WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology economic optimization

  1. Technological, Economic, and Environmental Optimization of Aluminum Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin

    2013-08-01

    The four strategic directions (referring to the entire life cycle of aluminum) are as follows: production, primary use, recycling, and reuse. Thus, in this work, the following are analyzed and optimized: reducing greenhouse gas emissions from aluminum production, increasing energy efficiency in aluminum production, maximizing used-product collection, recycling, and reusing. According to the energetic balance at the gaseous environment level, the conductive transfer model is also analyzed through the finished elements method. Several principles of modeling and optimization are presented and analyzed: the principle of analogy, the principle of concepts, and the principle of hierarchization. Based on these principles, an original diagram model is designed together with the corresponding logic diagram. This article also presents and analyzes the main benefits of aluminum recycling and reuse. Recycling and reuse of aluminum have the main advantage that it requires only about 5% of energy consumed to produce it from bauxite. The aluminum recycling and production process causes the emission of pollutants such as dioxides and furans, hydrogen chloride, and particulate matter. To control these emissions, aluminum recyclers are required to comply with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production. The results of technological, economic, and ecological optimization of aluminum recycling are based on the criteria function's evaluation in the modeling system.

  2. Technology Optimism in a Socio-Economic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1996-01-01

    Abstract It is widely acknowledged that a great effort is necessary to cope with environmental problems. Focus is often upon technological change as the main way to achieve sustainability. But is it reasonable to place so much faith in technological change? The main dividing line between the opti......Abstract It is widely acknowledged that a great effort is necessary to cope with environmental problems. Focus is often upon technological change as the main way to achieve sustainability. But is it reasonable to place so much faith in technological change? The main dividing line between...... the optimistic and the critical view relates to the importance of distributional issues. First, an over-narrow focus upon technology diverts attention from the need to deal with distributional issues as an integral part of coping with environmental problems. Second, the technology optimists underestimate...... the need for changes in fundamental mechanisms, power structures and basic ideas as preconditions for influencing the direction of technological change. The paper deals with the state interventionist version of technology optimism, where it is emphasized that active industrial and technology policies...

  3. Allogeneic cell therapy bioprocess economics and optimization: single-use cell expansion technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simaria, Ana S; Hassan, Sally; Varadaraju, Hemanthram; Rowley, Jon; Warren, Kim; Vanek, Philip; Farid, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    For allogeneic cell therapies to reach their therapeutic potential, challenges related to achieving scalable and robust manufacturing processes will need to be addressed. A particular challenge is producing lot-sizes capable of meeting commercial demands of up to 10(9) cells/dose for large patient numbers due to the current limitations of expansion technologies. This article describes the application of a decisional tool to identify the most cost-effective expansion technologies for different scales of production as well as current gaps in the technology capabilities for allogeneic cell therapy manufacture. The tool integrates bioprocess economics with optimization to assess the economic competitiveness of planar and microcarrier-based cell expansion technologies. Visualization methods were used to identify the production scales where planar technologies will cease to be cost-effective and where microcarrier-based bioreactors become the only option. The tool outputs also predict that for the industry to be sustainable for high demand scenarios, significant increases will likely be needed in the performance capabilities of microcarrier-based systems. These data are presented using a technology S-curve as well as windows of operation to identify the combination of cell productivities and scale of single-use bioreactors required to meet future lot sizes. The modeling insights can be used to identify where future R&D investment should be focused to improve the performance of the most promising technologies so that they become a robust and scalable option that enables the cell therapy industry reach commercially relevant lot sizes. The tool outputs can facilitate decision-making very early on in development and be used to predict, and better manage, the risk of process changes needed as products proceed through the development pathway. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Economically optimal thermal insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, J.

    1978-10-01

    Exemplary calculations to show that exact adherence to the demands of the thermal insulation ordinance does not lead to an optimal solution with regard to economics. This is independent of the mode of financing. Optimal thermal insulation exceeds the values given in the thermal insulation ordinance.

  5. Use of technical and economic analysis for optimizing technology selection and remedial design for contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardisty, P.E.; Brown, A.

    1996-01-01

    The decision to remediate a contaminated site can be seen from the macroeconomic and microeconomic viewpoints. Macroeconomics can be used to plan and account for the overall cost of pollution as part of a firm's production, and thus make overall decisions on the real cost of pollution and the level of clean-up which may be called for. Valuation of damaged resources, option values and intrinsic worth is an important part of this process. Once the decision to remediate has been taken, the question becomes how best to remediate. Microeconomic analysis deals with providing efficient allocative decisions for reaching specified goals. it is safe to say that cost is one of the single most important factors in site clean-up decision making. A basic rule of remediation is often taken to be the maximization of contaminant mass removed per dollar spent. However, remediation may also be governed by other objectives and constraints. In some situations, minimization of time, rather than cost, could be the constraint. Or perhaps the objective could be to achieve a set level of clean-up for the lowest possible cost, even if a large program would result in unit-cost reductions. Evaluation of the economics of a clean-up project is directly linked to the objectives of the site owner, and the constraints within which the remediation is to be performed. Economic analysis of remedial options for containment of a 350,000 L hydrocarbon spill migrating through fractured rock into a river in Alberta, Canada, clear direction to the site owner

  6. Optimization of technology and boiler control to improve economical and environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stosek, V.; Neuman, P.; Mechura, V.; Masek, Z. [EGU Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    For cutting emissions NO{sub x} and CO in the Czech Republic are mostly applied primary measurers. At the same time measuring and control systems are innovated. Analog control systems are replaced by digital and computer network is developed in the power energy generation. It enables application of sophisticated information and diagnostic systems. It is shown how the EGU designs modification of technology equipment, measurement and control systems to increase efficiency and cut NO{sub x} emission levels at 110 MWe units at Prunerov power station and 200 MWe units at Tusimice before and after reconstruction are presented.

  7. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN ECONOMIC EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Kinash

    2011-01-01

    In the article the basic aspects of the use of modern information technologies in an educational process are examined. Described directions of introduction of information technologies in economic education. Problems which are related to practice of professional preparation of specialists of economic specialities are examined. The role of information technologies in professional activity of specialists of economic type is underlined.

  8. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN ECONOMIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Kinash

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic aspects of the use of modern information technologies in an educational process are examined. Described directions of introduction of information technologies in economic education. Problems which are related to practice of professional preparation of specialists of economic specialities are examined. The role of information technologies in professional activity of specialists of economic type is underlined.

  9. Dynamic optimization in environmental economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Elke; Tragler, Gernot; Veliov, Vladimir M.; Semmler, Willi

    2014-01-01

    This book contains two chapters with the topics: 1. Chapter: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ECONOMY AND CLIMATE: (a) Climate Change and Technical Progress: Impact of Informational Constraints. (b) Environmental Policy in a Dynamic Model with Heterogeneous Agents and Voting. (c) Optimal Environmental Policy in the Presence of Multiple Equilibria and Reversible Hysteresis. (d). Modeling the Dynamics of the Transition to a Green Economy. (e) One-Parameter GHG Emission Policy With R and D-Based Growth. (f) Pollution, Public Health Care, and Life Expectancy when Inequality Matters. (g) Uncertain Climate Policy and the Green Paradox. (h) Uniqueness Versus Indeterminacy in the Tragedy of the Commons - A ''Geometric'' Approach. 2. Chapter: OPTIMAL EXTRACTION OF RESOURCES: (j) Dynamic Behavior of Oil Importers and Exporters Under Uncertainty. (k) Robust Control of a Spatially Distributed Commercial Fishery. (l) On the Effect of Resource Exploitation on Growth: Domestic Innovation vs. Technological Diffusion Through Trade. (m) Forest Management and Biodiversity in Size-Structured Forests Under Climate Change. (n) Carbon Taxes and Comparison of Trading Regimes in Fossil Fuels. (o) Landowning, Status and Population Growth. (p) Optimal Harvesting of Size-Structured Biological Populations.

  10. Dynamic optimization in environmental economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Elke; Tragler, Gernot; Veliov, Vladimir M. (eds.) [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Mathematical Methods in Economics; Semmler, Willi [The New School for Social Research, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Economics

    2014-11-01

    This book contains two chapters with the topics: 1. Chapter: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ECONOMY AND CLIMATE: (a) Climate Change and Technical Progress: Impact of Informational Constraints. (b) Environmental Policy in a Dynamic Model with Heterogeneous Agents and Voting. (c) Optimal Environmental Policy in the Presence of Multiple Equilibria and Reversible Hysteresis. (d). Modeling the Dynamics of the Transition to a Green Economy. (e) One-Parameter GHG Emission Policy With R and D-Based Growth. (f) Pollution, Public Health Care, and Life Expectancy when Inequality Matters. (g) Uncertain Climate Policy and the Green Paradox. (h) Uniqueness Versus Indeterminacy in the Tragedy of the Commons - A ''Geometric'' Approach. 2. Chapter: OPTIMAL EXTRACTION OF RESOURCES: (j) Dynamic Behavior of Oil Importers and Exporters Under Uncertainty. (k) Robust Control of a Spatially Distributed Commercial Fishery. (l) On the Effect of Resource Exploitation on Growth: Domestic Innovation vs. Technological Diffusion Through Trade. (m) Forest Management and Biodiversity in Size-Structured Forests Under Climate Change. (n) Carbon Taxes and Comparison of Trading Regimes in Fossil Fuels. (o) Landowning, Status and Population Growth. (p) Optimal Harvesting of Size-Structured Biological Populations.

  11. Optimizing accelerator technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research and training network, oPAC, is bringing together 22 universities, research centres and industry partners to optimize particle accelerator technology. CERN is one of the network’s main partners and will host 5 early-stage researchers in the BE department.   A diamond detector that will be used for novel beam diagnostics applications in the oPAC project based at CIVIDEC. (Image courtesy of CIVIDEC.) As one of the largest Marie Curie Initial Training Networks ever funded by the EU – to the tune of €6 million – oPAC extends well beyond the particle physics community. “Accelerator physics has become integral to research in almost every scientific discipline – be it biology and life science, medicine, geology and material science, or fundamental physics,” explains Carsten P. Welsch, oPAC co-ordinator based at the University of Liverpool. “By optimizing the operation of accelerators, all of these...

  12. Optimizing use of library technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M; Killingsworth, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes optimizing the use of library technology.

  13. Economic optimization of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWames, R.E.; Grantham, L.F.; Guon, J.; McKisson, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presented here addresses the impact of waste management system operating parameters on overall system economics. The conclusion reached by this study is that currently available technology and proposed operating conditions do not lead to optimum economics. The decision to utilize the current reference waste package and non-optimum operating conditions will cause added expenditures of 7 billion dollars over the next several decades. Further, this paper points out that optimum economics is not necessarily incompatible with improved system safety

  14. Economic optimization in new distribution system construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freese, J.

    1994-01-01

    The substantial capital investment and the long-term nature of extension projects make it necessary, in particular for local utilities, to intensively prepare their construction projects. Resulting from this context, the PC-program MAFIOSY for calculating and optimizing the economics of pipeline extension projects has been developed to facilitate the decision-making process and to ensure an optimum decision. The optimum structure of a distribution network to be designed for a new service area is defined using the four-phase method set out below: Situation Audit; Determination of Potential; Determination of Economic and Technical Parameters; Optimization. (orig.)

  15. The Pealization of the Most Economical and optimized Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUBin

    2002-01-01

    In order to plow an access to low cost automation,the method to set up the most economical and optimized control system is studied.Such a system is achieved by adopting the field bus technologies based on net connection to form the hierarchical architecture and employing genetic algorithm to intelliently optimize the parameters of the topology structure at the field execution level and the parameters of a local controller,Praxios has proved that this realization can shorten the system development cycle,improve the systtem's reliability,and achieve conspicuous social economic benefits.

  16. Design and optimization of sustainable process technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Qin, Fen; Yamakawa, Celina Kiyomi

    has been then considered a keypoint to achieve such purposes, being also able to result in potential environmental, economic, and social benefits. In this sense, the Biomass Conversion and Bioprocess TechnologyGroup (BCBT) has been working on the development of newstrategies for the use of biomass......, minimizing the costs and maximizing the efficiencyand productivity.Once the optimal conditions are identified, the process scale-up can be then evaluated. This could be translated in a faster time to market for newprocess technologies....

  17. Economic optimization of PWR cores with ROSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, F.C.M.; Wakker, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    The core-loading pattern is decisive for fuel cycle economics, fuel safety parameters and economic planning for future cycles. ROSA, NRG's loading pattern optimization code system for PWRs, has proven for over a decade to be a valuable tool to reactor operators for improving their fuel management economics. ROSA uses simulated annealing as loading pattern optimization technique, in combination with an extremely fast 3-D neutronics code for loading pattern calculations. The code is continuously extended with new optimization parameters and rules. This paper outlines recent developments of the ROSA code system and discusses results of PWR specific applications of ROSA. Core designs with a large variety of challenging constraints have been realized with ROSA. As a typical example, for the 193 assembly, Vantage 5H/RFA-2 fueled TVA's Watts Bar unit 1, a cycle 4 core with 76 feed assemblies was designed. This was followed by a high-energy cycle 5 with only 77 feed assemblies and approximately 535 days of natural cycle length. Subsequently, an economical core using 72 bundles was designed for cycle 6. This resulted in considerable savings in the cost of feed assemblies for reloads. The typical accuracy of ROSA compared to results of license codes in within ±0.02 for normalized assembly powers, ±0.03 for maximum enthalpy rise hot channel factor (F ΔH ), and ±3 days for natural cycle length. (author)

  18. Science and Technology and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberte, Mario B.

    1988-01-01

    Dealing with science and technology and economic development, this paper describes the relationship between technological capability and the degree of economic development. It analyzes the structure of the Philippine economy and the structural changes that have taken place since the 1970. It also investigates the impact of economic developments and technological advances in other countries on the Philippine economy. A discussion on possible research collaboration among PIDS, DOST and regional...

  19. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Pietro Elia; Li, Hailong; Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Yan, Jinyue

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availabil...

  20. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  1. Economic risk analysis and critical comparison of optimal biorefinery concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, eight optimal biorefinery concepts for biofuels and biochemicals production are critically analyzed and compared in terms of their techno-economic performance and associated economic risks against historical market fluctuations. The investigated biorefinery concepts consider...... different combinations of biomass feedstock (lignocellulosic versus algal) and conversion technologies (biochemical versus thermochemical). In addition, the economic performance of each biorefinery concept is tested assuming a sudden drop in oil prices in order to compare the fitness/survival of each...... concept under extreme market disturbances. The analyses reveal amongst others that: (i) lignocellulosic bioethanol production is not economically feasible considering a drop in oil prices (a negative internal rate of return); (ii) a multi-product biorefinery concept, where bioethanol is upgraded to higher...

  2. Enhanced OTSG economics optimizing CAPEX + OPEX + Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Peter [KTI Engineered to Perform (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This presentation gives an insight into the economics involved in producing once-through steam (OTSG) generators in Canada and it offers a proposal for improving returns in the industry. The objective of this presentation was to show the importance of developing OTSG manufacturing based on the future of this technology. The growing demand for OTSG by oil companies was presented, suggesting that this is a good time to put effort into developing more efficient designs. After the background of this technology was discussed, several economical aspects of the process were addressed; for instance, reducing capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operation expenditure (OPEX), outsourcing production, and project scheduling and execution. Initiatives proposed included: reducing plot size, producing larger OTSGs, reducing downtime, using alternative fuels, forming a global manufacturing network, and avoiding order blockage. Finally, the idea of designing a portable OTSG was proposed, showing its flexibility in oil extraction projects.

  3. On the economic attractiveness of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of wind and solar power technologies is often evaluated in public debates by comparing levelized costs of electricity. This is, however, incorrect, as doing so neglects the economic value of technologies. Similarly, renewable energy support schemes are often designed to incentivize investors to only account for the marginal economic costs (MEC) but not for the marginal economic value (MEV el ) of renewable energy technologies, i.e., the revenue from selling electricity on the wholesale market during the unit's technical lifetime. In this paper, it is shown that the net marginal economic costs per kWh (NMEC) - defined as the difference between the MEC and the MEV el per kWh - should serve as the reference when discussing the economic attractiveness of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, renewable energy support schemes should incentivize investments in technologies and regions with the lowest net marginal economic costs per kWh (NMEC), as otherwise excess costs occur. This is demonstrated using the example of Germany and its technology- and region-specific wind and solar power targets for 2020. By applying a linear electricity system optimization model, Germany's technology- and region-specific wind and solar power targets for 2020 are found to cause excess costs of more than 6.6 bn Euro 2010 . These are driven by comparatively high NMEC (low economic attractiveness) of offshore wind and solar power in comparison to onshore wind power in Germany up to 2020.

  4. Economic optimization of offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauling, T.

    1996-09-01

    The study on the title subject continues the development of a cost model for offshore wind farms started at the Institute for Wind Energy (IW) in 1995, and applies it on different kinds of cost analyses. The model will be considered within the European research project 'Structural and Economic Optimization of Bottom-Mounted Offshore Wind Energy Converters' (Opti-OWECS, JOR3-CT95-0087) co-ordinated by the IW, where also the cost analyses and optimization will be extended. The conclusions of the investigations have already been presented at the European Union Wind Energy Conference '96 at Goeteborg, Sweden. In Chapter 1, a short overview of former offshore studies and projects is given, especially those dealing with cost analysis. Typical cost breakdowns of offshore and onshore wind farms are compared. Chapter 2 contains a brief description of the cost model in its present state. The recent improvements and extensions are documented in Chapter 3, and a validation by means of a recalculation of two former offshore studies is carried out in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, four different offshore sites are compared with respect to the same farm size and an optimized farm design: Jade in the German part of the North Sea near Wilhelmshafen; Swansea Bay in the Bristol Channel at the British Atlantic Coast; Rostock at the German Baltic Coast, and IJmuiden in the Dutch part of the North Sea. In Chapter 6, a sensitivity study is carried out for a variety of site, design and economical parameters. The results of this project are summarized in Chapter 7, and an outlook is given in Chapter 8. The appendix contains among others a description of the SCOptiM2 code, where the model is implemented, as well as data obtained from the parameter studies and design optimizations. 30 figs., 8 tabs., 6 appendices, 40 refs

  5. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, P.E.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Liu, J.; Yan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimization procedure for photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • An hourly simulation model is the basis of the optimization procedure. • The effectiveness of the new optimization approach has been tested to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availability of groundwater resources and the effect of water supply on crop yield, but also the investment cost of photovoltaic water pumping system and the revenue from crop sale. A simulation model, which combines the dynamics of photovoltaic water pumping system, groundwater level, water supply, crop water demand and crop yield, is employed during the optimization. To prove the effectiveness of the new optimization approach, it has been applied to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. Results show that the optimal configuration can guarantee continuous operations and lead to a substantial reduction of photovoltaic array size and consequently of the investment capital cost and the payback period. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of the prices of photovoltaic modules and forage on the optimization. Results show that the water resource is a determinant factor

  6. Aircraft technology portfolio optimization using ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Frederic J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-11-01

    Technology portfolio selection is a combinatorial optimization problem often faced with a large number of combinations and technology incompatibilities. The main research question addressed in this article is to determine if Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is better suited than Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and Simulated Annealing (SA) for technology portfolio optimization when incompatibility constraints between technologies are present. Convergence rate, capability to find optima, and efficiency in handling of incompatibilities are the three criteria of comparison. The application problem consists of finding the best technology portfolio from 29 aircraft technologies. The results show that ACO and GAs converge faster and find optima more easily than SA, and that ACO can optimize portfolios with technology incompatibilities without using penalty functions. This latter finding paves the way for more use of ACO when the number of constraints increases, such as in the technology and concept selection for complex engineering systems.

  7. NBIC-TECHNOLOGIES GET OVER ECONOMIC DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Akaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is reflecting results of forecasting scenario of economic growth and shown that NBIC-technologies, due to the powerful synergetic effect generating by a mutual convergence of nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies, will give strong acceleration pace of technological progress, which exceeded the rate achieved in the previous upward wave of 5th great Kondratieff ’s economic cycle (1982–2006. On the base of theUSAeconomy data, the results of forecasting shows that the rate of technological progress will increase from 2,2% in 1980 to 3,5% in the 2030 s. 

  8. Technological economics: innovation, project management, and technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, F R

    1981-06-01

    The relationship between economics and technology, as well as their interaction in production, productivity, project management, and in technology transfer processes are reviewed. Over the last two decades there has been an increasing interest by economists in the technologist's view of technical change and its mechanisms. The author looks at the zone between technology and economics, the technological economics, and discusses the theory of innovation recently sketched out by Nelson and Winter. The relevance to project management and technology transfer of contemporary writing by economists leads to the view that there are welcome signs of a convergence of the conceptual models now emerging and the practical problems of technology management and movement. Economists now seem more willing to come to terms with technology than technologists with economics. The economic significance of the multitudes of technically unglamorous activities in development work is seriously neglected as a result of over-emphasis on the spectacular technological break. If economic elegance were to be admitted to the criteria of success, one might get a significant improvement in the engineering of technological change. 29 references, 4 figure.

  9. Optimization of catalyst system reaps economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roy, C.F.; Hanshaw, M.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Malik, T.; Kooiman, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Champlin Refining and Chemicals Inc. is learning to optimize its catalyst systems for hydrotreating Venezuelan gas oils through a program of research, pilot plant testing, and commercial unit operation. The economic results of this project have been evaluated, and the benefits are most evident in improvements in product yields and qualities. The project has involved six commercial test runs, to date (Runs 10-15), with a seventh run planned. A summary of the different types of catalyst systems used in the test runs, and the catalyst philosophy that developed is given. Runs 10 and 11 used standard CoMo and NiMo catalysts for heavy gas oils hydrotreating. These catalysts had small pore sizes and suffered high deactivation rates because of metals contamination. When it was discovered that metals contamination was a problem, catalyst options were reviewed

  10. Technology Transfer, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the long-run equilibrium relationship between various international factors and economic growth, as well as to assess the short-term impact of inward FDI, trade and economic growth on international technology transfer to Nigeria. To achieve this, the study used a time series data from ...

  11. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From this perspective, efforts can be made to enhance each of the different elements, knowing how they relate in the entire development paradigm. This approach will improve the impact of ICT on economic development. Keywords: information and communication technologies, economic development, developing countries ...

  12. Clean coal technology optimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laseke, B.A.; Hance, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 contains provisions for the mitigation of acid rain precipitation through reductions in the annual emission of the acid rain precursors of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ). These provisions will affect primarily existing coal-fired power-generating plants by requiring nominal reductions of 5 millon and 10 million tons of SO 2 by the years 1995 and 2000, respectively, and 2 million tons of NO x by the year 2000 relative to the 1980 and 1985-87 reference period. The 1990 CAAA Title IV provisions are extremely complex in that they establish phased regulatory milestones, unit-level emission allowances and caps, a mechanism for inter-utility trading of emission allowances, and a system of emission allowance credits based on selection of control option and timing of its implementation. The net result of Title IV of the 1990 CAAA is that approximately 147 gigawatts (GW) of generating capacity is eligible to retrofit SO 2 controls by the year 2000. A number of options are available to bring affected boilers into compliance with Title IV. Market sharewill be influenced by technology performance and costs. These characteristics can be modeled through a bottom-up technology cost and performance optimization exercise to show their impact on the technology's potential market share. Such a model exists in the form of an integrated data base-model software system. This microcomputer (PC)-based software system consists of a unit (boiler)-level data base (ACIDBASE), a cost and performance engineering model (IAPCS), and a market forecast model (ICEMAN)

  13. Nuclear power economics and technology: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Intended for the non-specialist reader interested in energy and environmental policy matters, this report presents an overview of the current expert consensus on the status of nuclear power technology and its economic position. It covers the potential demand for nuclear energy, its economic competitivity, and the relevant aspects of reactor performance and future technological developments. The report provides an objective contribution to the ongoing scientific and political debate about what nuclear power can offer, now and in the future, in meeting the world's growing demand for energy and in achieving sustainable economic development. 24 refs., 18 figs;, 12 tabs., 5 photos

  14. Uranium enrichment. Technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.; Vanstrum, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R+D efforts on various processes. (author)

  15. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Jr., W. R.; Vanstrum, P. R.; Saire, D. E.; Gestson, D. K.; Peske, S. E.

    1982-08-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes.

  16. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Vanstrum, P.R.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  17. Economic technology of laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.

  18. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  19. Institutions, Technological Change and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corderí Novoa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories of economic growth try to explain variations in per capita income across countries by differences in capital accumulation and productivity. However, many scholars consider that integrating institutions into economic theory and economic history is an essential step in improving explanations of why some societies are richer than others. This paper develops the empirical and theoretical case that differences in institutions are the fundamental cause of differences in technological change (productivity, hence in economic growth. First, I give a definition of institutions and how they influence economic performance, from a New Institutional Economics point of view. Then, I introduce the theoretical framework based on the economics of ideas and endogenous growth models. Finally, I argue that R&D expenditures -a proxy for technological change- will vary across countries depending on some measures of institutional quality. In the end, this paper finds that stronger institutions (measured by an aggregate of institutional quality encourage greater R&D expenditures. At a disaggregate level, the rule of law is positively correlated and the regulatory burden is negatively correlated with R&D expenditures. Human capital level (measured by the tertiary and primary school enrolment rates has also a significant positive impact in R&D expenditures.

  20. Economic aspects of advanced energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, R.; Rodriguez, A.P.; Venkata, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced energy technologies span a wide variety of resources, techniques, and end-user requirements. Economic considerations are major factors that shape their harnessing and utilization. A discussion of the basic factors in the economic arena is presented, with particular emphasis on renewable energy technologies--photovoltaics, solar-thermal, wind-electric conversion, biomass utilization, hydro, and tidal and wave energy systems. The following are essential to determine appropriate energy system topologies: proper resource-need matching with an eye on the quality of energy requirements, integrated use of several resources and technologies, and a comprehensive consideration which includes prospecting, collection, conversion, transportation, distribution, storage and reconversion, end use, and subsequent waste management aspects. A few case studies are included to apprise the reader of the status of some of the key technologies and systems

  1. Energy-economical optimization of industrial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, A.; Saliba, S.; Franke, R.

    2015-01-01

    The holistic optimization of an industrial estate networks all electrical components of a location and combines energy trading, energy management and production processes. This allows to minimize the energy consumption from the supply network and to relieve the power grid and to maximize the profitability of the industrial self-generation. By analyzing the potential is detected and the cost of optimization solution is estimated. The generation-side optimization is supported through demand-side optimization (demand response). Through a real-time optimization the of Use of fuels is managed, controlled and optimized. [de

  2. Effective Teaching of Economics: A Constrained Optimization Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Patrik T.; Calonge, David Santandreu

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental tenets of economics is that decisions are often the result of optimization problems subject to resource constraints. Consumers optimize utility, subject to constraints imposed by prices and income. As economics faculty, instructors attempt to maximize student learning while being constrained by their own and students'…

  3. Structural modelling of economic growth: Technological changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukharev Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoclassical and Keynesian theories of economic growth assume the use of Cobb-Douglas modified functions and other aggregate econometric approaches to growth dynamics modelling. In that case explanations of economic growth are based on the logic of the used mathematical ratios often including the ideas about aggregated values change and factors change a priori. The idea of assessment of factor productivity is the fundamental one among modern theories of economic growth. Nevertheless, structural parameters of economic system, institutions and technological changes are practically not considered within known approaches, though the latter is reflected in the changing parameters of production function. At the same time, on the one hand, the ratio of structural elements determines the future value of the total productivity of the factors and, on the other hand, strongly influences the rate of economic growth and its mode of innovative dynamics. To put structural parameters of economic system into growth models with the possibility of assessment of such modes under conditions of interaction of new and old combinations is an essential step in the development of the theory of economic growth/development. It allows forming stimulation policy of economic growth proceeding from the structural ratios and relations recognized for this economic system. It is most convenient in such models to use logistic functions demonstrating the resource change for old and new combination within the economic system. The result of economy development depends on starting conditions, and on institutional parameters of velocity change of resource borrowing in favour of a new combination and creation of its own resource. Model registration of the resource is carried out through the idea of investments into new and old combinations.

  4. Technology and ecological economics. Promethean technology, Pandorian potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Bruce [AgResearch Ltd., Private Bag 3123, Hamilton (New Zealand); Jollands, Nigel [New Zealand Centre for Ecological Economics, Massey University and Landcare Research Ltd, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North (New Zealand)

    2006-03-15

    In considering social, economic and ecological impacts of new technologies it is essential to start from an understanding of human nature. This paper explores this issue drawing out some implications for ecological and neoclassical economics. The paper presents two key arguments. First, we argue that there is a growing tension between our evolved human nature and social structures and our emerging technological prowess. Modern technologies give us increasing power to manipulate the very axes of nature: space, time, energy, matter, and life. Technologies are now so powerful they give us abilities our ancestors would consider godlike. The question is posed: Are humans ready to wield the power of the gods? We have the knowledge, but do we have the wisdom? The myth of Prometheus and Pandora is considered as a metaphor for the interaction between technology, nature and universal aspects of human nature developed over eons of evolution. Second, we argue that even a 'technologically optimistic' scenario (employed by some economists) may not actually deliver Utopian outcomes. With technological advancement and diffusion there is a 'technological trickle down effect' whereby potent technologies, once available only to governments and powerful elites, become available to greater numbers of groups and individuals. The more accessible a technology, the more likely its social and ecological impacts will be shaped by the full range and extremes of human nature. These issues have implications for the development and regulation of Promethean technologies such as nuclear energy, genetic engineering and nanotechnology; technologies with unprecedented power and reach through nature. Development and diffusion of such technologies may also have implications for the ethics of the social structure of society. (author)

  5. Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, F.; Pal, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it

  6. Optimal control of a harmonic oscillator: Economic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janová, Jitka; Hampel, David

    2013-10-01

    Optimal control is a popular technique for modelling and solving the dynamic decision problems in economics. A standard interpretation of the criteria function and Lagrange multipliers in the profit maximization problem is well known. On a particular example, we aim to a deeper understanding of the possible economic interpretations of further mathematical and solution features of the optimal control problem: we focus on the solution of the optimal control problem for harmonic oscillator serving as a model for Phillips business cycle. We discuss the economic interpretations of arising mathematical objects with respect to well known reasoning for these in other problems.

  7. Dynamic optimization the calculus of variations and optimal control in economics and management

    CERN Document Server

    Kamien, Morton I

    2012-01-01

    Since its initial publication, this text has defined courses in dynamic optimization taught to economics and management science students. The two-part treatment covers the calculus of variations and optimal control. 1998 edition.

  8. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  9. Optimizing equine assisted reproductive technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onstein, W.K.

    2018-01-01

    Application of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is more common in the horse breeding industries, but there is still room for improvement. Embryo recovery rate after embryo flushing, embryo production rate after ovum pick-up (OPU) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation

  10. Wind turbines fundamentals, technologies, application, economics

    CERN Document Server

    Hau, Erich

    2013-01-01

    "Wind Turbines" addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields.  In its revised third edition, special emphasis has been given to the latest trends in wind turbine technology and design, such as gearless drive train concepts, as well as on new fields of application, in particular the offshore utilisation of wind energy. The author has gained experience over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics.

  11. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management...... waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system - illustrated...... with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Münster, M. [System Analysis Department, DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ravn, H. [RAM-løse edb, Æblevangen 55, 2765 Smørum (Denmark); Hedegaard, K.; Juul, N. [System Analysis Department, DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ljunggren Söderman, M. [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 53021, SE-40014 Gothenburg (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Optimizing waste treatment by incorporating LCA methodology. • Applying different objectives (minimizing costs or GHG emissions). • Prioritizing multiple objectives given different weights. • Optimum depends on objective and assumed displaced electricity production. - Abstract: This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management options. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritize several objectives given different weights. A simple illustrative case is analysed, covering alternative treatments of one tonne of residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system – illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model.

  13. Smart farming technologies - description, taxonomy and economic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balafoutis, Athanasios T.; Beck, Bert; Tsiropoulos, Zisis

    2017-01-01

    Precision Agriculture is a cyclic optimization process where data have to be collected from the field, analysed and evaluated and finally used for decision making for site-specific management of the field. Smart farming technologies (SFT ) cover all these aspects of precision agriculture and can...... comprise the delineation of management zones, decision support systems and farm management information system s. Finally, precision application technologies embrace variable-rate application technologies, precision irrigation and weeding and machine guidance. In this chapter, the reader can find...... a technical description of the technologies included in each category accompanied by a taxonomy of all SFT in terms of farming system type, cropping system, availability, level of investment and farmers’ motives to adopt them. Finally, the economic impact that each SFT has compared to conventional...

  14. Techno-economic design optimization of solar thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, G.

    2011-01-01

    A holistic view is essential in the engineering of technical systems. This thesis presents an integrative approach for designing solar thermal power plants. The methodology is based on a techno-economic plant model and a powerful optimization algorithm. Typically, contemporary design methods treat technical and economic parameters and sub-systems separately, making it difficult or even impossible to realize the full optimization potential of power plant systems. The approach presented here ov...

  15. Portfolio Optimization of Nanomaterial Use in Clean Energy Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth A; Babbitt, Callie W; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Moore, Sean T

    2018-04-03

    While engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly incorporated in diverse applications, risks of ENM adoption remain difficult to predict and mitigate proactively. Current decision-making tools do not adequately account for ENM uncertainties including varying functional forms, unique environmental behavior, economic costs, unknown supply and demand, and upstream emissions. The complexity of the ENM system necessitates a novel approach: in this study, the adaptation of an investment portfolio optimization model is demonstrated for optimization of ENM use in renewable energy technologies. Where a traditional investment portfolio optimization model maximizes return on investment through optimal selection of stock, ENM portfolio optimization maximizes the performance of energy technology systems by optimizing selective use of ENMs. Cumulative impacts of multiple ENM material portfolios are evaluated in two case studies: organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) for renewable energy and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles. Results indicate ENM adoption is dependent on overall performance and variance of the material, resource use, environmental impact, and economic trade-offs. From a sustainability perspective, improved clean energy applications can help extend product lifespans, reduce fossil energy consumption, and substitute ENMs for scarce incumbent materials.

  16. Economics-based optimal control of greenhouse tomato crop production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tap, F.

    2000-01-01

    The design and testing of an optimal control algorithm, based on scientific models of greenhouse and tomato crop and an economic criterion (goal function), to control greenhouse climate, is described. An important characteristic of this control is that it aims at maximising an economic

  17. Optimal weed management in crop rotations: incorporating economics is crucial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den F.; Gilligan, C.A.; Lemmen-Gerdessen, van J.C.; Gregoire, L.A.H.; Bosch, van den F.

    2010-01-01

    Although the effects of crop rotation sequence and length on weed population dynamics have been studied, it is not clear whether or not the best strategy, from a weed population dynamics point of view, is also the economic optimal strategy. It is also not clear which biological and economic

  18. Institutional Economic Reconstruction by Optimizing the Role of Middlemen

    OpenAIRE

    Sudrajat, Jajat; Arani, Norasari

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to analize the role of middlemen in rural economic institution and formulate the economic development model through optimalization the role of middlemen. This study was done by conducting literature research. Data were analized by using qualitative method. The results of study conclude that middlemen have strategic positions in rural economic development although their role has negative and positive side. In evolving the positive side, there must be other institution which...

  19. Optimal dynamic economic dispatch of generation: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X.; Elaiw, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the research of the optimal power dynamic dispatch problem. The dynamic dispatch problem differs from the static economic dispatch problem by incorporating generator ramp rate constraints. There are two different formulations of this problem in the literature. The first formulation is the optimal control dynamic dispatch (OCDD) where the power system generation has been modeled as a control system and optimization is done in the optimal control setting with respect to the ramp rates as input variables. The second one is a later formulation known as the dynamic economic dispatch (DED) where optimization is done with respect to the dispatchable powers of the committed generation units. In this paper we first outline the two formulations, then present an overview on the mathematical optimization methods, Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques and hybrid methods used to solve the problem incorporating extended and complex objective functions or constraints. The DED problem in deregulated electricity markets is also reported. (author)

  20. Economic optimization and evolutionary programming when using remote sensing data

    OpenAIRE

    Shamin Roman; Alberto Gabriel Enrike; Uryngaliyeva Ayzhana; Semenov Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    The article considers the issues of optimizing the use of remote sensing data. Built a mathematical model to describe the economic effect of the use of remote sensing data. It is shown that this model is incorrect optimisation task. Given a numerical method of solving this problem. Also discusses how to optimize organizational structure by using genetic algorithm based on remote sensing. The methods considered allow the use of remote sensing data in an optimal way. The proposed mathematical m...

  1. Economically oriented process optimization in waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroušek, Josef

    2014-06-01

    A brief report on the development of novel apparatus is presented. It was verified in a commercial scale that a new concept of anaerobic fermentation followed by continuous pyrolysis is technically and economically feasible to manage previously enzymatically hydrolyzed waste haylage in huge volumes. The design of the concept is thoroughly described, documented in figures, and biochemically analyzed in detail. Assessment of the concept shows that subsequent pyrolysis of the anaerobically fermented residue allows among biogas to produce also high-quality biochar. This significantly improves the overall economy. In addition, it may be assumed that this applied research is consistent with previous theoretical assumptions stating that any kind of aerobic or anaerobic fermentation increases the microporosity of the biochar obtained.

  2. Optimizing Technology-Oriented Constructional Paramour's of complex dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Creating optimal vibro systems requires sequential solving of a few problems: selecting the basic pattern of dynamic actions, synthesizing the dynamic active systems, optimizing technological, technical, economic and design parameters. This approach is illustrated by an example of a high-efficiency vibro system synthesized for forming building structure components. When using only one single source to excite oscillations, resonance oscillations are imparted to the product to be formed in the horizontal and vertical planes. In order to obtain versatile and dynamically optimized parameters, a factor is introduced into the differential equations of the motion, accounting for the relationship between the parameters, which determine the frequency characteristics of the system and the parameter variation range. This results in obtaining non-sophisticated mathematical models of the system under investigation, convenient for optimization and for engineering design and calculations as well

  3. Economic dispatch optimization algorithm based on particle diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Li; Romero, Carlos E.; Yao, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dispatch model that considers fuel, emissions control and wind power cost is built. • An optimization algorithm named diffusion particle optimization (DPO) is proposed. • DPO was used to analyze the impact of wind power risk and emissions on dispatch. - Abstract: Due to the widespread installation of emissions control equipment in fossil fuel-fired power plants, the cost of emissions control needs to be considered, together with the plant fuel cost, in providing economic power dispatch of those units to the grid. On the other hand, while using wind power decreases the overall power generation cost for the power grid, it poses a risk to a traditional grid, because of its inherent stochastic characteristics. Therefore, an economic dispatch optimization model needs to consider all of the fuel cost, emissions control cost and wind power cost for each of the generating unit conforming the fleet that meets the required grid power demand. In this study, an optimization algorithm referred as diffusion particle optimization (DPO) is proposed to solve such complex optimization problem. In this algorithm, Brownian motion theory is used to guide the movement of particles so that the particles can search for an optimal solution over the entire definition region. Several benchmark functions and power grid system data were used to test the performance of DPO, and compared to traditional algorithms used for economic dispatch optimization, such as, particle swarm optimization and artificial bee colony algorithm. It was found that DPO has less probability to be trapped in local optimums. According to results of different power systems DPO was able to find economic dispatch solutions with lower costs. DPO was also used to analyze the impact of wind power risk and fossil unit emissions coefficients on power dispatch. The result are encouraging for the use of DPO as a dynamic tool for economic dispatch of the power grid.

  4. Economic dispatch using particle swarm optimization. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahor, Amita; Rangnekar, Saroj; Prasad, Vishnu

    2009-01-01

    Electrical power industry restructuring has created highly vibrant and competitive market that altered many aspects of the power industry. In this changed scenario, scarcity of energy resources, increasing power generation cost, environment concern, ever growing demand for electrical energy necessitate optimal economic dispatch. Practical economic dispatch (ED) problems have nonlinear, non-convex type objective function with intense equality and inequality constraints. The conventional optimization methods are not able to solve such problems as due to local optimum solution convergence. Meta-heuristic optimization techniques especially particle swarm optimization (PSO) has gained an incredible recognition as the solution algorithm for such type of ED problems in last decade. The application of PSO in ED problem, which is considered as one of the most complex optimization problem has been summarized in present paper. (author)

  5. Thermodynamic and economic optimization of a solar-powered Stirling engine for micro-cogeneration purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ana C.; Nunes, Manuel L.; Teixeira, José C.F.; Martins, Luís A.S.B.; Teixeira, Senhorinha F.C.F.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-cogeneration systems are a promising technology for improving the energy efficiency near the end user, allowing the optimal use of the primary energy sources and significant reductions in carbon emissions. Its use, still incipient, has a great potential for applications in the residential sector. This study aims to develop a methodology for the thermal-economic optimization of micro cogeneration units using Stirling engine as prime mover and concentrated solar energy as the heat source. The thermal-economic optimization was formulated considering the maximization of the annual worth from the system operation, subjected to the nonlinear thermodynamic and economic constraints. The physical model includes the limitations in the heat transfer processes and losses due to the pumping effects and the costing methodology was defined considering a purchase cost equation representative of each system component. Geometric and operational parameters were selected as decision variables. Numerical simulations were developed in MatLab"® programming language and the Generalized Pattern Search optimization algorithm with MADSPositiveBasis2N was used in the determination of the optimal solution. A positive annual worth for the defined input simulation conditions and the economic analysis disclosed a system, economically attractive, with a payback period of approximately 10 years. - Highlights: • Application of optimization methods to model a renewable powered Stirling engine. • The aim is to optimize design of each plant-component for the best economical outcome. • The objective function is the maximization of annual worth of micro-CHP system. • The optimal solution is sensitive to electricity feed-in-tariffs and fuel prices fluctuations. • The optimal solution is economically attractive, with a payback period of ≈10 years.

  6. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.

    1995-01-01

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a 'sustainable city'; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined 'recipe' is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs

  7. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Economics Dept.; Nijkamp, P. [Dept. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a `sustainable city`; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined `recipe` is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs.

  8. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-07-01

    In order to plan for potential CO{sub 2} mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO{sub 2} mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO{sub 2} and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} sequestration, including captured CO{sub 2} storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO{sub 2} sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO{sub 2} sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO{sub 2}. No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO{sub 2} sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget.

  9. Infinite-horizon optimal control problems in economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aseev, Sergei M; Besov, Konstantin O; Kryazhimskii, Arkadii V

    2012-04-30

    This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  10. Infinite-horizon optimal control problems in economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aseev, Sergei M; Besov, Konstantin O; Kryazhimskii, Arkadii V

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  11. Economics and technology in international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume presents the main address, the lectures and the discussions of the symposium. The papers presented to the symposium were the following: the Draft Convention on the Law of the Sea and problems of the international deep seabed regime; developments in science and technology, as a challenge to international law; modern fishery engineering and its impact on international law; the EEC agricultural market - a case study of European Law; problems of international law in connection with a new system of the world economy; the GATT and a new world economic system; the Third World and UNCTAD; international disaster relief and mutual assistance in case of accidents, especially with a view to Atomic Energy Law; organisation, scope and limits of international co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  12. Air conditioning with methane: Efficiency and economics optimization parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrullo, R.; Sasso, M.; Sibilio, S.; Vanoli, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency and economics evaluation method for methane fired cooling systems. Focus is on direct flame two staged absorption systems and alternative engine driven compressor sets. Comparisons are made with conventional vapour compression plants powered by electricity supplied by the national grid. A first and second law based thermodynamics analysis is made in which fuel use coefficients and exergy yields are determined. The economics analysis establishes annual energy savings, unit cooling energy production costs, payback periods and economics/efficiency optimization curves useful for preliminary feasibility studies

  13. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul, N.; Münster, M.; Ravn, H.; Söderman, M. Ljunggren

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of main optimization tools in the field of waste management. • Different optimization methods are applied. • Different fractions are analyzed. • There is focus on different parameters in different geographical regions. • More research is needed which encompasses both recycling and energy solutions. - Abstract: Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives

  14. Real-Time Optimization for Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Edlund, Kristian; Frison, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an efficient homogeneous and self-dual interior-point method for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control. To exploit structure in the optimization problems, the algorithm employs a highly specialized Riccati iteration procedure. Simulations show...

  15. An Optimization Approach to the Dynamic Allocation of Economic Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, R.J.A.; Goovaerts, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We propose an optimization approach to allocating economic capital, distinguishing between an allocation or raising principle and a measure for the risk residual. The approach is applied both at the aggregate (conglomerate) level and at the individual (subsidiary) level and yields an integrated

  16. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul, N., E-mail: njua@dtu.dk [DTU Management, Risø Campus, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Münster, M., E-mail: maem@dtu.dk [DTU Management, Risø Campus, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Ravn, H., E-mail: hans.ravn@aeblevangen.dk [RAM-løse edb, Æblevangen 55, 2765 Smørum (Denmark); Söderman, M. Ljunggren, E-mail: maria.ljunggren@chalmers.se [Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Review of main optimization tools in the field of waste management. • Different optimization methods are applied. • Different fractions are analyzed. • There is focus on different parameters in different geographical regions. • More research is needed which encompasses both recycling and energy solutions. - Abstract: Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives.

