be achieved for a variety of materials and radionuclides. Results for concrete rubble decontamination were less conclusive. The bench scale testing has led to the design of two different systems, both based on the TECHXTRACT â chemistry, for potential full-scale demonstration. Based on the preliminary economic analysis, this system compares favorably with currently available commercial options, including disposal.

  3. Electric car batteries: Avoiding the environmental drawbacks via alternative technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlimont, Hans; Olper, Marco

    1996-07-01

    In this article, we address the question of whether air pollution resulting from the pyrometallurgical winning, recycling, and casting of lead for car batteries is a serious threat to the environmental acceptability of introducing electric cars. Specifically, we describe an alternative to pyrometallurgical processes—an electrochemical process called CX-EWS that can be used for the winning and recycling of lead. Also presented is a new manufacturing route for battery grids; it employs a combination of electroforming, the codeposition of dispersoids, and the electrowinning of spent batteries. The technology cannot only eliminate the casting of conventional or expanded metal grids but can also serve to reduce battery weight and, thus, increase energy density.

  4. STUDY ABOUT A FURNITURE COMPANY THAT USES NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND COMPUTERIZED EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUSTIANU Monica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, there are companies that uses new technologies and computerized equipment leading to obtaining high quality products and profit. Furniture industry has continuously developed due to high demand for diversified products for all age groups. Romanian goods shall be delivered both in the country and abroad. The tapestries furniture made in our country, classical or modern, by leather in different colours or with textile coating materials fashionable chosen is already enjoying much attention from the external and internal customers. The workforce employed in the furniture manufacturing industry is qualified, managed to shape the wood into complex and elegant products that are able to give full satisfaction to all consumers SWOT analysis is defined as a complex research of economic aspects, technical, sociological, legal and managerial aspects that characterize the activity of a company and allows the formulation of an opinion on the past and present condition of the company. SWOT analysis may be carried out both at the level of functional areas of the company: financial, commercial, production, human resources, research and development, management and at the level of firm as a whole. By this analysis was obtained a clear picture of the current state of the analysed company, helping to knowledge and understanding of the general context in which the company operates. Key words: quality, furniture, management, production, analysis, SWOT

  5. Many flaked particles generated by electric field stress working as an impulsive force in mass-production plasma etching equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima, Yuji; Uesugi, Fumihiko

    2015-09-01

    Particles generated in plasma etching significantly lower production yield. In plasma etching, etching reaction products adhere to the inner chamber walls, gradually forming films, and particles are generated by flaking of the deposited films due to electric field stress that acts boundary between the inner wall and the film. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of instantaneous generation of many flaked particles using the mass-production reactive ion etching equipment. Particles, which flake off from the films on the ground electrode, are detected by the in-situ particle monitoring system using a sheet-shaped laser beam. The results indicate that the deposited films are severely damaged and flake off as numerous particles when the floating potential at the inner wall suddenly changes. This is because the rapid change in floating potential, observed when unusual wafer movement and micro-arc discharge occur, causes electric field stress working as an impulsive force. The films are easily detached by the impulsive force and many flaked particles are instantaneously generated. This mechanism can occur on not only a ground electrode but a chamber walls, and cause serious contamination in mass-production line. This work was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number B 26870903.

  6. Features of introduction of Smart Grid technologies in electric power industry of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Михайлович Черемісін

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The features of introduction of Smart Grid technologies are analysed in electric power industry of Ukraine with the purpose of "intellectualization" of electric networks and fundamental changes are presented as compared to the existent state of grid at introduction of Smart Grid technologies that will promote efficiency of functioning of industry considerably. The necessity of introduction support of Smart Grid technologies is similarly proved for electric power industry of Ukraine at legislative level

  7. Features of introduction of Smart Grid technologies in electric power industry of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Черемісін, Микола Михайлович; Черкашина, Вероніка Вікторівна; Попадченко, Світлана Анатоліївна

    2015-01-01

    The features of introduction of Smart Grid technologies are analysed in electric power industry of Ukraine with the purpose of "intellectualization" of electric networks and fundamental changes are presented as compared to the existent state of grid at introduction of Smart Grid technologies that will promote efficiency of functioning of industry considerably. The necessity of introduction support of Smart Grid technologies is similarly proved for electric power industry of Ukraine at legisla...

  8. Electrochemical Recovery of Gold from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment Using Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, T.; Ali, U. F. M.; Ridwan, F. M.; Ibrahim, N.; Azmi, N. H.

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of electrochemical process recovery involving low reactant concentrations of metal requires electrodes with high mass transport rates and specific surface areas. This is essential to increase cross-sectional current densities whilst optimizing the capital and operating costs. Experimental results demonstrated that Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE) is suitable for the recovery of low concentrations of gold from aqueous chloride solution containing {{AuCl}}4- and {{AuCl}}2- of less than 0.5 mol m-3(mass transport controlled at an applied potential of +0.20 V (SCE), specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC) of ca. 800-1300 kWh h (tonne Au)-1 for cell voltages (U) of 2.0-3.0 V, and fractional current efficiencies of ca. 0.95. However, atomic absorption and UV spectrophotometry established that as the ([{{AuCl}}4-+[{{AuCl}}2-]) concentration decayed, the [{{AuCl}}4-]:[{{AuCl}}2-] molar ratio changed. A multi-step mechanism for reduction of {{AuCl}}4- ions explained this behavior in terms of changing overpotentials for {{AuCl}}4- and {{AuCl}}2- reduction as total dissolved gold concentration decreased. In addition, SEM images confirmed that adherent and coherent Au deposits were achieved with CPBE for Au deposition under mass transport control at 0.20 V (SCE).

  9. Electrical machines, in particular generators: superconductor technology in competition with improved conventional technology; Elektrische Maschinen, insbesondere Generatoren: Supraleiter-Technologie im Wettbewerb mit verbesserter konventioneller Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joho, R.; Ginet, C.; Schleussinger, A.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises work done within the framework of a second project on the use of superconductor technology and conventional technology in electrical machines. The two variants, a generator using second-generation high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) and one using improved conventional technology are described and compared. The use of various coolants for the windings of generators of various types and usage is described and the optimisation of winding-geometry is discussed. The refrigeration equipment used to provide low-temperature coolant is looked at and the energy balance for the combination of generator and cooling system is discussed. The conclusions drawn by the project are presented and the advantages offered by both variants are discussed.

  10. Analysis of Reliability of Electrical Automation Control Equipment%关于电气自动化控制设备可靠性问题的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英杰

    2016-01-01

    The author analyzes and researches on some problems related to reliability of the electrical automation equipment based on years of practical experience and professional knowledge and skills,mainly including significance of doing a good job of electrical automation equipment reliability analysis,problems in the analysis process of electrical automation control equipment reliability,and measures of solving the problems in electrical automation control equipment reliability analysis,aiming to offer ref-erence and promote better development of Chinaˊs electrical industry.%笔者结合自身多年的实践经验和所掌握的专业知识和技能,就电气自动化设备可靠性的相关问题进行了分析和研究,主要包括做好电气自动化设备可靠性分析工作的重要意义、电气自动化控制设备可靠性分析过程中存在的问题、解决电气自动化控制设备可靠性分析中存在问题及措施三个基础部分,希望能够起到一定参考和借鉴的作用,促进我国的电气行业实现更快更好的发展。

  11. Facile characterization of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) for mechanical recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, Rosa; Pozzi, Paolo; Zanasi, Tania

    2010-12-01

    In view of the environmental problem involved in the management of WEEE, and then in the recycling of post-consumer plastic of WEEE there is a pressing need for rapid measurement technologies for simple identification of the various commercial plastic materials and of the several contaminants, to improve the recycling of such wastes. This research is focused on the characterization and recycling of two types of plastics, namely plastic from personal computer (grey plastic) and plastic from television (black plastic). Various analytical techniques were used to monitor the compositions of WEEE. Initially, the chemical structure of each plastic material was identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Polymeric contaminants of these plastics, in particular brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were detected in grey plastics only using different techniques. These techniques are useful for a rapid, correct and economics identification of a large volumes of WEEE plastics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Public evaluation of electricity technologies and future low-carbon portfolios in Germany and the USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheer, Dirk; Konrad, Wilfried; Scheel, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    .... The investigation seeks to analyze informed rather than mere opinion-based public preferences towards electricity technologies and portfolios against the background of climate mitigation options...

