WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology economic optimization

  1. Advanced Cogeneration Technology Economic Optimization Study (ACTEOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, P.; Ansu, Y.; Manuel, E. H., Jr.; Price, W. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced cogeneration technology economic optimization study (ACTEOS) was undertaken to extend the results of the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS). Cost comparisons were made between designs involving advanced cogeneration technologies and designs involving either conventional cogeneration technologies or not involving cogeneration. For the specific equipment cost and fuel price assumptions made, it was found that: (1) coal based cogeneration systems offered appreciable cost savings over the no cogeneration case, while systems using coal derived liquids offered no costs savings; and (2) the advanced cogeneration systems provided somewhat larger cost savings than the conventional systems. Among the issues considered in the study included: (1) temporal variations in steam and electric demands; (2) requirements for reliability/standby capacity; (3) availability of discrete equipment sizes; (4) regional variations in fuel and electricity prices; (5) off design system performance; and (6) separate demand and energy charges for purchased electricity.

  2. Technology Optimism in a Socio-Economic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1996-01-01

    the need for changes in fundamental mechanisms, power structures and basic ideas as preconditions for influencing the direction of technological change. The paper deals with the state interventionist version of technology optimism, where it is emphasized that active industrial and technology policies...

  3. Economic Optimism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ever since January 14 when the Chinese Government unveiled plans to revamp the steel and automobile sectors, the country has embarked on an ambitious and comprehensive scheme of restructuring some of its key industries. This was done in an effort to keep the economy on track amid an adverse economic situation. Eight other sectors have been added into this revitalization package, ranging from electronics and information technologies to textiles, shipbuilding and petrochemicals,

  4. Long-term impacts of air capture technologies on optimal climate strategies under economic uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, F.

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread attention to the consequences of climate change, tangible and concerted progress toward mitigation of the adverse effects of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions has yet to be coordinated among various national and international agents. The energy objectives set by such initiatives as 'Sustainable Energy for All' partially help slow down the global warming in short term, but the risks posed by GHG emissions would persist for a long time. This fact makes negative emission solutions more appealing as a part of the climate protection efforts. Here I use integrated assessment modeling to investigate the potential added value of air capture technologies as a complement for more conventional solutions such as carbon capture and storage, and the use of renewables. Thermodynamic limits of air capture technologies are used as a general guideline for the estimation of the performance of air capture technologies. Optimal long-run climate strategies are discussed taking into account the uncertainties in the impact of CO2 concentration on the Global Wealth Product, and possible scenarios that result in an overshoot beyond the 2°C warming limit.

  5. Optimization of technology and boiler control to improve economical and environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stosek, V.; Neuman, P.; Mechura, V.; Masek, Z. [EGU Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    For cutting emissions NO{sub x} and CO in the Czech Republic are mostly applied primary measurers. At the same time measuring and control systems are innovated. Analog control systems are replaced by digital and computer network is developed in the power energy generation. It enables application of sophisticated information and diagnostic systems. It is shown how the EGU designs modification of technology equipment, measurement and control systems to increase efficiency and cut NO{sub x} emission levels at 110 MWe units at Prunerov power station and 200 MWe units at Tusimice before and after reconstruction are presented.

  6. Dynamic optimization in environmental economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Elke; Tragler, Gernot; Veliov, Vladimir M. (eds.) [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Mathematical Methods in Economics; Semmler, Willi [The New School for Social Research, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Economics

    2014-11-01

    This book contains two chapters with the topics: 1. Chapter: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ECONOMY AND CLIMATE: (a) Climate Change and Technical Progress: Impact of Informational Constraints. (b) Environmental Policy in a Dynamic Model with Heterogeneous Agents and Voting. (c) Optimal Environmental Policy in the Presence of Multiple Equilibria and Reversible Hysteresis. (d). Modeling the Dynamics of the Transition to a Green Economy. (e) One-Parameter GHG Emission Policy With R and D-Based Growth. (f) Pollution, Public Health Care, and Life Expectancy when Inequality Matters. (g) Uncertain Climate Policy and the Green Paradox. (h) Uniqueness Versus Indeterminacy in the Tragedy of the Commons - A ''Geometric'' Approach. 2. Chapter: OPTIMAL EXTRACTION OF RESOURCES: (j) Dynamic Behavior of Oil Importers and Exporters Under Uncertainty. (k) Robust Control of a Spatially Distributed Commercial Fishery. (l) On the Effect of Resource Exploitation on Growth: Domestic Innovation vs. Technological Diffusion Through Trade. (m) Forest Management and Biodiversity in Size-Structured Forests Under Climate Change. (n) Carbon Taxes and Comparison of Trading Regimes in Fossil Fuels. (o) Landowning, Status and Population Growth. (p) Optimal Harvesting of Size-Structured Biological Populations.

  7. Optimal control of renewable economic resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelani, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Two main problems are studied: economic optimization, and determination of the optimal age of harvest for an initially immature population which follows a Bertalanffy-type growth law. Conditions are derived on the economic parameters that make maximization of economic rent biologically superior to maximization of sustainable yield. A general equation is derived for the optimal equilibrium biomass size when maximization of present value is the control objective. Also, it is shown that under perfectly elastic demand for the resource, a critical price level exists beyond which economic optimization has to be sacrificed in order to enhance conservation of the resource. An equation is derived whose solution represents the optimal age of harvest for an initially immature population stock. In certain circumstances, analytic forms are obtained for the optimal age of harvest. Some properties of the optimal age of harvest are also investigated.

  8. Optimizing accelerator technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research and training network, oPAC, is bringing together 22 universities, research centres and industry partners to optimize particle accelerator technology. CERN is one of the network’s main partners and will host 5 early-stage researchers in the BE department.   A diamond detector that will be used for novel beam diagnostics applications in the oPAC project based at CIVIDEC. (Image courtesy of CIVIDEC.) As one of the largest Marie Curie Initial Training Networks ever funded by the EU – to the tune of €6 million – oPAC extends well beyond the particle physics community. “Accelerator physics has become integral to research in almost every scientific discipline – be it biology and life science, medicine, geology and material science, or fundamental physics,” explains Carsten P. Welsch, oPAC co-ordinator based at the University of Liverpool. “By optimizing the operation of accelerators, all of these...

  9. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kurz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  10. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  11. Economic optimization of CO2 pipeline configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M.M.J.; Ramirez, C.A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an economic optimization tool is developed taking into account different steel grades, inlet pressure, diameter and booster stations for point-to-point pipelines as well as for simple networks. Preliminary results show that gaseous CO2 transport is cost effective for relatively smal

  12. PLZT Microfibers Technology Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozielski L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrocaloric (EC structures for a new generation of cooling or heating elements utilize the temperature dependence of spontaneous polarization in some ferroelectric materials to convert waste heat into electricity and vice versa. A (Pb0.93La0.07 (Zr0.65Ti0.35O3 material, have the largest recorded pyroelectric coefficient. An effective predicted form for such applications is fiber, due to small heat capacitance and quick response time, even for nano second laser excitation. Consequently, the presented work provides a description of the optimization of structural, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of obtained fibers, finally concluding on necessity of sintering temperature reduction in 100°C in contrast to bulk form to effectively prevent its destruction.

  13. Economic Load Dispatch Using Grey Wolf Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sudhir Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents grey wolf optimization (GWO to solve convex economic load dispatch (ELD problem. Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO is a new meta-heuristic inspired by grey wolves. The leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of the grey wolves is mimicked in GWO. The objective of ELD problem is to minimize the total generation cost while fulfilling the different constraints, when the required load of power system is being supplied. The proposed technique is implemented on two different test systems for solving the ELD with various load demands. To show the effectiveness of GWO to solve ELD problem results were compared with other existing techniques.

  14. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  15. Healthcare information technology and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Thomas H; Bates, David W; Berner, Eta S; Bernstam, Elmer V; Covvey, H Dominic; Frisse, Mark E; Graf, Thomas; Greenes, Robert A; Hoffer, Edward P; Kuperman, Gil; Lehmann, Harold P; Liang, Louise; Middleton, Blackford; Omenn, Gilbert S; Ozbolt, Judy

    2013-01-01

    At the 2011 American College of Medical Informatics (ACMI) Winter Symposium we studied the overlap between health IT and economics and what leading healthcare delivery organizations are achieving today using IT that might offer paths for the nation to follow for using health IT in healthcare reform. We recognized that health IT by itself can improve health value, but its main contribution to health value may be that it can make possible new care delivery models to achieve much larger value. Health IT is a critically important enabler to fundamental healthcare system changes that may be a way out of our current, severe problem of rising costs and national deficit. We review the current state of healthcare costs, federal health IT stimulus programs, and experiences of several leading organizations, and offer a model for how health IT fits into our health economic future.

  16. Chaotic ant swarm optimization to economic dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jiejin; Ma, Xiaoqian [Electric Power College, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Lixiang; Yang, Yixian [Information Security Center, Department of Information Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Peng, Haipeng [Information Security Center, Department of Information Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Information Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110023 (China); Wang, Xiangdong [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110023 (China)

    2007-08-15

    This paper developed a novel algorithm named chaotic ant swarm optimization (CASO) for solving the economic dispatch (ED) problems of thermal generators in power systems. This algorithm combines with the chaotic and self-organization behavior of ants in the foraging process. It includes both effects of chaotic dynamics and swarm-based search. The algorithm was employed to solve the ED problems of thermal generators. The proposed method was applied to three examples of power systems. Simulation results demonstrated that the method can obtain feasible and effective solutions, and it is a promising alternative approach for solving the ED problems in practical power systems. (author)

  17. Economic optimization of offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauling, T.

    1996-09-01

    The study on the title subject continues the development of a cost model for offshore wind farms started at the Institute for Wind Energy (IW) in 1995, and applies it on different kinds of cost analyses. The model will be considered within the European research project `Structural and Economic Optimization of Bottom-Mounted Offshore Wind Energy Converters` (Opti-OWECS, JOR3-CT95-0087) co-ordinated by the IW, where also the cost analyses and optimization will be extended. The conclusions of the investigations have already been presented at the European Union Wind Energy Conference `96 at Goeteborg, Sweden. In Chapter 1, a short overview of former offshore studies and projects is given, especially those dealing with cost analysis. Typical cost breakdowns of offshore and onshore wind farms are compared. Chapter 2 contains a brief description of the cost model in its present state. The recent improvements and extensions are documented in Chapter 3, and a validation by means of a recalculation of two former offshore studies is carried out in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, four different offshore sites are compared with respect to the same farm size and an optimized farm design: Jade in the German part of the North Sea near Wilhelmshafen; Swansea Bay in the Bristol Channel at the British Atlantic Coast; Rostock at the German Baltic Coast, and IJmuiden in the Dutch part of the North Sea. In Chapter 6, a sensitivity study is carried out for a variety of site, design and economical parameters. The results of this project are summarized in Chapter 7, and an outlook is given in Chapter 8. The appendix contains among others a description of the SCOptiM2 code, where the model is implemented, as well as data obtained from the parameter studies and design optimizations. 30 figs., 8 tabs., 6 appendices, 40 refs.

  18. Human Capital, Technology, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindo Sulaiman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated the impact of human capital and technology on economic growth in Nigeria. We employed annual time series data for the period of 35 years (1975-2010 and applied autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration to examine the relationship between human capital, technology, and economic growth. Two proxies of human capital (secondary and tertiary school enrollments were used in two separate models. The cointegration result revealed that all the variables in the two separate models were cointegrated. Furthermore, the results of the two estimated models showed that human capital in form in secondary and tertiary school enrollments have had significant positive impact on economic growth. More so, technology also shows significant positive impact on economic growth. In a nutshell, both human capital and technology are important determinants of growth in Nigeria. Therefore, improvement of the educational sector and more funding for research and development (R&D to encourage innovations are needed to facilitate Nigeria’s sustained economic growth.

  19. Institutions, Technological Change and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corderí Novoa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories of economic growth try to explain variations in per capita income across countries by differences in capital accumulation and productivity. However, many scholars consider that integrating institutions into economic theory and economic history is an essential step in improving explanations of why some societies are richer than others. This paper develops the empirical and theoretical case that differences in institutions are the fundamental cause of differences in technological change (productivity, hence in economic growth. First, I give a definition of institutions and how they influence economic performance, from a New Institutional Economics point of view. Then, I introduce the theoretical framework based on the economics of ideas and endogenous growth models. Finally, I argue that R&D expenditures -a proxy for technological change- will vary across countries depending on some measures of institutional quality. In the end, this paper finds that stronger institutions (measured by an aggregate of institutional quality encourage greater R&D expenditures. At a disaggregate level, the rule of law is positively correlated and the regulatory burden is negatively correlated with R&D expenditures. Human capital level (measured by the tertiary and primary school enrolment rates has also a significant positive impact in R&D expenditures.

  20. Globalisation, Information Technology, and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Farhat

    1996-01-01

    The decrease in coordination and transaction costs on account of information technology creates more opportunities for firms to make production “footloose”; it allows firms to base different parts of their business in different countries and connect them by real time information networks. The rapid growth in information services is thus facilitating the integrated international production of goods and services. This paper discusses the linkages between information technology and economic glob...

  1. Aircraft technology portfolio optimization using ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Frederic J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-11-01

    Technology portfolio selection is a combinatorial optimization problem often faced with a large number of combinations and technology incompatibilities. The main research question addressed in this article is to determine if Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is better suited than Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and Simulated Annealing (SA) for technology portfolio optimization when incompatibility constraints between technologies are present. Convergence rate, capability to find optima, and efficiency in handling of incompatibilities are the three criteria of comparison. The application problem consists of finding the best technology portfolio from 29 aircraft technologies. The results show that ACO and GAs converge faster and find optima more easily than SA, and that ACO can optimize portfolios with technology incompatibilities without using penalty functions. This latter finding paves the way for more use of ACO when the number of constraints increases, such as in the technology and concept selection for complex engineering systems.

  2. Allogeneic cell therapy bioprocess economics and optimization: downstream processing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sally; Simaria, Ana S; Varadaraju, Hemanthram; Gupta, Siddharth; Warren, Kim; Farid, Suzanne S

    2015-01-01

    To develop a decisional tool to identify the most cost effective process flowsheets for allogeneic cell therapies across a range of production scales. A bioprocess economics and optimization tool was built to assess competing cell expansion and downstream processing (DSP) technologies. Tangential flow filtration was generally more cost-effective for the lower cells/lot achieved in planar technologies and fluidized bed centrifugation became the only feasible option for handling large bioreactor outputs. DSP bottlenecks were observed at large commercial lot sizes requiring multiple large bioreactors. The DSP contribution to the cost of goods/dose ranged between 20-55%, and 50-80% for planar and bioreactor flowsheets, respectively. This analysis can facilitate early decision-making during process development.

  3. Technology and ecological economics. Promethean technology, Pandorian potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Bruce [AgResearch Ltd., Private Bag 3123, Hamilton (New Zealand); Jollands, Nigel [New Zealand Centre for Ecological Economics, Massey University and Landcare Research Ltd, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North (New Zealand)

    2006-03-15

    In considering social, economic and ecological impacts of new technologies it is essential to start from an understanding of human nature. This paper explores this issue drawing out some implications for ecological and neoclassical economics. The paper presents two key arguments. First, we argue that there is a growing tension between our evolved human nature and social structures and our emerging technological prowess. Modern technologies give us increasing power to manipulate the very axes of nature: space, time, energy, matter, and life. Technologies are now so powerful they give us abilities our ancestors would consider godlike. The question is posed: Are humans ready to wield the power of the gods? We have the knowledge, but do we have the wisdom? The myth of Prometheus and Pandora is considered as a metaphor for the interaction between technology, nature and universal aspects of human nature developed over eons of evolution. Second, we argue that even a 'technologically optimistic' scenario (employed by some economists) may not actually deliver Utopian outcomes. With technological advancement and diffusion there is a 'technological trickle down effect' whereby potent technologies, once available only to governments and powerful elites, become available to greater numbers of groups and individuals. The more accessible a technology, the more likely its social and ecological impacts will be shaped by the full range and extremes of human nature. These issues have implications for the development and regulation of Promethean technologies such as nuclear energy, genetic engineering and nanotechnology; technologies with unprecedented power and reach through nature. Development and diffusion of such technologies may also have implications for the ethics of the social structure of society. (author)

  4. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  5. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  6. Wind turbines fundamentals, technologies, application, economics

    CERN Document Server

    Hau, Erich

    2013-01-01

    "Wind Turbines" addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields.  In its revised third edition, special emphasis has been given to the latest trends in wind turbine technology and design, such as gearless drive train concepts, as well as on new fields of application, in particular the offshore utilisation of wind energy. The author has gained experience over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics.

  7. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  8. Economic benefits of plant optimization and advanced fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patwardhan, A.; Honaker, R.Q.; Sevim, H. [Engineering Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources

    2002-07-01

    Advanced fine coal cleaning (AFCC) technologies such as flotation columns provide metallurgical performances that are superior to those obtained by conventional cleaning devices. However, their implementation into operating preparation plants has been limited due to dewatering and handling concerns and the effect on overall plant economics. To evaluate the impacts of AFCC technologies on overall plant performance, a coal plant model has been developed that optimizes the plant operation based on the constant incremental product quality approach while assessing the improvements in plant mass yield. Also, an empirical model relating the probable error of separation (E{sub p}) to the specific gravity of separation (d{sub 50}) and particle size has been developed for simulating unit operation separation performance. From the analysis of two coal processing plants, the installation of flotation columns for treating the fine coal was found to substantially improve plant yield, and, thus, overall mine profitability over a range of product quality. However, the magnitude of the techno-economical benefits was a function of the feed characteristics, especially particle size-by-size washabilities and inherent moisture. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The Optimal Economic Order: the simplest model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn the last five years humanity has become faced with the problem of the optimal socioeconomic order more clearly than ever. After the confrontation of capitalism and socialism, which was the core of the Marxist thesis, the fact transpired that capitalism was not the optimal order. It wa

  10. Technological response to economic disruption: The role of new technologies in mitigating exogenous economic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Aron Scott

    2003-07-01

    The three essays in this dissertation deal with the role of technology in mitigating economic disruption. Much research has been done on the disruptive effects of technology; in contrast, these essays look at how technology can be used to reduce the effects of exogenous disruptions. Each essay looks at the issue at a different level; the first at the firm level, the second at the industry level and the final essay at the level of the national economy. The first essay examines the options and possible strategies for firms faced with increased instability in their electricity supply, as recently occurred in California. This paper develops response strategies for companies affected by an electrical crisis. These responses fall into three categories: Lead, Follow, or Get Out of the State. The technologies available to companies choosing to lead are reviewed, along with constraints to their adoption. From these strategies, it can be shown that areas with unstable electrical markets can expect a loss of firms to locales with less risk and uncertainty, unless governments adopt policies promoting distributed generation. The second essay projects the economic impacts of the adoption of high-temperature superconductor (FITS) technologies in electric generation, transmission, and distribution systems. Three technologies utilizing high-temperature superconductors are analyzed for their potential impact on the electrical utility industry. Distributed superconducting magnetic energy storage systems (D-SMES), superconducting cable, and HTS generators are each described along with their possible uses in the electrical utility industry. The economic impact of these technologies is then projected, along with a comparison between them and conventional technologies. The third essay deals with the role of technology in mitigating the economic effects of the reaction to terrorist attacks. In the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, public and private investments are

  11. Dynamic optimization the calculus of variations and optimal control in economics and management

    CERN Document Server

    Kamien, Morton I

    2012-01-01

    Since its initial publication, this text has defined courses in dynamic optimization taught to economics and management science students. The two-part treatment covers the calculus of variations and optimal control. 1998 edition.

  12. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-07-01

    In order to plan for potential CO{sub 2} mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO{sub 2} mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO{sub 2} and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} sequestration, including captured CO{sub 2} storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO{sub 2} sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO{sub 2} sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO{sub 2}. No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO{sub 2} sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget.

  13. Environmental economics: Optimal carbon tax doubled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    Cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment approaches inform global climate change mitigation policy-making processes. Now, a development in the former shows that optimal carbon tax levels have previously been underestimated by a factor of two.

  14. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system - illustrated......This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management...... with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management...... waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system - illustrated...

  16. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Münster, M. [System Analysis Department, DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ravn, H. [RAM-løse edb, Æblevangen 55, 2765 Smørum (Denmark); Hedegaard, K.; Juul, N. [System Analysis Department, DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ljunggren Söderman, M. [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 53021, SE-40014 Gothenburg (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Optimizing waste treatment by incorporating LCA methodology. • Applying different objectives (minimizing costs or GHG emissions). • Prioritizing multiple objectives given different weights. • Optimum depends on objective and assumed displaced electricity production. - Abstract: This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management options. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritize several objectives given different weights. A simple illustrative case is analysed, covering alternative treatments of one tonne of residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system – illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model.

  17. Optimal weed management in crop rotations: incorporating economics is crucial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den F.; Gilligan, C.A.; Lemmen-Gerdessen, van J.C.; Gregoire, L.A.H.; Bosch, van den F.

    2010-01-01

    Although the effects of crop rotation sequence and length on weed population dynamics have been studied, it is not clear whether or not the best strategy, from a weed population dynamics point of view, is also the economic optimal strategy. It is also not clear which biological and economic paramete

  18. Optimal weed management in crop rotations: incorporating economics is crucial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den F.; Gilligan, C.A.; Lemmen-Gerdessen, van J.C.; Gregoire, L.A.H.; Bosch, van den F.

    2010-01-01

    Although the effects of crop rotation sequence and length on weed population dynamics have been studied, it is not clear whether or not the best strategy, from a weed population dynamics point of view, is also the economic optimal strategy. It is also not clear which biological and economic

  19. Optimal Portfolio Strategy under Rolling Economic Maximum Drawdown Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojian Yu; Siyu Xie; Weijun Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimal portfolio strategy under the constraints of rolling economic maximum drawdown. A more practical strategy is developed by using rolling Sharpe ratio in computing the allocation proportion in contrast to existing models. Besides, another novel strategy named “REDP strategy” is further proposed, which replaces the rolling economic drawdown of the portfolio with the rolling economic drawdown of the risky asset. The simulation tests prove that REDP stra...

  20. Maximizing oil yields may not optimize economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has used the ASPEN computer code to calculate the economics of different hydroretorting conditions. When the oil yield was maximized and a oil shale plant designed around this process, the costs turned out much higher than expected. However, calculations based on runs of less than maximum yields showed lower cost estimates. It is recommended that future efforts should be concentrated on minimizing production costs rather than maximizing yields. An oil shale plant has been designed around minimum production cost, but has not been able to be tested experimentally.

  1. Heat exchanger design based on economic optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Pelagagge, Marcello P.; Salini, Paolo [University of l' Aquila (Italy). Faculty of Engineering], e-mail: caputo@ing.inivaq.it, e-mail: pelmar@ing.inivaq.it, e-mail: salini@ing.inivaq.it

    2006-07-01

    Owing to the wide utilization of heat exchangers in industrial processes their cost minimization is an important target for both designers and users. Traditional design approaches are based on iterative procedures which assume a configuration and gradually change design parameters until a satisfying solution is reached which meets the design specifications. However, such methods, besides being time consuming, do not guarantee the reach of an optimal solution. In this paper a procedure for optimal design for shell and tube heat exchangers is proposed which utilizes a genetic algorithm to minimize the total discounted cost of the equipment including the capital investment and pumping related annual energy expenditures. In order to verify the performances of the proposed method four case studies are also presented showing that total cost reductions greater than 15% are feasible respect traditionally designed exchangers. (author)

  2. [Clinical economics: a concept to optimize healthcare services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzsolt, F; Bauer, K; Henne-Bruns, D

    2012-03-01

    Clinical economics strives to support healthcare decisions by economic considerations. Making economic decisions does not mean saving costs but rather comparing the gained added value with the burden which has to be accepted. The necessary rules are offered in various disciplines, such as economy, epidemiology and ethics. Medical doctors have recognized these rules but are not applying them in daily clinical practice. This lacking orientation leads to preventable errors. Examples of these errors are shown for diagnosis, screening, prognosis and therapy. As these errors can be prevented by application of clinical economic principles the possible consequences for optimization of healthcare are discussed.

  3. The Financial Mythology of Information Technology: The New Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, John L.

    1996-01-01

    A much misunderstood aspect of managing information technology is its economics. Rate of technological advancement is accelerating, demand is intensifying, standards and architectures are changing daily, prices are falling, but total costs are growing. Understanding the economics of information technology is a necessary first step in developing…

  4. Economic homogenization and heterogenization in the EU with the EMU - technological, sectoral and regional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    1999-01-01

    Traditional the arguments for the EMU have been founded in arguments from the theory of optimal currency unions. Even if that should be the case there would still be problems if technological development are characterized by increasing returns. In that case growing economic differences according...... to sector, technology and region will be the result....

  5. On Technology, Uncertainty and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Berden (Koen)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIt is one of the most popular and debated topics in economic science: economic growth. Where do high or low growth rates come from and how do the mechanisms that underlie economic growth work? Who gains and who loses? Uncertainty has a negative impact on economic growth,

  6. On Technology, Uncertainty and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Berden (Koen)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIt is one of the most popular and debated topics in economic science: economic growth. Where do high or low growth rates come from and how do the mechanisms that underlie economic growth work? Who gains and who loses? Uncertainty has a negative impact on economic growth, directly

  7. Optimized Technology for Residuum Processing in the ARGG Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Luoqi; Yuan hongxing; Nie Baiqiu

    2006-01-01

    The influence of feedstock property on operation in the FCC unit was studied to identify the cause leading to deteriorated products distribution related with increasingly heavier feedstock for the ARGG unit. In order to maximize the economic benefits of the ARGG unit a string of measures, including the modification of catalyst formulation, retention of high catalyst activity, application of mixed termination agents to control the reaction temperature and once-through operation, and optimization of catalyst regeneration technique, were adopted to adapt the ARGG unit to processing of the heavy feedstock with its carbon residue equating to 7% on an average. The heavy oil processing technology has brought about apparent economic benefits.

  8. Economics of selected water control technologies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of selected water control technologies and their successful use: The case of Ethiopia. ... of these controls technologies and institutionalizing some sort of cost recovery schemes. ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. Optimization Model for Economic Evaluation of Wind Farms - How to Optimize a Wind Energy Project Economically and Technically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Sousa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a review and systematize methods and techniques of economic evaluation applied to renewable energy projects, specific to wind energy projects. Both project and cost methodologies of economic evaluation are reviewed for a model optimization construction for a proposed optimization model with its objective function most appropriated. It is necessary to engage in different approaches, but complementary, microeconomic project evaluation methods and optimization methods applied to engineering solutions in wind energy converter systems. Optimization model for economic evaluation of wind farms can be as an efficient planning and resource management, which is the key to the success of an energy project. Wind energy is one of the most potent alternative energy resources; however the economics of wind energy is not yet universally favorable to place wind at a competitive platform with coal and natural gas (fossil fuels. Economic evaluation models of wind projects developed would allow investors to better plan their projects, as well as provide valuable insight into the areas that require further development to improve the overall economics of wind energy projects.

  10. The economics of aquifer storage recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, R.; Pyne, G.

    2014-10-01

    Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) technology is increasingly being utilized around the world for storing water underground through one or more wells during wet months and other times when water is available for storage. The water is then recovered from the same wells when needed to meet a growing variety of water supply objectives. The economics of ASR constitute the principal reason for its increasing utilization. ASR unit capital costs are typically less than half those of other water supply and water storage alternatives. Unit operating costs are usually only slightly greater than for conventional production well-fields. Marginal costs for ASR storage and recovery provide a powerful tool for making more efficient use of existing infrastructure, providing water supply sustainability and reliability at relatively low cost. The opportunity exists for a careful analysis of the net present value of ASR well-fields, addressing not only the associated capital and operating costs but also the value of the benefits achieved for each of the water supply objectives at each site. (Author)

  11. Multiple objective particle swarm optimization technique for economic load dispatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bo; CAO Yi-jia

    2005-01-01

    A multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) approach for multi-objective economic load dispatch problem in power system is presented in this paper. The economic load dispatch problem is a non-linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem. The proposed MOPSO approach handles the problem as a multi-objective problem with competing and non-commensurable fuel cost, emission and system loss objectives and has a diversity-preserving mechanism using an external memory (call "repository") and a geographically-based approach to find widely different Pareto-optimal solutions. In addition, fuzzy set theory is employed to extract the best compromise solution. Several optimization runs of the proposed MOPSO approach were carried out on the standard IEEE 30-bus test system. The results revealed the capabilities of the proposed MOPSO approach to generate well-distributed Pareto-optimal non-dominated solutions of multi-objective economic load dispatch. Com parison with Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) showed the superiority of the proposed MOPSO approach and confirmed its potential for solving multi-objective economic load dispatch.

  12. Economic risk analysis and critical comparison of optimal biorefinery concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, eight optimal biorefinery concepts for biofuels and biochemicals production are critically analyzed and compared in terms of their techno-economic performance and associated economic risks against historical market fluctuations. The investigated biorefinery concepts consider......, whereas the thermochemical conversion platform is favored for a relatively larger production capacity; and (iv) the microalgae-based biorefinery concept performed worse in terms of economics compared to the others, which is largely due to the cost of algae production and harvesting. In general, we...

  13. Stochastic Optimal Economic Growth Model with Natural Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shaobo; HU Shigeng; WANG Maofa

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines an economic growth problem how social planners reasonably open up and retain natural resources. The objective is to maximize the total expected discounted utility of comsumption. Social planners ' optimal decision and optimal expected rates at the steady state are derived. At last, how productivity and productivity shock affect on the expected growth rate, consumption-resources ratio and the fraction of exploited resources, are analyzed.

  14. Law and Technology Theory: Bringing in Some Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosow, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The author argues economic analysis needs to be explicitly included in an overall theory of law and technology. Differing approaches to the economics of information are considered, and the copyright policy environment of the 1990s is taken as an example of how the lack of substantive economic analysis resulted in poor policy-making.

  15. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte M.G.; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to increa

  16. Real-Time Optimization for Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Edlund, Kristian; Frison, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an efficient homogeneous and self-dual interior-point method for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control. To exploit structure in the optimization problems, the algorithm employs a highly specialized Riccati iteration procedure. Simulations show...

  17. Structural analysis of complex ecological economic optimal control problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates the importance and effectiveness of methods of bifurcation theory applied to studying non-convex optimal control problems. It opens up a new methodological approach to investigation of parameterized economic models. While standard analytical methods are not efficient and

  18. Confidence bands for measured economically optimal nitrogen rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    While numerous researchers have computed economically optimal N rate (EONR) values from measured yield – N rate data, nearly all have neglected to compute or estimate the statistical reliability of these EONR values. In this study, a simple method for computing EONR and its confidence bands is descr...

  19. Challenges when Performing Economic Optimization of Waste Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans

    2011-01-01

    New investments in waste treatment facilities are needed due to a number of factors including continuously increasing waste amounts, political demands for efficient utilization of the waste resources in terms of recycling or energy production, and decommissioning of existing waste treatment...... facilities due to age and stricter environmental regulation. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies will be economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing...... in multi criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented and the main challenges and the crucial parameters to take into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both...

  20. Virtues of simple hydro-economic optimization: Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellín-Azuara, J; Mendoza-Espinosa, L G; Lund, J R; Harou, J J; Howitt, R E

    2009-08-01

    This paper uses simple hydro-economic optimization to investigate a wide range of regional water system management options for northern Baja California, Mexico. Hydro-economic optimization models, even with parsimonious model formulations, enable investigation of promising water management portfolios for supplying water to agricultural, environmental and urban users. CALVIN, a generalized hydro-economic model, is used in a case study of Baja California. This drought-prone region faces significant challenges to supply water to agriculture and its fast growing border cities. Water management portfolios include water markets, wastewater reuse, seawater desalination and infrastructure expansions. Water markets provide the flexibility to meet future urban demands; however conveyance capacity limits their use. Wastewater reuse and conveyance expansions are economically promising. At current costs desalination is currently uneconomical for Baja California compared to other alternatives. Even simple hydro-economic models suggest ways to increase efficiency of water management in water scarce areas, and provide an economic basis for evaluating long-term water management solutions.

  1. Optimal investment in learning-curve technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Seta, M.; Gryglewicz, S.; Kort, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study optimal investment in technologies characterized by the learning curve. There are two investment patterns depending on the shape of the learning curve. If the learning process is slow, firms invest relatively late and on a larger scale. If the curve is steep, firms invest earlier and on a s

  2. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model.......This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological...... development are one of the main causes for the very diverging results which have been obtained using bottom-up and top-down models for analysing the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. One of the objectives for studies comparing model results have been to create comparable model assumptions regarding...

  3. Indicators for technological, environmental and economic sustainability of ozone contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-09-15

    Various studies have attempted to improve disinfection efficiency as a way to improve the sustainability of ozone disinfection which is a critical unit process for water treatment. Baffling factor, CT10, and log-inactivation are commonly used indicators for quantifying disinfection credits. However the applicability of these indicators and the relationship between these indicators have not been investigated in depth. This study simulated flow, tracer transport, and chemical species transport in a full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department and six other modified designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone contactor designs and upgrades and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability in technological, environmental and economic dimensions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE AEROCONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-07-01

    Selection of the appropriate composition and optimal technological parameters is performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 software programme developed at MSUCE. The software is based on the methodology that is based on complete factorial experiments, experiments based on fractional replicates and testing of all essential statistical hypotheses. Linear, incomplete quadratic and quadratic equations generated as a result of experiments make it possible to design a model that represents natural processes in the adequate manner. The model is analytically optimized and interpreted thereafter.

  5. Optimal control theory applications to management science and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Sethi, Suresh P

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control methods are used to determine the best ways to control a dynamic system. This book applies theoretical work to business management problems developed from the authors' research and classroom instruction. The thoroughly revised new edition has been refined with careful attention to the text and graphic material presentation. Chapters cover a range of topics including finance, production and inventory problems, marketing problems, machine maintenance and replacement, problems of optimal consumption of natural resources, and applications of control theory to economics. The book in

  6. An Optimization Study on Syngas Production and Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Faraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Syngas production in Gas-to-liquid (GTL process is focused in past by several researchers to increase the production with minimal capital and operating costs. In this study, syngas production process is simulated and optimized to increase its production and the economic analysis is studied for the proposed optimized process. Aspen HYSYS v8.4 is used for all process simulation work in this article. A new configuration is rigorously simulated while using auto-thermal reforming. Results exhibit a tremendous rise in production of syngas.

  7. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, H.

    2013-01-01

    Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources......, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible.Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one...... example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi...

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-29

    Rijswijk POLYTECHNISCH WEEKBLAD, 17 Sep 92] 2 EC Technology Training Program Reported Successful [Paris ENTREPRISES & TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Oct...from 111.1 million to 104.5 million guilders. EC Technology Training Program Reported Successful v> 93BR0028 Paris ENTREPRISES ...could envisage replacing these national quotas with degressive community quotas, comparable to those prac- ticed in the automotive industry. This idea

  9. Economics of alternative palm oil processing technologies in Imo State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of alternative palm oil processing technologies in Imo State. ... This study was designed to analyse the costs and returns of alternative palm oil processing ... Output of Palm oil and consequently net returns would increase if palm oil ...

  10. Optimal Portfolio Strategy under Rolling Economic Maximum Drawdown Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of optimal portfolio strategy under the constraints of rolling economic maximum drawdown. A more practical strategy is developed by using rolling Sharpe ratio in computing the allocation proportion in contrast to existing models. Besides, another novel strategy named “REDP strategy” is further proposed, which replaces the rolling economic drawdown of the portfolio with the rolling economic drawdown of the risky asset. The simulation tests prove that REDP strategy can ensure the portfolio to satisfy the drawdown constraint and outperforms other strategies significantly. An empirical comparison research on the performances of different strategies is carried out by using the 23-year monthly data of SPTR, DJUBS, and 3-month T-bill. The investment cases of single risky asset and two risky assets are both studied in this paper. Empirical results indicate that the REDP strategy successfully controls the maximum drawdown within the given limit and performs best in both return and risk.

  11. Technological Optimization of the Preparation of Imidacloprid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻建平; 王长林

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce the production cost of imidacloprid, the preparation technology for the direct combination of 2-chloro-5-chloromethylpyridine and 2-nitryliminoglyoxaline has been optimized in a 10L stirred tank reactor with a new solvent, butanone, and a new catalyst, benzyl triethyl-ammonium chloride (BTEAC), which was proved to be more profitable for the production of imidacloprid. Three main affecting factors (the reaction temperature, the molar ratio of BTEAC to 2-nitryliminoglyoxaline and the concentration of 2-nitryliminoglyoxaline) for the production of imidacloprid were investigated and the optimum operating conditions were found. Based on the above technological optimization, an industrial process for imidacloprid with a production capacity of 50 tons per year was put in operation using a 2500 L stirred tank reactor under the same operating conditions. Good yield and purity of imidacloprid was also obtained ia the industrial production.

  12. Promoting Economic Security through Information Technology Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... today, we have witness a lot of national security issues that risks the continued existence of the country as one ... lack of economic security such as Income security, Employment security, Job security, ..... In Australia, building and .... Table 4.2.8 Respondents by IT on Oil and Gas production and distribution.

  13. Information Technology: Key to Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    THE spread of SARS in China during the first half of 2003 focused world concern on Chinese economic development. The Chinese economy indeed suffered; in the first five months of the year Zhejiang Province’s industrial revenue slid, but recovered in the latter half of the year. From January to November, 2003, Zhejiang industry

  14. Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area:Community Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area, for 13 years of development, has made detailed work in building the investment environment, bold job in the management system innovation, full strengths in business recruitment and investment attacting,hard job in cultivating new point of economic growth.

  15. Information and Communication Technology and Economic Growth in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erumban, Abdul; Das, Deb Kusum

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of economic growth in Indian economy since the 1980s, with particular focus on the role of information and communication technology (ICT). The impact of ICT on economic growth is analyzed via two main channels. The direct contribution of ICT investment to aggregate ec

  16. Economic and environmental multi-objective optimization to evaluate the impact of Belgian policy on solar power and electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Ellen; Van Passel, Steven; Lizin, Sebastien; Vincent, Thomas; Martin, Benjamin; Gandibleux, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This research uses multi-objective optimization to determine the optimal mixture of energy and transportation technologies, while optimizing economic and environmental impacts. We demonstrate the added value of using multi-objective mixed integer linear programming (MOMILP) considering economies of scale versus using continuous multi-objective linear programming (MOLP) assuming average cost intervals. This paper uses an improved version to solve MOMILPs exactly (Vincent, et al. 2013). To diff...

  17. JPRS Report Science & Technology: Europe Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in Singapore and Malaysia . Apart from these in-house tasks, the economics minister Juergen Mllemann unwittingly speeded up the HL loca- tion...employees live in Malaysia , the United States, and Mexico. Only 4,500 of them are employed in France. Without running the risk of a social protest...venture between the state-owned operator Matav (Hungarian Telecommunications Company Ltd), private enterprise Kontrax Telekom pic, the local borough

  18. Thermo economical optimization of sugar plants with environmental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, Mauricio; Mele, Fernando Daniel; Hernandez, Maria Rosa [Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (UNT), Tucuman (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia], Email: macolombo@herrera.unt.edu.ar; Gatica, Jorge [Cleveland State University (CSU), Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering], Email: j.gatica@csuohio.edu; Silveira, Jose Luz [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEG/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia], Email: joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper highlights the need for analysis and optimization techniques which can be applied to new energy systems and include considerations for environmental issues. These techniques have proven indispensable in dealing with the constrained optimization problem of finite natural resources and growing demands of energy. Within this framework, thermo economical optimization has gradually been brought to the forefront as a powerful tool in assisting the decision-making process. This work uses the technique of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) as a means to include environmental indexes in the optimization process. While most of the environmental approaches formulate the optimization problem aiming to reduce residue generation without assessing the impact of this reduction on related processes, LCA considers environmental issues as an integral part of the optimization problem. A sugar cane processing plant located in Tucuman (Argentina) is selected as a case study. This example serves to highlight the importance of formulating solutions that ensure an efficient use of a common fuel to meet useful heat, shaft power, and electricity demands. (author)

  19. Economic Incentives for Cybersecurity: Using Economics to Design Technologies Ready for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishik, Claire [Intel Corporation; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Ott, David [Intel Corporation

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity practice lags behind cyber technology achievements. Solutions designed to address many problems may and do exist but frequently cannot be broadly deployed due to economic constraints. Whereas security economics focuses on the cost/benefit analysis and supply/demand, we believe that more sophisticated theoretical approaches, such as economic modeling, rarely utilized, would derive greater societal benefits. Unfortunately, today technologists pursuing interesting and elegant solutions have little knowledge of the feasibility for broad deployment of their results and cannot anticipate the influences of other technologies, existing infrastructure, and technology evolution, nor bring the solutions lifecycle into the equation. Additionally, potentially viable solutions are not adopted because the risk perceptions by potential providers and users far outweighs the economic incentives to support introduction/adoption of new best practices and technologies that are not well enough defined. In some cases, there is no alignment with redominant and future business models as well as regulatory and policy requirements. This paper provides an overview of the economics of security, reviewing work that helped to define economic models for the Internet economy from the 1990s. We bring forward examples of potential use of theoretical economics in defining metrics for emerging technology areas, positioning infrastructure investment, and building real-time response capability as part of software development. These diverse examples help us understand the gaps in current research. Filling these gaps will be instrumental for defining viable economic incentives, economic policies, regulations as well as early-stage technology development approaches, that can speed up commercialization and deployment of new technologies in cybersecurity.

  20. Jet Drilling and Optimizing Parameter Drilling Technology in Shengli Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yue; Peng Junsheng

    1996-01-01

    @@ In Shengli oilfield, remarkable achievements have been obtained in research and tests on the technologies of jet drilling and optimizing parameter drilling, extensive applications of the technologies have greatly improved drilling speed and sharply decreased drilling time and costs, thus achieving excellent social and economic benefits.