  17. Challenges when Performing Economic Optimization of Waste Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans

    2011-01-01

    New investments in waste treatment facilities are needed due to a number of factors including continuously increasing waste amounts, political demands for efficient utilization of the waste resources in terms of recycling or energy production, and decommissioning of existing waste treatment...... facilities due to age and stricter environmental regulation. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies will be economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing...... in multi criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented and the main challenges and the crucial parameters to take into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both...

  18. Institutional Economic Reconstruction by Optimizing the Role of Middlemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajat Sudrajat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to analize the role of middlemen in rural economic institution and formulate the economic development model through optimalization the role of middlemen. This study was done by conducting literature research. Data were analized by using qualitative method. The results of study conclude that middlemen have strategic positions in rural economic development although their role has negative and positive side. In evolving the positive side, there must be other institution which has capability to substitute part of middlemen role. That is microfinance institution (MFIs which also play the role as an empowerment institution. In loan mechanism, the middlemen can be functioned as a credit guarantee institution. Credit guarantee from middlemen is not only as a contract in agriculture product marketing, but also as the supervision way to create obedience in loan repayment by farmers. The implementation of this pattern is purposed to nurture the social capital in rural economic system.

  19. The economics of aquifer storage recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, R.; Pyne, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) technology is increasingly being utilized around the world for storing water underground through one or more wells during wet months and other times when water is available for storage. The water is then recovered from the same wells when needed to meet a growing variety of water supply objectives. The economics of ASR constitute the principal reason for its increasing utilization. ASR unit capital costs are typically less than half those of other water supply and water storage alternatives. Unit operating costs are usually only slightly greater than for conventional production well-fields. Marginal costs for ASR storage and recovery provide a powerful tool for making more efficient use of existing infrastructure, providing water supply sustainability and reliability at relatively low cost. The opportunity exists for a careful analysis of the net present value of ASR well-fields, addressing not only the associated capital and operating costs but also the value of the benefits achieved for each of the water supply objectives at each site. (Author)

  20. The economics of aquifer storage recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, R.; Pyne, G.

    2014-10-01

    Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) technology is increasingly being utilized around the world for storing water underground through one or more wells during wet months and other times when water is available for storage. The water is then recovered from the same wells when needed to meet a growing variety of water supply objectives. The economics of ASR constitute the principal reason for its increasing utilization. ASR unit capital costs are typically less than half those of other water supply and water storage alternatives. Unit operating costs are usually only slightly greater than for conventional production well-fields. Marginal costs for ASR storage and recovery provide a powerful tool for making more efficient use of existing infrastructure, providing water supply sustainability and reliability at relatively low cost. The opportunity exists for a careful analysis of the net present value of ASR well-fields, addressing not only the associated capital and operating costs but also the value of the benefits achieved for each of the water supply objectives at each site. (Author)

  1. Solar photovoltaic markets, economics, technology, and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, J.M.J.; Molinski, T.S. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)]|[Emerging Energy Systems, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    Solar Photovoltaics (PV) are solid state semiconductor electronic devices that transform infrared, visible, or ultraviolet light energy from the sun directly into electrical energy. Selenium was used to create the first solar cell in 1883. In 1954, Bell Laboratories developed the modern day silicon solar cell, whereby impurities were added to silicon through a process called doping. Silicon doped with boron results in a positive electrical charge, while silicon doped with phosphorous results in a negative electrical charge. The atom collision from photons in sunlight provides the necessary energy to free a trapped electron in the doped silicon, which then may flow through a wire creating an electric current. Many different materials besides silicon are used to create solar cells, such as plastics, organic compounds, and theoretically even special paints, while other doping agents besides boron and phosphorous are also used, such as arsenic and gallium. This paper provided an introduction to solar PV and world solar PV growth and markets. A review of solar PV economics was also included. In 2008, the total installed costs of solar photovoltaic cells were in the range of 7 to 10 Canadian dollars. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of solar PV were presented. Solar technologies under research and development were also discussed and assessed. It was concluded that although solar PV was one of the most expensive forms of renewable generation, there is great potential for solar PV to gain broader based application as costs continue to drop. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  2. Economic Optimization Analysis of Chengdu Electric Community Bus Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidong, Wang; Yun, Cai; Zhengping, Tan; Xiong, Wan

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the government has strongly supported and promoted electric vehicles and has given priority to demonstration and popularization in the field of public transport. The economy of public transport operations has drawn increasing attention. In this paper, Chengdu wireless charging pure electric community bus is used as the research object, the battery, air conditioning, driver’s driving behavior and other economic influence factors were analyzed, and optimizing the operation plan through case data analysis, through the reasonable battery matching and mode of operation to help businesses effectively save operating costs and enhance economic efficiency.

  3. Optimal control theory applications to management science and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Sethi, Suresh P

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control methods are used to determine the best ways to control a dynamic system. This book applies theoretical work to business management problems developed from the authors' research and classroom instruction. The thoroughly revised new edition has been refined with careful attention to the text and graphic material presentation. Chapters cover a range of topics including finance, production and inventory problems, marketing problems, machine maintenance and replacement, problems of optimal consumption of natural resources, and applications of control theory to economics. The book in

  4. An Optimization Study on Syngas Production and Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Faraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Syngas production in Gas-to-liquid (GTL process is focused in past by several researchers to increase the production with minimal capital and operating costs. In this study, syngas production process is simulated and optimized to increase its production and the economic analysis is studied for the proposed optimized process. Aspen HYSYS v8.4 is used for all process simulation work in this article. A new configuration is rigorously simulated while using auto-thermal reforming. Results exhibit a tremendous rise in production of syngas.

  5. Optimal pollution taxes and endogenous technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, I.W.H.

    1995-01-01

    The optimal pollution tax becomes complicated when allowance is made for endogenous innovation, under a patent system. However, if anything, it is below marginal environmental damages, to counteract monopoly pricing by the patent holder, the common pool effect associated with research and a possible excess of patent holder revenue over the social benefits from innovation when environmental damages are convex. In cases where patents are weak at securing appropriability, for example when rivals can easily imitate around patented technologies, awarding research prizes or contracts is probably more efficient than raising the pollution tax. 24 refs., 4 figs

  6. Economic growth and technological change : an evolutionary interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, B.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply insights from evolutionary economic theory to the question of what can explain recent trends in economic growth, with emphasis on the role of technological change. Obviously, a basic question that precedes this question is "what is evolutionary economic theory"? The

  7. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to

  8. Optimal Portfolio Strategy under Rolling Economic Maximum Drawdown Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of optimal portfolio strategy under the constraints of rolling economic maximum drawdown. A more practical strategy is developed by using rolling Sharpe ratio in computing the allocation proportion in contrast to existing models. Besides, another novel strategy named “REDP strategy” is further proposed, which replaces the rolling economic drawdown of the portfolio with the rolling economic drawdown of the risky asset. The simulation tests prove that REDP strategy can ensure the portfolio to satisfy the drawdown constraint and outperforms other strategies significantly. An empirical comparison research on the performances of different strategies is carried out by using the 23-year monthly data of SPTR, DJUBS, and 3-month T-bill. The investment cases of single risky asset and two risky assets are both studied in this paper. Empirical results indicate that the REDP strategy successfully controls the maximum drawdown within the given limit and performs best in both return and risk.

  9. The effect of optimal wall loads and blanket technologies on the cost of fusion electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, P.J.; Ward, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of trends in fusion economics based on technology, as well as, physics arguments. Based on relatively simple physics considerations, supported by detailed systems code calculations, it is shown that optimal wall loads are not high. The results of systems code calculations, focussing on the economic impact of different blanket technologies, are described. These suggest that the economically favourable thermodynamic efficiencies of some blankets capable of operating at higher temperatures may be counterbalanced by the economic penalties of shorter lifetimes

  10. Thermo economical optimization of sugar plants with environmental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, Mauricio; Mele, Fernando Daniel; Hernandez, Maria Rosa [Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (UNT), Tucuman (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia], Email: macolombo@herrera.unt.edu.ar; Gatica, Jorge [Cleveland State University (CSU), Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering], Email: j.gatica@csuohio.edu; Silveira, Jose Luz [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEG/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia], Email: joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper highlights the need for analysis and optimization techniques which can be applied to new energy systems and include considerations for environmental issues. These techniques have proven indispensable in dealing with the constrained optimization problem of finite natural resources and growing demands of energy. Within this framework, thermo economical optimization has gradually been brought to the forefront as a powerful tool in assisting the decision-making process. This work uses the technique of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) as a means to include environmental indexes in the optimization process. While most of the environmental approaches formulate the optimization problem aiming to reduce residue generation without assessing the impact of this reduction on related processes, LCA considers environmental issues as an integral part of the optimization problem. A sugar cane processing plant located in Tucuman (Argentina) is selected as a case study. This example serves to highlight the importance of formulating solutions that ensure an efficient use of a common fuel to meet useful heat, shaft power, and electricity demands. (author)

  11. An energetical and economic optimization of the facility management; Energetische und wirtschaftliche Optimierung der GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roon, Serafin von; Gobmaier, Thomas; Mauch, Wolfgang [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    In the context of a project promoted by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany), the data of the facility management of an office building were evaluated by means of computer assistance in order to determine the optimal operating parameters and connected energy potentials. The contribution under consideration reports on the approach used for the analysis of the data of facility management and illustrates them with the results of the project.

  12. Innovation diffusion, technological convergence and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    R. Andergassen; F. Nardini; M. Ricottilli

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the mechanics through which novel technological principles are developed and diffused throughout an economy consisting of a technologically heterogeneous ensemble of firms. In the model entrepreneurs invest in the discovery and in the diffusion of a technological principle and their profit flow depends on how many firms adopt the innovation and on how long it takes other entrepreneurs to improve it. We show that technological convergence emerges from the competition amo...

  13. Technical change and economic policy: science and technology in the new economic and social context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Links between scientific research, technological development, and economic growth by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development are analyzed. The analysis is broken into four parts: (1) The New Economic and Social Context; (2) Trends in R and D and Innovation; (3) Technological Change and the Economy; and (4) Conclusions and Recommendations. The long-term structural nature of many of the problems facing western Europe are emphasized, and the limitations of short-term-demand management strategies in solving them.

  14. A methodology for thermo-economic modeling and optimization of solid oxide fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazzi, Francesca; Autissier, Nordahl; Marechal, Francois M.A.; Favrat, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In the context of stationary power generation, fuel cell-based systems are being foreseen as a valuable alternative to thermodynamic cycle-based power plants, especially in small scale applications. As the technology is not yet established, many aspects of fuel cell development are currently investigated worldwide. Part of the research focuses on integrating the fuel cell in a system that is both efficient and economically attractive. To address this problem, we present in this paper a thermo-economic optimization method that systematically generates the most attractive configurations of an integrated system. In the developed methodology, the energy flows are computed using conventional process simulation software. The system is integrated using the pinch based methods that rely on optimization techniques. This defines the minimum of energy required and sets the basis to design the ideal heat exchanger network. A thermo-economic method is then used to compute the integrated system performances, sizes and costs. This allows performing the optimization of the system with regard to two objectives: minimize the specific cost and maximize the efficiency. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system of 50 kW integrating a planar SOFC is modeled and optimized leading to designs with efficiencies ranging from 34% to 44%. The multi-objective optimization strategy identifies interesting system configurations and their performance for the developed SOFC system model. The methods proves to be an attractive tool to be used both as an advanced analysis tool and as support to decision makers when designing new systems

  15. Technical and economic optimization study for HLW waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffes, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the technical and economic aspects of high level waste (HLW) management with the objective of optimizing the interim storage duration and the dimensions of the underground repository site. The procedure consisted in optimizing the economic criterion under specified constraints. The results are intended to identify trends and guide the choice from among available options; simple and highly flexible models were therefore used in this study, and only nearfield thermal constraints were taken into consideration. Because of the present uncertainty on the physicochemical properties of the repository environment and on the unit cost figures, this study focused on developing a suitable method rather than on obtaining definitive results. With the physical and economic data bases used for the two media investigated (granite and salt) the optimum values found show that it is advisable to minimize the interim storage time, and that the geological repository should feature a high degree of spatial dilution. These results depend to a considerable extent on the assumption of high interim storage costs

  16. Economic homogenization and heterogenization in the EU with the EMU - technological, sectoral and regional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    1999-01-01

    Traditional the arguments for the EMU have been founded in arguments from the theory of optimal currency unions. Even if that should be the case there would still be problems if technological development are characterized by increasing returns. In that case growing economic differences according ...

  17. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  18. Information technology boosts contractor's economic success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, M.; Vasey, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article will discuss the advantages of Information Technology (IT) and how one drilling contractor, Global Marine, has applied this technology. The company has applied it in an efficient manner which has provided business benefits and cost reductions that have helped its operations be more successful. The following are the different aspects of information technology that led to the contractor's success: cost reduction measures; migration to a client/server IT infrastructure; IT business benefits; and keys to obtaining business benefits from IT

  19. Agreement Technologies for Energy Optimization at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Briones, Alfonso; Chamoso, Pablo; De La Prieta, Fernando; Demazeau, Yves; Corchado, Juan M

    2018-05-19

    Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly common to deploy sensors in public buildings or homes with the aim of obtaining data from the environment and taking decisions that help to save energy. Many of the current state-of-the-art systems make decisions considering solely the environmental factors that cause the consumption of energy. These systems are successful at optimizing energy consumption; however, they do not adapt to the preferences of users and their comfort. Any system that is to be used by end-users should consider factors that affect their wellbeing. Thus, this article proposes an energy-saving system, which apart from considering the environmental conditions also adapts to the preferences of inhabitants. The architecture is based on a Multi-Agent System (MAS), its agents use Agreement Technologies (AT) to perform a negotiation process between the comfort preferences of the users and the degree of optimization that the system can achieve according to these preferences. A case study was conducted in an office building, showing that the proposed system achieved average energy savings of 17.15%.

  20. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    Partial Contents: Science and Technology Policy, Corporate Alliances, Corporate Strategies, East West Relations, Europe Asia Relations, Infrastruction, Budget, Semiconductors, Strategy, Government, Industrial Policy...

  1. Green technologies for the use of urban wastewater: economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Alfredo Gil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban sewage is one of the biggest polluters of water resources. For treatment, the usual conventional technologies (CT are based on civil and hydraulic engineering; more recently, green technologies (GT based on biology and ecology began to be developed. The aim of this study was to assess the economic aspects of these technologies using cost-benefit analysis. The economic benefits are derived from the sale of forest products and the environmental benefits of water decontamination, valued by the avoided cost method. The results of the study establish that GT have better commercial and economic performance than CT, and that the inclusion of environmental benefit significantly improves the results.

  2. Empirical Estimates in Economic and Financial Optimization Problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houda, Michal; Kaňková, Vlasta

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 29 (2012), s. 50-69 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/1610; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : stochastic programming * empirical estimates * moment generating functions * stability * Wasserstein metric * L1-norm * Lipschitz property * consistence * convergence rate * normal distribution * Pareto distribution * Weibull distribution * distribution tails * simulation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/houda-empirical estimates in economic and financial optimization problems.pdf

  3. The economic consequences of homo economicus: neoclassical economic theory and the fallacy of market optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calnitsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents a critique of the standard ascension from the rational agent to the optimal market in economic theory. Critiques of homo economicus are found unsatisfactory on grounds that its employment allows for the prediction of essential features of actual markets. using this same criterion we introduce Gary Becker’s essay, ‘irrational Behavior and economic Theory,’which demonstrated that the same features of markets could be derived from non-rational behaviour. Thus, non-rationality is equally predictive but is less restrictive than rationality. Once the assumption of rationality is relaxed, the concept of market optimality (though not market order must also be sacrificed.

  4. Curtailment of renewable generation: Economic optimality and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    The loss from curtailing generation based on renewable energy sources is generally seen as an unacceptable solution by the public. The main argument is that it is a loss of green energy and an economic loss to curtail generation with near zero marginal costs. However, this view could lead to overinvestment in grid infrastructure and underinvestment in renewable energy sources. This article argues that some curtailment of fluctuating (variable) generation is optimal. We address the possible contributions to total curtailment from involuntary and voluntary curtailment. The costs of curtailment in terms of lost generation are discussed based on market price and support levels including the rationale for compensating generators for losses. The extent of actual curtailment is illustrated by examples from different global markets. In general, both the value of the curtailed energy and the amount of curtailed energy relative to total fluctuating generation is low but rising. Single generators may be affected considerably if insufficient compensation measures are in place. In the future, optimal curtailment will increase along with an increased share of fluctuating renewable generation. Extending renewable generation comparatively cheaply can be achieved by the installation of additional capacity at offshore locations until optimal curtailment levels are reached. - Highlights: ► Curtailment of renewable generation can be optimal. ► Voluntary and involuntary curtailment categories. ► Compensation for involuntary curtailment should be provided. ► Asymmetrical balancing price provides incentive for voluntary curtailment. ► Network enforcement costs can be reduced per renewable generation.

  5. Promoting Economic Security through Information Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of economic insecurity is a global threat to national security. In Nigeria today, we have witness a lot of national security issues that risks the continued existence of the country as one indivisible political entity with many calling for disintegration. Hitherto, many terrorist networks have sprang up in many parts of ...

  6. Promoting Economic Security through Information Technology Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... The problem of economic insecurity is a global threat to national security. ... of the country as one indivisible political entity with many calling for disintegration. ..... The integration of ICT in agriculture can .... Table 4.2.7 Respondents by IT on Business propriety and trade .... of production, distribution and.

  7. Technology Transfer, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... Investment and Economic Growth in Nigeria. Omojola ... view of FDI and trade, towards a more friendly view, by using FDI and trade as ..... the automatically selected Schwarz Info Criterion and the maximum lags, in ..... National Bureau of Statistics [NBS], 2007, 'National account of Nigeria: 1981-. 2006' ...

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-24

    will be coordinated with other programmes such as " Agriculture and Agro-Industry" and "Industrial and Materials Technology (BRITE/EURAM [Bright...programme. Ethics Area 4: Research on Biomedical Ethics This will include legislation on bioethics and current ethics; the social impact of the...programme (i.e., any technological risks); assessing bioethical aspects of other EC R&D programmes; and establishing a European "ethical observatory

  9. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed

  10. Economic and environmental impacts of alternative transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This project has focused on comparing alternative transportation technologies in terms of their : environmental and economic impacts. The research is data-driven and quantitative, and examines the : dynamics of impact. We have developed new theory an...

  11. Hollywood's Conversion to Color: The Technological, Economic and Aesthetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindem, Forham A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the film industry's conversion to color cinematography in the period between the 1920s and 1960s. Cites economic considerations, technological modifications, and aesthetic preferences by audiences as factors in this development. (JMF)

  12. Economical Optimization of the Mechanized Longwall Faces with Top Coal Caving Mining, In Horizontal Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onica, Ilie; Mihăilescu, Viorel; Andrioni, Felicia

    2016-09-01

    To increase the economic and technical performances of the Jiu Valley hard coal mines, the top coal caving, in horizontal slices, mining methods (Bourbaki methods) were introduced, adapted to the local geo-mining conditions. This mining was successfully experimented by using classical technology, using the individual supports and coal blasting. In the future, it is planned to adopt the mechanized technology, with frame supports and shearers. The mechanized longwall faces with top coal caving mining, in horizontal slices, of coal seam no. 3 could be efficient only if the sizes of the top coal height and the panel length determine a minimum cost of production. Therefore, the goal of this paper is the optimization of these parameters, from a technical and economic point of view, taking into account the general model of the cost function, at the panel level. For that, it was necessary to make a certain sequence of analysis involving: technological unit establishment, purpose function and optimizing model. Thus, there attaining to the mathematical model of the unit cost, after determination of all the individual calculation articles, regarding the preparatory workings, coal face equipments, materials, energy, workforce, etc. Because of the complexity of the obtained technical and economic model, to determine the optimum sizes of the panel length and top coal height, it was necessary to archive a sensitivity analysis of the unit cost function to the main parameters implied into this mathematical model.

  13. Economic viability of biogas technology in a Bangladesh village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, W.K.; Lucas, N.J.D.

    1997-01-01

    We estimate energy consumption for domestic cooking and biogas energy resources for 21 clusters of households in a village. Data were analyzed on a cluster basis, with investments shared. Under the present conditions, biogas technology would not be economically viable. Economic analysis involving viability tools including additional benefits of biogas technology indicate that creating a market for local biogas would make such a project feasible. (Author)

  14. Block chain Technology:Concept of Digital Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ovais

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explain about blockchain technology and how to use of blockchain technology for modern economics practices. We focused on this paper to put the light on blockchain usage in some other areas of economy such as, governance and political decision making, public finance, financial institution & stock market trading, global trading and other economic activities. The literature showed that blockchain is rapidly growing at globally and increasing digital money for tran...

  15. Economic and ordinal benefits of Hydrogen Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannantoni, C.; Zoli, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing economic, environmental and energy investments is particularly suited for hydrogen technologies, because it makes it possible to calculate business returns, negative externalities and, above all, the economic benefits to the citizens: the monetizable positive externalities and the ordinal benefits, i.e. those which cannot be reduced to a simple monetary value. [it

  16. Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area:Community Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area, for 13 years of development, has made detailed work in building the investment environment, bold job in the management system innovation, full strengths in business recruitment and investment attacting,hard job in cultivating new point of economic growth.

  17. The economics of optimal health and productivity in the commercial dairy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, D T

    1999-08-01

    Dairy production practices are changing; in order to remain viable, producers must optimise the health and productivity of dairy herds in economic terms. Health care is important in economic terms because disease can substantially reduce the productivity of individual animals. Preventive disease control programmes can thus result in economic gains for the dairy producer. The author describes new approaches to preventing postpartum diseases and dealing with fertility problems which can result from these diseases. Other aspects of dairy production are also changing, employing new technologies where these are judged to be profitable. Innovations include: the use of bovine somatotropin; systematic breeding/culling programmes; new mathematical modelling techniques to determine optimum feed composition and to define optimal growth levels for accelerated heifer-rearing programmes; the use of computers to collect, store and analyse data on animal production and health; and semen selection programmes. Increasing awareness of bio-security is also vital, not least because of the large investment present in dairy herds. Whatever practices are employed, they must offer economic returns to producers that compete with alternative uses of capital. Optimal levels of disease control must be determined for a particular production situation, taking into account not only the economic health of the producer, but also the well-being of the animals.

  18. Thermodynamic and economic optimization of LNG mixed refrigerant processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mengyu; Khalilpour, Rajab; Abbas, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study performance and cost optimization of C3MR and DMR processes. • A new economic objective function is proposed to reduce both compression work and equipment size. • The comparison of C3MR and DMR processes is based on process configuration, performance, and cost. - Abstract: Natural gas liquefaction processes are energy and cost intensive. This paper performs thermodynamic and economic optimization of the mid-scale mixed refrigerant cycles including propane precooled mixed refrigerant (C3MR) and dual mixed refrigerant (DMR) processes. Four different objective functions in this study are selected: total shaft work consumption, total cost investment (TCI), total annualized cost (TAC), and total capital cost of compressors and main cryogenic exchangers (MCHEs). Total cost investment (TCI) is a function of two key variables: shaft work (W) and overall heat transfer coefficient and area (UA) of MCHEs. It is proposed for reducing energy consumption and simultaneously minimizing total capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operating expenditure (OPEX). Total shaft work objective function can result in a 44.5% reduction of shaft work for C3MR and a 48.6% reduction for DMR compared to their baseline values, but infinitely high UA of MCHEs. Optimal results show that total capital cost of compressors and MCHEs is more suitable than other objective functions for the objective of reducing both shaft work and UA. It reduces 14.5% of specific power for C3MR and 26.7% for DMR when achieving the relatively lower UA values than their baseline values. In addition, TCI and TAC can also reduce a certain amount of total shaft work at a finite increased UA

  19. Economic and process optimization of ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report demonstrates by computer simulation the economic advantages of extractive fermentation on an industrial scale compared to the best alternative technology currently available. The simulations were based on a plant capacity of 100 x 10 6 L/y of azeotropic ethanol. The simulation results were verified with a fully integrated, computer controlled extractive fermentation process demonstration unit based around a 7 L fermentor operated with a synthetic glucose medium and using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The system was also operated with natural substrates (blackstrap molasses and grain hydrolyzate). Preliminary tests with the organism Zymomonas mobilis were also carried out under extractive fermentation conditions.

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-11

    general-council president Rene Monory, commenting on Poitiers’s Futuroscope, explains that "We had no chance of catching up with the other French...in Compiegne; Vatine Technology Park in Rouen; Caen-Normandie Technopolis in Caen; Cite Descartes in Marne-la-Vallee; Brest Iroise in Brest; Quimper

  1. Franchising technologies for sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganebnykh Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes factors of environmental change that cause the need to form new forms of interaction between economically active market subjects for sustainable development of territories. The authors of the article analyze franchising as one of the most flexible forms of interaction in small business. Modern trends in small business show a gradual merger of the production of goods and their trade with the provision of services. It leads to the necessity to create a fundamentally new mechanism that meets the needs of the modern market. The article proposes a new complex model of franchising which combines all the specified forms.

  2. Economical motor protection using microcomputer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, N.

    1983-09-01

    A trend to design new motors closer to their design limits and the high cost of plant shutdown has increased the need for better protection of smaller three phase motors. A single chip microcomputer relay can be applied to replace thermal overloads which are of limited effectiveness on low and medium voltage machines with comprehensive, economical motor protection. The requirement for different protection features and how they are achieved is presented. All the protection features discussed are commercially available in a compact unit that uses a single chip microcomputer.

  3. Subtle mechanisms of growth: technology and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Arbix

    Full Text Available The article deals with obstacles faced by developing countries to reach economic development. Passivity in technological learning, low productivity in relation to developed economies, adoption of spurious competitive advantages and reproduction of technological delay are presented as challenges to overcome. It states that breaking the passive strategy is the only way for these countries to build a better future.

  4. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  5. Increased wood-fiber production: technology, economics, and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Bentley

    1973-01-01

    Forest tree improvement is a form of technological change, and it should be viewed as such. The economic objective of technological change is to increase productivity per dollar invested. This is accomplished through selection and breeding for increased growth rates or reduced losses to insects and disease. Programs which yield improved planting stock make forest...

  6. On the economics of technology diffusion and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy is an essential factor that fuels economic growth and serves human well-being. World energy use has grown enormously since the middle of the 19th century. This increase in the scale of energy demand comes at a certain price, including environmental externalities, such as the enhanced greenhouse effect. Notwithstanding the need for renewable energy sources, these environmental problems also necessitate further improvements in energy efficiency. Technological change plays a crucial role in realizing energy efficiency improvements and, hence, in ameliorating the conflict between economic growth and environmental quality. At the same time, it is known that not only innovation, but also diffusion of new technologies is a costly and lengthy process, and that many firms do not invest in best-practice technologies. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the inter. play between economic growth, energy use and technological change, with much emphasis on the adoption and diffusion of energy-saving technologies. The thesis presents a mix of theoretical and empirical analyses inspired by recent developments in economic theorizing on technological change that stress the role of accumulation and distribution of knowledge (learning), uncertainty, path dependency and irreversibility. The theoretical part of the study examines how several characteristics of technological change as well as environmental policy affect the dynamics of technology choice. The empirical part of the study explores long-run trends in energy- and labour productivity performance across a range of OECD countries at a detailed sectoral level

  7. [Decision modeling for economic evaluation of health technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho; Soares, Marta Oliveira; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2014-10-01

    Most economic evaluations that participate in decision-making processes for incorporation and financing of technologies of health systems use decision models to assess the costs and benefits of the compared strategies. Despite the large number of economic evaluations conducted in Brazil, there is a pressing need to conduct an in-depth methodological study of the types of decision models and their applicability in our setting. The objective of this literature review is to contribute to the knowledge and use of decision models in the national context of economic evaluations of health technologies. This article presents general definitions about models and concerns with their use; it describes the main models: decision trees, Markov chains, micro-simulation, simulation of discrete and dynamic events; it discusses the elements involved in the choice of model; and exemplifies the models addressed in national economic evaluation studies of diagnostic and therapeutic preventive technologies and health programs.

  8. Modeling and optimization of the lifetime of technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hritonenko, Natali

    1996-01-01

    Modern economic growth is characterized by structural changes based on the introduction of new technologies into economics. The replacement and renova­ tion of technologies in industrial environments undergoing technical change is clearly one of the key aspects of economic development. The mathematical modeling of evolutionary economics under technical change (TC) has been rigorously considered by many authors during last decades. There is a wide variety of economic approaches and models describing different aspects of technical change. Among these are the models of embodied technical progress [19], [35], [70], [129], endogenous growth models [94], [102], the models of technological innovations [31], [32], [41], and others. The perspective self­ organization evolutionary approach is developed in [20], [38], [122], [123], [124], [126], which unites the aspects of diffusion of new technologies, technological and behavioral diversity of firms, learning mechanisms, age-dependent effects, and other important fea...

  9. Economic efficiency simulation for optimized management of pressure electrolysers in hybrid power plant systems. Prognosis and hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, P.; Ziems, C.; Tannert, D.; Voigt, A.; Fischer, U.; Krautz, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the research at the H 2 Research Centre of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg feasibility studies are carried out on the use of electrolysis technology in conjunction with fluctuating wind power fed to a pressure electrolysis apparatus. The aim of the analysis is an economically optimized operating strategy of the system consisting of wind farm, alkaline pressure electrolyser, hydrogen storage and reconversion. For this purpose, an energy economics tool was created. [de

  10. Understanding energy consumption: Beyond technology and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, H.; Shove, E.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes two years of efforts among a cross-disciplinary group of senior researchers to bring social and cultural perspectives to modeling of household energy consumption. The work has been organized by the Center for Energy Studies of the University of Geneva. The researchers represent both the physical and social sciences, several institutions and a number of countries. The initiative was based on an acknowledgement of the failure of technical and economic models to explain consumption or more importantly, how consumption patterns change. Technical and economic models most often either ignore social and cultural issues or reduce them to parameters of other variables. An important objective for the Geneva Group has been to engage modelers and social scientists in a dialogue which brings social and cultural context to the fore. The process reveals interesting insights into the frictions of cross-disciplinary interaction and the emergence of new perspectives. Various classical modeling approaches have been discussed and rejected. Gradually, a framework has emerged which says something about the appropriate institutions and actors which contribute to consumption patterns; about how they are related; and finally about how the interinstitutional relationships and the consumption patterns themselves change. A key point of convergence is that a complete understanding of energy end-use will not be possible from an analysis directed at the point of end use alone. The analysis must incorporate what happens inside institutions like manufacturers, retailers, and public policy organizations as well as how those organizations interact with consumers, including media and advertising. Progress towards a better understanding of energy consumption requires a greater engagement of social scientists with these heretofore little explored actors an relationships.

  11. Coating material innovation in conjunction with optimized deposition technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolze, M.; Leitner, K.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrating on physical vapour deposition methods several examples of recently developed coating materials for optical applications were studied for film deposition with optimized coating technologies: mixed evaporation materials for ion assisted deposition with modern plasma ion sources, planar metal and oxide sputter targets for Direct Current (DC) and Mid-Frequency (MF) pulsed sputter deposition and planar and rotatable sputter targets of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) for large-area sputter deposition. Films from specially designed titania based mixed evaporation materials deposited with new plasma ion sources and possible operation with pure oxygen showed extended ranges of the ratio between refractive index and structural film stress, hence there is an increased potential for the reduction of the total coating stress in High-Low alternating stacks and for coating plastics. DC and MF-pulsed sputtering of niobium metal and suboxide targets for optical coatings yielded essential benefits of the suboxide targets in a range of practical coating conditions (for absent in-situ post-oxidation ability): higher refractive index and deposition rate, better reproducibility and easier process control, and the potential for co-deposition of several targets. Technological progress in the manufacture of rotatable indium tin oxide (ITO) targets with regard to higher wall-thickness and density was shown to be reflected in higher material stock and coater up-time, economical deposition rates and stable process behaviour. Both for the rotatable ITO targets and higher-dense aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) planar targets values of film transmittance and resistivity were in the range of the best values industrially achieved for films from the respective planar targets. The results for the rotatable ITO and planar AZO targets point to equally optimized process and film properties for the optimized rotatable AZO targets currently in testing

  12. The role of technological innovation in sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Constantinescu; Simona Frone

    2014-01-01

    As in science an accurate picture of present is highlighted from a future outlook, we should recognize the crucial role of new technologies and innovation to improve knowledge in this field. They may give guarantee of sustainable economic development, provided prioritization of research in some fields such as: information technology and communication, resource depletion and climate change. Technological innovation becomes support of all strategies and policies aimed at ensuring sustainable ec...

  13. Debate on science and technology promotion for overcoming economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This book records debate point and topic presentation of debate on science and technology promotion for overcoming economic difficulties which lists opening greeting, topic presentation such as innovation of national science technology system, sufficient supply and demand of science and engineering personnel, invigoration of technology research of corporation and general debate. This debate was held by the Policy Board of democratic and liberal party on 22 May 1990 in Press center.

  14. Economic and developmental considerations for pharmacogenomic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, John A; Johnson, Scott J; Hughen, W Keener; Trujillo, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's core business is the innovation, development and marketing of new drugs. Pharmacogenetic (PG) testing and technology has the potential to increase a drug's value in many ways. A critical issue for the industry is whether products in development should be teamed with genetic tests that could segment the total population into responders and non-responders. In this paper we use a cost-effectiveness framework to model the strategic decision-making considerations by pharmaceutical manufacturers as they relate to drug development and the new technology of PG (the science of using genetic markers to predict drug response). In a simple, static, one-period model we consider three drug development strategies: a drug is exclusively developed and marketed to patients with a particular genetic marker; no distinguishing among patients based on the expression of a genetic marker is made (traditional approach); and a strategy whereby a drug is marketed to patients both with and without the genetic marker but there is price discrimination between the two subpopulations. We developed three main principles: revenues under a strategy targeting only the responder subpopulation will never generate more revenue than that which could have been obtained under a traditional approach; total revenues under a targeted PG strategy will be less than that under a traditional approach but higher than a naive [corrected] view would believe them to be; and a traditional [corrected] approach will earn the same total revenues as a price discrimination strategy, assuming no intermarket arbitrage. While these principles relate to the singular (and quite narrow) consideration of drug revenues, they may nevertheless partially explain why PG is not being used as widely as was predicted several years ago when the technology first became available, especially in terms of pharmaceutical manufacturer-developed tests.

  15. ELEMENTS TAX OPTIMIZATION SMALL AND MEDIUM ECONOMIC AGENTS DURING CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoescu Gheorghe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania there is a high level of taxation, which dramatically reduces the remaining cash available to economic agents in the conditions in which short and long-term loans are granted at interest rates two to three times higher than in the European, US, and Japan. Failure to pay the debts to the state lead to access (interest, penalties and fines significant delay for one year can double duty. Under these conditions, small businesses are forced to seek personal savings (hopefully to offset debts receivable at IFNs in disadvantageous conditions of interest, or the underworld loan sharks. In these circumstances it is not surprising that the number of corporate bankrupts multiplied. In our attempt to answer PFA alternative employment or as a form of tax optimization.

  16. A Technical and Economic Optimization Approach to Exploring Offshore Renewable Energy Development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tagestad, Jerry D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perkins, Casey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oster, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warwick, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) as part of ongoing efforts to minimize key risks and reduce the cost and time associated with permitting and deploying ocean renewable energy. The focus of the study was to discuss a possible approach to exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that attempts to optimize future development based on technical, economic, and policy criteria. The goal of the study was not to identify potentially suitable or feasible locations for development, but to discuss how such an approach may be developed for a given offshore area. Hawaii was selected for this case study due to the complex nature of the energy climate there and DOE’s ongoing involvement to support marine spatial planning for the West Coast. Primary objectives of the study included 1) discussing the political and economic context for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii, especially with respect to how inter-island transmission may affect the future of renewable energy development in Hawaii; 2) applying a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach that has been used to assess the technical suitability of offshore renewable energy technologies in Washington, Oregon, and California, to Hawaii’s offshore environment; and 3) formulate a mathematical model for exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that seeks to optimize technical and economic suitability within the context of Hawaii’s existing energy policy and planning.

  17. Impact of alternative harvesting technologies on thinning entry and optimal rotation age for eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2007-01-01

    A complete system simulation model is used to integrate alternative logging technologies, stand data, market prices, transportation costs, and economic concerns in a longterm continuous manner to evaluate thinning entry timing and optimal rotation age. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) stand data for the oak/hickory forest type and time and motion study data for 70,...

  18. Analysis of optimal design of low temperature economizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J. H.; Wang, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper has studied the Off-design characteristic of low temperature economizer system based on thermodynamics analysis. Based on the data from one 1000 MW coal-fired unit, two modes of operation are contrasted and analyzed. One is to fix exhaust gas temperature and the other one is to take into account both of the average temperature difference and the exhaust gas temperature. Meanwhile, the cause of energy saving effect change is explored. Result shows that: in mode 1, the amount of decrease in coal consumption reduces from 1.11 g/kWh (under full load) to 0.54 g/kWh (under half load), and in mode 2, when the load decreases from 90% to 50%, the decrease in coal consumption reduces from 1.29 g/kWh to 0.84 g/kWh. From the result, under high load, the energy saving effect is superior, and under lower work load, energy saving effect declines rapidly when load is reduced. When load changes, the temperature difference of heat transfer, gas flow, the flue gas heat rejection and the waste heat recovery change. The energy saving effect corresponding changes result in that the energy saving effect under high load is superior and more stable. However, rational adjustment to the temperature of outlet gas can alleviate the decline of the energy saving effect under low load. The result provides theoretical analysis data for the optimal design and operation of low temperature economizer system of power plant.

  19. Energetic and economic optimization of industrial systems compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeGoff, P.; Rivero, R.; de Oliverira, S.; Schwarzer, B.

    1990-01-01

    Industrial processes can be represented as open systems where available energy (exergy) enters, utilized energy (exergy content of goods and services) exits and degraded energy (destroyed exergy) is rejected into the environment. The overall evaluation of each process can be made according to an energy accounting (in terms of exergy or of primary fossil energy) or a financial accounting (in terms of national or foreign currency). In any case, the process can be optimized by determining the best compromise between the costs of the various input fluxes. According to the needs of the decision maker one can choose the most convenient value criterion which would be to minimize: the total cost in national currency, for a project engineer working for a private company; the payments in foreign currency, for a public organization; the total energy consumption, for a hypothetical decision maker responsible for the world's non renewable fossil energy; the entropy production in order to increase the thermodynamic efficiency of the process. This paper presents and compares some examples of energetic and economic optimizations, according to various criteria. The examples given concern a heat exchanger, the drying of beet pulp and some heat transformers for upgrading industrial waste heat. Furthermore, the authors generalize the concept of pay-back time through the ratio of the invested capital cost and of the operating cost given in terms of exergy or of primary energy. Numerical values are given for an oil-fired boiler

  20. Multi-Objective Thermo-Economic Optimization Strategy for ORCs Applied to Subcritical and Transcritical Cycles for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lecompte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs are an established technology to convert waste heat to electricity. Although several commercial implementations exist, there is still considerable potential for thermo-economic optimization. As such, a novel framework for designing optimized ORC systems is proposed based on a multi-objective optimization scheme in combination with financial appraisal in a post-processing step. The suggested methodology provides the flexibility to quickly assess several economic scenarios and this without the need of knowing the complex design procedure. This novel way of optimizing and interpreting results is applied to a waste heat recovery case. Both the transcritical ORC and subcritical ORC are investigated and compared using the suggested optimization strategy.

  1. A methodology to assess the economic impact of power storage technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghandour, Laila; Johnson, Timothy C

    2017-08-13

    We present a methodology for assessing the economic impact of power storage technologies. The methodology is founded on classical approaches to the optimal stopping of stochastic processes but involves an innovation that circumvents the need to, ex ante , identify the form of a driving process and works directly on observed data, avoiding model risks. Power storage is regarded as a complement to the intermittent output of renewable energy generators and is therefore important in contributing to the reduction of carbon-intensive power generation. Our aim is to present a methodology suitable for use by policy makers that is simple to maintain, adaptable to different technologies and easy to interpret. The methodology has benefits over current techniques and is able to value, by identifying a viable optimal operational strategy, a conceived storage facility based on compressed air technology operating in the UK.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Economic optimization of the combined cycle integrated with multi-product gasification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liszka, M.; Ziebik, A.

    2009-01-01

    The system taken into consideration consists of the Corex unit, combined cycle power plant and air separation unit (ASU). The Corex process (trademark of Siemens-VAI) is one of technologies for cokeless hot metal production. Coal is gasified by oxygen in the hot metal environment. The excess gas can be used out of installation. It has been assumed that the Corex export gas is fired in combined cycle. The gas turbine (GT) structure was assumed as a fixed simple cycle while the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and steam turbine arrangements are free for optimization. The examples of independent variables selected for optimization are number of HRSG pressure levels, GT pressure ratio, minimal temperature differences in HRSG, flow rate of compressed air form GT compressor to ASU. Finally, 16 independent variables have been qualified for optimization. The synthesis optimization is based on the superstructure method. The economic net present value (NPV) has been chosen as the objective function. All power plant facilities have been modeled on the GateCycle software. The off-design models include, among others, the GT blade cooling and HRSG heat transfer coefficient analyses. Two optimization methods - genetic algorithm and Powells conjugate directions have been coupled in one hybrid procedure. The whole optimization analysis has been repeated several times for different price scenarios on the coal, iron and electricity markets

  3. Economic analysis of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall shortage and variability constrain crop production of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and climate change may even aggravate this problem. An attractive method to mitigate this is water harvesting. This thesis examines the economic aspects of water harvesting by exploring optimal water

  4. Optimization of Grooved Micromixer for Microengineering Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabotin, I.; Tristo, G.; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    Due to the absence of turbulent flow and the slow diffusion process, mixing of solutions at micro-scale is a difficult task. This paper describes the optimization route towards the efficient design of a bottom grooved micromixer. Based on thoroughly discussed mixing mechanisms, the optimization w...

  5. Patterns in Standards and Technologies for Economic Information Systems Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Irimia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presets results from a review of the current standards used for collaboration between economic information systems, including web services and service oriented architecture, EDI, ebXML framework, RosettaNet framework, cXML, xCBL UBL, BPMN, BPEL, WS-CDL, ASN.1, and others. Standards have a key role in promoting economic information system interoperability, and thus enable collaboration. Analyzing the current standards, technologies and applications used for economic information systems interoperability has revealed a common pattern that runs through all of them. From this pattern we construct a basic model of interoperability around which we relate and judge all standards, technologies and applications for economic information systems interoperability.

  6. Energy and economic milestones in Nigeria: Role of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahunsi, S.O.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric power supply could be the driving force critical to poverty reduction, economic growth and sustainable development in developing countries like Nigeria. Comparative analysis of several promising technologies that could be explored to achieve energy sufficiency however shows that nuclear power is more economically competitive and outstanding despite the relatively high initial capital cost. Furthermore, one of the critical conditions in deciding to invest in a specific electric power technology is the overall cost component of the new technology, nuclear therefore is in many places competitive with other forms of electricity generation. The fundamental attraction is about harnessing the sources of energy which takes cognizance of the environmental effects of burning fossil fuel and its security of supply. This paper therefore highlights the benefits of inclusion of nuclear energy in the Nigeria energy mix, a sine qua non for economic and social development, safer environment, wealth creation and a long term energy security.

  7. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M G; Ramsey, Scott D

    2014-08-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to increase the return on investment as well as patient and societal impact. This paper describes examples of 'early cycle economic evaluations' as applied to diagnostic technologies and highlights challenges in its real-time application. It shows that especially in the field of diagnostics, with rapid technological developments and a changing regulatory climate, early cycle economic evaluation can have a guiding role to improve the efficiency of the diagnostics innovation process. In the next five years the attention will move beyond the methodological and analytic challenges of early cycle economic evaluation towards the challenge of effectively applying it to improve diagnostic research and development and patient value. Future work in this area should therefore be 'strong on principles and soft on metrics', that is, the metrics that resonate most clearly with the various decision makers in this field.

  8. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  9. Flash memories economic principles of performance, cost and reliability optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this book is to introduce a model-based quantitative performance indicator methodology applicable for performance, cost and reliability optimization of non-volatile memories. The complex example of flash memories is used to introduce and apply the methodology. It has been developed by the author based on an industrial 2-bit to 4-bit per cell flash development project. For the first time, design and cost aspects of 3D integration of flash memory are treated in this book. Cell, array, performance and reliability effects of flash memories are introduced and analyzed. Key performance parameters are derived to handle the flash complexity. A performance and array memory model is developed and a set of performance indicators characterizing architecture, cost and durability is defined.   Flash memories are selected to apply the Performance Indicator Methodology to quantify design and technology innovation. A graphical representation based on trend lines is introduced to support a requirement based pr...