  13. What’s Political about Solar Electric Technology? The User’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars in science and technology studies have debated the various ways in which technologies are (or are not political. Here, I examine how users themselves understand and articulate the politics of a specific technology—residential solar electric technology—and how understandings of politics interact with motivations to adopt. Based on interviews with 48 individuals in 36 households across the state of Wisconsin who have adopted residential solar electric technology, I consider the user’s perspective on the question: “What’s political about residential solar electric technology use?” These users were asked about the politics of this technology and how their understanding of the technology’s politics shaped their own motivation for adoption. These solar electric technology adopters saw solar electric technology as both imbued with political character based on the current national political scene and as inherently, innately political. They described how solar electric technology interacts with the politics of environmentalism, challenges “politics-as-usual” and can bring about decentralization and redistribution of wealth. In short, to the users of solar electric technology, this technological artifact is, indeed, political; it both interacts with, and offers an alternative to, current American political structures. Further, their perspectives on the politics of solar technology shaped their understandings of motivations for and limitations to adoption of this alternative technology.

  14. Phosphoric and electric utility fuel cell technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, R. D.; Briggs, T. A.; Congdon, J. V.; Demarche, T. E.; Gelting, R. L.; Goller, G. J.; Luoma, W. I.; McCloskey, M. W.; Mientek, A. P.; Obrien, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    The advancement of electric utility cell stack technology and reduction of cell stack cost was initiated. The cell stack has a nominal 10 ft (2) active area and operates at 120 psia/405(0)F. The program comprises six parallel phases, which culminate in a full height, 10-ft(2) stack verification test: (1) provides the information and services needed to manage the effort, including definition of the prototype commercial power plant; (2) develops the technical base for long term improvements to the cell stack; (3) develops materials and processing techniques for cell stack components incorporating the best available technology; (4) provides the design of hardware and conceptual processing layouts, and updates the power plant definition of Phase 1 to reflect the results of Phases 2 and 3; Phase 5 manufactures the hardware to verify the achievements of Phases 2 and 3, and analyzes the cost of this hardware; and Phase 6 tests the cell stacks assembled from the hardware of Phase 5 to assess the state of development.

  15. Ship electric propulsion simulator based on networking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huayao; Huang, Xuewu; Chen, Jutao; Lu, Binquan

    2006-11-01

    According the new ship building tense, a novel electric propulsion simulator (EPS) had been developed in Marine Simulation Center of SMU. The architecture, software function and FCS network technology of EPS and integrated power system (IPS) were described. In allusion to the POD propeller in ship, a special physical model was built. The POD power was supplied from the simulative 6.6 kV Medium Voltage Main Switchboard, its control could be realized in local or remote mode. Through LAN, the simulated feature information of EPS will pass to the physical POD model, which would reflect the real thruster working status in different sea conditions. The software includes vessel-propeller math module, thruster control system, distribution and emergency integrated management, double closed loop control system, vessel static water resistance and dynamic software; instructor main control software. The monitor and control system is realized by real time data collection system and CAN bus technology. During the construction, most devices such as monitor panels and intelligent meters, are developed in lab which were based on embedded microcomputer system with CAN interface to link the network. They had also successfully used in practice and would be suitable for the future demands of digitalization ship.

  16. A policy model for diffusion of electricity saving technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimdal, Sverre Inge; Bjoernstad, Even (Even Enova SF (Norway))

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses an integrated model for information and marketing tools combined with various subsidy elements developed for achieving electricity savings and improved energy efficiency in the Norwegian residential sector. The model represents the framework within which current Norwegian policies within this field are based. A central element of the model is the way marketing and subsidy elements are combined in different phases of the market diffusion process of the relevant technologies, and how market distortions are sought minimized through criteria for entry and exit to the scheme. The paper further gives examples of applications of the model. In 2003 Norwegian parliament launched a one-shot Household Subsidy Programme for heating and efficiency technologies in the residential sector. The evaluation report of the subsidy scheme as well as the IEA national report on Norway in 2005 concluded that the subsidy scheme had been a great success. This programme was reinstated on a permanent basis in 2006, and the paper uses data from these programmes as illustrations to the theoretical model.

  17. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 33: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND PROTECTION FROM ACTION OF POWERFUL ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE OF RADIOELECTRONIC, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of basic scientific and technical achievements in area of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC and protection from destabilizing and striking action of powerful electromagnetic interference (PEMI of natural and artificial origin of radioelectronic, electrical engineering and electric power equipment. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in a sphere EMC and such areas of knowledge’s as radioelectronics, electrical engineering and electric power engineering. Results. A brief scientific and technical review is resulted modern positions problems EMC and protection of equipment from action on them PEMI. It is shown that PEMI can result in failures in-process and death of examined equipment. Annual harm in the industrially developed countries of the world from the striking affecting of PEMI modern equipment with integral microcircuits and semiconductor devices can make ten of milliards of USD. The basic methods of protection of equipment are resulted from PEMI and protective devices (PD, intended for the increase of effectiveness of modern equipment to the action of external PEMI. Principles of work of the resulted PD and their basic technical descriptions are described. Originality. On the basis of materials of scientific monographs, journal publications, normative documents and internet-reports systematization of basic PD, in-use presently in an area EMC and protection of different equipment from the hazard agency of external PEMI is executed. Practical value. Popularization of scientific and technical knowledge’s in an area EMC and protection of modern equipment from a dangerous action on them PEMI. Formulation of important for society scientific and technical problems and tasks, arising up in an area EMC and providing of the reliable functioning of modern equipment in power electromagnetic interference.

  18. Identification of brominated flames retardants used in plastics from end of life electric-electronic equipment; Identificacion de retardadores a la llama bromados en plasticos de equipos electricos y electronicos al final de su vida util

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Laboa, G.; Pinedo, C.

    2001-07-01

    The main objective of the present work is the qualitative and semi-quantitative identification of the most common brominated flame retardants used in some relevant plastics from End of life Electric-Electronic Equipment, in order to obtain a reliable recycled materials regarding the tendencies of the Draft WEEE (Wastes from Electric and Electronic Equipment) and the Draft RoHS (Restriction of certain hazardous substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Directives. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric Volkswagen Rabbit with developmental low-power armature chopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, J. E.; Bryant, J. A.; Livingston, R.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamometer performance of a South Coast Technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit designated SCT-8 was tested. The SCT-8 vehicle was fitted with a transistorized chopper in the motor armature circuit to supplement the standard motor speed control via field weakening. The armature chopper allowed speed control below the motor base speed. This low speed control was intended to reduce energy loss at idle during stop-and-go traffic; to eliminate the need for using the clutch below base motor speed; and to improve the drivability. Test results indicate an improvement of about 3.5% in battery energy economy for the SAE J227a-D driving cycle and 6% for the C-cycle with only a minor reduction in acceleration performance. A further reduction of about 6% would be possible if provision were made for shutting down field power during the idle phases of the driving cycles. Drivability of the vehicle equipped with the armature chopper was significantly improved compared with the standard SCT Electric Rabbit.