  1. The changing role of economic evaluation in valuing medical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Jason S; Foerster, Douglas; Bridges, John Fp

    2012-12-01

    Economic evaluation is established within health-technology assessment but is challenged by those wanting to use economic evaluation to inform pricing and/or incorporate nontraditional sources of value and the views of diverse stakeholders. The changing role of economic evaluation in (formally or informally) assessing prices/values in four jurisdictions (UK, Australia, Germany and USA) is detailed and the authors propose a taxonomy of factors impacting the value of medical technology spanning clinical utility (effectiveness, safety/tolerability and quality of evidence), consumer demand (consumer preferences, process utility and unmet need), economic incentives (innovation, option value and market competition) and the societal perspective (social justice, social values and national interest). The authors suggest that multicriteria decision analysis methods grounded in hedonic-pricing theory can facilitate the valuing/pricing of medical technologies. The use of such an approach is hindered by a paucity of relevant educational opportunities, vested interests and aversion to placing prices/values on health.

  2. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-11

    general-council president Rene Monory, commenting on Poitiers’s Futuroscope, explains that "We had no chance of catching up with the other French...in Compiegne; Vatine Technology Park in Rouen; Caen-Normandie Technopolis in Caen; Cite Descartes in Marne-la-Vallee; Brest Iroise in Brest; Quimper

  4. Ecological-economic optimization of biodiversity conservation under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Brendan A.; Bekessy, Sarah A.; Keith, David A.; van Wilgen, Brian W.; Cabeza, Mar; Schröder, Boris; Carvalho, Silvia B.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Maiorano, Luigi; Regan, Tracey J.; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2011-10-01

    Substantial investment in climate change research has led to dire predictions of the impacts and risks to biodiversity. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change fourth assessment report cites 28,586 studies demonstrating significant biological changes in terrestrial systems. Already high extinction rates, driven primarily by habitat loss, are predicted to increase under climate change. Yet there is little specific advice or precedent in the literature to guide climate adaptation investment for conserving biodiversity within realistic economic constraints. Here we present a systematic ecological and economic analysis of a climate adaptation problem in one of the world's most species-rich and threatened ecosystems: the South African fynbos. We discover a counterintuitive optimal investment strategy that switches twice between options as the available adaptation budget increases. We demonstrate that optimal investment is nonlinearly dependent on available resources, making the choice of how much to invest as important as determining where to invest and what actions to take. Our study emphasizes the importance of a sound analytical framework for prioritizing adaptation investments. Integrating ecological predictions in an economic decision framework will help support complex choices between adaptation options under severe uncertainty. Our prioritization method can be applied at any scale to minimize species loss and to evaluate the robustness of decisions to uncertainty about key assumptions.

  5. ROLE OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN TAX OPTIMIZATION OF ECONOMIC SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashkatov V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is due to the fact that in modern conditions the question of the effectiveness of tax accounting, the optimal model of its interaction with management accounting, as well as enhancing the role of the tax administration, tax optimization at the level of the entity and the construction of the administrative account for tax purposes are particularly acute. As a consequence there is the need to investigate the bookkeeping and fiscal accounting data harmonization with the aim of taxation control, analysis, management and optimization. This problem is solved through organization and fulfillment of management accounting playing the key role in data consolidation in the unified information system to solve the arising problems. The paper presents the theoretical and methodological aspects of management accounting aimed at taxation optimization. The scientific and methodical approaches and recommendations presented in the article allow extension of the theoretical understanding of the tax and management accounting systems, increase the range of missions in management accounting tasks related to tax optimization and effective management of tax liabilities of the organization. All this will enhance the analyticity of information, the effectiveness of management decisions in the field of taxation. The provisions of the article can be used in the practice of accounting and economic services organizations, audit, consulting organizations

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe, Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-25

    discovery of superconductors at temperatures above the boiling point of nitrogen has speeded up develop- ment in this field worldwide. Studies are currently... sensor technology and information processing to develop artificial intelligence. This major research center does not deal only with the "big...plans to the extent of $100 million. Malicious French gossip has it that it is the Italian government who foots the bill. In addition, the production

  7. Economic impact of applying advanced technologies to transport airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, A. J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Various technologies have been studied which could have application to the design of future transport airplanes. These technologies include the use of supercritical aerodynamics, composite materials, and active control systems, together with advanced engine designs that provide lower noise and pollutant levels. The economic impact of each technology is shown for a typical fleet of 195-passenger, transcontinental commercial transports cruising at both 0.9M and 0.98M. Comparisons are made with conventional transports cruising at 0.82M. Effects of combining the technologies are discussed. An R & D program aimed at bringing the technologies to fruition is outlined.

  8. Economic and developmental considerations for pharmacogenomic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, John A; Johnson, Scott J; Hughen, W Keener; Trujillo, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's core business is the innovation, development and marketing of new drugs. Pharmacogenetic (PG) testing and technology has the potential to increase a drug's value in many ways. A critical issue for the industry is whether products in development should be teamed with genetic tests that could segment the total population into responders and non-responders. In this paper we use a cost-effectiveness framework to model the strategic decision-making considerations by pharmaceutical manufacturers as they relate to drug development and the new technology of PG (the science of using genetic markers to predict drug response). In a simple, static, one-period model we consider three drug development strategies: a drug is exclusively developed and marketed to patients with a particular genetic marker; no distinguishing among patients based on the expression of a genetic marker is made (traditional approach); and a strategy whereby a drug is marketed to patients both with and without the genetic marker but there is price discrimination between the two subpopulations. We developed three main principles: revenues under a strategy targeting only the responder subpopulation will never generate more revenue than that which could have been obtained under a traditional approach; total revenues under a targeted PG strategy will be less than that under a traditional approach but higher than a naive [corrected] view would believe them to be; and a traditional [corrected] approach will earn the same total revenues as a price discrimination strategy, assuming no intermarket arbitrage. While these principles relate to the singular (and quite narrow) consideration of drug revenues, they may nevertheless partially explain why PG is not being used as widely as was predicted several years ago when the technology first became available, especially in terms of pharmaceutical manufacturer-developed tests.

  9. Economical Optimization of the Mechanized Longwall Faces with Top Coal Caving Mining, In Horizontal Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onica, Ilie; Mihăilescu, Viorel; Andrioni, Felicia

    2016-09-01

    To increase the economic and technical performances of the Jiu Valley hard coal mines, the top coal caving, in horizontal slices, mining methods (Bourbaki methods) were introduced, adapted to the local geo-mining conditions. This mining was successfully experimented by using classical technology, using the individual supports and coal blasting. In the future, it is planned to adopt the mechanized technology, with frame supports and shearers. The mechanized longwall faces with top coal caving mining, in horizontal slices, of coal seam no. 3 could be efficient only if the sizes of the top coal height and the panel length determine a minimum cost of production. Therefore, the goal of this paper is the optimization of these parameters, from a technical and economic point of view, taking into account the general model of the cost function, at the panel level. For that, it was necessary to make a certain sequence of analysis involving: technological unit establishment, purpose function and optimizing model. Thus, there attaining to the mathematical model of the unit cost, after determination of all the individual calculation articles, regarding the preparatory workings, coal face equipments, materials, energy, workforce, etc. Because of the complexity of the obtained technical and economic model, to determine the optimum sizes of the panel length and top coal height, it was necessary to archive a sensitivity analysis of the unit cost function to the main parameters implied into this mathematical model.

  10. Cost Optimization and Technology Enablement COTSAT-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Lindsay, Michael C.; Klupar, Peter Damian; Swank, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Cost Optimized Test of Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT-1) is an ongoing spacecraft research and development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The space industry was a hot bed of innovation and development at its birth. Many new technologies were developed for and first demonstrated in space. In the recent past this trend has reversed with most of the new technology funding and research being driven by the private industry. Most of the recent advances in spaceflight hardware have come from the cell phone industry with a lag of about 10 to 15 years from lab demonstration to in space usage. NASA has started a project designed to address this problem. The prototype spacecraft known as Cost Optimized Test of Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT-1) and CheapSat work to reduce these issues. This paper highlights the approach taken by NASA Ames Research center to achieve significant subsystem cost reductions. The COSTAT-1 research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing spacecraft. The COTSAT-1 team demonstrated building a fully functional spacecraft for $500K parts and $2.0M labor. The COTSAT-1 system, including a selected science payload, is described within this paper. Many of the advancements identified in the process of cost reduction can be attributed to the use of a one-atmosphere pressurized structure to house the spacecraft components. By using COTS hardware, the spacecraft program can utilize investments already made by commercial vendors. This ambitious project development philosophy/cycle has yielded the COTSAT-1 flight hardware. This paper highlights the advancements of the COTSAT-1 spacecraft leading to the delivery of the current flight hardware that is now located at NASA Ames Research Center. This paper also addresses the plans for COTSAT-2.

  11. Patterns in Standards and Technologies for Economic Information Systems Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Irimia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presets results from a review of the current standards used for collaboration between economic information systems, including web services and service oriented architecture, EDI, ebXML framework, RosettaNet framework, cXML, xCBL UBL, BPMN, BPEL, WS-CDL, ASN.1, and others. Standards have a key role in promoting economic information system interoperability, and thus enable collaboration. Analyzing the current standards, technologies and applications used for economic information systems interoperability has revealed a common pattern that runs through all of them. From this pattern we construct a basic model of interoperability around which we relate and judge all standards, technologies and applications for economic information systems interoperability.

  12. Climate Change Technology Scenarios: Energy, Emissions, and Economic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placet, Marylynn; Humphreys, Kenneth K.; Mahasenan, N Maha

    2004-08-15

    This report describes three advanced technology scenarios and various illustrative cases developed by staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. These scenarios and illustrative cases explore the energy, emissions and economic implications of using advanced energy technologies and other climate change related technologies to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The cases were modeled using the Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) developed by PNNL. The report describes the scenarios, the specifications for the cases, and the results. The report also provides background information on current emissions of GHGs and issues associated with stabilizing GHG concentrations.

  13. Economic evaluation of the technological development of coal extraction. Ekonomicheskaya otsenka tekhnologicheskogo razvitiya ugledobychu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golland, E.B.; Rybakova, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    The monograph investigates the trends and prospects in the development of major technological directions in coal extraction. The characteristics of the development of the coal industry at the modern stage are analyzed and the basic trends of technical progress in coal extraction are characterized. Attention is devoted to the problems of evaluating the effectiveness and of determining the rational scales for using different technologies for coal extraction in the long range using economic and mathematical modeling. A model for optimizing the technological development of a coal basin is proposed. The results of calculation variants in terms of a model for the Kuzbass are presented.

  14. Economic analysis of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall shortage and variability constrain crop production of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and climate change may even aggravate this problem. An attractive method to mitigate this is water harvesting. This thesis examines the economic aspects of water harvesting by exploring optimal water use a

  15. Why Invest in EconomicTechnological Development Zones?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to attract foreign direct investment, China has established 52 Statelevel Economic & technological Investment Zones (ETDZs). ETDZs lay emphasis on capital-intensive, technology-intensive, hi-tech and production export enterprises. The investment scale of every project in the zones is twice that of the rest of the country. A large number of investment projects are large projects with investment capital over US$IO million,

  16. A Technical and Economic Optimization Approach to Exploring Offshore Renewable Energy Development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tagestad, Jerry D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perkins, Casey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oster, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warwick, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) as part of ongoing efforts to minimize key risks and reduce the cost and time associated with permitting and deploying ocean renewable energy. The focus of the study was to discuss a possible approach to exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that attempts to optimize future development based on technical, economic, and policy criteria. The goal of the study was not to identify potentially suitable or feasible locations for development, but to discuss how such an approach may be developed for a given offshore area. Hawaii was selected for this case study due to the complex nature of the energy climate there and DOE’s ongoing involvement to support marine spatial planning for the West Coast. Primary objectives of the study included 1) discussing the political and economic context for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii, especially with respect to how inter-island transmission may affect the future of renewable energy development in Hawaii; 2) applying a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach that has been used to assess the technical suitability of offshore renewable energy technologies in Washington, Oregon, and California, to Hawaii’s offshore environment; and 3) formulate a mathematical model for exploring scenarios for ocean renewable energy development in Hawaii that seeks to optimize technical and economic suitability within the context of Hawaii’s existing energy policy and planning.

  17. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  18. Information and communication technology use and economic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farhadi

    Full Text Available In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants. We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use.

  19. Information and Communication Technology Use and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Maryam; Ismail, Rahmah; Fooladi, Masood

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT) has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants). We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use. PMID:23152817

  20. Information and communication technology use and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Maryam; Ismail, Rahmah; Fooladi, Masood

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT) has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants). We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use.

  1. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method.

  2. Airframe technology for aircraft energy efficiency. [economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. L., Jr.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1984-01-01

    The economic factors that resulted in the implementation of the aircraft energy efficiency program (ACEE) are reviewed and airframe technology elements including content, progress, applications, and future direction are discussed. The program includes the development of laminar flow systems, advanced aerodynamics, active controls, and composite structures.

  3. Economic evaluation of information technology applications on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on the economic evaluation of information technology (IT) applications on dairy farms in order to support investment decisions. The evaluation included a normative (deductive) approach and an empirical (positive) approach. The normative approach predicte

  4. A Survey on Economic-driven Evaluations of Information Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.; Zarvić, N.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    The economic-driven evaluation of information technology (IT) has become an important instrument in the management of IT projects. Numerous approaches have been developed to quantify the costs of an IT investment and its assumed profit, to evaluate its impact on business process performance, and to

  5. Biomass torrefaction technology: Techno-economic status and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Mignot, A.P.R.; Schakel, W.B.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising bioenergy pre-treatment technology, with potential to make a major contribution to the commodification of biomass. However, there is limited scientific knowledge on the techno-economic performance of torrefaction. This study therefore improves available knowledge on torre

  6. Expert system for economic evaluation of technological projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Hlavenka

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the technical level, a basic tool for decision-making and realization of the technical innovation project is also its economic effectiveness. It is assessed by comparing expenses and effects with respect to all-society interests and standards valid in a relevant period for the areas of technology, economy, ecology, safety of work, etc.

  7. Economic Dispatch Thermal Generator Using Modified Improved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Natsir Rahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cost of a thermal generator is its own load functions. In this research, Modified Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (MIPSO is applied to calculate economic dispatch. Constriction Factor Approach (CFA is used to modify IPSO algorithm because of the advantage to improve the ability of global searching and avoid local minimum so that the time needed to converge become faster. Simulation results achieved by using  MIPSO method at the time of peak load of of 9602 MW, obtained generation cost is Rp 7,366,912,798,34 per hour, while generation cost of real system is Rp. 7,724,012,070.30 per hour. From the simulation result can be concluded that MIPSO can reduce the generation cost of  500 kV Jawa Bali transmission system of Rp 357,099,271.96 per hour or equal to 4,64%.

  8. ELEMENTS TAX OPTIMIZATION SMALL AND MEDIUM ECONOMIC AGENTS DURING CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoescu Gheorghe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania there is a high level of taxation, which dramatically reduces the remaining cash available to economic agents in the conditions in which short and long-term loans are granted at interest rates two to three times higher than in the European, US, and Japan. Failure to pay the debts to the state lead to access (interest, penalties and fines significant delay for one year can double duty. Under these conditions, small businesses are forced to seek personal savings (hopefully to offset debts receivable at IFNs in disadvantageous conditions of interest, or the underworld loan sharks. In these circumstances it is not surprising that the number of corporate bankrupts multiplied. In our attempt to answer PFA alternative employment or as a form of tax optimization.

  9. Economic Dispatch Thermal Generator Using Modified Improved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Natsir Rahman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cost of a thermal generator is its own load functions. In this research, Modified Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (MIPSO is applied to calculate economic dispatch. Constriction Factor Approach (CFA is used to modify IPSO algorithm because of the advantage to improve the ability of global searching and avoid local minimum so that the time needed to converge become faster. Simulation results achieved by using  MIPSO method at the time of peak load of of 9602 MW, obtained generation cost is Rp 7,366,912,798,34 per hour, while generation cost of real system is Rp. 7,724,012,070.30 per hour. From the simulation result can be concluded that MIPSO can reduce the generation cost of  500 kV Jawa Bali transmission system of Rp 357,099,271.96 per hour or equal to 4,64%.

  10. Multi-Objective Thermo-Economic Optimization Strategy for ORCs Applied to Subcritical and Transcritical Cycles for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lecompte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs are an established technology to convert waste heat to electricity. Although several commercial implementations exist, there is still considerable potential for thermo-economic optimization. As such, a novel framework for designing optimized ORC systems is proposed based on a multi-objective optimization scheme in combination with financial appraisal in a post-processing step. The suggested methodology provides the flexibility to quickly assess several economic scenarios and this without the need of knowing the complex design procedure. This novel way of optimizing and interpreting results is applied to a waste heat recovery case. Both the transcritical ORC and subcritical ORC are investigated and compared using the suggested optimization strategy.

  11. Essays on Applied Resource Economics Using Bioeconomic Optimization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affuso, Ermanno

    With rising demographic growth, there is increasing interest in analytical studies that assess alternative policies to provide an optimal allocation of scarce natural resources while ensuring environmental sustainability. This dissertation consists of three essays in applied resource economics that are interconnected methodologically within the agricultural production sector of Economics. The first chapter examines the sustainability of biofuels by simulating and evaluating an agricultural voluntary program that aims to increase the land use efficiency in the production of biofuels of first generation in the state of Alabama. The results show that participatory decisions may increase the net energy value of biofuels by 208% and reduce emissions by 26%; significantly contributing to the state energy goals. The second chapter tests the hypothesis of overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in U.S. peanut farming with respect to other inputs and address genetic research to reduce the use of the most overused chemical input. The findings suggest that peanut producers overuse fungicide with respect to any other input and that fungi resistant genetically engineered peanuts may increase the producer welfare up to 36.2%. The third chapter implements a bioeconomic model, which consists of a biophysical model and a stochastic dynamic recursive model that is used to measure potential economic and environmental welfare of cotton farmers derived from a rotation scheme that uses peanut as a complementary crop. The results show that the rotation scenario would lower farming costs by 14% due to nitrogen credits from prior peanut land use and reduce non-point source pollution from nitrogen runoff by 6.13% compared to continuous cotton farming.

  12. Modeling and optimization of the lifetime of technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hritonenko, Natali

    1996-01-01

    Modern economic growth is characterized by structural changes based on the introduction of new technologies into economics. The replacement and renova­ tion of technologies in industrial environments undergoing technical change is clearly one of the key aspects of economic development. The mathematical modeling of evolutionary economics under technical change (TC) has been rigorously considered by many authors during last decades. There is a wide variety of economic approaches and models describing different aspects of technical change. Among these are the models of embodied technical progress [19], [35], [70], [129], endogenous growth models [94], [102], the models of technological innovations [31], [32], [41], and others. The perspective self­ organization evolutionary approach is developed in [20], [38], [122], [123], [124], [126], which unites the aspects of diffusion of new technologies, technological and behavioral diversity of firms, learning mechanisms, age-dependent effects, and other important fea...

  13. Knowledge Creation and Technology Difusion: A Framework to Understand Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Gomes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The most influential explanations of economic growth along the past five decades rely on two main items: human capital accumulation and the dissemination of knowledge/technological diffusion. These items traditionally appear as separate growth sources. In this paper an integrated perspective is adopted. We begin by building a growth model where two goals regarding technological achievements are considered; economic agents simultaneously want to expand the theoretical knowledge frontier and to reduce the gap between ready-to-use techniques and potentially available knowledge. Considering an objective function that captures the two pointed goals, one develops an intertemporal optimization setup concerning a two sector scenario. The first sector adapts existent technology to productive uses, while the second is an education sector. In this way, we can study the close relationship between technical progress and human capital generation decisions under an intertemporal perspective.

  14. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  15. Issues surrounding the health economic evaluation of genomic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, James; Wordsworth, Sarah; Schuh, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Aim Genomic interventions could enable improved disease stratification and individually tailored therapies. However, they have had a limited impact on clinical practice to date due to a lack of evidence, particularly economic evidence. This is partly because health economists are yet to reach consensus on whether existing methods are sufficient to evaluate genomic technologies. As different approaches may produce conflicting adoption decisions, clarification is urgently required. This article summarizes the methodological issues associated with conducting economic evaluations of genomic interventions. Materials & methods A structured literature review was conducted to identify references that considered the methodological challenges faced when conducting economic evaluations of genomic interventions. Results Methodological challenges related to the analytical approach included the choice of comparator, perspective and timeframe. Challenges in costing centered around the need to collect a broad range of costs, frequently, in a data-limited environment. Measuring outcomes is problematic as standard measures have limited applicability, however, alternative metrics (e.g., personal utility) are underdeveloped and alternative approaches (e.g., cost–benefit analysis) underused. Effectiveness data quality is weak and challenging to incorporate into standard economic analyses, while little is known about patient and clinician behavior in this context. Comprehensive value of information analyses are likely to be helpful. Conclusion Economic evaluations of genomic technologies present a particular challenge for health economists. New methods may be required to resolve these issues, but the evidence to justify alternative approaches is yet to be produced. This should be the focus of future work in this field. PMID:24236483

  16. ECONOMIC AND ENERGETICAL ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED WASTE UTILIZATION PLASMA TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei VAMBOL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy and economic evaluation of the improved plasma waste utilization technological process, as well as an expediency substantiation of the use of improved plasma technology by comparing its energy consumption with other thermal methods of utilization. Methodology. Analysis of existing modern and advanced methods of waste management and its impact on environmental safety. Considering of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies. Results. Studies have shown regular gasification ensure greater heating value due to differences, a significant amount of nitrogen than for plasma gasification. From the point of view of minimizing energy and monetary costs and environmental safety more promising is to offer advanced technology for plasma waste. To carry out the energy assessment of the appropriateness of the considered technologies-comparative calculation was carried out at the standard conditions. This is because in the processing of waste produced useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas (94% methane and a fuel gas for heating, suitable for sale that provides cost-effectiveness of this technology. Originality. Shown and evaluated ecological and economic efficiency of proposed improved plasma waste utilization technology compared with other thermal techniques. Practical value. Considered and grounded of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies, namely ordinary gasification and using plasma generators. Proposed plasma waste utilization technology allows to obtain useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas and a fuel gas for heating, which are suitable for sale. Plant for improved plasma waste utilization technological process allows to compensate the daily and seasonal electricity and heat consumption fluctuations by allowing the storage of obtained fuel products.

  17. Direct reduced iron. Technology and economics of production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinman, J.; MacRae, D.R. (eds.) [J. Feinman and Associates Inc., Boynton Beach, FL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Chapters in this revised book on direct reduced iron (DRI) covers direct reduction's place in the world steel industry, history of direct reduction, thermodynamics, kinetics and mechanisms in direct reduced iron, iron-bearing raw materials for direct reduction, fuels and reductants, direct reduction processes, handling and shipping of DRI/HBI, use of DRI in steel making, ironmaking and foundries, reduction smelting processes - technology and economics, computer modelling and analysis of processes for the production and use of DRI, economics of production and use of DRI, and direct reduction and reduction smelting terminology.

  18. Flash memories economic principles of performance, cost and reliability optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this book is to introduce a model-based quantitative performance indicator methodology applicable for performance, cost and reliability optimization of non-volatile memories. The complex example of flash memories is used to introduce and apply the methodology. It has been developed by the author based on an industrial 2-bit to 4-bit per cell flash development project. For the first time, design and cost aspects of 3D integration of flash memory are treated in this book. Cell, array, performance and reliability effects of flash memories are introduced and analyzed. Key performance parameters are derived to handle the flash complexity. A performance and array memory model is developed and a set of performance indicators characterizing architecture, cost and durability is defined.   Flash memories are selected to apply the Performance Indicator Methodology to quantify design and technology innovation. A graphical representation based on trend lines is introduced to support a requirement based pr...

  19. TECHNOLOGY AS A DRIVER FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Piquito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: For some time now it has been suggested that technology, in its many forms, is to a large extent responsible for enhancing and driving the process of economic development. The question therefore arises as to whether it is possible to establish a correlation between the level oftechnological expertise ofa nation and its economic development. On the strength of the research results contained in this article, there does appear to be a definite correlation between technology and economic development. Having established the validity of this relationship, the question of whether South Africa is positioned to take advantage of such knowledge is investigated . It is found that economic success in South Africa is to a large degree dependent on the ability of the government and other relevant bodies to establish and sustain a comprehensive, coherent and practical program of technologically driven economic development./P>

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Dit word reeds 'n geruime tyd voorgestel dat tegnologie in sy verskeie vorms grootliks verantwoordelik is vir die uitbou en dryfkrag in die ekonomiese ontwikkelingsproses . 'n Vraag wat dus ontstaan is of dit moontlik is om 'n korrelasie te vind tussen die tegnologiese kundigheid van 'n nasie en sy ekonomiese ontwikkeling. Die navorsingsresultate vervat in hierdie artikel toon 'n besliste korrelasie tussen tegnologie en ekonomiese ontwikkeling. Met die bestaan van so 'n verwantskap bevestig is die vraag of Suid-Afrika geposisioneer is om voordeel te trek uit sodanige kennis. Dit word bevind dat die ekonomiese sukses, in SuidAfrika grootliks afhanklik is van die verrnoe van die regering en ander relevante instansies om 'n omvattende, koherente en praktiese program van tegnologies gedrewe ekonomiese ontwikke~ing daar te stel en te onderhou.

  20. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  1. Notes on Globalization: Cultural, Technological, and Economic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayden Solano Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of economies with the consequent opening of the markets, the modernization of both public and private organisms; the increase in competitiveness; privatization; reduction in the size of the state; and economic interconnectedness, both by economic regionalization of geographic areas and by the integration of markets in dissimilar geographic regions; are some of the characteristics of the global shift or new world order. Within this context, this article intends to analyze the phenomenon of globalization in its cultural, economic, and technological aspects. These components have permeated various sectors of society on a global level, thus creating integration and interrelations among diverse actors, in which the state does not act alone but it is joined by other actors from the international system. Hence, this article seeks to analyze the behavior of the global village and culture within the phenomenon of globalization, from economic and technological aspects. It highlights the importance of communication media or the so-called information age, the global financial market and, finally, the role played by integrative processes and the need to restructure principal international institutions.

  2. The economic impact of future biological nitrogen fixation technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W.

    1988-01-01

    The economic impact of some future biological nitrogen fixation technologies are estimated using AGSIM, a dynamic, partial equilibrium, econometric model of the U.S. agricultural sector. Five separate scenarios were modeled: (1) legumes fix more nitrogen, (2) legumes fix more nitrogen with an increase in legumes yields of 10 percent, (3) nitrogen fertilization requirements on all crops are reduced 50 percent with no yield changes, (4) total elimination of nitrogen fertilization and (5) total ...

  3. Optimal screening designs for biomedical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torney, D.C.; Bruno, W.J.; Knill, E. [and others

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Screening a large number of different types of molecules to isolate a few with desirable properties is essential in biomedical technology. For example, trying to find a particular gene in the Human genome could be akin to looking for a needle in a haystack. Fortunately, testing of mixtures, or pools, of molecules allows the desirable ones to be identified, using a number of experiments proportional only to the logarithm of the total number of experiments proportional only to the logarithm of the total number of types of molecules. We show how to capitalize upon this potential by using optimize pooling schemes, or designs. We propose efficient non-adaptive pooling designs, such as {open_quotes}random sets{close_quotes} designs and modified {open_quotes}row and column{close_quotes} designs. Our results have been applied in the pooling and unique-sequence screening of clone libraries used in the Human Genome Project and in the mapping of Human chromosome 16. This required the use of liquid-transferring robots and manifolds--for the largest clone libraries. Finally, we developed an efficient technique for finding the posterior probability each molecule has the desirable property, given the pool assay results. This technique works well, in practice, even if there are substantial rates of errors in the pool assay data. Both our methods and our results are relevant to a broad spectrum of research in modern biology.

  4. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW.

  5. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  6. Economic considerations in the optimal size and number of reserve sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The debate among ecologists on the optimal number of reserve sites under a fixed maximum total reserve area-the single large or several small (SLOSS) problem-has so far neglected the economic aspects of the problem. This paper argues that economic considerations can affect the optimal number and siz

  7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT MULTICRITERIAL ECONOMIC AND MATHEMATICAL MODELS COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGY GROWING CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyko V. I.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Production and processing of grains formed in the national economic system of the country a number of cereals-governmental sectors, such as grain production, grain elevator industry, flour, cereals and mixed fodder production, which constitute the grain complex country. The significance and role of the grain as a commodity in the state economy can not be overestimated. This product, is totally liquid, which has a constant, steady demand at any time of the year, in any region. Ongoing measures to increase grain production and improve its implementation did not have a complex character, therefore, insignificant effect on the efficiency of the industry and the competitiveness of grain production. The shortagecovered by imports.According to the characteristics of management in agriculture, it should be emphasized that the absence of objective and timely information at all stages of production of the plant-breeding, and as a result, non-optimal choice of technology of cultivation of agricultural crops, might result in the fact that the cost of labor and material resources increases significantly, the company does not receive profits, and sometimes suffers losses. When selecting cultivation technology for agricultural crops, an agronomist has a database of more than a hundred times-personal of alternative technologies for each crop. It is up to the decision-maker (DMP to find specific criteria to select the most suitable (for the owners and the climatic zone technology of cultivating for the culture. These circumstances explain the relevance of in-depth research of economic and mathematical models and methods of analysis and evaluation of the economic efficiency of technologies of cultivation agricultural crops. The article deals with the process of developing multicriteria economic-mathematical model of a comprehensive assessment of technology of cultivation of agricultural crops.

  8. Review of Economic Submissions to NICE Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshreef, Abualbishr; Jenks, Michelle; Green, William; Dixon, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The economic evaluation of medical devices is increasingly used to inform decision making on adopting new or novel technologies; however, challenges are inevitable due to the unique characteristics of devices. Cost-consequence analyses are recommended and employed by the English National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme (MTEP) to help address these challenges. The aim of this work was to review the critiques raised for previous MTEP submissions and explore if there were common problems across submissions. We reviewed a sample of 12 economic submissions to MTEP representing 50 % of 24 sets of guidance issued to July 2015. For each submission, we reviewed the External Assessment Centre's (EAC) report and the guidance document produced by NICE. We identified the main problems raised by the EAC's assessments and the committee's considerations for each submission, and explored strategies for improvement. We found that the identification and measurement of costs and consequences are the main shortcomings within economic submissions to MTEP. Together, these shortcomings accounted for 42 % of criticisms by the EACs among the reviewed submissions. In certain circumstances problems with these shortcomings may be unavoidable, for example, if there is a limited evidence base for the device being appraised. Nevertheless, strategies can often be adopted to improve submissions, including the use of more appropriate time horizons, whilst cost and resource use information should be taken, where possible, from nationally representative sources.

  9. Library macro-environment: New technological and economic rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Štular-Sotošek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and flexible adaptation to changes in the macro-environment is also crucial for libraries, which have to review them, respond to them and become a part of them. Consequently, the application of marketing science and tools helps libraries to find out how to survive in the competitive world and how to become better and stronger. The article, which draws from marketing, economic and information disciplines, introduces the main principles in the technological and economic environment of libraries and finds the knowledge about these disciplines to be most crucial for successful management of modern libraries, especially on the pretentious publishing market and on the market of information suppliers. Within the technological and economic environment, the cooperation is the only logical solution, which benefits the producers of information services and products as well as libraries. The following text finds that libraries will achieve long-term success and will be proactive in developing partnerships only by using relationship marketing. This relatively new approach offers libraries new ways for successful and long-term management of alliances between partners.

  10. Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

    1995-11-01

    The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

  11. Optimization of Grooved Micromixer for Microengineering Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabotin, I.; Tristo, G.; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    Due to the absence of turbulent flow and the slow diffusion process, mixing of solutions at micro-scale is a difficult task. This paper describes the optimization route towards the efficient design of a bottom grooved micromixer. Based on thoroughly discussed mixing mechanisms, the optimization w...

  12. Evaluation of the Economical and Intensive Use of Industrial Land in Chizhou Economic and Technological Development Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui; LIU

    2014-01-01

    Based on the subdivision of industrial land in Chizhou Economic and Technological Development Zone,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for the economical and intensive use of industrial land in the development zone,to analyze the current situation of economical and intensive use of industrial land. The results show that the levels of economical and intensive use of industrial land vary in the development zone; the factors affecting the intensive degree of various industries also vary; the industry in Chizhou Economic and Technological Development Zone is still in the transition phase from inefficient use to low level of use to intensive use.

  13. Ideology and problems of systems and economic optimization of NPPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Klimenko

    2016-06-01

    Problems of systems optimization of components of the NFEC system as the functional of NPP optimization are identified. The task of optimization of complex systems refers to the most complex class of degenerate optimization problems [1]. No theory of degenerate optimization problems exists as of the present moment, although specifically these problems are real. Degenerate optimization problems should not be associated with degenerate matrices. Degenerate optimization problems deal with non-singular matrices having inverse matrices and, consequently, having solutions. However, the nature of these problems is such, that these solutions are degenerate (one or more components of the basis vector of the solution are equal to zero. The problem of convergence in the optimization of arbitrary component of the NFEC system to locally optimal plan coordinated with locally optimal plans for other components of the NFEC system is one of the main problems of degenerate optimization problems. Appearance of iterating loops during internal iterations in the process of optimization of plans for separate component of the NFEC system is not less important for problems of this class. This feature requires including incorporation of additional algorithms for exiting from the loops in the optimization algorithms.

  14. Information and Communications Technology Development and its Economic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pajgrt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with economic context of Information a Communications Technology (ICT development’s analysis. Historical data of ICT revenue in USA for last 53 years were analyzed and were compared with the historical data in Czech Republic, Germany, China, India, Japan and Brazil for last 13 years. The ratio of ICT revenues to GDP was used as proper indicator in the examined countries to reflect the influences of the surrounding progress and define the individual progress stages. The formulation of the progress’ general rules and its prediction was done. It was monitored the dynamics of ICT sales, depending on its form and the influence of global economy.

  15. New technology implementation: Technical, economic and political factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J. W., Jr.; Susman, G. I.; Porter, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the process of implementing advanced manufacturing technology, based on studies of numerous organizations. This process is seen as consisting of a series of decisions with technical, economic, and political objectives. Frequency decisions involve specifications, equipment, resources/organization, and location. Problems in implementation are viewed as resulting from tradeoffs among the objectives, the tendency of decision makers to emphasize some objectives at the expense of others, and the propensity of problems to spread from one area to another. Three sets of recommendations, based on this analysis, are presented.

  16. Multi-objective optimization for the operation of distributed energy systems considering economic and environmental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Hongbo [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 603-8577 Kyoto (Japan); Zhou, Weisheng; Nakagami, Ken' ichi [College of Policy Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 603-8577 Kyoto (Japan); Gao, Weijun; Wu, Qiong [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu, 808-0135 Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Along with the continuing global warming, the environmental constraints are expected to play more and more important role in the operation of distributed energy resource (DER) systems, besides the economic objective. In this study, a multi-objective optimization model is developed to analyze the optimal operating strategy of a DER system while combining the minimization of energy cost with the minimization of environmental impact which is assessed in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions. The trade-off curve is obtained by using the compromise programming method. As an illustrative example, the DER system installed in an eco-campus in Japan has been selected for case study. The distributed technologies under consideration include photovoltaics (PV), fuel cell and gas engine for providing electrical and thermal demands. The obtained results demonstrate that increasing the satisfaction degree of economic objective leads to increased CO{sub 2} emissions. The operation of the DER system is more sensitive when environmental objective is paid more attention. Moreover, according to the sensitivity analysis, the consideration of electricity buy-back, carbon tax, as well as fuel switching to biogas, has more or less effect on the operation of DER systems. (author)

  17. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  18. Multi-objective dynamic optimization model for China's road transport energy technology switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan GAO; Zheng LI; Feng FU; Linwei MA

    2009-01-01

    Deducting the future switching of the road transport energy technology is one of the key preconditions for relative technology development planning. However,one of the difficulties is to address the issue of multi-objective and conflicting constrains, e.g., minimizing the climate mitigation or minimizing economic cost. In this paper, a dynamic optimization model was established, which can be used to analyze the road transport energy technology switching under multi-objective constrains.Through one case study, a series of solutions could be derived to provide decision-makers with the flexibility to choose the appropriate solution with respect to the given situation.

  19. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a Pareto optimal allocation in a discontinuous Gale economic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the concept of Pareto optimality in a simplified Gale economic model without assuming continuity of the utility functions. We apply some existing results on higher-order optimality conditions to get necessary and sufficient conditions for a locally Pareto optimal allocation.

  20. On economic-mathematical model for technology of differentiated application of fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Litchman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies agricultural crops’ yield depending on quality of entering of mineral fertilizers. It is established that determining average productivity, under square-law dependence of yield on a dose, there is not necessity to set the law of fertilizers distribution across the field and will be sufficient to know expected value D and standard deviation sD. The paper considers approaches to economic-mathematical model of optimization of fertilizers’ doses at the differentiated entering. The produced result provides a new approach to the quality control in technological process of fertilizers application. Also, it allows formulating requirements to perspective technical means used for entering of mineral fertilizers.

  1. Optimal Rules to Adopt High Technology under Uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-jun; LI Shi-min

    2006-01-01

    In the research of choosing the optimal timing for the high technology products,especially IT products to the market, most studies prefer to provide the scope or infimum of timing. In this paper, an optimal rule is adopted to guild the timing of high technology product to the market, this idea is illustrated through the theory of optimal stopping, and a high approach is developed to theoretical framework for timing decision. On this basis, a random programming model is established, in which the objective function is the expected profit to adopt high technology and the constraint condition is the successful probability over critical value α with all variables beyond the rule, and it is used to find the optimal timing of adopt high technology product.

  2. Risky Arbitrage Strategies: Optimal Portfolio Choice and Economic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun; Timmermann, Allan G

    2009-01-01

    We define risky arbitrages as self-financing trading strategies that have a strictly positive market price but a zero expected cumulative payoff. A continuous time cointegrated system is used to model risky arbitrages as arising from a mean-reverting mispricing component. We derive the optimal trading strategy in closed-form and show that the standard textbook arbitrage strategy is not optimal. In a calibration exercise, we show that the optimal strategy makes a sizeable difference in economi...

  3. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an optimization model that incorporates LCA methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. The most attractive waste management options are in the model identified as part the optimization. The model renders it possible to apply different...... optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...... shows that it is feasible to combine LCA approaches with optimization and highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model....

  4. Optimization of Nanostructuring Burnishing Technological Parameters by Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. P.; Dmitriev, A. I.; Anisimova, G. S.; Semenova, Yu V.

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of application of Taguchi optimization method, an approach for researching influence of nanostructuring burnishing technological parameters, considering the surface layer microhardness criterion, is developed. Optimal values of burnishing force, feed and number of tool passes for hardened steel AISI 420 hardening treatment are defined.

  5. Energy optimization aspects by injection process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, A.; Ciortea, M.; Hutanu, C.; Farcas, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the proposed paper, the authors examine the energy aspects related to the injection moulding process technology in the automotive industry. Theoretical considerations have been validated by experimental measurements on the manufacturing process, for two types of injections moulding machines, hydraulic and electric. Practical measurements have been taken with professional equipment separately on each technological operation: lamination, compression, injection and expansion. For results traceability, the following parameters were, whenever possible, maintained: cycle time, product weight and the relative time. The aim of the investigations was to carry out a professional energy audit with accurate losses identification. Base on technological diagram for each production cycle, at the end of this contribution, some measure to reduce the energy consumption were proposed.

  6. CONSEQUENCES OF DECISIONS FOR SCIENCE-TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The real facts presented in this article, demonstrate the great importance in today's world of strategic management, methods of analyses of innovations and investments and the role of the theory of decision-making in these economic disciplines. We have given the retrospective analysis of the development of nuclear physics research. For the development of fundamental and applied science in the second half of the twentieth century, we had a very great importance of the two events: the decision of US President Roosevelt to deploy nuclear program (adopted in response to a letter from Einstein and the coincidence in time between the completion of the construction of nuclear bomb and the end of World War II. The nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has determined the developments in science and technology for the entire second half of the twentieth century. For the first time in the entire history of the world the leaders of the leading countries clearly seen that fundamental research can bring great practical benefit (from the point of view of the leaders of countries. Namely, they can give the brand new super-powerful weapon. The consequence was a broad organizational and financial support of fundamental and deriving from them applied research. Is analyzed the influence of fundamental and applied research on the development and effective use of new technology and technical progress. We consider the development of mathematical methods of research and information technology, in particular, the myth of "artificial intelligence"

  7. Parametric Meta-Technology Frameworks to Study Technical Efficiency and Macro-Economic Effects in the European Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilel Jarraya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bank efficiency scores usually serve as a tool for comparing institutions with each other while allowing us to quantify sub-optimal decision-making unit choices. In the case of inter-country comparisons, such differences can also arise because of macro-economic heterogeneity between countries. Previous studies estimated a common technology limit for a sample of banking institutions in different countries. The contribution of our paper is that we employ a parametric approach to specify meta-frontiers and to study the effect of macro-economic heterogeneity on banking technology development. First, we use a parametric directional distance function to specify the appropriate technology frontier for each nation and the meta-technology frontier that includes all country-specific frontiers. Then, we define the directional technology gap ratio referring to the inefficiency scores evaluated from meta-technology and country-specific technology frontiers. The estimated parameters are more significant in our model than in the general model, also called the common frontier model. Comparing the results of our model to those of common frontiers, we find a substantial variation not only in inefficiency scores but also in countries’ rankings. While resorting to a pooled linear regression model, we demonstrate that the assessed technology gap ratio exhibits a significant association with inflation rates and per capita GDP. This result proves the influence of macro-economic heterogeneity on banks’ efficiency and technological development.