  10. Thermo-economic optimization of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle for waste heat recovery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, Muhammad; Park, Byung Sik; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Lee, Dong Hyun; Usman, Muhammad; Heo, Manki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-economic optimization of regenerative ORC is performed. • Optimization is performed using multi objective genetic algorithm. • Objective function is maximum cycle efficiency and minimum specific investment. • Evaporation pressure, pinch point and superheat are decision variables. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate effect of decision variables. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is low grade and waste heat conversion technology. The current article deal with the thermo-economic optimization of basic ORC and regenerative ORC for waste heat recovery applications under constant heat source condition. Thermal efficiency and specific investment cost of basic ORC, single stage regenerative and double stage regenerative ORC has been optimized by using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Maximum thermal efficiency and minimum specific investment cost were selected as objective functions and relative increase in thermal efficiency and cost has been analyzed taking the basic ORC as base case. The constraint set consist of evaporation pressure, superheat, pinch point temperature difference in evaporator and condenser. The optimization was performed for five different working fluids. The optimization result show that R245fa is best working under considered conditions and basic ORC has low specific investment cost and thermal efficiency compared to regenerative ORC. R245fa is low boiling organic fluid, which has high degree of thermal stability and compatible with common construction materials of ORC. The average increase in thermal efficiency from basic ORC to single stage regenerative ORC was 1.01% with an additional cost of 187 $/kW while from basic ORC to double stage regenerative ORC was 1.45% with an average increase in cost of 297 $/kW. The sensitivity analysis was also performed to investigate the effect of operating conditions which show that evaporation pressure has promising effect on thermal

  11. System and economic optimization problems of NPPs and its ideology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.; Mironovich, V.L.

    2016-01-01

    The iterative circuit design of optimization of system of links of nuclear fuel and energy complex (NFEC) is presented in the paper. Problems of system optimization of links NFEC as functional of NPP optimization are indicated and investigated [ru

  12. Thermo-economic optimization of an endoreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption-refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Xiaoyong; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2005-01-01

    Based on an endoreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption-refrigeration-cycle model, the optimal thermo-economic performance of an absorption-refrigerator is analyzed and optimized assuming a linear (Newtonian) heat-transfer law applies. The optimal relation between the thermo-economic criterion and the coefficient of performance (COP), the maximum thermo-economic criterion, and the COP and specific cooling load for the maximum thermo-economic criterion of the cycle are derived using finite-time thermodynamics. Moreover, the effects of the cycle parameters on the thermo-economic performance of the cycle are studied by numerical examples

  13. Thermodynamic and economic analysis and optimization of power cycles for a medium temperature geothermal resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, Ahmet; Bolatturk, Ali; Kanoglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We conduct the thermodynamic and economic analysis of various geothermal power cycles. • The optimization process was performed to minimize the exergy losses. • Kalina cycle is a new technology compared to flash and binary cycles. • It is shown that Kalina cycle presents a viable choice for both thermodynamically and economically. - Abstract: Geothermal power generation technologies are well established and there are numerous power plants operating worldwide. Turkey is rich in geothermal resources while most resources are not exploited for power production. In this study, we consider geothermal resources in Kutahya–Simav region having geothermal water at a temperature suitable for power generation. The study is aimed to yield the method of the most effective use of the geothermal resource and a rational thermodynamic and economic comparison of various cycles for a given resource. The cycles considered include double-flash, binary, combined flash/binary, and Kalina cycle. The selected cycles are optimized for the turbine inlet pressure that would generate maximum power output and energy and exergy efficiencies. The distribution of exergy in plant components and processes are shown using tables. Maximum first law efficiencies vary between 6.9% and 10.6% while the second law efficiencies vary between 38.5% and 59.3% depending on the cycle considered. The maximum power output, the first law, and the second law efficiencies are obtained for Kalina cycle followed by combined cycle and binary cycle. An economic analysis of four cycles considered indicates that the cost of producing a unit amount of electricity is 0.0116 $/kW h for double flash and Kalina cycles, 0.0165 $/kW h for combined cycle and 0.0202 $/kW h for binary cycle. Consequently, the payback period is 5.8 years for double flash and Kalina cycles while it is 8.3 years for combined cycle and 9 years for binary cycle

  14. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  15. Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

  16. A call to arms: economic barriers to optimal dialysis care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, P A; Mendelssohn, D C

    2000-01-01

    Epidemic growth rates and the enormous cost of dialysis pressure end-stage renal disease (ESRD) delivery systems around the world. Payers of dialysis services can constrain costs through (1) limiting access to dialysis, (2) reducing the quality of dialysis, and (3) placing constraints on modality distribution. In order to secure the necessary resources for ESRD care, we propose that the nephrology community consider the following suggestions: First, future leaders in dialysis should acquire additional advanced training in innovative pathways such as health care economics, business and health care administration, and health care policy. Second, the international nephrology community must strongly engage in ongoing advocacy for accessible, high quality, cost-effective care.Third, efforts should be made to better define and then implement optimal dialysis modality distributions that maximize patient outcomes but limit unnecessary costs. Fourth, industry should be encouraged to lower the unit cost of dialysis, allowing for improved access to dialysis, especially in developing countries. Fifth, research should be encouraged that seeks to identify measures that will reduce dialysis costs but will not impair quality of care. Finally, early referral of patients with progressive renal disease to nephrology clinics, empowerment of informed patient choice of dialysis modality, and proper and timely access creation should be encouraged and can be expected to help limit overall expenditures. Ongoing efforts in these areas by the nephrology community will be essential if we are to overcome the challenges of ESRD growth in this new decade.

  17. Information and communication technology use and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Maryam; Ismail, Rahmah; Fooladi, Masood

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT) has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants). We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use.

  18. Information and communication technology use and economic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farhadi

    Full Text Available In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants. We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use.

  19. Expert system for economic evaluation of technological projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Hlavenka

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the technical level, a basic tool for decision-making and realization of the technical innovation project is also its economic effectiveness. It is assessed by comparing expenses and effects with respect to all-society interests and standards valid in a relevant period for the areas of technology, economy, ecology, safety of work, etc.

  20. The 'economics' of medical technology | Járos | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The word 'economics' is used in this paper in its widest sense, referring to issues that 'influence the management, regulation and government of an enterprise'. In addition to the obvious monetary issues in health-care technology, social, ethical, legal and cultural issues are also discussed. The eventual, generally high cost ...

  1. Economics of selected water control technologies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a production function, marginal productivity of farm inputs and benefit-cost analysis, we explore the economics of selected water control technologies. From the production function, all farm inputs, including irrigation water is found to have a significant and positive effect on yield. Marginal value products of farm inputs ...

  2. The Economics of Theatre/Entertainment Technology in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay therefore, discusses theatre technology and its attendant economic impact as business in Nigeria using Bradford Delong.s (2004) discourse on international capital mobility. Aspects of Delong.s position and David Throsby.s cultural capital theory form the theoretical base for this work. The essay is more situated ...

  3. A Survey on Economic-driven Evaluations of Information Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Zarvic, N.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    The economic-driven evaluation of information technology (IT) has become an important instrument in the management of IT projects. Numerous approaches have been developed to quantify the costs of an IT investment and its assumed profit, to evaluate its impact on business process performance, and to

  4. EXPLOSIVE FORMING – ECONOMICAL TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosive forming represents a technological alternative for obtaining small-lot parts,with inexpensive and efficient manufacturing preparation. The explosive forming processing methodspresent a series of important advantages, being recommended for the wide-scale application in theaerospace industry. The economic benefit varies from case to case, independent from the part type,manufacturing series and user.

  5. EXPLOSIVE FORMING – ECONOMICAL TECHNOLOGY FOR AEROSPACE STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Niculae MARIN; Victor GHIZDAVU

    2010-01-01

    The explosive forming represents a technological alternative for obtaining small-lot parts,with inexpensive and efficient manufacturing preparation. The explosive forming processing methodspresent a series of important advantages, being recommended for the wide-scale application in theaerospace industry. The economic benefit varies from case to case, independent from the part type,manufacturing series and user.

  6. Optimization of processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    soaking time and processing temperature on processing technology of Rhizoma ... Results: During the processing of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum, the size of influence of licorice .... Table 1: Factors and levels of orthogonal experiment.

  7. Continuous nonlinear optimization for engineering applications in GAMS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Andrei, Neculai

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the theoretical details and computational performances of algorithms used for solving continuous nonlinear optimization applications imbedded in GAMS. Aimed toward scientists and graduate students who utilize optimization methods to model and solve problems in mathematical programming, operations research, business, engineering, and industry, this book enables readers with a background in nonlinear optimization and linear algebra to use GAMS technology to understand and utilize its important capabilities to optimize algorithms for modeling and solving complex, large-scale, continuous nonlinear optimization problems or applications. Beginning with an overview of constrained nonlinear optimization methods, this book moves on to illustrate key aspects of mathematical modeling through modeling technologies based on algebraically oriented modeling languages. Next, the main feature of GAMS, an algebraically oriented language that allows for high-level algebraic representation of mathematical opti...

  8. Biomass torrefaction technology: Techno-economic status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batidzirai, B.; Mignot, A.P.R.; Schakel, W.B.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising bioenergy pre-treatment technology, with potential to make a major contribution to the commodification of biomass. However, there is limited scientific knowledge on the techno-economic performance of torrefaction. This study therefore improves available knowledge on torrefaction by providing detailed insights into state of the art prospects of the commercial utilisation of torrefaction technology over time. Focussing on and based on the current status of the compact moving bed reactor, we identify process performance characteristics such as thermal efficiency and mass yield and discuss their determining factors through analysis of mass and energy balances. This study has shown that woody biomass can be torrefied with a thermal and mass efficiency of 94% and 48% respectively (on a dry ash free basis). For straw, the corresponding theoretical energetic efficiency is 96% and mass efficiency is 65%. In the long term, the technical performance of torrefaction processes is expected to improve and energy efficiencies are expected to be at least 97% as optimal torgas use and efficient heat transfer are realised. Short term production costs for woody biomass TOPs (torrefied pellets) are estimated to be between 3.3 and 4.8 US$/GJ LHV , falling to 2.1–5.1 US$/GJ LHV in the long term. At such cost levels, torrefied pellets would become competitive with traditional pellets. For full commercialisation, torrefaction reactors still require to be optimised. Of importance to torrefaction system performance is the achievement of consistent and homogeneous, fully hydrophobic and stable product, capable of utilising different feedstocks, at desired end-use energy densities. - Highlights: • Woody biomass torrefaction thermal efficiency is 94% and mass efficiency is 48% on a daf basis. • Straw theoretical torrefaction energetic efficiency is 96% and mass efficiency is 65%. • Current woody TOPs production costs are between 3.3 and 4.8 US$/GJ LHV , 50

  9. Energy and Economic Trade Offs for Advanced Technology Subsonic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, D. V.; Wagner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in future aircraft technology which conserve energy are studied, along with the effect of these changes on economic performance. Among the new technologies considered are laminar-flow control, composite materials with and without laminar-flow control, and advanced airfoils. Aircraft design features studied include high-aspect-ratio wings, thickness ratio, and range. Engine technology is held constant at the JT9D level. It is concluded that wing aspect ratios of future aircraft are likely to significantly increase as a result of new technology and the push of higher fuel prices. Composite materials may raise aspect radio to about 11 to 12 and practical laminar flow-control systems may further increase aspect ratio to 14 or more. Advanced technology provides significant reductions in aircraft take-off gross weight, energy consumption, and direct operating cost.

  10. Joint cost of energy under an optimal economic policy of hybrid power systems subject to uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Guzmán; Planas, Estefanía; Andreu, Jon; Kortabarria, Iñigo

    2015-01-01

    Economical optimization of hybrid systems is usually performed by means of LCoE (levelized cost of energy) calculation. Previous works deal with the LCoE calculation of the whole hybrid system disregarding an important issue: the stochastic component of the system units must be jointly considered. This paper deals with this issue and proposes a new fast optimal policy that properly calculates the LCoE of a hybrid system and finds the lowest LCoE. This proposed policy also considers the implied competition among power sources when variability of gas and electricity prices are taken into account. Additionally, it presents a comparative between the LCoE of the hybrid system and its individual technologies of generation by means of a fast and robust algorithm based on vector logical computation. Numerical case analyses based on realistic data are presented that valuate the contribution of technologies in a hybrid power system to the joint LCoE. - Highlights: • We perform the LCoE calculation with the stochastic component jointly considered. • We propose a fast an optimal policy that minimizes the LCoE. • We compare the obtained LCoEs by means of a fast and robust algorithm. • We take into account the competition among gas prices and electricity prices

  11. Economic considerations in the optimal size and number of reserve sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The debate among ecologists on the optimal number of reserve sites under a fixed maximum total reserve area-the single large or several small (SLOSS) problem-has so far neglected the economic aspects of the problem. This paper argues that economic considerations can affect the optimal number and

  12. Optimization of processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Orthogonal design method was applied to analyze the effects of factors such as licorice concentration volume, soaking time and processing temperature on processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum; MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine the inhibitory effect of Rhizoma Pinelliae ...

  13. Technology for Building Systems Integration and Optimization – Landscape Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goetzler, Matt Guernsey, Youssef Bargach

    2018-01-31

    BTO's Commercial Building Integration (CBI) program helps advance a range of innovative building integration and optimization technologies and solutions, paving the way for high-performing buildings that could use 50-70% less energy than typical buildings. CBI’s work focuses on early stage technology innovation, with an emphasis on how components and systems work together and how whole buildings are integrated and optimized. This landscape study outlines the current body of knowledge, capabilities, and the broader array of solutions supporting integration and optimization in commercial buildings. CBI seeks to support solutions for both existing buildings and new construction, which often present very different challenges.

  14. Integrated design and optimization of technologies for utilizing low grade heat in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Dong-Hun; Binns, Michael; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of a modeling and design framework for the utilization of low grade heat. • Application of process simulator and optimization techniques for the design of technologies for heat recovery. • Systematic and holistic exploitation for the recovery of industrial low grade heat. • Demonstration of the applicability and benefit of integrated design and optimization framework through a case study. - Abstract: The utilization of low grade heat in process industries has significant potential for improving site-wide energy efficiency. This paper focuses on the techno-economic analysis of key technologies for energy recovery and re-use, namely: Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC), boiler feed water heating, heat pumping and absorption refrigeration in the context of process integration. Process modeling and optimization in a holistic manner identifies the optimal integrated configuration of these technologies, with rigorous assessment of costs and technical feasibility of these technologies. For the systematic screening and evaluation of design options, detailed process simulator models are evaluated and optimization proceeds subject to design constraints for the particular economic scenarios where technology using low grade heat is introduced into the process site. Case studies are presented to illustrate how the proposed modeling and optimization framework can be useful and effective in practice, in terms of providing design guidelines and conceptual insights for the application of technologies using low grade heat. From the case study, the best options during winter are the ORC giving a 6.4% cost reduction for the ideal case with low grade heat available at a fixed temperature and boiler feed water heating giving a 2.5% cost reduction for the realistic case with low grade heat available at a range of temperatures. Similarly during summer boiler feed water heating was found to be the best option giving a 3.1% reduction of costs considering a

  15. KYC Optimization Using Distributed Ledger Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano, José Parra; Ross, Omri

    2017-01-01

    The know-your-customer (KYC) due diligenceprocess is outdated and generates costs of up to USD 500million per year per bank. The authors propose a newsystem, based on distributed ledger technology (DLT), thatreduces the costs of the core KYC verification process forfinancial institutions and improves the customer experi-ence. In the proposed system, the core KYC verificationprocess is only conducted once for each customer,regardless of the number of financial institutions withwhich tha...

  16. Modeling and optimization of a network of energy hubs to improve economic and emission considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroufmashat, Azadeh; Elkamel, Ali; Fowler, Michael; Sattari, Sourena; Roshandel, Ramin; Hajimiragha, Amir; Walker, Sean; Entchev, Evgueniy

    2015-01-01

    Energy hubs that incorporate a variety of energy generation and energy transformation technologies can be used to provide the energy storage needed to enable the efficient operation of a ‘smart energy network’. When these hubs are combined as a network and allowed to exchange energy, they create efficiency advantages in both financial and environmental performance. Further, the interconnectedness of the energy network design provides an added layer of reliability. In this paper, a complex network of energy hubs is modeled and optimized under different scenarios to examine both the financial viability and potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Two case studies consisting of two and three energy hubs within a network are considered. The modeling Scenarios vary according to the consideration of distributed energy systems and energy interaction between energy hubs. In the case of a network of two energy hubs, there is no significant economic or emissions benefit with only a 0.5% reduction in total cost and 3% reduction in CO_2 emission. In the case of a network of three energy hubs, there is a significant economic benefit ranging from 11% to 29%, and 11% emission reduction benefit, as well as a 13% reduction in natural gas consumption. - Highlights: • The generic form of the modified energy hub concept with network model is presented. • Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the benefits of energy hub network. • Distributed energy is shown to provide economic and environmental advantages. • Multi criteria optimization of the economic and environmental performance is done.

  17. The rhetoric of calculations. Economical arguments for development of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solli, Joeran

    2004-01-01

    The thesis discusses the theoretical economics and social factors for development of new energy technologies and has chapter on: New energy technologies in an economical and political change, technology development from innovation economy to economical sociology, opinion formation in the energy sector, establishing energy economical discussion, economy as pidgin, financial factors, forming social education and market power versus language strife

  18. Economic performances optimization of the transcritical Rankine cycle systems in geothermal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal economic performance of the TRC system are investigated. • In economic evaluations, R125 performs the most satisfactorily, followed by R41 and CO 2 . • The TRC system with CO 2 has the largest averaged temperature difference. • Economic optimized pressures are always lower than thermodynamic optimized operating pressures. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the economic optimization of a TRC system for the application of geothermal energy. An economic parameter of net power output index, which is the ratio of net power output to the total cost, is applied to optimize the TRC system using CO 2 , R41 and R125 as working fluids. The maximum net power output index and the corresponding optimal operating pressures are obtained and evaluated for the TRC system. Furthermore, the analyses of the corresponding averaged temperature differences in the heat exchangers on the optimal economic performances of the TRC system are carried out. The effects of geothermal temperatures on the thermodynamic and economic optimizations are also revealed. In both optimal economic and thermodynamic evaluations, R125 performs the most satisfactorily, followed by R41 and CO 2 in the TRC system. In addition, the TRC system operated with CO 2 has the largest averaged temperature difference in the heat exchangers and thus has potential in future application for lower-temperature heat resources. The highest working pressures obtained from economic optimization are always lower than those from thermodynamic optimization for CO 2 , R41, and R125 in the TRC system

  19. Transferability of economic evaluations of medical technologies: a new technology for orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Young, Terry; Buxton, Martin

    2008-05-01

    Transferring results of economic evaluations across countries or jurisdictions can potentially save scarce evaluation resources while helping to make market access and reimbursement decisions in a timely fashion. This article points out why transferring results of economic evaluations is particularly important in the field of medical technologies. It then provides an overview of factors that are previously identified in the literature as affecting transferability of economic evaluations, as well as methods for transferring results in a scientifically sound way. As the current literature almost exclusively relates to transferability of pharmacoeconomic evaluations, this article highlights those factors and methodologies that are of particular relevance to transferring medical technology assessments. Considering the state-of-the-art literature and a worked, real life, example of transferring an economic evaluation of a product used in orthopedic surgery, we provide recommendations for future work in this important area of medical technology assessment.

  20. Economic Operation of Supercritical CO2 Refrigeration Energy Storage Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Ryan

    With increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy resources, improved methods of energy storage are becoming a crucial stepping stone in the path toward a smarter, greener grid. SuperCritical Technologies is a company based in Bremerton, WA that is developing a storage technology that can operate entirely on waste heat, a resource that is otherwise dispelled into the environment. The following research models this storage technology in several electricity spot markets around the US to determine if it is economically viable. A modification to the storage dispatch scheme is then presented which allows the storage unit to increase its profit in real-time markets by taking advantage of extreme price fluctuations. Next, the technology is modeled in combination with an industrial load profile on two different utility rate schedules to determine potential cost savings. The forecast of facility load has a significant impact on savings from the storage dispatch, so an exploration into this relationship is then presented.

  1. Socio-economic research for innovative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yuichi [Tokyo Univ., High Temperature Plasma Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Okano, Kunihiko [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    In the 21st century global environment and energy issues become very important, and this is characterized by the long-term (in the scale of a few tens years) and world-wide issue. In addition, future prospect of these issues might be quite uncertain, and scientific prediction could be very difficult. For these issues vigorous researches and various efforts have been carried out from various aspects; e.g., world-wide discussion such as COP3 in Kyoto, promotion of the energy-saving technology and so on. Development of environment-friendly energy has been promoted, and new innovative technologies are explored. Nuclear fusion is, of course, a promising candidate. While, there might be some criticism for nuclear fusion from the socio-economic aspect; e.g., it would take long time and huge cost for the fusion reactor development. In addition, other innovative energy technologies might have their own criticism, as well. Therefore, socio-economic research might be indispensable for future energy resources. At first we have selected six items as for the characteristics, which might be important for future energy resources; i.e., energy resource, environmental load, economics, reliability/stability, flexibility on operation and safety/security. Concerning to innovative energy technologies, we have nominated seven candidates; i.e., advanced coal technology with CO2 recovery system, SOFC top combined cycle, solar power, wind power, space solar power station, advanced fission and fusion. Based on questionnaires for ordinary people and fusion scientists, we have tried to assess the fusion energy development, comparing with other innovative energy technologies. (author)

  2. Optimal allocation of energy storage in a co-optimized electricity market: Benefits assessment and deriving indicators for economic storage ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for optimally allocating storage technologies in a power system. This decision support tool helps in quantitatively answering the questions on “where to and how much to install” considering the profits from arbitrage opportunities in a co-optimized electricity market. The developed framework is illustrated on a modified IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 24 bus RTS (Reliability Test System), and the framework finds the optimal allocation solution and the revenues storage earns at each of these locations. Bulk energy storage, CAES (compressed air energy storage) is used as the representative storage technology, and the benefits of optimally allocated storage integration onto the grid are compared with transmission expansion solution. The paper also discusses about system-level indicators to identify candidate locations for economical storage ventures, which are derived based on the optimal storage allocation solution; and applies the market price based storage venture indicators on MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) electricity markets. - Highlights: • Storage optimal allocation framework based on high-fidelity storage dispatch model. • Storage with transmission addresses energy and ancillary issues under high renewables. • Bulk storage earns higher revenues from co-optimization (∼10× energy only market). • Grid offers distributed opportunities for investing in a strategic mix of storage. • Storage opportunities depend on cross-arbitrage, as seen from MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) markets

  3. Technology and economics of near-surface geothermal resources exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Э. И. Богуславский

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents economic justification for applicability of near-surface geothermal installations in Luga region, based on results of techno-economic calculations as well as integrated technical and economic comparison of different prediction scenarios of heat supply, both conventional and using geothermal heat pumps (GHP. Construction costs of a near-surface geothermal system can exceed the costs of central heating by 50-100 %. However, operation and maintenance (O&M costs of heat production for geothermal systems are 50-70 % lower than for conventional sources of heating. Currently this technology is very important, it is applied in various countries (USA, Germany, Japan, China etc., and depending on the region both near-surface and deep boreholes are being used. World practice of near-surface geothermal systems application is reviewed in the paper.

  4. Economical evaluation on spent fuel storage technology away from reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Chihiro; Nagano, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2000-01-01

    Concerning the spent fuel storage away from reactor, economical comparison was carried out between metal cask and water pool storage technology. The economic index was defined by levelized cost (Unit storage cost) calculated on the assumption that the storage cost is paid at the receipt of the spent fuel at the storage facility. It is found that the cask storage is economical for small and large storage capacity. Unit storage cost of pool storage, however, is getting close to that of cask storage in case of storage capacity of 10,000 ton. Then, the unit storage cost is converted to power generation cost using data of the burn up of the fuel, etc. The cost is obtained as yen 0.09/kWh and yen 0. 15/kWh for cask storage and pool storage, respectively in case of the capacity of 5,000 tonU and the cooling time of 5 years. (author)

  5. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  6. US carbon emissions, technological progress and economic growth since 1870

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    The long-term US experience emphasises the importance of controlling for electrification and other major technology transformations when evaluating the growth of carbon emissions at different stages of development. Prior to World War I, carbon emissions grew faster than economic growth by 2.3% per year. As electricity use expanded and steam engines became much larger, carbon emissions began to grow slower than economic growth by 1.6% per year. Adjusting to this technological shift, an expanding economy continues to increase carbon emissions by about 9% for each 10% faster growth. There is little evidence of a decline in this elasticity as the income level rises. These results suggest that the USA today will need to find additional policies to curb carbon emissions if it wishes to prevent any further increase in its per capita emissions, and if its per capita economy grows by more than 1.8% per year. (Author)

  7. Technology-Critical Elements: Economic and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Critical elements are those that provide essential functionality to modern engineered materials, have few ready substitutes and are subject to supply-chain risks or concerns about long-run availability. This paper provides economic and public-policy perspectives on critical elements. It suggests: that which elements are critical is situational and changes over time; that we are not running out of mineral-derived raw materials in a geologic sense but rather, for some elements, face scarcities that are technological, environmental, political or economic in nature; and that public policy's most important role over the longer term is fostering scientific and technological innovation, especially early stage research, that has the potential to overcome these scarcities.

  8. Economic evaluation of information technology applications on dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Asseldonk, van, M.A.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on the economic evaluation of information technology (IT) applications on dairy farms in order to support investment decisions. The evaluation included a normative (deductive) approach and an empirical (positive) approach. The normative approach predicted potential benefits from a theoretical model of the investment, and investigated how farmers should deal with the applications. The empirical approach observed the actual effects of the i...

  9. Plasma technology: a technical economical and political challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, V.A. de; Vicente, L.C.; Bender, O.W.; Sanches Junior, O.

    1987-01-01

    To survey the State of the Art and Technic in Material, Process and Products by Plasma, it was needed to assemble economic, political and managerial variables that will affect the absortion and implantation of this technology in Brazil. Through a survey in industries, universities, research centers, energy agencies and financial and forster institutions it was possible to build a frame that gave us conditions to forecasting and suggest some mesures to Plasma sector. (author) [pt

  10. A dynamic optimization on economic energy efficiency in development: A numerical case of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on dynamic optimization methodology to investigate the economic energy efficiency issues in developing countries. The paper introduces some definitions about energy efficiency both in economics and physics, and establishes a quantitative way for measuring the economic energy efficiency. The linkage between economic energy efficiency, energy consumption and other macroeconomic variables is demonstrated primarily. Using the methodology of dynamic optimization, a maximum problem of economic energy efficiency over time, which is subjected to the extended Solow growth model and instantaneous investment rate, is modelled. In this model, the energy consumption is set as a control variable and the capital is regarded as a state variable. The analytic solutions can be derived and the diagrammatic analysis provides saddle-point equilibrium. A numerical simulation based on China is also presented; meanwhile, the optimal paths of investment and energy consumption can be drawn. The dynamic optimization encourages governments in developing countries to pursue higher economic energy efficiency by controlling the energy consumption and regulating the investment state as it can conserve energy without influencing the achievement of steady state in terms of Solow model. If that, a sustainable development will be achieved. - Highlights: • A new definition on economic energy efficiency is proposed mathematically. • A dynamic optimization modelling links economic energy efficiency with other macroeconomic variables in long run. • Economic energy efficiency is determined by capital stock level and energy consumption. • Energy saving is a key solution for improving economic energy efficiency

  11. Experience with civil plutonium management: Technology and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarimpas, N.; Stevens, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Recent NEA work on plutonium has been, essentially, targeted at economic and scientific aspects and the need to identify suitable technical solutions, despite the existing political uncertainties associated with their implementation. Such studies provide the facts and current views concerning plutonium and its civil use; address questions influencing the choice of fuel cycle options and illustrate how economic and logistic assessments of the alternatives could be undertaken. An ad-hoc expert group, with a membership drawn from fifteen countries and three international organisations, which was formed in early 1994 under the auspices of the NEA, with the task of identifying, examining and evaluating the broad technical questions related to plutonium management, has just published its work. This paper discusses the work and main conclusions of the expert group and focuses on the following two topics: Technologies, already implemented, which provide for short and medium-term storage of plutonium or for recycling the plutonium through reactors. A brief review is provided of experience gained with them and technical commentaries are made on their potential future deployment; Such technologies may, in the longer term, be joined by a further range which are, in some cases, already under development. Attention is drawn to those additional options that may become available. Another NEA expert group studied in detail the economics of the open and closed fuel cycles and reported, in 1994, its main findings: Some economic considerations of importance to various aspects of plutonium recycling are also presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Economics of household technology adoption in developing countries: evidence from solar technology adoption in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Aklin, M.; Bayer, P.; Harish, S.P.; Urpelainen, J.

    2018-01-01

    Innovation is one of the most important drivers of economic development. Even in developing countries, households have access to a wide array of new technologies. However, factors affecting households’ technology adoption decisions remain poorly understood. Using data on solar microgrid adoption from rural India, we investigate the determinants of household technology adoption. We offer all households identical solar products to avoid bias from product differentiation. Households pay a monthl...

  13. Do Technological Developments and Financial Development Promote Economic Growth: Fresh Evidence from Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ur Rehman, Ijaz; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between financial development, technological development and economic growth in Romania. We construct aggregate indices of financial development and technological development using principal component analysis. The ARDL bounds testing approach shows the presence of cointegration between financial development, technological development and economic growth. Financial development and technological development contribute to economic growth. Moreover, financial developmen...

  14. Main ways and suitable technologies of improving economic benefits for uranium ore heap leaching in China (the end)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Zibin

    2001-01-01

    Combining with practice of China's uranium ore heap leaching, the author proposes main ways and suitable technologies in the fields of emphasizing feasibility research, adopting strengthened technologies, improving equipment level, optimizing control technological factors and developing application range and so on, which include adopting acid-currying and ferric sulphate-trickle leaching process, bacteria heap leaching, countercurrent heap leaching, selecting advanced material of heap bottom, developing large mechanized heap construction equipment and methods, popularizing drip irrigation distributing solution, optimizing heap leaching process parameters, as well as developing recovery equipment suited to heap leaching, etc, in order to increase leaching rate, reduce heap leaching period and achieve more economic benefits

  15. Analysis of carbon mitigation technology to 2050 in Japan through integrated energy economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kengo; Nagatomi, Yu; Matsuo, Yuji; Suehiro, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the outline of integrated energy economic model and calculated result concerning the outlook of energy and carbon dioxide emissions in Japan to 2050. The energy model developed in this paper is integrated one which consistently combines econometric model endogenously generating socio-economic outlook and bottom-up type technology model, MARKAL, identifying cost-minimizing optimal mix of various energy technologies. In reference scenario which imposes no carbon emissions constraint, CO 2 emission in 2050 will decrease by approximately 40% from the level of emissions in 2005. In carbon-constraints scenario, imposing emissions cap of 60% reduction by 2050 from the emissions in 2005, natural gas-fired power plant equipped with CCS and renewable energy are expected to expand its portion in power generation mix. In transportation sector on this scenario, clean energy vehicles such as electric vehicle (EV) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) will be deployed and contribute to mitigate CO 2 emissions. (author)

  16. Economic incentives for optimal sulfur abatement in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkos, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews and develops theoretical and empirical representations of economic incentives for implementing pollution control strategies. A number of alternative economic instruments exist, which, if applied internationally, could encourage implementation of abatement strategies by counties. The article considers means of persuading countries to minimize abatement costs. A comparison between the pollution targets achieved by the imposition of a uniform charge rate and by differentiated charge rates is discussed, and empirical results are provided with associated conclusions. These results are compared with a simple standards setting in the form of critical loads, in order to assess empirically if economic instruments work better than regulations

  17. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW.

  18. New international economic order and flow of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojko, B

    1979-12-01

    The role of science and technology in creating a new international economic order based on manpower and raw materials is examined. The traditional linkage of science and politics should end and emphasis be given to increasing productivity in order to expand employment opportunities and raise the world living standard. An indigenous research and development capability is seen as essential to counteract the effects of the time factor when technology is introduced into developing countries. Other considerations are risk of an illusory self-reliance, allocation of development sites in terms of labor substitution, ruthlessness of labor competition during modernization, variations of labor quality, and relationship of demography and unemployment. Competition between the capitalist and socialist countries is being redirected into cooperation in the area of technology transfer. 7 references. (DCK)

  19. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW

  20. Economic issues of storage technologies in different applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, L.W.M.; De Noord, M.

    2004-09-01

    For evaluating energy storage technologies, economical parameters are of considerable importance. A qualitative assessment is given of storage technologies in general, contributing to success or failure of their use. Based on data of nine storage technologies that are defined in the INVESTIRE Network (Investigation on storage technologies for intermittent renewable energies: evaluation and recommended R and D strategy), results of a quantitative cost analysis are presented, based on device-specific key parameters. The costs have been defined as additional costs, effected by the required investments and operation and maintenance expenditures, the efficiency of a device and its lifetime. In order to compare the technologies properly, categories of typical use have been defined, ranging from stand-alone small applications (typical storage capacity of 0.1 kWh) to levelling of power production (approximately 1 MWh). The outcome is presented in such a way that for each category of typical use, the best technological options are identified, based on a cost analysis

  1. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  2. A Transactions Cost Economics (TCE) Approach to Optimal Contract Type

    OpenAIRE

    Franck, Raymond; Melese, Francois; Dillard, John

    2006-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) This study examines defense acquisition through the new lens of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE). TCE is an emergent field in economics that has multiple applications to defense acquisition practices. TCE''s original focus was to guide ''make-or-buy?'' decisions that define the boundaries of a firm. This study reviews insights afforded by TCE that impact government outsourcing (''buy'' decisions), paying special attention to defense pro...

  3. Network models for solving the problem of multicriterial adaptive optimization of investment projects control with several acceptable technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorikov, A. F.; Butsenko, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of multicriterial adaptive optimization the control of investment projects in the presence of several technologies. On the basis of network modeling proposed a new economic and mathematical model and a method for solving the problem of multicriterial adaptive optimization the control of investment projects in the presence of several technologies. Network economic and mathematical modeling allows you to determine the optimal time and calendar schedule for the implementation of the investment project and serves as an instrument to increase the economic potential and competitiveness of the enterprise. On a meaningful practical example, the processes of forming network models are shown, including the definition of the sequence of actions of a particular investment projecting process, the network-based work schedules are constructed. The calculation of the parameters of network models is carried out. Optimal (critical) paths have been formed and the optimal time for implementing the chosen technologies of the investment project has been calculated. It also shows the selection of the optimal technology from a set of possible technologies for project implementation, taking into account the time and cost of the work. The proposed model and method for solving the problem of managing investment projects can serve as a basis for the development, creation and application of appropriate computer information systems to support the adoption of managerial decisions by business people.

  4. Library macro-environment: New technological and economic rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Štular-Sotošek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and flexible adaptation to changes in the macro-environment is also crucial for libraries, which have to review them, respond to them and become a part of them. Consequently, the application of marketing science and tools helps libraries to find out how to survive in the competitive world and how to become better and stronger. The article, which draws from marketing, economic and information disciplines, introduces the main principles in the technological and economic environment of libraries and finds the knowledge about these disciplines to be most crucial for successful management of modern libraries, especially on the pretentious publishing market and on the market of information suppliers. Within the technological and economic environment, the cooperation is the only logical solution, which benefits the producers of information services and products as well as libraries. The following text finds that libraries will achieve long-term success and will be proactive in developing partnerships only by using relationship marketing. This relatively new approach offers libraries new ways for successful and long-term management of alliances between partners.

  5. Energetic and economic evaluations on hydrogen storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arca, S.; Di Profio, P.; Germani, R. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy). Centro di Eccellenza Materiali Innovativi Nanostrutturati, Dip. Chimica; Savelli, G.; Cotana, F.; Rossi, F.; Amantini, M. [Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Sezione di Fisica Tecnica

    2008-07-01

    With the development of the hydrogen economy and fuel cell vehicles, a major technological issue has emerged regarding the storage and delivery of large amounts of hydrogen. Several hydrogen storage methodologies are available while other technologies are being developed aside from the classical compression and liquefaction of hydrogen. A novel technology is also in rapid process, which is based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen. The features and performances of available storage systems were evaluated in an effort to determine the best technology throughout the hydrogen chain. For each of the storage solutions presented, the key parameters were compared. These key parameters included interaction energy between hydrogen and support; real and practical storage capacity; and specific energy consumption. The paper presented the study methods and discussed hydrogen storage technologies using compressed hydrogen; metal hydrides; liquefied hydrogen; carbon nanotubes; ammonia; and gas hydrates. Carbon dioxide emissions were also evaluated for each storage system analyzed. The paper also presented the worst scenario. It was concluded that a technology based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen, while being far from optimized, was highly competitive with the classical approaches. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an optimization model that incorporates LCA methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. The most attractive waste management options are in the model identified as part the optimization. The model renders it possible to apply different...... optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...... for biogas production for either CHP generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates, that what is the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system – here illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article...

  7. ECONOMIC EFFECT OF INTRODUCTION OF MODULAR TECHNOLOGY IN RAILWAY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Bilous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore the current state of the railway engineering industry in the world, the problems of its development prospects, especially the introduction of the modular process technology and economic impact of its introduction. Methodology. The research is based on statistical information from public sources, which is used to confirm the veracity of the thesis put forward about the feasibility of further implementation of the principle of modularity in the railway engineering sector. Data was also obtained from the websites of manufacturers of railway equipment. Also, in the study of the issue, analytical articles on the economic development of the sector of railway engineering in the world were used. Results of the research showed that today, in transport engineering industry, in particular – in the railway engineering, there is a problem of inefficient implementation and use of technological developments, which are used in the manufacture of railway rolling stock. Many technical solutions are duplicated, leading to more time and financial costs. At the same time, there is no free access to information about existing technical solutions, which significantly slows down the development of rail transport. One of the main solutions to the problem is the use of modular technology in the design and manufacture of rolling stock. Leading global manufacturers have already begun to use the modules in the production of their rolling stock, but the technology is not yet sufficiently developed and finds its realization only in reducing the costs of production of rolling stock by specific manufacturers. The full benefits of the new technology have not yet been obtained by producers and operators. Thus, there is a considerable margin for the implementation of modular technology in the production of railway vehicles, which will result in further reducing both production costs and the costs of maintenance, operation and repair of

  8. Information and Communications Technology Development and its Economic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pajgrt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with economic context of Information a Communications Technology (ICT development’s analysis. Historical data of ICT revenue in USA for last 53 years were analyzed and were compared with the historical data in Czech Republic, Germany, China, India, Japan and Brazil for last 13 years. The ratio of ICT revenues to GDP was used as proper indicator in the examined countries to reflect the influences of the surrounding progress and define the individual progress stages. The formulation of the progress’ general rules and its prediction was done. It was monitored the dynamics of ICT sales, depending on its form and the influence of global economy.

  9. Comparative economic evaluation of environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrascu, Roxana; Athanasovici, Victor; Raducanu, Cristian; Minciuc, Eduard; Bitir-Istrate, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    Cogeneration is one of the most powerful technologies for reduction of environmental pollution along with renewable energies. At the Kyoto Conference cogeneration has been identified as being the most important measure for reducing emissions of greenhouse effect gases. It has also been mentioned that cogeneration has a potential of reducing pollution with about 180 million tones per year. In order to promote new cogeneration technologies and evaluate the existing ones it is necessary to know and to be able to quantify in economical terms the environmental issues. When comparing different cogeneration technologies: steam turbine (TA), gas turbine (TG), internal combustion engine (MT), in order to choose the best one, the final decision implies an economic factor, which is even more important if it includes the environmental issues. The environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies is quantified using different criteria: depletion of non-renewable natural resources, eutrofisation, greenhouse effect, acidification etc. Environmental analysis using these criteria can be made using the 'impact with impact' methodology or the global one. The results of such an analysis cannot be quantified economically directly. Therefore there is a need of internalisation of ecological effects within the costs of produced energy: electricity and heat. In the energy production sector the externalizations represent the indirect effects on the environment. They can be materialised within different types of environmental impact: - Different buildings of mines, power plants etc; - Fuel losses during transportation and processing; - Effect of emissions in the air, water and soil. Introduction of the environmental impact costs in the energy price is called internalisation and it can be made using the direct and indirect methods. The paper discusses aspects regarding the emissions of cogeneration systems, the eco-taxes - method of 'internalisation' of environmental

  10. 40 CFR 450.22 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best available technology economically achievable (BAT). 450.22 Section 450.22 Protection of... limitations reflecting the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40... the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). (a) Beginning no later than August 1...

  11. Chaotic particle swarm optimization for economic dispatch considering the generator constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jiejin; Ma, Xiaoqian; Li, Lixiang; Haipeng, Peng

    2007-01-01

    Chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) methods are optimization approaches based on the proposed particle swarm optimization (PSO) with adaptive inertia weight factor (AIWF) and chaotic local search (CLS). In this paper, two CPSO methods based on the logistic equation and the Tent equation are presented to solve economic dispatch (ED) problems with generator constraints and applied in two power system cases. Compared with the traditional PSO method, the convergence iterative numbers of the CPSO methods are reduced, and the solutions generation costs decrease around 5 $/h in the six unit system and 24 $/h in the 15 unit system. The simulation results show that the CPSO methods have good convergence property. The generation costs of the CPSO methods are lower than those of the traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm, and hence, CPSO methods can result in great economic effect. For economic dispatch problems, the CPSO methods are more feasible and more effective alternative approaches than the traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm

  12. Economic aspects of Solar Thermal Technologies for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinecke, W.

    1993-01-01

    Economic results of German studies are presented, which compare the four solar thermal technologies for electricity generation (parabolic trough collector system, central receiver system, parabolic dish/Stirling system, solar chimney plant). These studies were carried out by Interatom (today Siemens/KWU) in Bergisch Gladbach, Flachglas Solartechnik in Koln and Schlaich Bergermann and Partner in Stuggart under contract of DLR in Koln. Funds were made available by the German Ministry of Research and Development (BMFT). The results indicate that all of the investigated technologies have the potential to reduce the generating costs and that in the future costs of below 0.30 DM/kWh could be expected under excellent insolation conditions (e.G. 2850 kWh/m''2 a direct insolation as in California/USA). (Author) 25 refs

  13. The role of economic incentives for managing technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunreuther, H.

    1995-01-01

    A key issue facing society in dealing with the management of technological facilities is balancing the costs of reducing risks with the relevant benefits. These tradeoffs are difficult for both experts and laypersons to make when there is limited objective data on the nature of the health and safety risks. Economic incentives, such as insurance and compensation, can play an important role in reducing and preventing losses associated with technological facilities if they are coupled with appropriate regulations and/or standards. They also can communicate information to the public on the price associated with different levels of risk. The talk will focus on how these policy tools can be utilized for improving the risk management process in conjunction with risk assessment. The siting of facilities for storing and disposing of potentially hazardous wastes will be used to illustrate these concepts and indicate how the public can be made a more integral part of the process

  14. The economics of optimal adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Ringius, L.

    2002-07-01

    This paper has set out to provide a consistent theoretical framework for understanding how consumers, producers and factor agents respond to the impacts of climate change, with a primary focus on the production and consumption of, and investment in, market goods and services under competitive conditions. However, we have also pointed out that this theory can be extended to economies where individuals and groups pursue other well-defined objectives, and we have provided some examples that show the consistency in adaptation behaviour between economic terms and those who maximise the objective of household nutrition. We have defined adaptation as the changes that economic agents make in the allocation of resources to consumption, production and investment to offset the effects of weather variability or climate change on their welfare. This definition is broad enough to encompass almost every conceivable kind of adaptation behaviour. Further, we have followed the distinction between adaptation that is autonomous and adaptation actions that are undertaken by governments in the form of adaptation strategies. Autonomous adaptation is adaptation that economic agents will undertake to change, without the assistance of government, to improve their welfare due to incentives that are built into the political economy of a country. Adaptation strategies involve conscious decisions by governments to undertake actions and implement projects to avoid (or benefit from) weather variability and climate change. We show how the extent to which economic activities are adapted to existing climate variability will affect how much autonomous adaptation will need to occur once the pure effect of climate change is taken into account. In this paper we argue that the ability of economic activities to adapt once the pure effect of climate change can be accounted for by the following factors: Presence of well-developed markets for inputs and outputs; Ability and competitiveness to produce

  15. Economic performance optimization of an absorption cooling system under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebreslassie, Berhane H.; Guillen-Gosalbez, Gonzalo; Jimenez, Laureano; Boer, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Many of the strategies devised so far to address the optimization of energy systems are deterministic approaches that rely on estimated data. However, in real world applications there are many sources of uncertainty that introduce variability into the decision-making problem. Within this general context, we propose a novel approach to address the design of absorption cooling systems under uncertainty in the energy cost. As opposed to other approaches that optimize the expected performance of the system as a single objective, in our method the design task is formulated as a stochastic bi-criteria non-linear optimization problem that simultaneously accounts for the minimization of the expected total cost and the financial risk associated with the investment. The latter criterion is measured by the downside risk, which avoids the need to define binary variables thus improving the computational performance of the model. The capabilities of the proposed modeling framework and solution strategy are illustrated in a case study problem that addresses the design of a typical absorption cooling system. Numerical results demonstrate that the method presented allows to manage the risk level effectively by varying the area of the heat exchangers of the absorption cycle. Specifically, our strategy allows identifying the optimal values of the operating and design variables of the cycle that make it less sensitive to fluctuations in the energy price, thus improving its robustness in the face of uncertainty.

  16. Optimal farm plans for sustainable environmental and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimal farm plans indicated that the cassava/maize intercrop gave the best results in Ijemo-Fadipe and Ajura, while the cassava/melon and sole cassava enterprises were best in Ijale-Papa and Ilewo-Orile respectively. Operating expenses was found to be the most limiting factors in all the villages. The study concluded ...