  20. Second life. Reuse of used electric and electronic equipment; Second Life. Wiederverwendung gebrauchter Elektro- und Elektronikgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broehl-Kerner, Horst; Elander, Maria; Koch, Martin; Vendramin, Claudio [Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Arbeit e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    In project Second Life the existing basic conditions and framework, as well as the different aspects of high-quality reuse were researched and documented. In addition, innovative attempts of the procurement were tested and the feasibility of a quality labeling for electric and electronic devices was analyzed and documented. The results deliver at all important levels of consideration the topically necessary orientation on the subject of reuse of E- devices referring to the product spectrum focused in the project. On the basis of the achieved project results the project partners work on the following aims for the future: First, Informal interlinking of the stakeholder and actors brought together in the project via a new homepage (www.bagsecondlife.de) and newsletter of bag arbeit department for Labour and Environment (FAU) in order to inform about new and changing legislation more actually and also to help them participating in activities of creating contents of a label. Second, establishing a label (e.g. ''ECO Second'') that will be successful on the market. An important base for the project work is the interdisciplinary cooperation of four partners from different fields of action. Thus they were able to cover the required expertise in the fields of protection of environment and climate as well as environmental communication. Both the last aspects were introduced by the Deutsche Umwelthilfe. The operational or practical aspects were represented by Arbeitskreis Recycling and Werkstatt Frankfurt as well as by FAU. Project coordination, spreading of information and the necessary law expertise were perceived from bag arbeit respectively members of FAU-board. With the contributions of Oekopol GmbH and Dr. Bruening engineering to norms, rules, market sphere and ecological classification of the plan, demanded and necessary technical expert's assessment were integrated. Further single results of the project are the project homepage mentioned above

  1. Development of Technology and Equipment of the Automated Laser Welding for Manufacturing Heat Exchanger Details of Marine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelyagin, V.D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the developed automated laser welding technology for flat tubes of copper-nickel alloys laser welding complex technological equipment, which can be applied on the enterprises of machine building, aerospace, shipbuilding and automobile industries, was designed and created. To control the integrity of welded flat tubes a technique, which consists in testing sample pressure and finding defective sections by laser interferometry in the automated mode, was developed. Specialized welding head was designed and manufactured for the industrial use of the developed laser welding technology.

  2. 论电气设备状态检修及规范化管理%Condition-based Maintenance and Standardized Management of Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志民

    2013-01-01

    Electrical equipment is the guarantee of China's electric power business, so the electric power department must pay attention to the maintenance and management of electrical equipment. Because the update of electrical equipment is fast, the maintenance and management is more difficult with higher requirement, which requires the electric power department to innovate maintenance and management mode in order to adapt to the maintenance work in the new era.%电气设备是我国电力事业发展的保障,因此,各电力部门必须要高度重视电气设备的检修与管理工作。而且由于电气设备的更新速度快,其检修与管理工作的难度更大,要求更高,这就需要我国电力部门不断创新检修管理模式,以适应新时代的电气设备检修工作。

  3. Configuration Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Equipped with Dual Clutch Transmission%DCT混合动力汽车构型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 赵治国; 陈海军; 刁威振

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the advantage of the DCT technology applied in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)is introduced,and some configurations of HEV equipped with DCT are presented with a thorough analysis of its advantages and disadvantages,then qualitative analysis is made to feasibility of each configuration in terms of engineering realization,research and development cost and lead cycle.The paper lays focus on expounding two configurations with high feasibility and research value:BSG+main motor rear DCT plan has good feasibility in short term; BSG+DCT odd shift dual motor configuration is the mainstream development trend of HEV equipped with DCT.%介绍了在混合动力汽车中应用DCT技术的优势,提出了装备DCT的几种混合动力系统构型,从结构、功能等方面对各构型的优缺点进行了分析,并从工程化实现、研发成本和研发周期角度对每种构型的可行性进行定性分析.重点阐述了2种具备高可行性和研究价值的构型:BSG+主电机DCT后布置方案在短期内具有较好可行性;BSG+DCT奇数轴电机双电机结构是DCT混合动力汽车的主要发展趋势.

  4. Development of Continuous Electrical Steel and Casting Technology of New Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-tao; DENG Chen-hong; DONG Mei; SHI Li-fa; ZHANG Jian-ping

    2012-01-01

    The development of continuous casting technology of electrical steel was analyzed. The technologies and products characteristics of conventional continuous casting, thin slab continuous casting and rolling, middle thin slab continuous casting and rolling and twin-roll thin strip were compared. Conventional continuous casting technology was widely adopted in producing electrical steel, thin slab continuous casting and rolling and middle thin slab contin- uous casting and roiling technology industrialized electrical steel~ and study of twin-roll thin strip casting technology was focused on fundamental experiments.

  5. WORKING OUT OF TECHNOLOGY OF PREPARATION PREMIX AND THE EQUIPMENT FOR ITS REALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article describes validation and development of technology of vitamin, mineral and complex premixes with the introduction of vegetable oil and a set of equipment for its implementation. The two-component mixture was used for research. Crushed wheat was used as the main component, and the metal admixture with magnetic properties, vitamin B2 and salt of micronutrients MnSO4 as key components. Quality of the final mixture was determined by the homogeneity test. Trace components dosing accuracy was determined by dosing vitamins B5 , E, A, and trace-element salts MnSO4 , FeSO4 , CuSO4 . Also introduction of vegetable oil in the filler was researched. When the oil was entering the mixer in an amount of 2 % homogeneity of the filler and oil mixture was 94 %. The oil fine spray was provided by special nozzles design. A pilot mixer consisting of a body having a lower portion of the shape of the double trough and lid is developed for conducting research in mixing vitamins, salts of trace elements with the filler. Inside the case, there are two horizontal shafts, rotating in opposite directions. Each shaft has four rows of blades. In the upper part of the mixer above paddle shafts manifold with injectors is located. The studies found that the accuracy of dosing vitamins B5 , E and A in amounts of 0,02 and 0,2%, does not exceed 1 % of a set weight of component; accuracy of dosing of trace components salts MnSO4, FeSO4, CuSO4 in amounts of 0,2 % does not exceed 1 % of a set weight of component; high quality of mixing provided by a mixer design that implements the fluidized mixing method.

  6. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE.

  7. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2004-08-01

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, wear problems of mineral processing equipment including screens, sieve bends, heavy media vessel, dewatering centrifuge, etc., were identified. A novel surface treatment technology, high density infrared (HDI) surface coating process was proposed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated samples were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of AISI 4140 and ASTM A36 steels can be increased 3 and 5 folds, respectively by the application of HDI coatings.

  8. Key Technology of Intelligent Coal Mining Equipment%智能化采煤装备的关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛世荣

    2014-01-01

    Based on an idea of an unmanned coal mining technology,the paper introduced the orientation of an intelligent mining develop-ment in underground coal mine and provided the definition and technical connotation of the intelligent mining and excavation in coal mine. The paper reviewed the development and present status of the intelligent coal mining equipment and technology in China and pointed out that China would have an opportunity to take a commanding point of the intelligent mining and excavation equipment and technology.The paper stated the three perceptive and three adaptive technical architecture and had an outlook on breakthrough directions of the key tech-nology related to the high efficient and adaptive coal and rock cutting technology,adaptive control technology of the hydraulic powered sup-port,adaptive regulation technology of power transmission,intelligent recognition technology of coal-rock interface,intelligent diagnosis technology of the coal mining equipment and adaptive cruise control technology of the coal mining equipment.%基于无人化采矿技术理念,介绍了煤矿井下智能化开采发展方向,提出了煤矿智能化采掘的定义及技术内涵。回顾了我国智能化采煤装备技术发展及现状,指出我国有抢占智能采掘装备技术制高点的机遇。阐述了智能化采煤装备的“三个感知,三个自适”技术构架,展望了与其相关的煤岩高效自适应截割技术、液压支架自适应控制技术、动力传递自适应调控技术、煤岩界面智能识别技术、采煤装备智能诊断技术、采煤装备自主巡航技术等6项关键技术的突破方向。

  9. 矿山机电设备维护管理探究%Research on maintenance and management of mechanical and electrical equipment in mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞

    2016-01-01

    in this paper, the importance of the mine electrical and mechanical equipment maintenance and management was analyzed in detail. It is pointed out that the problems existing in the present mine electromechanical equipment management, and according to these problems, some feasible and effective concrete measures were put forward to strengthen the mining machinery and electrical equipment maintenance management.%本文详细分析了矿山机电设备维护管理的重要性,指出了目前矿山机电设备管理中存在的问题,并根据这些问题提出了一些有效可行的具体的解决措施,旨在加强对矿山机电设备的维护管理。

  10. Simultaneous sulfide removal, nitrification, and electricity generation in a microbial fuel cell equipped with an oxic cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Renbing; Zhang, Shaohui; Zhao, Li; Zhong, Liuxiang

    2017-02-01

    With sulfide as an anodic electron donor and ammonium as a cathodic substrate, the feasibility of simultaneous sulfide removal, nitrification, and electricity generation was investigated in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) equipped with an oxic cathode. Successful simultaneous sulfide removal, nitrification, and electricity generation in this MFC were achieved in 35 days, with the sulfide and ammonium removal percent of 92.7 ± 1.4 and 96.4 ± 0.3%, respectively. The maximum power density increased, but the internal resistance decreased with the increase of feeding sulfide concentration from 62.9 ± 0.3 to 238.5 ± 0.2 mg S/L. Stable ammonium removal with complete nitrification, preparing for future denitrification, was obtained throughout the current study. Sulfide removal loading significantly increased with the increase of feeding sulfide concentration at each external resistance, but no significant correlation between sulfide removal loading and external resistance was found at each feeding sulfide concentration. The charge recovery and anodic coulombic efficiency (CE) significantly decreased with the increase of external resistance. High feeding sulfide concentration led to low anodic CE. Granular sulfur deposition was found on the anode graphite fiber. The appropriate feeding sulfide concentration for sulfide removal and sulfur deposition was deemed to be 178.0 ± 1.7 mg S/L, achieving a sulfur deposition percent of 69.7 ± 0.6%.