  8. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real

  9. Modeling economic growth fuelled by science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a simulation model to investigate how science and technology fuel economic growth. This model is built upon a synthesis of technological capabilities represented by national innovation systems. This paper gathers data of papers and patents for 183 countries between 1999 and 2003, as well as GDP and population for 2003. These data show a strong correlation between science, technology and income. Three simulation exercises are performed. Feeding our algorithm with data for population, patents and scientific papers, we obtain the world income distribution. These results support our conjecture on the role of science and technology as sources of the wealth of nations.Este artigo propõe um modelo de simulação para investigar a contribuição da ciência e da tecnologia para o crescimento econômico. O ponto de partida são os sistemas nacionais de inovação, um conceito que sintetiza a capacitação tecnológica das nações. Desta forma, o modelo pode preservar simplicidade e parcimônia. Os dados coletados (patentes, artigos e PIB e população, para 183 países indicam uma forte correlação entre ciência, tecnologia e renda. Três exercícios com simulações são realizados para diversos momentos do tempo, mostrando a progressiva aderência do modelo a essas variáveis tecnológicas.

  10. Discounting in economic evaluations : Stepping forward towards optimal decision rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravelle, Hugh; Brouwer, Werner; Niessen, Louis; Postma, Maarten; Rutten, Frans

    2007-01-01

    The National Institute for Clinical Excellence has recently changed its guidelines on discounting costs and effects in economic evaluations. In common with most other regulatory bodies it now requires that health effects should be discounted at the same rate as costs. We show that the guideline lead

  11. The economics of optimal adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Ringius, L.

    2002-07-01

    This paper has set out to provide a consistent theoretical framework for understanding how consumers, producers and factor agents respond to the impacts of climate change, with a primary focus on the production and consumption of, and investment in, market goods and services under competitive conditions. However, we have also pointed out that this theory can be extended to economies where individuals and groups pursue other well-defined objectives, and we have provided some examples that show the consistency in adaptation behaviour between economic terms and those who maximise the objective of household nutrition. We have defined adaptation as the changes that economic agents make in the allocation of resources to consumption, production and investment to offset the effects of weather variability or climate change on their welfare. This definition is broad enough to encompass almost every conceivable kind of adaptation behaviour. Further, we have followed the distinction between adaptation that is autonomous and adaptation actions that are undertaken by governments in the form of adaptation strategies. Autonomous adaptation is adaptation that economic agents will undertake to change, without the assistance of government, to improve their welfare due to incentives that are built into the political economy of a country. Adaptation strategies involve conscious decisions by governments to undertake actions and implement projects to avoid (or benefit from) weather variability and climate change. We show how the extent to which economic activities are adapted to existing climate variability will affect how much autonomous adaptation will need to occur once the pure effect of climate change is taken into account. In this paper we argue that the ability of economic activities to adapt once the pure effect of climate change can be accounted for by the following factors: Presence of well-developed markets for inputs and outputs; Ability and competitiveness to produce

  12. Economic and technological aspects of the market introduction of renewable power technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlen, Christine M.

    Renewable energy, if developed and delivered with appropriate technologies, is cleaner, more evenly distributed, and safer than conventional energy systems. Many countries and several states in the United States promote the development and introduction of technologies for "green" electricity production. This dissertation investigates economic and technological aspects of this process for wind energy. In liberalized electricity markets, policy makers use economic incentives to encourage the adoption of renewables. Choosing from a large range of possible policies and instruments is a multi-criteria decision process. This dissertation evaluates the criteria used and the trade-offs among the criteria, and develops a hierarchical flow scheme that policy makers can use to choose the most appropriate policy for a given situation. Economic incentives and market transformation programs seek to reduce costs through mass deployment in order to make renewable technologies competitive. Cost reduction is measured in "experience curves" that posit negative exponential relationships between cumulative deployment and production cost. This analysis reveals the weaknesses in conventional experience curve analyses for wind turbines, and concludes that the concept is limited by data availability, a weak conceptual foundation, and inappropriate statistical estimation. A revised model specifies a more complete set of economic and technological forces that determine the cost of wind power. Econometric results indicate that experience and upscaling of turbine sizes accounted for the observed cost reduction in wind turbines in the United States, Denmark and Germany between 1983 and 2001. These trends are likely to continue. In addition, future cost reductions will result from economies of scale in production. Observed differences in the performance of theoretically equivalent policy instruments could arise from economic uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, a methodology for the

  13. Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the Economic Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Labdani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of a power system via a simple particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The objective is to minimize the fuel cost and keep the power outputs of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors and transformers tap-setting in their secure limits.The effectiveness of PSO was compared to that of OPF by MATPOWER. The potential and superiority of PSO have been demonstrated through the results of IEEE 30-bus system

  14. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the fourth year of the ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'' program, funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. During the reporting period, research efforts under the program were focused on the development and evaluation of the fiber optic flow sensor system, and field testing in Tulsa, OK and the second field test of the pressure and temperature sensors in Coalinga, CA. The feasibility of a self-compensating fiber optic flow sensor based on a cantilever beam and interferometer for real-time flow rate measurements in the fluid filled pipes of oil field was clearly demonstrated. In addition, field testing of the pressure and temperature sensors deployed downhole continued. These accomplishments are summarized here: (1) Theoretical analysis and simulations were performed to ensure performance of the design. (2) The sensor fabrication and packaging techniques were investigated and improved. (3) Prototype flow sensors were fabricated based on the fabrication experience of hundreds of test sensors. (4) A lab-scale flow testing system was constructed and used for sensor evaluation. (5) Field-testing was performed in both the indoor and outdoor flow testing facility at the University of Tulsa, OK. (6) Testing of a multimode white light pressure and temperature sensor system continued at the oil site of Chevron/Texaco Company (Coalinga CA).

  15. The use of efficiency frontiers to evaluate the optimal land cover and irrigation practices for economic returns and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent; West, Grant; Xu, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Efficiency frontiers are a useful tool for governmental agencies that balance the protection of ecosystem services with the economic returns from an agricultural landscape because the tool illustrates that a compromise of objectives generates greater value to society than optimizing a sole objective. Policy makers facing the problem of groundwater overdraft on an agricultural landscape want to know if regulations or irrigation technology adoption will enhance both economic and ecosystem service benefits. Conjunctive water management with on-farm reservoirs and tail water recovery system is frequently suggested to alleviate groundwater and surface water quality problems in the Lower Mississippi River Basin of the United States, and this study evaluates the consequence of the adoption of this technology for the balance of ecosystem service and economic objectives. A compromise of objectives that maximizes the value to society provides 76% more value to society without reservoirs and 66% more value to society with reservoirs than the sole objective of economic returns. The reservoirs help an agricultural landscape maximizing economic returns to align more closely with a landscape maximizing the value to society, although there are still significant gains possible from finding a landscape that directly compromises on the objectives.

  16. Flood risk and economically optimal safety targets for coastal flood defense systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupuits, E.J.C.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2015-01-01

    A front defense can improve the reliability of a rear defense in a coastal flood defense system. The influence of this interdependency on the accompanying economically optimal safety targets of both front and rear defense is investigated. The results preliminary suggest that the optimal safety level

  17. Innovation priorities optimization in the context of national technological security ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Omelyanenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article. The article is devoted to the main aspects of technological security providing through increasing the efficiency of innovation development priorities selection. The features of impact of technological security for national security and international experience of its software were analyzed. The scheme of determination of innovation priorities, based on the assessment of critical technologies and strategy of socio-economic development, were proposed. The scheme of innovation priorities based on “deployment policy” concept was developed. The results of the analysis. Based on analysis of possibilities of using the capacity of international environment, eliminating the technological gap between Ukraine and leading countries in framework of technological security provision should be implemented not by increasing the one-side transfer of foreign technologies, but with the improvement and development of national critical technologies based on foreign experience. Also positive balance of international technology transfer in future can’t be achieved the growth of dumping policy with the expansion of volumes of these technologies only when the country has to spend a resources, which is beneficial only for foreign partners. This balance should be focused on system-level processes, it is necessary to speed up the development of its own technology base, that can eliminate existing or possible “technological blockade”. Conclusions and perspectives for further research. The state’s ability to engage in complicated tech activities is a characteristic of scientific, technical and technological level of its development as well as has great impact on economic situation and national security and assists enhance its international prestige. However, the development of such industries and requires the creation of efficient innovation system and international cooperation mechanisms to compensate for negative effects of unilateral

  18. Towards a globally optimized crop distribution: Integrating water use, nutrition, and economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. F.; Seveso, A.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2016-12-01

    Human demand for crop production is expected to increase substantially in the coming decades as a result of population growth, richer diets and biofuel use. In order for food production to keep pace, unprecedented amounts of resources - water, fertilizers, energy - will be required. This has led to calls for `sustainable intensification' in which yields are increased on existing croplands while seeking to minimize impacts on water and other agricultural resources. Recent studies have quantified aspects of this, showing that there is a large potential to improve crop yields and increase harvest frequencies to better meet human demand. Though promising, both solutions would necessitate large additional inputs of water and fertilizer in order to be achieved under current technologies. However, the question of whether the current distribution of crops is, in fact, the best for realizing sustainable production has not been considered to date. To this end, we ask: Is it possible to increase crop production and economic value while minimizing water demand by simply growing crops where soil and climate conditions are best suited? Here we use maps of yields and evapotranspiration for 14 major food crops to identify differences between current crop distributions and where they can most suitably be planted. By redistributing crops across currently cultivated lands, we determine the potential improvements in calorie (+12%) and protein (+51%) production, economic output (+41%) and water demand (-5%). This approach can also incorporate the impact of future climate on cropland suitability, and as such, be used to provide optimized cropping patterns under climate change. Thus, our study provides a novel tool towards achieving sustainable intensification that can be used to recommend optimal crop distributions in the face of a changing climate while simultaneously accounting for food security, freshwater resources, and livelihoods.

  19. Optimal Capital Structure: Reflections on Economic and Other Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.J. Schauten (Marc); J. Spronk (Jaap)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDespite a vast literature on the capital structure of the firm there still is a big gap between theory and practice. Starting with the seminal work by Modigliani & Miller, much attention has been paid to the optimality of capital structure from the shareholders’ point of view. Over the l

  20. Optimal Capital Structure: Reflections on Economic and Other Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.J. Schauten (Marc); J. Spronk (Jaap)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDespite a vast literature on the capital structure of the firm there still is a big gap between theory and practice. Starting with the seminal work by Modigliani & Miller, much attention has been paid to the optimality of capital structure from the shareholders’ point of view. Over the

  1. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...

  2. Optimal model of economic diplomacy of Republic of Croatia in the contexst of global intelligence revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bazdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to point to the fact that economic diplomacy is a relatively new practice in international economics, specifically the expansion of the occurrence of Intelligence Revolution. The history in global relations shows that without economic diplomacy there is no optimal economic growth and social development. It is important to note that economic diplomacy should be important for our country and the political elite, as well as for the administration of Croatian economic subjects that want to compete in international market economy. Comparative analysis are particularly highlighted by French experience. Therefore, Croatia should copy the practice of those countries that are successful in economic diplomacy. And in the curricula - especially of our economic faculties - we should introduce the course of Economic Diplomacy. It is important to note, that in order to form our optimal model of economic diplomacy which would be headed by the President of Republic of Croatia formula should be based on: Intelligence Security Agency (SOA, Intelligence Service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, Intelligence Service of the Croatian Chamber of Commerce and the Intelligence Service of the Ministry of Economy, Labor and Entrepreneurship. Described model would consist of intelligence subsystem with at least twelve components.

  3. Orthogonal experiment on reclaimed water treatment and economic optimization model in green building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何强; 张成; 柴宏祥; 樊明玉

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of superior drainage in green building treated by combinational technique of coagulation sedimentation and constructed wetland was launched. The results show that the regression equation relating to effluent BOD5,cubage load (Nv),temperature (t) and addition dosage (ρ) is BOD5=2.05Nv-0.41t-0.82ρ+38.9. The orthogonal experiment results of constructed wetland post-treatment show that the regression equation relating to effluent BOD5,cubage load (NA),and temperature (t) is BOD5=1 190NA-0.32t+12.2. Based on the two orthogonal regression equations,combined of green building municipal gray reclaimed water quantity requirements in different seasons,a technology investment on economic optimization model of combinational technique was established. The results offer technological support for reclaimed water treatment,which regards superior drainage as the source and is purified by combinational technique of coagulation sedimentation and constructed wetland. According to the model,the reasonable scale of reclaimed water treatment systems can be determined,the treatment efficacy can be well predicted,and both the design and operating can be effectively guided.

  4. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan F. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing

  5. Optimal design of upstream processes in biotransformation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheskali, Endrit; Michailidi, Katerina; de Castro, Aline Machado; Koutinas, Apostolis A; Kookos, Ioannis K

    2017-01-01

    In this work a mathematical programming model for the optimal design of the bioreaction section of biotechnological processes is presented. Equations for the estimation of the equipment cost derived from a recent publication by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are also summarized. The cost-optimal design of process units and the optimal scheduling of their operation can be obtained using the proposed formulation that has been implemented in software available from the journal web page or the corresponding author. The proposed optimization model can be used to quantify the effects of decisions taken at a lab scale on the industrial scale process economics. It is of paramount important to note that this can be achieved at the early stage of the development of a biotechnological project. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate the usefulness and potential of the proposed methodology.

  6. Dispositional optimism: a psychological resource for Mexican-origin mothers experiencing economic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E; Widaman, Keith F; Robins, Richard W; Jochem, Rachel; Early, Dawnte R; Conger, Rand D

    2012-02-01

    Dispositional optimism is believed to be an important psychological resource that buffers families against the deleterious consequences of economic adversity. Using data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin families (N = 674), we tested a family stress model specifying that maternal dispositional optimism and economic pressure affect maternal internalizing symptoms, which, in turn, affects parenting behaviors and children's social adjustment. As predicted, maternal optimism and economic pressure had both independent and interactive effects on maternal internalizing symptoms, and the effects of these variables on changes over time in child social adjustment were mediated by nurturant and involved parenting. The findings replicate and extend previous research on single-parent African American families (Taylor, Larsen-Rife, Conger, Widaman, & Cutrona, 2010), and demonstrate the generalizability of the positive benefits of dispositional optimism in another ethnic group and type of family structure.

  7. Real-time economic optimization for a fermentation process using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is a widely used process in production of many foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. The main goal of the control system is to maximize profit of the fermentation process, and thus this is also the main goal of this paper. We present a simple dynamic model for a fermentation process...... and demonstrate its usefulness in economic optimization. The model is formulated as an index-1 differential algebraic equation (DAE), which guarantees conservation of mass and energy in discrete form. The optimization is based on recent advances within Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (E......-NMPC), and also utilizes the index-1 DAE model. The E-NMPC uses the single-shooting method and the adjoint method for computation of the optimization gradients. The process constraints are relaxed to soft-constraints on the outputs. Finally we derive the analytical solution to the economic optimization problem...

  8. Assessing the Quality of Medical Information Technology Economic Evaluations: Room for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Eric L.; Ortiz, Maqui; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Crosslin, David R.; Lobach, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Medical information systems are being recognized for their ability to improve patient outcomes. While standards for the economic evaluation of medical technologies were instituted in the mid-1990s, little is known about their application in medical information technology studies. In a review of medical information technology evaluation studies published between 1982 and 2002, we found that the volume and variety of economic evaluations had increased; however, investigators routinely omitted key cost or effectiveness elements in their designs, resulting in publications with incomplete, and potentially biased, economic findings. Of the studies that made economic claims, 23% did not report any economic data, 40% failed to include any effectiveness measures, and more than 50% used a case study or pre- post- test design. Thus, during a time when health economic study methods in general have experienced significant development, there is little evidence of similar progress in medical information technology economic evaluations. PMID:17238338

  9. Economic irrationality is optimal during noisy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Moran, Rani; Moreland, James; Chater, Nick; Usher, Marius; Summerfield, Christopher

    2016-03-15

    According to normative theories, reward-maximizing agents should have consistent preferences. Thus, when faced with alternatives A, B, and C, an individual preferring A to B and B to C should prefer A to C. However, it has been widely argued that humans can incur losses by violating this axiom of transitivity, despite strong evolutionary pressure for reward-maximizing choices. Here, adopting a biologically plausible computational framework, we show that intransitive (and thus economically irrational) choices paradoxically improve accuracy (and subsequent economic rewards) when decision formation is corrupted by internal neural noise. Over three experiments, we show that humans accumulate evidence over time using a "selective integration" policy that discards information about alternatives with momentarily lower value. This policy predicts violations of the axiom of transitivity when three equally valued alternatives differ circularly in their number of winning samples. We confirm this prediction in a fourth experiment reporting significant violations of weak stochastic transitivity in human observers. Crucially, we show that relying on selective integration protects choices against "late" noise that otherwise corrupts decision formation beyond the sensory stage. Indeed, we report that individuals with higher late noise relied more strongly on selective integration. These findings suggest that violations of rational choice theory reflect adaptive computations that have evolved in response to irreducible noise during neural information processing.

  10. Optimal Economic Operation of Islanded Microgrid by Using a Modified PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal economic operation method is presented to attain a joint-optimization of cost reduction and operation strategy for islanded microgrid, which includes renewable energy source, the diesel generator, and battery storage system. The optimization objective is to minimize the overall generating cost involving depreciation cost, operation cost, emission cost, and economic subsidy available for renewable energy source, while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. A novel dynamic optimization process is proposed based on two different operation control modes where diesel generator or battery storage acts as the master unit to maintain the system frequency and voltage stability, and a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied to get faster solution to the practical economic operation problem of islanded microgrid. With the example system of an actual islanded microgrid in Dongao Island, China, the proposed models, dynamic optimization strategy, and solution algorithm are verified and the influences of different operation strategies and optimization algorithms on the economic operation are discussed. The results achieved demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  11. Optimal Renewable Energy Integration into Refinery with CO2 Emissions Consideration: An Economic Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnifro, M.; Taqvi, S. T.; Ahmad, M. S.; Bensaida, K.; Elkamel, A.

    2017-08-01

    With increasing global energy demand and declining energy return on energy invested (EROEI) of crude oil, global energy consumption by the O&G industry has increased drastically over the past few years. In addition, this energy increase has led to an increase GHG emissions, resulting in adverse environmental effects. On the other hand, electricity generation through renewable resources have become relatively cost competitive to fossil based energy sources in a much ‘cleaner’ way. In this study, renewable energy is integrated optimally into a refinery considering costs and CO2 emissions. Using Aspen HYSYS, a refinery in the Middle East was simulated to estimate the energy demand by different processing units. An LP problem was formulated based on existing solar energy systems and wind potential in the region. The multi-objective function, minimizing cost as well as CO2 emissions, was solved using GAMS to determine optimal energy distribution from each energy source to units within the refinery. Additionally, an economic feasibility study was carried out to determine the viability of renewable energy technology project implementation to overcome energy requirement of the refinery. Electricity generation through all renewable energy sources considered (i.e. solar PV, solar CSP and wind) were found feasible based on their low levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The payback period for a Solar CSP project, with an annual capacity of about 411 GWh and a lifetime of 30 years, was found to be 10 years. In contrast, the payback period for Solar PV and Wind were calculated to be 7 and 6 years, respectively. This opens up possibilities for integrating renewables into the refining sector as well as optimizing multiple energy carrier systems within the crude oil industry

  12. Thermal-economic multi-objective optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger using particle swarm optimization (PSO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanei, A.; Assareh, E.; Biglari, M.; Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Many studies are performed by researchers about shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) but the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique has never been used in such studies. This paper presents application of thermal-economic multi-objective optimization of STHE using PSO. For optimal design of a STHE, it was first thermally modeled using e-number of transfer units method while Bell-Delaware procedure was applied to estimate its shell side heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop. Multi objective PSO (MOPSO) method was applied to obtain the maximum effectiveness (heat recovery) and the minimum total cost as two objective functions. The results of optimal designs were a set of multiple optimum solutions, called `Pareto optimal solutions'. In order to show the accuracy of the algorithm, a comparison is made with the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and MOPSO which are developed for the same problem.

  13. Land Use in Ma’anshan Economic and Technological Development Zone: Based on the Land Survey of Typical Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minmin; HUO; Zhongxiang; YU

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the typical enterprise’s land use structure,land use efficiency,land use intensity and industrial structure in Ma’anshan Economic and Technological Development Zone. Based on the survey results about the typical enterprises,this article put forth the following recommendations: promoting the economical and intensive land use in the development zone by tapping connotation; enhancing the smart land use in the development zone through optimization of function layout; promoting the industrial chain linkage in the development zone through the establishment of industrial land exit mechanism.

  14. A Study of Sustainable Development of China's State-Level Economic and Technological Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinzhiHu

    2005-01-01

    State-level economic and technological development zones (ETDZs) are products of China's reform and opening-up policies and a new engine of growth for the Chinese economy. They have made tremendous contributions to the development of the Chinese economy. However,some problems have emerged in the course of this progress and new challenges are still lying ahead. Sustainable development is possible only when the strategy and objectives of development are adjusted, when the integrated investment environment is optimized, when industries are upgraded, when technical innovations are made, when independent innovation capabilities are lifted, when the mode of economic growth is changed, and when innovations are made in government management.

  15. Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology conceptual commercial plant design and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddy, J.E.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A.

    1990-09-01

    The goal of this project is to expand the data base for Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. Coal/Oil Co-Processing Technology and to allow for process optimization. The specific objectives are to: define process performance at commerically viable catalyst cost and activity levels; determine the dependence of process performance on changes in feedstock characteristics; improve effectiveness of catalyst system; expand data base to include other coals and petroleum feedstocks; update economic assessments. This topical report describes work performed by HRI on a conceptual commercial plant designed for a co-processing unit and economic screening studies based on this conceptual plant design. 21 figs., 39 tabs.

  16. Research on Optimal Development Pattern of Yunnan Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Salmero; Suman Rana

    2012-01-01

    By the case study on the Urban Agglomeration Plan of Yunnan Central Economic Region (YCER), which is jointly made by Chinese and Swiss scholars, with the adoption of GIS and traditional urban planning methods, this paper uses multiple scenarios to analyze four development models of "Scattered Yunnan," "Regional Yunnan," "Metropolitan Yunnan" and "Network Yunnan." It also explores the relatively rational scenarios for the future development of YCER, i.e., up to 2030, the development model of YCER will be "Regional," and after 2030 it will be "Network." In this way, YCER will be developed stably and methodically, and finally achieve the unification of ecological safety, intensified energy and resources, as well as prosperous economy.

  17. Technological and economic study of ship recycling in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Abdel Naby, Maged M.; Tadros, Mina Y.

    2012-12-01

    The ship recycling industry is growing rapidly. It is estimated that the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) decision to phase-out single hull tankers by 2015 will result in hundreds of ships requiring disposal. At present, the ship recycling industry is predominantly based in South Asia. Due to the bad practice of current scrapping procedure, the paper will highlight the harm occurring to health, safety and environment. The efforts of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) which led to the signing of the Hong Kong International Convention are also reviewed. The criteria and standards required to reduce the risk and damage to the environment are discussed and a proposed plan for the safe scrapping of ships is then presented. A technological and economic study for the ship recycling in Egypt is carried out as a case study. This includes the ship recycling facility size and layout. The equipment and staff required to operate the facility are also evaluated. A cost analysis is then carried out. This includes site development, human resources, machineries and equipment. A fuzzy logic approach is used to assess the benefits of the ship breaking yard. The use of the fuzzy logic approach is found suitable to make decisions for the ship breaking industry. Based on given constraints, the proposed model has proved capable of assessing the profit and the internal rate of return.

  18. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  19. Sustainability: ecological, social, economic, technological, and systems perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, Heriberto; Pawlowski, Christopher W.; Mayer, Audrey L.; Hoagland, N.Theresa [West Martin Luther King Drive, 45268, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: ''.. development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs..'' However, there is no mathematical theory embodying these concepts, although one would be immensely valuable in humanity's efforts to manage the environment. The concept of sustainability applies to integrated systems comprising humans and the rest of nature; the structures and operation of the human component (society, economy, law, etc.) must be such that they reinforce the persistence of the structures and operation of the natural component (ecosystem trophic linkages, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles, etc.). One of the challenges of sustainability research lies in linking measures of ecosystem functioning to the structure and operation of the associated social system. We review the nature of this complex system including its ecological, social, economic, and technological aspects, and propose an approach to assessing sustainability based on Information Theory that bridges the natural and human systems. These principles are then illustrated using a model system with an ecological food web linked to a rudimentary social system. This work is part of the efforts of a larger multidisciplinary group at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory. (orig.)

  20. Applying the AHP in health economic evaluations of new technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Marjan; Steuten, Lotte; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Karin; IJzerman, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    Much research in health care is devoted to health economical modelling. Even though the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is increasingly being applied in health care, its value to health economical modelling is still unrecognized. We explored the value of using AHP-derived results in a health econom

  1. Geometry optimization of Fresnel-collectors with economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertins, M.; Heinzel, V. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany); Lerchenmueller, H. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, A. [PSE GmbH, Solar Info Center, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Fresnel solar collector is a promising concept to reduce the electricity cost price in solar thermal power plants. The optical performance of a Fresnel collector depends on material properties, on its geometric layout and on the level of optical accuracy that can be obtained. A variety of geometric parameters, e.g. the height of the absorber, the number, size and distance of primary mirrors in.uence the shading and blocking of rays and the amount of rays missing the absorber. To evaluate the in.uence of the parameter variation regarding the electricity cost price and to yield an optimization, the optical performance is assessed with an annual simulation based on hourly weather-data. To permit a consideration of changes in collector cost according to different geometric layouts, cost factors where allocated to geometric parameters. The paper presents the method and the simulation results of the optimization under different boundary conditions and shows how the developed simulation tool can lead to an optimum collector design with respect to cost price of electricity. The sensitivity of the results will be discussed. (orig.)

  2. Swarm based mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMOS) for solving economic dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, T. H.; Vasant, P. M.; Singh, M. S. Balbir; Dieu, V. N.

    2014-10-01

    The economic dispatch (ED) is an essential optimization task in the power generation system. It is defined as the process of allocating the real power output of generation units to meet required load demand so as their total operating cost is minimized while satisfying all physical and operational constraints. This paper introduces a novel optimization which named as Swarm based Mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMOS). The technique is the extension of the original single particle mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMO). Its features make it potentially attractive algorithm for solving optimization problems. The proposed method is implemented for three test power systems, including 3, 13 and 20 thermal generation units with quadratic cost function and the obtained results are compared with many other methods available in the literature. Test results have indicated that the proposed method can efficiently implement for solving economic dispatch.

  3. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-05-15

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies.

  4. Optimal feeding and maintenance technology for dairy cows in intensive production conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Dragoljub

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years, milk production in our country was only partly based on economic principles, the social aspect being predominant, as for most strategic agricultural products. Only towards the end of 2000, when the key disparities in prices were somewhat corrected, it began to acquire characteristics of economically organized production. Nevertheless, some things remained, like the existence of state premiums for milk which are an effort to bridge the differences between real production costs, on the one hand, and the very low purchasing power of the wider strata of society, on the other. The objective of this work was to review several farm models typical for our country, and to point out the best solutions for developing industrial dairy farming in our very good geographic conditions and other natural resources, and all for the purpose of introducing optimal conditions for feeding and technology with economically justified production.

  5. Guidelines for the assessment and optimization of turboexpansion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Philipp; Mastandrea, Martin [TECNA Estudios y Proyectos de Ingenieria S.A. (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    The operating performance of a turbo expansion process depends on several factors among which we find: pressure, temperature and feed stream composition, expected recovery, pressure required for residual gas and products' specifications. The evolution of markets has set the development of several technologies; it is therefore complex, and rather impossible, to establish which of those technologies represents the most suitable choice for certain conditions by simply inspecting the above-mentioned factors. Guidelines for the assessment and optimization of available technologies are presented in this work. Also, relevant matters to be taken into account in the development of different units of a turbo expansion plant are mentioned. (author)

  6. Integrated energy, economic, and environmental assessment for the optimal solar absorption cooling and heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Yin

    Buildings in the United States are responsible for 41% of the primary energy use and 30% of carbon dioxide emissions. Due to mounting concerns about climate change and resource depletion, meeting building heating and cooling demand with renewable energy has attracted increasing attention in the energy system design of green buildings. One of these approaches, the solar absorption cooling and heating (SACH) technology can be a key solution to addressing the energy and environmental challenges. SACH system is an integration of solar thermal heating system and solar thermal driven absorption cooling system. So far, SACH systems still remain at the demonstration and testing stage due to not only its high cost but also complicated system characteristics. This research aims to develop a methodology to evaluate the life cycle energy, economic and environmental performance of SACH systems by high-fidelity simulations validated by experimental data. The developed methodology can be used to assist the system design. In order to achieve this goal, the study includes four objectives as follows: * Objective 1: Develop the evaluation model for the SACH system. The model includes three aspects: energy, economy, and environment from a life cycle point of view. * Objective 2: Validate the energy system model by solar experiments performance data. * Objective 3: Develop a fast and effective multi-objective optimization methodology to find the optimal system configuration which achieves the maximum system benefits on energy, economy and environment. Statistic techniques are explored to reveal the relations between the system key parameters and the three evaluation targets. The Pareto front is generated by solving this multi-objective optimization problem. * Objective 4: Apply the developed assessment methodology to different building types and locations. Furthermore, this study considered the influence of the input uncertainties on the overall system performance. The sensitivity

  7. THE OPTIMAL TIME FOR SUBSTITUTION OF Eucalyptus spp. PLANTATIONS –THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of technological progress for the Brazilian forest enterprises cannot be denied. Its influencecomprehends all the activities, but can be summarized in the increase of income via yield increase or cost reduction and, mainly,in the two cases occurring together. Technological effects influence, among other aspects, the cutting age and the optimal time torenewal (a new plantinting or “reforma” Eucalyptus plantations. Studies to determine these times are not so common in theliterature since it requires both forestry and economic knowledge. Before renewing an Eucalyptus stand, it is necessary totechnically and economically to define the optimal cut age the original planting and the coppicings and after how many cuttingsthe substitution of the plantations should be done. This study aimed at studying the optimal time to substitute Eucalyptus spp.Plantations, considering the gains earned through technological progress; to determine the cutting age of the population, theincome being increasing and the cost being decreasing; to propose and verify the efficiency of a mathematical model whichallows modeling the effects of technological progress; to study the substitution chain between 1960 and 2000 and between 2000and 2040, considering technological progress; and to test the results in a case study. The Gompertz Function was employed toobtain the volumes at the various ages. The criterion employed for the economic evaluation of the projects was the Presente NetValue (PNV. The proposed model allowed the calculation of yields and costs through time, study the effect of yield increaseand cost reduction and determine the rates of these increase and, or, reductions as well as determining rates which served asmoderators so that the yield and costs did not reach unreal values. It was concluded that: The rotation, with current values, is at 7years of age; the model proved to be efficient for estimates up to 40 years; with the income and costs from

  8. Economic Evaluation in Medical Information Technology: Why the Numbers Don’t Add Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Eric L.; Ortiz, Maqui; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Crosslin, David R.; Lobach, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Standards for the economic evaluation of medical technologies were instituted in the mid-1990s, yet little is known about their application in medical information technology studies. In a review of evaluation studies published between 1982 and 2002, we found that the volume and variety of economic evaluations had increased. However, investigators routinely omitted key cost or effectiveness elements in their designs, resulting in publications with incomplete, and potentially biased, economic findings. PMID:17238533

  9. Compressed Air Energy Storage: Optimal Performance and Techno-Economical Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vadasz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic and techno-economical analysis of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system subjected to an exogenous periodic electricity price function of the interconnection is presented. The fundamental parameters affecting the thermodynamic performance and the techno-economical cost-benefit indices are identified and corresponding optimisation problems are formulated. The results of the analysis permit to obtain the optimal values of the fundamental plant parameters to be used in the design process.

  10. Technological Options to Ameliorate Waste Treatment of Intensive Pig Production in China:An Analysis Based on Bio-Economic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wen-cong; MA Yong-xi; Holger Bergmann

    2014-01-01

    Ameliorating waste treatment by technological improvements affects the economic and the ecological-environment beneifts of intensive pig production. The objective of the research was to develop and test a method to determine the technical optimization to ameliorate waste treatment methods and gain insight into the relationship between technological options and the economic and ecological effects. We developed an integrated bio-economic model which incorporates the farming production and waste disposal systems to simulate the impact of technological improvements in pig manure treatment on economic and environmental benefits for the case of a pilot farm in Beijing, China. Based on different waste treatment technology options, three scenarios are applied for the simulation analysis of the model. The simulation results reveal that the economic-environmental beneifts of the livestock farm could be improved by reducing the cropland manure application and increasing the composting production with the current technologies. Nevertheless, the technical efifciency, the waste treatment capacity and the economic beneifts could be further improved by the introduction of new technologies. It implies that technological and economic support policies should be implemented comprehensively on waste disposal and resource utilization to promote sustainable development in intensive livestock production in China.

  11. Optimal Deployment of Thermal Energy Storage under Diverse Economic and Climate Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeForest, Nicolas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the economic benefit of thermal energy storage (TES) for cooling, across a range of economic and climate conditions. Chilled water TES systems are simulated for a large office building in four distinct locations, Miami in the U.S.; Lisbon, Portugal; Shanghai, China; and Mumbai, India. Optimal system size and operating schedules are determined using the optimization model DER-CAM, such that total cost, including electricity and amortized capital costs are minimized. The economic impacts of each optimized TES system is then compared to systems sized using a simple heuristic method, which bases system size as fraction (50percent and 100percent) of total on-peak summer cooling loads. Results indicate that TES systems of all sizes can be effective in reducing annual electricity costs (5percent-15percent) and peak electricity consumption (13percent-33percent). The investigation also indentifies a number of criteria which drive TES investment, including low capital costs, electricity tariffs with high power demand charges and prolonged cooling seasons. In locations where these drivers clearly exist, the heuristically sized systems capture much of the value of optimally sized systems; between 60percent and 100percent in terms of net present value. However, in instances where these drivers are less pronounced, the heuristic tends to oversize systems, and optimization becomes crucial to ensure economically beneficial deployment of TES, increasing the net present value of heuristically sized systems by as much as 10 times in some instances.

  12. Optimal Locations for Siting Wind Energy Projects: Technical Challenges, Economics, and Public Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Julian V.

    Increasing the percentage of wind power in the United States electricity generation mix would facilitate the transition towards a more sustainable, low-pollution, and environmentally-conscious electricity grid. However, this effort is not without cost. Wind power generation is time-variable and typically not synchronized with electricity demand (i.e., load). In addition, the highest-output wind resources are often located in remote locations, necessitating transmission investment between generation sites and load. Furthermore, negative public perceptions of wind projects could prevent widespread wind development, especially for projects close to densely-populated communities. The work presented in my dissertation seeks to understand where it's best to locate wind energy projects while considering these various factors. First, in Chapter 2, I examine whether energy storage technologies, such as grid-scale batteries, could help reduce the transmission upgrade costs incurred when siting wind projects in distant locations. For a case study of a hypothetical 200 MW wind project in North Dakota that delivers power to Illinois, I present an optimization model that estimates the optimal size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generation and transmission (/MWh). I find that for this application of storage to be economical, energy storage costs would have to be 100/kWh or lower, which is well below current costs for available technologies. I conclude that there are likely better ways to use energy storage than for accessing distant wind projects. Following from this work, in Chapter 3, I present an optimization model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets. I include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. I assess the goal of providing

  13. Optimal deployment of emissions reduction technologies for construction equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Zietsman, Josias; Quadrifoglio, Luca; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a multiobjective optimization model to deploy emissions reduction technologies for nonroad construction equipment to reduce emissions in a cost-effective and optimal manner. Given a fleet of construction equipment emitting different pollutants in the nonattainment (NA) and near -nonattainment (NNA) counties of a state and a set of emissions reduction technologies available for installation on equipment to control pollution/emissions, the model assists in determining the mix of technologies to be deployed so that maximum emissions reduction and fuel savings are achieved within a given budget. Three technologies considered for emissions reduction were designated as X, Y, and Z to keep the model formulation general so that it can be applied for any other set of technologies. Two alternative methods of deploying these technologies on a fleet of equipment were investigated with the methods differing in the technology deployment preference in the NA and NNA counties. The model having a weighted objective function containing emissions reduction benefits and fuel-saving benefits was programmed with C++ and ILOG-CPLEX. For demonstration purposes, the model was applied for a selected construction equipment fleet owned by the Texas Department of Transportation, located in NA and NNA counties of Texas, assuming the three emissions reduction technologies X, Y, and Z to represent, respectively, hydrogen enrichment, selective catalytic reduction, and fuel additive technologies. Model solutions were obtained for varying budget amounts to test the sensitivity of emissions reductions and fuel-savings benefits with increasing the budget. Different mixes of technologies producing maximum oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) reductions and total combined benefits (emissions reductions plus fuel savings) were indicated at different budget ranges. The initial steep portion of the plots for NO(x) reductions and total combined benefits against budgets

  14. Prospects for reconciling the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation with technological progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Brian

    2008-12-01

    The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is understood in portions of academia and sometimes acknowledged in political circles. Nevertheless, there is not a unified response. In political and policy circles, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is posited to solve the conflict between economic growth and environmental protection. In academia, however, the EKC has been deemed fallacious in macroeconomic scenarios and largely irrelevant to biodiversity. A more compelling response to the conflict is that it may be resolved with technological progress. Herein I review the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation in the absence of technological progress, explore the prospects for technological progress to reconcile that conflict, and provide linguistic suggestions for describing the relationships among economic growth, technological progress, and biodiversity conservation. The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics and principles of ecology such as trophic levels and competitive exclusion. In this biophysical context, the human economy grows at the competitive exclusion of nonhuman species in the aggregate. Reconciling the conflict via technological progress has not occurred and is infeasible because of the tight linkage between technological progress and economic growth at current levels of technology. Surplus production in existing economic sectors is required for conducting the research and development necessary for bringing new technologies to market. Technological regimes also reflect macroeconomic goals, and if the goal is economic growth, reconciliatory technologies are less likely to be developed. As the economy grows, the loss of biodiversity may be partly mitigated with end-use innovation that increases technical efficiency, but this type of technological progress requires policies that are unlikely if the conflict between economic growth

  15. Technological Change in Assessing Economics: A Cautionary Welcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Brendan; Considine, John; Flannery, Darragh

    2009-01-01

    The use of computer-based automated assignment systems in economics has expanded significantly in recent years. The most widely used system is Aplia which was developed by Paul Romer in 2000. Aplia is a computer application designed to replace traditional paper-based assignments in economics. The main features of Aplia are: (1) interactive content…

  16. Design and optimization of BCCD in CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Li, Yi; Gao, Zhi-yuan; Luo, Tao

    2016-09-01

    This paper optimizes the buried channel charge-coupled device (BCCD) structure fabricated by complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The optimized BCCD has advantages of low noise, high integration and high image quality. The charge transfer process shows that interface traps, weak fringing fields and potential well between adjacent gates all cause the decrease of charge transfer efficiency ( CTE). CTE and well capacity are simulated with different operating voltages and gap sizes. CTE can achieve 99.999% and the well capacity reaches up to 25 000 electrons for the gap size of 130 nm and the maximum operating voltage of 3 V.

  17. SNAP-tag technology optimized for use in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sateriale

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The pathology of amebiasis is still poorly understood, which can be largely attributed to lack of molecular tools. Here we present the optimization of SNAP-tag technology via codon optimization specific for E. histolytica. The resultant SNAP protein is highly expressed in amebic trophozoites, and shows proper localization when tagged with an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. We further demonstrate the capabilities of this system using super resolution microscopy, done for the first time in E. histolytica.

  18. Socio-economic evaluation of selected biogas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, F.; Martinsen, L.

    2013-05-15

    Financial and welfare economic analyses are conducted of 15 different biogas production scenarios that vary in terms of plant size and type of input. All considered scenarios lead to welfare economic losses. Overall welfare economic GHG reduction costs seem to increase with increasing crop/crop material share of input, and although the costs vary significantly across scenarios they are quite high for all scenarios. The financial analyses suggest that biogas production generally will be financially profitable for the agricultural sector and local CHP facilities but unprofitable for the biogas plants and the State. Seen from a policy perspective the results highlights the importance of designing regulatory instruments in a way that create incentives for private actors to engage in welfare economically desirable biogas production activities while discouraging the expansion of welfare economically undesirable activities. (Author)

  19. Technology in the Aid of Delivering Economic Content to Teachers: Virtual Economics v. 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Swinton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact on student achievement of a face-to-face teacher workshop that also provides economics instructors with access to an electronic library of instructional and reference material for their economics classroom—Virtual Economics v. 3 (VE3, offered by the Council for Economic Education. Based on evidence using student and teacher-level administrative data from the Georgia Department of Education and controlling for students’ prior achievement in mathematics, we find evidence that the VE3 workshop experience increases student achievement in high school economics. Our difference-in-differences estimates suggest that teacher participation in the VE3 workshop increases student achievement by 0.061 standard deviations on Georgia’s high stakes economics end-of-course test. Future research should seek estimating the effect of treatments in education such as the VE3 workshop using randomized controlled trials (RCT.