  17. Optimal Capital Structure: Reflections on Economic and Other Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.J. Schauten (Marc); J. Spronk (Jaap)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDespite a vast literature on the capital structure of the firm there still is a big gap between theory and practice. Starting with the seminal work by Modigliani & Miller, much attention has been paid to the optimality of capital structure from the shareholders’ point of view. Over the

  18. Impact of Scientific and Technological Progress on Economic Development - the Views of Some Nobel Laureates of the Economic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Xhelili KRASNIQI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are different authors' opinions and numerous theories according to which scientific technological progress is a determining factor of the economic development. The paper aims to present the contributions of some Nobel laureates to the impact of scientific and technological progress on economic development such as Arrow, Debreu, Hicks, Solow, Kuznets, Kantorovich and Stiglitz. The research results of their contributions show that scientific technological progress is considered as a source of economic development but this advanced technology to be widely and effectively used should be accompanied by such ideological and institutional adjustments that guarantee the reasonable use of innovations produced by the huge improvements of human knowledge.

  19. Economically optimal timing for crop disease control under uncertainty: an options approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndeffo Mbah, M.L.; Forster, G.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Gilligan, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Severe large-scale disease and pest infestations in agricultural regions can cause significant economic damage. Understanding if and when disease control measures should be taken in the presence of risk and uncertainty is a key issue. We develop a framework to examine the economically optimal timing

  20. Economical-environmental assessment on technologies producing electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafzadeh, K.

    2000-01-01

    Currently, the electric power industry is undergoing substantial regulatory and organizational change with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Under these circumstances, with utilization of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) concept, we consider the assessment of Technologies producing energy from financial and pollution viewpoint. AHP techniques is one of the efficient methods in analysis of complex and multi-criteria problems, which has plenty of applications. General pattern of this assessment has been introduced, and the main goal is determining of overall priority weights for each technology. With using this pattern, overall priority weights has been determined for thermal, combined cycle and Gas turbine plants. It has been cleared that relative priority of these plants will change, if relative priority of assessment criterions changes. For application of this approach, capital budgeting process and selection of some suitable technologies among the alternatives candidate for construction have been presented. In this process the objective is to maximize the sum of overall priority weights of technologies which have been identified from AHP. Constraints are about the construction budget and annual budget for emission allowances. This process is in the integer programming IP form an has been applied to three kind of power plants with reasonable assumptions

  1. Economic assessment of new technology of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Song, K. D.; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. S.; Choi, H. B.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the change in the manufacturing cost of DUPIC fuel on the power generation cost. In doing so, the installed capacity of nuclear power plants until the year 2040 were forecasted by using the trend analysis technique. This study used the NUFCAP computer code, developed by KAERI, which allows to conduct quantitative evaluation of the volumes of nuclear fuel and spent fuel as well as unit and system costs of nuclear fuel cycle. As a result of this study, it was found that there was little economic difference between the two possible options for the Korean electric system, direct disposal and DUPIC fuel cycle. The rate of discount and the manufacturing cost of DUPIC fuel were resulted in the most significant factors affecting the economics of the two options. Finally, it was expected that the result of this study provided the arguing point for the international debate on the economics of DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  2. Techno-economic analysis of PC versus CFB combustion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-01

    In the last ten years circulating fluidised bed combustion (CFBC) has emerged as a viable alternative to pulverised coal combustion (PCC) for utility-scale coal power generation, with widespread deployment of 300 MW boilers and the successful demonstration of supercritical units of up to 600 MW. Although CFBC offers a greater degree of fuel flexibility and does not usually require downstream flue gas cleaning, high capital costs and high auxiliary power use have hindered the adoption of CFBC for utility power generation. Recent advances in CFBC unit capacity and steam conditions have led to higher efficiencies and economies of scale, with the result that a CFBC plant may now be more economically favourable than a PCC plant depending on a range of factors such as available fuels and regional emissions limits. This report reviews the state-of-the-art for both technologies and provides a comparison of their relative performances and economic costs. Standard operational parameters such as efficiency, availability, and flexibility are assessed, in addition to relative suitability for biomass cofiring and oxyfuel combustion as strategies for carbon mitigation. A review of recent cost evaluations of the two technologies is accompanied by a breakdown of individual plant expenses including flue gas scrubbing equipment and ash recycle value.

  3. Eviromental Economic and Technological Residues Management Demands: An Optimization Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Soares Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial residues management is a very demanding task since many different goals must be achieved. The combination of different approaches used by people from different stuff is very challenging activity that can misuse the residues potential value and applicability. An interactive WEB base tool, to integrate different sectors and overcome residues management difficulties will be presented. The system must be loaded with all data concerning the residue life cycle, and through data integration and modeling routine will give the best alternative as output. As wider and complete the system data becomes, by information loading from differen t segment, more efficient the residues management becomes. The user friendly tool will encourage the participation of industries, labs and research institutions to obtain qualified information about industrial residues inventory, raw materials recovery, characteristics, treatment and alternative uses, to achieve residues management sustainability.

  4. Flood risk and economically optimal safety targets for coastal flood defense systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupuits, E.J.C.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2015-01-01

    A front defense can improve the reliability of a rear defense in a coastal flood defense system. The influence of this interdependency on the accompanying economically optimal safety targets of both front and rear defense is investigated. The results preliminary suggest that the optimal safety level

  5. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-01-01

    In order to plan for potential CO(sub 2) mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO(sub 2) mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO(sub 2) sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO(sub 2) and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO(sub 2) sequestration, including captured CO(sub 2) storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO(sub 2) sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO(sub 2) sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO(sub 2). No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO(sub 2) sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO(sub 2) sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget

  6. Techno–economic design of hybrid electric vehicles and possibilities of the multi-objective optimization structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The full hybrid electric vehicle suits for sustainable urban mobility and customer investment. • The full hybrid electric urban vehicle is efficient, with consumption less than 2 L/100 km. • The range extender vehicle is a technology for low CO_2 emissions – less than 20 g/km CO_2_. • The total CO_2 emissions for range extender and plug-in vehicles are sensitive to the use place. - Abstract: The design criteria for modern sustainable development of vehicle powertrain are the high energy efficiency of the conversion system, the competitive cost and the lowest possible environmental impacts. In this article a multi-objective optimization methodology is applied on hybrid electric vehicles study in order to define the optimal powertrain configurations of the vehicle, estimate the cost of the powertrain equipment and show the environmental impact of the technical choices on the lifecycle perspective of the vehicle. The study illustrates optimal design solutions for low fuel consumption vehicles – between 2 L/100 km and 3 L/100 km. For that a simulation model of a hybrid electric vehicle is made. This model is coupled with a cost model for the vehicle. The techno–economic optimizations are performed for two case studies, illustrating the possibilities of the optimization superstructure. Firstly the life cycle inventory is written as a function of the parameters of the techno–economic model. In this way, the obtained environmental indicators from the life cycle assessment are calculated as a function of the decision variables for the vehicle design. In the second example the parameters of the energy distribution function are included as decision variables in the techno–economic optimization and are simultaneously optimized.

  7. Impact of Scientific and Technological Progress on Economic Development - the Views of Some Nobel Laureates of the Economic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Xhelili KRASNIQI; Nexhmie Berisha VOKSHI

    2017-01-01

    There are different authors' opinions and numerous theories according to which scientific technological progress is a determining factor of the economic development. The paper aims to present the contributions of some Nobel laureates to the impact of scientific and technological progress on economic development such as Arrow, Debreu, Hicks, Solow, Kuznets, Kantorovich and Stiglitz. The research results of their contributions show that scientific technological progress is considered as a sour...

  8. Towards a globally optimized crop distribution: Integrating water use, nutrition, and economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. F.; Seveso, A.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2016-12-01

    Human demand for crop production is expected to increase substantially in the coming decades as a result of population growth, richer diets and biofuel use. In order for food production to keep pace, unprecedented amounts of resources - water, fertilizers, energy - will be required. This has led to calls for `sustainable intensification' in which yields are increased on existing croplands while seeking to minimize impacts on water and other agricultural resources. Recent studies have quantified aspects of this, showing that there is a large potential to improve crop yields and increase harvest frequencies to better meet human demand. Though promising, both solutions would necessitate large additional inputs of water and fertilizer in order to be achieved under current technologies. However, the question of whether the current distribution of crops is, in fact, the best for realizing sustainable production has not been considered to date. To this end, we ask: Is it possible to increase crop production and economic value while minimizing water demand by simply growing crops where soil and climate conditions are best suited? Here we use maps of yields and evapotranspiration for 14 major food crops to identify differences between current crop distributions and where they can most suitably be planted. By redistributing crops across currently cultivated lands, we determine the potential improvements in calorie (+12%) and protein (+51%) production, economic output (+41%) and water demand (-5%). This approach can also incorporate the impact of future climate on cropland suitability, and as such, be used to provide optimized cropping patterns under climate change. Thus, our study provides a novel tool towards achieving sustainable intensification that can be used to recommend optimal crop distributions in the face of a changing climate while simultaneously accounting for food security, freshwater resources, and livelihoods.

  9. Forecasting economy with Bayesian autoregressive distributed lag model: choosing optimal prior in economic downturn

    OpenAIRE

    Bušs, Ginters

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian inference requires an analyst to set priors. Setting the right prior is crucial for precise forecasts. This paper analyzes how optimal prior changes when an economy is hit by a recession. For this task, an autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) model is chosen. The results show that a sharp economic slowdown changes the optimal prior in two directions. First, it changes the structure of the optimal weight prior, setting smaller weight on the lagged dependent variable compared to varia...

  10. Optimization of an experimental hybrid microgrid operation: reliability and economic issues

    OpenAIRE

    Milo, Aitor; Gaztañaga, Haizea; Etxeberria Otadui, Ion; Bilbao, Endika; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid microgrid system, composed of RES (Renewable Energy System) and CHP (Combined Heat and Power) systems together with a battery based storage system is presented. The microgrid is accompanied by a centralized energy management system (CEMS) in order to optimize the microgrid operation both in grid-connected and in stand-alone modes. In grid-connected mode the optimization of the economic exploitation of the microgrid is privileged by applying optim...

  11. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

  12. Optimizing Green Computing Awareness for Environmental Sustainability and Economic Security as a Stochastic Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Okewu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of automation in sustainable development is not in doubt. Computerization in particular has permeated every facet of human endeavour, enhancing the provision of information for decision-making that reduces cost of operation, promotes productivity and socioeconomic prosperity and cohesion. Hence, a new field called information and communication technology for development (ICT4D has emerged. Nonetheless, the need to ensure environmentally friendly computing has led to this research study with particular focus on green computing in Africa. This is against the backdrop that the continent is feared to suffer most from the vulnerability of climate change and the impact of environmental risk. Using Nigeria as a test case, this paper gauges the green computing awareness level of Africans via sample survey. It also attempts to institutionalize green computing maturity model with a view to optimizing the level of citizens awareness amid inherent uncertainties like low bandwidth, poor network and erratic power in an emerging African market. Consequently, we classified the problem as a stochastic optimization problem and applied metaheuristic search algorithm to determine the best sensitization strategy. Although there are alternative ways of promoting green computing education, the metaheuristic search we conducted indicated that an online real-time solution that not only drives but preserves timely conversations on electronic waste (e-waste management and energy saving techniques among the citizenry is cutting edge. The authors therefore reviewed literature, gathered requirements, modelled the proposed solution using Universal Modelling Language (UML and developed a prototype. The proposed solution is a web-based multi-tier e-Green computing system that educates computer users on innovative techniques of managing computers and accessories in an environmentally friendly way. We found out that such a real-time web-based interactive forum does not

  13. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, H.

    2013-01-01

    -criteria analysis have been developed.A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy...... example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi...

  14. Real-time economic optimization for a fermentation process using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is a widely used process in production of many foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. The main goal of the control system is to maximize profit of the fermentation process, and thus this is also the main goal of this paper. We present a simple dynamic model for a fermentation process...... and demonstrate its usefulness in economic optimization. The model is formulated as an index-1 differential algebraic equation (DAE), which guarantees conservation of mass and energy in discrete form. The optimization is based on recent advances within Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (E......-NMPC), and also utilizes the index-1 DAE model. The E-NMPC uses the single-shooting method and the adjoint method for computation of the optimization gradients. The process constraints are relaxed to soft-constraints on the outputs. Finally we derive the analytical solution to the economic optimization problem...

  15. Economic irrationality is optimal during noisy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Moran, Rani; Moreland, James; Chater, Nick; Usher, Marius; Summerfield, Christopher

    2016-03-15

    According to normative theories, reward-maximizing agents should have consistent preferences. Thus, when faced with alternatives A, B, and C, an individual preferring A to B and B to C should prefer A to C. However, it has been widely argued that humans can incur losses by violating this axiom of transitivity, despite strong evolutionary pressure for reward-maximizing choices. Here, adopting a biologically plausible computational framework, we show that intransitive (and thus economically irrational) choices paradoxically improve accuracy (and subsequent economic rewards) when decision formation is corrupted by internal neural noise. Over three experiments, we show that humans accumulate evidence over time using a "selective integration" policy that discards information about alternatives with momentarily lower value. This policy predicts violations of the axiom of transitivity when three equally valued alternatives differ circularly in their number of winning samples. We confirm this prediction in a fourth experiment reporting significant violations of weak stochastic transitivity in human observers. Crucially, we show that relying on selective integration protects choices against "late" noise that otherwise corrupts decision formation beyond the sensory stage. Indeed, we report that individuals with higher late noise relied more strongly on selective integration. These findings suggest that violations of rational choice theory reflect adaptive computations that have evolved in response to irreducible noise during neural information processing.

  16. Optimal model of economic diplomacy of Republic of Croatia in the contexst of global intelligence revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bazdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to point to the fact that economic diplomacy is a relatively new practice in international economics, specifically the expansion of the occurrence of Intelligence Revolution. The history in global relations shows that without economic diplomacy there is no optimal economic growth and social development. It is important to note that economic diplomacy should be important for our country and the political elite, as well as for the administration of Croatian economic subjects that want to compete in international market economy. Comparative analysis are particularly highlighted by French experience. Therefore, Croatia should copy the practice of those countries that are successful in economic diplomacy. And in the curricula - especially of our economic faculties - we should introduce the course of Economic Diplomacy. It is important to note, that in order to form our optimal model of economic diplomacy which would be headed by the President of Republic of Croatia formula should be based on: Intelligence Security Agency (SOA, Intelligence Service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, Intelligence Service of the Croatian Chamber of Commerce and the Intelligence Service of the Ministry of Economy, Labor and Entrepreneurship. Described model would consist of intelligence subsystem with at least twelve components.

  17. The use of efficiency frontiers to evaluate the optimal land cover and irrigation practices for economic returns and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent; West, Grant; Xu, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Efficiency frontiers are a useful tool for governmental agencies that balance the protection of ecosystem services with the economic returns from an agricultural landscape because the tool illustrates that a compromise of objectives generates greater value to society than optimizing a sole objective. Policy makers facing the problem of groundwater overdraft on an agricultural landscape want to know if regulations or irrigation technology adoption will enhance both economic and ecosystem service benefits. Conjunctive water management with on-farm reservoirs and tail water recovery system is frequently suggested to alleviate groundwater and surface water quality problems in the Lower Mississippi River Basin of the United States, and this study evaluates the consequence of the adoption of this technology for the balance of ecosystem service and economic objectives. A compromise of objectives that maximizes the value to society provides 76% more value to society without reservoirs and 66% more value to society with reservoirs than the sole objective of economic returns. The reservoirs help an agricultural landscape maximizing economic returns to align more closely with a landscape maximizing the value to society, although there are still significant gains possible from finding a landscape that directly compromises on the objectives.

  18. Optimal Economic Operation of Islanded Microgrid by Using a Modified PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal economic operation method is presented to attain a joint-optimization of cost reduction and operation strategy for islanded microgrid, which includes renewable energy source, the diesel generator, and battery storage system. The optimization objective is to minimize the overall generating cost involving depreciation cost, operation cost, emission cost, and economic subsidy available for renewable energy source, while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. A novel dynamic optimization process is proposed based on two different operation control modes where diesel generator or battery storage acts as the master unit to maintain the system frequency and voltage stability, and a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied to get faster solution to the practical economic operation problem of islanded microgrid. With the example system of an actual islanded microgrid in Dongao Island, China, the proposed models, dynamic optimization strategy, and solution algorithm are verified and the influences of different operation strategies and optimization algorithms on the economic operation are discussed. The results achieved demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  19. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  20. Model for economic optimization of solar power plants; Beraekningsmodell foer ekonomisk optimering av solelanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widen, Joakim

    2011-01-15

    This is the final report from a project in which an early-design-phase tool for photovoltaic (PV) systems has been developed. The aim of the tool is to provide a quick and easy way to estimate the electricity production and the economy of a PV system. Although it is effective and easy to use, the model takes into account all the important factors that affect the design, performance and economy of a system, and makes it possible with more in-depth analyses as well. The intended users of the tool are both electricity end-users thinking on investing in a small-scale system and large investors planning in an early project phase for large-scale PV systems. The developed tool is a simulation tool rather than an optimization tool. However, as the model is efficient and simple to use, it is easy to vary parameters and input data in different scenarios to arrive at an optimal solution. In order for the tool to realistically estimate the load matching of a PV system, which depends on seasonal and diurnal variations in both load and production profiles, the computations are made on an hourly basis. An hourly resolution is the most common one in meteorological data and to increase the resolution further is neither practically possible nor required for accuracy. The hourly irradiation data used in the model were collected from the publicly available STRAaNG database, which is maintained by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). Idealized hourly load profiles for typical Swedish end-user categories are also included in the tool. A general computational model was implemented in Matlab, which provided easy testing, visualization and validation of the model. The computations involved can be summarized in four main steps: 1 Radiation computations. This involves a transposition of radiation components to the tilted plane of the PV array. The model takes the orientation of the system into account and uses assumed albedo values of the surroundings to add ground

  1. Economically optimized electricity trade modeling. Iran-Turkey case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakouri G, H.; Eghlimi, M.; Manzoor, D.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of power trade between countries, which are attainable for various facts, are distinguished now. Daily differences in the peak-load times of neighboring countries commonly occur for differences in the longitudes of their location. Seasonal differences are also caused by differences in the latitudes leading to different climates. Consequently, different load curves help to have such a production schedule that reduces blackouts and investments for power generation by planning for a proper trade between countries in a region. This paper firstly describes the methodology and framework for the power trade and then the results of an optimal power trade model between Iran and Turkey, which shows a potential benefit for both countries by peak shaving, are presented. The results, in the worst case design, represent optimality of about 1500 MW electricity export from Iran to Turkey at the Turkish peak times, as well as 447 MW electricity import from Turkey at the Iranian peak times. In addition, results derived from running a Long-Run model show that there will be greater potential for power export from Iran to Turkey, which is a guideline of an energy conservation strategy for both countries in the future. (author)

  2. Optimal Renewable Energy Integration into Refinery with CO2 Emissions Consideration: An Economic Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnifro, M.; Taqvi, S. T.; Ahmad, M. S.; Bensaida, K.; Elkamel, A.

    2017-08-01

    With increasing global energy demand and declining energy return on energy invested (EROEI) of crude oil, global energy consumption by the O&G industry has increased drastically over the past few years. In addition, this energy increase has led to an increase GHG emissions, resulting in adverse environmental effects. On the other hand, electricity generation through renewable resources have become relatively cost competitive to fossil based energy sources in a much ‘cleaner’ way. In this study, renewable energy is integrated optimally into a refinery considering costs and CO2 emissions. Using Aspen HYSYS, a refinery in the Middle East was simulated to estimate the energy demand by different processing units. An LP problem was formulated based on existing solar energy systems and wind potential in the region. The multi-objective function, minimizing cost as well as CO2 emissions, was solved using GAMS to determine optimal energy distribution from each energy source to units within the refinery. Additionally, an economic feasibility study was carried out to determine the viability of renewable energy technology project implementation to overcome energy requirement of the refinery. Electricity generation through all renewable energy sources considered (i.e. solar PV, solar CSP and wind) were found feasible based on their low levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The payback period for a Solar CSP project, with an annual capacity of about 411 GWh and a lifetime of 30 years, was found to be 10 years. In contrast, the payback period for Solar PV and Wind were calculated to be 7 and 6 years, respectively. This opens up possibilities for integrating renewables into the refining sector as well as optimizing multiple energy carrier systems within the crude oil industry

  3. Economic dispatch optimization for system integrating renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the use of energy is growing especially in transportation and electricity industries. However this energy is based on conventional sources which pollute the environment. Multi-source system is seen as the best solution to sustainable development. This paper proposes the Economic Dispatch (ED) of hybrid renewable power system. The hybrid system is composed of ten thermal generators, photovoltaic (PV) generator and wind turbine generator. To show the importance of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy mix we have ran the simulation for system integrated PV only and PV plus wind. The result shows that the system with renewable energy sources (RES) is more compromising than the system without RES in terms of fuel cost.

  4. Is There an Optimal Speed for Economical Running?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Matthew I; Handsaker, Joseph C; Allen, Sam J; Forrester, Stephanie E; Folland, Jonathan P

    2018-01-01

    The influence of running speed and sex on running economy is unclear and may have been confounded by measurements of oxygen cost that do not account for known differences in substrate metabolism, across a limited range of speeds, and differences in performance standard. Therefore, this study assessed the energy cost of running over a wide range of speeds in high-level and recreational runners to investigate the effect of speed (in absolute and relative terms) and sex (men vs women of equivalent performance standard) on running economy. To determine the energy cost (kcal · kg -1  · km -1 ) of submaximal running, speed at lactate turn point (sLTP), and maximal rate of oxygen uptake, 92 healthy runners (high-level men, n = 14; high-level women, n = 10; recreational men, n = 35; recreational women, n = 33) completed a discontinuous incremental treadmill test. There were no sex-specific differences in the energy cost of running for the recreational or high-level runners when compared at absolute or relative running speeds (P > .05). The absolute and relative speed-energy cost relationships for the high-level runners demonstrated a curvilinear U shape with a nadir reflecting the most economical speed at 13 km/h or 70% sLTP. The high-level runners were more economical than the recreational runners at all absolute and relative running speeds (P running, there is no sex-specific difference, and high-level endurance runners exhibit better running economy than recreational endurance runners.

  5. Optimal welding technology of high strength steel S690QL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Arsic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the detailed procedure for defining the optimal technology for welding the structures made of the high strength steel S690QL. That steel belongs into a group of steels with exceptional mechanical properties. The most prominent properties are the high tensile strength and impact toughness, at room and at elevated temperatures, as well. However, this steel has a negative characteristic - proneness to appearance of cold cracks.  That impedes welding and makes as an imperative to study different aspects of this steel's properties as well as those of eventual filler metal. Selection and defining of the optimal welding technology of this high strength steel is done for the purpose of preserving the favorable mechanical properties once the welded joint is realized; properties of the welded metal and the melting zone, as well as in the heat affected zone, which is the most critical zone of the welded joint.

  6. Thermo-economic and environmental analyses based multi-objective optimization of vapor compression–absorption cascaded refrigeration system using NSGA-II technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vaibhav; Sachdeva, Gulshan; Kachhwaha, Surendra Singh; Patel, Bhavesh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It addresses multi-objective optimization study on cascaded refrigeration system. • Cascaded system is a promising decarburizing and energy efficient technology. • NSGA-II technique is used for multi-objective optimization. • Total annual product cost and irreversibility rate are simultaneously optimized. - Abstract: Present work optimizes the performance of 170 kW vapor compression–absorption cascaded refrigeration system (VCACRS) based on combined thermodynamic, economic and environmental parameters using Non-dominated Sort Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) technique. Two objective functions including the total irreversibility rate (as a thermodynamic criterion) and the total product cost (as an economic criterion) of the system are considered simultaneously for multi-objective optimization of VCACRS. The capital and maintenance costs of the system components, the operational cost, and the penalty cost due to CO_2 emission are included in the total product cost of the system. Three optimized systems including a single-objective thermodynamic optimized, a single-objective economic optimized and a multi-objective optimized are analyzed and compared. The results showed that the multi-objective design considers the combined thermodynamic and total product cost criteria better than the two individual single-objective thermodynamic and total product cost optimized designs.

  7. Swarm based mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMOS) for solving economic dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, T. H.; Vasant, P. M.; Singh, M. S. Balbir; Dieu, V. N.

    2014-10-01

    The economic dispatch (ED) is an essential optimization task in the power generation system. It is defined as the process of allocating the real power output of generation units to meet required load demand so as their total operating cost is minimized while satisfying all physical and operational constraints. This paper introduces a novel optimization which named as Swarm based Mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMOS). The technique is the extension of the original single particle mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMO). Its features make it potentially attractive algorithm for solving optimization problems. The proposed method is implemented for three test power systems, including 3, 13 and 20 thermal generation units with quadratic cost function and the obtained results are compared with many other methods available in the literature. Test results have indicated that the proposed method can efficiently implement for solving economic dispatch.

  8. Modeling economic growth fuelled by science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a simulation model to investigate how science and technology fuel economic growth. This model is built upon a synthesis of technological capabilities represented by national innovation systems. This paper gathers data of papers and patents for 183 countries between 1999 and 2003, as well as GDP and population for 2003. These data show a strong correlation between science, technology and income. Three simulation exercises are performed. Feeding our algorithm with data for population, patents and scientific papers, we obtain the world income distribution. These results support our conjecture on the role of science and technology as sources of the wealth of nations.Este artigo propõe um modelo de simulação para investigar a contribuição da ciência e da tecnologia para o crescimento econômico. O ponto de partida são os sistemas nacionais de inovação, um conceito que sintetiza a capacitação tecnológica das nações. Desta forma, o modelo pode preservar simplicidade e parcimônia. Os dados coletados (patentes, artigos e PIB e população, para 183 países indicam uma forte correlação entre ciência, tecnologia e renda. Três exercícios com simulações são realizados para diversos momentos do tempo, mostrando a progressiva aderência do modelo a essas variáveis tecnológicas.

  9. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real

  10. CANDU flexible and economical fuel technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingjun, C. [CNNC Nuclear Power Operation Management Co., Zhejiang (China); Zhenhua, Z.; Zhiliang, M. [CNNC Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co., Zhejiang (China); Cottrell, C.M.; Kuran, S. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Use in CANDU reactor is one good option of recycled uranium (RU) and thorium (Th) resource. It is also good economy to CANDU fuel. Since 2008 Qinshan CANDU Plant and our partners (Candu Energy and CNNC and NPIC) have made great efforts to develop the engineering technologies of Flexible and Economical Fuel (RU and Th) in CANDU type reactor and finding the CANDU's position in Chinese closed fuel cycle (CFC) system. This paper presents a proposal of developing strategy and implementation plan. Qinshan CANDU reactors will be converted to use recycled and depleted uranium based fuels, a first-of-its-kind. The fuel is composed of both recycled and depleted uranium and simulating natural uranium behavior. This paper discusses its development, design, manufacture and verification tested with success and the full core implementation plan by the end of 2014. (author)

  11. Estimating costs in the economic evaluation of medical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, B R; Elixhauser, A

    1990-01-01

    The complexities and nuances of evaluating the costs associated with providing medical technologies are often underestimated by analysts engaged in economic evaluations. This article describes the theoretical underpinnings of cost estimation, emphasizing the importance of accounting for opportunity costs and marginal costs. The various types of costs that should be considered in an analysis are described; a listing of specific cost elements may provide a helpful guide to analysis. The process of identifying and estimating costs is detailed, and practical recommendations for handling the challenges of cost estimation are provided. The roles of sensitivity analysis and discounting are characterized, as are determinants of the types of costs to include in an analysis. Finally, common problems facing the analyst are enumerated with suggestions for managing these problems.

  12. Economic evaluation of GPS technology in Serbian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the level of savings in the application of the most modern technical systems for satellite guidance and control over performing agricultural operations throughout the season. The exemplary property was Agricultural Corporation Belgrade (PKB, which covers about 21.000 hectares of arable land. The effects of plot shape and direction of movement of tractor-attachment units in calculating the savings from reduced overlapping of adjacent passes were studied. The analysis was carried out of savings per crop (maize, wheat, soybean, sugar beet and alfalfa and the operations for each crop separately, based on the manufacturing technology applied to an exemplary property. Detailed data are shown only for wheat and barley. Comparing the achieved level of savings, the application of guidance for the type of the most economically viable operations was found as well as the needed equipment level of guidance devices and management. In particular, the analysis involved the functional dependence of the economic savings in fuel and inputs for the operations such as mineral fertilizers distribution and chemical plant protection. Tabulated are the data estimates for the degree of anticipated savings for operations related to the five analyzed crops.

  13. VISUALIZATION SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT FOR PROCEDURE OF MULTI-DIMENSIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Ishakova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for multi-criteria optimization of the design parameters for technological object is described. The existing optimization methods are overviewed, and works in the field of basic research and applied problems are analyzed. The problem is formulated, based on the process requirements, making it possible to choose the geometrical dimensions of machine tips and the flow rate of the process, so that the resulting technical and economical parameters were optimal. In the problem formulation application of the performance method adapted to a particular domain is described. Task implementation is shown; the method of characteristics creation for the studied object in view of some restrictions for parameters in both analytical and graphical representation. On the basis of theoretical research the software system is developed that gives the possibility to automate the discovery of optimal solutions for specific problems. Using available information sources, that characterize the object of study, it is possible to establish identifiers, add restrictions from the one side, and in the interval as well. Obtained result is a visual depiction of dependence of the main study parameters on the others, which may have an impact on both the flow of the process, and the quality of products. The resulting optimal area shows the use of different design options for technological object in an acceptable kinematic range that makes it possible for the researcher to choose the best design solution.

  14. New drilling optimization technologies make drilling more efficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.C.-K. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada). Sperry Division

    2004-07-01

    Several new technologies have been adopted by the upstream petroleum industry in the past two decades in order to optimize drilling operations and improve drilling efficiency. Since financial returns from an oil and gas investment strongly depend on drilling costs, it is important to reduce non-productive time due to stuck pipes, lost circulation, hole cleaning and well bore stability problems. The most notable new technologies are the use of computer-based instrumentation and data acquisition systems, integrated rig site systems and networks, and Measurement-While-Drilling and Logging-While-Drilling (MWD/LWD) systems. Drilling optimization should include solutions for drillstring integrity, hydraulics management and wellbore integrity. New drilling optimization methods emphasize information management and real-time decision making. A recent study for drilling in shallow water in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrates that trouble time accounts for 25 per cent of rig time. This translates to about $1.5 MM U.S. per well. A reduction in trouble time could result in significant cost savings for the industry. This paper presents a case study on vibration prevention to demonstrate how the drilling industry has benefited from new technologies. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Economic analysis of alternatives for optimizing energy use in manufacturing companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez-Piñero, Mayra Ivelisse; Colón-Vázquez, Melitza

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing companies are one of the main consumers of energy. The increment in global warming and the instability in the petroleum oil market have motivated companies to find alternatives to reduce energy use. In the academic literature several researchers have demonstrated that optimization models can be successfully used to reduce energy use. This research presents the use of an optimization model to identify feasible economic alternatives to reduce energy use. The economic analysis methods used were the payback and the internal rate of return. The optimization model developed in this research was applied and validated using an electronic manufacturing company case study. The results demonstrate that the main variables affecting the economic feasibility of the alternatives are the economic analysis method and the initial implementation costs. Several scenarios were analyzed and the best results show that the manufacturing company could save up to $78,000 in three years if the recommendations based on the optimization model results are implemented. - Highlights: • Evaluate top consumers of energy in manufacturing: A/C, compressed air, and lighting • Economic analysis of alternatives to optimize energy used in manufacturing • Comparison of payback method and internal rate of return method with real data • Results demonstrate that the company could generate savings in energy use

  16. Optimizing Outcome in the University-Industry Technology Transfer Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamed; Hąbek, Patrycja

    2016-06-01

    Transferring inventions of academic scientists to private enterprises for the purpose of commercialization is long known as University-Industry (firm) Technology Transfer While the importance of this phenomenon is simultaneously raising in public and private sector, only a part of patented academic inventions succeed in passing the process of commercialization. Despite the fact that formal Technology Transfer process and licencing of patented innovations to third party is the main legal tool for safeguarding rights of academic inventors in commercialization of their inventions, it is not sufficient for transmitting tacit knowledge which is necessary in exploitation of transferred technology. Existence of reciprocal and complementary relations between formal and informal technology transfer process has resulted in formation of different models for university-industry organizational collaboration or even integration where licensee firms keep contact with academic inventors after gaining legal right for commercialization of their patented invention. Current paper argues that despite necessity for patents to legally pass the right of commercialization of an invention, they are not sufficient for complete knowledge transmission in the process of technology transfer. Lack of efficiency of formal mechanism to end the Technology Transfer loop makes an opportunity to create innovative interpersonal and organizational connections among patentee and licensee company. With emphasize on need for further elaboration of informal mechanisms as critical and underappreciated aspect of technology transfer process, article will try to answer the questions of how to optimize knowledge transmission process in the framework of University-Industry Technology Transfer Projects? What is the theoretical basis for university-industry technology transfer process? What are organization collaborative models which can enhance overall performance by improving transmission of knowledge in

  17. OPTIMIZING OUTCOME IN THE UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ALAVI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transferring inventions of academic scientists to private enterprises for the purpose of commercialization is long known as University-Industry (firm Technology Transfer While the importance of this phenomenon is simultaneously raising in public and private sector, only a part of patented academic inventions succeed in passing the process of commercialization. Despite the fact that formal Technology Transfer process and licencing of patented innovations to third party is the main legal tool for safeguarding rights of academic inventors in commercialization of their inventions, it is not sufficient for transmitting tacit knowledge which is necessary in exploitation of transferred technology. Existence of reciprocal and complementary relations between formal and informal technology transfer process has resulted in formation of different models for university-industry organizational collaboration or even integration where licensee firms keep contact with academic inventors after gaining legal right for commercialization of their patented invention. Current paper argues that despite necessity for patents to legally pass the right of commercialization of an invention, they are not sufficient for complete knowledge transmission in the process of technology transfer. Lack of efficiency of formal mechanism to end the Technology Transfer loop makes an opportunity to create innovative interpersonal and organizational connections among patentee and licensee company. With emphasize on need for further elaboration of informal mechanisms as critical and underappreciated aspect of technology transfer process, article will try to answer the questions of how to optimize knowledge transmission process in the framework of University-Industry Technology Transfer Projects? What is the theoretical basis for university-industry technology transfer process? What are organization collaborative models which can enhance overall performance by improving transmission of

  18. Simultaneous heat integration and techno-economic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for multiple waste heat stream recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haoshui; Eason, John; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Feng, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has become a promising technology for low and medium temperature energy utilization. In refineries, there are usually multiple waste heat streams to be recovered. From a safety and controllability perspective, using an intermedium (hot water) to recover waste heat before releasing heat to the ORC system is more favorable than direct integration. The mass flowrate of the intermediate hot water stream determines the amount of waste heat recovered and the final hot water temperature affects the thermal efficiency of ORC. Both, in turn, exert great influence on the power output. Therefore, the hot water mass flowrate is a critical decision variable for the optimal design of the system. This study develops a model for techno-economic optimization of an ORC with simultaneous heat recovery and capital cost optimization. The ORC is modeled using rigorous thermodynamics with the concept of state points. The task of waste heat recovery using the hot water intermedium is modeled using the Duran-Grossmann model for simultaneous heat integration and process optimization. The combined model determines the optimal design of an ORC that recovers multiple waste heat streams in a large scale background process using an intermediate heat transfer stream. In particular, the model determines the optimal heat recovery approach temperature (HRAT), the utility load of the background process, and the optimal operating conditions of the ORC simultaneously. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated with a case study that uses a refinery as the background process. Sensitivity of the optimal solution to the parameters (electricity price, utility cost) is quantified in this paper. - Highlights: • A new model for Organic Rankine cycle design optimization is presented. • Process heat integration and ORC are considered simultaneously. • Rigorous equation oriented models of the ORC are used for accurate results. • Impact of working

  19. Economic and technological aspects of the market introduction of renewable power technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlen, Christine M.

    Renewable energy, if developed and delivered with appropriate technologies, is cleaner, more evenly distributed, and safer than conventional energy systems. Many countries and several states in the United States promote the development and introduction of technologies for "green" electricity production. This dissertation investigates economic and technological aspects of this process for wind energy. In liberalized electricity markets, policy makers use economic incentives to encourage the adoption of renewables. Choosing from a large range of possible policies and instruments is a multi-criteria decision process. This dissertation evaluates the criteria used and the trade-offs among the criteria, and develops a hierarchical flow scheme that policy makers can use to choose the most appropriate policy for a given situation. Economic incentives and market transformation programs seek to reduce costs through mass deployment in order to make renewable technologies competitive. Cost reduction is measured in "experience curves" that posit negative exponential relationships between cumulative deployment and production cost. This analysis reveals the weaknesses in conventional experience curve analyses for wind turbines, and concludes that the concept is limited by data availability, a weak conceptual foundation, and inappropriate statistical estimation. A revised model specifies a more complete set of economic and technological forces that determine the cost of wind power. Econometric results indicate that experience and upscaling of turbine sizes accounted for the observed cost reduction in wind turbines in the United States, Denmark and Germany between 1983 and 2001. These trends are likely to continue. In addition, future cost reductions will result from economies of scale in production. Observed differences in the performance of theoretically equivalent policy instruments could arise from economic uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, a methodology for the

  20. Health technology assessment to optimize health technology utilization: using implementation initiatives and monitoring processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frønsdal, Katrine B; Facey, Karen; Klemp, Marianne; Norderhaug, Inger Natvig; Mørland, Berit; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2010-07-01

    The way in which a health technology is used in any particular health system depends on the decisions and actions of a variety of stakeholders, the local culture, and context. In 2009, the HTAi Policy Forum considered how health technology assessment (HTA) could be improved to optimize the use of technologies (in terms of uptake, change in use, or disinvestment) in such complex systems. In scoping, it was agreed to focus on initiatives to implement evidence-based guidance and monitoring activities. A review identified systematic reviews of implementation initiatives and monitoring activities. A two-day deliberative workshop was held to discuss key papers, members' experiences, and collectively address key questions. This consensus paper was developed by email and finalized at a postworkshop meeting. Evidence suggests that the impact and use of HTA could be increased by ensuring timely delivery of relevant reports to clearly determined policy receptor (decision-making) points. To achieve this, the breadth of assessment, implementation initiatives such as incentives and targeted, intelligent dissemination of HTA result, needs to be considered. HTA stakeholders undertake a variety of monitoring activities, which could inform optimal use of a technology. However, the quality of these data varies and is often not submitted to an HTA. Monitoring data should be sufficiently robust so that they can be used in HTA to inform optimal use of technology. Evidence-based implementation initiatives should be developed for HTA, to better inform decision makers at all levels in a health system about the optimal use of technology.

  1. Collaborating to optimize nursing students' agency information technology use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, Marilyn S

    2009-01-01

    As the learning laboratory for gaining actual patient care experience, clinical agencies play an essential role in nursing education. With an information technology revolution transforming healthcare, nursing programs are eager for their students to learn the latest informatics systems and technologies. However, many healthcare institutions are struggling to meet their own information technology needs and report limited resources and other as barriers to nursing student training. In addition, nursing students' information technology access and use raise security and privacy concerns. With the goal of a fully electronic health record by 2014, it is imperative that agencies and educational programs collaborate. They need to establish educationally sound, cost-effective, and secure policies and procedures for managing students' use of information technology systems. Strategies for evaluating options, selecting training methods, and ensuring data security are shared, along with strategies that may reap clinical, economic, and educational benefits. Students' information technology use raises numerous issues that the nursing profession must address to participate in healthcare's transformation into the digital age.

  2. Optimizing chronic disease management mega-analysis: economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    As Ontario's population ages, chronic diseases are becoming increasingly common. There is growing interest in services and care models designed to optimize the management of chronic disease. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and expected budget impact of interventions in chronic disease cohorts evaluated as part of the Optimizing Chronic Disease Management mega-analysis. Sector-specific costs, disease incidence, and mortality were calculated for each condition using administrative databases from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Intervention outcomes were based on literature identified in the evidence-based analyses. Quality-of-life and disease prevalence data were obtained from the literature. Analyses were restricted to interventions that showed significant benefit for resource use or mortality from the evidence-based analyses. An Ontario cohort of patients with each chronic disease was constructed and followed over 5 years (2006-2011). A phase-based approach was used to estimate costs across all sectors of the health care system. Utility values identified in the literature and effect estimates for resource use and mortality obtained from the evidence-based analyses were applied to calculate incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Given uncertainty about how many patients would benefit from each intervention, a system-wide budget impact was not determined. Instead, the difference in lifetime cost between an individual-administered intervention and no intervention was presented. Of 70 potential cost-effectiveness analyses, 8 met our inclusion criteria. All were found to result in QALY gains and cost savings compared with usual care. The models were robust to the majority of sensitivity analyses undertaken, but due to structural limitations and time constraints, few sensitivity analyses were conducted. Incremental cost savings per patient who received intervention ranged between $15 per diabetic patient with specialized nursing to

  3. Evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective energetic and economic optimization in thermal system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffolo, A.; Lazzaretto, A.

    2002-01-01

    Thermoeconomic analyses in thermal system design are always focused on the economic objective. However, knowledge of only the economic minimum may not be sufficient in the decision making process, since solutions with a higher thermodynamic efficiency, in spite of small increases in total costs, may result in much more interesting designs due to changes in energy market prices or in energy policies. This paper suggests how to perform a multi-objective optimization in order to find solutions that simultaneously satisfy exergetic and economic objectives. This corresponds to a search for the set of Pareto optimal solutions with respect to the two competing objectives. The optimization process is carried out by an evolutionary algorithm, that features a new diversity preserving mechanism using as a test case the well-known CGAM problem. (author)

  4. Health economic data in reimbursement of new medical technologies: importance of the socio-economic burden as a decision-making criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Iskrov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment and appraisal of new medical technologies require a balance between the interests of different stakeholders. Final decision should take into account the societal value of new therapies.Objective: This perspective paper discusses the socio-economic burden of disease as a specific reimbursement decision-making criterion and calls for the inclusion of it as a counterbalance to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact criteria.Results/Conclusions: Socio-economic burden is a decision-making criterion, accounting for diseases, for which the assessed medical technology is indicated. This indicator is usually researched through cost-of-illness studies that systematically quantify the socio-economic burden of diseases on the individual and on the society. This is a very important consideration as it illustrates direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. By measuring and comparing the socio-economic burden of different diseases to society, health authorities and payers could benefit in optimizing priority setting and resource allocation.New medical technologies, especially innovative therapies, present an excellent case study for the inclusion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making. Assessment and appraisal have been greatly concentrated so far on cost-effectiveness and budget impact, marginalizing all other considerations. In this context, data on disease burden and inclusion of explicit criterion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making may be highly beneficial. Realizing the magnitude of the lost socio-economic contribution resulting from diseases in question could be a reasonable way for policy makers to accept a higher valuation of innovative therapies.

  5. Health Economic Data in Reimbursement of New Medical Technologies: Importance of the Socio-Economic Burden as a Decision-Making Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskrov, Georgi; Dermendzhiev, Svetlan; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Tsonka; Stefanov, Rumen

    2016-01-01

    Assessment and appraisal of new medical technologies require a balance between the interests of different stakeholders. Final decision should take into account the societal value of new therapies. This perspective paper discusses the socio-economic burden of disease as a specific reimbursement decision-making criterion and calls for the inclusion of it as a counterbalance to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact criteria. Socio-economic burden is a decision-making criterion, accounting for diseases, for which the assessed medical technology is indicated. This indicator is usually researched through cost-of-illness studies that systematically quantify the socio-economic burden of diseases on the individual and on the society. This is a very important consideration as it illustrates direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. By measuring and comparing the socio-economic burden of different diseases to society, health authorities and payers could benefit in optimizing priority setting and resource allocation. New medical technologies, especially innovative therapies, present an excellent case study for the inclusion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making. Assessment and appraisal have been greatly concentrated so far on cost-effectiveness and budget impact, marginalizing all other considerations. In this context, data on disease burden and inclusion of explicit criterion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making may be highly beneficial. Realizing the magnitude of the lost socio-economic contribution resulting from diseases in question could be a reasonable way for policy makers to accept a higher valuation of innovative therapies.

  6. A fast and optimized dynamic economic load dispatch for large scale power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musse Mohamud Ahmed; Mohd Ruddin Ab Ghani; Ismail Hassan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents Lagrangian Multipliers (LM) and Linear Programming (LP) based dynamic economic load dispatch (DELD) solution for large-scale power system operations. It is to minimize the operation cost of power generation. units subject to the considered constraints. After individual generator units are economically loaded and periodically dispatched, fast and optimized DELD has been achieved. DELD with period intervals has been taken into consideration The results found from the algorithm based on LM and LP techniques appear to be modest in both optimizing the operation cost and achieving fast computation. (author)

  7. Economical optimization of building elements for use in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to end up with the most economical optimal solution. Therefore this paper present a method...... for finding the economical optimal solutions based on the use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system and cost of produced energy for each energy producing system. By use of information on construction cost and developed models of the yearly energy use...

  8. Optimal Locations for Siting Wind Energy Projects: Technical Challenges, Economics, and Public Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Julian V.