  11. Development of Novel Alternative Technologies for Decontamination of Warfare Agents: Electric Heating with Intrinsically Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in converting electric energy to thermal energy for the decon applications. Other conductive materials, such as polythiophenes , polypyrroles, carbon...Development of Novel Alternative Technologies for Decontamination of Warfare Agents: Electric Heating with Intrinsically Conductive Polymers...Joule)-heating with conducting polymers. The basic concept is that electrically conducting polymers, such as polyaniline, can be used as coatings or

  12. Process Window for Direct Recycling of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene and High-Impact Polystyrene from Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess recycling process window of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) and HIPS (High impact Polystyrene) from WEEE (waste from electrical and electronic equipment) through a final properties/structure screening study on their blends. Main motivation is to evaluate which amount of one plastic WEEE can be included into the other at least keeping their properties. In this sense, a wider margin of error during sorting could be admitted to obtain recycling materials with similar technological application of recycled ABS and HIPS by themselves. Results are discussed in terms of final blend structure, focusing in the interaction, within blends, of copolymers phases and fillers presents in WEEE. The comparative analysis of mechanical performance and morphology of HIPS/ABS blends indicates that the addition of 50wt% HIPS to ABS even improves 50% the elongation at break maintaining the strength. On the opposite, HIPS maintains its properties with 20wt% of ABS added. This study allows enlarging composition process window of recycling plastic WEEE for similar applications. This could be a sustainable way to improve benefit of e-scrap with low costs and easy processability. In consequence, social interest in the recycling of this kind of plastic scrap could be encourage from either ecological or economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurkan, G.; Langestraat, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of certi

  14. 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Communication and Information Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit; Sankar, V; Rao, N; Sarma, T

    2017-01-01

    This book includes the original, peer-reviewed research from the 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Communication and Information Technologies (ICECIT 2015), held in December, 2015 at Srinivasa Ramanujan Institute of Technology, Ananthapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India. It covers the latest research trends or developments in areas of Electrical Engineering, Electronic and Communication Engineering, and Computer Science and Information.

  15. 机械设备技改方法及分析%Technological transformation and analysis of mechanical equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奇峰

    2015-01-01

    Along with the continuous development of China's economy, the continuous improvement of the level of science and technology,various enterprises under the impact of the new situation,facing both great opportunities are also faced with severe challenges.Under the condition of market economy,the competition between enterprises increasingly deepened,facing the diversified demands of the market and high-end manufacturing technology, the enterprise for the number of mechanical equipment and technical renovation of equipment is an important task.An important aspect of improving the enterprise competitiveness is to improve the technological transformation of the equipment and increase the technical content of the equipment.This paper mainly expounds the contents of technological transformation of the mechanical equipment in China, and the evaluation and analysis of the technical innovation method, which is of great significance for improving the technological transformation of machinery and equipment.%随着我国经济的不断发展,科学技术水平的不断提高,各个企业在这种新形势的冲击下,既面临着重大的机遇同时也面临着严峻的挑战.市场经济条件下,企业之间的竞争日益加深,面对多样化的市场需求和高端的制造技术,企业对于机械设备数量和设备技改是一项重要的任务.提高企业竞争力的一个重要方面就是提高设备的技术改造,增加设备的技术含量.本文主要阐述了目前我国机械设备的技术改造的内容,并对设备技改方法进行了评价和分析,对提高机械设备技改有着重要的参考意义.

  16. Thermal dechlorination of heavily PCB-contaminated soils from a sealed site of PCB-containing electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Huang, Qifei

    2016-08-01

    A large amount of soils are contaminated by leakage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sealed-up PCB-containing electrical equipment in China. Thermal dechlorination of soils contaminated with PCBs at a level of 108 mg g(-1) and PCB77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) as a model isomer in conjunction with calcium oxide was investigated in this study. The PCB dechlorination rate improved with increased temperature and time. The highest dechlorination rate was 85.3 %, and temperature was the main influencing factor. Pentachlorobiphenyl and tetrachlorobiphenyl in soils decreased or disappeared in response to treatment at 350 and 400 °C for 4 h, while monochlorinated biphenyl and biphenyl were detected after the reaction, indicating the presence of a dechlorination/hydrogenation pathway. Discrepancy in chlorine balance was observed after low-temperature thermal dechlorination. The species of dechlorination products were identified as amorphous carbon containing a crystalline graphite plane structure and a carbonyl group-containing polymerized product, demonstrating the existence of a dechlorination/polymerization pathway. The yield of amorphous carbon and high-molecular-weight intermediates increased with heating time. The results showed that the discrepancy in chlorine balance was because of the generation of polymerized products and undetected intermediates.

  17. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment--a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  18. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-05-15

    Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36mm, with preferable conditions being 400rpm rotation speed, 5min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling.

  19. [Pollution characteristics and ecological risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in river sediments from an electrical equipment dismantling area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan-Yu; Xue, Nan-Dong; Zhang, Shi-Lei; Li, Fa-Sheng; Gong, Dao-Xin; Liu, Bo; Meng, Lei

    2014-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sediments collected from a river which through an electrical equipment dismantling area. The results showed that concentrations of PBDEs ranged from 101 to 20,400 ng · g(-1) with an average of 3,700 ng · g(-1), and BDE209 was the most dominant homologue accounted for more than 94% of all detected homologues. The concentration of PBDEs was higher in the middle of river than that in upstream and downstream and the average concentration in downstream was higher than the upstream, with a peak of concentration in the area near by dismantling industrial park. PBDEs pollution in this region is relatively serious compared with other regions. It was estimated that 0.39 t PBDEs (including 0.36 t BDE209) was discharged into the river as a result of dismantling industrial activities in last 40 years. A preliminary ecological risk assessment for PBDEs in sediments was conducted by hazard quotient method, the results showed that the OctaBDEs and DecaBDEs were in a low ecological risk, while the PentaBDEs was in a particularly high risk and could cause great harm to the environment.

  20. An efficient and fast analytical procedure for the bromine determination in waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, R; Cannio, M; Mafredini, T; Pozzi, P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy was used, in combination with micro-Raman spectroscopy, for a fast determination of bromine concentration and then of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) compounds in waste electrical and electronic equipments. Different samples from different recycling industries were characterized to evaluate the sorting performances of treatment companies. This investigation must be considered of prime research interest since the impact of BFRs on the environment and their potential risk on human health is an actual concern. Indeed, the new European Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS 2011/65/EU) demands that plastics with BFRs concentration above 0.1%, being potential health hazards, are identified and eliminated from the recycling process. Our results show the capability and the potential of Raman spectroscopy, together with XRF analysis, as effective tools for the rapid detection of BFRs in plastic materials. In particular, the use of these two techniques in combination can be considered as a promising method suitable for quality control applications in the recycling industry.