  20. Optimizing cultivation of agricultural products using socio-economic and environmental scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RaheliNamin, Behnaz; Mortazavi, Samar; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-11-01

    The combination of degrading natural conditions and resources, climate change, growing population, urban development, and competition in a global market complicate optimization of land for agricultural products. The use of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production in the agricultural fields has become excessive in the recent years and Golestan Province of Iran is no exception in this regard. For this, effective management with an efficient and cost-effective practice should be undertaken, maintaining public service at a high level and preserving the environment. Improving the production efficiency of agriculture, efficient use of water resources, decreasing the use of pesticides and fertilizers, improving farmer revenue, and conservation of natural resources are the main objectives of the allocation, ranking, and optimization of agricultural products. The goal of this paper is to use an optimization procedure to lower the negative effects of agriculture while maintaining a high production rate, which is currently a gap in the study area. We collected information about fertilizer and pesticide consumption and other data in croplands of eastern Golestan Province through face-to-face interviews with farmers to optimize cultivation of the agricultural products. The toxicity of pesticides according to LD50 was also included in the optimization model. A decision-support software system called multiple criteria analysis tool was used to simultaneously minimize consumption of water, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides and maximize socio-economic returns. Three scenarios for optimization of agricultural products were generated that alternatively emphasized on environmental and socio-economic goals. Comparing socio-economic and environmental performance of the optimized agricultural products under the three scenarios illustrated the conflict between social, economic, and environmental objectives. Of the six crops studied (wheat, barley, rice, soybeans, oilseed rape

  1. Collaborating to optimize nursing students' agency information technology use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, Marilyn S

    2009-01-01

    As the learning laboratory for gaining actual patient care experience, clinical agencies play an essential role in nursing education. With an information technology revolution transforming healthcare, nursing programs are eager for their students to learn the latest informatics systems and technologies. However, many healthcare institutions are struggling to meet their own information technology needs and report limited resources and other as barriers to nursing student training. In addition, nursing students' information technology access and use raise security and privacy concerns. With the goal of a fully electronic health record by 2014, it is imperative that agencies and educational programs collaborate. They need to establish educationally sound, cost-effective, and secure policies and procedures for managing students' use of information technology systems. Strategies for evaluating options, selecting training methods, and ensuring data security are shared, along with strategies that may reap clinical, economic, and educational benefits. Students' information technology use raises numerous issues that the nursing profession must address to participate in healthcare's transformation into the digital age.

  2. Optimal welding technology of high strength steel S690QL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Arsic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the detailed procedure for defining the optimal technology for welding the structures made of the high strength steel S690QL. That steel belongs into a group of steels with exceptional mechanical properties. The most prominent properties are the high tensile strength and impact toughness, at room and at elevated temperatures, as well. However, this steel has a negative characteristic - proneness to appearance of cold cracks.  That impedes welding and makes as an imperative to study different aspects of this steel's properties as well as those of eventual filler metal. Selection and defining of the optimal welding technology of this high strength steel is done for the purpose of preserving the favorable mechanical properties once the welded joint is realized; properties of the welded metal and the melting zone, as well as in the heat affected zone, which is the most critical zone of the welded joint.

  3. Next Generation Hydropower Technology: Available, Economical, Quickly Deployed, While Minimizing The Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, Imad

    2010-09-15

    The Kinetic Energy Recovery Turbine TREK technology is an innovative technology that will convert a fraction of the kinetic energy contained in rivers currents. The TREK technology targets sites that cannot be economically, technically or environmentally developed using conventional hydropower technologies (i.e. hydroelectric dams). The TREK is expected to deliver renewable base load electricity at a competitive cost compared to other renewable energy options. The technology can also be used to provide dispatchable and remote electricity.

  4. Vermiculture bio-technology: An effective tool for economic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr Hussaini

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. ... acts as soil conditioner and help to improve its physical, biological and chemical ... This paper elaborates on the importance of this technology to environmental sustainability.

  5. Information and communication technology in Home Economic class

    OpenAIRE

    Beronja, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis defines information and communication technology, its involvement in educational processes; the legislation in the field of integration of information and communication technology in the teaching process and the impact of progress in information and communication technology on its use in class are presented. Followed by a short historical overview of the application of information and communication technology in educational processes. In the empirical part the results o...

  6. OPTIMIZING OUTCOME IN THE UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ALAVI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transferring inventions of academic scientists to private enterprises for the purpose of commercialization is long known as University-Industry (firm Technology Transfer While the importance of this phenomenon is simultaneously raising in public and private sector, only a part of patented academic inventions succeed in passing the process of commercialization. Despite the fact that formal Technology Transfer process and licencing of patented innovations to third party is the main legal tool for safeguarding rights of academic inventors in commercialization of their inventions, it is not sufficient for transmitting tacit knowledge which is necessary in exploitation of transferred technology. Existence of reciprocal and complementary relations between formal and informal technology transfer process has resulted in formation of different models for university-industry organizational collaboration or even integration where licensee firms keep contact with academic inventors after gaining legal right for commercialization of their patented invention. Current paper argues that despite necessity for patents to legally pass the right of commercialization of an invention, they are not sufficient for complete knowledge transmission in the process of technology transfer. Lack of efficiency of formal mechanism to end the Technology Transfer loop makes an opportunity to create innovative interpersonal and organizational connections among patentee and licensee company. With emphasize on need for further elaboration of informal mechanisms as critical and underappreciated aspect of technology transfer process, article will try to answer the questions of how to optimize knowledge transmission process in the framework of University-Industry Technology Transfer Projects? What is the theoretical basis for university-industry technology transfer process? What are organization collaborative models which can enhance overall performance by improving transmission of

  7. Optimization of Processing Technology of Compound Dandelion Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Jixuan; Sun Guangren; Cao Xiuli; Han Yuting; Sun Xuesong; Zhang Huan; Zhang Lei; Dang Ataer

    2016-01-01

    Exploring dandelion food has been the concern in fields of the food processing and pharmaceutical industry for playing exact curative effect on high-fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis and diuretic activity. Few dandelion foods including drinks and microencapsulation were explored and unilateral dandelion wine were less carried out for its bitter flavour. In tis paper, to optimize the processing technologies of fermented compound wine from dandelion root, the orthogonal experiment design metho...

  8. Optimal design of microalgae-based biorefinery: Economics, opportunities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have great potential as a feedstock for the production of a wide range of end-products under the broad concept of biorefinery. In an earlier work, we proposed a superstructure based optimization model to find the optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal...... biomass, and identified several challenges with the focus being on utilizing lipids extracted microalgal biomass for economic and environmentally friendly production of useful energy products. In this paper, we expand the previous optimization framework by considering the processing of microalgae residue...

  9. Optimal Dynamic Investment Policy under Different Rates for Tax Depreciation and Economic Depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of incorporating a different rate for tax depreciation than for economic depreciation. Firms most often choose their tax depreciation rate in a strategic way. It would therefore be a coincidence if this optimization process leads to a tax depreciation rate that e

  10. Trade-Off Analysis vs. Constrained Optimization with an Economic Control Chart Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    description of this technique can be found in Luenberger (1989) or Reklaitis et al. (1983). Similar to the economic statistical designs, the trade-off...15] Reklaitis , G. V.; Ravindran, A.; and Ragsdell, K. M., Engineering Optimization, Methods and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1983). [16

  11. Economic modeling and energy policy planning. [technology transfer, market research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. G.; Schwartz, A., Jr.; Lievano, R. J.; Stone, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A structural economic model is presented for estimating the demand functions for natural gas and crude oil in industry and in steam electric power generation. Extensions of the model to other commodities are indicated.

  12. Economics of energy storage technology in active distribution networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CHEN, Jiongcong; SONG, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    .... The prioritization schemes of the combination of energy storage systems and intermittent energy systems were studied technically and economically based on some specific situations of the grid integrated with wind power...

  13. Method for use of economical optimization in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    methods of designing such buildings in an economical optimized way. A method of finding the economical optimal solutions has been set up based on use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system. By use of information on construction cost and a simple......Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing buildings to become nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to do it in the most economical way. Therefore it is very important to develop...... model of the energy use for each component, a function is set up that represents the relation of the marginal cost of conserved energy and the energy use for different qualities of the component. For building envelopes, the energy use will be the heat loss during heating season, and the main quality...

  14. Economical optimization of building elements for use in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    for finding the economical optimal solutions based on the use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system and cost of produced energy for each energy producing system. By use of information on construction cost and developed models of the yearly energy use......Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to end up with the most economical optimal solution. Therefore this paper present a method...... for each component, a function is set up that represents the relation of the marginal cost of conserved energy and the energy use for different quantities and qualities of the components. The optimal mix of solutions for the whole building is found by selecting building parts with the same cost...

  15. The role of health economics in the evaluation of surgery and operative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Dr Matthew Taylor is the director of York Health Economics Consortium and leads the Consortium's health technology assessment program. The work of York Health Economics Consortium involves empirical research in health economics for both the private and public sectors. Dr Taylor is the scientific lead for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Economic and Methodological Unit and a former member of NICE's Public Health Advisory Committee. He is also managing director (Europe) of Minerva, an international network of health economics consultancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal fiscal barriers to international economic integration in the presence of tax havens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a model where firms can shift profits to tax havens by means of intra-firm loans and countries can protect themselves against profit shifting by taxing cross-border interest flows. The model considers two countries with a scope for welfare improving economic integration....... The first-best tax system has two important characteristics: (i) the tax rate on interest flows to the other country is zero to ensure the optimal level of economic integration; (ii) the tax rate on interest flows to tax havens is high enough to deter profit shifting to tax havens. In second......-best environments, countries face a trade-off between economic integration and protection against tax havens, which causes protection to be suboptimally low. The key to the result is that economic integration makes it easier for multinational firms to circumvent taxes on interest payments to tax havens with conduit...

  17. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  18. The question of Sudan: a hydro-economic optimization model for the Sudanese Blue Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in eastern Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications for the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resource infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  19. Consideration of economic risks in a comparative analysis of nuclear technologies with different maturity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Andrianov

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of risk indicators requires calculation of characteristics for probabilistic distributions of economic performance indicators and systemic use of statistical approaches based on Monte Carlo methods. Demonstration analysis results for the risk indicator evaluation have been discussed as applied to different economic performance indicators based on the example of a comparative analysis for two hypothetical light water reactor technologies to be considered in the selection of the most attractive option. Use of economic risk indicators for the comparative evaluation of reactor technologies appears to be helpful to decision makers not familiar with the technical characteristics and performance measures of reactor technologies but informed about the economic risk concepts. Such methodology may be employed efficiently to interpret the ranking results in a multi-criteria comparative evaluation of less and more mature reactor technologies.

  20. System approach to the study of social and economic effects of information and communication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasyev V.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects the theoretical positions of infotech management by system analyzing social and economic impact of information and communication technologies that contributes to the development of ICT management.

  1. Commercialization of University Research for Technology-Based Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, W. Ker

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the hypothesized relationship between US federally funded university research and development (R&D) and its resulting economic impact, as measured by the level of licensing revenue generated by US universities. The author also examines the key operating statistics of the top-ten licensing income-producing…

  2. A Technical and Economic Review of Solar Hydrogen Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Erik; Fowler, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen energy systems are being developed to replace fossil fuels-based systems for transportation and stationary application. One of the challenges facing the widespread adoption of hydrogen as an energy vector is the lack of an efficient, economical, and sustainable method of hydrogen production. In the short term, hydrogen produced from…

  3. Optimal scale of China's cities under the maximization of economic benefits and environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Wu, Sanmang; He, Chunyan; Chen, Jiabin; Yan, Dan

    2017-07-09

    The cities are the consumption concentration of energy, resources, and the concentration of CO2 emissions. The cities' area only accounted for 2% in the world's surface; however, their population accounted for about 50% of the total population, and CO2 emissions accounted for about 80% of the total emissions. The cities lie in a key position in solving the global climate change. China's urbanization level was just exceeding by 50%, which was in the intermediate stage of urbanization. The rapid development of the urbanization process and the expansion of city scale have brought economic growth and all kinds of environmental issues. Therefore, is there an optimal city scale which can make cities maintain economic growth and can also reduce or even avoid the environmental problems in the meantime? The question deserves deep research. Based on the background, the data from 1998 to 2014, and the goals of the cities' economic and environmental benefits, this paper builds the optimal scale model for the cities, and obtain two conclusions: (1) in a certain period and range, the cities have the optimal scale; (2) for the cities in China, the optimal scale is about 1.78 million people.

  4. Economic Analysis and Optimal Sizing for behind-the-meter Battery Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Yang, Tao; Balducci, Patrick J.

    2016-07-18

    This paper proposes methods to estimate the potential benefits and determine the optimal energy and power capacity for behind-the-meter BSS. In the proposed method, a linear programming is first formulated only using typical load profiles, energy/demand charge rates, and a set of battery parameters to determine the maximum saving in electric energy cost. The optimization formulation is then adapted to include battery cost as a function of its power and energy capacity in order to capture the trade-off between benefits and cost, and therefore to determine the most economic battery size. Using the proposed methods, economic analysis and optimal sizing have been performed for a few commercial buildings and utility rate structures that are representative of those found in the various regions of the Continental United States. The key factors that affect the economic benefits and optimal size have been identified. The proposed methods and case study results cannot only help commercial and industrial customers or battery vendors to evaluate and size the storage system for behind-the-meter application, but can also assist utilities and policy makers to design electricity rate or subsidies to promote the development of energy storage.

  5. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  6. A New Direction for Technology-Based Economic Development: The Role of Innovation Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendis, Richard A.; Seline, Richard S.; Byler, Ethan J.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerating innovation to drive economic growth is the foremost goal for technology-based economic development organizations today. Realizing this goal through programmes is challenged by limited and outdated operating models. The authors outline their 21st Century Innovation Intermediary model, which pairs commercialization with regional…

  7. Using Innovative Technologies in the Study of Economic and Statistical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelyanenko Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics of teaching economic and statistical sciences. Considered the world experience using innovative educational technology in teaching economic and statistical sciences. Examples of submitting new material using statistical software application, useful internet resources, video lectures.

  8. Development Trends and Economics of Concentrating Solar Power Generation Technologies: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we compare development trends, economics and financial risks of alternative large-scale solar power generation technologies (parabolic trough, solar tower, and three different photovoltaic technologies). In particular, a number of European countries, Algeria and the US promote solar power generation. In oure study, we investigate the economic viability of the solar trough projects Andasol-I (Spain), Nevada Solar One (US), the solar tower projects PS-10 and Solar Tres (Spain), an...

  9. Economic Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (E-NMPC) for a spray drying process. By simulation we evaluate the economic potential of this E-NMPC compared to a conventional PID based control strategy. Spray drying is the preferred process to reduce......-shooting method combined with a quasi-Newton Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm and the adjoint method for computation of gradients. The E-NMPC improves the cost of spray drying by 26.7% compared to conventional PI control in our simulations....

  10. "Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives” (OPTIPOL). Progress Report 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Bevanger, Kjetil Modolv; Bartzke, Gundula; Brøseth, Henrik; Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Hanssen, Frank Ole; Jacobsen, Karl Otto; Kvaløy, Pål; May, Roelof Frans; Nygård, Torgeir; Pedersen, Hans-Christian; Reitan, Ole; Refsnæs, Steinar; Stokke, Sigbjørn; Vang, Roald

    2009-01-01

    From 2009 inclusive, NINA has received economic support for research on power lines and wildlife from the Norwegian Research Council (NFR) through the RENERGI Programme. The project is named “Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and eco-nomic perspectives” (OPTIPOL). It is scheduled for 5 years (2009-1013) and is part of the ac-tivities within CEDREN, i.e. the Centre for environmental design of renewable energy (cf. http://www.cedren.no). With a grid close to 200 0...

  11. The economics of project analysis: Optimal investment criteria and methods of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Insight is provided toward the development of an optimal program for investment analysis of project proposals offering commercial potential and its components. This involves a critique of economic investment criteria viewed in relation to requirements of engineering economy analysis. An outline for a systems approach to project analysis is given Application of the Leontief input-output methodology to analysis of projects involving multiple processes and products is investigated. Effective application of elements of neoclassical economic theory to investment analysis of project components is demonstrated. Patterns of both static and dynamic activity levels are incorporated.

  12. Time-explicit methods for joint economical and geological risk mitigation in production optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Hjuler; Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    Real-life applications of production optimization face challenges of risks related to unpredictable fluctuations in oil prices and sparse geological data. Consequently, operating companies are reluctant to adopt model-based production optimization into their operations. Conventional production...... optimization methods focus on mitigation of geological risks related to the long-term net present value (NPV). A major drawback of such methods is that the time-dependent and exceedingly growing uncertainty of oil prices implies that long-term predictions become highly unreliable. Conventional methods...... of mitigating economical and geological risks. As opposed to conventional strategies that focus on a single long-term objective, TE methods seek to reduce risks and promote returns over the entire reservoir life by optimization of a given ensemble-based geological risk measure over time. By explicit involvement...

  13. A Collection of Challenging Optimization Problems in Science, Engineering and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Dhagash

    2015-01-01

    Function optimization and finding simultaneous solutions of a system of nonlinear equations (SNE) are two closely related and important optimization problems. However, unlike in the case of function optimization in which one is required to find the global minimum and sometimes local minima, a database of challenging SNEs where one is required to find stationary points (extrama and saddle points) is not readily available. In this article, we initiate building such a database of important SNE (which also includes related function optimization problems), arising from Science, Engineering and Economics. After providing a short review of the most commonly used mathematical and computational approaches to find solutions of such systems, we provide a preliminary list of challenging problems by writing the Mathematical formulation down, briefly explaning the origin and importance of the problem and giving a short account on the currently known results, for each of the problems. We anticipate that this database will n...

  14. Extending the horizons advances in computing, optimization, and decision technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Anito; Mehrotra, Anuj; Trick, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Computer Science and Operations Research continue to have a synergistic relationship and this book represents the results of cross-fertilization between OR/MS and CS/AI. It is this interface of OR/CS that makes possible advances that could not have been achieved in isolation. Taken collectively, these articles are indicative of the state-of-the-art in the interface between OR/MS and CS/AI and of the high caliber of research being conducted by members of the INFORMS Computing Society. EXTENDING THE HORIZONS: Advances in Computing, Optimization, and Decision Technologies is a volume that presents the latest, leading research in the design and analysis of algorithms, computational optimization, heuristic search and learning, modeling languages, parallel and distributed computing, simulation, computational logic and visualization. This volume also emphasizes a variety of novel applications in the interface of CS, AI, and OR/MS.

  15. Technological Exports and the Dynamics of Ukraine’s Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cherkass

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the promotion of technological exports in the context of making products competitive on the world market at the expense of quantified but not qualified factors. The author describes the destructive consequences of primary export growth. Relying on a designed structural model, she analyzes factors pertaining to technological exports and industrial production, and also evaluates the effectiveness of promoting exports for economic growth. She demonstrates the negative effect of the devaluation of the hryvnia on industrial production growth and the currency’s neutrality as a factor in the promotion of technological exports. The article establishes that technological exports determine to a considerable extent the dynamics of Ukraine’s economic growth, while the exports of raw materials worsen these indicators. The author shows that the export of metal products stands in the way of increasing technological export, and offers her recommendations to improve the dynamics of economic growth.

  16. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Gary S.; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu, Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianaca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred; Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

    2011-01-02

    clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology.

  17. Sustainable Data Evolution Technology for Power Grid Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-10-09

    The SDET Tool is used to create open-access power grid data sets and facilitate updates of these data sets by the community. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its power industry and software vendor partners are developing an innovative sustainable data evolution technology (SDET) to create open-access power grid datasets and facilitate updates to these datasets by the power grid community. The objective is to make this a sustained effort within and beyond the ARPA-E GRID DATA program so that the datasets can evolve over time and meet the current and future needs for power grid optimization and potentially other applications in power grid operation and planning.

  18. Waste oil: Technology, economics, and environmental, health, and safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The current status of environmental information on the waste oil industry is reviewed. The sources, properties, and availability of waste oil are summarized. The topics of waste oil collection, utilization, and disposal, energy and economic considerations, and regulatory constraints are discussed, based upon the most recent data available at this time. The health and safety implications of the resource through end-use waste oil system are also presented.

  19. Economic Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control with State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Rawlings, James B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) for a complete spray drying plant with multiple stages. In the E-NMPC the initial state is estimated by an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with noise covariances estimated by an autocovariance least...... squares method (ALS). We present a model for the spray drying plant and use this model for simulation as well as for prediction in the E-NMPC. The open-loop optimal control problem in the E-NMPC is solved using the single-shooting method combined with a quasi-Newton Sequential Quadratic programming (SQP...

  20. Thermo-economic-environmental optimization of a microturbine using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourhasanzadeh Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-economic-environmental optimization of a 100 kW microturbine has been numerically investigated by genetic algorithm optimization method. An objective function is defined as the sum of the total cost of the plant and the costs of environmental pollutant effects (the emission of NOx and CO gases due to fuel combustion, while the design parameters are the common important parameters of an industrial power plant cycle. The objective function is then formulated in the design parameters. Finally, the optimum values of the parameters are computed by minimizing the objective function using the Genetic Algorithm (GA.

  1. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  2. Optimized post-combustion capture technology for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Moser; Sandra Schmidt; Georg Sieder; Hugo Garcia; Ilaria Ciattaglia; Dieter Mihailowitsch; Torsten Stoffregen [RWE Power AG, New Technologies, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The construction and operation of the post-combustion capture pilot plant at RWE Power's lignite-fired power plant at Niederaussem is the first corner stone in a joint development programme of RWE Power, BASF and Linde that started in 2007. The pilot plant will be commissioned in mid-2009. The skid-mounted pilot plant - engineering, procurement and construction by procurement and construction by Linde - comprises all significant components of a large post-combustion capture plant but on a smaller scale. In the 18-month pilot plant testing programme optimized new solvents for the capture process will be evaluated. These solvents were selected by BASF in a multi-step procedure, starting with a pre-selection, followed by lab-screening, and finalized by mini plant runs. The pilot plant will validate the performance of some capture process optimization measures that are implemented to increase the overall efficiency and reduce the costs of a commercial capture plant. The results of the pilot plant testing will be directly used to optimize the capture process configuration for a base case power plant, a 1,100 MW lignite-fired power plant with lignite pre-drying technology. The development of the commercial capture plant needs an accurate analysis of all process steps to achieve a cost efficient plant design. Apart from energy efficiency, cost-effective equipment and the optimization of plant interfaces and plant configuration are also key factors to reach the ambitious goals of this project. Based on the results of the pilot plant tests and the full-scale design study, a demonstration plant concept will be developed to prove all innovative optimization measures and to avoid the risks involved in direct up-scaling from the pilot plant to the commercial plant scale without an intermediate step. 8 figs.

  3. Scheme to Implement Optimal Asymmetric Economical Phase-Covariant Quantum Cloning in Cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun-Nuan; ZHANG Wen-Hai; HE Jin-Chun; DAI Jie-Lin; HUANG Nian-Ning; YE Liu

    2008-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to implement the optimal asymmetric economical 1 → 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning in two dimensions based on the cavity QED technique. The protocol is very simple and only two atoms are required. Our scheme is insensitive to the cavity field states and cavity decay. During the processes, the cavity is only virtually excited and it thus greatly prolongs the efficient decoherent time. Therefore, it may be realized in experiment.

  4. Technology commercialization: From generating ideas to creating economic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Dehghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent changes in competitors' status, technology, and customer interests make it unwise and impossible for companies to rely on their products. Customers always seek to find new products. Consequently, companies should continuously produce and offer superior products to meet customer needs, tastes, and expectations. In fact, every company needs a development plan for its new products. Research has demonstrated that one of the major reasons for rapid development of technology in industrial countries is commercialization of research results. The basis of such commercialization is research-industry collaboration in converting research output into innovation. Today, technology commercialization and its outcomes can provide financial resources required for organizational longevity. The main objective of this article is to propose a model for commercializing research findings from idea generation to initial market entry. We believe that this article can, hopefully, contribute to commercialization literature by acting as a guide to local authorities involved in commercialization cycle.

  5. NOVEL EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMIC SURFACE MINING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong

    2005-05-01

    Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design

  6. The Economics of New Health Technologies Incentives, Organization, and Financing

    CERN Document Server

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Technological change in healthcare has led to huge improvements in health services and the health status of populations. It is also pinpointed as the main driver of healthcare expenditure. Although offering remarkable benefits, changes in technology are not free and often entail significant financial, as well as physical or social risks. These need to be balanced out in the setting of government regulations, insurance contracts, and individuals' decisions to use and consume certaintechnologies. With this in mind, this book addresses the following important objectives: to provide a detailed ana

  7. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali

    2002-01-01

    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  8. Impact of Technology and Culture on Home Economics and Nutrition Science Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburime, M. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and report on the impact of technology and culture on home economics and nutrition science education in developing countries with a focus on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Globally and most especially in developing countries, the advent of information and communication technologies has meant…

  9. The Effect of Information Technology on Economic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    The author evaluated the effect on student performance of using a new information technology (IT) enhancement that permits students to participate in the recording of lectures that can be downloaded later from the Internet. The author compared two sections of the same Intermediate Microeconomics class and observed the sample students to be…

  10. Energy demand analytics using coupled technological and economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impacts of a range of policy scenarios on end-use energy demand are examined using a coupling of MARKAL, an energy system model with extensive supply and end-use technological detail, with Inforum LIFT, a large-scale model of the us. economy with inter-industry, government, and c...

  11. Wood products biomass gasification: technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G.; Scarzella, L.

    In this paper, a design lay-out is presented for the gasification of wood products biomass. Regarding this alternative energy form, the paper discusses historical aspects and recent technological developments made by Italian industry. The design, construction, performance, efficiency, present and future applications of a twin-feeding system are described.

  12. LightSAR Pushes Both the Technology and the Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the strategic plan for its Earth Science Enterprise, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is committed to fostering the development and prosperous use of imaging radar science and technology in both the public and private sectors.

  13. Techno-economic evaluation of broadband access technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    Broadband for all is an essential element in the EU policy concerning the future of ICT-based society. The overall purpose of this paper is to present a model for evaluation of different broadband access technologies and to present some preliminary results based on the model that has been carried...

  14. Economical optimization of the maintenance of a river bed protection construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, H.K.T.; Vrijling, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    This example of optimizing the maintenance by minimizing the sum of the present values of the tisk and the costs of repair in a certain plan peliod is a part of a study done by the author by order of the Delft University of Technology. In this study also a classification of ageing models and a defin

  15. The Optimal Timing of Adoption of a Green Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha-e-Sa, M.A.; Reis, A.B. [Faculdade de Economia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Campolide, P-1099-032 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-01-15

    We study the optimal timing of adoption of a cleaner technology and its effects on the rate of growth of an economy in the context of an AK endogenous growth model. We show that the results depend upon the behavior of the marginal utility of environmental quality with respect to consumption. When it is increasing, we derive the capital level at the optimal timing of adoption. We show that this capital threshold is independent of the initial conditions on the stock of capital, implying that capital-poor countries tend to take longer to adopt. Also, country-specific characteristics, as the existence of high barriers to adoption, may lead to different capital thresholds for different countries. If the marginal utility of environmental quality decreases with consumption, a country should never delay adoption; the optimal policy is either to adopt immediately or, if adoption costs are {sup t}oo high{sup ,} to never adopt. The policy implications of these results are discussed in the context of the international debate surrounding the environmental political agenda.

  16. Optimization Design System for Composite Structures Based on Grid Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wen-yuan; CHANG Yan; CUI De-gang; XIE Xiang-hui

    2007-01-01

    To solve the topology optimization of complicated multi-objective continuous/discrete design variables in aircraft structure design, a Parallel Pareto Genetic Algorithm (PPGA) is presented based on grid platform in this paper. In the algorithm, the commercial finite element analysis (FEA) software is integrated as the calculating tool for analyzing the objective functions and the filter of Pareto solution set based on weight information is introduced to deal with the relationships among all objectives. Grid technology is utilized in PPGA to realize the distributed computations and the user interface is developed to realize the job submission and job management locally/remotely. Taking the aero-elastic tailoring of a composite wing for optimization as an example, a set of Pareto solutions are obtained for the decision-maker. The numerical results show that the aileron reversal problem can be solved by adding the limited skin weight in this system. The algorithm can be used to solve complicated topology optimization for composite structures in engineering and the computation efficiency can be improved greatly by using the grid platform that aggregates numerous idle resources.

  17. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of low carbon energy technologies: Indian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Rahul; Kumar, Manish; Deswal, Surinder; Chandna, Pankaj

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, techno-economic and an environmental investigation and analysis of Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs) has been presented, with special emphasis on India. The paper identify, analyze and recommend, on the basis of available and collected / collated information and data, the promising and potential low carbon energy technology options suited to Indian conditions for grid connected power generation. The evaluation criteria adopted include - emission reduction potential, technological feasibility, and economic viability; and on its basis recommend a detailed action plan and strategy for guiding future research and development with a more focused approach considering current Indian policy framework.

  18. The Emergence of the Global Fintech Market: Economic and Technological Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    HADDAD, Christian; Hornuf, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the economic and technological determinants inducing entrepreneurs to establish ventures with the purpose of reinventing financial technology (fintech). We find that countries witness more fintech startup formations when the latest technology is readily available and people have more mobile telephone subscriptions. Furthermore, the available labor force has a positive impact on the development of this new market segment. Finally, the more sound the financial system, the lower t...

  19. The emergence of the global fintech market: Economic and technological determinants

    OpenAIRE

    HADDAD, Christian; Hornuf, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the economic and technological determinants inducing entrepreneurs to establish ventures with the purpose of reinventing financial technology (fintech). We find that countries witness more fintech startup formations when the latest technology is readily available, capital markets are well-developed, and people have more mobile telephone subscriptions. Furthermore, the available labor force has a positive impact on the development of this new market segment. Finally, the more so...

  20. The emergence of the global fintech market: Economic and technological determinants

    OpenAIRE

    HADDAD, Christian; Hornuf, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the economic and technological determinants inducing entrepreneurs to establish ventures with the purpose of reinventing financial technology (fintech). We find that countries witness more fintech startup formations when the latest technology is readily available and people have more mobile telephone subscriptions. Furthermore, the available labor force has a positive impact on the development of this new market segment. Finally, the more sound the financial system, the lower t...

  1. Optimization of timetable supplement from a passenger based socio-economic point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    amount of timetable supplement. Too little timetable supplement will result in many delays, while too high timetable supplement will result in a (too) high planned travel time which will affect every departure whether or not the train is delayed. At present timetable supplement is chosen based...... on experience or estimates. Through a mathematical optimization it is possible to find the optimal timetable supplement. A way to do so is by using the passenger delay model in a socio-economic analysis as done by (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010). A case study of an upgrade of Sydbanen between Ringsted and Rødby has...... been conducted using the passenger delay model and the methods are described in this article. The case study has shown that the optimum timetable supplement is between 6-9 % depending on the scenario. By optimizing the timetable supplement it is possible to achieve a surplus of 250-500 mio. DKK during...

  2. Techno-Economic Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    , and hot tap water demand, balancing fluctuating wind power and both solar power and solar thermal supply utilizing advanced heat pump and both electro-chemical electricity storage, and hot and cold thermal storages. Our research is basically concerned with the question of how to design 100 % renewable...... for a sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables based Smart House (SH). We have devised and analysed an innovative high-efficiency approach to residential energy supply. The analysis involves detailed technical specifications and considerations for providing optimal supply of electricity, heating, cooling...... technical and economic challenges. One such challenge is the discontinuity, or intermittency, of generation, as most renewable energy resources depend on the climate, which is why their use requires complex design, planning and control optimization strategies. This paper presents a model and optimization...

  3. Designing economic evaluations to facilitate optimal decisions: the need to avoid bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee KM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Karen M Lee,1,3 Kathryn Coyle,2 Doug Coyle2,31Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Health Economics Research Group, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK; 3School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, CanadaGuertin et al1 argue in their article “Bias within economic evaluations” that if researchersfail to incorporate the future availability of generics entrants for new patented drugs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER will be overestimated.1 Before addressing the validity of this argument, it is first worthwhile to consider the nature of both bias and economic evaluation.Read the original paper by Guertin et al 

  4. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

    2011-01-02

    clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been

  5. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable renewable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility and sufficient capacity, and greater concern for overgeneration from renewable sources not well matched in time with electric loads. Hydrogen systems have the potential to support the grid in each of these areas. However, limited information is available about the economic competitiveness of hydrogen system configurations. This paper quantifies the value for hydrogen energy storage and demand response systems to participate in select California wholesale electricity markets using 2012 data. For hydrogen systems and conventional storage systems (e.g., pumped hydro, batteries), the yearly revenues from energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets are compared to the yearly cost to establish economic competitiveness. Hydrogen systems can present a positive value proposition for current markets. Three main findings include: (1) For hydrogen systems participating in California electricity markets, producing and selling hydrogen was found to be much more valuable than producing and storing hydrogen to later produce electricity; therefore systems should focus on producing and selling hydrogen and opportunistically providing ancillary services and arbitrage. (2) Tighter integration with electricity markets generates greater revenues (i.e., systems that participate in multiple markets receive the highest revenue). (3) More storage capacity, in excess of what is required to provide diurnal shifting, does not increase competitiveness in current California wholesale energy markets. As more variable renewable generation is installed, the importance of long duration storage may become apparent in the energy price or through additional markets, but currently, there is not a sufficiently large price differential between days to generate enough revenue to offset the cost of additional storage. Future work will involve

  6. Technical, environmental, and economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power technologies in the Chinese context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lifeng [Energy Technology Innovation Policy, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, 11 Beisihuan West Road, Beijing 100190 (China)], E-mail: lifeng_zhao@ksg.harvard.edu; Xiao Yunhan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, 11 Beisihuan West Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Gallagher, Kelly Sims [Energy Technology Innovation Policy, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang Bo; Xu Xiang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, 11 Beisihuan West Road, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2008-07-15

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the technical, environmental, and economic dimensions of deploying advanced coal-fired power technologies in China. In particular, we estimate the differences in capital cost and overall cost of electricity (COE) for a variety of advanced coal-power technologies based on the technological and economic levels in 2006 in China. This paper explores the economic gaps between Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and other advanced coal power technologies, and compares 12 different power plant configurations using advanced coal power technologies. Super critical (SC) and ultra super critical (USC) pulverized coal (PC) power generation technologies coupled with pollution control technologies can meet the emission requirements. These technologies are highly efficient, technically mature, and cost-effective. From the point of view of efficiency, SC and USC units are good choices for power industry. The net plant efficiency for IGCC has reached 45%, and it has the best environmental performance overall. The cost of IGCC is much higher, however, than that of other power generation technologies, so the development of IGCC is slow throughout the world. Incentive policies are needed if IGCC is to be deployed in China.

  7. Emergy-based assessment on industrial symbiosis: a case of Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Zuoxi; Xue, Bing; Dong, Huijuan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    Industrial symbiosis is the sharing of services, utility, and by-product resources among industries. This is usually made in order to add value, reduce costs, and improve the environment, and therefore has been taken as an effective approach for developing an eco-industrial park, improving resource efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission. Most conventional evaluation approaches ignored the contribution of natural ecosystem to the development of industrial symbiosis and cannot reveal the interrelations between economic development and environmental protection, leading to a need of an innovative evaluation method. Under such a circumstance, we present an emergy analysis-based evaluation method by employing a case study at Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ). Specific emergy indicators on industrial symbiosis, including emergy savings and emdollar value of total emergy savings, were developed so that the holistic picture of industrial symbiosis can be presented. Research results show that nonrenewable inputs, imported resource inputs, and associated services could be saved by 89.3, 32.51, and 15.7 %, and the ratio of emergy savings to emergy of the total energy used would be about 25.58 %, and the ratio of the emdollar value of total emergy savings to the total gross regional product (GRP) of SETDZ would be 34.38 % through the implementation of industrial symbiosis. In general, research results indicate that industrial symbiosis could effectively reduce material and energy consumption and improve the overall eco-efficiency. Such a method can provide policy insights to industrial park managers so that they can raise appropriate strategies on developing eco-industrial parks. Useful strategies include identifying more potential industrial symbiosis opportunities, optimizing energy structure, increasing industrial efficiency, recovering local ecosystems, and improving public and industrial awareness of eco-industrial park policies.

  8. Effects of climate uncertainties on welfare optimal investment streams into mitigation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, H.; Kriegler, E.; Lessmann, K.; Lorenz, A.

    2009-04-01

    We discuss a stylised portfolio of climate change mitigation options and ask the following question: what is the intertemporally optimal mix of these options under the boundary condition of a climate guardrail and uncertainty about the temperature response to rising carbon dioxide concentrations? We impose a guardrail that requires the increase of global mean temperature T to be limited to 2K with at least a minimum probability P (e.g., P=0.75). The uncertainty about the temperature response is captured by a PDF for climate sensitivity and ocean heat uptake. For economic optimisation, we use an ensemble-version of the growth model MIND [1]. As a key results we show that robust climate protection paths will require aggressive mitigation measures [2]. In this context it is also possible to ask for the economic potential of reducing uncertainty in climate sensitivity [3] and ocean heat uptake [4] that is generically by orders of magnitude larger than the costs induced by the related research programmes. References [1] O. Edenhofer., N. Bauer, E. Kriegler: The Impact of Technological Change on Climate Protection and Welfare: Insights from the Model MIND. Ecological Economics, 54 (2-3): 277-292 (2005). [2] H. Held, E. Kriegler, K. Lessmann, O. Edenhofer, Efficient Climate Policies under Technology and Climate Uncertainty, Energy Economics, in press. [3] T. Schneider von Deimling, H. Held, A. Ganopolski, S. Rahmstorf, Climate sensitivity estimated from ensemble simulations of glacial climates, Climate Dynamics 27, 149-163, DOI 10.1007/s00382-006-0126-8 (2006). [4] A. Lorenz, Diploma Thesis, U Potsdam (2007).

  9. Optimal utilization of modern reproductive technologies to maximize the gross margin of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, A-M; Peippo, J

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a linear programming model was developed to maximize the gross margin of milk production by determining the optimal use of different reproductive technologies in a dairy herd. The model has the potential to vary the use of conventional artificial insemination, insemination with X-sorted sperm, and the use of unselected or sex-selected embryo recovery and transfer. Data from Finnish dairy herd recording systems were used to parameterize the model. This paper presents the results of 6 scenarios for a herd size of 60 dairy cows. In the basic scenario, the optimum economic combination for Finnish conditions was to inseminate 10 heifers and 22 cows with unsorted semen, 8 heifers with X-sorted sperm, and to use 20 cows as embryo donors which was the upper constraint for this technique. The embryo donors were inseminated with conventional semen for both embryo production and their subsequent pregnancy. Without restriction on embryo recovery, the optimum combination was to use all heifers as donors of sex-selected embryos and all cows as donors of unselected embryos. It was more profitable to produce female embryos with X-sorted sperm than by sorting embryos. Embryo recipients were not economically justified in any scenario. In practice, the optimal strategy is herd-specific depending on the input costs, output values and the technical success of each reproductive technology in that herd. This single-year linear programming model adequately differentiates between breeding technologies within a herd, but further research is needed to develop dynamic models to consider genetic improvement and herd expansion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES IN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mehedintu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance management includes activities that ensure that goals are consistently being met inan effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, adepartment, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service, as well as many other areas.In these days of globalization and intensive use of information technology, the organizations must defineand implement an appropriate strategy that would support their medium-term development, stability andcompetitiveness. This is achieved through a coherent and interrelated set of activities for understanding thecustomer expectations and the level at which the offer of organization add value to customers and satisfy theirneeds, define their internal organization to allow timely response to market demands without losing focus on client,tracking strategy and business model for the accomplishment of the organization mission, aligning the existing ITproject management or under development implementation in organization with the strategic management oforganization etc. Strategic Management determines the improvement of processes, effective use of resources, focuson critical areas in terms of finance, creating opportunities for innovation and technological progress, improvementof the supply mechanism and the duty to promote personal interaction and negotiation at all levels, continuousassessment of organization and its technological trends, analyze the market potential and competence field etc.Strategic management system will not give good results if the strategy is not defined by a set of operationalobjectives clearly at all levels.Business performance is based on a set of analytical processes of business, supported by informationtechnology that defines the strategic goals that can be measured by performance indicators. EnterprisePerformance Management creates a powerful and precise environment, characterized by data consistency,efficiency analysis

  11. The influence of engine technology advancements on aircraft economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, J. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1973-01-01

    A technology advancement in a new powerplant has both favorable and unfavorable effects. Increased bypass ratio and compression ratio, coupled with high turbine temperatures, improve performance but also increase engine price and maintenance cost. The factors that should be evaluated in choosing an engine for airline use are discussed. These factors are compared for two engines that might be considered for future 150 to 200 passenger airplanes: an all-new turbofan and a quiet derivative of an existing first generation turbofan. The results of the performance and cost evaluations of the example engines are reduced to common units so they can be combined.

  12. The influence of engine technology advancements on aircraft economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, J. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1973-01-01

    A technology advancement in a new powerplant has both favorable and unfavorable effects. Increased bypass ratio and compression ratio, coupled with high turbine temperatures, improve performance but also increase engine price and maintenance cost. The factors that should be evaluated in choosing an engine for airline use are discussed. These factors are compared for two engines that might be considered for future 150 to 200 passenger airplanes: an all-new turbofan and a quiet derivative of an existing first generation turbofan. The results of the performance and cost evaluations of the example engines are reduced to common units so they can be combined.

  13. Economics, new technology improve Danish offshore oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensgaard, A. [Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-06-10

    Cost-efficient development concepts and technologies, such as horizontal wells and water injection, have almost tripled the expected ultimate oil recovery from Danish offshore fields. All currently produced Danish oil and gas is from chalk reservoirs. The Danish Energy Agency`s strategies for research and development of improved recovery techniques is related to classifying Danish calk fields into three different reservoir types according to flow characteristics and initial oil saturation. This paper reviews these classification techniques and the methods of extraction for each.

  14. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation.

  15. Economic optimization of natural hazard protection - conceptual study of existing approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackova, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Risk-based planning of protection measures against natural hazards has become a common practice in many countries. The selection procedure aims at identifying an economically efficient strategy with regard to the estimated costs and risk (i.e. expected damage). A correct setting of the evaluation methodology and decision criteria should ensure an optimal selection of the portfolio of risk protection measures under a limited state budget. To demonstrate the efficiency of investments, indicators such as Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Marginal Costs (MC) or Net Present Value (NPV) are commonly used. However, the methodologies for efficiency evaluation differ amongst different countries and different hazard types (floods, earthquakes etc.). Additionally, several inconsistencies can be found in the applications of the indicators in practice. This is likely to lead to a suboptimal selection of the protection strategies. This study provides a general formulation for optimization of the natural hazard protection measures from a socio-economic perspective. It assumes that all costs and risks can be expressed in monetary values. The study regards the problem as a discrete hierarchical optimization, where the state level sets the criteria and constraints, while the actual optimization is made on the regional level (towns, catchments) when designing particular protection measures and selecting the optimal protection level. The study shows that in case of an unlimited budget, the task is quite trivial, as it is sufficient to optimize the protection measures in individual regions independently (by minimizing the sum of risk and cost). However, if the budget is limited, the need for an optimal allocation of resources amongst the regions arises. To ensure this, minimum values of BCR or MC can be required by the state, which must be achieved in each region. The study investigates the meaning of these indicators in the optimization task at the conceptual level and compares their

  16. Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, a.; Pickrell, G.; Xiao, H.; May, r.