    Increasing the percentage of wind power in the United States electricity generation mix would facilitate the transition towards a more sustainable, low-pollution, and environmentally-conscious electricity grid. However, this effort is not without cost. Wind power generation is time-variable and typically not synchronized with electricity demand (i.e., load). In addition, the highest-output wind resources are often located in remote locations, necessitating transmission investment between generation sites and load. Furthermore, negative public perceptions of wind projects could prevent widespread wind development, especially for projects close to densely-populated communities. The work presented in my dissertation seeks to understand where it's best to locate wind energy projects while considering these various factors. First, in Chapter 2, I examine whether energy storage technologies, such as grid-scale batteries, could help reduce the transmission upgrade costs incurred when siting wind projects in distant locations. For a case study of a hypothetical 200 MW wind project in North Dakota that delivers power to Illinois, I present an optimization model that estimates the optimal size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generation and transmission (/MWh). I find that for this application of storage to be economical, energy storage costs would have to be 100/kWh or lower, which is well below current costs for available technologies. I conclude that there are likely better ways to use energy storage than for accessing distant wind projects. Following from this work, in Chapter 3, I present an optimization model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets. I include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. I assess the goal of providing

  9. Thermodynamic, economic and thermo-economic optimization of a new proposed organic Rankine cycle for energy production from geothermal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Neda; Samadi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new cycle was designed to improve basic organic Rankine cycle performance. • Peng Robinson equation of state was used to obtain properties of working fluids. • Operating parameters were optimized with three different objective functions. • Efficiency of new organic Rankine cycle is higher than other considered cycles. • Return on investment of new cycle for Iran is more than France and America. - Abstract: The main goal of this study is to propose and investigate a new organic Rankine cycle based on three considered configurations: basic organic Rankine cycle, regenerative organic Rankine cycle and two-stage evaporator organic Rankine cycle in order to increase electricity generation from geothermal sources. To analyze the considered cycles’ performance, thermodynamic (energy and exergy based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics) and economic (specific investment cost) models are investigated. Also, a comparison of cycles modeling results is carried out in optimum conditions according to different optimization which consist thermodynamic, economic and thermo-economic objective functions for maximizing exergy efficiency, minimizing specific investment cost and applying a multi-objective function in order to maximize exergy efficiency and minimize specific investment cost, respectively. Optimized operating parameters of cycles include evaporators and regenerative temperatures, pinch point temperature difference of evaporators and degree of superheat. Furthermore, Peng Robinson equation of state is used to obtain thermodynamic properties of isobutane and R123 which are selected as dry and isentropic working fluids, respectively. The results of optimization indicate that, thermal and exergy efficiencies increase and exergy destruction decrease especially in evaporators for both working fluids in new proposed organic Rankine cycle compared to the basic organic Rankine cycle. Moreover, the amount of specific investment cost in new

  10. Extending the horizons advances in computing, optimization, and decision technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Anito; Mehrotra, Anuj; Trick, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Computer Science and Operations Research continue to have a synergistic relationship and this book represents the results of cross-fertilization between OR/MS and CS/AI. It is this interface of OR/CS that makes possible advances that could not have been achieved in isolation. Taken collectively, these articles are indicative of the state-of-the-art in the interface between OR/MS and CS/AI and of the high caliber of research being conducted by members of the INFORMS Computing Society. EXTENDING THE HORIZONS: Advances in Computing, Optimization, and Decision Technologies is a volume that presents the latest, leading research in the design and analysis of algorithms, computational optimization, heuristic search and learning, modeling languages, parallel and distributed computing, simulation, computational logic and visualization. This volume also emphasizes a variety of novel applications in the interface of CS, AI, and OR/MS.

  11. Optimizing cultivation of agricultural products using socio-economic and environmental scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RaheliNamin, Behnaz; Mortazavi, Samar; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-11-01

    The combination of degrading natural conditions and resources, climate change, growing population, urban development, and competition in a global market complicate optimization of land for agricultural products. The use of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production in the agricultural fields has become excessive in the recent years and Golestan Province of Iran is no exception in this regard. For this, effective management with an efficient and cost-effective practice should be undertaken, maintaining public service at a high level and preserving the environment. Improving the production efficiency of agriculture, efficient use of water resources, decreasing the use of pesticides and fertilizers, improving farmer revenue, and conservation of natural resources are the main objectives of the allocation, ranking, and optimization of agricultural products. The goal of this paper is to use an optimization procedure to lower the negative effects of agriculture while maintaining a high production rate, which is currently a gap in the study area. We collected information about fertilizer and pesticide consumption and other data in croplands of eastern Golestan Province through face-to-face interviews with farmers to optimize cultivation of the agricultural products. The toxicity of pesticides according to LD50 was also included in the optimization model. A decision-support software system called multiple criteria analysis tool was used to simultaneously minimize consumption of water, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides and maximize socio-economic returns. Three scenarios for optimization of agricultural products were generated that alternatively emphasized on environmental and socio-economic goals. Comparing socio-economic and environmental performance of the optimized agricultural products under the three scenarios illustrated the conflict between social, economic, and environmental objectives. Of the six crops studied (wheat, barley, rice, soybeans, oilseed rape

  12. Exergetic optimization of a key design parameter in heat pump systems with economizer coupled with scroll compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guoyuan; Li, Xianguo

    2007-01-01

    The heat pump system with economizer coupled with scroll compressor can extend effectively its operating ranges and provide a technological method to enable the heat pump to run steadily and efficiently in severe weather conditions. The intermediate pressure, namely the working pressure of the refrigerant in the economizer, is an essential design parameter and affects crucially the performances of the heat pump system. According to the exergetic model setup for the heat pump system based on the second law of thermodynamics, the influences of the intermediate pressure on the performances are comprehensively analyzed using experimental data of the heat pump prototype. It is found that the optimal relative intermediate pressure (RIP) is between 1.1 and 1.3

  13. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  14. Optimal design of microalgae-based biorefinery: Economics, opportunities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have great potential as a feedstock for the production of a wide range of end-products under the broad concept of biorefinery. In an earlier work, we proposed a superstructure based optimization model to find the optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal...... biomass, and identified several challenges with the focus being on utilizing lipids extracted microalgal biomass for economic and environmentally friendly production of useful energy products. In this paper, we expand the previous optimization framework by considering the processing of microalgae residue...

  15. Techno-economic analysis of an autonomous power system integrating hydrogen technology as energy storage medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzamalis, G. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), RES and Hydrogen Technologies, 19th km Marathon Avenue, GR 19009 Pikermi (Greece); Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Zoulias, E.I.; Stamatakis, E.; Varkaraki, E. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), RES and Hydrogen Technologies, 19th km Marathon Avenue, GR 19009 Pikermi (Greece); Lois, E.; Zannikos, F. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    Two different options for the autonomous power supply of rural or/and remote buildings are examined in this study. The first one involves a PV - diesel based power system, while the second one integrates RES and hydrogen technologies for the development of a self - sustained power system. The main objective is the replacement of the diesel generator and a comparison between these two options for autonomous power supply. Model simulations of the two power systems before and after the replacement, an optimization of the component sizes and a techno - economic analysis have been performed for the purpose of this study. A sensitivity analysis taking into account future cost scenarios for hydrogen technologies is also presented. The results clearly show that the Cost of Energy Produced (COE) from the PV - hydrogen technologies power system is extremely higher than the PV - diesel power system. However, the adopted PV - hydrogen technologies power system reduces to zero the Green - House Gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis indicates that COE for the latter system can be further reduced by approximately 50% compared to its initial value. This could be achieved by reducing critical COE's parameters, such as PEM electrolyser and fuel cell capital costs. Hence, a possible reduction on the capital costs of hydrogen energy equipment in combination with emissions reduction mentioned above could make hydrogen - based power systems more competitive. (author)

  16. Material saving by means of CWR technology using optimization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Iñaki; Ambrosio, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Material saving is currently a must for the forging companies, as material costs sum up to 50% for parts made of steel and up to 90% in other materials like titanium. For long products, cross wedge rolling (CWR) technology can be used to obtain forging preforms with a suitable distribution of the material along its own axis. However, defining the correct preform dimensions is not an easy task and it could need an intensive trial-and-error campaign. To speed up the preform definition, it is necessary to apply optimization techniques on Finite Element Models (FEM) able to reproduce the material behaviour when being rolled. Meta-models Assisted Evolution Strategies (MAES), that combine evolutionary algorithms with Kriging meta-models, are implemented in FORGE® software and they allow reducing optimization computation costs in a relevant way. The paper shows the application of these optimization techniques to the definition of the right preform for a shaft from a vehicle of the agricultural sector. First, the current forging process, based on obtaining the forging preform by means of an open die forging operation, is showed. Then, the CWR preform optimization is developed by using the above mentioned optimization techniques. The objective is to reduce, as much as possible, the initial billet weight, so that a calculation of flash weight reduction due to the use of the proposed preform is stated. Finally, a simulation of CWR process for the defined preform is carried out to check that most common failures (necking, spirals,..) in CWR do not appear in this case.

  17. Optimal Dynamic Investment Policy under Different Rates for Tax Depreciation and Economic Depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of incorporating a different rate for tax depreciation than for economic depreciation. Firms most often choose their tax depreciation rate in a strategic way. It would therefore be a coincidence if this optimization process leads to a tax depreciation rate that

  18. A Parallel Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Economic/Environmental Power Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchao Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A parallel adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm (PAPSO is proposed for economic/environmental power dispatch, which can overcome the premature characteristic, the slow-speed convergence in the late evolutionary phase, and lacking good direction in particles’ evolutionary process. A search population is randomly divided into several subpopulations. Then for each subpopulation, the optimal solution is searched synchronously using the proposed method, and thus parallel computing is realized. To avoid converging to a local optimum, a crossover operator is introduced to exchange the information among the subpopulations and the diversity of population is sustained simultaneously. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively solve the economic/environmental operation problem of hydropower generating units. Performance comparisons show that the solution from the proposed method is better than those from the conventional particle swarm algorithm and other optimization algorithms.

  19. Thermo-economic evaluation and optimization of the thermo-chemical conversion of biomass into methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peduzzi, Emanuela; Tock, Laurence; Boissonnet, Guillaume; Maréchal, François

    2013-01-01

    In a carbon and resources constrained world, thermo-chemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals is regarded as a promising alternative to fossil resources derived products. Methanol is one potential product which can be used for the synthesis of various chemicals or as a fuel in fuel cells and internal combustion engines. This study focuses on the evaluation and optimization of the thermodynamic and economic performance of methanol production from biomass by applying process integration and optimization techniques. Results reveal the importance of the energy integration and in particular of the cogeneration of electricity for the efficient use of biomass. - Highlights: • A thermo-economic model for biomass conversion into methanol is developed. • Process integration and multi-objective optimization techniques are applied. • Results reveal the importance of energy integration for electricity co-generation

  20. Optimization of Water Resources and Agricultural Activities for Economic Benefit in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, J.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The limited water resources available for irrigation are a key constraint for the important agricultural sector of Colorado's economy. As climate change and groundwater depletion reshape these resources, it is essential to understand the economic potential of water resources under different agricultural production practices. This study uses a linear programming optimization at the county spatial scale and annual temporal scales to study the optimal allocation of water withdrawal and crop choices. The model, AWASH, reflects streamflow constraints between different extraction points, six field crops, and a distinct irrigation decision for maize and wheat. The optimized decision variables, under different environmental, social, economic, and physical constraints, provide long-term solutions for ground and surface water distribution and for land use decisions so that the state can generate the maximum net revenue. Colorado, one of the largest agricultural producers, is tested as a case study and the sensitivity on water price and on climate variability is explored.

  1. Time-explicit methods for joint economical and geological risk mitigation in production optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Hjuler; Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    Real-life applications of production optimization face challenges of risks related to unpredictable fluctuations in oil prices and sparse geological data. Consequently, operating companies are reluctant to adopt model-based production optimization into their operations. Conventional production...... of mitigating economical and geological risks. As opposed to conventional strategies that focus on a single long-term objective, TE methods seek to reduce risks and promote returns over the entire reservoir life by optimization of a given ensemble-based geological risk measure over time. By explicit involvement...... of time, economical risks are implicitly addressed by balancing short-term and long-term objectives throughout the reservoir life. Open-loop simulations of a two-phase synthetic reservoir demonstrate that TE methods may significantly improve short-term risk measures such as expected return, standard...

  2. The Optimal Timing of Adoption of a Green Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha-e-Sa, M.A.; Reis, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the optimal timing of adoption of a cleaner technology and its effects on the rate of growth of an economy in the context of an AK endogenous growth model. We show that the results depend upon the behavior of the marginal utility of environmental quality with respect to consumption. When it is increasing, we derive the capital level at the optimal timing of adoption. We show that this capital threshold is independent of the initial conditions on the stock of capital, implying that capital-poor countries tend to take longer to adopt. Also, country-specific characteristics, as the existence of high barriers to adoption, may lead to different capital thresholds for different countries. If the marginal utility of environmental quality decreases with consumption, a country should never delay adoption; the optimal policy is either to adopt immediately or, if adoption costs are t oo high , to never adopt. The policy implications of these results are discussed in the context of the international debate surrounding the environmental political agenda

  3. Thermo-economic design optimization of parabolic trough solar plants for industrial process heat applications with memetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.; Berenguel, M.; Pérez, M.; Fernández-Garcia, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-economic optimization of a parabolic-trough solar plant for industrial process heat applications is developed. • An analysis of the influence of economic cost functions on optimal design point location is presented. • A multi-objective optimization approach to the design routine is proposed. • A sensitivity analysis of the optimal point location to economic, operational, and ambient conditions is developed. • Design optimization of a parabolic trough plant for a reference industrial application is developed. - Abstract: A thermo-economic design optimization of a parabolic trough solar plant for industrial processes with memetic algorithms is developed. The design domain variables considered in the optimization routine are the number of collectors in series, number of collector rows, row spacing, and storage volume. Life cycle savings, levelized cost of energy, and payback time objective functions are compared to study the influence on optimal design point location. Furthermore a multi-objective optimization approach is proposed to analyze the design problem from a multi-economic criteria point of view. An extensive set of optimization cases are performed to estimate the influence of fuel price trend, plant location, demand profile, operation conditions, solar field orientation, and radiation uncertainty on optimal design. The results allow quantifying as thermo-economic design optimization based on short term criteria as the payback time leads to smaller plants with higher solar field efficiencies and smaller solar fractions, while the consideration of optimization criteria based on long term performance of the plants, as life cycle savings based optimization, leads to the reverse conclusion. The role of plant location and future evolution of gas prices in the thermo-economic performance of the solar plant has been also analyzed. Thermo-economic optimization of a parabolic trough solar plant design for the reference industrial

  4. Technology in the Aid of Delivering Economic Content to Teachers: Virtual Economics v. 3

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Swinton; Benjamin Scafidi

    2012-01-01

    We examine the impact on student achievement of a face-to-face teacher workshop that also provides economics instructors with access to an electronic library of instructional and reference material for their economics classroom—Virtual Economics v. 3 (VE3), offered by the Council for Economic Education. Based on evidence using student and teacher-level administrative data from the Georgia Department of Education and controlling for students’ prior achievement in mathematics, we find evidence ...

  5. Fuel reprocessing experience in India: Technological and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.N.; Kumar, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach to the reprocessing of irradiated fuel from power reactors in India is conditioned by the non-availability of highly enriched uranium with the consequent need for plutonium for the fast-reactor programme. With this in view, the fuel reprocessing programme in India is developing in stages matching the nuclear power programme. The first plant was set up in Trombay to reprocess the metallic uranium fuel from the research reactor CIRUS. The experience gained in the construction and operation of this plant, and in its subsequent decommissioning and reconstruction, has not only provided the know-how for the design of subsequent plants but has indicated the fruitful areas of research and development for efficient utilization of limited resources. The Trombay plant also handled successfully, on a pilot scale, the reprocessing of irradiated thorium fuel to separate uranium-233. The second plant at Tarapur has been built for reprocessing spent fuels from the power reactors at Tarapur (BWR) and Rajasthan (PHWR). The third plant, at present under design, will reprocess the spent fuels from the power reactors (PHWR) and the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) located at Kalpakkam. Through the above approach experience has been acquired which will be useful in the design and construction of even larger plants which will become necessary in the future as the nuclear power programme grows. The strategies considered for the sizing and siting of reprocessing plants extend from the idea of small plants, located at nuclear power station sites, to a large-size central plant, located at an independent site, serving many stations. The paper discusses briefly the experience in reprocessing uranium and thorium fuels and also in decommissioning. An attempt is made to outline the technological and economic aspects which are relevant under different circumstances and which influence the size and siting of the fuel reprocessing plants and the expected lead times for construction

  6. The invisible college of the economics of innovation and technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, B.; Werker, C.

    2003-01-01

    The research area of the economics of innovation and technological change (EITC) has flourished over the past decades. While it was a relatively marginal field of economics in the 1950s and 1960s, the field has now grown to become a major part of economic analysis. Because many of the early scholars

  7. Enhancing Economic Stability Utilizing the High Technologies in Community Colleges: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Barbara H.; Kurki, Allan W.

    Strategies to enhance the economic stability of community colleges through high technology approaches are discussed in this paper. First, general economic problems facing higher education are identified, and the ways in which they influence community colleges are described. Next, 10 strategies to aid in the economic recovery of community colleges…

  8. Using the ICF in economic analyses of Assistive Technology systems: methodological implications of a user standpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraner, Ingrid; De Jonge, Desleigh; Layton, Natasha; Bringolf, Jane; Molenda, Agata

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies key methodological issues for economic analyses of costs and effectiveness of Assistive Technology (AT) systems based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Following the biopsychosocial model of the ICF, the paper explores the consequences for cost-effectiveness analyses of AT systems when a user centred approach is taken. In so doing, the paper questions the fiction of neutrality in economic analyses and discusses the distinction between weak and strong objectivity. Costs are measured as all resources used when providing a particular level of environmental facilitators and reducing environmental barriers for an AT user, while effectiveness is measured in terms of the resulting increase in activities and participation of the AT user. The ICF's fourth qualifier for activities and participation, which denotes performance without assistance is used to identify the additional performance achieved due to the particular environmental factors in the current situation (first qualifier). A fifth qualifier for activities and participation is introduced to denote performance with optimal assistance, and the fourth qualifier is then again used to identify the increase in activities and participation due to the environmental factors in the situation with optimal assistance. The effectiveness that an AT user achieves in his or her current situation can be compared with the effectiveness he or she could achieve when provided with what is considered an optimal AT system based on current technologies and user priorities. This comparison throws into sharp relief the role of AT systems as well as of universal design (UD) in reducing environmental barriers for AT users in a way that is cost-effective for society as a whole. Cost-effectiveness analysis based on the ICF can provide powerful economic evidence for how best to allocate existing funding for AT systems. We can identify three particular scenarios in which clear

  9. Optimal fiscal barriers to international economic integration in the presence of tax havens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a model where firms can shift profits to tax havens by means of intra-firm loans and countries can protect themselves against profit shifting by taxing cross-border interest flows. The model considers two countries with a scope for welfare improving economic integration....... The first-best tax system has two important characteristics: (i) the tax rate on interest flows to the other country is zero to ensure the optimal level of economic integration; (ii) the tax rate on interest flows to tax havens is high enough to deter profit shifting to tax havens. In second......-best environments, countries face a trade-off between economic integration and protection against tax havens, which causes protection to be suboptimally low. The key to the result is that economic integration makes it easier for multinational firms to circumvent taxes on interest payments to tax havens with conduit...

  10. Technological Options to Ameliorate Waste Treatment of Intensive Pig Production in China:An Analysis Based on Bio-Economic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wen-cong; MA Yong-xi; Holger Bergmann

    2014-01-01

    Ameliorating waste treatment by technological improvements affects the economic and the ecological-environment beneifts of intensive pig production. The objective of the research was to develop and test a method to determine the technical optimization to ameliorate waste treatment methods and gain insight into the relationship between technological options and the economic and ecological effects. We developed an integrated bio-economic model which incorporates the farming production and waste disposal systems to simulate the impact of technological improvements in pig manure treatment on economic and environmental benefits for the case of a pilot farm in Beijing, China. Based on different waste treatment technology options, three scenarios are applied for the simulation analysis of the model. The simulation results reveal that the economic-environmental beneifts of the livestock farm could be improved by reducing the cropland manure application and increasing the composting production with the current technologies. Nevertheless, the technical efifciency, the waste treatment capacity and the economic beneifts could be further improved by the introduction of new technologies. It implies that technological and economic support policies should be implemented comprehensively on waste disposal and resource utilization to promote sustainable development in intensive livestock production in China.

  11. A new honey bee mating optimization algorithm for non-smooth economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Taher; Mojarrad, Hasan Doagou; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani

    2011-01-01

    The non-storage characteristics of electricity and the increasing fuel costs worldwide call for the need to operate the systems more economically. Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the most important optimization problems in power systems. ED has the objective of dividing the power demand among the online generators economically while satisfying various constraints. The importance of economic dispatch is to get maximum usable power using minimum resources. To solve the static ED problem, honey bee mating algorithm (HBMO) can be used. The basic disadvantage of the original HBMO algorithm is the fact that it may miss the optimum and provide a near optimum solution in a limited runtime period. In order to avoid this shortcoming, we propose a new method that improves the mating process of HBMO and also, combines the improved HBMO with a Chaotic Local Search (CLS) called Chaotic Improved Honey Bee Mating Optimization (CIHBMO). The proposed algorithm is used to solve ED problems taking into account the nonlinear generator characteristics such as prohibited operation zones, multi-fuel and valve-point loading effects. The CIHBMO algorithm is tested on three test systems and compared with other methods in the literature. Results have shown that the proposed method is efficient and fast for ED problems with non-smooth and non-continuous fuel cost functions. Moreover, the optimal power dispatch obtained by the algorithm is superior to previous reported results. -- Research highlights: →Economic dispatch. →Reducing electrical energy loss. →Saving electrical energy. →Optimal operation.

  12. Applying the AHP in Health Economic Evaluations of New Technology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J. Marjan; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2011-01-01

    Much research in health care is devoted to health economical modelling. Even though the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is increasingly being applied in health care, its value to health economical modelling is still unrecognized. We explored the value of using AHP-derived results in a health

  13. Improved differential evolution algorithms for handling economic dispatch optimization with generator constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Leandro dos Santos; Mariani, Viviana Cocco

    2007-01-01

    Global optimization based on evolutionary algorithms can be used as the important component for many engineering optimization problems. Evolutionary algorithms have yielded promising results for solving nonlinear, non-differentiable and multi-modal optimization problems in the power systems area. Differential evolution (DE) is a simple and efficient evolutionary algorithm for function optimization over continuous spaces. It has reportedly outperformed search heuristics when tested over both benchmark and real world problems. This paper proposes improved DE algorithms for solving economic load dispatch problems that take into account nonlinear generator features such as ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zones in the power system operation. The DE algorithms and its variants are validated for two test systems consisting of 6 and 15 thermal units. Various DE approaches outperforms other state of the art algorithms reported in the literature in solving load dispatch problems with generator constraints

  14. Socio-economic evaluation of selected biogas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, F.; Martinsen, L.

    2013-05-15

    Financial and welfare economic analyses are conducted of 15 different biogas production scenarios that vary in terms of plant size and type of input. All considered scenarios lead to welfare economic losses. Overall welfare economic GHG reduction costs seem to increase with increasing crop/crop material share of input, and although the costs vary significantly across scenarios they are quite high for all scenarios. The financial analyses suggest that biogas production generally will be financially profitable for the agricultural sector and local CHP facilities but unprofitable for the biogas plants and the State. Seen from a policy perspective the results highlights the importance of designing regulatory instruments in a way that create incentives for private actors to engage in welfare economically desirable biogas production activities while discouraging the expansion of welfare economically undesirable activities. (Author)

  15. Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrayyan, B.

    2004-01-01

    With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder the import of crude oil from neighbouring countries and of the fact that Jordan has limited fossil fuel resources, strategies to meet energy demand are being addressed and examined together with their consequences and the ways in which they could be utilised. This paper assesses for the first time, the potential of using alternative energy technologies in Jordan, including the utilisation of solar energy for water heating, for wind towers in rural areas and also for biogas production from waste. Approximately 2% of unconventional renewable energy resources are being utilised. The data and scenarios of this study were presented in a manner that would assist decision makers, funding agencies, researchers and other related parties to establish programmes that will be helpful in meeting the energy demand, while preserving the environment and maintaining sustainability. (author)

  16. Prospects for reconciling the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation with technological progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Brian

    2008-12-01

    The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is understood in portions of academia and sometimes acknowledged in political circles. Nevertheless, there is not a unified response. In political and policy circles, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is posited to solve the conflict between economic growth and environmental protection. In academia, however, the EKC has been deemed fallacious in macroeconomic scenarios and largely irrelevant to biodiversity. A more compelling response to the conflict is that it may be resolved with technological progress. Herein I review the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation in the absence of technological progress, explore the prospects for technological progress to reconcile that conflict, and provide linguistic suggestions for describing the relationships among economic growth, technological progress, and biodiversity conservation. The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics and principles of ecology such as trophic levels and competitive exclusion. In this biophysical context, the human economy grows at the competitive exclusion of nonhuman species in the aggregate. Reconciling the conflict via technological progress has not occurred and is infeasible because of the tight linkage between technological progress and economic growth at current levels of technology. Surplus production in existing economic sectors is required for conducting the research and development necessary for bringing new technologies to market. Technological regimes also reflect macroeconomic goals, and if the goal is economic growth, reconciliatory technologies are less likely to be developed. As the economy grows, the loss of biodiversity may be partly mitigated with end-use innovation that increases technical efficiency, but this type of technological progress requires policies that are unlikely if the conflict between economic growth

  17. Optimization of the nuclear power engineering safety on the basis of social and economic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V.F.; Kuz'min, I.I.; Lystsov, V.N.; Amosova, T.V.; Makhutov, N.A.; Men'shikov, V.F.

    1995-01-01

    Principle of optimization of nuclear power engineering safety is presented on the basis of estimating the risks to the man's health with an account of peculiarities of socio-economic system and other types of economic activities in the region. Average expected duration of forthcoming life and costs of its prolongation serve as a unit for measuring the man's safety. It is shown that if the expenditures on NPP technical safety exceed the scientifically substantiated costs for this region with application of the above principle, than the risk for population will exceed the minimum achievable level. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. The economics of project analysis: Optimal investment criteria and methods of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Insight is provided toward the development of an optimal program for investment analysis of project proposals offering commercial potential and its components. This involves a critique of economic investment criteria viewed in relation to requirements of engineering economy analysis. An outline for a systems approach to project analysis is given Application of the Leontief input-output methodology to analysis of projects involving multiple processes and products is investigated. Effective application of elements of neoclassical economic theory to investment analysis of project components is demonstrated. Patterns of both static and dynamic activity levels are incorporated.

  19. Accuracy optimization with wavelength tunability in overlay imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Kang, Yoonshik; Han, Sangjoon; Shim, Kyuchan; Hong, Minhyung; Kim, Seungyoung; Lee, Jieun; Lee, Dongyoung; Oh, Eungryong; Choi, Ahlin; Kim, Youngsik; Marciano, Tal; Klein, Dana; Hajaj, Eitan M.; Aharon, Sharon; Ben-Dov, Guy; Lilach, Saltoun; Serero, Dan; Golotsvan, Anna

    2018-03-01

    As semiconductor manufacturing technology progresses and the dimensions of integrated circuit elements shrink, overlay budget is accordingly being reduced. Overlay budget closely approaches the scale of measurement inaccuracies due to both optical imperfections of the measurement system and the interaction of light with geometrical asymmetries of the measured targets. Measurement inaccuracies can no longer be ignored due to their significant effect on the resulting device yield. In this paper we investigate a new approach for imaging based overlay (IBO) measurements by optimizing accuracy rather than contrast precision, including its effect over the total target performance, using wavelength tunable overlay imaging metrology. We present new accuracy metrics based on theoretical development and present their quality in identifying the measurement accuracy when compared to CD-SEM overlay measurements. The paper presents the theoretical considerations and simulation work, as well as measurement data, for which tunability combined with the new accuracy metrics is shown to improve accuracy performance.

  20. Technology in the Aid of Delivering Economic Content to Teachers: Virtual Economics v. 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Swinton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact on student achievement of a face-to-face teacher workshop that also provides economics instructors with access to an electronic library of instructional and reference material for their economics classroom—Virtual Economics v. 3 (VE3, offered by the Council for Economic Education. Based on evidence using student and teacher-level administrative data from the Georgia Department of Education and controlling for students’ prior achievement in mathematics, we find evidence that the VE3 workshop experience increases student achievement in high school economics. Our difference-in-differences estimates suggest that teacher participation in the VE3 workshop increases student achievement by 0.061 standard deviations on Georgia’s high stakes economics end-of-course test. Future research should seek estimating the effect of treatments in education such as the VE3 workshop using randomized controlled trials (RCT.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of resource recovery technologies for wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Matafome, Beatriz; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina

    2017-01-01

    resource-recovery treatment units: (a) a chemical precipitation process, for recovery of iron phosphate fertilizer; (b) the Exelys technology, for increased biogas production; and, (c) the Phosnix technology, for recovery of struvite fertilizer. Seven upgrade strategies/flowsheets employing different...... upgrading combinations involving chemical precipitation and Exelys technologies were not found economical for the given plant. Sensitivity analyses on the economic evaluation criteria have demonstrated that the results obtained are robust against uncertainties in influent wastewater characteristics...

  2. Optimization of Processing Technology of Compound Dandelion Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jixuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploring dandelion food has been the concern in fields of the food processing and pharmaceutical industry for playing exact curative effect on high-fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis and diuretic activity. Few dandelion foods including drinks and microencapsulation were explored and unilateral dandelion wine were less carried out for its bitter flavour. In tis paper, to optimize the processing technologies of fermented compound wine from dandelion root, the orthogonal experiment design method was used to composite dandelion root powder with glutinous rice and schisandra fruit and optimize the fermenting parameters. Four factors with dandelion content, schisandra content, acidity and sugar content were discussed. The acidity factor was firstly confirmed as 7.0 g/L. The other three factors were confirmed by a series experiments as dandelion 0.55%, schisandra 0.5%, sugar 22%. With nine step processing of mixing substrate, stirring with water, cooking rice, amylase saccharification, pectinase hydrolysis, adjusting juice, fermenting with yeast, fitering, aging, sterilization, a light yellow wine with the special taste with flavour of dandelion, schisandra and rice and less bitter, few index were determined as 14.7% alcohol, 6.85 g/L acidity. A dandelion fermented compound wine with suitable flavour and sanitarian function was developed for enriching the dandelion food.

  3. Economic modeling and energy policy planning. [technology transfer, market research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. G.; Schwartz, A., Jr.; Lievano, R. J.; Stone, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A structural economic model is presented for estimating the demand functions for natural gas and crude oil in industry and in steam electric power generation. Extensions of the model to other commodities are indicated.

  4. Economic Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (E-NMPC) for a spray drying process. By simulation we evaluate the economic potential of this E-NMPC compared to a conventional PID based control strategy. Spray drying is the preferred process to reduce...... the water content for many liquid foodstuffs and produces a free flowing powder. The main challenge in controlling the spray drying process is to meet the residual moisture specifications and avoid that the powder sticks to the chamber walls of the spray dryer. We present a model for a spray dryer that has...... been validated on experimental data from a pilot plant. We use this model for simulation as well as for prediction in the E-NMPC. The E-NMPC is designed with hard input constraints and soft output constraints. The open-loop optimal control problem in the E-NMPC is solved using the single...

  5. A novel meta-heuristic optimization methodology for solving various types of economic dispatch problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesanghary, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, 2508 Patrick Taylor Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States); Ardehali, M.M. [Energy Research Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424-Hafez Avenue, 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran)

    2009-06-15

    The increasing costs of fuel and operation of thermal power generating units warrant development of optimization methodologies for economic dispatch (ED) problems. Optimization methodologies that are based on meta-heuristic procedures could assist power generation policy analysts to achieve the goal of minimizing the generation costs. In this context, the objective of this study is to present a novel approach based on harmony search (HS) algorithm for solving ED problems, aiming to provide a practical alternative for conventional methods. To demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of the proposed method and for the purposes of comparison, various types of ED problems are examined. The results of this study show that the new proposed approach is able to find more economical loads than those determined by other methods. (author)

  6. A simple two stage optimization algorithm for constrained power economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, G.; Song, K.

    1994-01-01

    A simple two stage optimization algorithm is proposed and investigated for fast computation of constrained power economic dispatch control problems. The method is a simple demonstration of the hierarchical aggregation-disaggregation (HAD) concept. The algorithm first solves an aggregated problem to obtain an initial solution. This aggregated problem turns out to be classical economic dispatch formulation, and it can be solved in 1% of overall computation time. In the second stage, linear programming method finds optimal solution which satisfies power balance constraints, generation and transmission inequality constraints and security constraints. Implementation of the algorithm for IEEE systems and EPRI Scenario systems shows that the two stage method obtains average speedup ratio 10.64 as compared to classical LP-based method

  7. Economic Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control with State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Rawlings, James B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) for a complete spray drying plant with multiple stages. In the E-NMPC the initial state is estimated by an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with noise covariances estimated by an autocovariance least...... squares method (ALS). We present a model for the spray drying plant and use this model for simulation as well as for prediction in the E-NMPC. The open-loop optimal control problem in the E-NMPC is solved using the single-shooting method combined with a quasi-Newton Sequential Quadratic programming (SQP......) algorithm and the adjoint method for computation of gradients. We evaluate the economic performance when unmeasured disturbances are present. By simulation, we demonstrate that the E-NMPC improves the profit of spray drying by 17% compared to conventional PI control....

  8. Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms

  9. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  10. Optimization of economic load dispatch of higher order general cost polynomials and its sensitivity using modified particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Ahmed Yousuf; Chakraborty, Shantanu; Abdur Razzak, S.M.; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) for constrained economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. Real cost functions are more complex than conventional second order cost functions when multi-fuel operations, valve-point effects, accurate curve fitting, etc., are considering in deregulated changing market. The proposed modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) consists of problem dependent variable number of promising values (in velocity vector), unit vector and error-iteration dependent step length. It reliably and accurately tracks a continuously changing solution of the complex cost function and no extra concentration/effort is needed for the complex higher order cost polynomials in ELD. Constraint management is incorporated in the modified PSO. The modified PSO has balance between local and global searching abilities, and an appropriate fitness function helps to converge it quickly. To avoid the method to be frozen, stagnated/idle particles are reset. Sensitivity of the higher order cost polynomials is also analyzed visually to realize the importance of the higher order cost polynomials for the optimization of ELD. Finally, benchmark data sets and methods are used to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  11. Economic optimization of heat pump-assisted distillation columns in methanol-water separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahandeh, Hossein; Jafari, Mina; Kasiri, Norollah; Ivakpour, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Finding efficient alternative to CDiC (Conventional Distillation Column) for methanol-water separation has been an attractive field of study in literature. In this work, five heat pump-assisted schemes are proposed and compared to each other to find the optimal one; (1) VRC (Vapor Recompression Column), (2) external HIDiC (Heat-Integrated Distillation Column), (3) intensified HIDiC with feed preheater, (4) double compressor intensified HIDiC-1, and (5) double compressor intensified HIDiC-2. GA (Genetic Algorithm) is then implemented for optimization of the schemes when TAC (Total Annual Cost) is its objective function. During optimization, two new variables are added for using only appropriate amount of the overhead stream in VRC and double compressor intensified HIDiCs, and another new binary variable is also used for considering feed preheating. Although TAC of the intensified HIDiC with feed preheater is found higher than CDiC by 25.0%, all optimal VRC, external HIDiC, double compressor intensified HIDiCs schemes are reached lower optimal TAC by 3.1%, 27.2%, 24.4%, and 34.2%. Introduced for the first time, the optimal scheme is the double compressor intensified HIDiC-2 with 34.2% TAC saving, 70.4% TEC (Total Energy Consumption) reduction with payback period of 3.30 years. - Highlights: • Study of an industrial distillation unit in methanol-water separation. • Optimization of different heat pump-assisted distillation columns. • Implementation of genetic algorithm during optimization. • Economic and thermodynamic comparisons of optimal results with the industrial case

  12. A novel hybrid particle swarm optimization for economic dispatch with valve-point loading effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher, E-mail: niknam@sutech.ac.i [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, P.O. 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mojarrad, Hasan Doagou, E-mail: hasan_doagou@yahoo.co [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, P.O. 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini, E-mail: h.zeinaddini@gmail.co [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, P.O. 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the important problems in the operation and management of the electric power systems which is formulated as an optimization problem. Modern heuristics stochastic optimization techniques appear to be efficient in solving ED problem without any restriction because of their ability to seek the global optimal solution. One of modern heuristic algorithms is particle swarm optimization (PSO). In PSO algorithm, particles change place to get close to the best position and find the global minimum point. Also, differential evolution (DE) is a robust statistical method for solving non-linear and non-convex optimization problem. The fast convergence of DE degrades its performance and reduces its search capability that leads to a higher probability towards obtaining a local optimum. In order to overcome this drawback a hybrid method is presented to solve the ED problem with valve-point loading effect by integrating the variable DE with the fuzzy adaptive PSO called FAPSO-VDE. DE is the main optimizer and the PSO is used to maintain the population diversity and prevent leading to misleading local optima for every improvement in the solution of the DE run. The parameters of proposed hybrid algorithm such as inertia weight, mutation and crossover factors are adaptively adjusted. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid algorithm is demonstrated for two case studies and results are compared with those of other methods. It is shown that FAPSO-VDE has high quality solution, superior convergence characteristics and shorter computation time.

  13. PROBLEM OF OPTIMIZATION OF ENTERPRISE FINANCIAL STREAMS: URGENCY UNDER ECONOMIC CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Gorbach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of structural optimization of financial streams in the economic activities of the enterprises. The authors describe a general process of enterprise capital structure optimization while breaking it in stages and consider the most interesting financial stream theories. The paper presents for the first time «Combined optimization model». In order to develop the model the most commonly applied methods have been used, namely: an optimization  method on the basis of an average capital price, an optimization method on the basis of financial leverage effect and an optimization method on the basis of the average managing subject price. Alternative calculations of optimum structure of financial stream sources on the basis of the proposed «combined model» have been presented in corresponding tables. The authors also use for the first time such concepts as «a break-even point» and «a safety zone» in respect of enterprise financial streams while using a graphic method.

  14. Economic and Environmental Evaluation and Optimal Ratio of Natural and Recycled Aggregate Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Ghanbari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady increase in overexploitation of stone quarries, generation of construction and demolition waste, and costs of preparing extra landfill space have become environmental and waste management challenges in metropolises. In this paper, aggregate production is studied in two scenarios: scenario 1 representing the production of natural aggregates (NA and scenario 2 representing the production of recycled aggregates (RA. This study consists of two parts. In the first part, the objective is the environmental assessment (energy consumption and CO2 emission and economic (cost evaluation of these two scenarios, which is pursued by life-cycle assessment (LCA method. In the second part, the results of the first part are used to estimate the optimal combination of production of NA and RA and thereby find an optimal solution (scenario for a more eco-friendly aggregate production. The defined formulas and relationship are used to develop a model. The results of model validation show that the optimal ratio, in optimal scenario, is 50%. The results show that, compared to scenario 1, optimal scenario improves the energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and production cost by, respectively, 30%, 36%, and 31%, which demonstrate the effectiveness of this optimization.

  15. The technical and economical optimization of the French geological repository project - 59275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffard, Rodolphe; Labalette, Thibaud

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Act of 28 June 2006 made the choice of reversible geological repository for long term management of high level and long-lived intermediate level waste. Andra is in charge of designing, building and operating the future industrial repository Cigeo. Current major issues consist in preparing the application to be examined in 2015, planning the construction so that operation would start in 2025 and optimizing the design on both technical and economical points of view. The Dossier 2005 -provided by Andra prior to the 2006 Act- established the feasibility of the project, especially towards compliance with safety and reversibility. Design options were presented at that time with the objective of demonstrating feasibility without ruling out possibilities of further optimization. Along with the scientific and technical review of Dossier 2005, a number of design optimization topics were identified in 2006. Working groups involved Andra's specialists as well as external experts. A particular attention was given to (i) the industrial experience of waste producers and (ii) the characteristics of the clay layer investigated in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory. The 2006 optimization topics were prioritized taking into account their economical impact and the development plan of the project

  16. Data-adaptive Robust Optimization Method for the Economic Dispatch of Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yipu; Ai, Xiaomeng; Fang, Jiakun

    2018-01-01

    Due to the restricted mathematical description of the uncertainty set, the current two-stage robust optimization is usually over-conservative which has drawn concerns from the power system operators. This paper proposes a novel data-adaptive robust optimization method for the economic dispatch...... of active distribution network with renewables. The scenario-generation method and the two-stage robust optimization are combined in the proposed method. To reduce the conservativeness, a few extreme scenarios selected from the historical data are used to replace the conventional uncertainty set....... The proposed extreme-scenario selection algorithm takes advantage of considering the correlations and can be adaptive to different historical data sets. A theoretical proof is given that the constraints will be satisfied under all the possible scenarios if they hold in the selected extreme scenarios, which...

  17. Techno-Economic Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    technical and economic challenges. One such challenge is the discontinuity, or intermittency, of generation, as most renewable energy resources depend on the climate, which is why their use requires complex design, planning and control optimization strategies. This paper presents a model and optimization...... for a sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables based Smart House (SH). We have devised and analysed an innovative high-efficiency approach to residential energy supply. The analysis involves detailed technical specifications and considerations for providing optimal supply of electricity, heating, cooling......The continuous increasing negative effects of fossil fuel consumption on society and the environment, opens a major interest into environmentally friendly alternatives to sustain the increasing demand for energy services. Despite the obvious advantages of renewable energy, it presents important...

  18. Socio-Economic Impacts of Rain Water Harvesting Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technologies in Rwanda: A case study of Nyaruguru ... ownership and maintenance of established RWH technologies. ... production towards food security. .... The overall average family size for the households ..... respondents are aware of these techniques but few implement them- only 1 .... Water productivity in Rain-.

  19. Economic evaluation of three on-station fish farming technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the technolo-gies were considered to be socially desirable that could ensure efficiency in use of resources, screening on-station was germane in technology transfer. Undiscounted profit, rate of return, return on annual operation cost, benefit-cost ratio, return to management, and land were adopted as indicators for ...

  20. Economic opportunities resulting from a global deployment of concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies-The example of German technology providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Daniel; Viebahn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Several energy scenario studies consider concentrated solar power (CSP) plants as an important technology option to reduce the world's CO 2 emissions to a level required for not letting the global average temperature exceed a threshold of 2-2.4 o C. A global ramp up of CSP technologies offers great economic opportunities for technology providers as CSP technologies include highly specialised components. This paper analyses possible value creation effects resulting from a global deployment of CSP until 2050 as projected in scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and Greenpeace International. The analysis focuses on the economic opportunities of German technology providers since companies such as Schott Solar, Flabeg or Solar Millennium are among the leading suppliers of CSP technologies on the global market.

  1. The role of health economics in the evaluation of surgery and operative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Dr Matthew Taylor is the director of York Health Economics Consortium and leads the Consortium's health technology assessment program. The work of York Health Economics Consortium involves empirical research in health economics for both the private and public sectors. Dr Taylor is the scientific lead for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Economic and Methodological Unit and a former member of NICE's Public Health Advisory Committee. He is also managing director (Europe) of Minerva, an international network of health economics consultancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender Disparity in Third World Technological, Social, and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akubue, Anthony I.

    2001-01-01

    Socialization of women in developing countries inhibits their education and employment in scientific and technical fields. This mindset perpetuates poverty and limits economic and social development. Solutions include elimination of gender bias, information dissemination, replication of successful development projects, use of role models, and…

  3. Commercialization of University Research for Technology-Based Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, W. Ker

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the hypothesized relationship between US federally funded university research and development (R&D) and its resulting economic impact, as measured by the level of licensing revenue generated by US universities. The author also examines the key operating statistics of the top-ten licensing income-producing…

  4. Energy-Using Durables – Why Consumers Refrain from Economically Optimal Choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Renate, E-mail: schubert@econ.gess.ethz.ch; Stadelmann, Marcel [ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-23

    Sustainable development requires increasing the energy efficiency, decreasing the growth rates of energy demand, and decreasing the CO{sub 2} emissions. In many countries, households’ energy consumption is responsible for a considerable share of total energy demand and CO{sub 2} emissions. Energy-using durables are essential in this context. Aiming at sustainability, private households should buy more energy-efficient durables and use them in a more efficient way. In principle, it might even be economically optimal to buy the more energy-efficient products, since they result in lower total costs over their lifetime – thus resulting in a positive net present value (NPV). However, when observing private households’ purchase decisions, they often do not correspond to the economic optimum, resulting in an “energy-efficiency gap.” This paper investigates into the reasons for the persistence of such a gap between energy-efficient products that would be economically optimal – but from which consumers refrain – and less energy-efficient products that consumers actually own or buy although they entail larger life-cycle costs. Factors, which seem to deter private households from purchasing energy-efficient products with positive NPVs, are, for example, insufficient information, limited attention, or inertia. We will show how these and other factors hinder private households from identifying and realizing their economically optimal choices and how such barriers can be overcome. We will present how properly designed energy labels could help to overcome the information-related causes of inefficiently low energy-efficiency investments and provide some additional policy recommendations that could help reaching the aforementioned goal of a reduction of households’ energy demand and CO{sub 2} emissions in an adequate way.