  1. Measurement and control techniques for electric equipment development; Tecnicas de medicion y control para el desarrollo de equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In broad outlines the measuring and control techniques that are used in the electric equipment development in the short circuit laboratories, are described. In this article the utilization criteria of the traditional and modern (analogical and digital) instruments are described as well as the tendency towards the system`s integration for the automation of the measurement and control processes. Also, mention is made of the systems currently being developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to be applied at the Short Circuit Laboratories of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the IIE. [Espanol] Se describen a grandes rasgos las tecnicas de medicion y control que se emplean para el desarrollo de equipos electricos en los laboratorios de corto circuito. En este articulo se describen los criterios de utilizacion de los instrumentos tradicionales y modernos (analogicos y digitales), asi como la tendencia hacia la integracion de sistemas para la automatizacion de los procesos de medicion y control. Tambien se mencionan los sistemas que actualmente se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para aplicarlos en los Laboratorios de Corto Circuito de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto.

  2. Generation of domestic waste electrical and electronic equipment on Fernando de Noronha Island: qualitative and quantitative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Dhiego Raphael Rodrigues; de Oliveira, José Diego; Selva, Vanice Fragoso; Silva, Maisa Mendonça; Santos, Simone Machado

    2017-07-06

    The accelerated growth trajectory of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a matter of concern for governments worldwide. In developing countries, the problem is more complex because municipal waste management is still a challenge for municipalities. Fernando de Noronha Island, an environmentally protected area, has a transfer station for solid waste before it is sent to the final destination abroad, which is different waste management model to most urban areas. In order to check the specifics of management of WEEE, this study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the generation of this type of waste on the main island of Fernando de Noronha, taking into consideration aspects related to consumption habits and handling of waste. During the in situ research, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of 83 households. The results provide a picture of the generation of WEEE for a period of 1 year, when a production of 1.3 tons of WEEE was estimated. Relationships between education level and monthly income and between education level and number of plasma/LCD TVs and washing machines were confirmed. Another important result is that only two socioeconomic variables (monthly income and education level) are related to two recycling behavior variables. In addition, the population and government treat WEEE as ordinary waste, ignoring its contaminant potential. Despite the existence of relevant legislation concerning the treatment and disposal of WEEE, additional efforts will be required by the government in order to properly manage this type of waste on the island.

  3. Determination of Technological Electric Power Consumption for Its Transportation while Using Block-Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavlovets

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for calculation of the technological electric power consumption for its transportation in the elements of power network while using block-stations under conditions of differently-directed electric power transfer.The calculation of technological electric power consumption for its transportation can be applied while supplying several consumers with one element of power network simultaneously with block-station operation. 

  4. A two-week monitoring of self-reported arousal, worry and attribution among persons with annoyance attributed to electrical equipment and smells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Carlsson Eek, Frida; Osterberg, Kai; Orbaek, Palle; Karlson, Björn

    2008-08-01

    Non-patients attributing annoyance to either smells (smell annoyed; SA, n= 29) or electrical equipment (electrically annoyed; EA, n= 17), or both (generally annoyed; GA, n= 38), were monitored for 2 weeks through daily self-ratings of arousal (stress), sleep disturbances, health complaints, worry about hypersensitivity reactions, avoidance behaviors, and attributions of health complaints to electrical equipment and smells. In parallel, a demographically matched reference group was followed (n= 56). GA persons reported higher arousal (stress), more subjective health complaints, and more sleep disturbances than the other groups. About 60% in the GA and EA groups reported intentional avoidance behavior, compared to 31% in the SA group and 2% of the referents. Worry and attribution to environmental factors was also more frequent among GA persons than in the other groups. Thus, even at sub-clinical levels, environmental annoyance generalized to several triggers seems to be associated with behaviors commonly observed among patients with idiopathic environmental intolerance.

  5. Prediction on Technological Transformation of Substation Primary Equipment Based on Assets Wall%基于资产墙的变电一次主设备技改投资预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玺; 陈杏; 宋依群; 杨镜非; 温晓昇; 陈志峰

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated transformation caused for reason of intensive commissioning of electric power equipments may bring great financial pressure and reliability risk,therefore,this paper discusses scientific prediction on future technological trans-formation scale of electric power equipments. Total scale of technological transformation of the electric power company is the total of technological transformation of all equipments,in allusion to individual differences,the paper studies assets wall projecting model based on random simulation which comprehensively considers overall unity and individual randomness of the equipments and may improve reasonability and veracity of predicting outcomes. The asset projecting model and Monte Carlo simulation was used for predicting investment scale of technological transformation of four types substation primary main e-quipments of 1 1 0 kV and above voltage level in Jiangmen power supply bureau of Guangdong power grid co.,ltd..Expected value of investment scale of medium and long term technological transformation of existing equipments in this power supply bureau was predicted as well and fluctuation interval of investment on technological transformation was provided according to different confidence levels.%电力设备密集投运所导致的集中改造将给电力公司带来较大的资金压力和可靠性风险,基于此,对电力设备未来技改规模的科学预测进行了探讨。电力公司技改总规模是所有设备技改的总和,针对设备的个体差异,研究基于随机模拟的资产墙投映模型,综合考虑设备的整体统一性和个体随机性,可提高预测结果的合理性和准确性。利用资产投映模型和蒙特卡罗模拟,对广东电网有限责任公司江门供电局110 kV及以上的四类变电一次主设备的技改投资规模进行预测,预测了该供电局现有设备中长期技改投资规模的期望值,并根据不同的置信水平给出技改投资的波动区间。

  6. Engineering Technology of Mechanical and Electrical Installation of Hydropower Station%水电站机电安装工程技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩进军

    2015-01-01

    我国近年来大力发展水电工程,机电安装工程技术是水电站机电安装工程中非常重要的一项技术.本文主要分析了机电安装工程技术与其存在的问题,并简单探讨了提高机电安装工程技术的方法,保证机电设备的稳定操作和保证机电设备安装质量,进而提供一个良好的基础.%Our country, in recent years, has been greatly developing the hydropower engineering, mechanical and electricalinstallation engineering technology is a very important technology in hydropower stationmechanical and electrical installation. This article mainly analyzes the mechanical and electrical installation engineering technologyand its existing problems, and simply discusses themethod to improve mechanical and electrical installation engineering technology, to ensure the steady operation of mechanical and electrical equipment and ensure the quality ofmechanical and electrical equipment installation, thus providing a good foundation.

  7. The regional electricity generation mix in Scotland: A portfolio selection approach incorporating marine technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Grant, E-mail: grant.j.allan@strath.ac.u [Fraser of Allander Institute, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom); Eromenko, Igor; McGregor, Peter [Fraser of Allander Institute, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom); Swales, Kim [Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Standalone levelised cost assessments of electricity supply options miss an important contribution that renewable and non-fossil fuel technologies can make to the electricity portfolio: that of reducing the variability of electricity costs, and their potentially damaging impact upon economic activity. Portfolio theory applications to the electricity generation mix have shown that renewable technologies, their costs being largely uncorrelated with non-renewable technologies, can offer such benefits. We look at the existing Scottish generation mix and examine drivers of changes out to 2020. We assess recent scenarios for the Scottish generation mix in 2020 against mean-variance efficient portfolios of electricity-generating technologies. Each of the scenarios studied implies a portfolio cost of electricity that is between 22% and 38% higher than the portfolio cost of electricity in 2007. These scenarios prove to be mean-variance 'inefficient' in the sense that, for example, lower variance portfolios can be obtained without increasing portfolio costs, typically by expanding the share of renewables. As part of extensive sensitivity analysis, we find that Wave and Tidal technologies can contribute to lower risk electricity portfolios, while not increasing portfolio cost. - Research Highlights: {yields} Portfolio analysis of scenarios for Scotland's electricity generating mix in 2020. {yields} Reveals potential inefficiencies of selecting mixes based on levelised cost alone. {yields} Portfolio risk-reducing contribution of Wave and Tidal technologies assessed.