    2003-02-27

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reliable cost effective sensors for application in the down-hole environment. The physical parameters measured by these sensors were temperature, pressure, flow and acoustic signals. Sensor head configurations for each of the physical measurands were optimized to increase the sensitivity to the particular measurand of interest while decreasing the cross-sensitivity to the other physical measurands and to environmental influences. In addition, the optical signal demodulation electronics was designed to be insensitive to environmental influences while maintaining the required resolution, precision and accuracy of the parameter being sensed. The influence of potentially detrimental agents such as water in the down-hole environment was investigated as well as methods to protect both the optical fiber and the sensor from these detrimental effects.

  17. FARMERS' TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND RELATIVE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF COUNTRY BEAN GROWERS

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, S.M. Fakhrul; Karim, Md Rezaul

    1997-01-01

    This paper examined farmers' country bean production technology and proposed an econometric model for estimating the normalized profit distribution function using a Three Staged Generalized Method of Moment procedure. The advantage of the model is that it used Cobb-Douglas form of profit function which is linear in logarithm. The second moment function of profit can be used for measuring risk involved in input use under uncertainty. Furthermore, the results could be used for testing relative ...

  18. Are the Economically Optimal Harvesting Strategies of Uneven-Aged Pinus nigra Stands Always Sustainable and Stabilizing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fullana-Belda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional uneven-aged forest management seeks a balance between equilibrium stand structure and economic profitability, which often leads to harvesting strategies concentrated in the larger diameter classes. The sustainability (i.e., population persistence over time and influence of such economically optimal strategies on the equilibrium position of a stand (given by the stable diameter distribution have not been sufficiently investigated in prior forest literature. This article therefore proposes a discrete optimal control model to analyze the sustainability and stability of the economically optimal harvesting strategies of uneven-aged Pinus nigra stands. For this model, we rely on an objective function that integrates financial data of harvesting operations with a projection matrix model that can describe the population dynamics. The model solution reveals the optimal management schedules for a wide variety of scenarios. To measure the distance between the stable diameter distribution and the economically optimal harvesting strategy distribution, the model uses Keyfitz’s delta, which returns high values for all the scenarios and, thus, suggests that those economically optimal harvesting strategies have an unstabilizing influence on the equilibrium positions. Moreover, the economically optimal harvesting strategies were unsustainable for all the scenarios.

  19. Technology and Economic Assessment of Innovative Field Drainage Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni

    technologies, and their willingness and extent of trading-off the existing farm management nutrient reduction measures with constructed wetland technology, iii) the cost-effectiveness of surface flow constructed wetlands, and iv) the strategies of incorporating the filter technologies into policy measures....... Overall, the findings in this thesis indicate a potential for integration of the filter technologies into nutrient reduction measures....

  20. A Three-Stage Optimal Approach for Power System Economic Dispatch Considering Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tzer Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of microgrids (MGs in power systems, especially distribution-substation-level MGs, significantly affects power systems because of the large volumes of import and export power flows. Consequently, power dispatch has become complicated, and finding an optimal solution is difficult. In this study, a three-stage optimal power dispatch model is proposed to solve such dispatch problems. In the proposed model, the entire power system is divided into two parts, namely, the main power grid and MGs. The optimal power dispatch problem is resolved on the basis of multi-area concepts. In stage I, the main power system economic dispatch (ED problem is solved by sensitive factors. In stage II, the optimal power dispatches of the local MGs are addressed via an improved direct search method. In stage III, the incremental linear models for the entire power system can be established on the basis of the solutions of the previous two stages and can be subjected to linear programming to determine the optimal reschedules from the original dispatch solutions. The proposed method is coded using Matlab and tested by utilizing an IEEE 14-bus test system to verify its feasibility and accuracy. Results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used for the ED of power systems with MGs as virtual power plants.

  1. Breast cancer in tough economic times: disruptive technology emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Phillip; Lynch, Richard

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of melding three emerging technologies: Pharmacogenomics, Modified Military Digital Infrared and Halo to establish their capability in diagnosing ultra-small breast cancers as well as other cancers. Mammography, ultrasound and MRI technologies have been available for over forty years, however, there is still no uniform utilization by women, costs continue to escalate and problems persist like high false positive rates for MRI and high false negative rates for mammography. Of the first 500 IR patients, 499 were female and 1 male. Of 550 OncoVue patients, 129 opted to undergo IR. A total of 19 were lost to follow-up. Patients who were negative on IR: 419/500 (84%). Of these, 63/419 went to biopsy because of findings of other diagnostic modalities. Of these 61/63 with negative IR had a negative biopsy. Of two missed, one was the fault of the investigator but was included. In this series 2/500 were false negative (0.4%). The sensitivity was 96% and the specificity was 79%. In total, 46 cancers were identified including five outside the breast (e.g. 2 lung cancers). A total of 92 MRIs were done and in 71/92 patients IR and MRI agreed. Using these three modalities the smallest cancer found was a 4 mm invasive cancer. The study demonstrated that these diagnostic techniques can dramatically lower cost and provide results at least as good as the older paradigms. Further research and a multicenter clinical trial are necessary to shift the paradigm of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Large Scale Multi-area Static/Dynamic Economic Dispatch using Nature Inspired Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Manjaree; Jain, Kalpana; Dubey, Hari Mohan; Singh, Rameshwar

    2017-04-01

    Economic dispatch (ED) ensures that the generation allocation to the power units is carried out such that the total fuel cost is minimized and all the operating equality/inequality constraints are satisfied. Classical ED does not take transmission constraints into consideration, but in the present restructured power systems the tie-line limits play a very important role in deciding operational policies. ED is a dynamic problem which is performed on-line in the central load dispatch centre with changing load scenarios. The dynamic multi-area ED (MAED) problem is more complex due to the additional tie-line, ramp-rate and area-wise power balance constraints. Nature inspired (NI) heuristic optimization methods are gaining popularity over the traditional methods for complex problems. This work presents the modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) based techniques where parameter automation is effectively used for improving the search efficiency by avoiding stagnation to a sub-optimal result. This work validates the performance of the PSO variants with traditional solver GAMS for single as well as multi-area economic dispatch (MAED) on three test cases of a large 140-unit standard test system having complex constraints.

  3. Optimization of Processing Technology of Compound Dandelion Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jixuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploring dandelion food has been the concern in fields of the food processing and pharmaceutical industry for playing exact curative effect on high-fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis and diuretic activity. Few dandelion foods including drinks and microencapsulation were explored and unilateral dandelion wine were less carried out for its bitter flavour. In tis paper, to optimize the processing technologies of fermented compound wine from dandelion root, the orthogonal experiment design method was used to composite dandelion root powder with glutinous rice and schisandra fruit and optimize the fermenting parameters. Four factors with dandelion content, schisandra content, acidity and sugar content were discussed. The acidity factor was firstly confirmed as 7.0 g/L. The other three factors were confirmed by a series experiments as dandelion 0.55%, schisandra 0.5%, sugar 22%. With nine step processing of mixing substrate, stirring with water, cooking rice, amylase saccharification, pectinase hydrolysis, adjusting juice, fermenting with yeast, fitering, aging, sterilization, a light yellow wine with the special taste with flavour of dandelion, schisandra and rice and less bitter, few index were determined as 14.7% alcohol, 6.85 g/L acidity. A dandelion fermented compound wine with suitable flavour and sanitarian function was developed for enriching the dandelion food.

  4. Disaggregated productivity growth and technological progress in the interpretation of Spanish economic growth, 1958-1975

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchís Llopis, M. Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Spanish economic records in terms of GDP growth and convergence to European levels in the sixties, provide an excellent opportunity to look at a central question underlying in the interpretation of any process of economic growth. The relevance of industrial specific technological progress is confronted to a general and multifaceted productivity change coming from a variety of sectors and causes. This paper exploits sectoral growth accounting methodology in two different ways in order to answe...

  5. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy Ganti S; Kumar Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of th...

  6. The Model of Optimum Economic Growth with the Induced Scientific-Technological Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilenko Viktor A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the economic dynamics of the Harrod – Domar model, a model of optimum economic growth in line with the induced scientific-technological progress (STP has been built. In order to reflect the induced scientific-technological progress, with this model is proposed to further allocate the income element that is specially used for the investment of innovation activity, implementation of which reduces the capital intensity in development of the discussed economy. For the simplest way of presenting an economic mechanism for the investment of induced STP, analytical solutions of an appropriate task in optimum management have been obtained. Studying these decisions allowed to reveal the characteristics of the impact of parameters of scientific-technological progress and the analyzed economic system on choosing the best trajectory for its evolution. Possible directions for further developing the results presented can be considered the tasks in building and analyzing models of optimum economic growth that implement different investment options for the induced STP, as well as the models in which this investment mechanism is not exogenouslyed, but rather the result of the corresponding economic-mathematical research.

  7. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  8. Technological innovation as a mean to increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VASILE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporations must be able to adapt and evolve if they wish to survive. Businesses operate with the knowledge that their competitors will inevitably come to the market with a product that changes the basis of competition. The ability to change and adapt is essential to survival.(1 European Union and its member states set several frameworks to support companies to acquire knowledge and strengthen their competitiveness, as follows:- National Programs for R & D funding which support national actors;- Sectorial Operational Programs (either at national or regional level, in full compliance with national rules;- EU programs (e.g. Competitiveness and Innovation Program – CIP, R&D Framework Programs – FP;- Pan-European programs (e.g. EUREKA.Romania is participating to all programs and pan-European R & D frameworks. Furthermore, its innovation program within the National Plan for research facilitates company participation to knowledge development and technology development. Nevertheless Romania’s Innovation performance is still at one of the lowest level in Europe(2. The followings present how companies are considering their participation to R & D programs and the impact of an R & D project in a company.

  9. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  10. Optimal search strategies for detecting cost and economic studies in EMBASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes R Brian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic evaluations in the medical literature compare competing diagnosis or treatment methods for their use of resources and their expected outcomes. The best evidence currently available from research regarding both cost and economic comparisons will continue to expand as this type of information becomes more important in today's clinical practice. Researchers and clinicians need quick, reliable ways to access this information. A key source of this type of information is large bibliographic databases such as EMBASE. The objective of this study was to develop search strategies that optimize the retrieval of health costs and economics studies from EMBASE. Methods We conducted an analytic survey, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from EMBASE for candidate search terms and combinations. 6 research assistants read all issues of 55 journals indexed by EMBASE for the publishing year 2000. We rated all articles using purpose and quality indicators and categorized them into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized for purpose (i.e., cost and economics and other clinical topics and depending on the purpose as 'pass' or 'fail' for methodologic rigor. Candidate search strategies were developed for economic and cost studies, then run in the 55 EMBASE journals, the retrievals being compared with the hand search data. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies were calculated. Results Combinations of search terms for detecting both cost and economic studies attained levels of 100% sensitivity with specificity levels of 92.9% and 92.3% respectively. When maximizing for both sensitivity and specificity, the combination of terms for detecting cost studies (sensitivity increased 2.2% over the single term but at a slight decrease in specificity of 0.9%. The maximized combination of terms

  11. A conceptual framework for economic optimization of an animal health surveillance portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-04-01

    Decision making on hazard surveillance in livestock product chains is a multi-hazard, multi-stakeholder, and multi-criteria process that includes a variety of decision alternatives. The multi-hazard aspect means that the allocation of the scarce resource for surveillance should be optimized from the point of view of a surveillance portfolio (SP) rather than a single hazard. In this paper, we present a novel conceptual approach for economic optimization of a SP to address the resource allocation problem for a surveillance organization from a theoretical perspective. This approach uses multi-criteria techniques to evaluate the performances of different settings of a SP, taking cost-benefit aspects of surveillance and stakeholders' preferences into account. The credibility of the approach has also been checked for conceptual validity, data needs and operational validity; the application potentials of the approach are also discussed.

  12. Optimal economic order quantity for buyer-distributor-vendor supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jinn-Tsair; Cárdenas-Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo; Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wee, Hui Ming

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we first complement an inappropriate mathematical error on the total cost in the previously published paper by Chung and Wee [2007, 'Optimal the Economic Lot Size of a Three-stage Supply Chain With Backlogging Derived Without Derivatives', European Journal of Operational Research, 183, 933-943] related to buyer-distributor-vendor three-stage supply chain with backlogging derived without derivatives. Then, an arithmetic-geometric inequality method is proposed not only to simplify the algebraic method of completing prefect squares, but also to complement their shortcomings. In addition, we provide a closed-form solution to integral number of deliveries for the distributor and the vendor without using complex derivatives. Furthermore, our method can solve many cases in which their method cannot, because they did not consider that a squared root of a negative number does not exist. Finally, we use some numerical examples to show that our proposed optimal solution is cheaper to operate than theirs.

  13. Organizing and Economic Mechanism for Optimization of Industrial Structure in Electric Power Industry of the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Morozov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals economic peculiar features of innovative and investment processes in electric power industry. A scheme of organizing and economic mechanism for optimization of the industrial structure in the Belarusian electric power industry has been given in the paper. Realization of the mechanism will promote to better economic efficiency of power generation in the Belarusian power system and diversification of fuel balance of electric power industry.

  14. Economic and environmental benefits of technology fusion of solar photovoltaics with alternative technologies

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Technology fusion refers to the blending of several previously separate fields of existing technology, creating novel markets and growth opportunities. In technology fusion, one plus one equals three. This is indeed the case when fusing solar PV with alternative technologies: besides greenhouse gas emission reductions, additional advantages such as the savings of scarce land area, grid independency, diminishment of the effect of power variability of intermittent clean energy sources, and incr...

  15. THE INFORMATION ERA AND THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES. A MORAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Alina COCALIA (CRĂCIUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article proposes a personalized approach of a new dimension for the contemporary society, namely the comprehension of the human behavior in manifestation, in the present conditions of the unprecedented development of technology, the unavoidable advent of both interdependency and of the human’s dependency of the created technical environment. The content of the article has in view the technologized society, governed by the globalization process that implies a meticulous analysis of the economic, social and moral impact of the emergence and evolution of the new technologies in the present context. This article allots a higher degree of attention, aiming at both the emergence, extending and use on a large scale of the new technologies and also the economic implication that are inferred.

  16. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  17. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission dispatch problem using modified Ant colony optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Gopalakrishnan; A Krishnan

    2013-08-01

    Economic load dispatch is one of the vital purposes in electrical power system operation, management and planning. Economic dispatch problem is one of the most important problems in electric power system operation. In large scale system, the problem is more complex and difficult to find out optimal solution because it is nonlinear function and it contains number of local optimal. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem is to schedule the committed generating units outputs to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost with minimum emission simultaneously. The main aim of economic load dispatch is to reduce the total production cost of the generating system and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled. This leads to the development of CEED techniques. There are various techniques proposed by several researchers to solve CEED problem based on optimization techniques. But still some problems such as slower convergence and higher computational complexity exist in using the optimization techniques such as GA for solving CEED problem. This paper proposes an efficient and reliable technique for combined fuel cost economic optimization and emission dispatch using the Modified Ant Colony Optimization algorithm (MACO) to produce better optimal solution. The simulation results reveal the significant performance of the proposed MACO approach.

  18. Process and Economic Feasibility of Using Composting Technology to Treat Waste Nitrocellulose Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-31

    Clasification ) | NPROCESS AVND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF USING COMPOSTING TECHNOLOGY TO TREAT WASTE NITROCELI,.JLOSE PINES . PERSONAL. AUT-1e)R(S) .. C...tons of high protein horse feed, 254 tons of sawdust, 1414 tons of sewage sludge, and 300 tons of alfalfa. The compost retention time required to destroy...operative. (b) High- protein horse feed, $240/ton quoted from same source as I alfalfa above. Composting Technology to U.S. Army Treat Waste NC Fines 3-19

  19. Techno-economic analysis of key renewable energy technologies (PV, CSP and wind)

    OpenAIRE

    TUEBKE Alexander; HERNANDEZ GUEVARA Hector

    2011-01-01

    This report shows the results of a techno-economic analysis of key renewable energy technologies: Solar Photovoltaics (PV), Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), and Wind Energy Technologies (wind). For this purpose, bottom-up company-data were collected, market supply and demand factors addressed, the regulatory framework examined, and EU industry compared against its main competitors. Personal interviews with 10 key industrialists from these sectors were undertaken to generate first-hand feedbac...

  20. A primer of economic methods of assessment of medical imaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, C. [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, QLD (Australia). Department of Radiological Sciences

    1997-12-01

    A number of methods of economic assessment that can be applied to medical technology are described. Two, in particular Cost-Benefit Analysis and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - are applied to medical imaging technology. An outline of a Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and the cost effectiveness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging is given. Copyright (1997) Australian Institute of Radiography 17 refs.

  1. HPCC technology awareness program: Improved economic competitiveness through technology awareness, transfer and application. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    A need has been defined by Congress for the DOE National Laboratories to participate in various dual use and technology transfer programs. This requirement has spawned several technology transfer approaches at the DOE laboratories. These programs are designed to encourage large and small business to bring their problems and needs forward, and to allow the labs to transfer effective high performance computing technology to the commercial marketplace. This IG Technologies grant from the DOE was undertaken to address the issues and problems associated with technology transfer between the DOE National Laboratories and commercial industry. The key focus is to gain an understanding of how DOE and industry independently and collectively view the requirements and the missing elements that could allow DOE to facilitate HPCC technology transfer. At issue is HPCC Technology Transfer for the High Performance Computing industry and its relationship to the DOE National Laboratories. Several observations on this are addressed. The issue of a ``Technology Utilization Gap`` between the National Laboratories and Independent Software Vendors is discussed. This study addressed the HPCC Technology Transfer plans of all six DOE National Labs. Study team members briefed numerous industrial users of HPCC technology as to the feasibility of technology transfer for various applications. Significant findings of the effort are that the resistance to technology transfer is much higher than anticipated for both the National Labs and industry. Also, HPCC Technology Transfer is observed to be a large company`s dominion. Small businesses have a difficult time in addressing the requirements of technology transfer using Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA`s). Large businesses and the DOE National Labs however, often have requirements and objectives which are at cross purposes, making effective technology transfer difficult.

  2. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  3. Economic-energy-industrial-environmental optimization (EEIEO) model for identification of optimal strategies - a case study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Long, H. L.; Wan, J.; Jia, JL; Li, X.; Chu, CJ

    2016-08-01

    An economic-energy-industrial-environmental optimization (EEIEO) model is proposed for identification of optimal economic, industry, energy and environment strategies. The EEIEO model is applied to a real case of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, which is the important economic growth pole of northern China. The EEIEO model could fully consider the interaction between industrial, energy, urbanization and environment sector, and generate the optimized economic development, industrial restructuring, energy consumption and environment management schemes. This is first attempt to introduce economic, energy, industrial, urbanization and environmental sectors into an optimization framework, while sustainable energy and environment development pathways are explored through EEIEO model. The results suggest that: (i) the GDP of BTH region would increase about 73.80% over the planning horizon; (ii) the contribution of tertiary industry for BTH region's economic development would gradually increase from 54.00% in 2015 to 65.00% in 2030; (iii) the consumption of coal would decrease by 36%, and the natural gas would obviously increase by 97.70% over the planning horizon; and (iv) the SO2, smoke and dust emissions and CO2 would reduce by 30.20%, 35.30% and 4.50% from 2015 to 2030, respectively.

  4. Technology development and innovation for the bottom of the economic pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2015-04-01

    Directed development of new technologies to solve specific problems of the poor in the developing world is a daunting task. Developing countries can be a wasteland littered with failed technologies sent there with much goodwill and effort from the industrial countries. Drawing on my team's experience I summarize our answers to some key questions for the technology designer or developer: How might one go about it? What works and what doesn't? What lessons can one draw from an examination of select successes and failures? The key lessons from our experience are: (1) successful technology design and implementation can not be separated from each other - they are tightly intertwined, (2) social factors are as critical for a technology's success as factors based on engineering science, and (3) ignorance of political economy, behavioral economics, organizational behavior, institutional imperatives, cultural norms and social drivers can prove fatal flaws when a new technology leaves the laboratory and meets the real world.

  5. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  6. Montney unconventional gas : next generation, an integrated approach to optimizing wellbore completions technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapper, N.; Schnell, R. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Montney Formation is a prolific tight gas reservoir located in the western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in British Columbia and Alberta. The key to achieving economic success in the Peace River Arch area lies with horizontal wells with multiple fractures. The driver for the next generation of completions involves using various area drilling and completion techniques as a starting point to lower the installation cost without affecting the completion or production results. This presentation discussed unconventional gas in the Montney Formation and a next generation, integrated approach to optimizing wellbore completions technology. In order to address the need to change from cemented liners with pump down plugs and perforations completions, the presentation provided background information on swellable packers that could take the place of cement. Swellpacker completion bottom hole assembly and design considerations were presented. A solution for reducing costs was presented along with 6 case histories. It was concluded that new technology is the key to reducing costs in the Montney. Technology must be thoroughly vetted by drilling and completion experts and properly applied. figs.

  7. Optimizing and controlling earthmoving operations using spatial technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshibani, Adel

    This thesis presents a model designed for optimizing, tracking, and controlling earthmoving operations. The proposed model utilizes, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Linear Programming (LP), and spatial technologies including Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to support the management functions of the developed model. The model assists engineers and contractors in selecting near optimum crew formations in planning phase and during construction, using GA and LP supported by the Pathfinder Algorithm developed in a GIS environment. GA is used in conjunction with a set of rules developed to accelerate the optimization process and to avoid generating and evaluating hypothetical and unrealistic crew formations. LP is used to determine quantities of earth to be moved from different borrow pits and to be placed at different landfill sites to meet project constraints and to minimize the cost of these earthmoving operations. On the one hand, GPS is used for onsite data collection and for tracking construction equipment in near real-time. On the other hand, GIS is employed to automate data acquisition and to analyze the collected spatial data. The model is also capable of reconfiguring crew formations dynamically during the construction phase while site operations are in progress. The optimization of the crew formation considers: (1) construction time, (2) construction direct cost, or (3) construction total cost. The model is also capable of generating crew formations to meet, as close as possible, specified time and/or cost constraints. In addition, the model supports tracking and reporting of project progress utilizing the earned-value concept and the project ratio method with modifications that allow for more accurate forecasting of project time and cost at set future dates and at completion. The model is capable of generating graphical and tabular reports. The developed model has been implemented in prototype software, using Object

  8. Planning water supply under uncertainty - benefits and limitations of RDM, Info-Gap, economic optimization and many-objective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, E.; Padula, S.; Huskova, I.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Population growth and the threat of drier or changed climates are likely to increase water scarcity world-wide. A combination of demand management (water conservation) and new supply infrastructure is often needed to meet future projected demands. In this case system planners must decide what to implement, when and at what capacity. Choices can range from infrastructure to policies or a mix of the two, culminating in a complex planning problem. Decision making under uncertainty frameworks can be used to help planners with this planning problem. This presentation introduces, applies and compares four decision making under uncertainty frameworks. The application is to the Thames basin water resource system which includes the city of London. The approaches covered here include least-economic cost capacity expansion optimization (EO), Robust Decision Making (RDM), Info-Gap Decision Theory (Info-gap) and many-objective evolutionary optimization (MOEO). EO searches for the least-economic cost program, i.e. the timing, sizing, and choice of supply-demand management actions/upgrades which meet projected water demands. Instead of striving for optimality, the RDM and Info-gap approaches help build plans that are robust to 'deep' uncertainty in future conditions. The MOEO framework considers multiple performance criteria and uses water systems simulators as a function evaluator for the evolutionary algorithm. Visualizations show Pareto approximate tradeoffs between multiple objectives. In this presentation we detail the application of each framework to the Thames basin (including London) water resource planning problem. Supply and demand options are proposed by the major water companies in the basin. We apply the EO method using a 29 year time horizon and an annual time step considering capital, operating (fixed and variable), social and environmental costs. The method considers all plausible combinations of supply and conservation schemes and capacities proposed by water

  9. Economic Crisis, Technology and the Management of Education: The Case of Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2016-01-01

    The 2008 crash has been likened to that of 1929. Does it have consequences for the management of education, and in particular for distributed leadership? Informed by evolutionary economics, it is argued that 2008 marked the end of the installation period of a major technological innovation, namely ICT. In the aftermath of the crash, a period of…

  10. The International Trade Policy for Technology Transfers: Legal and Economic Dilemmas on Multilateralism versus Bilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    In the book, the Researcher addresses the importance of international technology transfers for economic development, as well as the underlying causes for the different institutional arrangements that promote such activity. The work provides a systematic interpretation of the wide range of interests...

  11. Phased array ultrasonic technology contribution to engineering critical assessment (ECA) of economizer piping welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorau, P.; Gray, D.; Daks, W. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: peter.ciorau@opg.com

    2006-09-15

    This paper describes the application of phased array ultrasonic technology for engineering critical assessment of economizer piping welds. The objective is to detect and size fatigue cracks in the counter bore area of carbon steel boiler feedwater piping welds of a thermal station. A size accuracy of {+-} 1 mm for the outer ligament was required.

  12. Evaluating the Air Quality, Climate Change, and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentation that describes a project to evaluate economic and environmental performance of several biogas management technologies. It will analyze various criteria air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs associated with the use of biogas. Th...

  13. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  14. 75 FR 23214 - HIPAA Privacy Rule Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health Information Technology for Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... entities and business associates of accounting for such disclosures, and other information that may inform... Accounting of Disclosures Under the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act... Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule to receive an accounting of disclosures of protected...

  15. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  16. The Economic Effect of Education in an Information Technology-Penetrating Economy: Evidence from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Wai

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the economic effect of education in terms of its impact on the earnings of workers in an information technology (IT)-diffusing economy, based on data from Hong Kong's 2006 by-census and survey on the usage and penetration of IT in industries. Education enhances the productivity of workers and increases their lifetime incomes.…

  17. Examining Technology's Impact on Society: Using Case Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2003-01-01

    The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's impact on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world case studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. Case study design, implementation, and assessment are presented.…

  18. Evaluating the Air Quality, Climate Change, and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentation that describes a project to evaluate economic and environmental performance of several biogas management technologies. It will analyze various criteria air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs associated with the use of biogas. Th...

  19. Dynamic Port on Alkaline Soil——Tangshan Seaport Economic and Technological Development Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOYAXIN; GAOZIYANG

    2004-01-01

    IT is hard to imagine thatonly 11 years ago, thebroad bustling streetslined with row uponrow of tall buildings andspace-age style productionplants in what is now TangshanSeaport Economic and Techno-logical Development Zone was anuninhabited tract of barren land.

  20. Unravelling uncertainty and variability in early stage techno-economic assessments of carbon capture technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Mijndert; Sanchez Fernandez, Eva; Eldrup, Nils Henrik; Skagestad, Ragnhild; Ramirez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the uncertainty and variability in techno-economic studies of carbon capture technologies, based on a detailed comparison of the results of different studies on postcombustion CO2 capture with advanced amines, and on an in-depth uncertainty analysis using a combination of sensit

  1. Economic Crisis, Technology and the Management of Education: The Case of Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2016-01-01

    The 2008 crash has been likened to that of 1929. Does it have consequences for the management of education, and in particular for distributed leadership? Informed by evolutionary economics, it is argued that 2008 marked the end of the installation period of a major technological innovation, namely ICT. In the aftermath of the crash, a period of…

  2. THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF IT-TECHNOLOGIES IN SYSTEM OF INTERNET BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sergeevna Vinnikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of work is caused by active introduction of IT-technologies in various spheres of economic activity and in particular the bank environment, and also social and economic problems of use of information systems which arose along with a world economic crisis, sanctions and growth of the competition.Purpose: to define the main social and economic problems and the directions of development of IT-technologies in system of Internet banking at the present stage.Methodology: general scientific methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, system approach.Results. Features of development of IT-technologies within remote bank customer service in Russia are defined. The directions of development of IT-technologies of the BSS company from a position of dynamic distribution of Internet banking in the future and from a position of development of the relations with clients are presented.Practical implications: results of research will be demanded by the scientists dealing with problems of Internet banking, heads of the commercial banks dealing with issues of remote bank service, students, undergraduates and graduate students of higher educational institutions.

  3. A conceptual framework for economic optimization of single hazard surveillance in livestock production chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuezhen; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    Economic analysis of hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is essential for surveillance organizations (such as food safety authorities) when making scientifically based decisions on optimization of resource allocation. To enable this, quantitative decision support tools are required at two levels of analysis: (1) single-hazard surveillance system and (2) surveillance portfolio. This paper addresses the first level by presenting a conceptual approach for the economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems. The concept includes objective and subjective aspects of single-hazard surveillance system analysis: (1) a simulation part to derive an efficient set of surveillance setups based on the technical surveillance performance parameters (TSPPs) and the corresponding surveillance costs, i.e., objective analysis, and (2) a multi-criteria decision making model to evaluate the impacts of the hazard surveillance, i.e., subjective analysis. The conceptual approach was checked for (1) conceptual validity and (2) data validity. Issues regarding the practical use of the approach, particularly the data requirement, were discussed. We concluded that the conceptual approach is scientifically credible for economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems and that the practicability of the approach depends on data availability.

  4. ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN TERMS OF: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulita BIRCA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important condition for achieving a sustainable economic growth and for improving living standards of the population of the Republic of Moldova is the active involvement of the national economy in the international exchange of goods, services, knowledge, technology, etc., and also strengthening its positions on the international market. Therefore, to achieve and maintain competitiveness has become a fundamental economic policies issue in the context of globalization. In the contemporary world, national economic competitiveness is determined by a wide variety of features and important factors. In this article, the authors will focus their attention on the part of science, technology and innovation as being one of the key tools in the modern future of any modern state.

  5. Application of PSO, Artificial Bee Colony and Bacterial Foraging Optimization algorithms to economic load dispatch: An analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Baijal, Anant; Jayabarathi, T

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates successful implementation of three evolutionary algorithms, namely- Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) and Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) algorithms to economic load dispatch problem (ELD). Power output of each generating unit and optimum fuel cost obtained using all three algorithms have been compared. The results obtained show that ABC and BFO algorithms converge to optimal fuel cost with reduced computational time when compared to PSO for the two example problems considered.

  6. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Mitch; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Quick, Ralph

    2015-01-26

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling; however, there are opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies used. The scope of this drilling operational study included 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'perfect well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.), poor data collection, and difficult to ascertain handwriting. An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate analysis figures. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averages 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million would be lost due to non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells and only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry. It is the use of Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. However, a work-flow must also be established in order for there to be an efficient drilling program. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real

  7. Economic and ecological optimal strategies of management of the system of regional solid waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoylik Marina S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article develops an economic and ecological model of optimal management of the system of solid waste disposal at the regional level, identifies its target functions and forms optimisation scenarios of management of this sphere with theoretically optimal parameters’ values. Based on the model of management of the sphere of solid waste disposal the article forms an algorithm of identification of optimal managerial strategies and mechanisms of their realisation, which allows solution of the set tasks of optimisation of development of the sphere of solid waste disposal at a given set of values and parameters of the state of the system for a specific type of life cycle of solid waste and different subjects of this sphere. The developed model has a number of feasible solutions and, consequently, offers selection of the best of them with consideration of target functions. The article conducts a SWOT analysis of the current state of solid waste disposal in the Poltava region and identifies a necessity of development of a relevant strategy on the basis of the developed economic and ecological model with consideration of optimisation of mutually opposite criteria: ecological risk for the population from the sphere of solid waste disposal and total expenditures for this sphere functioning. The article conducts modelling of this situation by basic (current situation and alternative scenarios and finds out that, at this stage, it is most expedient to build in the region four sorting lines and five regional solid waste grounds, while expenditures on this sphere are UAH 62.0 million per year, income from secondary raw material sales – UAH 71.2 per year and reduction of the ecological risk – UAH 13 million per year.

  8. Multiobjective optimization of water distribution systems accounting for economic cost, hydraulic reliability, and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenyan; Maier, Holger R.; Simpson, Angus R.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, three objectives are considered for the optimization of water distribution systems (WDSs): the traditional objectives of minimizing economic cost and maximizing hydraulic reliability and the recently proposed objective of minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is particularly important to include the GHG minimization objective for WDSs involving pumping into storages or water transmission systems (WTSs), as these systems are the main contributors of GHG emissions in the water industry. In order to better understand the nature of tradeoffs among these three objectives, the shape of the solution space and the location of the Pareto-optimal front in the solution space are investigated for WTSs and WDSs that include pumping into storages, and the implications of the interaction between the three objectives are explored from a practical design perspective. Through three case studies, it is found that the solution space is a U-shaped curve rather than a surface, as the tradeoffs among the three objectives are dominated by the hydraulic reliability objective. The Pareto-optimal front of real-world systems is often located at the "elbow" section and lower "arm" of the solution space (i.e., the U-shaped curve), indicating that it is more economic to increase the hydraulic reliability of these systems by increasing pipe capacity (i.e., pipe diameter) compared to increasing pumping power. Solutions having the same GHG emission level but different cost-reliability tradeoffs often exist. Therefore, the final decision needs to be made in conjunction with expert knowledge and the specific budget and reliability requirements of the system.

  9. A Review of Warm Mix Asphalt Technology: Technical, Eco-nomical and Enviromental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, warm mix asphalt (WMA technology presents a wide potential for successful use in road works construction projects. However, concerns remain regarding the durability and behavior of WMA mixtures in the long term, which need to be addressed. This review focuses on the technical, economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages. The review concludes that the main advantage, at the moment, of this technology concerns the environment. At the end of this work, the authors include certain recommendations for future works to continue strengthening the development of WMA technology.

  10. Technological retrofit of existing buildings: dwelling quality, environmental sustainability, economic rising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bellomo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Redevelopment can stand as an effective response to the converging ecological, energy and economic crises if the energy efficiency of the built heritage can be enhanced using renewable energy and innovative technologies with a low environmental impact. To this end, the Research Unit Technology and Environment, University of Naples Federico II, is undertaking a structured set of studies addressing the issue of retrofit technology of buildings in Campania put up in the second half of the 20th century to help in defining best practices for planning, design and production.

  11. Hydro-economic Modeling: Reducing the Gap between Large Scale Simulation and Optimization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, L.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Purkey, D.; Joyce, B. A.; Sieber, J.; Howitt, R.

    2012-12-01

    The integration of hydrological and socio economic components into hydro-economic models has become essential for water resources policy and planning analysis. In this study we integrate the economic value of water in irrigated agricultural production using SWAP (a StateWide Agricultural Production Model for California), and WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System) a climate driven hydrological model. The integration of the models is performed using a step function approximation of water demand curves from SWAP, and by relating the demand tranches to the priority scheme in WEAP. In order to do so, a modified version of SWAP was developed called SWEAP that has the Planning Area delimitations of WEAP, a Maximum Entropy Model to estimate evenly sized steps (tranches) of water derived demand functions, and the translation of water tranches into crop land. In addition, a modified version of WEAP was created called ECONWEAP with minor structural changes for the incorporation of land decisions from SWEAP and series of iterations run via an external VBA script. This paper shows the validity of this integration by comparing revenues from WEAP vs. ECONWEAP as well as an assessment of the approximation of tranches. Results show a significant increase in the resulting agricultural revenues for our case study in California's Central Valley using ECONWEAP while maintaining the same hydrology and regional water flows. These results highlight the gains from allocating water based on its economic compared to priority-based water allocation systems. Furthermore, this work shows the potential of integrating optimization and simulation-based hydrologic models like ECONWEAP.ercentage difference in total agricultural revenues (EconWEAP versus WEAP).

  12. Zootechnical and economic performance indexes of milk production systems with different technological levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Andrade Ferrazza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate reference zootechnical and economic performance indexes, examine the influence of different technological levels on technical and economic results on dairy farms and identify the components that had higher representativeness on total and effective operational cost. Thirty-eight size, zootechnical and economic indicators of 61 milk production systems, grouped according to three technological levels, were analyzed. The data were collected during January 2002 to December 2011 period. It was adopted the structure of the operating cost and the total cost as methodology for calculating the costs. The results were compared by ANOVA test (normal distribution, complemented by LSD test, and Kruskal-Wallis test (non-normal distribution, also complemented by LSD test. The stratification of milk production systems according to technological level does not seem to be a good criterion to be used when it wants to make comparisons between different groups of producers, evidenced by the lack of statistical significance (P>0.05 in comparing of size and zootechnical indexes between low and medium technological level groups. Producers of high technological level made investments without proper analysis of return on investment and risk. The items of total and effective operational cost that had higher representativeness were, in descending order, feeding and labor.

  13. A non-standard optimal control problem arising in an economics application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Zinober

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent optimal control problem in the area of economics has mathematical properties that do not fall into the standard optimal control problem formulation. In our problem the state value at the final time the state, y(T = z, is free and unknown, and additionally the Lagrangian integrand in the functional is a piecewise constant function of the unknown value y(T. This is not a standard optimal control problem and cannot be solved using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle with the standard boundary conditions at the final time. In the standard problem a free final state y(T yields a necessary boundary condition p(T = 0, where p(t is the costate. Because the integrand is a function of y(T, the new necessary condition is that y(T should be equal to a certain integral that is a continuous function of y(T. We introduce a continuous approximation of the piecewise constant integrand function by using a hyperbolic tangent approach and solve an example using a C++ shooting algorithm with Newton iteration for solving the Two Point Boundary Value Problem (TPBVP. The minimising free value y(T is calculated in an outer loop iteration using the Golden Section or Brent algorithm. Comparative nonlinear programming (NP discrete-time results are also presented.

  14. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL). Progress report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, Kjetil; Bartzke, Gundula; Broeseth, Henrik; Dahl, Espen Lie; Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Hanssen, Frank; Jacobsen, Karl-Otto; Kleven, Oddmund; Kvaloey, Paal; May, Roel; Meaas, Roger; Nygaaard, Torgeir; Resnaes, Steinar; Stokke, Sigbjoern; Thomassen, Joern

    2012-07-01

    birds in the database, compared to only 117 a year earlier. WP5 - 'A Least Cost Path (LCP) toolbox for optimal route routing of power lines', has developed an LCP-pilot to demonstrate the LCP method, based on the impact studies were undertaken prior to construction of a 420 kV transmission line in Central Norway 2005. Relevant economic, ecological and technological environment criteria based on suggestions from interested users (NGOs, government, industry, etc.), was used. LCP-pilot and a fuzzy-logic approach of this was demonstrated in the first dialogue-based workshop, 23.-24. april 2012. The seminar, which had an emphasis on criteria definitions were followed up with a working seminar that focused criterion values ??on 20 november 2012. Lecture - 'A Least Cost Path (LCP) Toolbox for Optimal Routing of Power Lines, -was presented and submitted as contributions to the conference report from 'The 10th ROW Conference' in Arizona, 'The 32nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA12) ' in Porto, Portugal, and 'The ESRI European User Conference' in Oslo. WP6 - 'Birds and camouflaging of power lines', has almost completed the final report, 'Power line camouflaging. An assessment of the ecological and technical challenges'. 'Because of the budget situation in CEDREN However, completion of the report postponed until the end of April 2013. WP7 - 'Effect of line marking / modifications remedial measures against bird mortality' has almost completed the final report 'Opportunities and limitations in terms of reducing mortality in birds due to collision and electrocution.' Due to overall budget situation in CEDREN the report deferred to the end of april 2013. WP8, 'guidelines for technological solutions that may reduce mortality in birds because of the power line's', has focused topics relating to the labeling, design, insulation, camouflage and wiring. The results, which are presented in the notes and articles, will be implemented in

  15. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, K.; Bartzke, G.; Broeseth, H.; Gjershaug, J.O.; Hanssen, F.; Jacobsen, K.-O.; Kvaloey, P.; May, R.; Meaas, R.; Nygaard, T.; Refsnaes, S.; Stokke, S.; Vang, R.

    2010-12-15

    The OPTIPOL project - 'Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives' - has been active for two years, although the main operational phase was delayed until autumn 2009. The overall OPTIPOL objective is to develop knowledge and tools to improve the decision on environmental friendly power-line routing. To achieve this goal the work is subdivided into 9 focal areas; Develop a 'least-cost path' GIS-based application for an environmental friendly routing of power lines based on ecological, financial and technological criteria; Assess habitat use of power-line Rights-of-Way (ROW) by different wildlife species, consider actions of improving power-line ROW as wildlife habitats, and evaluate possible positive and negative effects on wildlife of power-line ROWs. More specific we will examine how power-line ROW may offer suitable feeding grounds for moose and see if the species habitat selection is influenced by power line ROW; Assess population impact of bird mortality due to power-line collisions, relative to other human related mortality factors (primarily hunting) in gallinaceous birds (with capercaillie and black grouse as model species); Identify ecological high-risk factors for bird collisions, i.e. site-specific factors connected to topographic characteristics, including vegetation structure, season, weather and light conditions; Establish a national infrastructure for management of dead bird data (including birds re-corded as collision and electrocution victims) by developing an online web application enabling the general public to contribute with data on recorded dead birds via Internet; Review available literature to assess 1) the possibilities for increased collision hazard to birds by making power-line structures less visible for humans given the present knowledge on bird vision, and 2) technical properties and constraints of camouflaging techniques on conductors and earth wires; Review available

  16. Precision Agriculture Technologies Positively Contributing to GHG Emissions Mitigation, Farm Productivity and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Balafoutis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a short description of the technology and the impacts that have been reported in literature on greenhouse gases reduction and the associated impacts on farm productivity and economics. The technologies presented span all agricultural practices, including variable rate sowing/planting, fertilizing, spraying, weeding and irrigation.