  5. Energy-Using Durables – Why Consumers Refrain from Economically Optimal Choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Renate; Stadelmann, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development requires increasing the energy efficiency, decreasing the growth rates of energy demand, and decreasing the CO 2 emissions. In many countries, households’ energy consumption is responsible for a considerable share of total energy demand and CO 2 emissions. Energy-using durables are essential in this context. Aiming at sustainability, private households should buy more energy-efficient durables and use them in a more efficient way. In principle, it might even be economically optimal to buy the more energy-efficient products, since they result in lower total costs over their lifetime – thus resulting in a positive net present value (NPV). However, when observing private households’ purchase decisions, they often do not correspond to the economic optimum, resulting in an “energy-efficiency gap.” This paper investigates into the reasons for the persistence of such a gap between energy-efficient products that would be economically optimal – but from which consumers refrain – and less energy-efficient products that consumers actually own or buy although they entail larger life-cycle costs. Factors, which seem to deter private households from purchasing energy-efficient products with positive NPVs, are, for example, insufficient information, limited attention, or inertia. We will show how these and other factors hinder private households from identifying and realizing their economically optimal choices and how such barriers can be overcome. We will present how properly designed energy labels could help to overcome the information-related causes of inefficiently low energy-efficiency investments and provide some additional policy recommendations that could help reaching the aforementioned goal of a reduction of households’ energy demand and CO 2 emissions in an adequate way.

  6. Economic optimization of natural hazard protection - conceptual study of existing approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackova, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Risk-based planning of protection measures against natural hazards has become a common practice in many countries. The selection procedure aims at identifying an economically efficient strategy with regard to the estimated costs and risk (i.e. expected damage). A correct setting of the evaluation methodology and decision criteria should ensure an optimal selection of the portfolio of risk protection measures under a limited state budget. To demonstrate the efficiency of investments, indicators such as Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Marginal Costs (MC) or Net Present Value (NPV) are commonly used. However, the methodologies for efficiency evaluation differ amongst different countries and different hazard types (floods, earthquakes etc.). Additionally, several inconsistencies can be found in the applications of the indicators in practice. This is likely to lead to a suboptimal selection of the protection strategies. This study provides a general formulation for optimization of the natural hazard protection measures from a socio-economic perspective. It assumes that all costs and risks can be expressed in monetary values. The study regards the problem as a discrete hierarchical optimization, where the state level sets the criteria and constraints, while the actual optimization is made on the regional level (towns, catchments) when designing particular protection measures and selecting the optimal protection level. The study shows that in case of an unlimited budget, the task is quite trivial, as it is sufficient to optimize the protection measures in individual regions independently (by minimizing the sum of risk and cost). However, if the budget is limited, the need for an optimal allocation of resources amongst the regions arises. To ensure this, minimum values of BCR or MC can be required by the state, which must be achieved in each region. The study investigates the meaning of these indicators in the optimization task at the conceptual level and compares their

  7. Multi-objective optimization of a cascade refrigeration system: Exergetic, economic, environmental, and inherent safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eini, Saeed; Shahhosseini, Hamidreza; Delgarm, Navid; Lee, Moonyong; Bahadori, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective optimization is performed for a cascade refrigeration cycle. • The optimization problem considers inherently safe design as well as 3E analysis. • As a measure of inherent safety level a quantitative risk analysis is utilized. • A CO 2 /NH 3 cascade refrigeration system is compared with a CO 2 /C 3 H 8 system. - Abstract: Inherently safer design is the new approach to maximize the overall safety of a process plant. This approach suggests some risk reduction strategies to be implemented in the early stages of design. In this paper a multi-objective optimization was performed considering economic, exergetic, and environmental aspects besides evaluation of the inherent safety level of a cascade refrigeration system. The capital costs, the processing costs, and the social cost due to CO 2 emission were considered to be included in the economic objective function. Exergetic efficiency of the plant was considered as the second objective function. As a measure of inherent safety level, Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) was performed to calculate total risk level of the cascade as the third objective function. Two cases (ammonia and propane) were considered to be compared as the refrigerant of the high temperature circuit. The achieved optimum solutions from the multi–objective optimization process were given as Pareto frontier. The ultimate optimal solution from available solutions on the Pareto optimal curve was selected using Decision-Makings approaches. NSGA-II algorithm was used to obtain Pareto optimal frontiers. Also, three decision-making approaches (TOPSIS, LINMAP, and Shannon’s entropy methods) were utilized to select the final optimum point. Considering continuous material release from the major equipment in the plant, flash and jet fire scenarios were considered for the CO 2 /C 3 H 8 cycle and toxic hazards were considered for the CO 2 /NH 3 cycle. The results showed no significant differences between CO 2 /NH 3 and

  8. Economic reassessment of energy technologies with risk-management techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Markus; Unger, Hermann

    1999-01-01

    A new approach for the reassessment of modern energy technologies is discussed. This mainly addresses renewable-energy systems, like photovoltaics or wind converters. A new number called the 'Marginal Energy Risk Price (MERP) for Hedging' is introduced. (Author)

  9. Distributed electric power systems of the future: Institutional and technological drivers for near-optimal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Marija; Prica, Marija; Black, Jason W.

    2007-01-01

    Viewing electric power distribution systems as complex engineering systems whose states and inputs are defined by both technical and non-technical components of the system could help us understand challenges and lead to possible innovative solutions. In this setup, regulatory incentives, pricing, demand, and technological innovation are all endogenous feed-forward and/or feedback signals to the existing physical network and shape its evolution in both the short and long terms. We suggest that it is, indeed, possible to design technical, economic, and regulatory feed-forward and feedback signals keeping in mind the desired performance of the system. A particularly unique challenge is to enhance and operate the existing systems by incorporating distributed technologies (distributed generation or DG, active demand response, controllable wires) whose added value comes from just-in-time and right-location adjustments to the changing conditions. One way of interpreting the value of technologies of this type is to understand that they provide flexible and efficient responses by the end-user (DG and demand), therefore reducing the need for capacity reserve at the system level. Technical implementations and regulatory rules are not in place today to support systematic penetration of these technologies into the existing distribution systems. In this paper we stress the critical role of future load serving entities (LSEs) as aggregators and catalysts of customer choice at the value as one possible way forward. The LSEs would, through systematic protocols between themselves and the wholesale markets, on one side, and the customers whom they serve, on the other side, effectively implement incentives to induce near-optimal distribution system performance over long time horizons by investing in near-optimal technologies. These incentives must capture and compare both cumulative effects of real time decisions and the effects of longer-term investment decisions on near-optimal

  10. Historical Perspective of the Role of Technology in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Šimurina, Jurica; Tica, Josip

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to investigate technology changes and influence on economies since the First Industrial Revolution. The First Industrial Revolution was the first point in time when both increase of GDP per capita and population occurred at the same time (avoiding the Malthusian trap). Thus the selected point in time. Furthermore, developments of the late 18th and 19th centuries have some common properties with development of new technologies today. Even though the process of techno...

  11. Economic Literacy Indicators at the Department of Computer Education & Instructional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi GEREK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Developments in technology and communication in the 21st century have led to increased expectations from individuals. One of these expectation areas is literacy. As a requirement of the information age, it can be said that the economic literacy is one of the most important areas of literacy. Economic literacy can be defined in terms of ability to revise the alternatives for interpreting economic problems and finding solutions to these problems, to define the cost and profits, to investigate the effects of changes in economic conditions and in public policies, to gather and organize economy-related data and to balance the profits and costs. One of the tools that affect the life can be said economic literacy but it is a neglected area in most higher education programs. In this study, Computer Education and Instructional Technology program courses were examined within the framework of economic literacy indicators

  12. Recirculating aquaculture production systems : an overview of different components, management, economics and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kals, J.

    2004-01-01

    Report of a literature study on Recirculating aquaculture production systems executed within the MRG ercirculation program. The report gives an overview of different components, management, economics and technology and is made by the Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (RIVO).

  13. Impacts of nuclear and hydroelectric great projects: economical, technological, environmental and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Sigaud, L.; Mielnik, O.

    1988-01-01

    Some studies about the Great Impacts of Energy Sources, mainly nuclear power plant and hydroelectric power plant, in Brazil are presented. The technological, economical, social and environmental aspects are described [pt

  14. A Three-Stage Optimal Approach for Power System Economic Dispatch Considering Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tzer Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of microgrids (MGs in power systems, especially distribution-substation-level MGs, significantly affects power systems because of the large volumes of import and export power flows. Consequently, power dispatch has become complicated, and finding an optimal solution is difficult. In this study, a three-stage optimal power dispatch model is proposed to solve such dispatch problems. In the proposed model, the entire power system is divided into two parts, namely, the main power grid and MGs. The optimal power dispatch problem is resolved on the basis of multi-area concepts. In stage I, the main power system economic dispatch (ED problem is solved by sensitive factors. In stage II, the optimal power dispatches of the local MGs are addressed via an improved direct search method. In stage III, the incremental linear models for the entire power system can be established on the basis of the solutions of the previous two stages and can be subjected to linear programming to determine the optimal reschedules from the original dispatch solutions. The proposed method is coded using Matlab and tested by utilizing an IEEE 14-bus test system to verify its feasibility and accuracy. Results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used for the ED of power systems with MGs as virtual power plants.

  15. Collective neurodynamic optimization for economic emission dispatch problem considering valve point effect in microgrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiancai; He, Xing; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chuandong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The economic emission dispatch (EED) problem aims to control generation cost and reduce the impact of waste gas on the environment. It has multiple constraints and nonconvex objectives. To solve it, the collective neurodynamic optimization (CNO) method, which combines heuristic approach and projection neural network (PNN), is attempted to optimize scheduling of an electrical microgrid with ten thermal generators and minimize the plus of generation and emission cost. As the objective function has non-derivative points considering valve point effect (VPE), differential inclusion approach is employed in the PNN model introduced to deal with them. Under certain conditions, the local optimality and convergence of the dynamic model for the optimization problem is analyzed. The capability of the algorithm is verified in a complicated situation, where transmission loss and prohibited operating zones are considered. In addition, the dynamic variation of load power at demand side is considered and the optimal scheduling of generators within 24 h is described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Mitch; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Quick, Ralph

    2015-01-26

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling; however, there are opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies used. The scope of this drilling operational study included 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'perfect well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.), poor data collection, and difficult to ascertain handwriting. An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate analysis figures. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averages 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million would be lost due to non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells and only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry. It is the use of Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. However, a work-flow must also be established in order for there to be an efficient drilling program. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real

  17. A new global particle swarm optimization for the economic emission dispatch with or without transmission losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Dexuan; Li, Steven; Li, Zongyan; Kong, Xiangyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new global particle swarm optimization (NGPSO) is proposed. • NGPSO has strong convergence and desirable accuracy. • NGPSO is used to handle the economic emission dispatch with or without transmission losses. • The equality constraint can be satisfied by solving a quadratic equation. • The inequality constraints can be satisfied by using penalty function method. - Abstract: A new global particle swarm optimization (NGPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the economic emission dispatch (EED) problems in this paper. NGPSO is different from the traditional particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in two aspects. First, NGPSO uses a new position updating equation which relies on the global best particle to guide the searching activities of all particles. Second, it uses the randomization based on the uniform distribution to slightly disturb the flight trajectories of particles during the late evolutionary process. The two steps enable NGPSO to effectively execute a number of global searches, and thus they increase the chance of exploring promising solution space, and reduce the probabilities of getting trapped into local optima for all particles. On the other hand, the two objective functions of EED are normalized separately according to all candidate solutions, and then they are incorporated into one single objective function. The transformation steps are very helpful in eliminating the difference caused by the different dimensions of the two functions, and thus they strike a balance between the fuel cost and emission. In addition, a simple and common penalty function method is employed to facilitate the satisfactions of EED’s constraints. Based on these improvements in PSO, objective functions and constraints handling, high-quality solutions can be obtained for EED problems. Five examples are chosen to testify the performance of three improved PSOs on solving EED problems with or without transmission losses. Experimental results show that

  18. Economic and technical assay of the application of radionuclide technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, F.G.

    1976-05-01

    The dynamically loaded components of combustion engines undergo wear during operation as a function of the operating points and the operating parameters selected. Radionuclide measurement methods developed in the Federal Republic of Germany in the LIT laboratory of Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung allow to determine the wear of machine components during operation, contrary to conventional length measurement techniques. In the first part of this work the existing wear problems will be analyzed and investigations will be made into the capacities of conventional and radionuclide measurement methods. Based on this, a cost-benefit analysis system was developed for evaluation under technical and economical aspects of the use of different measurement methods allowing to solve detailed wear problems. This system furnishes results on the respective optimum wear measurement method relating to the actual problem and taking into account the relevant technical and economical boundary conditions. (orig.) [de

  19. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  20. A New Direction for Technology-Based Economic Development: The Role of Innovation Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendis, Richard A.; Seline, Richard S.; Byler, Ethan J.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerating innovation to drive economic growth is the foremost goal for technology-based economic development organizations today. Realizing this goal through programmes is challenged by limited and outdated operating models. The authors outline their 21st Century Innovation Intermediary model, which pairs commercialization with regional…

  1. Innovation, entrepreneurship and culture : the interaction between technology, progress and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, T.E.; Ulijn, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Any technological advance, innovation or economic growth created by an organization is dependent on how that organization’s culture and environment fosters or inhibits these developments. This process is further complicated by the global nature of economic activity and differences in national

  2. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Gary S.; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu, Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianaca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred; Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

    2011-01-02

    clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology.

  3. A multi-objective chaotic particle swarm optimization for environmental/economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jiejin; Ma Xiaoqian; Li Qiong; Li Lixiang; Peng Haipeng

    2009-01-01

    A multi-objective chaotic particle swarm optimization (MOCPSO) method has been developed to solve the environmental/economic dipatch (EED) problems considering both economic and environmental issues. The proposed MOCPSO method has been applied in two test power systems. Compared with the conventional multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) method, for the compromising minimum fuel cost and emission case, the fuel cost and pollutant emission obtained from MOCPSO method can be reduced about 50.08 $/h and 2.95 kg/h, respectively, in test system 1, about 0.02 $/h and 1.11 kg/h, respectively, in test system 2. The MOCPSO method also results in higher quality solutions for the minimum fuel cost case and the minimum emission case in both of the test power systems. Hence, MOCPSO method can result in great environmental and economic effects. For EED problems, the MOCPSO method is more feasible and more effective alternative approach than the conventional MOPSO method.

  4. The Economics of Technology Sharing: Open Source and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Lerner; Jean Tirole

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews our understanding of the growing open source movement. We highlight how many aspects of open source software appear initially puzzling to an economist. As we have acknowledged, our ability to answer confidently many of the issues raised here questions is likely to increase as the open source movement itself grows and evolves. At the same time, it is heartening to us how much of open source activities can be understood within existing economic frameworks, despite the presenc...

  5. Microalgal technology for remediation of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas: A techno-economic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Power plants burning fossil fuels are a major source of CO{sub 2} which is implicated in global warming. Microalgal systems which photosynthetically assimilate carbon dioxide can be used for mitigation of this major greenhouse gas. A techno-economic model was developed for trapping carbon dioxide from flue gases by microalgae in outdoor ponds. The model also shows that algal lipid content and growth rate are both important for an economical process, but a trade-off exists between the two, i.e., a high lipid content and low growth rate combination can be as effective as a low lipid content and high growth rate combination. Hence, these two parameters may be treated as a composite parameter to be optimized to yield the least CO{sub 2} mitigation cost. Model predictions were also used to compare the microalgal technology with alternative technologies in terms of CO{sub 2} mitigation costs. Incorporating advances anticipated in the future into the design basis, the model yields a CO{sub 2} mitigation cost that is competitive with other CO{sub 2} remediation technologies currently being proposed. Furthermore, this technology also provides a lipid feedstock for producing a renewable fuel such as biodiesel. Deployment of this technology for CO{sub 2} mitigation looks attractive if research goals put forth by the model are achieved.

  6. MSFC Turbine Performance Optimization (TPO) Technology Verification Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lisa W.; Dorney, Daniel J.; Snellgrove, Lauren M.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Stroud, Richard T.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Capability to optimize for turbine performance and accurately predict unsteady loads will allow for increased reliability, Isp, and thrust-to-weight. The development of a fast, accurate, validated aerodynamic design, analysis, and optimization system is required.

  7. Optimal tax rate and economic growth. Evidence from Nigeria and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Muibi SAIBU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic crisis had made developing countries to look inward for financial resources to finance development. The readily alternative is the tax revenues however, the possible adverse direct and indirect effects of tax on productivity and work efforts as well as on aggregate consumption had make some African countries (especially Nigeria and South Africa reluctant in implementing far reaching tax policy reform. This paper examines optimal tax burden and real output growth Nigeria and South Africa, two of the top four economies in Africa. The paper empirically determined what should be the optimal tax rate for Nigeria and South Africa-the two leading economies in Africa. The paper found that nonlinearity hypothesis in the effects of tax in the case of South Africa is rejected while a significant nonlinear relationship is found in the case of Nigeria. The results suggest that the growth-maximizing tax rate is about 15% of per capita GDP for South Africa and 30% for Nigeria. At that tax rate, the economic growth rate would be around 6% and 8% instead of the actual mean growth rate of 2.84% and 4.51% for South Africa and Nigeria respectively. The paper concluded the current tax burden in the two countries may be sub-optimal and may hurt long term sustainable growth process in the two countries

  8. Optimization of self-consumption and techno-economic analysis of PV-battery systems in commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merei, Ghada; Moshövel, Janina; Magnor, Dirk; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of self-consumption and the degree of self-sufficiency in commercial applications. • Technical and economic analyses for a PV-battery system. • Sensitivity analysis considering different sizes and prices of PV and battery systems. • Investigation of batteries to increase self-consumption today is not economic in the considered applications. - Abstract: Increasing costs of electricity supply from the local grid, the decreasing photovoltaic (PV) technology costs and the decreasing PV feed-in-tariff according to the current German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) will in the future raise the monetary incentives to increase the self-consumption of PV energy. This is of great interest in commercial buildings as there mostly is sufficient place to install high capacities of photovoltaic panels on their own roofs. Furthermore, the electricity purchase price from the local grid for commercial consumers nowadays is about 20 €ct/kW h, which is higher than the cost of generation of electricity from solar panels (about 8–12 €ct/kW h). Additionally, the load profiles in commercial applications have a high correlation with the generated solar energy. Hence, there is a great opportunity for economic savings. This paper presents optimization results with respect to self-consumption and degree of self-sufficiency for a supermarket in Aachen, Germany. The optimization is achieved using real measurement data of load profile and solar radiation. Besides, techno-economic analyses and sensitivity analyses have been carried out to demonstrate the influence of different PV system sizes, PV system costs and interest rates. Moreover, to raise self-consumption different battery sizes with different battery system costs have been investigated and analysed for 2015 and 2025 scenarios as well. The results show that the installation of a PV system can reduce the electricity costs through self-consumption of self-generated PV energy. Also, applying

  9. Are the Economically Optimal Harvesting Strategies of Uneven-Aged Pinus nigra Stands Always Sustainable and Stabilizing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fullana-Belda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional uneven-aged forest management seeks a balance between equilibrium stand structure and economic profitability, which often leads to harvesting strategies concentrated in the larger diameter classes. The sustainability (i.e., population persistence over time and influence of such economically optimal strategies on the equilibrium position of a stand (given by the stable diameter distribution have not been sufficiently investigated in prior forest literature. This article therefore proposes a discrete optimal control model to analyze the sustainability and stability of the economically optimal harvesting strategies of uneven-aged Pinus nigra stands. For this model, we rely on an objective function that integrates financial data of harvesting operations with a projection matrix model that can describe the population dynamics. The model solution reveals the optimal management schedules for a wide variety of scenarios. To measure the distance between the stable diameter distribution and the economically optimal harvesting strategy distribution, the model uses Keyfitz’s delta, which returns high values for all the scenarios and, thus, suggests that those economically optimal harvesting strategies have an unstabilizing influence on the equilibrium positions. Moreover, the economically optimal harvesting strategies were unsustainable for all the scenarios.

  10. Applying waste heat recovery system in a sewage sludge dryer – A technical and economic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tańczuk, Mariusz; Kostowski, Wojciech; Karaś, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A modernization of waste heat recovery system in a sludge drying plant is proposed. • Energy performance analysis rejected the downsize case of modernization. • Optimal system sizes regarding Net Present Value and Net Present Value Ratio do not coincide. • Up to 683 MW h/y of chemical energy savings for optimal heat exchanger size. • Higher profitability for the larger heat exchanger cases: paybacks below 3.65 years. - Abstract: Drying of digested sewage sludge, as an important alternative to sludge disposal at dumping sites, should comply with the requirements of high energy efficiency as well as economic feasibility. The technical and economic optimization analysis of installing a waste process heat recovery unit in a medium-temperature belt dryer operated in a municipal waste water treatment plant was carried out. Inlet capacity of the plant is 1.83 Mg of wet sludge per hour. The post-process air was indicated as a source of waste heat and the configuration of a heat recovery system was proposed. The main objective of the research was to find the optimal size of a chosen type of waste heat recovery heat exchanger for preheating ambient air to the process. The maximization of Net Present Value, and, alternatively, also Net Present Value Ratio were selected for the objective function of the optimization procedure. Simulation of yearly operation of waste heat exchanger was made for a range of different heat exchanging areas (101–270 m"2) regarding given parameters of a post-process air and different temperatures of ambient air. Energy performance of the modernization was evaluated and economic indices were calculated for each of the analyzed cases. The location of the maximum of optimization function was found and the calculations show higher profitability of the cases with larger waste heat exchanger. It can be concluded that the location of optimum of the objective function is very sensitive to the price of natural gas supplied to the

  11. Technological Exports and the Dynamics of Ukraine’s Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cherkass

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the promotion of technological exports in the context of making products competitive on the world market at the expense of quantified but not qualified factors. The author describes the destructive consequences of primary export growth. Relying on a designed structural model, she analyzes factors pertaining to technological exports and industrial production, and also evaluates the effectiveness of promoting exports for economic growth. She demonstrates the negative effect of the devaluation of the hryvnia on industrial production growth and the currency’s neutrality as a factor in the promotion of technological exports. The article establishes that technological exports determine to a considerable extent the dynamics of Ukraine’s economic growth, while the exports of raw materials worsen these indicators. The author shows that the export of metal products stands in the way of increasing technological export, and offers her recommendations to improve the dynamics of economic growth.

  12. Technology commercialization: From generating ideas to creating economic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Dehghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent changes in competitors' status, technology, and customer interests make it unwise and impossible for companies to rely on their products. Customers always seek to find new products. Consequently, companies should continuously produce and offer superior products to meet customer needs, tastes, and expectations. In fact, every company needs a development plan for its new products. Research has demonstrated that one of the major reasons for rapid development of technology in industrial countries is commercialization of research results. The basis of such commercialization is research-industry collaboration in converting research output into innovation. Today, technology commercialization and its outcomes can provide financial resources required for organizational longevity. The main objective of this article is to propose a model for commercializing research findings from idea generation to initial market entry. We believe that this article can, hopefully, contribute to commercialization literature by acting as a guide to local authorities involved in commercialization cycle.

  13. The Economics of New Health Technologies Incentives, Organization, and Financing

    CERN Document Server

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Technological change in healthcare has led to huge improvements in health services and the health status of populations. It is also pinpointed as the main driver of healthcare expenditure. Although offering remarkable benefits, changes in technology are not free and often entail significant financial, as well as physical or social risks. These need to be balanced out in the setting of government regulations, insurance contracts, and individuals' decisions to use and consume certaintechnologies. With this in mind, this book addresses the following important objectives: to provide a detailed ana

  14. Transferability of economic evaluations of medical technologies: a new technology for orthopedic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Young, Terry; Buxton, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Transferring results of economic evaluations across countries or jurisdictions can potentially save scarce evaluation resources while helping to make market access and reimbursement decisions in a timely fashion. This article points out why transferring results of economic evaluations is

  15. The Effect of Information Technology on Economic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    The author evaluated the effect on student performance of using a new information technology (IT) enhancement that permits students to participate in the recording of lectures that can be downloaded later from the Internet. The author compared two sections of the same Intermediate Microeconomics class and observed the sample students to be…

  16. Energy. Economics - politics - technology. Energie. Wirtschaft - Politik - Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruppa, A; Mielenhausen, E; Kallweit, J H; Schlueter, H; Schenkel, J; Vohwinkel, F; Streckel, S; Brockmann, H W

    1978-01-01

    The themes of the various aspects of the energy sector collected in this volume and discussed by different authors are: Energy policy, energy demand-research and forecasts, energy supplies, new technologies for future energy supply, generation of electrical energy by nuclear power stations, effect on the environment of energy plants, legal problems of site planning, and the authorisation of energy plants.

  17. Techno-economic evaluation of broadband access technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    Broadband for all is an essential element in the EU policy concerning the future of ICT-based society. The overall purpose of this paper is to present a model for evaluation of different broadband access technologies and to present some preliminary results based on the model that has been carried...

  18. Energy demand analytics using coupled technological and economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impacts of a range of policy scenarios on end-use energy demand are examined using a coupling of MARKAL, an energy system model with extensive supply and end-use technological detail, with Inforum LIFT, a large-scale model of the us. economy with inter-industry, government, and c...

  19. Technology for America's economic growth : a new direction to build economic strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-22

    Investing in technology is investing in America's future: a growing economy with more high-skill, high-wage jobs for American workers; a cleaner environment where energy efficiency increases profits and reduces pollution; a stronger, more competitive...

  20. Economic feasibility of EBFGT technology for removal of pollutants from combustion of liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A. A.; Fageeha, O.I.; Kunnummal, N.; Al-Ghamdi, S.; Pawelec, A.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.

    2011-01-01

    A project on feasibility of electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology at oil fired boiler was conducted for Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco). As part of this project, economic feasibility of EBFGT technology was performed for heavy oil fired boilers in Saudi Arabia. Economic evaluation was performed for two options of EBFGT installation; the first for 65 000 Nm3/h and the second for 130 000 Nm 3 /h. The main factors affecting investment and operation costs were discussed and costs were compared to conventional methods. The results of the evaluation showed that EBFGT method is economically attractive. (author)

  1. Economic feasibility of EBFGT technology for removal of pollutants from combustion of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basfar, A. A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Institute, Radiation Technology Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Fageeha, O. I.; Kunnummal, N.; Al-Ghamdi, S. [Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco), Environmental Protection Department, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Pawelec, A.; Chmielewski, A. G.; Tyminski, B.; Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Licki, J. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Świerk (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    A project on feasibility of electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology at oil fired boiler was conducted for Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco). As part of this project, economic feasibility of EBFGT technology was performed for heavy oil fired boilers in Saudi Arabia. Economic evaluation was performed for two options of EBFGT installation; the first for 65 000 Nm3/h and the second for 130 000 Nm{sup 3}/h. The main factors affecting investment and operation costs were discussed and costs were compared to conventional methods. The results of the evaluation showed that EBFGT method is economically attractive. (author)

  2. A conceptual framework for economic optimization of an animal health surveillance portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-04-01

    Decision making on hazard surveillance in livestock product chains is a multi-hazard, multi-stakeholder, and multi-criteria process that includes a variety of decision alternatives. The multi-hazard aspect means that the allocation of the scarce resource for surveillance should be optimized from the point of view of a surveillance portfolio (SP) rather than a single hazard. In this paper, we present a novel conceptual approach for economic optimization of a SP to address the resource allocation problem for a surveillance organization from a theoretical perspective. This approach uses multi-criteria techniques to evaluate the performances of different settings of a SP, taking cost-benefit aspects of surveillance and stakeholders' preferences into account. The credibility of the approach has also been checked for conceptual validity, data needs and operational validity; the application potentials of the approach are also discussed.

  3. Optimal economic order quantity for buyer-distributor-vendor supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo; Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wee, Hui Ming

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we first complement an inappropriate mathematical error on the total cost in the previously published paper by Chung and Wee [2007, 'Optimal the Economic Lot Size of a Three-stage Supply Chain With Backlogging Derived Without Derivatives', European Journal of Operational Research, 183, 933-943] related to buyer-distributor-vendor three-stage supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives. Then, an arithmetic-geometric inequality method is proposed not only to simplify the algebraic method of completing prefect squares, but also to complement their shortcomings. In addition, we provide a closed-form solution to integral number of deliveries for the distributor and the vendor without using complex derivatives. Furthermore, our method can solve many cases in which their method cannot, because they did not consider that a squared root of a negative number does not exist. Finally, we use some numerical examples to show that our proposed optimal solution is cheaper to operate than theirs.

  4. An enhanced particle swarm optimization for dynamic economic dispatch problem considering valve-point loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriyanyong, P. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper described the use of an enhanced particle swarm optimization (PSO) model to address the problem of dynamic economic dispatch (DED). A modified heuristic search method was incorporated into the PSO model. Both smooth and non-smooth cost functions were considered. The enhanced PSO model not only utilized the basic PSO algorithm in order to seek the optimal solution for the DED problem, but it also used a modified heuristic method to deal with constraints and increase the possibility of finding a feasible solution. In order to validate the enhanced PSO model, it was used and tested on 10-unit systems considering both smooth and non-smooth cost functions characteristics. The experimental results were also compared to other methods. The proposed technique was found to be better than other approaches. The enhanced PSO model outperformed others with respect to quality, stability and reliability. 23 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  5. Anti-predatory particle swarm optimization: Solution to nonconvex economic dispatch problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvakumar, A. Immanuel [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore 641114, Tamilnadu (India); Thanushkodi, K. [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore 641013, Tamilnadu (India)

    2008-01-15

    This paper proposes a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) strategy namely, anti-predatory particle swarm optimization (APSO) to solve nonconvex economic dispatch problems. In the classical PSO, the movement of a particle (bird) is governed by three behaviors: inertial, cognitive and social. The cognitive and social behaviors are the components of the foraging activity, which help the swarm of birds to locate food. Another activity that is observed in birds is the anti-predatory nature, which helps the swarm to escape from the predators. In this work, the anti-predatory activity is modeled and embedded in the classical PSO to form APSO. This inclusion enhances the exploration capability of the swarm. To validate the proposed APSO model, it is applied to two test systems having nonconvex solution spaces. Satisfactory results are obtained when compared with previous approaches. (author)

  6. Optimizing a High-Temperature Hydrogen Co-generation Reactor for Both Economic and Environmental Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Wood, Thomas W.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Johnson, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes outcomes for a 3000 MWt High Temperature Gas Reaction nuclear power plant, given price and cost assumptions, and determined what level of hydrogen and electricity production would optimize the plant economically and environmentally (carbon reduction). The tradeoff between producing hydrogen through steam methane reformation and producing electricity is so disproportionate, that advanced reactors will likely be used only as peaking plants for electricity unless policymakers intervene with incentives to change the mix of electricity and hydrogen. The magnitude of the increase in electric prices or decrease in hydrogen prices required to allow electricity production indicate that substantial error in cost estimates would be required to change our analysis.

  7. Energy and economic optimization of a membrane-based oxyfuel steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarko, Yevgeniy

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is one technological option for reducing CO 2 emissions. The oxyfuel process is based on the combustion of fossil fuels in an oxygen-flue gas atmosphere with the subsequent concentration of CO 2 . The oxygen is produced by cryogenic air separation with an energy demand of 245 kWh el /t O2 . The application of ceramic membranes has the potential to reduce the specific energy demand of oxygen supply with consistently high-purity oxygen. This work focuses on - determining the efficiency of an advanced oxyfuel steam power plant that can be constructed today using membranes for oxygen production, - investigating and quantifying the potential for energy optimizing the overall process by changing its flow structure, - assessing the feasibility of individual optimization options based on their investment costs under market conditions. For this work, a method developed by Forschungszentrum Juelich and patented on 25 April 2012 under EP 2214806 is used. The Oxy-Vac-Juel concept is integrated into the oxyfuel steam power plant with simple process management using standardized power plant components. The net efficiency of the base power plant is 36.6 percentage points for an oxygen separation degree of 60 %. This corresponds to a net power loss of 9.3 percentage points compared to the reference power plant without CO 2 capture. The specific electricity demand of this oxygen supply method is 176 kWh el /t O2 . To increase the efficiency, the flow structure of the base power plant is optimized using industrially available components from power plant and process engineering. The 22 analyzed optimization options consist of design optimization of the gas separation process, the modification of the flue gas recirculation and the plant-internal waste heat utilization. The energetic advantage over the base power plant, depending on the optimization option, ranges from 0.05 - 1.00 percentage points. For each optimization option, the size and cost of the power

  8. Condition monitoring and thermo economic optimization of operation for a hybrid plant using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen; Fast, Magnus (Lund University, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN) and integrating the ANN models, for online condition monitoring and thermo economic optimization, on site. The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The thermo economic optimization takes into account current electricity prices, taxes, fuel prices etc. and calculates the current production cost along with the 'predicted' production cost. The tool also has a built in feature of predicting when a compressor wash is economically beneficial. The user interface is developed together with co-workers at Vaesthamnsverket to ensure its usefulness. The user interface includes functions for warnings and alarms when possible deviations in operation occur and also includes a feature for plotting parameter trends (both measured and predicted values) in selected time intervals. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The power plant owners want to acquire a product for condition monitoring and thermo economic optimization of e.g. maintenance. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANN models, for condition monitoring, along with their new gas turbines. The project has been carried out at Lund University, Department of Energy Sciences, with support from Vaesthamnsverket AB and Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB. Vaesthamnsverket has contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. They have also been involved in the implementation of the ANN models in their computer system and the development of the user interface. Siemens have contributed with expert knowledge about their SGT800 gas turbine. The implementation of the ANN models, and the accompanying user

  9. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Pérez, Inocente; Gutiérrez Benítez, Omar; Martínez Bermúdez, Guillermo; Padrón Padrón, Wilfredo; Águila Cabrera, Cira

    2015-01-01

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  10. Optimization of radiation protection by optimizing technology of CASTOR-Cask loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Dreesen, Konrad; Hoffmann, Dietrich

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Germany Optimization of Protection is one of the basic principles of the ICRP System of Radiation Protection. Often this principle is misunderstood and people try to achieve minimal doses irrespective of the amount of manpower or money they have to afford to reach this aim. The better way of optimization is to optimize the technology or the practise which is the cause of radiation exposure and at the same time reduce the dose uptake. Three measures have been used for this purpose in the management of spent fuel in Germany in preparation for the dry storage in CASTOR-Casks. The casks have to be loaded with the spent fuel in the pond of the power plant. After the loading the cask has to be dewatered and dried. The remaining humidity has to be checked with respect to a given maximum residual humidity to avoid corrosion during the long-term storage. Initially a measuring device using the dew point mirror method was used. The mirror was often polluted and needed recalibration. This led to a large variety of measuring times, the time period needed for the above mentioned three steps ranged from 55 to 120 hours. Thus the work could not be reliably planned. To solve this problem we now use a pressure-rise method to measure the humidity within the cask. The time needed is now nearly equal and reliable for all cask loadings and considerably lower than using the dew point method. Thereby the dose uptake of the cask handling staff could be reduced to 2.5 man mSv on average in comparison to the former collective dose of 4 to 5 man mSv. A second step for reducing the dose of the staff is the introduction of remotely controlled valves for the drying process, the humidity measurement and the subsequent filling with Helium. The valves are located at the lid of the cask where a remarkable dose rate could be. The equipment for the remote valve handling has been successfully tested. In the same line is a third measure: to record the process data by computer. The supervising

  11. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  12. A new fuzzy adaptive particle swarm optimization for non-smooth economic dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher; Mojarrad, Hassan Doagou; Nayeripour, Majid [Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-04-15

    This paper proposes a novel method for solving the Non-convex Economic Dispatch (NED) problems, by the Fuzzy Adaptive Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (FAMPSO). Practical ED problems have non-smooth cost functions with equality and inequality constraints when generator valve-point loading effects are taken into account. Modern heuristic optimization techniques have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution for ED problems. PSO is one of modern heuristic algorithms, in which particles change place to get close to the best position and find the global minimum point. However, the classic PSO may converge to a local optimum solution and the performance of the PSO highly depends on the internal parameters. To overcome these drawbacks, in this paper, a new mutation is proposed to improve the global searching capability and prevent the convergence to local minima. Also, a fuzzy system is used to tune its parameters such as inertia weight and learning factors. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, it is applied to a system consisting of 13 and 40 thermal units whose fuel cost function is calculated by taking account of the effect of valve-point loading. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared to other optimization algorithms presented in literature. (author)

  13. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali

    2002-01-01

    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  14. Impact of Technology and Culture on Home Economics and Nutrition Science Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburime, M. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and report on the impact of technology and culture on home economics and nutrition science education in developing countries with a focus on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Globally and most especially in developing countries, the advent of information and communication technologies has meant…

  15. Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    Comparing the pace and extent of economic development across the developing regions yields that Arab countries have displaced a weak economic performance over the past 20 years, despite their favorable geo-strategic location and a high density of national and international structural adjustment...... efforts. Using cross-country regressions, this paper identifies two binding constraints to economic development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): 1) Most countries are not able to apply or adopt existing technologies efficiently and 2) The economically inefficient...

  16. Shale gas technology innovation rate impact on economic Base Case – Scenario model benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cash flow models control which technology is affordable in emerging shale gas plays. • Impact of technology innovation on IRR can be as important as wellhead price hikes. • Cash flow models are useful for technology decisions that make shale gas plays economic. • The economic gap can be closed by appropriate technology innovation. - Abstract: Low gas wellhead prices in North America have put its shale gas industry under high competitive pressure. Rapid technology innovation can help companies to improve the economic performance of shale gas fields. Cash flow models are paramount for setting effective production and technology innovation targets to achieve positive returns on investment in all global shale gas plays. Future cash flow of a well (or cluster of wells) may either improve further or deteriorate, depending on: (1) the regional volatility in gas prices at the wellhead – which must pay for the gas resource extraction, and (2) the cost and effectiveness of the well technology used. Gas price is an externality and cannot be controlled by individual companies, but well technology cost can be reduced while improving production output. We assume two plausible scenarios for well technology innovation and model the return on investment while checking against sensitivity to gas price volatility. It appears well technology innovation – if paced fast enough – can fully redeem the negative impact of gas price decline on shale well profits, and the required rates are quantified in our sensitivity analysis

  17. Optimal search strategies for detecting cost and economic studies in EMBASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes R Brian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic evaluations in the medical literature compare competing diagnosis or treatment methods for their use of resources and their expected outcomes. The best evidence currently available from research regarding both cost and economic comparisons will continue to expand as this type of information becomes more important in today's clinical practice. Researchers and clinicians need quick, reliable ways to access this information. A key source of this type of information is large bibliographic databases such as EMBASE. The objective of this study was to develop search strategies that optimize the retrieval of health costs and economics studies from EMBASE. Methods We conducted an analytic survey, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from EMBASE for candidate search terms and combinations. 6 research assistants read all issues of 55 journals indexed by EMBASE for the publishing year 2000. We rated all articles using purpose and quality indicators and categorized them into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized for purpose (i.e., cost and economics and other clinical topics and depending on the purpose as 'pass' or 'fail' for methodologic rigor. Candidate search strategies were developed for economic and cost studies, then run in the 55 EMBASE journals, the retrievals being compared with the hand search data. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies were calculated. Results Combinations of search terms for detecting both cost and economic studies attained levels of 100% sensitivity with specificity levels of 92.9% and 92.3% respectively. When maximizing for both sensitivity and specificity, the combination of terms for detecting cost studies (sensitivity increased 2.2% over the single term but at a slight decrease in specificity of 0.9%. The maximized combination of terms

  18. Stimulation of Technological Development of Ukraine in State Programmes of Economic Development in 2013 - 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Matyushenko Igor Y.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers main reasons and possible ways of improvement of the balance of payments of Ukraine. It conducts analysis of measures of the State Programme of Economic Development of Ukraine in 2013 - 2014, directed at increase of competitiveness and improvement of the investment climate. It gives an assessment of measures directed at activation of financing of economic development, namely: ensuring an optimal level of inflation, ensuring de-dollarisation and de-shadowing of economy; b...

  19. Contribution of the Science, the Technology and the Innovation of the Universidad de Oriente to the Local Economic Revitalizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Salvador Soulary–Carracedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research is to design a methodology to evaluate the contribution of the science, the technology and the innovation of universities to the local economic revitalizing. The scientific novelty resides in a sequence of procedures, based on administration, statistical and mathematical modeling methods that constitutes a tool for the qualitative improvement of this relationship. The application of the methodology in the Universidad de Oriente allowed to verify that if the optimal structure of scientific projects is implemented it would increase, in the year 2017, the economic impact of the scientific projects in 5% like average, what would improve the efficiency in the use of the financial and human resources, as well as the relevancy of its results. Also, the partial implementation of the proposed plan of actions, it has impacted positively on the detected problems denoting a more favorable situation that the one evaluated initially. 

  20. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of low carbon energy technologies: Indian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Rahul; Kumar, Manish; Deswal, Surinder; Chandna, Pankaj

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, techno-economic and an environmental investigation and analysis of Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs) has been presented, with special emphasis on India. The paper identify, analyze and recommend, on the basis of available and collected / collated information and data, the promising and potential low carbon energy technology options suited to Indian conditions for grid connected power generation. The evaluation criteria adopted include - emission reduction potential, technological feasibility, and economic viability; and on its basis recommend a detailed action plan and strategy for guiding future research and development with a more focused approach considering current Indian policy framework.

  1. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors

  2. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

    2011-01-02

    clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been

  3. A GIS tool for the economic assessment of renewable technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmmud, F.; Woods, J.; Watson, S.; Halliday, J.; Hossain, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) has the potential to analyse a large area for the optimum selection and siting of renewable energy systems. This paper reports on a GIS based scheme for the economic assessment of a selected number of wind and photovoltaic systems in the state of Karnataka, in India. This involved the implementation of an appropriate GIS methodology. The preparation of the GIS database is often the most arduous task in GIS operations. Thus, a description of the GIS methodology and the preparation of the database for the analysis of a selection of wind and photovoltaic systems is given. This approach has enabled the identification of the high potential areas in terms of the levelised electricity costs. An overall assessment of the region for present and future scenarios is also given. (author)

  4. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable renewable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility and sufficient capacity, and greater concern for overgeneration from renewable sources not well matched in time with electric loads. Hydrogen systems have the potential to support the grid in each of these areas. However, limited information is available about the economic competitiveness of hydrogen system configurations. This paper quantifies the value for hydrogen energy storage and demand response systems to participate in select California wholesale electricity markets using 2012 data. For hydrogen systems and conventional storage systems (e.g., pumped hydro, batteries), the yearly revenues from energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets are compared to the yearly cost to establish economic competitiveness. Hydrogen systems can present a positive value proposition for current markets. Three main findings include: (1) For hydrogen systems participating in California electricity markets, producing and selling hydrogen was found to be much more valuable than producing and storing hydrogen to later produce electricity; therefore systems should focus on producing and selling hydrogen and opportunistically providing ancillary services and arbitrage. (2) Tighter integration with electricity markets generates greater revenues (i.e., systems that participate in multiple markets receive the highest revenue). (3) More storage capacity, in excess of what is required to provide diurnal shifting, does not increase competitiveness in current California wholesale energy markets. As more variable renewable generation is installed, the importance of long duration storage may become apparent in the energy price or through additional markets, but currently, there is not a sufficiently large price differential between days to generate enough revenue to offset the cost of additional storage. Future work will involve

  5. Technology and economics of fermentation alcohol - an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, R.K.

    1983-03-01

    Fermentation alcohol is being widely studied as an alternative fuel, and production is increasing, especially in Brazil, where the goal is more than 10 billion litres per year by 1985. Fuel markets are hundreds of times greater than the traditional ethanol markets which the existing industry supplies. To make a material contribution to fuel supply, fermentation ethanol must be treated as a major chemical and produced in large-volume, highly efficient plants. Such plants must be assured of a continuous supply of low-cost raw materials for which suitable processes have been developed and commercially proven. Sugar cane in the tropics and grains in some temperate countries meet these requirements; cellulosics do not qualify at present, nor will they in the foreseeable future, without major breakthroughs. Using techniques borrowed from the starch sweetener industry, starchy materials may be economically hydrolysed to fermentable sugars; rapid acid hydrolysis may prove superior to enzymatic processes. Major projects are under way to replace traditional batch or cascade fermentations with rapid, single-vessel continuous units, but these have not yet been fully proven. Where suitable, yeast recycle is being used as a means of increasing alcohol yields, and energy-efficient distillation methods of the petrochemical industry are being adopted. The consequent large reduction in steam consumption greatly reduces the appeal of other methods which have been proposed to remove water. Opportunities for process improvements abound, especially in developing (1) the means to provide cellulosic raw materials in large quantities at acceptable costs, (2) economically effective methods of pretreating and hydrolysing cellulosics, (3) practical organisms for converting five-carbon sugars to ethanol and (4) higher fermentation yields and efficiencies using bacteria or immobilized yeast. (Refs. 21).

  6. Parametric economic analysis of natural gas reburn technologies. Topical report, June 1991-June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluestein, J.