  8. Research on High-efficient Remanufacturing Technologies and Application of Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Yang, Xu; Wang, Gen

    2017-09-01

    The energy conservation of electric motor system is the key of industrial energy conservation. With the implementation and acceleration of electric motor energy efficiency improvement plan, more and more electric motors are knocked out. High-efficient remanufacturing of electric motor refers to improving the efficiency of electric motor and recycling the resources by replacing the winding, iron core and other components of electric motor on the basis of the low-efficient/outdated electric motors, which conforms to China’s policy of circular economy and resource recovery. The remanufacturing of electric motor not only maximizes the use of resources, but also reduces the energy consumption generated by reprocessing of cast iron, silicon steel sheet and other materials in dismantling of electric motor. However, structures and iron core materials used in design and manufacture of electric motors are different, and the degrees of wear of electric motors are also different under different operating conditions, which further result in diversified design schemes, increased remanufacturing cost and reduced remanufacturing efficiency. This paper analyzes the key process technologies for remanufacturing of electric motors are researched by analyzing the remanufacturing technologies of electric motors, and presents the feasibility to replace the cast-aluminum rotor with cast-copper rotor in high-efficient remanufacturing process of electric motor.

  9. The technology of generating infrared image based on electric heating film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan; Feng, Yun-song; Qiao, Ya

    2011-08-01

    The technology of generating infrared image based on electric heating film technology by its resistance per unit area was studied. A Lifgt-off-road vehicle was used as an object to be simulated. An infrared thermograph was used to photography the light-off-road vehicle from a specific corner. As a result several infrared images of the light-off-road vehicle were obtained and the thermal distribution of the vehicle was also obtained at the same time. A matlab program was used to process the image. The image was divided into several areas according to its grey level. Each area has its own temperature range. The average temperature of each area was calculated. A thermal balance equation was established according to the average temperature of each area and the environment temperature. By solving these equations, the radiant existances of these areas were gotten. The heating power per unit area of these areas was calculated. The electric heating film was preparation accordingly. The power was applied on the film and the infrared thermograph was used to observe it. The infrared image of the film has a high similarity with the true light-off-road vehicle's.

  10. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  11. Risk Management of Medical Electrical Equipment Leakage Current%医用电气设备漏电流风险管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭安民; 胡兆燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective The leakage current hazard and leakage current risk management of medical electrical equipment are discussed according to the requirements of the 3 ' edition of 1EC60601 - 1 for the application of medical electrical equipment leakage current risk management process for reference. Methods Firstly, general requirements for leakage current of medical electrical equipment are described and the leakage current hazards are analyzed, then medical electrical equipment leakage current risk management process is illustrated according to 1SO14971: 2007, IEC60601 - 1 3rd edition and other standards. Results Medical electrical equipment leakage current risk management is an important aspect of medical electrical equipment risk management. The systematic application of leakage current risk management process to medical electrical equipment can reduce the risk. Conclusions Medical electrical equipment meeting 1EC60601 - 1 3rd edition requirements means that the manufacturers have applied the risk management process according with 1SO14971 requirements. The general requirements for safety standard of medical electrical equipment in China are 10 years behind those in the developed countries. It is an urgent matter to make the 1EC60601-1 3rd edition as a mandatory national standard.%目的 根据IEC60601-1第3版的要求讨论医用电气设备的漏电流危害及漏电流风险管理,为应用医用电气设备的漏电流风险管理提供参考.方法 首先阐述了医用电气设备的漏电流通用要求并分析了漏电流的危害,然后依据ISO 14971:2007和 IEC60601-1第3版等标准讲述了医用电气设备的漏电流风险管理过程.结果 医用电气设备的漏电流风险管理是医用电气设备风险管理的一个重要方面,应用系统化的医用电气设备漏电流风险管理可以降低风险.结论 医用电气设备符合IEC60601-1第3版要求即意味制造商有符合ISO14971规定的风险管理过程.在医用电气设备安

  12. 我国煤矿机电设备管理现状与对策%China' s coal mine electrical and mechanical equipment management and countermeasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兴志; 王纪坤; 江静

    2012-01-01

    China's coal equipment plays an important role in mine production in China coal mine electrical and mechanical equip- ment management philosophy behind improper management, insufficient investment. Coal equipment is not properly managed, not only affect production, but also a security risk. The coal business leaders should pay attention to the importance of coal min- ing equipment, attention to mechanical and electrical personnel and to improve the management methods of mechanical and elec- trical equipment.%我国的煤炭设备在矿山生产中起到重要作用,我国目前煤矿机电设备管理管理理念落后,管理方法不当,投入不够。煤炭设备管理不当,不仅影响生产,而且带来安全隐患。煤炭企业领导应该重视煤矿设备的重要性,重视机电人才作用,改善机电设备管理方法。

  13. 洁净厂房夹层电击防护措施应用%Application of Protection Measures against Electric Shock at Equipment Layer of Clean Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叶语

    2016-01-01

    Due to multiple pipelines and narrow space, the electric shock risk of equipment layer of clean workshop is rather high. From the aspect of protection against electric shock, several suggestions are proposed as follows: ①For fix installed lightings, Class Ⅰ luminaire shall be generally adopted. Both the SELV power and 220 V power can be adopted for power supply. When SELV is adopted, power type selection and wiring system shall meet with the requirements of relevant specifications. ②For portable lamp, portable electric equipment and stationary electric equipment, full consideration shall be given to the risks of electric shock and suitable protection measures against electric shock like SELV, electrical separation and RCD shall be adopted.%洁净厂房设备夹层内管线多,空间狭小,电击危险性较高,从电击防护的角度提出一些建议:①固定安装的照明灯具一般采用Ⅰ类灯具,可采用特低电压(SELV),也可以采用220 V供电,当采用SELV供电时电源选型及布线系统应满足相关规范要求;②手提行灯、移动式用电设备、固定用电设备应充分考虑其电击危险性,选取适当的电击防护措施,如特低电压(SELV)、电气分隔、 RCD附加保护措施等。

  14. The Basics of Electric Weapons and Pulsed-Power Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    shown in Figure 2. Electrical energy can be stored in many ways, such as a battery (actually a chemical storage ). A car battery has about a...becomes less attractive. Energy storage for electric weapons can also be done with chem- ical explosive energy , where an explosive force is converted...into electrical energy using techniques such as flux compression. Energy can be stored in the inertia of rotating machines and flywheels , but the

  15. XIAO Liye: New head of the Institute of Electrical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Prof. XIAO Liye, an expert in superconducting technology, has been appointed new director of the Institute of Electrical Engineering(IEE), a research arm of CAS dedicating to the promotion of technical level of power generation and electrical equipment manufacturing.

  16. 浅谈现代煤炭企业机电设备维修%On Modern Coal Enterprises of Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Repairing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕皋鸣

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,China's coal industry has been rapid developed,in order to ensure the safe production of coal enterprises to improve economic efficiency and electromechanical equipment can work stably, therefore, electrical and mechanical equipment repair management is becoming more and more important. This article from the electrical and mechanical equipment maintenance and coal play an important role in the production of each link, modify the equipment repair plan, deepen the staff technical training, to improve the equipment maintenance personnel business level as a priority task, strict implementation of equipment inspection system, to ensure the safe and stable operation of electrical equipment, the implementation of professional repair, improve the quality of maintenance etc, discusses reform measures of the modern coal enterprises in the production of electrical and mechanical equipment repair work.%近年来,我国煤炭产业得到快速发展,为了确保煤炭企业得以安全生产并提高经济效益,需要机电设备可以稳定工作,因此,机电设备的维修管理工作正变得越来越重要。从几个方面探讨了现代煤炭企业在生产中机电设备维修工作的改革措施:发挥煤炭机电设备的维护在生产各个环节的重要作用,修改设备维修方案;深化员工技术培训工作,把提高设备维护人员业务水平作为重点工作来抓;严格执行设备检查制度,来保障机电设备安全稳定运行;施行专业化维修,提高检修质量。

  17. Ultra-High Voltage DC Convertor Station Equipment Condition Data Access Technology Based on multi-Source Heterogeneous Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bo-wen; Han, Shuai; Ren, Wei; Xu, Hai-jun; Fu, Long-ming

    2017-07-01

    With the large-scale construction of special high-voltage project, as well as power supply reliability, security, economic and other increasingly demanding, state monitoring equipment involved in more and more monitoring projects and more and more monitoring data, because these data exist in multiple isolated systems in the Ultra-High Voltage(UHV) AC-DC substation, there is no data sharing mechanism, so a holistic analysis, application and sharing approach for the data set will need a deep consideration. In this paper, the equipment condition monitoring system frame of the UHV converter station and the scheme of the equipment state data access of UHV converter station based on the multi-source and heterogeneous data fusion are presented. Then, data exchange technology of UHV equipment state early warning center was introduced, and a data access and conversion device in the Zhongzhou converter station was deployed to solve the timeliness and functionality difficult of the existing system to meet the requirements of UHV operation and maintenance support.