  17. Application of Supercomputer Technologies for Simulation Of Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Valentinovich Okrepilov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, an extensive experience has been accumulated in investigation of problems related to quality, assessment of management systems, modeling of economic system sustainability. The performed studies have created a basis for development of a new research area — Economics of Quality. Its tools allow to use opportunities of model simulation for construction of the mathematical models adequately reflecting the role of quality in natural, technical, social regularities of functioning of the complex socio-economic systems. Extensive application and development of models, and also system modeling with use of supercomputer technologies, on our deep belief, will bring the conducted research of socio-economic systems to essentially new level. Moreover, the current scientific research makes a significant contribution to model simulation of multi-agent social systems and that is not less important, it belongs to the priority areas in development of science and technology in our country. This article is devoted to the questions of supercomputer technologies application in public sciences, first of all, — regarding technical realization of the large-scale agent-focused models (AFM. The essence of this tool is that owing to the power computer increase it has become possible to describe the behavior of many separate fragments of a difficult system, as socio-economic systems are. The article also deals with the experience of foreign scientists and practicians in launching the AFM on supercomputers, and also the example of AFM developed in CEMI RAS, stages and methods of effective calculating kernel display of multi-agent system on architecture of a modern supercomputer will be analyzed. The experiments on the basis of model simulation on forecasting the population of St. Petersburg according to three scenarios as one of the major factors influencing the development of socio-economic system and quality of life of the population are presented in the

  18. Towards a social discount rate for the economic evaluation of health technologies in Germany: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Mareike; John, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decades, methods for the economic evaluation of health care technologies were increasingly used to inform reimbursement decisions. For a short time, the German Statutory Health Insurance makes use of these methods to support reimbursement decisions on patented drugs. In this context, the discounting procedure emerges as a critical component of these methods, as discount rates can strongly affect the resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The aim of this paper is to identify the appropriate value of a social discount rate to be used by the German Statutory Health Insurance for the economic evaluation of health technologies. On theoretical grounds, we build on the widespread view of contemporary economists that the social rate of time preference (SRTP) is the adequate social discount rate. For quantifying the SRTP, we first apply the market behaviour approach, which assumes that the SRTP is reflected in observable market interest rates. As a second approach, we derive the SRTP from optimal growth theory by using the Ramsey equation. A major part of the paper is devoted to specify the parameters of this equation. Depending on various assumptions, our empirical findings result in the range of 1.75-4.2% for the SRTP. A reasonable base case discount rate for Germany, thus, would be about 3%. Furthermore, we deal with the much debated question whether a common discount rate for costs and health benefits or a lower rate for health should be applied in health economic evaluations. In the German social health insurance system, no exogenously fixed budget constraint does exist. When evaluating a new health technology, the health care decision maker is obliged to conduct an economic evaluation in order to examine whether there is an economically appropriate relation between the value of the health gains and the additional costs which are given by the value of the consumption losses due to the additional health care expenditures. Therefore, a discount

  19. Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    allocation of resources is rooted deeply in regional political economy structures. These results challenge the scholarly debate, but can help to understand why international structural adjustment programs that focused on privatization and trade liberalization only showed limited success in the MENA region....... efforts. Using cross-country regressions, this paper identifies two binding constraints to economic development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): 1) Most countries are not able to apply or adopt existing technologies efficiently and 2) The economically inefficient...

  20. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  1. The rhetoric of calculations. Economical arguments for development of new energy technologies; Kalkylenes retorikk. Oekonomiske argumenter i utvikling av nye energiteknologier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solli, Joeran

    2004-07-01

    The thesis discusses the theoretical economics and social factors for development of new energy technologies and has chapter on: New energy technologies in an economical and political change, technology development from innovation economy to economical sociology, opinion formation in the energy sector, establishing energy economical discussion, economy as pidgin, financial factors, forming social education and market power versus language strife.

  2. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  3. STAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR OBTAINIGN AN ECONOMIC WHITE WINE TO AN INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Miño Valdés

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to develop a sustainable technology to produce economical white wine, industrial scale, not viniferous grapes grown in Misiones. This technological project started at laboratory scale, it continued in a pilot plant and planned to an industrial scale. It was considered as productive unit 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: the development of dry white wine at laboratory scale, the evaluation of the variables of the process in the vilification, the Mathematical modeling of alcoholic fermentation in winemaking conditions, the assessment of the fitness of wines for human consumption, the establishment of a technological process for winemaking in a pilot plant, the evaluation in pilot plant of the technological process established, the calculation and selection of industrial equipment and finally, the costs estimation and profitability of the industrial technological process. A technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators was reached whose values were 6,602,666 net present value of U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of payback a value net of three years to date.

  4. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  5. A Singular Differential Equation Stemming from an Optimal Control Problem in Financial Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunovsky, Pavol, E-mail: brunovsky@fmph.uniba.sk [Comenius University Bratislava, Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics (Slovakia); Cerny, Ales, E-mail: ales.cerny.1@city.ac.uk [City University London, Cass Business School (United Kingdom); Winkler, Michael, E-mail: michael.winkler@uni-due.de [Universitaet Paderborn, Institut fuer Mathematik (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    We consider the ordinary differential equation x{sup 2} u'' = axu'+bu-c(u'-1){sup 2}, x Element-Of (0,x{sub 0}), with a Element-Of R, b Element-Of R , c>0 and the singular initial condition u(0)=0, which in financial economics describes optimal disposal of an asset in a market with liquidity effects. It is shown in the paper that if a+b<0 then no continuous solutions exist, whereas if a+b>0 then there are infinitely many continuous solutions with indistinguishable asymptotics near 0. Moreover, it is proved that in the latter case there is precisely one solution u corresponding to the choice x{sub 0}={infinity} which is such that 0{<=}u(x){<=}x for all x>0, and that this solution is strictly increasing and concave.

  6. COMPREHENSIVE INTRODUCTION TO THE TECHNOLOGY OF GROUNDWATER MODELING AND OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武强; 田宝霖; 胡社荣; 金玉洁; 孙卫东; 田开铭

    1995-01-01

    Three numeric simulston and optimal managernent models on groundwater resources are introduced m this paper. These models stand for the present developing levels on the technology of groundwater modeling.and optimal management in China, and show the practical application situations of the technology. Each of the technology of unique characteristics and purposes. According to the tests of the practical engineering, these models have played a very important role in solving the difficult problems of groundwater resources.

  7. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvesen, Anders, E-mail: anders.arvesen@ntnu.no [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway); Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: > We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. > Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. > Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  8. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C; Daszak, Peter

    2014-12-30

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral "One Health" pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual.

  9. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  10. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  11. Farm-level economics of innovative tillage technologies: the case of no-till in the Altai Krai in Russian Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavorova, Miroslava; Imamverdiyev, Nizami; Ponkina, Elena

    2017-06-01

    In the agricultural Altai Krai in Russian Siberia, soil degradation problems are prevalent. Agronomists recommend "reduced tillage systems," especially no-till, as a sustainable way to cultivate land that is threatened by soil degradation. In the Altai Krai, less is known about the technologies in practice. In this paper, we provide information on plant cultivation technologies used in the Altai Krai and on selected factors preventing farm managers in this region from adopting no-till technology based on our own quantitative survey conducted across 107 farms in 2015 and 2016. The results of the quantitative survey show that farm managers have high uncertainty regarding the use of no-till technology including its economics. To close this gap, we provide systematic analysis of factors influencing the economy of the plant production systems by using a farm optimization model (linear programming) for a real farm, together with expert estimations. The farm-specific results of the optimization model show that under optimal management and climatic conditions, the expert Modern Canadian no-till technology outperforms the farm min-till technology, but this is not the case for suboptimal conditions with lower yields.

  12. The impact of innovative commercial technologies on students’ behaviour of an economic university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu-Dan Anghel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic business environment, implementing innovative commercial technologies facilitates the winning of new competitive advantages in the retail industry, given the manifested influence on consumer buying behaviour towards commercial units, as well as the significant contribution to the development of modern shops image. This paper presents the attitude of students from the Bucharest University of Economic Studies towards the adoption of innovative retail technologies within hypermarkets in Romania, based on a selective marketing research, conducted on a sample of 359 students from undergraduate and master cycles. The main objectives focused on identifying: the image of certain instruments belonging to the innovative commercial technologies in terms of usefulness in the process of buying; the intention to use innovative commercial technologies; the perception of the main advantages and disadvantages of using innovative commercial technologies in the buying process; the importance of commercial technologies in relation to other attributes underlying the development of a hypermarket image. Research results show a relatively low level of awareness among buyers, due to a reduced exposure to innovative commercial technologies, but a relatively high availability of acceptance in the purchasing process. Thus, there is a favourable assessment of the utility of commercial instruments in the buying process and a relatively high intention of use. The paper also highlights the influence of innovative commercial technologies on store image and loyalty of buyers.

  13. On the Optimal Allocation of R&D Resources for Climate Change Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanford, G J; Clarke, L E

    2003-11-03

    While technology studies and integrated assessment models incorporating endogenous technological change have demonstrated that advancing technology is a crucial component of an optimal greenhouse gas abatement strategy, the R&D process itself has received little analytical attention. This paper presents a conceptual framework for considering and exploring the optimal allocation of R&D resources for climate change technology development. The framework is then applied to a stylized application that considers the allocation between R&D focused on resolving uncertainties about the retention of sequestration and R&D focused on improving the performance of renewable energy technologies.

  14. Comparing costing results in across country economic evaluations: the use of technology specific purchasing power parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordsworth, Sarah; Ludbrook, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The number of economic evaluations conducted on a multinational basis is increasing. Therefore, techniques are required to compare the results of such studies in a meaningful manner. This paper explores different approaches to comparing across country cost data applied to a European study of dialysis therapy for end-stage renal disease. A price and volume index is created at the level of the individual health care technology and compared to an exchange rate conversion and published purchasing power parities (PPPs). Both exchange rate and PPP conversions when published rates are used fail to accurately reflect the true resource use of the applied health care example. These differences can be related to specific issues of input mix and price variation. Alternatively, the use of technology specific PPPs provided a more robust approach for international comparisons and also have the potential for use in multi-centre economic evaluations within the same country. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Modern standardization case studies at the crossroads of technology, economics, and politics

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiderman, R

    2015-01-01

    Modern Standardization -- Case Studies at the Crossroads of Technology, Economics, and Politics covers the development of new technical standards, how these standards are typically triggered, and how they are submitted to standards development organizations (SDOs) for review and evaluation. It fills the gap in the shortage of reference material in the development of real-world standards. The increasing pace of innovation in technology has accelerated the competitive nature of standardization, particularly in emerging markets. Modern Standardization addresses these and other issues through a series of case studies in a format designed for academics and their engineering, business, and law school students.

  16. The economic impact of cloud computing technology on new business and employment in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ştefan Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current global economic situation, all the companies are now involved in searching effective ways of improving efficiency and profitability (C. Christauskas and R. Miseviciene, 2012. Many researchers like Gatautis et al., 2009, Melnikas, 2008, Zavadskas et al., 2010 and C. Christauskas and R. Miseviciene, 2012 claim that the digital technologies are used to improve the decision making process for businesses. As shown by the recently published studies, the latest trend in information technology is “cloud computing”.

  17. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  18. Introduction of new technology: making use of recent insights from sociology and economics of technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rip, Arie

    1995-01-01

    Retrospective studies have shown the non-linear and situated character of technological developments; the importance of articulation of demand and of acceptability, and how these are part of large socio-technical transformations; and how technical nd socio-technical alogment activities occur and are

  19. Education and research in biomedical engineering of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyó, Z

    2006-03-01

    Biomedical Engineering is a relatively new interdisciplinary science. This review paper presents the biomedical engineering activity, which is carried out at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BUTE) and its partner institutions. In the first parts the main goals and the curriculum of the Biomedical Engineering Education Program is presented. The second part of the paper summarizes the most important biomedical engineering researches most of them carried out in the Biomedical Engineering Laboratory of BUTE.

  20. Technological, political and economic changes and their implications for the evolution of broadcasting services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is changes in the market for broadcasting services as a result of technological, political, and economic drivers. Broadcasting services can be categorised as a part of the ICT-based information and knowledge intensive services that have gone through radical changes...... and demand sites, scarcity of transmission resources, and the historical aspects that make the development of the broadcasting service market different from other information and knowledge intensive services....

  1. Technological and Economic Risk Analysis of laying hen breeding applying simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, Sandor; Ertsey, Imre; Balogh, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In order to analyse risks and to choose from different decision-making strategies simulation models are often applied in several areas of animal breeding. We developed an improved Monte Carlo model for analysing laying hen breeding combined with Bayes statistics. On the basis of data from a company breeding broiler parents, our paper examines the technological and economic risks of breeding a laying-hen stock with a simulation program developed by our team. During modelling we take individual...

  2. Korean and U.S. Economic and Technological Capabilities to Support Defense Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    AD-A25 7 085 A RAND NOTE Korean and U.S. Economic and Technological Capabilities to Support Defense Burdens Charles Wolf, Jr., Yong-Sup Han DTI ova6...collaboration with the Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA), that addresses possible changes in the roles, structures, and responsibilities of...center supported by the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Staff. The KIDA work was sponsored by the Korean Ministry of National Defense

  3. Developing a Framework for Conducting Economic Evaluations of Community-Based Health Information Technology Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Eric L.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Macri, Jennifer M.; Crosslin, David R.; Johnson, Frederick S.; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lobach, David F.

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a framework for conducting economic analyses for health information technology (HIT) interventions, in the context of three interventions that are currently being implemented in a community-based health network caring for 17,779 Medicaid beneficiaries in Durham County, North Carolina. We show that if the HIT interventions were to redirect only 10% of low-severity emergency room encounters to outpatient care, it will result in $12,523 of monthly savings. PMID:16779235

  4. THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN OECD COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    SEVGİ SEZER; TEZCAN ABASIZ

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of information and communication technologies on economic growth. For this purpose, telecommunications infrastructure investments, number of Internet and telephone subscribers and human capital figures of 34 OECD countries between 1968 and 2013 were utilized to conduct an unbalanced panel data analysis. Study findings demonstrated that number of Internet and telephone subscribers increased per capita growth rate.

  5. A Risk Explicit Interval Linear Programming Model for Uncertainty-Based Environmental Economic Optimization in the Lake Fuxian Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conflict of water environment protection and economic development has brought severe water pollution and restricted the sustainable development in the watershed. A risk explicit interval linear programming (REILP method was used to solve integrated watershed environmental-economic optimization problem. Interval linear programming (ILP and REILP models for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization at the watershed scale were developed for the management of Lake Fuxian watershed, China. Scenario analysis was introduced into model solution process to ensure the practicality and operability of optimization schemes. Decision makers’ preferences for risk levels can be expressed through inputting different discrete aspiration level values into the REILP model in three periods under two scenarios. Through balancing the optimal system returns and corresponding system risks, decision makers can develop an efficient industrial restructuring scheme based directly on the window of “low risk and high return efficiency” in the trade-off curve. The representative schemes at the turning points of two scenarios were interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative, which has the relatively low risks and nearly maximum benefits. This study provides new insights and proposes a tool, which was REILP, for decision makers to develop an effectively environmental economic optimization scheme in integrated watershed management.

  6. A risk explicit interval linear programming model for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization in the Lake Fuxian watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Huang, Kai; Zou, Rui; Liu, Yong; Yu, Yajuan

    2013-01-01

    The conflict of water environment protection and economic development has brought severe water pollution and restricted the sustainable development in the watershed. A risk explicit interval linear programming (REILP) method was used to solve integrated watershed environmental-economic optimization problem. Interval linear programming (ILP) and REILP models for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization at the watershed scale were developed for the management of Lake Fuxian watershed, China. Scenario analysis was introduced into model solution process to ensure the practicality and operability of optimization schemes. Decision makers' preferences for risk levels can be expressed through inputting different discrete aspiration level values into the REILP model in three periods under two scenarios. Through balancing the optimal system returns and corresponding system risks, decision makers can develop an efficient industrial restructuring scheme based directly on the window of "low risk and high return efficiency" in the trade-off curve. The representative schemes at the turning points of two scenarios were interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative, which has the relatively low risks and nearly maximum benefits. This study provides new insights and proposes a tool, which was REILP, for decision makers to develop an effectively environmental economic optimization scheme in integrated watershed management.

  7. Economic Efficiency of Selected Crops Cultivated under Different Technology of Soil Tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vach M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the model comparison and economic evaluation of different methods of soil tillage and crop stand establishments used. Based on yield results (winter wheat, spring barley, and white mustard cultivated in three-crop rotation from field experiments with conventional, conservation with minimum tillage, and no-tillage methods conducted at the site Prague-Ruzyně, model economic balances were evaluated. Prices of the main products were determined based on the yield results from the period 2010-2013 and the current market prices. In the individual tillage systems, the total costs of production of evaluated crops were counted up and profitability was calculated as a ratio of profit to total costs. The highest total costs of crop cultivation were identified in cereals under conventional soil tillage, on the contrary, the lowest in cereals cultivated under conservation tillage technology. As for the growing technologies, the highest profitability was found in winter wheat, as for the tillage methods, it was in the conservation variant with minimum tillage. The economic evaluation for individual crops was based on standards of growing technologies and particular work operations.

  8. Compromising economic cost and air pollutant emissions of municipal solid waste management strategies by fuzzy multiobjective optimization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Lin, Min-Der

    2013-06-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an important environmental challenge and subject in urban planning. A sustainable MSWM strategy should consider not only economic efficiency but also life-cycle assessment of environmental impact. This study employs the fuzzy multiobjective linear programming (FMOLP) technique to find the optimal compromise between economic optimization and pollutant emission reduction for the MSWM strategy. Taichung City in Taiwan is evaluated as a case study. The results indicate that the optimal compromise MSWM strategy can reduce significant amounts of pollutant emissions and still achieve positive net profits. Minimization of the sulfur oxide (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are the two major priorities in achieving this optimal compromise strategy when recyclables recovery rate is lower; however minimization of the carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) emissions become priority factors when recovery rate is higher.

  9. Thermo-Economic Comparison and Parametric Optimizations among Two Compressed Air Energy Storage System Based on Kalina Cycle and ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixiong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressed air energy storage (CAES system, considered as one method for peaking shaving and load-levelling of the electricity system, has excellent characteristics of energy storage and utilization. However, due to the waste heat existing in compressed air during the charge stage and exhaust gas during the discharge stage, the efficient operation of the conventional CAES system has been greatly restricted. The Kalina cycle (KC and organic Rankine cycle (ORC have been proven to be two worthwhile technologies to fulfill the different residual heat recovery for energy systems. To capture and reuse the waste heat from the CAES system, two systems (the CAES system combined with KC and ORC, respectively are proposed in this paper. The sensitivity analysis shows the effect of the compression ratio and the temperature of the exhaust on the system performance: the KC-CAES system can achieve more efficient operation than the ORC-CAES system under the same temperature of exhaust gas; meanwhile, the larger compression ratio can lead to the higher efficiency for the KC-CAES system than that of ORC-CAES with the constant temperature of the exhaust gas. In addition, the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm is conducted between the thermodynamic and economic performances to find the optimal parameters of the two systems. The optimum results indicate that the solutions with an exergy efficiency of around 59.74% and 53.56% are promising for KC-CAES and ORC-CAES system practical designs, respectively.

  10. Technology and Economic Assessment of Innovative Field Drainage Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni

    Intensive agricultural production in most parts of the world especially in the more developed countries continues to mount pressure on water resources thereby threatening the quality of life in the aquatic ecosystems. With stringent standards such as those stipulated in the European Union Water...... proposed as appropriate solutions to this problem in the Danish context. The feasibility of these technologies with regards to their cost-effectiveness in nutrient mitigation, farmers’ adoption behavior, and environmental policy implementation is assessed in this thesis. The thesis comprises of four papers...... based on survey and case-farms data and utilizes a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate: i) the farmers’ perception of water quality and their adoption behavior with respect to voluntary nutrient reduction technologies, ii) the farmers willingness to adopt constructed wetland...

  11. Health economic evaluation in Japan: a case study of one aspect of health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam

    2003-02-01

    There is a burgeoning literature in health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the health policy making level in a number of countries. However, a search of the literature reveals that in Japan, the world's second largest health care market, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest in economic evaluation is that the fee-for-service and strict price regulation that characterises the system of health care financing in Japan is not conducive to this form of analysis. Moreover, the government and many researchers are satisfied that the current organisation of health care has given long life and low infant mortality at low cost. Even if it is accepted that low health care costs and good health prevail in Japan, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population and the development of new medical technologies will place increasing pressure on health care resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Good economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, has an important role to play.

  12. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Optimization of Relationship between Economic Potential and Sources for Public Needs Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Aleksandar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relative level of fiscal revenue in relation to the total aggregate domestic product or national income is a central indicator to be established in the national economy. This indicator is the “tax ratio”. The tendency of almost every economic and especially fiscal policy is that this indicator expresses the optimal ratio between the part of the domestic product or national income, which is intended to be used for the settlement of public needs and the general economic aggregate of the latter economic categories. Its special importance lies in the design concept of medium-term or long-term social and economic development. It is necessary to determine the framework of the global distribution of the domestic product or national income, which is acceptable, on the one hand, from the perspective of a balanced and stable economic growth, and on the other hand, from the standpoint of balancing interests of all social structures of modern mixed societies.

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM OF STRATEGIC PLANNING AS TOOLS FOR PROVIDING THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE SERVICES SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gromov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topicality article is to determine the composition of the technological elements of the strategic planning system, the interaction of which is aimed at achieving the planned economic results in the changing factors influence macro microenvironments on the activities of institutions and economic activities of services. The articles structurally is made on the basis of respect for the logical sequence of interactions of technological elements of strategic planning and combat their negative factors of external and internal environment. Active interaction of technological elements of strategic planning tools is to ensure long-term development planning authorities of economic entities, economic activities service sector for sustainable economic growth. Contribution of the author in the scope of this article is to generalize the definition of the target composition and installation of technological elements of strategic planning and development institutions and industry components of the service sector.

  14. Health technology assessment and personalized medicine: are economic evaluation guidelines sufficient to support decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husereau, Don; Marshall, Deborah A; Levy, Adrian R; Peacock, Stuart; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2014-04-01

    Many jurisdictions delivering health care, including Canada, have developed guidance for conducting economic evaluation, often in the service of larger health technology assessment (HTA) and reimbursement processes. Like any health intervention, personalized medical (PM) interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. However, current approaches to economic evaluation to support decision making have been largely developed from population-based approaches to therapy-that is, evaluating the costs and consequences of single interventions across single populations. This raises the issue as to whether these methods, as they are or more refined, are adequate to address more targeted approaches to therapy, or whether a new paradigm for assessing value in PM is required. We describe specific issues relevant to the economic evaluation of diagnostics-based PM and assess whether current guidance for economic evaluation is sufficient to support decision making for PM interventions. Issues were identified through literature review and informal interviews with national and international experts (n = 10) in these analyses. This article elaborates on findings and discussion at a workshop held in Ottawa, Canada, in January 2012. Specific issues related to better guiding economic evaluation of personalized medicine interventions include: how study questions are developed, populations are characterized, comparators are defined, effectiveness is evaluated, outcomes are valued and how resources are measured. Diagnostics-based PM also highlights the need for analyses outside of economic evaluation to support decision making. The consensus of this group of experts is that the economic evaluation of diagnostics-based PM may not require a new paradigm. However, greater complexity means that existing approaches and tools may require improvement to undertake these more analyses.

  15. Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of different Nr losses after N fertilizer application. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate, maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost, and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively averaged 289, 237, and 186 kg N ha−1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 31% with a 45% decrease in Nr loss intensity (44%, 60%, and 33% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively and maintained grain yield, compared to Nagr management. Compared to Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 6%, with a 27% decrease in Nr loss intensity, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.80. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

  16. Enhancing economic competiveness of dish Stirling technology through production volume and localization: Case study for Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larchet, Kevin; Guédez, Rafael; Topel, Monika; Gustavsson, Lars; Machirant, Andrew; Hedlund, Maria-Lina; Laumert, Björn

    2017-06-01

    The present study quantifies the reduction in the levelized cost of electricity (LCoE) and capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a dish Stirling power plant (DSPP) through an increase in localization and unit production volume. Furthermore, the localization value of the plant is examined to determine how much investment is brought into the local economy. Ouarzazate, Morocco, was chosen as the location of the study due to the country's favorable regulatory framework with regards to solar power technologies and its established industry in the concentrating solar power (CSP) field. A detailed techno-economic model of a DSPP was developed using KTH's in-house modelling tool DYESOPT, which allows power plant evaluation by means of technical and economic performance indicators. Results on the basis of LCoE and CAPEX were compared between two different cases of production volume, examining both a minimum and maximum level of localization. Thereafter, the DSPP LCoE and localization value were compared against competing solar technologies to evaluate its competitiveness. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted around key design parameters. The study confirms that the LCoE of a DSPP can be reduced to values similar to solar photovoltaic (PV) and lower than other CSP technologies. Furthermore, the investment in the local economy is far greater when compared to PV and of the same magnitude to other CSP technologies. The competiveness of a DSPP has the potential to increase further when coupled with thermal energy storage (TES), which is currently under development.

  17. Forecasting the innovation and technology based economic development as a component of the choice of anti-crisis strategy

    OpenAIRE

    L. Fedulova

    2009-01-01

    The author reveals the role of the technology factor in crisis situations and justifies the significance of the mechanisms of technological forecasting in the choice of strategic guidelines of a country's development. She proposes a conceptual model of the system of scientifico-technological forecasting and shows its place in the innovation based renewal of economic activities.

  18. Comparative techno-economical study between membrane technology systems for obtaining concentrated fertilizers from biogas plant effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilleri Rumbau, Maria Salud; Norddahl, Birgir; Kjærhus Nielsen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Membrane technology is a promising candidate for producing mineral fertilizers from animal slurry. This paper presents a combination of membrane technologies for processing digested slurry, lists retentions of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) and evaluates the economic and technolog...

  19. Forecasting the innovation and technology based economic development as a component of the choice of anti-crisis strategy

    OpenAIRE

    L. Fedulova

    2009-01-01

    The author reveals the role of the technology factor in crisis situations and justifies the significance of the mechanisms of technological forecasting in the choice of strategic guidelines of a country's development. She proposes a conceptual model of the system of scientifico-technological forecasting and shows its place in the innovation based renewal of economic activities.

  20. Comparative techno-economical study between membrane technology systems for obtaining concentrated fertilizers from biogas plant effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilleri Rumbau, Maria Salud; Norddahl, Birgir; Kjærhus Nielsen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Membrane technology is a promising candidate for producing mineral fertilizers from animal slurry. This paper presents a combination of membrane technologies for processing digested slurry, lists retentions of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) and evaluates the economic and technolog...

  1. Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghafoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand for cooling is continuously increasing due to growing thermal loads, changing architectural modes of building, and especially due to occupants indoor comfort requirements resulting higher electricity demand notably during peak load hours. This increasing electricity demand is resulting higher primary energy consumption and emission of green house gases (GHG due to electricity generation from fossil fuels. An exciting alternative to reduce the peak electricity consumption is the possible utilization of solar heat to run thermally driven cooling machines instead of vapor compression machines utilizing high amount of electricity. In order to widen the use of solar collectors, they should also be used to contribute for sanitary hot water production and space heating. Pakistan lying on solar belt has a huge potential to utilize solar thermal heat for heating and cooling requirement because cooling is dominant throughout the year and the enormous amount of radiation availability provides an opportunity to use it for solar thermal driven cooling systems. The sensitivity analysis of solar assisted heating and cooling system has been carried out under climatic conditions of Faisalabad (Pakistan and its economic feasibility has been calculated using maximization of NPV. Both storage size and collector area has been optimized using different economic boundary conditions. Results show that optimum area of collector lies between 0.26m2 to 0.36m2 of collector area per m2 of conditioned area for ieff values of 4.5% to 0.5%. The optimum area of collector increases by decreasing effective interest rate resulting higher solar fraction. The NPV was found to be negative for all ieff values which shows that some incentives/subsidies are needed to be provided to make the system cost beneficial. Results also show that solar fraction space heating varies between 87 and 100% during heating season and solar fraction cooling between 55 and 100% during

  2. The economic and environmental consequences of implementing nitrogen-efficient technologies and management practices in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Davidson, Eric A; Kanter, David R; Cai, Ruohong

    2015-03-01

    Technologies and management practices (TMPs) that reduce the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer while maintaining crop yields can improve N use efficiency (NUE) and are important tools for meeting the dual challenges of increasing food production and reducing N pollution. However, because farmers operate to maximize their profits, incentives to implement TMPs are limited, and TMP implementation will not always reduce N pollution. Therefore, we have developed the NUE Economic and Environmental impact analytical framework (NUE) to examine the economic and environmental consequences of implementing TMPs in agriculture, with a specific focus on farmer profits, N fertilizer consumption, N losses, and cropland demand. Our analytical analyses show that impact of TMPs on farmers' economic decision-making and the environment is affected by how TMPs change the yield ceiling and the N fertilization rate at the ceiling and by how the prices of TMPs, fertilizer, and crops vary. Technologies and management practices that increase the yield ceiling appear to create a greater economic incentive for farmers than TMPs that do not but may result in higher N application rates and excess N losses. Nevertheless, the negative environmental impacts of certain TMPs could be avoided if their price stays within a range determined by TMP yield response, fertilizer price, and crop price. We use a case study on corn production in the midwestern United States to demonstrate how NUE can be applied to farmers' economic decision-making and policy analysis. Our NUE framework provides an important tool for policymakers to understand how combinations of fertilizer, crop, and TMP prices affect the possibility of achieving win-win outcomes for farmers and the environment.

  3. Eco-techno-economic synthesis of process routes for the production of zinc using combinatorial optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhölter, S.; Krüger, J.; Reuter, M. A.

    1996-12-01

    The demands placed on the environmental and social acceptability of metallurgical processing technology are rising steadily. Of particular importance are the production techniques, products, and disposal of residues. These aspects are affected by the varying compositions of the primary and secondary raw materials processed in the plants and the rapidly changing market situations in the metallurgical industry. Metallurgical engineers have to select “optimal” processes from a vast number of existing technologies for the primary production of zinc and for the processing of zinc containing residues. To enable the engineer to compare these techniques and to choose the right combination of unit operations, a process design methodology is presented here, which has been adapted from methodologies developed in chemical engineering and minerals processing. In a previous article by the authors, a structural parameter approach was introduced, that implements a synthesis model, which includes all unit operations currently implemented in zinc metallurgy. At the basis of this model is a data base containing the details of the unit operations included in the model. In this article, this methodology is expanded to incorporate an unlimited quantity of different components by introducing the simulated annealing optimization technique to generate optimal flow sheets for the production of zinc under varying constraints which include operation costs, metal prices, environmental costs, and split factors for Zn, Pb, Ag, and Fe. Case studies demonstrate the functionality of this metallurgical tool for the hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc including numerous unit operations for the processing of by-products and residues. It will also be demonstrated how this model can be extended to a “waste management” tool that generates processing routes not only for the residues from the zinc industry but also for zinc containing residues from other processes, e.g., EAF dusts.

  4. Optimization potential of biomass supply chains with torrefaction technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, Batidzirai; van der Hilst, Floortje; Meerman, Hans; Junginger, Martin H.; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the economic and environmental impacts of torrefaction on bioenergy supply chains against conventional pellets for scenarios where biomass is produced in Mozambique, and undergoes pre-processing before shipment to Rotterdam for conversion to power and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels.

  5. Optimization potential of biomass supply chains with torrefaction technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, Batidzirai; van der Hilst, Floortje; Meerman, Hans; Junginger, Martin H.; Faaij, André P C

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the economic and environmental impacts of torrefaction on bioenergy supply chains against conventional pellets for scenarios where biomass is produced in Mozambique, and undergoes pre-processing before shipment to Rotterdam for conversion to power and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels.

  6. Determining a sustainable and economically optimal wastewater treatment and discharge strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Humphries, Robert

    2013-01-15

    Options for treatment and discharge of wastewater in regional Western Australia (WA) are examined from the perspective of overall sustainability and social net benefit. Current practice in the state has typically involved a basic standard of treatment deemed to be protective of human health, followed by discharge to surface water bodies. Community and regulatory pressure to move to higher standards of treatment is based on the presumption that a higher standard of treatment is more protective of the environment and society, and thus is more sustainable. This analysis tests that hypothesis for Western Australian conditions. The merits of various wastewater treatment and discharge strategies are examined by quantifying financial costs (capital and operations), and by monetising the wider environmental and social costs and benefits of each option over an expanded planning horizon (30 years). Six technical treatment-disposal options were assessed at a test site, all of which met the fundamental criterion of protecting human health. From a financial perspective, the current business-as-usual option is preferred - it is the least cost solution. However, valuing externalities such as water, greenhouse gases, ecological impacts and community amenity, the status quo is revealed as sub-optimal. Advanced secondary treatment with stream disposal improves water quality and provides overall net benefit to society. All of the other options were net present value (NPV) negative. Sensitivity analysis shows that the favoured option outperforms all of the others under a wide range of financial and externality values and assumptions. Expanding the findings across the state reveals that moving from the identified socially optimal level of treatment to higher (tertiary) levels of treatment would result in a net loss to society equivalent to several hundred million dollars. In other words, everyone benefits from improving treatment to the optimum point. But society, the environment, and

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT TO ELABORATE COMMON WHITE WINE IN MISIONES, WITH ECONOMIC EVALUATION AT INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miño Valdés, Juan Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to develop a sustainable technology on an industrial scale to produce common white wine with non viniferous grapes cultivated in Misiones. This technological project was initiated at a laboratory scale, continued in the pilot plant and industrial-scale project. It was considered as a productive unit to 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: The development of dry white wine at laboratory scale. The evaluation of process variables in the vivification. The mathematical modeling of the alcoholic fermentation in oenological conditions. The valuation of the aptitude of wines for human consumption. The establishment of a technological procedure for wine in the pilot plant. The evaluation of the pilot plant in technological procedure established. The calculation and selection of industrial equipment. The estimate of the costs and profitability of industrial technological process. It reached a technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators whose values were: net present value of 6,602,666 U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of recovery of investment to net present value of 3 years.

  8. SOME AGRICULTURAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ENERGY SAVING PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES OF MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K TAKÁCS-GYÖRGY

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance parameters, energetic characteristics and cost factors of direct drilling were evaluated by longterm trials carried out in Osztopán and Gödöllő regions. The effect of direct drilling, disking, ploughing, and soil loosening combined with disking and ploughing on the soil conditions, yields and cost factors was evaluated and based on the examination results. The economic comparisons were done by gross margin analyses of various technologies. Reducing the number of field applications is limited by the risk of soil compactions and weed infestations. From an economic part of view cost saving aspects of the various cultivation methods mentioned above cannot be justified in comparison with the ploughing methods. The lowest gross margin value was 61.79 EUR t-1, direct drilling and the highest was 67.34 EUR t-1, with ploughing but it was due to the great difference between the yield as well (6.89 and 4.03 t.ha-1. The results we achieved during our research are valid only in the given conditions, they could be recalculated and complemented under other soil and agro-ecological conditions. Our purpose was to emphasise the necessity of economical calculations before making decisions on changing technology. Our suggestion is: combined application of the traditional and energy saving methods, regarding the local conditions as well.

  9. Estimating the economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization on US regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kort, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a framework through which these regional economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization can be analyzed. Two models comprise the basis of this framework - a national input/output model and an interregional econometric model, the National-Regional Impact Evaluation System (NRIES). These models are used to convert projected sales of solar energy systems to gross output concepts, and to evaluate the impacts associated with these sales. Analysis is provided for the nine census regions and 50 states and the District of Columbia for the years 1980 through 1990. Impacts on major economic aggregates such as output, employment, income, and population are described. The methodology used in this study is described. The economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization on US regions and states are presented. The major conclusions of the study are summarized, and direction is provided for further research. Detailed tables of regional and state solar energy expenditures and their impacts appear in the Appendix.

  10. Modeling, simulation and optimization for science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, Yuri; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Pironneau, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains thirteen articles on advances in applied mathematics and computing methods for engineering problems. Six papers are on optimization methods and algorithms with emphasis on problems with multiple criteria; four articles are on numerical methods for applied problems modeled with nonlinear PDEs; two contributions are on abstract estimates for error analysis; finally one paper deals with rare events in the context of uncertainty quantification. Applications include aerospace, glaciology and nonlinear elasticity. Herein is a selection of contributions from speakers at two conferences on applied mathematics held in June 2012 at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The first conference, “Optimization and PDEs with Industrial Applications” celebrated the seventieth birthday of Professor Jacques Périaux of the University of Jyväskylä and Polytechnic University of Catalonia (Barcelona Tech), and the second conference, “Optimization and PDEs with Applications” celebrated the seventy-fi...

  11. Dynamic Simulation and Exergo-Economic Optimization of a Hybrid Solar–Geothermal Cogeneration Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic simulation model and a parametric analysis of a solar-geothermal hybrid cogeneration plant based on an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC powered by a medium-enthalpy geothermal resource and a Parabolic Trough Collector solar field. The fluid temperature supplying heat to the ORC varies continuously as a function of the solar irradiation, affecting both the electrical and thermal energies produced by the system. Thus, a dynamic simulation was performed. The ORC model, developed in Engineering Equation Solver, is based on zero-dimensional energy and mass balances and includes specific algorithms to evaluate the off-design system performance. The overall simulation model of the solar-geothermal cogenerative plant was implemented in the TRNSYS environment. Here, the ORC model is imported, whereas the models of the other components of the system are developed on the basis of literature data. Results are analyzed on different time bases presenting energetic, economic and exergetic performance data. Finally, a rigorous optimization has been performed to determine the set of system design/control parameters minimizing simple payback period and exergy destruction rate. The system is profitable when a significant amount of the heat produced is consumed. The highest irreversibilities are due to the solar field and to the heat exchangers.

  12. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygaard, M; Arvin, E; Bath, A; Binning, P J

    2011-06-01

    It is possible to optimize drinking water composition based on a valuation of the impacts of changed water quality. This paper introduces a method for assessing the potential for designing an optimum drinking water composition by the use of membrane desalination and remineralization. The method includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO(2)-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3 ± 0.2 per delivered m(3) for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water supply planning and management.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF ACTIVITIES FOR CONTROLLING ADMINISTRATIVE AND ECONOMIC LIFE OF ARMY UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlebnikov V. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we consider main objectives of system approach, as a research method of difficult objects, administrative activity supervision and analyses, components of which are processes of check and comparison of the actual results to the set parameters. The theory of decision-making focused on development and search of optimum results on various problems with a significant amount of communications and dependences, restrictions and versions of decisions has been developed. Optimization of economic activity supervision in a military unit and, in particular, competence of officials is considered. The use of assessment results of the subordinated divisions (services administrative activity on the basis of experts' opinion at adoption of administrative decisions. Introduction of mathematical methods in the monitoring procedure of administrative activity is analyzed. Ways to improve the organization of administrative activity supervision by means of expert assessment method on the basis of introduction of the settlement network Expert program are offered. This software product provides fast data input and an efficiency assessment of administrative activity in a division (service of a military unit. To judge the quantitative characteristics of administrative activity and evident representation of a change tendency of the observed values on the monitor screen of the automated workplace of the official, the information in the form of a tabular and graphic representation (charts is displayed

  14. The Optimization of Cyclic Links of Live Pig-Industry Chain Based on Circular Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To reduce waste and wastewater pollution and to improve the utilization rate of resources in the pig-industry chain, a circular economy of the chain can be developed. The key to constructing the circular economic system of the pig-industry chain is to determine the path of the cyclic materials and to design reasonable waste- and wastewater-treatment capacities. This paper focuses on the treatment and recycling of wastewater in the pig-industry chain and the treatment and recycling of waste into manure and feed. After giving the two circular paths, the paper proposes a multi-objective uncertainty-optimization model for the cyclic links of the pig-industry chain with the highest resource-reuse efficiency and the lowest construction cost based on the uncertainty of market demand. Using a combination of the neural network and genetic algorithm method for designing the solution process for the model, the paper finally introduces the determination methods of relevant parameters and verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the model through a case study.

  15. A Multiobjective Optimization Model of Production-Sourcing for Sustainable Supply Chain with Consideration of Social, Environmental, and Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates the three pillars of sustainability—economic, environmental, and social dimensions—into a supply chain. A multiobjective programming model which jointly minimizes costs, emissions, and employee injuries in a supply chain is first constructed. Using the weighted-sum approach with weights setting by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, the model is solved by normalization of the minima of the three objectives. A numerical example is conducted to test the model. The results show that it is indeed possible to integrate environmental and social metrics in supply chain system optimization. Multiobjective optimization can balance the social, environmental, and economic performance. This paper presents a new multidimension perspective for optimizing supply chain; it will inspire practitioners to change their decision ideas and improve supply chain sustainability.

  16. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration. The current process of the manufacture long tubular steel products consists of shaping the tube from flat strip, welding the seam and sections into lengths that can be miles long, and coiling onto reels. However, the welds, that are a weak point, now limit the performance of the coil tubing. This is not only from a toughness standpoint but also from a corrosion standpoint. By utilizing the latest developments in the sintering of materials with microwave energy and powder metal extrusion technology for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products, these problems can be eliminated. The project is therefore to develop a continuous microwave process to sinter continuously steel tubulars and butt-join them using microwave/induction process. The program started about three years ago and now we are in the middle of Phase II. In Phase I (which ended in February 2005) a feasibility study of the extrusion process of steel powder and continuously sinter the extruded tubing was conducted. The research program has been based on the development of microwave technology to process tubular specimens of powder metals, especially steels. The existing microwave systems at the Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) and Dennis Tool Company (DTC) were suitably modified to process tubular small specimens. The precursor powder metals were either extruded or cold isostatically pressed (CIP) to form tubular specimens. After conducting an extensive and systematic investigation of extrusion process for producing long tubes, it was determined that there were several difficulties in adopting extrusion process and it cannot be economically used for producing thousands of feet long green tubing. Therefore, in the Phase II the

  17. Introducing economic parameters in industrial flotation dimensionless models used for intra-factory technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris; Ifanti, Konstantina

    2012-12-01

    In this work, intra-factory technology transfer is realized by means of scale-up procedures, including the formation of a representative original set of dimensionless groups, when know-how obtained in the laboratory is transferred progressively (in successive steps) into industrial scale. For saving resources (highly skilled manpower, time, materials, energy) a Knowledge Base (KB) is designed/developed to maintain experience in flotation and select relevant information from other Data/Information/Knowledge Bases. Of significant importance is the introduction of economic parameters referring to investment and operation of the industrial unit, thus taking into account the capital and operating cost of output, respectively. We have proved that this introduction causes several problems since new technological dimensions should be also introduced (so that the economic parameters become meaningful) resulting by dimensional analysis to a new solution set that is incompatible to the original one. We solved this problem by keeping the original set and incorporating into it only the new dimensionless groups (eliminating all additional technological dimensions introduced ad hoc).