    1992-06-01

    The report presents a parametric economic analysis of natural gas reburn technologies used for control of nitrogen oxides emissions in coal-fired utility boilers. It is a competitive assessment of the economics of gas reburn performed in the context of regulatory requirements and competing conventional technologies. The reburn technologies examined are basic gas reburn, reburn with sorbent injection and advanced gas reburn. The analysis determined the levelized costs of these technologies in $/ton of NOx removed with respect to a gas-coal price differential in $/MMBtu of energy input. For those niches in which reburn was less economical, a breakeven capital cost analysis was carried out to determine the R ampersand D goals which would make reburn more cost competitive

  7. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA ESTIMATING THE ECONOMIC IMPACT

    OpenAIRE

    Ruttan, Vernon W.

    2001-01-01

    There is strong synergy among research, education, technology development and technology transfer. Examples of successful public-private technology transfer linkage institutions are provided. But efforts to document the benefits of research conducted at the University of Minnesota to the state have rarely been conducted with the rigor that would be required to meet the test of professional credibility. A program of research to develop more rigorous evidence on economic benefits to the State i...

  8. The emergence of the global fintech market: Economic and technological determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Christian; Hornuf, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the economic and technological determinants inducing entrepreneurs to establish ventures with the purpose of reinventing financial technology (fintech). We find that countries witness more fintech startup formations when the latest technology is readily available, capital markets are well-developed, and people have more mobile telephone subscriptions. Furthermore, the available labor force has a positive impact on the development of this new market segment. Finally, the more so...

  9. Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, a.; Pickrell, G.; Xiao, H.; May, r.

    2003-02-27

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reliable cost effective sensors for application in the down-hole environment. The physical parameters measured by these sensors were temperature, pressure, flow and acoustic signals. Sensor head configurations for each of the physical measurands were optimized to increase the sensitivity to the particular measurand of interest while decreasing the cross-sensitivity to the other physical measurands and to environmental influences. In addition, the optical signal demodulation electronics was designed to be insensitive to environmental influences while maintaining the required resolution, precision and accuracy of the parameter being sensed. The influence of potentially detrimental agents such as water in the down-hole environment was investigated as well as methods to protect both the optical fiber and the sensor from these detrimental effects.

  10. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES IN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mehedintu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance management includes activities that ensure that goals are consistently being met inan effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, adepartment, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service, as well as many other areas.In these days of globalization and intensive use of information technology, the organizations must defineand implement an appropriate strategy that would support their medium-term development, stability andcompetitiveness. This is achieved through a coherent and interrelated set of activities for understanding thecustomer expectations and the level at which the offer of organization add value to customers and satisfy theirneeds, define their internal organization to allow timely response to market demands without losing focus on client,tracking strategy and business model for the accomplishment of the organization mission, aligning the existing ITproject management or under development implementation in organization with the strategic management oforganization etc. Strategic Management determines the improvement of processes, effective use of resources, focuson critical areas in terms of finance, creating opportunities for innovation and technological progress, improvementof the supply mechanism and the duty to promote personal interaction and negotiation at all levels, continuousassessment of organization and its technological trends, analyze the market potential and competence field etc.Strategic management system will not give good results if the strategy is not defined by a set of operationalobjectives clearly at all levels.Business performance is based on a set of analytical processes of business, supported by informationtechnology that defines the strategic goals that can be measured by performance indicators. EnterprisePerformance Management creates a powerful and precise environment, characterized by data consistency,efficiency analysis

  11. Handling geological and economic uncertainties in balancing short-term and long-term objectives in waterflooding optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siraj, M.M.; Van Den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Model-based economic optimization of oil production has a significant scope to increase financial life-cycle performance. The net-present-value (NPV) objective in this optimization, because of its nature, focuses on long-term gains, whereas short-term production is not explicitly addressed. At the

  12. Economic Ergonomic Approach to Design an Optimal Manpower and Mechanization in Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muanah; Syuaib, M. F.; Liyantono

    2018-05-01

    Productivity of manpower could be improved by considering the economic and ergonomic aspect. The ergonomic aspect (human factor) is required to design an optimal manpower, while in the economic aspect, the well being of manpower could be evaluated from the amount of received income based on their work capability. This research was conducted on February 2016 to January 2017 in Gapoktan Silih Asih rice field Cigombong, Bogor. This study aims to analyze the income of manpower based on current conditions, increasement of working hours and mechanization addition. The results showed that manpower income based on the current condition and ergonomic consideration was Rp 1,174,030/person.month, by increasing the working hours with ergonomic consideration the obtained income was Rp 1,766,204/person.month. the revenues were based on the existing work system even though the increasement of working hours have not provided optimal income due to low productivity. Therefore the results of analysis with the addition of selective mechanization, showed self-ownership machinery was more profitable the obtained income have more than the Bogor minimum wage standard of Rp 2,969,325/person.month.

  13. OPTIMIZING USABILITY OF AN ECONOMIC DECISION SUPPORT TOOL: PROTOTYPE OF THE EQUIPT TOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Präger, Maximilian; Jones, Teresa; Józwiak-Hagymásy, Judit; Muñoz, Celia; Lester-George, Adam; Pokhrel, Subhash; López-Nicolás, Ángel; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Evers, Silvia M A A; de Vries, Hein

    2018-01-01

    Economic decision-support tools can provide valuable information for tobacco control stakeholders, but their usability may impact the adoption of such tools. This study aims to illustrate a mixed-method usability evaluation of an economic decision-support tool for tobacco control, using the EQUIPT ROI tool prototype as a case study. A cross-sectional mixed methods design was used, including a heuristic evaluation, a thinking aloud approach, and a questionnaire testing and exploring the usability of the Return of Investment tool. A total of sixty-six users evaluated the tool (thinking aloud) and completed the questionnaire. For the heuristic evaluation, four experts evaluated the interface. In total twenty-one percent of the respondents perceived good usability. A total of 118 usability problems were identified, from which twenty-six problems were categorized as most severe, indicating high priority to fix them before implementation. Combining user-based and expert-based evaluation methods is recommended as these were shown to identify unique usability problems. The evaluation provides input to optimize usability of a decision-support tool, and may serve as a vantage point for other developers to conduct usability evaluations to refine similar tools before wide-scale implementation. Such studies could reduce implementation gaps by optimizing usability, enhancing in turn the research impact of such interventions.

  14. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiaho, Janne S; Strandman, Harri; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-09-15

    Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed an optimal resource allocation by accounting for budget size and habitat availability of indicator species in different forest types. We also accounted for the perspective adopted towards sustainability, modeled via temporal preference and economic and ecological time discounting. Controversially, we found that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization model for school transportation design based on economic and social efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddebaut, O.; Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to design a model that allows to suggest new planning proposals on school transport, so that greater efficiency operational will be achieved. It is a multi-objective optimization problem including the minimization of the cost of busing and minimizes the total travel time of all students. The foundation of the model is the planning routes made by bus due to changes in the starting time in schools, so the buses are able to perform more than one route. The methodology is based on the School Bus Routing Problem, so that routes from different schools within a given time window are connected, and within the restrictions of the problem, the system costs are minimized. The proposed model is programmed to be applied in any generic case. This is a multi-objective problem, in which there will be several possible solutions, depending on the weight to be assigned to each of the variables involved, economic point of view versus social point of view. Therefore, the proposed model is helpful for policy planning school transportation, supporting the decision making under conditions of economic and social efficiency. The model has been applied in some schools located in an area of Cantabria (Spain), resulting in 71 possible optimal options that minimize the cost of school transport between 2,7% and 35,1% regarding to the current routes of school transport, with different school start time and minimum travel time for students. (Author)

  16. Technical, environmental, and economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power technologies in the Chinese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Xiao Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Wang Bo; Xu Xiang

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the technical, environmental, and economic dimensions of deploying advanced coal-fired power technologies in China. In particular, we estimate the differences in capital cost and overall cost of electricity (COE) for a variety of advanced coal-power technologies based on the technological and economic levels in 2006 in China. This paper explores the economic gaps between Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and other advanced coal power technologies, and compares 12 different power plant configurations using advanced coal power technologies. Super critical (SC) and ultra super critical (USC) pulverized coal (PC) power generation technologies coupled with pollution control technologies can meet the emission requirements. These technologies are highly efficient, technically mature, and cost-effective. From the point of view of efficiency, SC and USC units are good choices for power industry. The net plant efficiency for IGCC has reached 45%, and it has the best environmental performance overall. The cost of IGCC is much higher, however, than that of other power generation technologies, so the development of IGCC is slow throughout the world. Incentive policies are needed if IGCC is to be deployed in China

  17. Techno-economic analysis and optimization of the heat recovery of utility boiler flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Gang; Huang, Shengwei; Yang, Yongping; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Four typical flue gas heat recovery schemes are quantitatively analyzed. • The analysis considers thermodynamic, heat transfer and hydrodynamics factors. • Techno-economic analysis and optimization design are carried out. • High-stage steam substitute scheme obtains better energy-saving effect. • Large heat transfer area and high flue gas resistances weaken overall performance. - Abstract: Coal-fired power plants in China consume nearly half of available coals, and the resulting CO 2 emissions cover over 40% of total national emissions. Therefore, reducing the energy expenditure of coal-fired power plants is of great significance to China’s energy security and greenhouse gas reduction programs. For coal-fired power plants, the temperature of a boiler’s exhaust gas reaches 120–150 °C or even higher. The thermal energy of boiler’s exhaust accounts for approximately 3–8% of the total energy of fuel input. Given these factors, we conducted a techno-economic analysis and optimization design of the heat recovery system using boiler exhaust gas. This research is conformed to the principles of thermodynamic, heat transfer, and hydrodynamics. Based on the data from an existing 1000 MW typical power generation unit in China, four typical flue gas heat recovery schemes are quantitatively analyzed from the thermodynamics perspective. The impacts of flue gas heat recovery on net work output and standard coal consumption rate of various schemes are performed. Furthermore, the transfer area of heat recovery exchanger and the draft fan work increment due to the flue gas pressure drop are analyzed. Finally, a techno-economic analysis of the heat recovery schemes is conducted, and some recommendations on optimization design parameters are proposed, with full consideration of various factors such as the decrease on fuel cost due to energy conservation as well as the investment cost of heat recovery retrofitting. The results revealed that, high

  18. Economic assessment of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauferts, U.; Van Heek, A.; Hart, J.

    2007-01-01

    This nuclear system study focuses on a realistic evolution of Partitioning and Transmutation technologies, which can be deployed incrementally on an industrial scale as well as on future developments such as reactors of the third and fourth generation and Accelerated Driven Systems (ADS). A set of five different fuel cycles has been selected, representing the options proposed in different European countries. Two industrial scenarios as continuation of the open nuclear fuel cycles and mono-recycling of plutonium in PWRs have been chosen as a reference. In addition, 3 more innovative cycles are considered using Fast Generation IV reactors and double strata scenarios with advanced PWR, ADS and fast reactors. This study shows, first, that closing the nuclear fuel cycle would be a useful strategy to mitigate concerns about a rapid depletion of natural uranium resources in this century. Secondly, all the 3 advanced fuel cycle strategies proposed reduce effectively the total amount of nuclear waste out of pile and consequently the need for large capacities of deep geological repositories. Thirdly, the most efficient strategy towards the mitigation of waste production is the utilization of fast reactors technology to burn plutonium and ADS to burn minor actinides

  19. Effect of different economic support policies on the optimal synthesis and operation of a distributed energy supply system with renewable energy sources for an industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casisi, Melchiorre; De Nardi, Alberto; Pinamonti, Piero; Reini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP model optimization identifies best structure and operation of an energy system. • Total cost of the system is minimized according to industrial stakeholders wills. • Effects of the adoption of economic support policies on the system are evaluated. • Social cost of incentives is comparted with correspondent CO 2 emission reduction. • Support schemes that promote an actual environmental benefit are highlighted. - Abstract: Economic support policies are widely adopted in European countries in order to promote a more efficient energy usage and the growth of renewable energy technologies. On one hand these schemes allow us to reduce the overall pollutant emissions and the total cost from the point of view of the energy systems, but on the other hand their social impact in terms of economic investment needs to be evaluated. The aim of this paper is to compare the social cost of the application of each incentive with the correspondent CO 2 emission reduction and overall energy saving. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization procedure is used to evaluate the effect of different economic support policies on the optimal configuration and operation of a distributed energy supply system of an industrial area located in the north-east of Italy. The minimized objective function is the total annual cost for owning, operating and maintaining the whole energy system. The expectation is that a proper mix of renewable energy technologies and cogeneration systems will be included in the optimal solution, depending on the amount and nature of the supporting policies, highlighting the incentives that promote a real environmental benefit

  20. Joint Optimization of Economic Production Quantity and Preventive Maintenance with Considering Multi-Products and Reserve Time

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Binrong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We deal with the problem of the joint determination of optimal economic production quantity (EPQ) and optimal preventive maintenance (PM) for a system that can produce multiple products alternately. The objective is to find the optimal number of production cycles and the PM policy simultaneously by minimizing the cost model. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cy...

  1. A conceptual framework for economic optimization of single hazard surveillance in livestock production chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuezhen; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    Economic analysis of hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is essential for surveillance organizations (such as food safety authorities) when making scientifically based decisions on optimization of resource allocation. To enable this, quantitative decision support tools are required at two levels of analysis: (1) single-hazard surveillance system and (2) surveillance portfolio. This paper addresses the first level by presenting a conceptual approach for the economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems. The concept includes objective and subjective aspects of single-hazard surveillance system analysis: (1) a simulation part to derive an efficient set of surveillance setups based on the technical surveillance performance parameters (TSPPs) and the corresponding surveillance costs, i.e., objective analysis, and (2) a multi-criteria decision making model to evaluate the impacts of the hazard surveillance, i.e., subjective analysis. The conceptual approach was checked for (1) conceptual validity and (2) data validity. Issues regarding the practical use of the approach, particularly the data requirement, were discussed. We concluded that the conceptual approach is scientifically credible for economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems and that the practicability of the approach depends on data availability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic and ecological optimal strategies of management of the system of regional solid waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoylik Marina S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article develops an economic and ecological model of optimal management of the system of solid waste disposal at the regional level, identifies its target functions and forms optimisation scenarios of management of this sphere with theoretically optimal parameters’ values. Based on the model of management of the sphere of solid waste disposal the article forms an algorithm of identification of optimal managerial strategies and mechanisms of their realisation, which allows solution of the set tasks of optimisation of development of the sphere of solid waste disposal at a given set of values and parameters of the state of the system for a specific type of life cycle of solid waste and different subjects of this sphere. The developed model has a number of feasible solutions and, consequently, offers selection of the best of them with consideration of target functions. The article conducts a SWOT analysis of the current state of solid waste disposal in the Poltava region and identifies a necessity of development of a relevant strategy on the basis of the developed economic and ecological model with consideration of optimisation of mutually opposite criteria: ecological risk for the population from the sphere of solid waste disposal and total expenditures for this sphere functioning. The article conducts modelling of this situation by basic (current situation and alternative scenarios and finds out that, at this stage, it is most expedient to build in the region four sorting lines and five regional solid waste grounds, while expenditures on this sphere are UAH 62.0 million per year, income from secondary raw material sales – UAH 71.2 per year and reduction of the ecological risk – UAH 13 million per year.

  3. Thermo-economic multi-objective optimization of solar dish-Stirling engine by implementing evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Barranco-Jimenez, Marco A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-economic multi-objective optimization of solar dish-Stirling engine is studied. • Application of the evolutionary algorithm is investigated. • Error analysis is done to find out the error through investigation. - Abstract: In the recent years, remarkable attention is drawn to Stirling engine due to noticeable advantages, for instance a lot of resources such as biomass, fossil fuels and solar energy can be applied as heat source. Great number of studies are conducted on Stirling engine and finite time thermo-economic is one of them. In the present study, the dimensionless thermo-economic objective function, thermal efficiency and dimensionless power output are optimized for a dish-Stirling system using finite time thermo-economic analysis and NSGA-II algorithm. Optimized answers are chosen from the results using three decision-making methods. Error analysis is done to find out the error through investigation

  4. Solving the economic dispatch problem with a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jun; Fang Wei; Wang Daojun; Xu Wenbo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) method is proposed to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem in power systems, whose objective is to simultaneously minimize the generation cost rate while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method, denoted as QPSO-DM, combines the QPSO algorithm with differential mutation operation to enhance the global search ability of the algorithm. Many nonlinear characteristics of the generator, such as ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones, and nonsmooth cost functions are considered when the proposed method is used in practical generator operation. The feasibility of the QPSO-DM method is demonstrated by three different power systems. It is compared with the QPSO, the differential evolution (DE), the particle swarm optimization (PSO), and the genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of the solution quality, robustness and convergence property. The simulation results show that the proposed QPSO-DM method is able to obtain higher quality solutions stably and efficiently in the ED problem than any other tested optimization algorithm.

  5. Energetic and economic optimization of solar tunnel dryers with a photovoltaic driven fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, W.; Mayer, R.A.; Esper, A.; Reisinger, L.; Linckh, G.; Hensel, O.

    1992-02-01

    In the recent years the solar tunnel dryer has been used successfully for drying several agricultural products in tropical and subtropical countries. Up to now the dissemination has been limited to electrified areas. Objective of this work has been the improvement of the thermal performance of the tunnel dryer due to a optimization of the plastic film solar air heater as well as optimization work in point of fluid dynamic view to reduce the power requirement of the blower. To improve the efficiency of the blower optimization work had been done by investigating several blower wheels, dc-motors and actuation systems. A PV-System was designed according to these requirements to test the long term behaviour. The remarkable features of the newly designed solar tunnel dryer are the low power requirement for driving the blower and a high efficiency of the actuation. In the range of a power requirement of 80 - 100 W a blower with an efficiency of 48% is now available. The theoretical power requirement of the solar tunnel dryer could be reduced to 11 W. From economic point of view the use of the solar tunnel dryer is possible. (orig.) With 3 refs., 15 tabs., 49 figs [de

  6. Solving the economic dispatch problem with a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Sun; Wei Fang; Daojun Wang; Wenbo Xu [School of Information Technology, Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) method is proposed to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem in power systems, whose objective is to simultaneously minimize the generation cost rate while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method, denoted as QPSO-DM, combines the QPSO algorithm with differential mutation operation to enhance the global search ability of the algorithm. Many nonlinear characteristics of the generator, such as ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones, and nonsmooth cost functions are considered when the proposed method is used in practical generator operation. The feasibility of the QPSO-DM method is demonstrated by three different power systems. It is compared with the QPSO, the differential evolution (DE), the particle swarm optimization (PSO), and the genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of the solution quality, robustness and convergence property. The simulation results show that the proposed QPSO-DM method is able to obtain higher quality solutions stably and efficiently in the ED problem than any other tested optimization algorithm. (author)

  7. A non-standard optimal control problem arising in an economics application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Zinober

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent optimal control problem in the area of economics has mathematical properties that do not fall into the standard optimal control problem formulation. In our problem the state value at the final time the state, y(T = z, is free and unknown, and additionally the Lagrangian integrand in the functional is a piecewise constant function of the unknown value y(T. This is not a standard optimal control problem and cannot be solved using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle with the standard boundary conditions at the final time. In the standard problem a free final state y(T yields a necessary boundary condition p(T = 0, where p(t is the costate. Because the integrand is a function of y(T, the new necessary condition is that y(T should be equal to a certain integral that is a continuous function of y(T. We introduce a continuous approximation of the piecewise constant integrand function by using a hyperbolic tangent approach and solve an example using a C++ shooting algorithm with Newton iteration for solving the Two Point Boundary Value Problem (TPBVP. The minimising free value y(T is calculated in an outer loop iteration using the Golden Section or Brent algorithm. Comparative nonlinear programming (NP discrete-time results are also presented.

  8. Thermal and economical optimization of air conditioning units with vapor compression refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanaye, S.; Malekmohammadi, H.R. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-09-01

    A new method of thermal and economical optimum design of air conditioning units with vapor compression refrigeration system, is presented. Such a system includes compressor, condenser, evaporator, centrifugal and axial fans. Evaporator and condenser temperatures, their heating surface areas (frontal surface area and number of tubes), centrifugal and axial fan powers, and compressor power are among the design variables. The data provided by manufacturers for fan (volume flow rate versus pressure drop) and compressor power (using evaporator and condenser temperatures) was used to choose these components directly from available data for consumers. To study the performance of the system under various situations, and implementing the optimization procedure, a simulation program including all thermal and geometrical parameters was developed. The objective function for optimization was the total cost per unit cooling load of the system including capital investment for components as well as the required electricity cost. To find the system design parameters, this objective function was minimized by Lagrange multipliers method. The effects of changing the cooling load on optimal design parameters were studied. (author)

  9. Technological and Economic Aspects of Wave Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographical regions contiguous to the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are prone to natural disasters and poor electric supply especially in rural and hard to reach coastal regions. Utilization of ocean resources for power generation such as tidal, thermal solar and wind for energy need to be incorporated in a broad framework for the region. Development of ocean-based energy systems can be integrated with early warning networks linked by satellite which can give a few hours to days warning to help mitigate the severity of natural disasters on human life. Ocean-based electricity extraction has; however, remained elusive for various reasons. Interest in these systems resumed after the oil crisis of the 1970’s, but was uncoordinated. Extraction of ocean energy from the kinetic energy of waves and ocean currents depends on various mechanical devices with variable efficiencies. Apart from the efficiency, one must match the output phase of the feeder waveforms with that of the electrical grid. Also, the wavelengths of the typical wave are of the order of a few meters, the interception of which requires large devices. The mechanical efficiency of the turbine extraction system is further limited by the flow momentum considerations. Some applications and their implementation are looked at, specifically with reference to the difficulties of implementation in the region, and other factors like economic efficiency (rate of returns in place of mechanical efficiency. Individual wave energy harvesters are thus bound to suffer from inefficiencies and it may be beneficial to use wave farm configurations from the point of view of the randomness of wave motion, the large wavelengths, and the added advantage of averaging fluctuations from large numbers of generators.

  10. Technical and economic evaluation of selected technologies of the Landfill Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floran, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    In 1992 and 1993, numerous innovative and emerging technologies for characterizing metal and mixed waste contaminants and their migration beneath landfills in and environments were field tested at Sandia`s Chemical Waste Landfill. Many of these technologies are being evaluated as part of the Landfill Characterization System (LCS). The LCS emphasizes minimally intrusive technologies and downhole sensors that strive to be cheaper, better, safer and faster than conventional methods. Major aims of the LCS are to demonstrate, test and evaluate these technologies, and determine whether substantial cost saving over traditional baseline methods can be realized. To achieve these goals, the LCS uses an integrated systems approach that stresses the application of complementary and compatible technologies. Successful field demonstrations combined with favorable economics, will greatly assist the commercialization of these technologies to the private sector and to Environmental Restoration groups throughout the DOE Complex. In this paper, a technical and economic evaluation of selected technologies that comprise the LCS is presented. Because sampling and analysis is the most costly part of a characterization effort, the economic evaluation presented here focuses specifically on these activities. LCS technologies discussed include the ``Smart Sampling Methodology`` and two field screening analytical methods, stripping voltammetry and x-ray fluorescence.

  11. Technological aspects of intrinsically safe and economical reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Nobuyuki; Oda, Junro; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Sugawara, Ichiro.

    1987-01-01

    ISER is a modified version of process inherent ultimate safe reactor (PIUS) developed by ASEA-ATOM, Sweden, and follows the same inherent safety principle, that is, passive reactor shutdown through the introduction of borated pool water into a core via an interface, and passive decay heat removal by natural circulation. The most significant deviation from the PIUS is that the ISER employs a steel reactor pressure vessel enclosed in the reactor pit, instead of a prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessel of the PIUS. The merits of using steel pressure vessels are siting versatility including barge-mounted plants, low cost, the standardization and serial production of total NSSSs through the weight reduction and compaction of primary system, as well as the possibility of utilizing current LWR technology, which minimizes R and D effort. In this paper, the design features of the latest version of ISERs are shown, and the specific problems of the key components are discussed. The primary system consists of a primary coolant loop and a borated water pool, which are connected with upper and lower interfaces. The nuclear design and thermohydraulic design, the operation and maintenance, and the design features of a steam generator, a pressurizer, interfaces and so on are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. Technological innovation as a mean to increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VASILE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporations must be able to adapt and evolve if they wish to survive. Businesses operate with the knowledge that their competitors will inevitably come to the market with a product that changes the basis of competition. The ability to change and adapt is essential to survival.(1 European Union and its member states set several frameworks to support companies to acquire knowledge and strengthen their competitiveness, as follows:- National Programs for R & D funding which support national actors;- Sectorial Operational Programs (either at national or regional level, in full compliance with national rules;- EU programs (e.g. Competitiveness and Innovation Program – CIP, R&D Framework Programs – FP;- Pan-European programs (e.g. EUREKA.Romania is participating to all programs and pan-European R & D frameworks. Furthermore, its innovation program within the National Plan for research facilitates company participation to knowledge development and technology development. Nevertheless Romania’s Innovation performance is still at one of the lowest level in Europe(2. The followings present how companies are considering their participation to R & D programs and the impact of an R & D project in a company.

  13. An economic optimization of evaporator and air collector area in a solar assisted heat pump drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M.A.; Saidur, R.; Hawlader, M.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimum combination will provide around 89% of the total load. • The system has a savings during the life cycle with least payback period of 4.37 year. • The optimal system is insensitive to the variation in fuel inflation and discount rate. - Abstract: This paper presents an economic optimization of evaporator and air collector area of a solar assisted heat pump drying system. Economic viability of solar heating systems is usually made by comparing the cost flows recurring throughout the lifetime of the solar and conventional alternative systems. Therefore, identification of optimum variables by using a simulation program and an economic analysis based on payback period of the system are presented in this paper. FORTRAN language is used to run the simulation. Effect of load and different economic variables on payback period is also investigated. Economic analysis reveals that system has sufficient amount of savings during the life cycle with a minimum payback period of about 4 years

  14. Experimental, economical and ecological substantiation of fuel cycle based on pyroelectrochemical reprocessing and vibropac technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.B.; Skiba, O.V.; Mayershin, A.A.; Bychkov, A.V.; Demidova, L.S.; Porodnov, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    The humanity comes to the border of centuries. While growing the population, capacity of manufacture in various industries increases. It will be impossible to solve problems, facing the humanity, without introducing safe and high-efficient technologies. The following principles are considered to be the most important ones for technologies of the future: 1) The closed cycle, i.e. internal isolation of technological processes, aimed at reducing a gross output of dangerous substances, which are harmful to an environment, from industry, 2) Optimization of technological systems which is intended for achieving necessary results (both technological and commercial) with the maximal exception of excessive stages and processes, 3) Maximum level of internally inherent safety, i.e. using processes, in which safety is based not only on engineering barriers of safety, but also on its own, > properties of technological system, which creates a low degree of ecological damage probability. These principles have influence both on general safety and on economy in equal degree. The external nuclear fuel cycle, as a complex technological system, is to be built under the same principles. It is necessary to take into account, that, as a whole, the technologies connected with reprocessing and preparation of nuclear fuel were formed in 50-s years and, besides, the majority of modern technologies were developed as military technologies continuation. It is for this reason, that many technologies have not been optimized yet if real society needs are taken into consideration. (J.P.N.)

  15. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL). Progress report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, Kjetil; Bartzke, Gundula; Broeseth, Henrik; Dahl, Espen Lie; Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Hanssen, Frank; Jacobsen, Karl-Otto; Kleven, Oddmund; Kvaloey, Paal; May, Roel; Meaas, Roger; Nygaaard, Torgeir; Resnaes, Steinar; Stokke, Sigbjoern; Thomassen, Joern

    2012-07-01

    birds in the database, compared to only 117 a year earlier. WP5 - 'A Least Cost Path (LCP) toolbox for optimal route routing of power lines', has developed an LCP-pilot to demonstrate the LCP method, based on the impact studies were undertaken prior to construction of a 420 kV transmission line in Central Norway 2005. Relevant economic, ecological and technological environment criteria based on suggestions from interested users (NGOs, government, industry, etc.), was used. LCP-pilot and a fuzzy-logic approach of this was demonstrated in the first dialogue-based workshop, 23.-24. april 2012. The seminar, which had an emphasis on criteria definitions were followed up with a working seminar that focused criterion values ??on 20 november 2012. Lecture - 'A Least Cost Path (LCP) Toolbox for Optimal Routing of Power Lines, -was presented and submitted as contributions to the conference report from 'The 10th ROW Conference' in Arizona, 'The 32nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA12) ' in Porto, Portugal, and 'The ESRI European User Conference' in Oslo. WP6 - 'Birds and camouflaging of power lines', has almost completed the final report, 'Power line camouflaging. An assessment of the ecological and technical challenges'. 'Because of the budget situation in CEDREN However, completion of the report postponed until the end of April 2013. WP7 - 'Effect of line marking / modifications remedial measures against bird mortality' has almost completed the final report 'Opportunities and limitations in terms of reducing mortality in birds due to collision and electrocution.' Due to overall budget situation in CEDREN the report deferred to the end of april 2013. WP8, 'guidelines for technological solutions that may reduce mortality in birds because of the power line's', has focused topics relating to the labeling, design, insulation, camouflage and wiring. The results, which are presented in the notes and articles, will be implemented in

  16. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, K.; Bartzke, G.; Broeseth, H.; Gjershaug, J.O.; Hanssen, F.; Jacobsen, K.-O.; Kvaloey, P.; May, R.; Meaas, R.; Nygaard, T.; Refsnaes, S.; Stokke, S.; Vang, R.

    2010-12-15

    The OPTIPOL project - 'Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives' - has been active for two years, although the main operational phase was delayed until autumn 2009. The overall OPTIPOL objective is to develop knowledge and tools to improve the decision on environmental friendly power-line routing. To achieve this goal the work is subdivided into 9 focal areas; Develop a 'least-cost path' GIS-based application for an environmental friendly routing of power lines based on ecological, financial and technological criteria; Assess habitat use of power-line Rights-of-Way (ROW) by different wildlife species, consider actions of improving power-line ROW as wildlife habitats, and evaluate possible positive and negative effects on wildlife of power-line ROWs. More specific we will examine how power-line ROW may offer suitable feeding grounds for moose and see if the species habitat selection is influenced by power line ROW; Assess population impact of bird mortality due to power-line collisions, relative to other human related mortality factors (primarily hunting) in gallinaceous birds (with capercaillie and black grouse as model species); Identify ecological high-risk factors for bird collisions, i.e. site-specific factors connected to topographic characteristics, including vegetation structure, season, weather and light conditions; Establish a national infrastructure for management of dead bird data (including birds re-corded as collision and electrocution victims) by developing an online web application enabling the general public to contribute with data on recorded dead birds via Internet; Review available literature to assess 1) the possibilities for increased collision hazard to birds by making power-line structures less visible for humans given the present knowledge on bird vision, and 2) technical properties and constraints of camouflaging techniques on conductors and earth wires; Review available

  17. Technology to optimize pediatric diabetes management and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jessica T; Harrington, Kara R; Laffel, Lori M B

    2013-12-01

    Technology for diabetes management is rapidly developing and changing. With each new development, there are numerous factors to consider, including medical benefits, impact on quality of life, ease of use, and barriers to use. It is also important to consider the interaction between developmental stage and technology. This review considers a number of newer diabetes-related technologies and explores issues related to their use in the pediatric diabetes population (including young adults), with a focus on psychosocial factors. Areas include trend technology in blood glucose monitoring, continuous glucose monitoring, sensor-augmented insulin pumps and low glucose suspend functions, internet applications including videoconferencing, mobile applications (apps), text messaging, and online gaming.

  18. Arms and technology transfers: Security and economic considerations among importing and exporting states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodgaard, S.; Pfaltzgraff, R.L. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The issues of technology and armament transfers are increasingly at the forefront of problems of international security and disarmament. Three major reasons could explain this. First, the disarmament process has been very successful in the last few years, especially in the field of nuclear, as well chemical and conventional, weapons. Second the disarmament effort underway concerns primarily the old partners of the East-West confrontation. Last, the general context, characterized by the opening and widening of exchanges, the increasingly open and transparent circulation of techniques and material, and the globalization of economic relations, must be taken into account. This report, prepared by UNIDIR comprises the following subjects: General trends in defense related transfers; Political/military factors associated with the diffusion of advanced technology; economic and technological consideration; and facilitation of economic growth/maximization of regional security and stability

  19. Analysis of technology and seminar on economic trends about High-intensity LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This is divided into two parts. Contents of this report in the first part are technical trends on high-intensity LED which reports introduction of LED as compound semiconductor, white LED? patent issues, review on technology of High-intensity LED and Reliability of High-intensity LED. The second part deals with economic tends about High-intensity LED. This seminar was held to report analysis and economical trends about High-intensity LED by Korea Industrial Education Institute in 2003.

  20. Technological and economical problems in exploitation of coal stripe mines in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristov, Stoyan; Borisov, Bogomil

    1997-01-01

    Taking into consideration the restructure of the mining-energetic industry into the new economic conditions, financial, technical and technological problems are analysed, as well as their influence on the economic effects of the coal production in Bulgaria. Ecological standards for environmental policy are noticed. Perspectives for development of the coal production industry are pointed out, especially in the mining/power complex Maritsa East, one of the most important region for power generation in Bulgaria

  1. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvesen, Anders, E-mail: anders.arvesen@ntnu.no [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway); Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: > We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. > Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. > Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  2. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvesen, Anders; Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: → We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. → Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. → Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  3. Multi-objective technico-economic optimization of energy conversion systems: hydrogen and electricity cogeneration from Generation IV nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.

    2008-01-01

    With the increase in environmental considerations, such as the control of greenhouse emissions, and with the decrease in the fossil energy resources, hydrogen is currently considered as a promising energy vector. One of the main technological challenges of a future hydrogen economy is its large scale production without fossil fuel emissions. Under this context, nuclear energy is particularly adapted for hydrogen massive production by thermochemical cycles or high temperature electrolysis. One of the selected nuclear systems is the Very High Temperature Reactor (950 C/1200 C), cooled with helium, and dedicated to hydrogen production or to hydrogen electricity cogeneration. The main objective of this investigation, within the framework of a collaboration between CEA, French Atomic Agency (Cadarache) and LGC (Toulouse), consists in defining a technico-economic optimization methodology of electricity-hydrogen cogeneration systems, in order to identify and propose promising development strategies. Among the massive production processes of hydrogen, the thermochemical cycle Iodine-Sulphur has been considered. Taking into account the diversity of the used energies (i.e., heat and electricity) on the one hand and of the produced energies (hydrogen and electricity) on the other hand of the studied cogeneration system, an exergetic approach has been developed due to its ability to consider various energy forms on the same thermodynamical basis. The CYCLOP software tool (CEA) is used for the thermodynamic modelling of these systems. The economic criterion, calculated using the SEMER software tool (CEA), is based on the minimization of the total production site cost over its lifespan i.e., investment, operating costs and nuclear fuel cost. Capital investment involves the development of cost functions adapted to specific technologies and their specific operating conditions. The resulting optimization problems consist in maximizing the energy production, while minimizing the

  4. A strategy for the economic optimization of combined cycle gas turbine power plants by taking advantage of useful thermodynamic relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, E.; Benz, S.J.; Scenna, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Optimal combined cycle gas turbine power plants characterized by minimum specific annual cost values are here determined for wide ranges of market conditions as given by the relative weights of capital investment and operative costs, by means of a non-linear mathematical programming model. On the other hand, as the technical optimization allows identifying trends in the system behavior and unveiling optimization opportunities, selected functional relationships are obtained as the thermodynamic optimal values of the decision variables are systematically linked to the ratio between the total heat transfer area and the net power production (here named as specific transfer area). A strategy for simplifying the resolution of the rigorous economic optimization problem of power plants is proposed based on the economic optima distinctive characteristics which describe the behavior of the decision variables of the power plant on its optima. Such approach results in a novel mathematical formulation shaped as a system of non-linear equations and additional constraints that is able to easily provide accurate estimations of the optimal values of the power plant design and operative variables. Research highlights: → We achieve relationships between power plants' economic and thermodynamic optima. → We achieve functionalities among thermodynamic optimal values of decision variables. → The rigorous optimization problem is reduced to a non-linear equations system. → Accurate estimations of power plants' design and operative variables are obtained.

  5. The Model of Optimum Economic Growth with the Induced Scientific-Technological Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilenko Viktor A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the economic dynamics of the Harrod – Domar model, a model of optimum economic growth in line with the induced scientific-technological progress (STP has been built. In order to reflect the induced scientific-technological progress, with this model is proposed to further allocate the income element that is specially used for the investment of innovation activity, implementation of which reduces the capital intensity in development of the discussed economy. For the simplest way of presenting an economic mechanism for the investment of induced STP, analytical solutions of an appropriate task in optimum management have been obtained. Studying these decisions allowed to reveal the characteristics of the impact of parameters of scientific-technological progress and the analyzed economic system on choosing the best trajectory for its evolution. Possible directions for further developing the results presented can be considered the tasks in building and analyzing models of optimum economic growth that implement different investment options for the induced STP, as well as the models in which this investment mechanism is not exogenouslyed, but rather the result of the corresponding economic-mathematical research.

  6. Techno-economic optimization for the design of solar chimney power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Chimney height and collector area of different designs were optimized. • Simple actual and minimum payback periods were developed. • Comparative assessment was conducted for different designs configuration. • Effects of uncertain parameters on the payback period were studied. - Abstract: This paper aims to propose a methodology for optimization of solar chimney power plants taking into account the techno-economic parameters. The indicator used for optimization is the comparison between the actual achieved simple payback period for the design and the minimum possible (optimum) simple payback period as a reference. An optimization model was executed for different twelve designs in the range 5–200 MW to cover reinforced concrete chimney, sloped collector, and floating chimney. The height of the chimney was optimized and the associated collector area was calculated accordingly. Relationships between payback periods, electricity price, and the peak power capacity of each power plant were developed. The resulted payback periods for the floating chimney power plants were the shortest compared to the other studied designs. For a solar chimney power plant with 100 MW at electricity price 0.10 USD/kWh, the simple payback period for the reference case was 4.29 years for floating chimney design compared to 23.47 and 16.88 years for reinforced concrete chimney and sloped collector design, respectively. After design optimization for 100 MW power plant of each of reinforced concrete, sloped collector, and floating chimney, a save of 19.63, 2.22, and 2.24 million USD, respectively from the initial cost of the reference case is achieved. Sensitivity analysis was conducted in this study to evaluate the impacts of varied running cost, solar radiation, and electricity price on the payback periods of solar chimney power plant. Floating chimney design is still performing after applying the highest ratio of annual running cost to the annual revenue. The

  7. Optimize Use of Space Research and Technology for Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnifield, Nona K.

    2012-01-01

    systems, and cutting-edge component technologies to conduct a wide range of scientific observations and measurements. These technologies are also considered for practical applications that benefit society in remarkable ways. At NASA Goddard, the technology transfer initiative promotes matching technologies from Earth and space science needs to targeted industry sectors. This requires clear knowledge of industry needs and priorities and social demands. The process entails matching mature technologies where there are known innovation challenges and good opportunities for matching technology needs. This requires creative thinking and takes commitment of time and resources. Additionally, we also look at applications for known hot industry or societal needs. Doing so has given us occasion to host discussions with representatives from industry, academia, government organizations, and societal special interest groups about the application of NASA Goddard technologies for devices used in medical monitoring and detection tools. As a result, partnerships have been established. Innovation transpired when new products were enabled because of NASA Goddard research and technology programs.

  8. TAX OPTIMIZATION AS A DECISIVE FACTOR OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (THE CASE OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Andriyash

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to compare the system of taxation and tax optimization in Poland with solutions in the selected EU Member States and its influence on economic development. The paper presents the system of taxation in Poland compared with fiscal solutions in selected EU countries. It also discusses the typology of tax solutions referring to tax optimization in Europe. Methodology. The author used the primary and secondary data from the Central Statistics Office (GUS, Pricewaterhouse Coopers’ research and the Eurostat. The research methods used for the purpose of data analysis included economic analysis of legal acts, descriptive statistics, and comparative analysis. Results showed that the level of tax loading in Poland is more moderate than in other developed countries of the world while the mechanism of administration of taxes and collections is much more successful. The share of receipts collected by the decentralized administration has been increasing steadily since the major administrative reform of 1999 and the local finance law enacted in 2004. Eliminating the category of special sections of industrial production and inclusion of revenues/income to the proposed form of income tax would be very desirable. This would indicate the practical implementation of Smith’s tax principles concerning tax equity and an ability of taxpayer to pay levies. Practical implications. Tax optimization is to balance the tax loading level through offering benefits and preferences which would stimulate the economy of the country and will not cause aggravation of the problem of relocating tax loading from one tax payer to another. Many national states, noticing the phenomena of tax evasion and tax avoidance are implementing or going to implement specific reforms which help to improve the system of tax control with the aim of creating conditions which make tax and collections evasion impossible. Value/originality. The results of the conducted

  9. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  10. Basis for the evaluation of economic benefits from using modules for the development of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodyukov, V.M.; Purtova, M.I.; Smirnova, Z.M.; Semenova, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A method is discussed for calculating the economic effect obtained by introduction of a designing principle involving standardized units and blocks of various radiation equipment. The method was based on a comparison of the technological and economic factors that could be obtained by using the said principle with similar factors not involving the aggregate principle (used previously in designing various instruments and installations). The formulae are sited for estimating the economy involved in designing and manufacturing aggregated complexes (AC) of the subsystems involved in an aggregated system of instrument making (ASIM) and for evaluating the additional economic effect resulting from reduced AC development time

  11. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  12. Evaluation of technological and economic standard of the mining industry. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evdokimov, F.I.; Nekhaev, S.A.; Laptev, I.V.

    1983-02-01

    In order to assure constant growth in coal production, as stipulated in the five-year plan, an evaluation scheme has been devised. The technological and economic standard is judged by indicators such as productivity, self sufficiency, capital write-off and investment, as well as factors such as working conditions, financial incentives, health services, and absenteeism. The method of canonical analysis yields expressions for technological and economic factors, and a coefficient for the utilization of resources. Relationship of these coefficients and factors is demonstrated graphically.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants by use of the analytic hierarchy process and nine end node criteria for a reference scenario based on subjective criteria weighting has been presented in a previous paper by authors. However, criteria weight variations may substantially modify overall evaluations and rankings of power plants. The current paper presents a sensitivity analysis with four alternative scenarios (sets of criteria weights) compared with the reference scenario. The results show that priority to 'technology and sustainability' favors renewable energy power plants, while priority to 'economic' criteria favors mainly nuclear power plants and less the four types of fossil fuel power plant

  14. Thermodynamic and economic performances optimization of an organic Rankine cycle system utilizing exhaust gas of a large marine diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new parameter is proposed for optimizing economic performance of the ORC system. • Maximal thermodynamic and economic performances of an ORC system are presented. • The corresponding operating pressures in turbine of optimum thermodynamic and economic performances are investigated. • An optimal effectiveness of pre-heater is obtained for the ORC system. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the thermodynamic and economic performances optimization for an ORC system recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from a large marine diesel engine of the merchant ship. Parameters of net power output index and thermal efficiency are used to represent the economic and thermodynamic performances, respectively. The maximum net power output index and thermal efficiency are obtained and the corresponding turbine inlet pressure, turbine outlet pressure, and effectiveness of pre-heater of the ORC system are also evaluated using R1234ze, R245fa, R600, and R600a. Furthermore, the analyses of the effects of turbine inlet temperature and cooling water temperature on the optimal economic and thermodynamic performances of the ORC system are carried out. The results show that R245fa performs the most satisfactorily followed by R600, R600a, and R1234ze under optimal economic performance. However, in the optimal thermodynamic performance evaluations, R1234ze has the largest thermal efficiency followed by R600a, R245fa, and R600. The payback periods will decrease from 0.5 year for R245fa to 0.65 year for R1234ze respectively as the system is equipped with a pre-heater. In addition, compared with conventional diesel oil feeding, the proposed ORC system can reduce 76% CO 2 emission per kilowatt-hour

  15. Practical model for economic optimization of a heat recovery plate heat exchanger and its examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepach, T.; Marttila, E.; Hammo, S.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents a practical model for designers whose job it is to dimension a plate heat exchanger used especially in heat recovery systems for ventilation. Special attention was given to the economic optimization of such a unit. The first part of the report presents the most important types of heat exchangers and then goes on to present those that are normally used in ventilation systems for heat recovery. The second part discusses the operating costs, investments required and the savings in costs that can be achieved through heat recovery. The third part takes a look at the theory of heat transfer and the characteristics of heat exchanger. In the finally part, a utilization of this model is presented. The results from this are discussed in the following. The developed equations have been calculated and plotted by the use of the numeric software MATLAB. The code used for calculation with MATLAB is listed in the appendix. (orig.) 16 refs.

  16. Combining of Direct Search and Signal-to-Noise Ratio for economic dispatch optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Whei-Min; Gow, Hong-Jey; Tsai, Ming-Tang

    2011-01-01

    This paper integrated the ideas of Direct Search and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) to develop a Novel Direct Search (NDS) method for solving the non-convex economic dispatch problems. NDS consists of three stages: Direct Search (DS), Global SNR (GSNR) and Marginal Compensation (MC) stages. DS provides a basic solution. GSNR searches the point with optimization strategy. MC fulfills the power balance requirement. With NDS, the infinite solution space becomes finite. Furthermore, a same optimum solution can be repeatedly reached. Effectiveness of NDS is demonstrated with three examples and the solutions were compared with previously published results. Test results show that the proposed method is simple, robust, and more effective than many other previously developed algorithms.