  18. Comparative study of operation of condensing and traditional boilers equipped with the ORC module for electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikielewicz Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Condensing technology applied to boilers is to make full use of thermal energy contained in the fuel. That means that additionaly the heat from condensation of exhaust gases can be used for the purposes of heating the domestic hot water and to cover the demand for central heating. The study analyzed the operation of the “traditional” boiler equipped with the ORC module as the similar arrangement but with the condensing boiler. In the case of a conventional boiler there is noted a greater fuel consumption and the greater power generated than in the case of the unit with the condensing boiler. Postulated is the indicator in the form of a ratio of turbine power to the mass flow rate of fuel, which in turn gives a higher value for the condensing boiler, thus demonstrating that the operation of condensing boiler ORC module will be more economical. Perspective domestic micro CHP with ORC should be installed in boilers with recovery of heat from condensation from the exhaust gases.

  19. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a mixture of plastics from small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Chiara; Cafiero, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Doina; La Marca, Floriana; Tuffi, Riccardo; Vecchio Ciprioti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Pyrolysis seems a promising route for recycling of heterogeneous, contaminated and additives containing plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This study deals with the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a synthetic mixture containing real waste plastics, representative of polymers contained in small WEEE. Two zeolite-based catalysts were used at 400°C: HUSY and HZSM-5 with a high silica content, while three different temperatures were adopted for the thermal cracking: 400, 600 and 800°C. The mass balance showed that the oil produced by pyrolysis is always the main product regardless the process conditions selected, with yields ranging from 83% to 93%. A higher yield was obtained when pyrolysis was carried out with HZSM-5 at 400°C and without catalysts, but at 600 and 800°C. Formation of a significant amount of solid residue (about 13%) is observed using HUSY. The oily liquid product of pyrolysis, analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID, as well as by elemental analysis and for energy content, appeared lighter, less viscous and with a higher concentration of monoaromatics under catalytic condition, if compared to the liquid product derived from thermal degradation at the same temperature. HZSM-5 led to the production of a high yield of styrene (17.5%), while HUSY favoured the formation of ethylbenzene (15%). Energy released by combustion of the oil was around 39MJ/kg, thus suggesting the possibility to exploit it as a fuel, if the recovery of chemical compounds could not be realised. Elemental and proximate analysis of char and GC-TCD analysis of the gas were also performed. Finally, it was estimated to what extent these two products, showing a relevant ability to release energy, could fulfil the energy demand requested in pyrolysis.

  20. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Hu, Li-Fang [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The highest metal reduction occurs at a 2.36 mm sieving size. • Washing promotes heavy metal recycling without secondary pollution. • Sieving and washing are environmentally friendly pretreatments for WEEE wastes. - Abstract: Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36 mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36 mm, with preferable conditions being 400 rpm rotation speed, 5 min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling.

  1. Environmental impacts of the Swiss collection and recovery systems for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE): a follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, P A; Hischier, R; Eugster, M

    2011-04-15

    While Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) collection and recovery have significantly gained in importance all over Europe in the last 15years, comprehensive studies assessing the environmental loads and benefits of these systems still are not common. In this paper we present the results of a combined material flow analysis and life cycle assessment study, which aimed to calculate the overall environmental impacts of collection, pre-processing and end-processing for the existing Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, as well as of incineration and landfilling scenarios, in which the same amount of WEEE is either incinerated in a an MSWI plant or landfilled. According to the calculations based on the material flow data for the year 2009 and a new version of the ecoinvent life cycle inventory database (ecoinvent v2.01), collection, recovery and disposal result in significantly lower environmental impacts per t of WEEE for midpoint indicators such as global warming or ozone depletion and the endpoint indicator Eco-Indicator '99 points. A comparison between the environmental impacts of the WEEE recovery scenarios 2009 and 2004, both calculated with ecoinvent v2.01 data, shows that the impacts per t of WEEE in 2009 were slightly lower. This appears to be mainly due to the changes in the treatment of plastics (more recycling, less incineration). Compared to the overall environmental impacts of the recovery scenario 2004 obtained with an old version of ecoinvent (ecoinvent v1.1), the calculation with ecoinvent v2.01 results in an increase of the impacts by about 20%, which is primarily the consequence of a more adequate modeling of several WEEE fractions (e.g. metals, cables or CRT devices). In view of a further increase of the environmental benefits associated with the Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, the recovery of geochemically scarce metals should be further investigated, in particular.

  2. Application of electron beam equipment based on a plasma cathode gun in additive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galchenko, N. K.; Kolesnikova, K. A.; Semenov, G. V.; Rau, A. G.; Raskoshniy, S. Y.; Bezzubko, A. V.; Dampilon, B. V.; Sorokova, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    The paper discusses the application of electron beam equipment based on a plasma cathode gun for three-dimensional surface modification of metals and alloys. The effect of substrate surface preparation on the adhesion strength of gas thermal coatings has been investigated.

  3. 无人战机的装备技术与发展%Equipment Technology and Development of Drones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旻

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle is mainly from the past to perform aerial reconnaissance ,battlefield surveillance , and battle damage assessment tasks such as operational support equipment ,upgrade become able to carry out suppression of enemy air defense system ,ground attack ,and even can be performed on one of the main combat equipment of air combat mis -sion .The article summarizes the drone technology ,unmanned aircraft system .Finally discusses the drone equipment tech-nology and development of the analysis .%无人机从过去主要是执行空中侦察、战场监视和战斗毁伤评估等任务的作战支援装备,升级成为能执行压制敌防空系统、对地攻击,甚至可以执行对空作战任务的主要作战装备之一。文章概述了无人战机技术、无人战机系统。最后论述了无人战机的装备技术与发展分析。

  4. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; R. Honaker; B. K. Parekh

    2007-09-20

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, novel surface treatment technologies, High Density Infrared (HDI) and Laser Surface Engineering (LSE) surface coating processes were developed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral and coal processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimens were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and can be significantly increased by applying HDI and LSE coating processes. Field testing has been performed using a LSE-treated screen panel and it showed a significant improvement of the service life.

  5. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2006-07-20

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, novel surface treatment technologies, High Density Infrared (HDI) and Laser Surface Engineering (LSE) surface coating processes were developed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimens were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and can be significantly increased by applying HDI and LSE coating processes. Field testing has been performed using a LSE-treated screen panel and it showed a 2 times improvement of the service life.

  6. The regional electricity generation mix in Scotland. A portfolio selection approach incorporating marine technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Grant; Eromenko, Igor; McGregor, Peter [Fraser of Allander Institute, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom); Swales, Kim [Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Standalone levelised cost assessments of electricity supply options miss an important contribution that renewable and non-fossil fuel technologies can make to the electricity portfolio: that of reducing the variability of electricity costs, and their potentially damaging impact upon economic activity. Portfolio theory applications to the electricity generation mix have shown that renewable technologies, their costs being largely uncorrelated with non-renewable technologies, can offer such benefits. We look at the existing Scottish generation mix and examine drivers of changes out to 2020. We assess recent scenarios for the Scottish generation mix in 2020 against mean-variance efficient portfolios of electricity-generating technologies. Each of the scenarios studied implies a portfolio cost of electricity that is between 22% and 38% higher than the portfolio cost of electricity in 2007. These scenarios prove to be mean-variance 'inefficient' in the sense that, for example, lower variance portfolios can be obtained without increasing portfolio costs, typically by expanding the share of renewables. As part of extensive sensitivity analysis, we find that Wave and Tidal technologies can contribute to lower risk electricity portfolios, while not increasing portfolio cost. (author)

  7. The effectiveness of using the combined-cycle technology in a nuclear power plant unit equipped with an SVBR-100 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Dudolin, A. A.; Gospodchenkov, I. V.