  18. Systematic comprehensive techno-economic assessment of solar cooling technologies using location-specific climate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtar, Marwan; Ali, Muhammad Tauha; Sgouridis, Sgouris; Armstrong, Peter; Chiesa, Matteo [Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Braeuniger, Simon; Afshari, Afshin [Masdar, Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-12-15

    A methodology for assessing solar cooling technologies is proposed. The method takes into account location specific boundary conditions such as the cooling demand time series, solar resource availability, climatic conditions, component cost and component performance characteristics. This methodology evaluates the techno-economic performance of the solar collector/chiller system. We demonstrate the method by systematic evaluation of 25 feasible combinations of solar energy collection and cooling technologies. The comparison includes solar thermal and solar electric cooling options and is extended to solar cooling through concentrated solar power plants. Solar cooling technologies are compared on an economic and overall system efficiency perspective. This analysis has implication for the importance of solar load fraction and storage size in the design of solar cooling systems. We also stress the importance of studying the relation between cooling demand and solar resource availability, it was found that overlooking this relation might lead to overestimations of the potential of a solar cooling system in the range of 22% to over 100% of the actual potential. (author)

  19. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.; Bonsignore, P.; Moon, S.H.; Frank, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}40,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food processing and industrial applications. lactic acid h,as the potential of becoming a very large volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from renewable carbohydrates for use as feedstocks for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, plant growth regulators, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and specially chemical intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from crude fermentation broths and the conversion of tactic acid to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. The development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes, extractive distillations integrated with fermentation, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The use of bipolar ED can virtually eliminate the salt or gypsum waste produced in the current lactic acid processes. In this paper, the recent technical advances in tactic and polylactic acid processes are discussed. The economic potential and manufacturing cost estimates of several products and process options are presented. The technical accomplishments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the future directions of this program at ANL are discussed.

  20. 40 CFR 444.15 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). 444.15 Section 444.15 Protection... COMBUSTORS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Commercial Hazardous Waste Combustor Subcategory § 444.15 Effluent... corresponding limitation specified in § 444.13....

  1. Techno-economic assessments of oxy-fuel technology for South African coal-fired power stations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available at the technical and economic viability of oxy-fuel technology for CO(sub2) capture for South African coal-fired power stations. This study presents a techno-economic analysis for six coal fired power stations in South Africa. Each of these power stations has a...

  2. Technology and economics of conversion of cellulose (wood) and corn starch to sugars, alcohol and yeast. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolnak, B.

    1978-08-01

    The present status of the technology and economics for the production of glucose, alcohol, and yeast from cellulose (wood), corn starch, and molasses is analyzed. The basic processes for producing glucose and the factors affecting the economics of its production are reviewed. The costs of producing ethanol and yeast from the glucose are derived. Market availability of glucose, ethanol, and yeast is surveyed. (JSR)

  3. Some Approaches to the Accounting and Analysis of the Impact of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Harrod-Domar Economic Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilenko Viktor O.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methods for the accounting of autonomous and induced scientific and technological progress in the Harrod-Domar model of economic dynamics that imply determining the incremental capital/output ratio of the model in the form of special functions of time. As part of the received version of the Harrod-Domar model, on the basis of conditional data there conducted a numerical study of some aspects of the impact of parameters of scientific and technological progress and the initial state of the economy being modeled on peculiarities of corresponding trajectories of its dynamics. A simple economic and mathematical problem of determining an optimal value of investments in the implementation of the induced STP is formulated, and content interpretation of the obtained solution is carried out. Possible directions of development of the obtained results may be associated with the application of the proposed modification of the Harrod-Domar model to build and analyze mathematical models of optimal economic growth in view of the induced STP, as well as with the prospective use of these results to improve dynamic models of the Leontief type in terms of considering innovation processes (scientific and technical progress of various kinds.

  4. Do Oil Companies aquire Alternative Energy Patents to Limit Technological Innovation, in order to Maintain Economic Advantage in Fossil Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, George G.

    2002-01-01

    Do Oil Companies acquire Alternative Energy Patents to limit Technological Innovation, in order to maintain Economic Advantage in Fossil Fuels by George G. Sims Roger N. Waud, Chairman Economics (Abstract) This paper addresses the charge made by environmental groups that oil companies, since the 1970's, have been acquiring alternative energy patents, to restrict these technologies from reaching the market. The purpose of these restrictions was to protect profits from...

  5. System Dynamics Simulation Modelling of the Impact of Technology Capital on Economic Growth of the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Milić Beran

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of science and technology plays a major role in economic growth. In some developed countries, the impact of technological advancement has reached 60-70% relative to other factors. Technology has become the main force in economic growth. Science and technology, theory and practice have become increasingly linked forming a single chain, promoting further development of technology, thus creating a need for continuous innovation and invention activities. Globalization, in particular the globalization of the economy, is a direct result of the scientific and technological revolution which creates links and scope for further development of the productive forces. The underlying driving force of globalization is technological development which makes the world a smaller place, both in terms of space and time, bringing qualitative and quantitative changes to the economic, political and cultural fields. System dynamics simulation modelling is one of the most suitable and effective scientific methods for modelling the dynamics of complex, non-linear natural, economic and technical systems. It enables monitoring and assessment of the impact of technology capital on economic growth. In creating a system dynamics simulation model of the impact of technology capital on economic growth of the Republic of Croatia we have created a structure diagram, mental-verbal model and mathematical model for the period between 1999 and 2009. Since system dynamics simulation model provides answers to the “what if” questions, two scenarios were constructed to analyse the economic growth influenced by technology capital change. The first scenario gives an answer to the question what would have happened to the economic growth of Croatia in the relevant period had there been a steady increase in investment in research and development, the implementation of advanced technology and investment in general. The second scenario gives an answer to the question what

  6. Ensuring green growth in a time of economic crisis: the role of energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Despite the severity of the current financial and economic crisis, it cannot be allowed to distract us from addressing critical and strategic climate change and energy challenges. The energy sector produces 60% of global greenhouse gas emissions and so it must also be a key part of any strategy to reduce them. This paper describes the most promising low-carbon technologies, their current status and the policy framework that will be necessary to achieve their widespread deployment. It also highlights what immediate steps can be taken as part of a Clean Energy New Deal. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 1 app.

  7. Extending Deacon’s Notion of Teleodynamics to Culture, Language, Organization, Science, Economics and Technology (CLOSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Logan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrence Deacon’s (2012 notion developed in his book Incomplete Nature (IN that living organisms are teleodynamic systems that are self-maintaining, self-correcting and self-reproducing is extended to human social systems. The hypothesis is developed that culture, language, organization, science, economics and technology (CLOSET can be construed as living organisms that evolve, maintain and reproduce themselves and are self-correcting, and hence are teleodynamic systems. The elements of CLOSET are to a certain degree autonomous, even though they are obligate symbionts dependent on their human hosts for the energy that sustains them.

  8. Projection of the Russian economic development in the framework of the optimal control model by investments in fixed assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikhajlovich Tarasyev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an economic growth model taking into account two factors of production: fixed capital and labor force, to study the dynamics of GDP growth. The dependence of the output of these factors is described by a production function of the exponential type. Within the framework of the optimal control theory, the optimization problem for investment levels is being solved to maximize the integral index of consumption. We study the qualitative properties of optimal trajectories as solutions of the Hamiltonian systems arising in Pontryagin’s maximum principle. The sensitivity analysis of the equilibrium solutions of the economic system is implemented with respect to the elasticity coefficients of the production function, the depreciation rate of the capital, and the discount factor, and growth trends are indicated. The econometric analysis of the model parameters is provided basing on real data for the Russian economy. In accordance with the results of the regression analysis, the projection of economic development is constructed in conditions of the applicability of the economic growth model.

  9. International Symposium on Technology Management: Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming

    2007-12-01

    This symposium provides a forum for scientists and researchers from academia and industry to exchange knowledge, ideas and results in computational aspects of social and management science. This symposium will cover theory and practice of computational methods, models and empirical analysis for decision making and forecasting in economics, finance, management, transportation, and related aspects of information and system engineering. Welcome to this interdisciplinary symposium in International Conference of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering (ICCMSE 2007). Look forward to seeing you in Corfu, Greece!

  10. Computer simulation and optimal designing of energy-saving technologies of the induction heating of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidovich, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Advanced energy-saving technologies of induction heating of metals are discussed. The importance of the joint simulation of electromagnetic and temperature fields on induction heating is demonstrated. The package of specialized programs for simulating not only induction heating devices, but also technologies that employ industrial heating has been developed. An intimate connection between optimal design and control of induction heaters is shown.

  11. Optimization of technological parameters for preparation of lycopene microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hui; Huang, Ying; Qian, Jun-qing; Gong, Qiu-yi; Tang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene belongs to the carotenoid family with high degree of unsaturation and all-trans form. Lycopene is easy to isomerize and auto oxide by heat, light, oxygen and different food matrices. With an increasing understanding of the health benefit of lycopene, to enhance stability and bioavailability of lycopene, ultrasonic emulsification was used to prepare lycopene microcapsules in this article. The results optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) for microcapsules consisted of four m...

  12. Optimized condition for etching fused-silica phase gratings with inductively coupled plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunquan; Zhou, Changhe; Ru, Huayi; Zhang, Yanyan

    2005-07-20

    Polymer deposition is a serious problem associated with the etching of fused silica by use of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technology, and it usually prevents further etching. We report an optimized etching condition under which no polymer deposition will occur for etching fused silica with ICP technology. Under the optimized etching condition, surfaces of the fabricated fused silica gratings are smooth and clean. Etch rate of fused silica is relatively high, and it demonstrates a linear relation between etched depth and working time. Results of the diffraction of gratings fabricated under the optimized etching condition match theoretical results well.

  13. Optimal vaccination schedule search using genetic algorithm over MPI technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calonaci Cristiano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunological strategies that achieve the prevention of tumor growth are based on the presumption that the immune system, if triggered before tumor onset, could be able to defend from specific cancers. In supporting this assertion, in the last decade active immunization approaches prevented some virus-related cancers in humans. An immunopreventive cell vaccine for the non-virus-related human breast cancer has been recently developed. This vaccine, called Triplex, targets the HER-2-neu oncogene in HER-2/neu transgenic mice and has shown to almost completely prevent HER-2/neu-driven mammary carcinogenesis when administered with an intensive and life-long schedule. Methods To better understand the preventive efficacy of the Triplex vaccine in reduced schedules we employed a computational approach. The computer model developed allowed us to test in silico specific vaccination schedules in the quest for optimality. Specifically here we present a parallel genetic algorithm able to suggest optimal vaccination schedule. Results & Conclusions The enormous complexity of combinatorial space to be explored makes this approach the only possible one. The suggested schedule was then tested in vivo, giving good results. Finally, biologically relevant outcomes of optimization are presented.

  14. Economic evaluation of technology for a new generation biofuel production using wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Athanasios; Kanellaki, Maria; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Dima, Agapi; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Tsafrakidou, Panagiota; Stergiou, Panagiota-Yiolanda; Foukis, Athanasios; Gkini, Olga A; Papamichael, Emmanuel M

    2016-01-01

    An economic evaluation of an integrated technology for industrial scale new generation biofuel production using whey, vinasse, and lignocellulosic biomass as raw materials is reported. Anaerobic packed-bed bioreactors were used for organic acids production using initially synthetic media and then wastes. Butyric, lactic and acetic acid were predominately produced from vinasse, whey, and cellulose, respectively. Mass balance was calculated for a 16,000L daily production capacity. Liquid-liquid extraction was applied for recovery of the organic acids using butanol-1 as an effective extraction solvent which serves also as the alcohol for the subsequent enzyme-catalyzed esterification. The investment needed for the installation of the factory was estimated to about 1.7million€ with depreciation excepted at about 3months. For cellulosics, the installation investment was estimated to be about 7-fold higher with depreciation at about 1.5years. The proposed technology is an alternative trend in biofuel production.

  15. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2012-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  16. Evaluating the Economic Performance of High-Technology Industry and Energy Efficiency: A Case Study of Science Parks in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-technology industries provide opportunities for economic growth, but also raise concerns because of their energy-demanding nature. This paper provides an integrated evaluation of both economic benefits and energy efficiency of high-technology industries based on the real data from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters, the national science parks in Taiwan. A nation-wide industrial Input-Output Analysis is conducted to demonstrate the positive effects of science parks on national economic developments and industrial upgrades. The concept of energy intensity and an energy-efficient economy index are applied to an integrated assessment of the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. The proposed case study suggests that economic and energy efficiency objectives can be simultaneously achieved by the development of high-technology industries, while three energy policy implications are considered. First, a nation-wide macro viewpoint is needed and high-technology industries should be considered as parts of the national/regional economies by governmental agencies. Second, a proper industrial clustering mechanism and the shared environmental facilities supported by the government, such as planned land and road usage, electricity and water supply, telecommunications system, sewerage system and wastewater treatments, can improve energy efficiency of high-technology industries. Third, the governmental policies on the taxing and management system in science parks would also direct energy-efficient economy of high-technology industries.

  17. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL). Progress report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, K.; Bartzke, G.; Broeseth, H.; Gjershaug, J.O.; Hanssen, F.; Jacobsen, K.-O.; Kvaloey, P.; May, R.; Nygaard, T.; Pedersen, H.C.; Reitan, O.; Refsnaes, S.; Stokke, S.; Vang, R.

    2009-12-15

    From 2009 inclusive, NINA has received economic support for research on power lines and wildlife from the Norwegian Research Council (NFR) through the RENERGI Programme. The project is named 'Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives' (OPTIPOL). It is scheduled for 5 years (2009-1013) and is part of the activities within CEDREN, i.e. the Centre for environmental design of renewable energy (cf. http://www.cedren.no). With a grid close to 200 000 km overhead power-lines, the associated rights-of-way (ROW) affect huge land areas in Norway. The overall goal is to develop predict-ing tools for optimal routing of power lines from an environmental perspective and assess technical and economic solutions to minimize conflicts with wildlife and habitat conservation. Thus, the OPTIPOL rationale is based on the belief that the negative effects of electricity transmission and distribution can be reduced with respect to birds and mammals. OPTIPOL has several ambitious objectives, and is divided into sub-projects and specific tasks. From the first of November a PhD-student became part of the project, a position that will be held for 4 years. The main objective of the PhD-activities will be to assess how and why different wildlife species use deforested areas below power lines, evaluate possible positive and negative effects of power-line ROWs, and assess the possibilities for quality improvement. Another part of the project is dedicated the effects of linear structures on movement patterns and distribution in the landscape in native deer species. Here we will examine how different spatial scales influence the processes that guide movement patterns, and responses to linear structures. Another focus will be small game species, with mountain hare, capercaillie, black grouse and hazel grouse as model species. The main objective will be to assess the impact of transforming ROW habitats into attractive small-game foraging

  18. Demonstrating the benefits of template-based design-technology co-optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars; Hibbeler, Jason; Hieter, Nathaniel; Pileggi, Larry; Jhaveri, Tejas; Moe, Matthew; Rovner, Vyacheslav

    2010-03-01

    The concept of template-based design-technology co-optimization as a means of curbing escalating design complexity and increasing technology qualification risk is described. Data is presented highlighting the design efficacy of this proposal in terms of power, performance, and area benefits, quantifying the specific contributions of complex logic gates in this design optimization. Experimental results from 32nm technology node bulk CMOS wafers are presented to quantify the variability and design-margin reductions as well as yield and manufacturability improvements achievable with the proposed template-based design-technology co-optimization technique. The paper closes with data showing the predictable composability of individual templates, demonstrating a fundamental requirement of this proposal.

  19. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY ON CASSAVA PRODUCTIVITY IN KOGI STATE OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilemona Adofu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed the economic impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity in Kogi State, Nigeria. The results are drawn from a household survey covering the agricultural season of 2009/2010. The data obtained from interview schedule was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics for this study include frequency, percentages and means. The hypothesis was tested using chisquare. The result shows that 79.33% of the respondents adopt the use of improved variety within the period under study. The analysis done on the revenue of the respondents before and after the adoption of the improved agricultural technology shows that revenue of farmers after the adoption of innovations are better off than revenue generated before adoption by N27,750 on the average per farmer. This result shows that the impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity is positive. Additionally, the results attest to the importance of increasing agricultural productivity in tandem with improvements on the adoption and use of improved agricultural technologies and its availability to the reach of farmers with the farmers’ ability to store food. This findings is consistence with Idachaba and Ayoola, (1995 who observed that improved agricultural helped in increasing agricultural productivity.

  20. Optimization of the enterprise’s innovative culture level from the standpoint of ensuring its economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.S. Shypulina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article is to determine the role of enterprise’s innovative culture to ensure its economic security and develop the methodical approach to the optimization of the enterprise’s innovative culture level from the standpoint of ensuring its economic security. The results of the analysis. It is shown that innovations and innovative activity are natural means to adapt to changes in macro- and microenvironment of the enterprise in permanently changing modern economy. Innovations and innovative activity are the backgrounds of economic security. One of the main factors of the formation of the environment conducive to innovation at the enterprise is its innovative culture, viewed as a mechanism for regulation of social and cultural innovation behavior of its staff. Accordingly, the innovative culture is also an important component of a mechanism ensuring economic security. It should be considered as a condition of effective use of enterprise’s resources and market opportunities, what prevents internal and external threats and ensures enterprise’s survival and sustainable development at the market in accordance with the selected mission and motivation activity. The results of the research confirm that economic security is a function of its innovative culture. The level of innovation culture depends on the expenses for its development. The author developed a methodical approach to determine the optimal level of enterprise’s innovative culture according to the «economic security/expenses» criterion under the given constraints: the financial costs and risk. A mathematical model realizing this methodical approach was also elaborated. Testing of the developed econometric model confirmed its adequacy and proved the feasibility of its implementation for optimization of enterprise’s innovative culture level from the standpoint of ensuring its economic security. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The results

  1. Grassland Degradation, Construction and the Economic-technological Strategies of Sustainable Development of Grassland-agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; YU Hua-ying; OKAMOTO Chinobu; WANG Yu-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Natural grassland in the West of Northeastern China is located in 40° 0′ - 43° 5′ N latitude and 117° 0′ -127° 5′ Elongitude. It lies in the Lisp River Valley, the Songhua River Valley and Nen River Valley. About 130 years ago, this region had rich natural grassland resources, was numerically 26.67 millions in hectare of grasslands.Since the last stage of Qing Dynasty, the grassland has been destroyed seriously in 3 times. Up to now, this region only preserved about 2 millions in hectare of the grasslands. In addition, 3.33 millions in hectare of the grasslands have changed from primary grassland to desertification, salinizatio-nalkalinization and degeneration grasslands in the form of patches of bare soil (their simple form of a name is "3 kinds of degeneration grasslands"). This paper indicaed that in any period both grasslands destruction and its restoration were relevant to economic changes and economic systems,particularly to market economy in that time. The following agricultural economic-technological strategies have been production bases of concentrated feed crops and coarse herbage crops.

  2. Economics of infection control surveillance technology: cost-effective or just cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Jon P; Schweizer, Marin L; McGregor, Jessina C; Perencevich, Eli N

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that informatics tools, such as automated alert and decision support systems, may increase the efficiency and quality of infection control surveillance. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of these tools. We focus on 2 types of economic analyses that have utility in assessing infection control interventions (cost-effectiveness analysis and business-case analysis) and review the available literature on the economics of computerized infection control surveillance systems. Previous studies on the effectiveness of computerized infection control surveillance have been limited to assessments of whether these tools increase the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance over traditional methods. Furthermore, we identified only 2 studies that assessed the costs associated with computerized infection control surveillance. Thus, it remains unknown whether computerized infection control surveillance systems are cost-effective and whether use of these systems improves patient outcomes. The existing data are insufficient to allow for a summary conclusion on the cost-effectiveness of infection control surveillance technology. All future studies of computerized infection control surveillance systems should aim to collect outcomes and economic data to inform decision making and assist hospitals with completing business-cases analyses.

  3. The potential of medical device industry in technological and economical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresova P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Petra Maresova,1 Marek Penhaker,1,2 Ali Selamat,1,3 Kamil Kuca1,41Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic; 2Department of Cybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Technical University of Ostrava, Poruba, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia; 4Center for Biomedical Research, University Hospital Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech RepublicAbstract: The high quality of public health improves not only healthy life expectancy, but also the productivity of labor. The most important part of the health care sector is the medical technology industry. The aim of this study is to analyze the current situation in the medical device industry in Europe, its potential strengths and weaknesses in the context of topical economic and demographic development. The contribution specifies an analysis of the economic state of the medical device industry in the context of demographic development of European Union’s macroeconomic indicators and views of experts in the field of medical device development, concerning the opportunities for entities involved in the medical device market. There is fierce competition on the European market. The innovative activity is stable and well regulated by responsible authorities. Worldwide, the medical device market is expected to grow.Keywords: technology context, medical device, Europe, expenditure, review

  4. UWB Array Design Using Variable Zo Technology and Central Force Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Formato, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    This note applies Variable Zo technology to the design of an Ultra Wideband (UWB) Yagi-Uda array optimized using Central Force Optimization. Variable Zo is a novel and proprietary approach to antenna design and optimization that treats the feed system characteristic impedance, Zo, as a design variable instead of a fixed design parameter as is traditionally done. Variable Zo is applicable to any antenna design or optimization methodology, and using it will generally produce better antenna designs across any user-specified set of performance objectives.

  5. How to use Big Data technologies to optimize operations in Upstream Petroleum Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Baaziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available “Big Data is the oil of the new economy” is the most famous citation during the three last years. It has even been adopted by the World Economic Forum in 2011. In fact, Big Data is like crude! It’s valuable, but if unrefined it cannot be used. It must be broken down, analyzed for it to have value. But what about Big Data generated by the Petroleum Industry and particularly its upstream segment? Upstream is no stranger to Big Data. Understanding and leveraging data in the upstream segment enables firms to remain competitive throughout planning, exploration, delineation, and field development.Oil & Gas Companies conduct advanced geophysics modeling and simulation to support operations where 2D, 3D & 4D Seismic generate significant data during exploration phases. They closely monitor the performance of their operational assets. To do this, they use tens of thousands of data-collecting sensors in subsurface wells and surface facilities to provide continuous and real-time monitoring of assets and environmental conditions. Unfortunately, this information comes in various and increasingly complex forms, making it a challenge to collect, interpret, and leverage the disparate data. As an example, Chevron’s internal IT traffic alone exceeds 1.5 terabytes a day.Big Data technologies integrate common and disparate data sets to deliver the right information at the appropriate time to the correct decision-maker. These capabilities help firms act on large volumes of data, transforming decision-making from reactive to proactive and optimizing all phases of exploration, development and production. Furthermore, Big Data offers multiple opportunities to ensure safer, more responsible operations. Another invaluable effect of that would be shared learning.The aim of this paper is to explain how to use Big Data technologies to optimize operations. How can Big Data help experts to decision-making leading the desired outcomes?Keywords:Big Data; Analytics

  6. Optimization of technological parameters for preparation of lycopene microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Huang, Ying; Qian, Jun-Qing; Gong, Qiu-Yi; Tang, Ying

    2014-07-01

    Lycopene belongs to the carotenoid family with high degree of unsaturation and all-trans form. Lycopene is easy to isomerize and auto oxide by heat, light, oxygen and different food matrices. With an increasing understanding of the health benefit of lycopene, to enhance stability and bioavailability of lycopene, ultrasonic emulsification was used to prepare lycopene microcapsules in this article. The results optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) for microcapsules consisted of four major steps: (1) 0.54 g glycerin monostearate was fully dissolved in 5 mL ethyl acetate and then added 0.02 g lycopene to form an organic phase, 100.7 mL distilled water which dissolved 0.61 g synperonic pe(R)/F68 as the aqueous phase; (2) the organic phase was pulled into the aqueous phase under stirring at 60 °C water bath for 5 min; (3) the mixture was then ultrasonic homogenized at 380 W for 20 min to form a homogenous emulsion; (4) the resulting emulsion was rotary evaporated at 50 °C water bath for 10 min under a pressure of 20 MPa. Encapsulation efficiency (EE) of lycopene microcapsules under the optimized conditions approached to 64.4%.

  7. Operation management of daily economic dispatch using novel hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm with hybrid mutation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Song; Ji, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm based on hybrid mutation strategy (HGSAPSO-M) to optimize economic dispatch (ED) including distributed generations (DGs) considering market-based energy pricing. A daily ED model was formulated and a hybrid mutation strategy was adopted in HGSAPSO-M. The hybrid mutation strategy includes two mutation operators, chaotic mutation, Gaussian mutation. The proposed algorithm was tested on IEEE-33 bus and results show that the approach is effective for this problem.

  8. INFLUENCE OF AXIAL COMPRESSOR STAGE SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION ON THRUST-ECONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CARGO AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Volyanskaya

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  The article considers the research results of D-27 gas turbine engine thrust-economical characteristics change due to of axial compressor flow path optimization. The applied procedure of optimization takes into account a difference in the shapes of axial compressor stage blades at rest and design mode, redistribution of kinetic energy losses along the blade height. The estimation of parameters of a gas flow in the stage flow path is made by the solution of Navier-Stokes equation complete set.

  9. THE OPTIMAL ALLOCATION ABOUT CAPITAL AND LABOR IN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH AN ENDOGENOUS TECHNICAL PROGRESS MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金山; 李楚霖; 胡适耕

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the balanced economic growth path was considered in a new growth model with endogenous technical progress. It is not only obtained the optimal allocation about capital and labor between a goods-producing sector and a R&D Sector,but also the optimal value of saving rates. By discussing the effect of parameters, it are also got the following results: When the rate of time preference (discount factor) rising, the fractions of Capital and labor in the goods-producing sector will increase , the fractions in R&D sector and the saving rates will decrease; When the population grows rapidly, the result will be contrary.

  10. [Robot technology in the Italian Health-CARE system: cost-efficacy economic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Gaetano; Antonucci, Michele; Palermo, Giuseppe; D'Agostino, Daniele; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Racioppi, Marco; Pinto, Francesco; Sacco, Emilio; Bassi, Pierfrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Robotic technology is used in multiple fields of surgery, especially radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the introduction of robotic technology in the Italian Public Heath-care context, from the perspective of the Health Technology Assessment (HTA). An economic analysis that compares the costs and effectiveness of the method was developed. Data were compared with those of the most important international literature, analyzing structural and organizational problems related to the method. A systematic review of literature on tertiary literature (Health Technology Assessment reports) and secondary (systematic reviews) published since 2002 was conducted. The review was also conducted on more recent primary literature regarding the clinical effectiveness and the economic analysis in the fields of surgery where Da Vinci robot is most promising. 18 studies were selected out of a total of 65 evaluated. The "Break-Even Point" (BEP) is the minimum number of cases needed to be treated in order to achieve a balance between costs and revenues, below which the system is losing money. It was calculated that the total fixed costs are € 378,000 and variable costs are € 3,810 per surgery. Considering that the current value of DRG (Diagnosis-Related Group) refunded by the public Health-care system is actually € 4,553, the BEP would be achieved performing 508 surgeries, so that the robotic technology does not generate neither profit nor loss. It is not possible to demonstrate the superiority of robotic surgery in terms of efficacy. The robotic surgery is safe and effective only if performed by surgical teams with relevant experience. Considering the reported case of an Italian University Hospital with public Health-care system refund, the BEP target of 508 radical prostatectomies could be achieved after a few years. The use of the robot in multiple fields on one hand shortens recovery time costs, but on the other hand

  11. FIELD TESTING & OPTIMIZATION OF CO2/SAND FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond L. Mazza

    2004-11-30

    These contract efforts involved the demonstration of a unique liquid free stimulation technology which was, at the beginning of these efforts, in 1993 unavailable in the US. The process had been developed, and patented in Canada in 1981, and held promise for stimulating liquid sensitive reservoirs in the US. The technology differs from that conventionally used in that liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), instead of water is the base fluid. The CO{sub 2} is pumped as a liquid and then vaporizes at reservoir conditions, and because no other liquids or chemicals are used, a liquid free fracture is created. The process requires a specialized closed system blender to mix the liquid CO{sub 2} with proppant under pressure. These efforts were funded to consist of up to 21 cost-shared stimulation events. Because of the vagaries of CO{sub 2} supplies, service company support and operator interest only 19 stimulation events were performed in Montana, New Mexico, and Texas. Final reports have been prepared for each of the four demonstration groups, and the specifics of those demonstrations are summarized. A summary of the demonstrations of a novel liquid-free stimulation process which was performed in four groups of ''Candidate Wells'' situated in Crockett Co., TX; San Juan Co., NM; Phillips Co., MT; and Blaine Co., MT. The stimulation process which employs CO{sub 2} as the working fluid and the production responses were compared with those from wells treated with conventional stimulation technologies, primarily N{sub 2} foam, excepting those in Blaine Co., MT where the reservoir pressure is too low to clean up spent stimulation liquids. A total of 19 liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand stimulations were performed in 16 wells and the production improvements were generally uneconomic.

  12. Optimization of accelerator-driven technology for LWR waste transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-12-31

    The role of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is examined in the context of the destruction of actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. It is pointed out that the commercial plutonium is much easier to use for entry-level nuclear weapons than weapons plutonium. Since commercial plutonium is easier to use, since there is very much more of it already, and since it is growing rapidly, the permanent disposition of commercial plutonium is an issue of greater importance than weapons plutonium. The minor actinides inventory, which may be influenced by transmutation, is compared in terms of nuclear properties with commercial and weapons plutonium and for possible utility as weapons material. Fast and thermal spectrum systems are compared as means for destruction of plutonium and the minor actinides. it is shown that the equilibrium fast spectrum actinide inventory is about 100 times larger than for thermal spectrum systems, and that there is about 100 times more weapons-usable material in the fast spectrum system inventory compared to the thermal spectrum system. Finally it is shown that the accelerator size for transmutation can be substantially reduced by design which uses the accelerator-produced neutrons only to initiate the unsustained fission chains characteristic of the subcritical system. The analysis argues for devoting primary attention to the development of thermal spectrum transmutation technology. A thermal spectrum transmuter operating at a fission power of 750-MWth fission power, which is sufficient to destroy the actinide waste from one 3,000-MWth light water reactor, may be driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and a current of 7 mA. This accelerator is within the range of realizable cyclotron technology and is also near the size contemplated for the next generation spallation neutron source under consideration by the US, Europe, and Japan.

  13. Available technology for indirect conversion of coal to methanol and gasoline: a technology and economics assessment. [Technology assessment and comparative evaluation of available processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wham, R. M.; Forrester, III, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the work was to review and assess the present state of the art of indirect liquid fuels synthesis, with particular emphasis to be placed upon those processes which produce methanol suitable for use as fuel. Following this review, four conceptual designs for indirect conversion of a Western subbituminous coal to methanol and gasoline were prepared. Capital and operating costs for each of the four cases were then estimated. This information was used to calculate the required product selling prices under a base case set of financial ground rules. Results of the methanol production technology assessment and economic assessments of four coal conversion plants are presented.

  14. Optimization of precision localization microscopy using CMOS camera technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Stephanie; Bennett, Keith; Toda, Eiji; Takahashi, Teruo

    2012-02-01

    Light microscopy imaging is being transformed by the application of computational methods that permit the detection of spatial features below the optical diffraction limit. Successful localization microscopy (STORM, dSTORM, PALM, PhILM, etc.) relies on the precise position detection of fluorescence emitted by single molecules using highly sensitive cameras with rapid acquisition speeds. Electron multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) cameras are the current standard detector for these applications. Here, we challenge the notion that EM-CCD cameras are the best choice for precision localization microscopy and demonstrate, through simulated and experimental data, that certain CMOS detector technology achieves better localization precision of single molecule fluorophores. It is well-established that localization precision is limited by system noise. Our findings show that the two overlooked noise sources relevant for precision localization microscopy are the shot noise of the background light in the sample and the excess noise from electron multiplication in EM-CCD cameras. At low light conditions (CCD cameras are the preferred detector. However, in practical applications, optical background noise is significant, creating conditions where CMOS performs better than EM-CCD. Furthermore, the excess noise of EM-CCD is equivalent to reducing the information content of each photon detected which, in localization microscopy, reduces the precision of the localization. Thus, new CMOS technology with 100fps, super resolution precision localization microscopy.

  15. Optimization of pricing and price policy of the enterprise in the conditions of financial and economic instability

    OpenAIRE

    Matsak, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this Bachelors or of Art work is research of pricing and price policy of management company CJSC "Nash Standart" , which is included in group of companies Properties O1 enterprises, in the conditions of financial and economic instability. The purpose of work is search of ways of optimization of price policy in the market of commercial real estate. The management company CJSC "Nash Standart" is one of the leaders in the Moscow market in granting to clients professional services ...

  16. Study of multi-objective optimization and multi-attribute decision-making for economic and environmental power dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuebin, Li [Research and Development Center, Wuhan 2nd Ship Design and Research Institute, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430064 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Environmental awareness and the recent environmental policies have forced many electric utilities to restructure their practices to account for their emission impacts. One way to accomplish this is by reformulating the traditional economic dispatch problem such that emission effects are included in the mathematical model. The economic/environmental dispatch problem is a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem with constraints. This study presents a hybrid approach to solve the combined economic-emission dispatch problem (CEED). In the first stage, a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) is employed to approximate the set of Pareto solution through an evolutionary optimization process. In the subsequent stage, a multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) approach is adopted to rank these solutions from best to worst and to determinate the best solution in a deterministic environment with a single decision maker. This hybrid approach is tested on a six-unit system to illustrate the analysis process in present analysis. Pareto frontiers are obtained and the ranking of Pareto solutions is based on entropy weight and TOPSIS method. Results obtained show that the hybrid approach has a great potential in handling multi-objective optimization problem. (author)

  17. Technology for Constructing Economic Garden in Jinshan District,Shanghai%上海市金山区节约型园林建设技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚

    2011-01-01

    文章介绍了上海市金山区近年来采用的园林树枝循环利用技术、立体绿化建设、植物配置优化、拓展绿化用水来源,以及生态型铺装建设等节约型绿化措施,以期为有效推进节约型园林建设技术发展与应用提供借鉴。%With the case study of Jinshan district,Shanghai,the paper introduced the economic greening measures adopted by the District in recent years,such as recycling use of tree branch,vertical greening,optimized plants configuration,diversified water sources for watering,ecological paving and loading.The study was expected to provide lessons for effectively updating the technologies for economic garden construction.

  18. Optimization of Remediation Conditions using Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, O.; Mandelbaum, R.; Ronen, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Success of in-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change and control hydrological, physical and chemical conditions of subsurface. These manipulations enables the development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria or set the environmental conditions for seeded bacteria. As such, the remediation efficiency is dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. Enhanced bioremediation of the vadose zone is achieved under field conditions through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives. Yet, water percolation and solute transport in unsaturated conditions is a complex process and application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily result in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deeper sections of the vadose zone. A newly developed vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water along deep sections of the vadose zone. Implementation of the VMS at sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Manipulating subsurface conditions for optimal biodegradation of hydrocarbons is demonstrated through enhanced bio-remediation of the vadose zone at a site that has been contaminated with gasoline products in Tel Aviv. The vadose zone at the site is composed of 6 m clay layer overlying a sandy formation extending to the water table at depth of 20 m bls. The upper 5 m of contaminated soil were removed for ex-situ treatment, and the remaining 15 m vadose zone is treated in-situ through enhanced bioremedaition. Underground drip irrigation system was installed below the surface on the bottom of the excavation. Oxygen and nutrients releasing powder (EHCO, Adventus) was spread below the

  19. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Effective September 26, 1991, Bechtel, with Amoco as the main subcontractor, initiated a study to develop a computer model and baseline design for advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced F-T technology; prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design; and develop a process flow sheet simulation (PI-S) model. The baseline design, the economic analysis, and the computer model win be the major research planning tools that PETC will use to plan, guide, and evaluate its ongoing and future research and commercialization programs relating to indirect coal liquefaction. for the manufacture of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. This report is Bechtel`s third quarterly technical progress report covering the period from March 16, 1992 through June 21, 1992. This report consists of seven sections: Section 1 - introduction; Section 2 - summary; Section 3 - carbon dioxide removal tradeoff study; Section 4 - preliminary plant designs for coal preparation; Section 5 - preliminary design for syngas production; Section 6 - Task 3 - engineering design criteria; and Section 7 - project management.

  20. Technological, economic, and political feasibility in OSHA's Air Contaminants Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.C.; Paxman, D.G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    In 1989, after almost two decades of substance-by-substance standard setting, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgated its Air Contaminants Standard, imposing new exposure limits for 376 toxic substances encountered in U.S. industry. In marked contrast to earlier regulations, the Air Contaminants Standard has generated relatively little industry opposition. This paper analyzes the standard in the context of the twenty-year debate over the appropriate role for technological feasibility and economic compliance costs in occupational health policy. The political feasibility of the new standard is traced to OSHA's abandonment of technology forcing in favor of reliance on off-the-shelf technologies already in use in major firms. While important as an embodiment of OSHA's new generic approach to regulation, the Air Contaminants Standard cannot serve as a model for future occupational health policy, due to its reliance on informal, closed-door mechanisms for establishing regulatory priorities and permissible exposure limits. 20 refs.

  1. Optimal technology choice and investment timing: A stochastic model of industrial cogeneration vs. heat-only production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickart, Marcel [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurichbergstrasse 18 (ZUE E), 8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Madlener, Reinhard [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurichbergstrasse 18 (ZUE E), 8032 Zurich (Switzerland) and DIW Berlin, Department of Information Society and Competition, Koenigin-Luise-Strasse 5, 14195 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: rmadlener@ethz.ch

    2007-07-15

    In this paper we develop an economic model that explains the decision-making problem under uncertainty of an industrial firm that wants to invest in a process technology. More specifically, the decision is between making an irreversible investment in a combined heat-and-power production (cogeneration) system, or to invest in a conventional heat-only generation system (steam boiler) and to purchase all electricity from the grid. In our model we include the main economic and technical variables of the investment decision process. We also account for the risk and uncertainty inherent in volatile energy prices that can greatly affect the valuation of the investment project. The dynamic stochastic model presented allows us to simultaneously determine the optimal technology choice and investment timing. We apply the theoretical model and illustrate our main findings with a numerical example that is based on realistic cost values for industrial oil- or gas-fired cogeneration and heat-only generation in Switzerland. We also briefly discuss expected effects of a CO{sub 2} tax on the investment decision.

  2. Based on GIS Technology of Urban Gardening and Greening Layout Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tiedong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the accelerated process of urbanization, city environment problems are highlighted, city landscape and city modernization phase matching. However, the urban gardening and greening is difficult to optimize the layout, with the new city landscape green area increased every year, which will make the City Landscaping Administration difficulty. In this study, detailed analysis of GIS technology development trend as well as in the city green space applications, which is supported by GIS technology, integrated distribution of population, manpower, material resources and financial resources, city greening planning design, construction, transportation cost and the maintenance management and other comprehensive factors, application technology based on GIS mesh accessibility calculation method, exploring the construction of urban gardening and greening layout optimization model of city landscape green space, spatial distribution characteristics and verify the layout optimization model is feasible and practical, in order to strengthen the city landscaping work play a role.

  3. Economic Load Dispatch - A Comparative Study on Heuristic Optimization Techniques With an Improved Coordinated Aggregation-Based PSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John); Lee, KY

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an improved coordinated aggregation-based particle swarm optimization (ICA-PSO) algorithm is introduced for solving the optimal economic load dispatch (ELD) problem in power systems. In the ICA-PSO algorithm each particle in the swarm retains a memory of its best position ever...... and the particles search the decision space with accuracy up to two digit points resulting in the improved convergence of the process. The ICA-PSO algorithm is tested on a number of power systems, including the systems with 6, 13, 15, and 40 generating units, the island power system of Crete in Greece...... and the Hellenic bulk power system, and is compared with other state-of-the-art heuristic optimization techniques (HOTs), demonstrating improved performance over them....

  4. New Joining Technology for Optimized Metal/Composite Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Seidlitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new joining technology, which is used to manufacture high strength hybrid constructions with thermoplastic composites (FRP and metals, is introduced. Similar to natural regulation effects at trees, fibers around the FRP joint become aligned along the lines of force and will not be destroyed by the joining process. This is achieved by the local utilization of the specific plastic flow properties of the FRT and metal component. Compared with usual joining methods—such as flow drill screws, blind and self-piercing rivets—noticeably higher tensile properties can be realized through the novel process management. The load-bearing capability increasing effect could be proved on hybrid joints with hot-dip galvanized steel HX420LAD and orthotropic glass—as well as carbon—fiber reinforced plastics. The results, which were determined in tensile-shear and cross-shear tests according to DIN EN ISO 14273 and DIN EN ISO 14272, are compared with holding loads of established joining techniques with similar joining point diameter and material combinations.

  5. Socio-Economic Factors Assessment Affecting the Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies on Rwenzori Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabalegwa Wambede Muhamud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the role of socio-economic factors in influencing farmers’ adoption to soil conservation technologies in Bugoye Sub-county, Rwenzori Mountain. A cross sectional household survey design was used in this study, using systematic sampling to obtain 150 household samples. Qualitative analysis and chi-square tests were used to analyze these data. Results indicated that only 54% of the sampled households have adopted soil conservation, and revealed that eight of the nine factors significantly influenced farmers’ adoption, which are slope, farm size, farm distance from home, education level, family income, training, membership to NGOs, and credit accessibility. Only family size was insignificant. Other constraints are labour demands, cost of conservation work, land fragmentation, crop pests, and the limited agricultural extension services. It is recommended to perform training for farmers on designing soil conservation structures. Policies for empowering farmers with extra income are crucial to increase the adoption of soil conservation efforts.

  6. Economic Development Activities at the Young - Rainey Science, Technology, & Research (STAR) Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul S. Sacco; Carl Smeigh; John Caponiti, Jr.

    2008-06-30

    Project mission was to mitigate the adverse economic effects of closing the U.S. Department of Energy's Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. This project was to facilitate the physical renovation of the plant and to help maintain and create jobs for the employees that worked at the plant when DOE terminated its operations. It also included finding and attracting high technology, industrial manufacturing and related firms to utilize the space and high tech equipment to remain at the plant. Stakeholders included the affected plant employees, local government and related public organizations, and businesses and universities in the Tampa Bay Florida area. The $17.6 million funded for this project helped produce 2,780 jobs at the Young - Rainey STAR Center at an average cost of $6,328. Rental income from STAR Center tenants and third party cash input amounted to approximately $66 million over the project period of 13.3 years.

  7. Technology and economic impacts of mega-sports events: A key issue? Exploratory insights from literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanaron Jean Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mega-sport events such as Olympic Games or Football World Cup are always presented as providing the hosting nation and/or city with huge benefits. Supporters of such events quote economic, social and cultural impacts for the region as well as contributions to scientific and technological progress and innovation. obviously, they need to politically justify the impressive and growing financial investment required by organizing Olympic Games or World Cup. The article aims at looking at a quite abundant academic literature with the objectives of defining the various potential impacts and the methods used for their assessment. It concludes that there is no universal and scientifically valid model for evaluating the benefits of mega-sport events and that organizers should be very cautious when arguing in favor of deciding to host such events.

  8. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the contextualized technology adaptation process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians' workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors.

  9. Optimized synthesis technology of LiFePO4 for Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Tao; TIAN Yan-wen; DING Yang; ZHONG Can-yun; ZHAI Yu-chun

    2005-01-01

    The influence of factors of the carbon black content, sintering temperature, sintering time, molar ratio of Li to Fe, as well as the electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 for lithium ion battery were studied. The only technology was obtained by using range analysis through Latin orthogonal experiment of L44 (16). The results show that the optimization synthesis technology of LiFePO4 is content of 5% doping carbon, sintering temperature of 700 ℃,molar ratio of Li to Fe of 1.03 : 1 and sintering time of 16 h. The optimized cathode synthesis techniques can make LiFePO4 have good electrochemical properties.

  10. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Ganti S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for

  11. Economic Technology of Enterprise Risk Management Based on Information Support for Their Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA PETROVNA KISELITSA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main trends in the use of approaches to risk management of activities of Russian enterprises and organizations. The conclusion was made about the shift in focus in the field of risk management from the theory of calculations to minimization of uncertainty. The range of acceptability of the risk level in terms of economic instability is proved. The results of the study of the degree of readiness of entrepreneurs representing the industrial and commercial sectors of Tyumen economy to work in unstable economic conditions are mentioned. The extent of use of global management decision-making techniques in actual practice is estimated; the reasons for the low level of information support for the risk management process and the dependence of the business risk level on the diversification of activities are revealed. Five main groups of risk management techniques are proposed that predetermine the choice of options for possible actions depending on the likelihood and magnitude of potential damage represented as a "damage-probability" matrix. The impact of the level of information support on the level of uncertainty and risk in the implementation of 196 economic solutions in the field of managing the enterprise economy with a specialization in groups of risk situations was estimated: substantiation of the project of development of the existing production, management of the product life cycle, scheduled and urgent definition of the enterprise place in the competitive market. A risk management approach, which consists in ranking methods in descending order of their effectiveness depending on the action of risk-contributing factors, is proposed. A technology of managing the risks of the enterprise, which allows to achieve efficient allocation of resources to risk management and the best result – the lowest possible or acceptable residual risk level.

  12. An economic analysis of private incentives to adopt DNA barcoding technology for fish species authentication in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Albert I; Hobbs, Jill E; Phillips, Peter W B; Gray, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The increasing spate of species substitution and mislabelling in fish markets has become a concern to the public and a challenge to both the food industry and regulators. Species substitution and mislabelling within fish supply chains occurs because of price incentives to misrepresent products for economic gain. Emerging authenticity technologies, such as the DNA barcoding technology that has been used to identify plants and animal (particularly fish) species through DNA sequencing, offer a potential technological solution to this information problem. However, the adoption of these authenticity technologies depends also on economic factors. The present study uses economic welfare analysis to examine the effects of species substitution and mislabelling in fish markets, and examines the feasibility of the technology for a typical retail store in Canada. It is assumed that increased accuracy of the technology in detecting fraud and enforcement of legal penalties and other associated costs would be likely to discourage cheating. Empirical results suggest that DNA barcoding technology would be feasible presently for a typical retail store only if authentication is done in a third party laboratory, as it may not be feasible on an individual retail store level once fixed and other associated costs of the technology are considered.

  13. A life cycle assessment and economic analysis of the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Addy, Min; Anderson, Erik; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-03-01

    This study used life cycle assessment and technical economic analysis tools in evaluating a novel Scum-to-Biodiesel technology and compares the technology with scum digestion and combustion processes. The key variables that control environmental and economic performance are identified and discussed. The results show that all impacts examined for the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology are below zero indicating significant environmental benefits could be drawn from it. Of the three technologies examined, the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology has the best environmental performance in fossil fuel depletion, GHG emissions, and eutrophication, whereas combustion has the best performance on acidification. Of all process inputs assessed, process heat, glycerol, and methanol uses had the highest impacts, much more than any other inputs considered. The Scum-to-Biodiesel technology also makes higher revenue than other technologies. The diesel price is a key variable for its economic performance. The research demonstrates the feasibility and benefits in developing Scum-to-Biodiesel technology in wastewater treatment facilities.

  14. Optimization of regional economic and environmental systems under fuzzy and random uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Nie, S L

    2011-08-01

    Environmental problems associated with socio-economic development have been growing concerns faced by many regional and/or national authorities. However, effective planning may encounter difficulties since uncertainties existing in a number of impact factors and pollution-related processes are often not well acknowledged and reflected. This study advances an interval-fuzzy chance-constrained programming (IFCP) method for planning regional economic and environmental systems, where uncertainties presented as intervals, fuzzy sets and probability distributions can be tackled. The developed method is applied to a real-world case for economic and environmental planning in the New Binhai District in the Municipality of Tianjin, China. Two scenarios based on multiple environmental constraints are examined. The results can help identify desired alternatives for planning regional development strategies, where compromised schemes are provided under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental protection under multiple uncertainties.

  15. The question of Sudan: a hydro-economic optimization model for the Sudanese Blue Nile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satti, S; Zaitchik, B; Siddiqui, S

    2015-01-01

    .... Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications for the region...

  16. Technico-economic simulation and optimization of a compression refrigerating machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosu, Lavinia; Benelmir, Riad; Feidt, Michel [CNRS, LEMTA, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy, 54 (France)

    1999-11-01

    This study is among the several works conducted by the authors with regard to technico-economic optimisation of refrigerating machines. The most difficult part is the gathering of technico-economical data and the development of cost correlations. The tool presented in this work will be used for an optimisation based on irreversibilities and cost minimisation, since irreversibilities have a direct impact on the operating cost. (Author)

  17. [The optimization of organizational technologies in obstetrics service of the Ryazan oblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Ye I; Medvedeva, O V

    2014-01-01

    The article emphasizes that, the protection of health of mother and child is actual especially in the present conditions considering demographic characteristics of particular territory. Hence, the development of optimal strategy in system of rendering of obstetrics and perinatal care and organization of operation of obstetrics institutions are the most important issues of modern obstetrics. The analysis is presented concerning conditions and main directions of optimization of organizational technologies in the system of obstetrics of the Ryazan oblast. The purpose and tasks of mechanism of optimization of rendering obstetrics and perinatal care are determined.

  18. Simulation and Optimization of Amplitude-adjusting Performance of Crane with Virtual Prototyping Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhen; YU Meng; DENG Mingxing

    2006-01-01

    In the design of crane, designers often have to study the trajectory of amplitude-adjusting of crane. The traditional methods, illustration and analytics both show their limits. In this paper, the simulation of process of amplitude-adjusting is presented and the optimization is also performed with virtual prototyping technology. From the comparison of original solution and optimal solution, the effectiveness of this technique is testified. On the platform ADAMS/View, the interactive optimization can be performed in a visual, intuitive and credible way, which deserves to be introduced to the design of crane.

  19. Innovative energy technologies in energy-economy models: assessing economic, energy and environmental impacts of climate policy and technological change in Germany.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.

    2007-04-18

    Energy technologies and innovation are considered to play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. Yet, the representation of technologies in energy-economy models, which are used extensively to analyze the economic, energy and environmental impacts of alternative energy and climate policies, is rather limited. This dissertation presents advanced techniques of including technological innovations in energy-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. New methods are explored and applied for improving the realism of energy production and consumption in such top-down models. The dissertation addresses some of the main criticism of general equilibrium models in the field of energy and climate policy analysis: The lack of detailed sectoral and technical disaggregation, the restricted view on innovation and technological change, and the lack of extended greenhouse gas mitigation options. The dissertation reflects on the questions of (1) how to introduce innovation and technological change in a computable general equilibrium model as well as (2) what additional and policy relevant information is gained from using these methodologies. Employing a new hybrid approach of incorporating technology-specific information for electricity generation and iron and steel production in a dynamic multi-sector computable equilibrium model it can be concluded that technology-specific effects are crucial for the economic assessment of climate policy, in particular the effects relating to process shifts and fuel input structure. Additionally, the dissertation shows that learning-by-doing in renewable energy takes place in the renewable electricity sector but is equally important in upstream sectors that produce technologies, i.e. machinery and equipment, for renewable electricity generation. The differentiation of learning effects in export sectors, such as renewable energy technologies, matters for the economic assessment of climate policies because of effects on international

  20. 浅谈LTE网络优化技术%Discussion on LTE network optimization technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美艳

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid deployment of the LTE commercial network,the LTE network optimization technology has become particularly important.This paper ifrst discusses the speciifc content of the LTE network optimization,and analysis of the LTE network optimization process,ifnal y,in the process of network optimization,implementation of LTE network optimization.%随着LTE商用网络的快速部署,LTE网络优化技术变得尤为重要。本文首先探讨了LTE网络优化的具体内容,并且分析了LTE网络优化的流程,最后给出在网络优化过程中,LTE网络优化的实施案例。

  1. Optimization of computer-based technology of creating large reservoir's Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunova, Ekaterina; Pavlovsky, Andrew; Zemlyanov, Igor; Gorelits, Olga

    2010-05-01

    Using Digital Elevation Model of bottom and coastal zone for large-scale anthropogenic water reservoirs is very important for sustainable water management in actual conditions of Global Climate Change. DEM is unified monitoring base for different types of reservoirs in varied types of ecosystems in various environmental and economical conditions. It may be used for getting current morphometric characteristics, pollution and biodiversity analysis, monitoring bottom relief changing and making management decisions. In 2008-2009 State Oceanography Institute (SOI) carried out the DEMs for reservoirs of Volga river system. In 2008 in SOI was created DEM of Uglichsky reservoir, which is typical Russian reservoir. Methodology and computer-based technology were developed and evaluated. In 2009 in SOI were created DEMs of Gorkovsky, Volgogradsky and six reservoirs of Moscow region. Such result was achieved by optimization of DEM's creating process. Initially we used complex of GIS programs, which include GIS Map-2008 Panorama, ArcMap v.9.3.1, ArcView v.3.2a, Golden Surfer v.8, Global Mapper v.10. The input data are bathymetric survey data, large-scale maps (scale 1:10 000, 1:25 000) and remote sensing data of high resolution. Office analysis consists of several main milestones. 1. Vectorization of coastline and relief data from maps and remote sensing data using GIS Map-2008 by Panorama; ArcView v.3.2a. 2. Maps data elaboration with using bathymetric survey data. Because some maps are longstanding it is necessary to renew them. 3. Creating point's array including all data from maps, RSD and bathymetric survey. 4. Separation small calculation zones including four survey cross-sections. 5. Determine of anisotropy parameters, which depend on channel orientation. 6. Create shapes for clipping of correct grid zones. Each shape includes 2 cross-sections. Milestones 2-6 realize in ArcView v.3.2a. 7. Creating grid's array using Golden Surfer v.8 for each zone by interpolation method

  2. Optimal Installation Capacity of Medium Hydro-Power Plants Considering Technical, Economic and Reliability Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S. M. H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the reservoir type of Medium Hydro-Power Plants (MHPP) is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the MHPP and estimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented to calculate the annual energy. A computer program has...

  3. Economic Analysis of Lagrangian and Genetic Algorithm for the Optimal Capacity Planning of Photovoltaic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeng-Min Ling

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal allocation problem for a stand-alone photovoltaic (SPV generation can be achieved by good compromise between system objective and constraint requirements. The Lagrange technique (LGT is a traditional method to solve such constrained optimization problem. To consider the nonlinear features of reliability constraints evolving from the consideration of different scenarios, including variations of component cost, load profile and installation location, the implementation of SPV generation planning is time-consuming and conventionally implemented by a probability method. Genetic Algorithm (GA has been successfully applied to many optimization problems. For the optimal allocation of photovoltaic and battery devices, the cost function minimization is implemented by GA to attain global optimum with relative computation simplicity. Analytical comparisons between the results from LGT and GA were investigated and the performance of simulation was discussed. Different planning scenarios show that GA performs better than the Lagrange optimization technique.

  4. Large size biogas-fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power plants with carbon dioxide management: Technical and economic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curletti, F.; Gandiglio, M.; Lanzini, A.; Santarelli, M.; Maréchal, F.

    2015-10-01

    This article investigates the techno-economic performance of large integrated biogas Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plants. Both atmospheric and pressurized operation is analysed with CO2 vented or captured. The SOFC module produces a constant electrical power of 1 MWe. Sensitivity analysis and multi-objective optimization are the mathematical tools used to investigate the effects of Fuel Utilization (FU), SOFC operating temperature and pressure on the plant energy and economic performances. FU is the design variable that most affects the plant performance. Pressurized SOFC with hybridization with a gas turbine provides a notable boost in electrical efficiency. For most of the proposed plant configurations, the electrical efficiency ranges in the interval 50-62% (LHV biogas) when a trade-off of between energy and economic performances is applied based on Pareto charts obtained from multi-objective plant optimization. The hybrid SOFC is potentially able to reach an efficiency above 70% when FU is 90%. Carbon capture entails a penalty of more 10 percentage points in pressurized configurations mainly due to the extra energy burdens of captured CO2 pressurization and oxygen production and for the separate and different handling of the anode and cathode exhausts and power recovery from them.

  5. An Environmental and Economic Assessment for Selecting the Optimal Ground Heat Exchanger by Considering the Entering Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve environmental problems such as global warming and resource depletion in the construction industry, interest in new renewable energy (NRE systems has increased. The ground source heat pump (GSHP system is the most efficient system among NRE systems. However, since the initial investment cost of the GSHP is quite expensive, a feasibility study needs to be conducted from the life-cycle perspective. Meanwhile, the efficiency of GSHP depends most significantly on the entering water temperature (EWT of the ground heat exchanger (GHE. Therefore, this study aims to assess the environmental and economic effects of the use of GHE for selecting the optimal GHE. This study was conducted in three steps: (i establishing the basic information and selecting key factors affecting GHE performances; (ii making possible alternatives of the GHE installation by considering EWT; and (iii using life-cycle assessment and life-cycle cost, as well as comprehensive evaluation of the environmental and economic effects on the GHE. These techniques allow for easy and accurate determination of the optimal design of the GHE from the environmental and economic effects in the early design phase. In future research, a multi-objective decision support model for the GSHP will be developed.

  6. Optimizing the Wood Value Chain in Northern Norway Taking Into Account National and Regional Economic Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Johansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of past decades of extensive afforestation in Norway, mature forest volumes are increasing. National forestry politics call for sustainable and efficient resource usage and for increased regional processing. Regional policies seek to provide good conditions for such industries to be competitive and to improve regional value creation. We demonstrate how methods from operations research and regional macro-economics may complement each other to support decision makers in this process. The operations research perspective is concerned with finding an optimally designed wood value chain and an aggregated planning of its operations, taking a holistic perspective on strategic-tactical level. Using Input-Output analysis methods based on statistics and survey data, regional macro-economics helps to estimate each industry actor’s value creation and impact on society beyond immediate value chain activities. Combining these approaches in a common mathematical optimization model, a balance can be struck between industry/business and regional political interests. For a realistic case study from the northern part of coastal Norway, we explore this balance from several perspectives, investigating value chain profits, economic ripple effects and regional resource usage.

  7. State of Technological Development of Crop Production by Rural Territorial Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usenko Lyudmila N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low level of distribution of innovations and technological development in the Russian agriculture exerts a negative influence upon the basic branch of the economy of rural territories – crop production, which, by production factors, possesses the highest potential in the world. Moreover, Russia’s joining WTO has an effect on the strategy of the branch development and disposes to another, innovative way of formation of the competitive agrarian sector of economy. The article uses retrospective analysis of main factors of production and many-sided indicators of financial and economic activity of agriculture in order to assess the state of technological development and innovation potential of the crop industry in Russia. The article draws conclusions about influence of these factors and indicators upon formation and development of the innovative basis of the agro-industrial complex of Russia and identifies potential of its further growth. The article also focuses on interdependence of groups of indicators that form the current picture of the study. The article reveals weaknesses and negative factors that interfere with establishment of the innovative agrarian sector of Russian economy.

  8. Development of economic MeV-ion microbeam technology at Chiang Mai University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkarat, S.; Puttaraksa, N.; Unai, S.; Yu, L. D.; Singkarat, K.; Pussadee, N.; Whitlow, H. J.; Natyanum, S.; Tippawan, U.

    2017-08-01

    Developing high technologies but in economic manners is necessary and also feasible for developing countries. At Chiang Mai University, Thailand, we have developed MeV-ion microbeam technology based on a 1.7-MV Tandetron tandem accelerator with our limited resources in a cost-effective manner. Instead of using expensive and technically complex electrostatic or magnetic quadrupole focusing lens systems, we have developed cheap MeV-ion microbeams using programmed L-shaped blade aperture and capillary techniques for MeV ion beam lithography or writing and mapping. The programmed L-shaped blade micro-aperture system consists of a pair of L-shaped movable aperture pieces which are controlled by computer to cut off the ion beam for controlling the beam size down to the micrometer order. The capillary technique utilizes our home-fabricated tapered glass capillaries to realize microbeams. Either system can be installed inside the endstation of the MeV ion beam line of the accelerator. Both systems have been applied to MeV-ion beam lithography or writing of micro-patterns for microfluidics applications to fabricate lab-on-chip devices. The capillary technique is being developed for MeV-ion beam mapping of biological samples. The paper reports details of the techniques and introduces some applications.

  9. Trends in the marine aquarium trade: the influence of global economics and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Rhyne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine aquarium hobby is a global industry with trade chains on six continents. This industry is undergoing rapid changes in hobbyistpreferences that are in part driven by global economies and technology. In an effort to better assess the past trends and help provide insightinto future growth and demand, we assessed three different trade data sources, the United States-State of Florida Marine Life Landings, CITESstony coral imports, and United States Fish and Wildlife Service’s Law Enforcement Information Systems import data for ‘live rock’. Data forthe past 10 years were analyzed and a clear trend of growth followed by decline was observed with the peak and degree of decline varying forthe different trade categories. While the global economic downturn decreased trade volumes across the board other forces have dramatically affectedthe importation of coral reef products. ‘Live Rock’ and Florida produced ‘live sand’ dramatically decreased two years prior to the globaleconomic recession. The decline of these trade categories coincides with rapid changes in technology used to maintain captive reef aquariumswhich allowed for the advent of the smaller “nano” reef tanks. Importing and exporting countries, CITES and other international governmentbodies, concerned Non-Governmental Organizations and scientist would greatly benefit from a deeper understanding of this industry from aproducer and consumer standpoint in order to better predict how the marine aquarium hobby will be shaped by external forces in the future.

  10. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTMENT IN TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUSESCU IONUT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to capture based on new theories of economic growth in the knowledge, based economic development, the importance of investing in information are as a new factor of production, we propose a different treatment of essential identifiable knowledge structures: technologies and information .. Meanwhile, the article aims to capture the role that information plays in this highly complex process of economic growth. I realized through this expose, a representation of specific investments in information behavior and reasoning phenomena sustainable development concepts.

  11. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  12. Dynamic economic emission dispatch incorporating wind farms using modified co-evolutionary particle swarm optimization meta-heuristic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic economic load dispatch is one of the main problems of power systems generation and operation. The objective is to schedule power generation for units over a certain period of time, while satisfying operating constraints and load demand in each interval. Wind farms, as renewable energy resources are playing an increasing role in electricity generation. In this paper, a computational framework is presented to solve the dynamic economic emission dispatch problem with inclusion of wind farms considering their associated constraints. An optimization algorithm called modified co-evolutionary particle swarm optimization (MCPSO is proposed to solve the problem. In the proposed algorithm, two kinds of swarms evolve interactively where one of them is used to calculate the penalty factors (constraints handling and the other is used for searching good solutions (optimization process. In addition, some modifications such as using an inertia weight that decreases linearly during the simulation are made to improve the performance of the algorithm. Finally, the validity and superiority of the proposed method are demonstrated by simulation results on a modified IEEE benchmark system including six thermal units and two wind farms.

  13. Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Offshore Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology in Oregon Coastal Counties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States); Tegen, S. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States); Beiter, P. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-01

    To begin understanding the potential economic impacts of large-scale WEC technology, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct an economic impact analysis of largescale WEC deployment for Oregon coastal counties. This report follows a previously published report by BOEM and NREL on the jobs and economic impacts of WEC technology for the entire state (Jimenez and Tegen 2015). As in Jimenez and Tegen (2015), this analysis examined two deployment scenarios in the 2026-2045 timeframe: the first scenario assumed 13,000 megawatts (MW) of WEC technology deployed during the analysis period, and the second assumed 18,000 MW of WEC technology deployed by 2045. Both scenarios require major technology and cost improvements in the WEC devices. The study is on very large-scale deployment so readers can examine and discuss the potential of a successful and very large WEC industry. The 13,000-MW is used as the basis for the county analysis as it is the smaller of the two scenarios. Sensitivity studies examined the effects of a robust in-state WEC supply chain. The region of analysis is comprised of the seven coastal counties in Oregon—Clatsop, Coos, Curry, Douglas, Lane, Lincoln, and Tillamook—so estimates of jobs and other economic impacts are specific to this coastal county area.

  14. The Relationship among Principals' Technology Leadership, Teaching Innovation, and Students' Academic Optimism in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chuan-Chung; Yen, Hung-Chin; Kuan, Liu-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the relationships among principals' technology leadership, teaching innovations, and students' academic optimism by surveying elementary school educators across Taiwan. Of the total 1,080 questionnaires distributed, 755 valid surveys were returned for a 69.90% return rate. Teachers were asked to indicate the…

  15. ABOUT OF SOME ONE-DIMENSIONAL OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHMS WITH ECONOMIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu R. Şerban

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new algorithm for one dimensional optimization is presented. The algorithm is based on the “parabola tangent” method for solving a class of equations, without divergence points.

  16. Design and economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchangers using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sencan Sahin, Arzu, E-mail: sencan@tef.sdu.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Education, Technical Education Faculty, Sueleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Kilic, Bayram, E-mail: bayramkilic@hotmail.com [Bucak Emin Guelmez Vocational School, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Bucak (Turkey); Kilic, Ulas, E-mail: ulaskilic@mehmetakif.edu.tr [Bucak Emin Guelmez Vocational School, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Bucak (Turkey)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Artificial Bee Colony for shell and tube heat exchanger optimization is used. {yields} The total cost is minimized by varying design variables. {yields} This new approach can be applied for optimization of heat exchangers. - Abstract: In this study, a new shell and tube heat exchanger optimization design approach is developed. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) has been applied to minimize the total cost of the equipment including capital investment and the sum of discounted annual energy expenditures related to pumping of shell and tube heat exchanger by varying various design variables such as tube length, tube outer diameter, pitch size, baffle spacing, etc. Finally, the results are compared to those obtained by literature approaches. The obtained results indicate that Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm can be successfully applied for optimal design of shell and tube heat exchangers.

  17. Process optimization of rolling for zincked sheet technology using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liang-Bo; Chen, Fang

    2017-07-01

    Numerical simulation and intelligent optimization technology were adopted for rolling and extrusion of zincked sheet. By response surface methodology (RSM), genetic algorithm (GA) and data processing technology, an efficient optimization of process parameters for rolling of zincked sheet was investigated. The influence trend of roller gap, rolling speed and friction factor effects on reduction rate and plate shortening rate were analyzed firstly. Then a predictive response surface model for comprehensive quality index of part was created using RSM. Simulated and predicted values were compared. Through genetic algorithm method, the optimal process parameters for the forming of rolling were solved. They were verified and the optimum process parameters of rolling were obtained. It is feasible and effective.

  18. Optimization of inventory management in foundry in terms of an economic order quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recording of inventory and constant monitoring have a huge impact on the cost level of enterprises operating in the metallurgical sector. The article presents methods to optimize the inventory management in terms of a size of orders. This applies to the assumed cost of storage, procurement, expenditure in time unit and unit prices calculated for a range of castings. As an optimization tool, functions and modules supplied with the MS Excel spreadsheet have been used.

  19. Optimization in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ Model with Deteriorating Inventory and Units Lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisha Pattnaik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This model presents the effect of deteriorating items in fuzzy optimal instantaneous replenishment for finite planning horizon. Accounting for holding cost per unit per unit time and ordering cost per order have traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment. These imprecise parameters defined on a bounded interval on the axis of real numbers and the physical characteristics of stocked items dictate the nature of inventory policies implemented to manage and control in the production system.   Methods: The modified fuzzy EOQ (FEOQ model is introduced, it assumes that a percentage of the on-hand inventory is wasted due to deterioration and considered as an enhancement to EOQ model to determine the optimal replenishment quantity so that the net profit is maximized. In theoretical analysis, the necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal solutions are proved and further the concavity of the fuzzy net profit function is established. Computational algorithm using the software LINGO 13.0 version is developed to find the optimal solution.   Results and conclusions: The results of the numerical analysis enable decision-makers to quantify the effect of units lost due to deterioration on optimizing the fuzzy net profit for the retailer. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the optimal solution with respect the major parameters are also carried out. Furthermore fuzzy decision making is shown to be superior then crisp decision making in terms of profit maximization. 

  20. Exploration on Optimizing the Organizational System of University Student Party Construction:A Case Study on School of Economics and Commerce, Guangdong Univer-sity of Technology%优化高校学生党建工作组织体系的探索--以广东工业大学经济与贸易学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯晴瑾; 杨柳

    2014-01-01

    The research of the organizational system of university student Party construction is an inevitable topic in Party con-struction research. To scientifically and rationally set and opti-mize the organizational system of student Party construction is an important prerequisite and guarantee of realizing the innovation of university student Party construction and the improvement of stu-dent Party construction quality and efficiency. Based on summa-rizing the experience of practice, this paper proposed the organi-zational model of student Party construction, namely,"one center, one platform and two crossed lines", and elaborated its practical value in the standardization of Party member development and management, the innovation of organization life, as well as the play of pioneering role.%高校学生党建工作组织体系的研究是党建工作研究中一个不容忽视的课题。科学合理地设置和优化学生党建工作的组织体系,是实现新时期高校学生党建工作创新、提高学生党建工作的质量和效率的重要前提和保证。本文在总结实践经验的基础上,提出了构建“一中心、一平台、纵横两线”的学生党建工作组织模式,并阐述了其在党员发展管理规范化、组织生活创新及先锋模范性发挥的实践价值。

  1. Tolerance Is Not Enough: The Moderating Role of Optimism on Perceptions of Regional Economic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Miguel Pereira; da Palma, Patricia Jardim; e Cunha, Miguel Pina

    2011-01-01

    Current theories on economic growth are stressing the important role of creativity and innovation as a main driver of regional development. Some perspectives, like Richard Florida's "creative class theory", have elected tolerance and diversity as a core concept in explaining differential development between different places, but his assumptions…

  2. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko;

    2016-01-01

    standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed...

  3. Economic Optimization of Nutrient Application to Coffee in Northern Tanzania Using SAFERNAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maro, G.P.; Janssen, B.H.; Msanya, B.M.; Mrema, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work, as an extension to SAFERNAC model, was to establish economically optimum combinations of N, P and K application to Arabica coffee in the Northern coffee zone of Tanzania. The study was conducted in Hai and Lushoto districts between 2010 and 2012. Prices of nutrient inputs and t

  4. THE APPLICATION OF ECONOMIC AND MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR OPTIMIZATION OF ACTIVITIES OF ADVERTISING AGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Romanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated experience in solving practical problems in the organization of advertising activity allows allocating four classes of problems focused on ap-plication of economic and mathematical methods - resource allocation, queuing problem, network planning and combina-torial problems

  5. A Techno-economic and Spatial Analysis for the Optimal Planning of Wind Energy in Kythira Island, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and especially wind energy are seen as an essential part of the future clean energy system. In the present paper, the wind potential of Kythira Island was studied and a techno-economic analysis was done aiming at identifying the optimum solution for the proposed Wind...... Farms (WF) to be installed so that this isolated island to be interconnected to the mainland. The basic aim was to a) optimize the overall power output of the system, b) decrease the state participation investment costs, and c) secure energy safety for the area protecting at the same time...

  6. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL). Final Report, findings 2009 – 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Bevanger, Kjetil Modolv; Bartzke, Gundula; Brøseth, Henrik; Dahl, Espen Lie; Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Hanssen, Frank Ole; Jacobsen, Karl Otto; Kleven, Oddmund; Kvaløy, Pål; May, Roelof Frans; Nygård, Torgeir; Refsnæs, Steinar; Stokke, Sigbjørn; Thomassen, Jørn; Meås, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Bevanger, K., Bartzke, G., Brøseth, H., Dahl, E.L., Gjershaug, J.O., Hanssen, F., Jacobsen, K.- O., Kleven, O., Kvaløy, P., May, R., Meås, R., Nygård, T., Refsnæs, S., Stokke, S. & Thomassen, J. 2014. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL). Final Report; findings 2009–2014. - NINA Report 1012. 92 pp. OPTIPOL was designed by NINA in early 2008, with a particular focus on power lines and wildlife interactions. As soon as ...

  7. Comparing World Economic and Net Energy Metrics, Part 1: Single Technology and Commodity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey W. King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We translate between biophysical and economic metrics that characterize the role of energy in the economy. Specifically, using data from the International Energy Agency, we estimate the energy intensity ratio (EIR, a price-based proxy for a power return ratio (PRR ∼ P out / P invested . The EIR is a useful metric, because for most countries and energy commodities, it can indicate the biophysical trends of net energy when data are too scarce to perform an original net energy analysis. We calculate EIR for natural gas, coal, petroleum and electricity for forty-four countries from 1978 to 2010. Global EIR values generally rise from 1978 to 1998, decline from 1998 to 2008 and then slightly rebound. These trends indicate one interpretation of the net energy of the world economy. To add perspective to our recent, but short, time series, we perform the same calculations for historical England and United Kingdom energy prices to demonstrate that a given energy price translates to different PRRs (EIR in this case depending on the structure of the economy and technology. We review the formulation of PRRs and energy return ratios (ERR ∼ E out / E invested to indicate why PRRs translate to (the inverse of energy prices and ERRs translate to (the inverse of energy costs. We show why for any given value of an ERR or PRR, there is not a single corresponding energy cost or price, and vice versa. These principles in turn provide the basis to perform better modeling of future energy scenarios (e.g., low-carbon transition by considering the relationship between economic metrics (cost and price and biophysical metrics (energy and power return ratios based on energy, material and power flows.

  8. Distributed Optimal Economic Dispatch Based on Multi-Agent System Framework in Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shuai Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel distributed method is presented to solve combined heat and power economic dispatch problem, which is formulated as a distributed coupled optimization problem. The optimization goal is achieved by establishing two modified consensus protocols with two corresponding feedback parts while satisfying the electrical and heat supply–demand balance. Moreover, an alternating iterative method is proposed to handle the heat-electrical coupling problem existed in the objective function and the feasible operating regions. In addition, the proposed distributed method is implemented by a multi-agent system framework, which only requires local information exchange among neighboring agents. Simulation results obtained on a 16-bus test system are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed distributed method.

  9. A method for economic optimization of energy performance and indoor environment in the design of sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne; Vanhoutteghem, Lies

    2012-01-01

    Future tightening of the energy requirements increases focus on design of new and better performing buildings with good indoor environment and only limited extra cost compared to new buildings today. This paper presents a method for economic optimization of the design of new low energy dwellings...... in the dynamic simulation tool WinDesign. If any changes have to be made to ensure a good indoor thermal environment, iteration between the two programs must be performed. An example is used to illustrate this process. It indicates that the method can be used from the early design phases to ensure...... that takes into account the indoor thermal environment. By use of the criterion of cost of conserved energy implemented in a Microsoft Excel sheet, a cost optimal design according to a targeted energy frame can be found. The resulting indoor thermal environment is then evaluated based on parametric analysis...

  10. Structural Performance’s Optimally Analysing and Implementing Based on ANSYS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Wang, Xuquan; Yue, Haifang; Sun, Jiandong; Wu, Yongchun

    2017-06-01

    Computer-aided Engineering (CAE) is a hotspot both in academic field and in modern engineering practice. Analysis System(ANSYS) simulation software for its excellent performance become outstanding one in CAE family, it is committed to the innovation of engineering simulation to help users to shorten the design process, improve product innovation and performance. Aimed to explore a structural performance’s optimally analyzing model for engineering enterprises, this paper introduced CAE and its development, analyzed the necessity for structural optimal analysis as well as the framework of structural optimal analysis on ANSYS Technology, used ANSYS to implement a reinforced concrete slab structural performance’s optimal analysis, which was display the chart of displacement vector and the chart of stress intensity. Finally, this paper compared ANSYS software simulation results with the measured results,expounded that ANSYS is indispensable engineering calculation tools.

  11. Thermal-economic modeling and optimization of vertical ground-coupled heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad [Energy Systems Improvement Laboratory (ESIL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran 16488 (Iran)

    2009-04-15

    The optimal design process of a ground source heat pump includes thermal modeling of the system and selection of optimal design parameters which affect the system performance as well as initial and operational costs. In this paper, the modeling and optimizing processes of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) with closed vertical ground heat exchanger (VGHX) are presented. To verify the modeling procedure of heat pump and VGHX systems, the simulation outputs were compared with the corresponding values reported in the literature and acceptable accuracy was obtained. Then an objective function (the sum of annual operating and investment costs of the system) was defined and minimized, exposed to the specified constraints to estimate the optimum design parameters (decision variables). Two Nelder-Mead and genetic algorithm optimization techniques were applied to guarantee the validity of the optimization results. For the given heating/cooling loads and various climatic conditions, the optimum values of heat pump design parameters (saturated temperature/pressure of condenser and evaporator) as well as VGHX design parameters (inlet and outlet temperatures of the ground water source, pipe diameter, depth and number of boreholes) were predicted. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of change in the total annual cost of the system and optimum design parameters with the climatic conditions, cooling/heating capacity, soil type, and number of boreholes were discussed. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of change in optimum design parameters with increase in the investment and electricity costs was performed. (author)

  12. Economic evaluation of integrated new technologies for health and social care: Suggestions for policy makers, users and evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, John; McMeekin, Peter; Grieve, Eleanor; Briggs, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    With an ageing population there is a move towards the use of assisted living technologies (ALTs) to provide social care and health care services, and to improve service processes. These technologies are at the forefront of the integration of health and social care. However, economic evaluations of ALTs, and indeed economic evaluations of any interventions providing both health benefits and benefits beyond health are complex. This paper considers the challenges faced by evaluators and presents a method of economic evaluation for use with interventions where traditional methods may not be suitable for informing funders and decision makers. We propose a method, combining economic evaluation techniques, that can accommodate health outcomes and outcomes beyond health through the use of a common numeraire. Such economic evaluations can benefit both the public and private sector, firstly by ensuring the efficient allocation of resources. And secondly, by providing information for individuals who, in the market for ALTs, face consumption decisions that are infrequent and for which there may be no other sources of information. We consider these issues in the welfarist, extra-welfarist and capabilities frameworks, which we link to attributes in an individual production model. This approach allows for the valuation of the health component of any such intervention and the valuation of key social care attributes and processes. Finally, we present a set of considerations for evaluators highlighting the key issues that need to be considered in this type of economic evaluation.

  13. Optimal Decision-Making in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (EOQ Model under Restricted Space: A Non-Linear Programming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pattnaik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the concept of fuzzy Non-Linear Programming Technique is applied to solve an economic order quantity (EOQ model under restricted space. Since various types of uncertainties and imprecision are inherent in real inventory problems they are classically modeled using the approaches from the probability theory. However, there are uncertainties that cannot be appropriately treated by usual probabilistic models. The questions how to define inventory optimization tasks in such environment how to interpret optimal solutions arise. This paper allows the modification of the Single item EOQ model in presence of fuzzy decision making process where demand is related to the unit price and the setup cost varies with the quantity produced/Purchased. This paper considers the modification of objective function and storage area in the presence of imprecisely estimated parameters. The model is developed for the problem by employing different modeling approaches over an infinite planning horizon. It incorporates all concepts of a fuzzy arithmetic approach, the quantity ordered and the demand per unit compares both fuzzy non linear and other models. Investigation of the properties of an optimal solution allows developing an algorithm whose validity is illustrated through an example problem and ugh MATLAB (R2009a version software, the two and three dimensional diagrams are represented to the application. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied with respect to changes in different parameter values and to draw managerial insights of the decision problem.

  14. Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnis, Devendra Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic…

  15. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa dos Produtores de Acucar, Cana e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COOPERSUCAR), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. The Creation of a Subculture: The Decline of the Arts in a Society Dominated by Technology, Science, and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Ronda M.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of two cultures recognized by Charles Percy Snow may have implications beyond a lack of understanding and respect between two conflicting worlds of intellectuals. This widening chasm in the United States affects the education of our public school students. Technology and economics, intelligence testing, the "No Child Left Behind…

  17. STATE-OF-THE-ART AND EMERGING TRUCK ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OPTIMIZED PERFORMANCE, EMISSIONS AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittler, M

    2003-08-24

    The challenge for truck engine product engineering is not only to fulfill increasingly stringent emission requirements, but also to improve the engine's economical viability in its role as the backbone of our global economy. While societal impact and therefore emission limit values are to be reduced in big steps, continuous improvement is not enough but technological quantum leaps are necessary. The introduction and refinement of electronic control of all major engine systems has already been a quantum leap forward. Maximizing the benefits of these technologies to customers and society requires full use of parameter optimization and other enabling technologies. The next big step forward will be widespread use of exhaust aftertreatment on all transportation related diesel engines. While exhaust gas aftertreatment has been successfully established on gasoline (Otto cycle) engines, the introduction of exhaust aftertreatment especially for heavy-duty diesel engines will be much mo re demanding. Implementing exhaust gas aftertreatment into commercial vehicle applications is a challenging task but the emission requirements to be met starting in Europe, the USA and Japan in the 2005-2007 timeframe require this step. The engine industry will be able to implement the new technology if all stakeholders support the necessary decisions. One decision has already been taken: the reduction of sulfur in diesel fuel being comparable with the elimination of lead in gasoline as a prerequisite for the three-way catalyst. Now we have the chance to optimize ecology and economy of the Diesel engine simultaneously by taking the decision to provide an additional infrastructure for a NOx reduction agent needed for the introduction of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology that is already implemented in the electric power generation industry. This requires some effort, but the resulting societal benefits, fuel economy and vehicle life cycle costs are significantly better

  18. Optimal climate change: economics and climate science policy histories (from heuristic to normative).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randalls, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Historical accounts of climate change science and policy have reflected rather infrequently upon the debates, discussions, and policy advice proffered by economists in the 1980s. While there are many forms of economic analysis, this article focuses upon cost-benefit analysis, especially as adopted in the work of William Nordhaus. The article addresses the way in which climate change economics subtly altered debates about climate policy from the late 1970s through the 1990s. These debates are often technical and complex, but the argument in this article is that the development of a philosophy of climate change as an issue for cost-benefit analysis has had consequences for how climate policy is made today.

  19. Habitat Size Optimization of the O'Neill - Glaser Economic Model for Space Solar Satellite Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Detweiler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Creating large space habitats by launching all materials from Earth is prohibitively expensive. Using space resources and space based labor to build space solar power satellites can yield extraordinary profits after a few decades. The economic viability of this program depends on the use of space resources and space labor. To maximize the return on the investment, the early use of high density bolo habitats is required. Other shapes do not allow for the small initial scale required for a quick population increase in space. This study found that 5 Man Year, or 384 person bolo high density habitats will be the most economically feasible for a program started at year 2010 and will cause a profit by year 24 of the program, put over 45,000 people into space, and create a large system of space infrastructure for the further exploration and development of space.

  20. The Economics of Standards and Standardization in Information and Communication Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Kuhn; Fomin, Vladislav V.

    2006-01-01

    Standards have proven themselves indispensable to the industrial revolution. How are standards developed today? What does the economics of standards tell about the impact of standards upon economic growth and productivity? Do standards influence industry innovation? How are the standardization...