  17. A Singular Differential Equation Stemming from an Optimal Control Problem in Financial Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunovský, Pavol; Černý, Aleš; Winkler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We consider the ordinary differential equation x 2 u'' = axu'+bu-c(u'-1) 2 , x ∈ (0,x 0 ), with a∈R, b∈R , c>0 and the singular initial condition u(0)=0, which in financial economics describes optimal disposal of an asset in a market with liquidity effects. It is shown in the paper that if a+b 0 then there are infinitely many continuous solutions with indistinguishable asymptotics near 0. Moreover, it is proved that in the latter case there is precisely one solution u corresponding to the choice x 0 =∞ which is such that 0≤u(x)≤x for all x>0, and that this solution is strictly increasing and concave

  18. A Singular Differential Equation Stemming from an Optimal Control Problem in Financial Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunovsky, Pavol, E-mail: brunovsky@fmph.uniba.sk [Comenius University Bratislava, Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics (Slovakia); Cerny, Ales, E-mail: ales.cerny.1@city.ac.uk [City University London, Cass Business School (United Kingdom); Winkler, Michael, E-mail: michael.winkler@uni-due.de [Universitaet Paderborn, Institut fuer Mathematik (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    We consider the ordinary differential equation x{sup 2} u'' = axu'+bu-c(u'-1){sup 2}, x Element-Of (0,x{sub 0}), with a Element-Of R, b Element-Of R , c>0 and the singular initial condition u(0)=0, which in financial economics describes optimal disposal of an asset in a market with liquidity effects. It is shown in the paper that if a+b<0 then no continuous solutions exist, whereas if a+b>0 then there are infinitely many continuous solutions with indistinguishable asymptotics near 0. Moreover, it is proved that in the latter case there is precisely one solution u corresponding to the choice x{sub 0}={infinity} which is such that 0{<=}u(x){<=}x for all x>0, and that this solution is strictly increasing and concave.

  19. Modeling, simulation and optimization for science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, Yuri; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Pironneau, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains thirteen articles on advances in applied mathematics and computing methods for engineering problems. Six papers are on optimization methods and algorithms with emphasis on problems with multiple criteria; four articles are on numerical methods for applied problems modeled with nonlinear PDEs; two contributions are on abstract estimates for error analysis; finally one paper deals with rare events in the context of uncertainty quantification. Applications include aerospace, glaciology and nonlinear elasticity. Herein is a selection of contributions from speakers at two conferences on applied mathematics held in June 2012 at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The first conference, “Optimization and PDEs with Industrial Applications” celebrated the seventieth birthday of Professor Jacques Périaux of the University of Jyväskylä and Polytechnic University of Catalonia (Barcelona Tech), and the second conference, “Optimization and PDEs with Applications” celebrated the seventy-fi...

  20. Multidisciplinary design optimization of large wind turbines—Technical, economic, and design challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashuri, Turaj; Zaaijer, Michiel B.; Martins, Joaquim R.R.A.; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 5, 10 and 20 MW wind turbines are developed using multidisciplinary design optimization. • Technical feasibility and economy of large wind turbines are investigated. • Critical upscaling trends of existing wind turbines are presented up to 20 MW. • Design challenges of large wind turbines are identified, and design solutions proposed. • With no design innovation, upscaling of existing turbines will increase the costs. - Abstract: Wind energy has experienced a continuous cost reduction in the last decades. A popular cost reduction technique is to increase the rated power of the wind turbine by making it larger. However, it is not clear whether further upscaling of the existing wind turbines beyond the 5–7 MW range is technically feasible and economically attractive. To address this question, this study uses 5, 10, and 20 MW wind turbines that are developed using multidisciplinary design optimization as upscaling data points. These wind turbines are upwind, 3-bladed, pitch-regulated, variable-speed machines with a tubular tower. Based on the design data and properties of these wind turbines, scaling trends such as loading, mass, and cost are developed. These trends are used to study the technical and economical aspects of upscaling and its impact on the design and cost. The results of this research show the technical feasibility of the existing wind turbines up to 20 MW, but the design of such an upscaled machine is cost prohibitive. Mass increase of the rotor is identified as a main design challenge to overcome. The results of this research support the development of alternative lightweight materials and design concepts such as a two-bladed downwind design for upscaling to remain a cost effective solution for future wind turbines.

  1. A hybrid agent-based computational economics and optimization approach for supplier selection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pourabdollahi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplier evaluation and selection problem is among the most important of logistics decisions that have been addressed extensively in supply chain management. The same logistics decision is also important in freight transportation since it identifies trade relationships between business establishments and determines commodity flows between production and consumption points. The commodity flows are then used as input to freight transportation models to determine cargo movements and their characteristics including mode choice and shipment size. Various approaches have been proposed to explore this latter problem in previous studies. Traditionally, potential suppliers are evaluated and selected using only price/cost as the influential criteria and the state-of-practice methods. This paper introduces a hybrid agent-based computational economics and optimization approach for supplier selection. The proposed model combines an agent-based multi-criteria supplier evaluation approach with a multi-objective optimization model to capture both behavioral and economical aspects of the supplier selection process. The model uses a system of ordered response models to determine importance weights of the different criteria in supplier evaluation from a buyers’ point of view. The estimated weights are then used to calculate a utility for each potential supplier in the market and rank them. The calculated utilities are then entered into a mathematical programming model in which best suppliers are selected by maximizing the total accrued utility for all buyers and minimizing total shipping costs while balancing the capacity of potential suppliers to ensure market clearing mechanisms. The proposed model, herein, was implemented under an operational agent-based supply chain and freight transportation framework for the Chicago Metropolitan Area.

  2. Optimal benefits of utilizing renewable energy technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties, ttherefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged globally and it is possible that China, India, Brazil and South Africa (CIBS) would develop ...

  3. DIDO optimization of a lunar landing trajectory with respect to autonomous landing hazard avoidance technology

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited In this study, the current and expected state of lunar landing technology is assessed. Contrasts are drawn between the technologies used during the Apollo era versus that which will be used in the next decade in an attempt to return to the lunar surface. In particular, one new technology, Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) and one new method, DIDO optimization, are identified and examined. An approach to creating a DID...

  4. THE INFORMATION ERA AND THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES. A MORAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Alina COCALIA (CRĂCIUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article proposes a personalized approach of a new dimension for the contemporary society, namely the comprehension of the human behavior in manifestation, in the present conditions of the unprecedented development of technology, the unavoidable advent of both interdependency and of the human’s dependency of the created technical environment. The content of the article has in view the technologized society, governed by the globalization process that implies a meticulous analysis of the economic, social and moral impact of the emergence and evolution of the new technologies in the present context. This article allots a higher degree of attention, aiming at both the emergence, extending and use on a large scale of the new technologies and also the economic implication that are inferred.

  5. Techno-economic optimization of flexible biogas concepts in the context of EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchmann, Tino; Lauer, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Due to the introduction of direct marketing and flexibility premium of renewable energy by the Renewable Energy Act 2012 (EEG 2012), incentives were created to favour a more demand-oriented power supply from biogas plants (BGA). The decision for such an operational mode depends on on-site conversion units on the economic outcome of the plants throughout the whole operating time. To install new plants or transfer existing plants into a flexible mode of operation, investments in additional and more efficient combined heat and power plants (CHP), in additional gas and/or heat storage and other technical components are necessary. The analyses show that the flexibility premium, as an extra of the market premium model, creates the greatest incentive for a more flexible generation of electricity from biogas. In addition, an intelligent management optimization can generate additional revenues on EPEX SPOT SE and balancing energy market. The additional revenues of more demand-oriented power supply from biogas plants are highly dependent on plant-specific conditions. From an economic perspective, a duplication of the installed electrical capacity seems to be the most beneficial option for a transition to a demand-driven operation mode of an average biogas model plant under the current legal framework (EEG 2012).

  6. Out-of-core nuclear fuel cycle economic optimization for nonequilibrium cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology and associated computer code was developed to determine near-optimum out-of-core fuel management strategies. The code, named OCEON (Out-of-Core Economic OptimizationN), identified feed-region sizes and enrichments, and partially burned fuel-reload strategies for each cycle of a multi-cycle planning horizon, subject to cycle-energy requirements and constraints on feed enrichments, discharge burnups, and the moderator temperature coefficient. A zero-dimensional reactor physics model, enhanced by a linear reactivity model to provide batch power shares, performs the initial feed enrichment, burnup and constraint evaluations, while a two-dimensional, nodal code is used to refine the calculations for the final solutions. The economic calculations are performed rapidly using an annuity-factor-based model. Use of Monte Carlo integer programming to select the optimum solutions allows for the determination of a family of near-optimum solutions, from which engineering judgment may be used to select an appropriate strategy. Results from various nonequilibrium cycle energy requirement cases typically show a large number of low-cost solutions near the optimum. This confirms that the Monte Carlo integer programming approach of generating a family of solutions will be most useful for selecting optimum strategies when other considerations, such as incore loading pattern concerns, must be addressed

  7. Techno-economic viability assessments of greener propulsion technology under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalianda, D.K.; Kyprianidis, K.G.; Sethi, V.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced method is presented for techno-economic assessment under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios. • The viability of the contra-rotating open rotor concept is investigated under various environmental policies. • CO_2 taxation is needed to drive the aerospace industry towards greener solutions. - Abstract: Sustainability of the aviation industry, as any other industry, depends on the elasticity of demand for the product and profitability through minimising operating costs. Of paramount importance is assessing and understanding the interdependency and effects of environmentally optimised solutions and emission mitigation policies. This paper describes the development and application of assessment methodologies to better understand the effects of environmental taxation/energy policies aimed at environmental pollution reduction and the future potential economic impact they may have on the adaptation of “greener” novel technologies. These studies are undertaken using a Techno-economic Environmental Risk Assessment approach. The methodology demonstrated allows the assessment of the economic viability of new technologies compared to conventional technologies, for various CO_2 emission taxation and fuel price scenarios. It considers relative increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. A study undertaken as a ‘proof of concept’ compares a Counter Rotating Open Rotor aircraft with a conventional aircraft for short range operations. It indicates that at current fuel price and with no carbon taxation, a highly fuel efficient technology, such as the one considered, could be rendered economically unviable. The work goes on to demonstrate that in comparison to the conventional aircraft, any economic benefits that may be accrued from improvement in fuel consumption through such a technology, may well be negated through increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. The work further demonstrates that if policy

  8. Optimization Strategy for Economic Power Dispatch Utilizing Retired EV Batteries as Flexible Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubo Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of new and renewable energy, incorporating variable adjustable power elements on the demand side is of particular interest. The utilization of batteries as flexible loads is a hot research topic. Lithium-ion batteries are key components in electric vehicles (EVs in terms of capital cost, mass and size. They are retired after around 5 years of service, but still retain up to 80% of their nominal capacity. Disposal of waste batteries will become a significant issue for the automotive industry in the years to come. This work proposes the use of the second life of these batteries as flexible loads to participate in the economic power dispatch. The characteristics of second life batteries (SLBs are varied and diverse, requiring a new optimization strategy for power dispatch at the system level. In this work, SLBs are characterized and their operating curves are obtained analytically for developing an economic power dispatch model involving wind farms and second life batteries. In addition, a dispatch strategy is developed to reduce the dispatch complex brought by the disperse spatial and time distribution of EVs and decrease the system operating cost by introducing incentive and penalty costs in regulating the EV performance. In theory, SLBs are utilized to reduce the peak-valley difference of power loads and to stabilize the power system. Test results based on a ten-unit power system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed dispatch model and the economic benefit of utilizing SLBs as flexible loads in power systems. This work may provide a viable solution to the disposal of waste batteries from EVs and to the stable operation of fluctuating power systems incorporating stochastic renewable energy.

  9. Multiple-Optimizing Dynamic Sensor Networks with MIMO Technology (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    cluster edge is always d and never changes. A backbone is a rooted tree formed by cluster heads. The transmission distance for a backbone-edge...optimization considerations and algorithms,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2004. 15. T. Tang, M. Park, R. W. Heath, Jr. and Scott M. Nettles , “A

  10. Technology of Structural Optimization for Subsidiary in Enterprise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... structure optimization for technical registration of enterprise energy resources. ... some apartments, metering of energy resources that consumed in different ... connected to existing wireless subnets of an information net in .... connection reasonabilit y (rates)*. 1. Room No1 Name1. Resides at the zone of.

  11. Optimal Charging Schedule Planning and Economic Analysis for Electric Bus Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Ceng Leou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The battery capacity of electric buses (EB used for public transportation is greater than that of electric cars, and the charging power is also several times greater than that used in electric cars; this can result in high energy consumption and negatively impact power distribution networks. This paper proposes a framework to determine the optimal contracted power capacity and charging schedule of an EB charging station in such a way that energy costs can be reduced. A mathematical model of controlled charging, which includes the capacity and energy charges of the station, was developed to minimize costs. The constraints of the model include the charging characteristics of an EB and the operational guidelines of the bus company. A practical EB charging station was used to verify the proposed model. The financial viability of this EB charging station is also studied in this paper. The economic analysis model for this charging station considers investment and operational costs, and the operational revenue. Sensitivity analyses with respect to some key parameters are also performed in this paper. Based on actual operational routes and EB charging schemes, test results indicate that the EB charging station investment is feasible, and the planning model proposed can be used to determine optimal station power capacity and minimize energy costs.

  12. Uncovering a New Moral Dilemma of Economic Optimization in Biotechnological Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vochozka, Marek; Stehel, Vojtěch; Maroušková, Anna

    2017-06-08

    The trend of emerging biorefineries is to process the harvest as efficiently as possible and without any waste. From the most valuable phytomass, refined medicines, enzymes, dyes and other special reactants are created. Functional foods, food ingredients, oils, alcohol, solvents, plastics, fillers and a wide variety of other chemical products follow. After being treated with nutrient recovery techniques (for fertilizer production), biofuels or soil improvers are produced from the leftovers. Economic optimization algorithms have confirmed that such complex biorefineries can be financially viable only when a high degree of feedstock concentration is included. Because the plant material is extremely voluminous before processing, the farming intensity of special plants increases in the nearest vicinity of agglomerations where the biorefineries are built for logistical reasons. Interdisciplinary analyses revealed that these optimization measures lead to significantly increased pollen levels in neighbouring urban areas and subsequently an increased risk of allergies, respectively costs to the national health system. A new moral dilemma between the shareholder's profit and public interest was uncovered and subjected to disputation.

  13. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C; Daszak, Peter

    2014-12-30

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral "One Health" pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual.

  14. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C.; Daszak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral “One Health” pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual. PMID:25512538

  15. Multi-Objective Optimization of an In situ Bioremediation Technology to Treat Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation shows how a multi-objective optimization method is integrated into a transport simulator (MT3D) for estimating parameters and cost of in-situ bioremediation technology to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater.

  16. Designing medical technology for resilience: integrating health economics and human factors approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsci, Simone; Uchegbu, Ijeoma; Buckle, Peter; Ni, Zhifang; Walne, Simon; Hanna, George B

    2018-01-01

    The slow adoption of innovation into healthcare calls into question the manner of evidence generation for medical technology. This paper identifies potential reasons for this including a lack of attention to human factors, poor evaluation of economic benefits, lack of understanding of the existing healthcare system and a failure to recognise the need to generate resilient products. Areas covered: Recognising a cross-disciplinary need to enhance evidence generation early in a technology's life cycle, the present paper proposes a new approach that integrates human factors and health economic evaluation as part of a wider systems approach to the design of technology. This approach (Human and Economic Resilience Design for Medical Technology or HERD MedTech) supports early stages of product development and is based on the recent experiences of the National Institute for Health Research London Diagnostic Evidence Co-operative in the UK. Expert commentary: HERD MedTech i) proposes a shift from design for usability to design for resilience, ii) aspires to reduce the need for service adaptation to technological constraints iii) ensures value of innovation at the time of product development, and iv) aims to stimulate discussion around the integration of pre- and post-market methods of assessment of medical technology.

  17. Technology development and innovation for the bottom of the economic pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2015-04-01

    Directed development of new technologies to solve specific problems of the poor in the developing world is a daunting task. Developing countries can be a wasteland littered with failed technologies sent there with much goodwill and effort from the industrial countries. Drawing on my team's experience I summarize our answers to some key questions for the technology designer or developer: How might one go about it? What works and what doesn't? What lessons can one draw from an examination of select successes and failures? The key lessons from our experience are: (1) successful technology design and implementation can not be separated from each other - they are tightly intertwined, (2) social factors are as critical for a technology's success as factors based on engineering science, and (3) ignorance of political economy, behavioral economics, organizational behavior, institutional imperatives, cultural norms and social drivers can prove fatal flaws when a new technology leaves the laboratory and meets the real world.

  18. Impacts Seed Technology Improvement on Economic Aspects of Chilli Production in Central Java - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable production, including that of chillies, plays an important role in agricultural sector and rural economic development worldwide. This is because of greater farm productivity with regard to vegetables than cereal and staple crops. This paper analyses the impact of seed technology development on the economic aspects of chilli production in Central Java. Particular attention is paid to improved varieties of chilli. Potential consequences of seed technology development are discussed. Data of this study are compiled from surveys conducted in three selected chilli producing regions in 2010-2012. The results show that the major varieties of chilli grown by surveyed farmers are grouped into three broad types: hybrids, local and improved open pollinated varieties. The chilli varieties farmers selected varied according to location and cropping season. In the dry season, farmers grew similar proportions of hybrid, local, and open pollinated types. Nevertheless, there were differences among the survey sites. Farmers grew different varieties to exploit seasonal microclimates and market preferences. Mostly, farmers selected varieties for economic motives. The consequence of growing hybrids was less use of agrochemicals, particularly pesticides, than for other varieties. Overall, they show the best economic performance in the study site. Development of seed technology should consider agro-ecological and economic aspects to obtain better outcomes. Private sector and national research institutions need to collaborate more to utilise available genetic resources to produce better varieties of chilli.

  19. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  20. Early economic evaluation of emerging health technologies: protocol of a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of early health technology assessment, discussed well over a decade, has now been collaboratively implemented by industry, government, and academia to select and expedite the development of emerging technologies that may address the needs of patients and health systems. Early economic evaluation is essential to assess the value of emerging technologies, but empirical data to inform the current practice of early evaluation is limited. We propose a systematic review of early economic evaluation studies in order to better understand the current practice. Methods/design This protocol describes a systematic review of economic evaluation studies of regulated health technologies in which the evaluation is conducted prior to regulatory approval and when the technology effectiveness is not well established. Included studies must report an economic evaluation, defined as the comparative analysis of alternatives with respect to their associated costs and health consequences, and must evaluate some regulated health technology such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, high-risk medical devices, or biomarkers. We will conduct the literature search on multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Databases, and EconLit. Additional citations will be identified via scanning reference lists and author searching. We suspect that many early economic evaluation studies are unpublished, especially those conducted for internal use only. Additionally, we use a chain-referral sampling approach to identify authors of unpublished studies who work in technology discovery and development, starting out with our contact lists and authors who published relevant studies. Citation screening and full-text review will be conducted by pairs of reviewers. Abstracted data will include those related to the decision context and decision problem of the early evaluation, evaluation methods (e.g., data sources, methods, and assumptions used to

  1. Designing medical technology for resilience : integrating health economics and human factors approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsci, Simone; Uchegbu, Ijeoma; Buckle, Peter; Ni, Zhifang; Walne, Simon; Hanna, George B.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The slow adoption of innovation into healthcare calls into question the manner of evidence generation for medical technology. This paper identifies potential reasons for this including a lack of attention to human factors, poor evaluation of economic benefits, lack of understanding of

  2. Educational Technology during Economic Downturns: Sailing the Winds of "Creative Destruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardez, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    While most organizations react to economic downturns by downsizing and cutting training and educational "costs," a few others thrive under adversity by engaging in innovative practices supported by extensive and creative uses of educational technology. This article examines how diverse organizations benefit from the cycles of "creative…

  3. Economic Crisis, Technology and the Management of Education: The Case of Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2016-01-01

    The 2008 crash has been likened to that of 1929. Does it have consequences for the management of education, and in particular for distributed leadership? Informed by evolutionary economics, it is argued that 2008 marked the end of the installation period of a major technological innovation, namely ICT. In the aftermath of the crash, a period of…

  4. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  5. Evaluating the Air Quality, Climate Change, and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentation that describes a project to evaluate economic and environmental performance of several biogas management technologies. It will analyze various criteria air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs associated with the use of biogas. Th...

  6. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  7. Deep-sea mining: Economic, technical, technological, and environmental considerations for sustainable development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    investment of $1.95 billion as capital expenditure and $9 billion as operating expenditure for a single deep-sea mining venture. In view of high investment, technological challenges and economic considerations, private-public cooperation could be an effective...

  8. 75 FR 23214 - HIPAA Privacy Rule Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health Information Technology for Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ...-AB62 HIPAA Privacy Rule Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health Information Technology for Economic... disclosures, the administrative burden on covered entities and business associates of accounting for such...: HITECH Accounting of Disclosures, Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Room 509F, 200 Independence Avenue, SW...

  9. 76 FR 31425 - HIPAA Privacy Rule Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health Information Technology for Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... 164 HIPAA Privacy Rule Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health Information Technology for Economic... Secretary 45 CFR Part 164 RIN 0991-AB62 HIPAA Privacy Rule Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health... accounting of disclosures of protected health information. The purpose of these modifications is, in part, to...

  10. Consequences for people from changed economic requirements and implementations of new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myhre, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The offshore oil and gas business has reached mature levels where improvements and efficiency, optimisation and down-sizing are necessary to achieve required economic performance. The paper discusses the oil worker in future with the focus on manning and safety as a consequence of new technologies and cost reduction. 1 fig

  11. Production System of Peranakan Etawah Goat under Application of Feed Technology: Productivity and Economic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Sodiq

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feed resources are the major constraint in increasing goat production in the village. The main constraints to goat raising are related to feeds (i the high cost of transport of crop residues and grass to the homesteads, (ii the low nutritive value of feeds used, particularly in the dry period. This research was design to evaluate goat productivity and economic efficiency of goat farming under application of feed technology production system in Peranakan Etawah goat farmer group of Gumelar Banyumas Central Java. All farmers were taken as respondents using census methods. On farm research with participative focused group discussion, indepth interview, and farm observation. Descriptive analysis and independent t test methods were used to analyze the data. Results of this study showed that there was a significant improvement goat productivity on production system with the application of feed technology. Body weight at weaning, survival rate till weaning, and doe productivity were increased 7%, 2% and 5%, respectively. There was no evidence of significant different of farmers income and economic efficiency before and after the applied feed technology (P>0.05. The calculation was based on cash flow. Before application, farmers income per year and economic efficiency were Rp14.404.520,00 and 1.21, then insignificantly improve into Rp16.487.100,00 and 1.27, respectively. (Animal Production 11(3: 202-208 (2009 Key Words: Livestock production system, Peranakan Etawah goat, feed technology aplication, productivity and economic efficiency

  12. ICT, Education Transformation, and Economic Development: An Analysis of the US National Educational Technology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the conclusions and recommendations in the National Education Technology Plan (NETP), this article makes explicit the connections between the economic rationale used in the plan and the educational transformations it recommends. The article reviews macroeconomic research, microeconomic research, labor market and workforce studies,…

  13. A new method for evaluating worst- and best-case (WBC) economic consequences of technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1996-01-01

    This paper is addressing the problem of evaluating economic worst- and best-care (WBC) consequences of technological development in industrial companies faking into account uncertainties and lack of exact cost and market information. In the theoretical part of the paper, the mathematical concepts...

  14. The International Trade Policy for Technology Transfers: Legal and Economic Dilemmas on Multilateralism versus Bilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    In the book, the Researcher addresses the importance of international technology transfers for economic development, as well as the underlying causes for the different institutional arrangements that promote such activity. The work provides a systematic interpretation of the wide range of interests...

  15. THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF IT-TECHNOLOGIES IN SYSTEM OF INTERNET BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sergeevna Vinnikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of work is caused by active introduction of IT-technologies in various spheres of economic activity and in particular the bank environment, and also social and economic problems of use of information systems which arose along with a world economic crisis, sanctions and growth of the competition.Purpose: to define the main social and economic problems and the directions of development of IT-technologies in system of Internet banking at the present stage.Methodology: general scientific methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, system approach.Results. Features of development of IT-technologies within remote bank customer service in Russia are defined. The directions of development of IT-technologies of the BSS company from a position of dynamic distribution of Internet banking in the future and from a position of development of the relations with clients are presented.Practical implications: results of research will be demanded by the scientists dealing with problems of Internet banking, heads of the commercial banks dealing with issues of remote bank service, students, undergraduates and graduate students of higher educational institutions.

  16. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE INSTALLATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR MULTIPOLLUTANT STRATEGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report evaluates the engineering and economic factors associated with installing air pollution control technologies to meet the requirements of strategies to control sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and mercury under the Clear Skies Act multipollutant control s...

  17. ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN TERMS OF: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulita BIRCA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important condition for achieving a sustainable economic growth and for improving living standards of the population of the Republic of Moldova is the active involvement of the national economy in the international exchange of goods, services, knowledge, technology, etc., and also strengthening its positions on the international market. Therefore, to achieve and maintain competitiveness has become a fundamental economic policies issue in the context of globalization. In the contemporary world, national economic competitiveness is determined by a wide variety of features and important factors. In this article, the authors will focus their attention on the part of science, technology and innovation as being one of the key tools in the modern future of any modern state.

  18. The hullaballoo over e-learning? Technology and pluralism in economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Watson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available E-learning vs. face-to-face delivery: this binary opposition has governed much of the existing pedagogical research concerning technological innovation, as educationists are pressured to prioritise efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of traditional teaching methods. This paper rejects such a false dichotomy, proffering the alternative that can be found in blended learning methods. It is through the meticulous splicing of e-learning and traditional lectures that the individual economics lecturer is freed to deliver a pluralist perspective. “Contest and controversy; orthodoxy and heterodoxy; critique and reject”: technology provides the vehicle for economics education to break free of the constraints of monist teaching methods and ensures that economics students can fully engage in the discipline’s vibrant debates.

  19. [Optimization of education for laparoendoscopic technologies in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesovoĭ, V N; Savenkov, V I; Tomin, M S

    2014-09-01

    International experience of training of surgeons, including urologists, in laparoendoscopic technologies, was analyzed. Practical course "The Fundamentals of aparoscopic Surgery" (FLS) and the European program of education for basic laparoscopic urologic skills (E-BLUS), which are used in specialized centers, constitute a standard programs of development of basic endosurgical skills. Such centers in Ukraine are absent. The project of complex system of a simulating education, testing and certification of surgeons, who are trained in endovideosurgical technologies, is proposed. While performing surveying of Ukrainian surgeons there were revealed the problems in a process of their education and introduction of highly technological methods: insufficient equipment with modern apparatuses, absence of a standardized pro- gram of education. The staged program of education was elaborated, taking into account progressive international experience and adopted to our environment and con ditions.

  20. A risk explicit interval linear programming model for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization in the Lake Fuxian watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Huang, Kai; Zou, Rui; Liu, Yong; Yu, Yajuan

    2013-01-01

    The conflict of water environment protection and economic development has brought severe water pollution and restricted the sustainable development in the watershed. A risk explicit interval linear programming (REILP) method was used to solve integrated watershed environmental-economic optimization problem. Interval linear programming (ILP) and REILP models for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization at the watershed scale were developed for the management of Lake Fuxian watershed, China. Scenario analysis was introduced into model solution process to ensure the practicality and operability of optimization schemes. Decision makers' preferences for risk levels can be expressed through inputting different discrete aspiration level values into the REILP model in three periods under two scenarios. Through balancing the optimal system returns and corresponding system risks, decision makers can develop an efficient industrial restructuring scheme based directly on the window of "low risk and high return efficiency" in the trade-off curve. The representative schemes at the turning points of two scenarios were interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative, which has the relatively low risks and nearly maximum benefits. This study provides new insights and proposes a tool, which was REILP, for decision makers to develop an effectively environmental economic optimization scheme in integrated watershed management.

  1. A Risk Explicit Interval Linear Programming Model for Uncertainty-Based Environmental Economic Optimization in the Lake Fuxian Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conflict of water environment protection and economic development has brought severe water pollution and restricted the sustainable development in the watershed. A risk explicit interval linear programming (REILP method was used to solve integrated watershed environmental-economic optimization problem. Interval linear programming (ILP and REILP models for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization at the watershed scale were developed for the management of Lake Fuxian watershed, China. Scenario analysis was introduced into model solution process to ensure the practicality and operability of optimization schemes. Decision makers’ preferences for risk levels can be expressed through inputting different discrete aspiration level values into the REILP model in three periods under two scenarios. Through balancing the optimal system returns and corresponding system risks, decision makers can develop an efficient industrial restructuring scheme based directly on the window of “low risk and high return efficiency” in the trade-off curve. The representative schemes at the turning points of two scenarios were interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative, which has the relatively low risks and nearly maximum benefits. This study provides new insights and proposes a tool, which was REILP, for decision makers to develop an effectively environmental economic optimization scheme in integrated watershed management.

  2. A Review of Warm Mix Asphalt Technology: Technical, Eco-nomical and Enviromental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, warm mix asphalt (WMA technology presents a wide potential for successful use in road works construction projects. However, concerns remain regarding the durability and behavior of WMA mixtures in the long term, which need to be addressed. This review focuses on the technical, economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages. The review concludes that the main advantage, at the moment, of this technology concerns the environment. At the end of this work, the authors include certain recommendations for future works to continue strengthening the development of WMA technology.

  3. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation. [economic impact and aircraft configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The economic benefits attributable to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation are discussed. Topics covered include: the ag-air industry, the data base used to estimate the potential benefits and a summary of the potential benefits from technological improvements; ag-air activities in the United States; foreign ag-air activities; major ag-air aircraft is use and manufacturers' sales and distribution networks; and estimates of the benefits to the United States of proposed technological improvements to the aircraft and dispersal equipment. A bibliography of references is appended.

  4. Technological retrofit of existing buildings: dwelling quality, environmental sustainability, economic rising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bellomo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Redevelopment can stand as an effective response to the converging ecological, energy and economic crises if the energy efficiency of the built heritage can be enhanced using renewable energy and innovative technologies with a low environmental impact. To this end, the Research Unit Technology and Environment, University of Naples Federico II, is undertaking a structured set of studies addressing the issue of retrofit technology of buildings in Campania put up in the second half of the 20th century to help in defining best practices for planning, design and production.

  5. Optimization of a Distillation Unit In Terms of Potential Environmental Impact and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassan Salami Tijani; Ramzan, N.

    2013-01-01

    Process energy integration and continuous improvement of process technology are increasing issues to ensure profitability of chemical productions. These objectives are increasingly important due to long-term environmental impact of energy degradation, such as resource depletion, emissions and the release of waste heat. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are integrated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to improve the process design. In this work different distillation process design alternatives have been considered with respect to evaluations of process economics and potential environmental impacts. Optimum design alternatives are analyzed related to these objectives. A multi-criteria decision making technique such as (Analytic Hierarchy Process) AHP is applied for ranking the alternatives. This method reveals that the heat pump distillation unit which has the highest score of 52 % is the best alternative when compare with base case. In terms of the effluent streams the base case has a less potential environmental impact (PEI) compared with heat pump. The lower total PEI/ kg (7.45E-01) of the base case illustrates that the material utilization efficiency of the base case is better than the heat pump whose PEI/ kg is 8.14E-01. (author)

  6. Shedding light on solar technologies-A techno-economic assessment and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Schmidt, Tobias S.; Wiederkehr, David; Schneider, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Solar power technologies will have to become a major pillar in the world's future energy system to combat climate change and resource depletion. However, it is unclear which solar technology is and will prove most viable. Therefore, a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies along the key quantitative and qualitative competitiveness criteria is needed. Based on a literature review and detailed techno-economic modeling for 2010 and 2020 in five locations, we provide such an assessment for the three currently leading large-scale solar technologies. We show that today these technologies cannot yet compete with conventional forms of power generation but approach competitiveness around 2020 in favorable locations. Furthermore, from a global perspective we find that none of the solar technologies emerges as a clear winner and that cost of storing energy differs by technology and can change the order of competitiveness in some instances. Importantly, the competitiveness of the different technologies varies considerably across locations due to differences in, e.g., solar resource and discount rates. Based on this analysis, we discuss policy implications with regard to fostering the diffusion of solar technologies while increasing the efficiency of policy support through an adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies. - Highlights: → We conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies (CSP/PV). → While solar technologies approach competitiveness in 2020, no clear winner emerges. → Solar resource and discount rate heavily impact competitiveness of solar technologies. → Adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies increases policy efficiency. → Focus on key cost down levers and strategic co-benefits of solar technologies needed.

  7. Optimization of FTA technology for large scale plant DNA isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional methods for DNA acquisition and storage require expensive reagents and equipments. Experimental fields located in remote areas and large sample size presents greater challenge to developing country institutions constrained financially. FTATM technology uses a single format utilizing basic tools found in ...

  8. Thermo-Economic Comparison and Parametric Optimizations among Two Compressed Air Energy Storage System Based on Kalina Cycle and ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixiong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressed air energy storage (CAES system, considered as one method for peaking shaving and load-levelling of the electricity system, has excellent characteristics of energy storage and utilization. However, due to the waste heat existing in compressed air during the charge stage and exhaust gas during the discharge stage, the efficient operation of the conventional CAES system has been greatly restricted. The Kalina cycle (KC and organic Rankine cycle (ORC have been proven to be two worthwhile technologies to fulfill the different residual heat recovery for energy systems. To capture and reuse the waste heat from the CAES system, two systems (the CAES system combined with KC and ORC, respectively are proposed in this paper. The sensitivity analysis shows the effect of the compression ratio and the temperature of the exhaust on the system performance: the KC-CAES system can achieve more efficient operation than the ORC-CAES system under the same temperature of exhaust gas; meanwhile, the larger compression ratio can lead to the higher efficiency for the KC-CAES system than that of ORC-CAES with the constant temperature of the exhaust gas. In addition, the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm is conducted between the thermodynamic and economic performances to find the optimal parameters of the two systems. The optimum results indicate that the solutions with an exergy efficiency of around 59.74% and 53.56% are promising for KC-CAES and ORC-CAES system practical designs, respectively.

  9. Projected configuration of a coal-fired district heating source on the basis of comparative technical-economical optimization analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tańczuk Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available District heating technologies should be efficient, effective and environmentally friendly. The majority of the communal heating systems in Poland produce district hot water in coal-fired boilers. A large number of them are considerably worn out, low-efficient in the summer time and will not comply with forthcoming regulations. One of the possible solution for such plants is repowering with new CHP systems or new boilers fuelled with fuels alternative to coal. Optimisation analysis of the target configuration of municipal heat generating plant is analysed in the paper. The work concerns repowering the existing conventional heat generating plant according to eight different scenarios of the plant configuration meeting technical and environmental requirements forecasted for the year of 2035. The maximum demand for heat of the system supplied by the plant is 185 MW. Taking into account different technical configurations on one side, and different energy and fuel prices on the other side, the comparative cost-benefits analysis of the assumed scenarios has been made. The basic economical index NPV (net present value has been derived for each analysed scenario and the results have been compared and discussed. It was also claimed that the scenario with CHP based on ICE engines is optimal.

  10. Projected configuration of a coal-fired district heating source on the basis of comparative technical-economical optimization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańczuk, Mariusz; Radziewicz, Wojciech; Olszewski, Eligiusz; Skorek, Janusz

    2017-10-01

    District heating technologies should be efficient, effective and environmentally friendly. The majority of the communal heating systems in Poland produce district hot water in coal-fired boilers. A large number of them are considerably worn out, low-efficient in the summer time and will not comply with forthcoming regulations. One of the possible solution for such plants is repowering with new CHP systems or new boilers fuelled with fuels alternative to coal. Optimisation analysis of the target configuration of municipal heat generating plant is analysed in the paper. The work concerns repowering the existing conventional heat generating plant according to eight different scenarios of the plant configuration meeting technical and environmental requirements forecasted for the year of 2035. The maximum demand for heat of the system supplied by the plant is 185 MW. Taking into account different technical configurations on one side, and different energy and fuel prices on the other side, the comparative cost-benefits analysis of the assumed scenarios has been made. The basic economical index NPV (net present value) has been derived for each analysed scenario and the results have been compared and discussed. It was also claimed that the scenario with CHP based on ICE engines is optimal.

  11. Economic assessment of RFID coupled with open source technologies for wood traceability in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperandio G

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the economic sustainability of the implementation of a wood traceability system in Calabria based on RFID and open source technologies. We identified a break-even point in its implementation under different scenarios in order to highlight the economic sustainability limits, expressed in terms of m3 or tons of processed product. The results showed that the use of RFID technology along the supply chain could lead to an effective operational simplification and to a more efficient use of resources. Based on the average market prices for timber (80-120 € / m3, the implementation of RFID technology led to an increase in timber price by 8% under the worst scenarios. This suggests that the use of open source technologies for wood traceability is already feasible and economically sustainable, as 40% of private companies stated their willingness to pay a premium price (on average 3.25% higher for purchasing certified local wood products in Calabria. Moreover, we expect a further reduction of tags and hardware costs in the next future, up to half the costs estimated in this work, thus making the application of such technology to timber traceability even more affordable.

  12. Unfolding innovation: modelling the interplay of science, technology, and economic growth

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

      In this talk I will show that the space in which scientific, technological and economic developments interplay with each other can be mathematically shaped using pioneering multilayer network and complexity techniques. We build the tri-layered network of human activities (scientific production, patenting, and industrial production) and study the interactions among them, also taking into account the possible time delays. Within this construction we can identify which capabilities and prerequisites are needed to be competitive in a given activity, and even measure how much time is needed to transform, for instance, the technological know-how into economic wealth and scientific innovation, being able to make predictions with a very long time horizon. Quite unexpectedly, we find empirical evidence that the naive knowledge flow from science, to patents, to products is not supported by data, being instead technology the best predictor for industrial and scientific production for the next decades. &...

  13. Evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability. Proceedings of a symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Symposium on evolutionary water cooled reactors: Strategic issues, technologies and economic viability was intended for managers in utilities, reactor design organizations and hardware manufacturing companies and for government decision makers who need to understand technological advances and the potential of evolutionary water cooled reactors to contribute to near and medium term energy demands. The topics addressed include: strategic issues (global energy outlook, the role of nuclear power in sustainable energy strategies, power generation costs, financing of nuclear plant projects, socio-political factors and nuclear safety requirements); technological advances (instrumentation and control, means od improving prevention and mitigation of severe accidents, development of passive safety systems); keys to economic viability (simplification, standardization, advances in construction and project management, feedback of experience from utilities into new designs, and effective management of plant operation)

  14. Incorporating technology-based learning tools into teaching and learning of optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Irene

    2014-07-01

    The traditional approach of teaching optimization problems in calculus emphasizes more on teaching the students using analytical approach through a series of procedural steps. However, optimization normally involves problem solving in real life problems and most students fail to translate the problems into mathematic models and have difficulties to visualize the concept underlying. As an educator, it is essential to embed technology in suitable content areas to engage students in construction of meaningful learning by creating a technology-based learning environment. This paper presents the applications of technology-based learning tool in designing optimization learning activities with illustrative examples, as well as to address the challenges in the implementation of using technology in teaching and learning optimization. The suggestion activities in this paper allow flexibility for educator to modify their teaching strategy and apply technology to accommodate different level of studies for the topic of optimization. Hence, this provides great potential for a wide range of learners to enhance their understanding of the concept of optimization.

  15. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Optimization of Relationship between Economic Potential and Sources for Public Needs Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Aleksandar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relative level of fiscal revenue in relation to the total aggregate domestic product or national income is a central indicator to be established in the national economy. This indicator is the “tax ratio”. The tendency of almost every economic and especially fiscal policy is that this indicator expresses the optimal ratio between the part of the domestic product or national income, which is intended to be used for the settlement of public needs and the general economic aggregate of the latter economic categories. Its special importance lies in the design concept of medium-term or long-term social and economic development. It is necessary to determine the framework of the global distribution of the domestic product or national income, which is acceptable, on the one hand, from the perspective of a balanced and stable economic growth, and on the other hand, from the standpoint of balancing interests of all social structures of modern mixed societies.

  16. Thermo-economic optimization of heat recovery steam generator for a range of gas turbine exhaust temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadir, Mahmoud; Ghenaiet, Adel; Carcasci, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-economic optimization of HRSG configurations. • The maximum value of the net present value was targeted for the economic optimization. • Three level HRSG is the best option in respect of power output and high priced medium. • Two level HRSG is the best for net benefit in low and intermediate priced mediums. - Abstract: This paper illustrates the effect of selling price on the optimum design parameters of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and the selection of its ideal configuration for an outlet temperature range of 350–650 °C. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method was used, considering the steam cycle specific work as an objective to be maximized, the net present value as another objective to be maximized for the economic optimization and a combination of both. Three configurations of heat recovery steam generators are considered with one, two and three pressure levels and a reheat. The results show that, the three pressure level system is the best configuration from a thermodynamic point of view, but with respect to the economical aspect the two pressure levels is the best configuration for the low and medium selling prices (0.04 $/kW h, 0.08 $/kW h and 0.2 $/kW h), whereas the three pressure level configuration would only be interesting for a high selling price of 0.3 $/kW h and a temperature range 450–600 °C. For a temperature of 650 °C, the high cost of the three level system leads to a decrease in the net present value. As the selling price increases the optimized design parameters of the three pressure level HRSG based on economic or thermodynamic optimization are similar. The obtained results are used to elaborate a new correlation relating the net present value with the gas turbine outlet temperature, gas mass flow rate, number of levels of HRSG and selling price.

  17. Optimal purification technology of ultrapure water for instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Naoe

    2011-01-01

    Purified water is one of the most commonly utilized reagents in the laboratory. It is used throughout experimental protocols in virtually every type of laboratory application : as blanks, for the dissolution and dilution of samples, the dilution of standards, preparation of mobile phases and for media and buffer preparation. Contaminants present in purified water can therefore have a significant impact on results. Hence, it is important to ensure that the laboratory water-purification system contains a combination of purification technologies to target specific impurities related to each application. This article looks at some of these technologies and their relevance for specific applications, such as HPLC, LC/MS, and ion chromatography (IC). (author)

  18. Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghafoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand for cooling is continuously increasing due to growing thermal loads, changing architectural modes of building, and especially due to occupants indoor comfort requirements resulting higher electricity demand notably during peak load hours. This increasing electricity demand is resulting higher primary energy consumption and emission of green house gases (GHG due to electricity generation from fossil fuels. An exciting alternative to reduce the peak electricity consumption is the possible utilization of solar heat to run thermally driven cooling machines instead of vapor compression machines utilizing high amount of electricity. In order to widen the use of solar collectors, they should also be used to contribute for sanitary hot water production and space heating. Pakistan lying on solar belt has a huge potential to utilize solar thermal heat for heating and cooling requirement because cooling is dominant throughout the year and the enormous amount of radiation availability provides an opportunity to use it for solar thermal driven cooling systems. The sensitivity analysis of solar assisted heating and cooling system has been carried out under climatic conditions of Faisalabad (Pakistan and its economic feasibility has been calculated using maximization of NPV. Both storage size and collector area has been optimized using different economic boundary conditions. Results show that optimum area of collector lies between 0.26m2 to 0.36m2 of collector area per m2 of conditioned area for ieff values of 4.5% to 0.5%. The optimum area of collector increases by decreasing effective interest rate resulting higher solar fraction. The NPV was found to be negative for all ieff values which shows that some incentives/subsidies are needed to be provided to make the system cost beneficial. Results also show that solar fraction space heating varies between 87 and 100% during heating season and solar fraction cooling between 55 and 100% during

  19. A New Tool for Environmental and Economic Optimization of Hydropower Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Hayse, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, researchers from Argonne, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the development of an integrated toolset to enhance hydropower operational decisions related to economic value and environmental performance. As part of this effort, we developed an analytical approach (Index of River Functionality, IRF) and an associated software tool to evaluate how well discharge regimes achieve ecosystem management goals for hydropower facilities. This approach defines site-specific environmental objectives using relationships between environmental metrics and hydropower-influenced flow characteristics (e.g., discharge or temperature), with consideration given to seasonal timing, duration, and return frequency requirements for the environmental objectives. The IRF approach evaluates the degree to which an operational regime meets each objective and produces a score representing how well that regime meets the overall set of defined objectives. When integrated with other components in the toolset that are used to plan hydropower operations based upon hydrologic forecasts and various constraints on operations, the IRF approach allows an optimal release pattern to be developed based upon tradeoffs between environmental performance and economic value. We tested the toolset prototype to generate a virtual planning operation for a hydropower facility located in the Upper Colorado River basin as a demonstration exercise. We conducted planning as if looking five months into the future using data for the recently concluded 2012 water year. The environmental objectives for this demonstration were related to spawning and nursery habitat for endangered fishes using metrics associated with maintenance of instream habitat and reconnection of the main channel with floodplain wetlands in a representative reach of the river. We also applied existing mandatory operational constraints for the

  20. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.