    2015-05-01

    The design of a modular SVBR-100 reactor with a lead-bismuth alloy liquid-metal coolant is described. The basic thermal circuit of a power unit built around the SVBR-100 reactor is presented together with the results of its calculation. The gross electrical efficiency of the turbine unit driven by saturated steam at a pressure of 6.7 MPa is estimated at η{el/gr} = 35.5%. Ways for improving the efficiency of this power unit and increasing its power output by applying gas-turbine and combined-cycle technologies are considered. With implementing a combined-cycle power-generating system comprising two GE-6101FA gas-turbine units with a total capacity of 140 MW, it becomes possible to obtain the efficiency of the combined-cycle plant equipped with the SVBR-100 reactor η{el/gr} = 45.39% and its electrical power output equal to 328 MW. The heat-recovery boiler used as part of this power installation generates superheated steam with a temperature of 560°C, due to which there is no need to use a moisture separator/steam reheater in the turbine unit thermal circuit.

  8. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application.

  9. Smart grids fundamentals and technologies in electricity networks

    CERN Document Server

    Buchholz, Bernd M

    2014-01-01

    Efficient transmission and distribution of electricity is a fundamental requirement for sustainable development and prosperity. The world is facing great challenges regarding the reliable grid integration of renewable energy sources in the 21st century. The electric power systems of the future require fundamental innovations and enhancements to meet these challenges. The European Union's "Smart Grid" vision provides a first overview of the appropriate deep-paradigm changes in the transmission, distribution and supply of electricity.The book brings together common themes beginning with Smart Gr

  10. 小水电电气设备安全性分析%Security Evaluation of Electrical Equipment Failure of Small Hydropower Station by Fault Tree Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪; 袁越; 吴博文; 傅质馨; 徐锦才

    2013-01-01

    The overall reliability of electrical equipment of small hydropower station is analysed in this paper. Fault tree model of components' failure rate is established. With dam top as the the fault tree top events, Minimum cut set and solution of the fault tree are presented in the Paper. Through the calculation of the electrical equipment failure probability of a small hydropower station in Zhejiang province, the safe influence degree of the electrical equipment failure to the top events is obtained. The results show the switch equipment on the key circuits is the important e-quipment component,which causes the top event and impacts the overall safety and reliability of the power supply system directly.%对我国小水电的电气设备进行安全性分析,建立了电气设备故障率的故障树模型,选择坝顶配电室为故障树的顶事件,并用下行法求出了该故障树的最小割集,通过对浙江省某小水电站进行电气设备故障概率计算,获得电气设备故障对顶事件造成的故障安全影响程度,结果表明线路上的开关设备是导致故障树顶事件发生的重要设备元件,直接影响着整体供电系统的安全可靠性.

  11. Creation of a library tour application for mobile equipment using iBeacon technology

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design, development, and deployment of a library tour application utilizing Bluetooth Low Energy devices know as iBeacons. The tour application will serve as library orientation for incoming students. The students visit stations in the library with mobile equipment running a special tour app. When the app detects a beacon nearby, it automatically plays a video that describes the current location. After the tour, students are assessed according to the defined learning objective...

  12. Magnetic fields and the technology challenges they pose to beam-based equipment: a semiconductor perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Vincent; Montoya, Julian A.

    2005-08-01

    As semiconductor devices shrink in size to accommodate faster processing speeds, the need for higher resolution beam-based metrology equipment and beam-based writing equipment will increase. The electron and ion beams used within these types of equipment are sensitive to very small variations in magnetic force applied to the beam. This phenomenon results from changes in Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC) magnetic flux density at the beam column which causes deflections of the beam that can impact equipment performance. Currently the most sensitive beam-based microscope manufacturers require an ambient magnetic field environment that does not have variations that exceed 0.2 milli-Gauss (mG). Studies have shown that such low levels of magnetic flux density can be extremely difficult to achieve. As examples, scissor lifts, vehicles, metal chairs, and doors moving in time and space under typical use conditions can create distortions in the Earth's magnetic field that can exceed 0.2 mG at the beam column. In addition it is known that changes in the Earth's magnetic field caused by solar flares, earthquakes, and variations in the Earth's core itself all cause changes in the magnetic field that can exceed 0.2 mG. This paper will provide the reader with the basic understanding of the emerging problem, will discuss the environmental and facility level challenges associated in meeting such stringent magnetic field environments, will discuss some of the mitigation techniques used to address the problem, and will close by discussing needs for further research in this area to assure semiconductor and nanotechnology industries are pre-positioned for even more stringent magnetic field environmental requirements.

  13. Distributed Electrical Power Generation: Summary of Alternative Available Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Heliostats Heliostats , or solar concentrators, can be used to collect heat to power Stirling en- gines. They use a lens or reflectors to concentrate...Configurations ......................................................................................................... 38 Heliostats ...equipment is possible in the form of cooling and heating ; enhancing a 20 to 35 percent generation efficiency to between 75 and 80 percent. DG increases

  14. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market

    OpenAIRE

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg− 1, which is lowe...

  15. Analysis of Electric Vehicle DC High Current Conversion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Bai, Jing-fen; Lin, Fan-tao; Lu, Da

    2017-05-01

    Based on the background of electric vehicles, it is elaborated the necessity about electric energy accurate metering of electric vehicle power batteries, and it is analyzed about the charging and discharging characteristics of power batteries. It is needed a DC large current converter to realize accurate calibration of power batteries electric energy metering. Several kinds of measuring methods are analyzed based on shunts and magnetic induction principle in detail. It is put forward power batteries charge and discharge calibration system principle, and it is simulated and analyzed ripple waves containing rate and harmonic waves containing rate of power batteries AC side and DC side. It is put forward suitable DC large current measurement methods of power batteries by comparing different measurement principles and it is looked forward the DC large current measurement techniques.

  16. Optimization management of coal mine mechanical and electrical equipment based on TPM%基于TPM的煤矿机电设备优化管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕润松

    2016-01-01

    By monitoring the current situation of the mechanical and electrical equipment management in coal mine, the mechanical and electrical equipment management mode based on full production maintenance (TPM) is proposed. The implementation basis of the TPM foundation are analyzed; the spot-checking management of the TPM mode , TPM mode of equipment fault management, maintenance resource management and maintenance engineering management are studied; ifnally, according to the characteristic of TPM model, put forward the guarantee measures for constructing TPM electromechanical equipment management system.%针对目前煤矿机电设备管理现状,提出了基于全员生产维修(TPM)的机电设备管理模式。分析了TPM的推行基础,对TPM模式下的点检管理、设备故障管理、维修资源管理、维修工程管理进行了研究,根据TPM模式的特点,提出了构建TPM机电设备管理体系的保障措施。

  17. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Electronics & Electrical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Sirena -1 Self-propelled Flaw Detector [PRIBORYI SISTEMY UPRAVLENIYA, Jan 87] 14 Crane Strain-measurement Scales With Data Processing by a Microprocessor...was 3-5 m. 06415/06662 UDC 620.179.1:620.165.29 Algorithimization of Control of Electric Motor Drive of Sirena -1 Self-propelled Flaw Detector...The article describes one of the most optimum algorithms of control of the electric motor drive of the Sirena -1 self-propelled flaw detector

  18. 煤矿电气设备维修方法窥探%Maintenance Methods of Electrical Equipments in Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪峰

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous development of the coal industry, the maintenance requirements of electrical equipment in coal mine is also higher. However, due to the operation of the staff is not standardized or the equipment maintenance is not timely and other reasons, problems in the maintenance of coal mine electrical equipment occur. In this paper, through analyzing the problems occurred in the process of coal mine electrical maintenance, the corresponding maintenance methods are put forward.%在煤矿产业不断发展的同时,由于设备更大范围的机械化和自动化,给煤矿电气设备的维修也提出了更高的要求。但是由于工作人员的操作不规范或设备维修不及时等原因,造成煤矿电气设备的维修出现问题。通过对煤矿电气维修过程中出现的问题进行分析,提出相应的维修方法。

  19. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kunz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid.

  20. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2009-11-30

    Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid.