WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology development challenges

  1. Technological challenges in antibiotic discovery and development: a workshop summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedman, Douglas C; Alper, Joe

    2014-01-01

    "Technological Challenges in Antibiotic Discovery and Development is the summary of a workshop convened by the Chemical Sciences Roundtable in September 2013 to explore the current state of antibiotic...

  2. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  3. DARPA challenge: developing new technologies for brain and spinal injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Christian; Zamisch, Monica; Judy, Jack; Ling, Geoffrey

    2012-06-01

    The repair of traumatic injuries to the central nervous system remains among the most challenging and exciting frontiers in medicine. In both traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries, the ultimate goals are to minimize damage and foster recovery. Numerous DARPA initiatives are in progress to meet these goals. The PREventing Violent Explosive Neurologic Trauma program focuses on the characterization of non-penetrating brain injuries resulting from explosive blast, devising predictive models and test platforms, and creating strategies for mitigation and treatment. To this end, animal models of blast induced brain injury are being established, including swine and non-human primates. Assessment of brain injury in blast injured humans will provide invaluable information on brain injury associated motor and cognitive dysfunctions. The Blast Gauge effort provided a device to measure warfighter's blast exposures which will contribute to diagnosing the level of brain injury. The program Cavitation as a Damage Mechanism for Traumatic Brain Injury from Explosive Blast developed mathematical models that predict stresses, strains, and cavitation induced from blast exposures, and is devising mitigation technologies to eliminate injuries resulting from cavitation. The Revolutionizing Prosthetics program is developing an avant-garde prosthetic arm that responds to direct neural control and provides sensory feedback through electrical stimulation. The Reliable Neural-Interface Technology effort will devise technologies to optimally extract information from the nervous system to control next generation prosthetic devices with high fidelity. The emerging knowledge and technologies arising from these DARPA programs will significantly improve the treatment of brain and spinal cord injured patients.

  4. Management challenges from technological development in commercial fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eigaard, O.R.

    2010-01-01

    The major objective of this synthesis has been to throw light on how technological development in fisheries can complicate efforts to balance harvesting capacity and fish resources. The basis of achieving this objective has been the compilation of technological data from a selection of European fish

  5. How Developments in Psychology and Technology Challenge Validity Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Validity is the sine qua non of properties of educational assessment. While a theory of validity and a practical framework for validation has emerged over the past decades, most of the discussion has addressed familiar forms of assessment and psychological framings. Advances in digital technologies and in cognitive and social psychology have…

  6. Tasks and challenges in prototype development with novel technology - an empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Poul Martin; Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a thematic analysis of 138 monthly reports from a joint industrial and academic project where multiple prototypes were developed based on the same technology. The analysis was based on tasks and challenges described in the reports by project managers over a period of three years...

  7. Worldwide Status of CCUS Technologies and Their Development and Challenges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS is a gas injection technology that enables the storage of CO2 underground. The aims are twofold, on one hand to reduce the emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere and on the other hand to increase oil/gas/heat recovery. Different types of CCUS technologies and related engineering projects have a long history of research and operation in the USA. However, in China they have a short development period ca. 10 years. Unlike CO2 capture and CO2-EOR technologies that are already operating on a commercial scale in China, research into other CCUS technologies is still in its infancy or at the pilot-scale. This paper first reviews the status and development of the different types of CCUS technologies and related engineering projects worldwide. Then it focuses on their developments in China in the last decade. The main research projects, international cooperation, and pilot-scale engineering projects in China are summarized and compared. Finally, the paper examines the challenges and prospects to be experienced through the industrialization of CCUS engineering projects in China. It can be concluded that the CCUS technologies have still large potential in China. It can only be unlocked by overcoming the technical and social challenges.

  8. eHEALTH SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGY: CHALLENGES FOR CO-DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Hyppönen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The promises of ICT have been poorly redeemed in health care; many projects have failed. This article conceptualizes the co-construction of services and technologies in order to help future practitioners in the field to understand and find solutions to the challenges in ICT-enhanced service change. The conceptualization is created by structuring the findings of a case study with the help of theoretical concepts. The conceptualization then is implemented in another case to study its potential for finding challenges and suggesting solutions. Both cases demonstrate challenges for codevelopment that contributed to poor project outcomes. Participants in eHealth projects need a better understanding of development as the parallel shaping of multiple objects. They need better skills in managing the change process and a better understanding of methods for collaboration throughout the development. The projects would benefit from networking with actors who have adequate understanding of the process as a whole and of methods of codevelopment.

  9. Development of Cryogenic Engine for GSLV MkIII: Technological Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, RS; Jayan, N.; Bijukumar, KS; Jayaprakash, J.; Narayanan, V.; Ayyappan, G.

    2017-02-01

    Cryogenic engine capable of delivering 200 kN thrust is being developed for the first time in the country by ISRO for powering the upper stage of GSLV Mk-III, the next generation launch vehicle of ISRO capable of launching four tonne class satellites to Geo-synchronous Transfer Orbit(GTO). Development of this engine started a decade ago when various sub-systems development and testing were taken up. Starting with injector element development, the design, realization and testing of the major sub-systems viz the gas generator, turbopumps, start-up system and thrust chamber have been successfully done in a phased manner before conducting a series of developmental tests in the integrated engine mode. Apart from the major sub-systems, many critical components like the igniter, control components etc were independently developed and qualified. During the development program many challenges were faced in almost all areas of propulsion engineering. Systems engineering of the engine was another key challenge in the realization. This paper gives an outlook on various technological challenges faced in the key areas related to the engine development, insight to the solutions and measures taken to overcome the challenges.

  10. Challenges and opportunities of microbial fuel cells (MFCs technology development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Ramadan Bimastyaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian government has committed to realize the goals of sustainable development in the field of energy as stipulated in Government Regulation Number 79/2014 on national energy policy. A feasibility study of the utilization of alternative energy is important for developing countries like Indonesia. It is expected to reduce dependence on fossil fuel use and meet the energy needs on rural areas in Indonesia. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs is a potential source of electrical energy from waste that is rich in organic matter. Trends in research and development of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs technology are increasing every year due to great opportunity to address a wide range of issues related to renewable energy needs, restoration of contaminated environment, water treatment electricity generators in remote areas and many more. MFCs can be used to treat domestic waste, biomass, algae, landfill leachate, agricultural runoff, and industrial waste. MFCs technology is a technology solution for cheap, fast, simple. MFCs use of technical challenges including low electricity production, current instability, and high internal resistance. Many challenges must be address, including a more detailed analysis in energy production, consumption, and application, understanding the relationship between the amount of electricity and contaminant removal, promoting the elimination of nutrients and optimizing system configuration and operations.

  11. Challenges and Development Opportunities for Catalytic Technologies in Petrochemical Industry in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-ling

    2004-01-01

    The propellent drive and development opportunities for future catalytic technologies in petrochemical industry in the 21st century are reviewed in this paper. It focuses on the following five aspects:(1) The environmentally-friendly catalytic technologies, such as new technologies for the production of organic chemicals changing the raw material and synthetic process, the chemicals production replacing phosgene and hydrogen cyanide toxicant, and the conversion and utilization of organic wastes etc.(2) Utilization and development of cheaper light alkanes, for example, the chemical use of natural gas and the development technologies of methane chain, the production of acetic acid, ethylene and vinyl chloride from selective oxidation of ethane, as well as the manufacture of acrolein and acrylonitrile from the oxidation and ammoxidation of propane.(3) The new propylene-plus technologies of the low value higher olefins, such as catalytic cracking of C4,C5 olefins and metathesis of C4 olefin.(4) The technologies of high selective oxidation, e.g. production of propylene oxide with TS-1 molecular sieve, oxidation process by lattice oxygen and direct oxidation of benzene to phenol etc.(5) Development and application of novel catalytic materials, especially, mesopore molecular sieve materials for a larger molecule reaction, zeolite catalyst with MWW structure for alkylation of benzene and propylene, ionic liquid, and membrane reactor catalyst etc.Meanwhile,the challenging research subjects for future industrial catalysis and the several viewpoints for development strategy of new catalytic technologies are proposed. These viewpoints are as follows:(1) Catalysis discipline must be integrated with many other disciplines and should be multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary.(2) New preparation methods of catalytic materials must be originally developed.(3) The instrumentation having better time resolution and spatial resolution and applying under reaction conditions must be

  12. Technology Empowerment: Security Challenges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Wendell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nelson, Thomas R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skocypec, Russell D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Technology empowerment” means that innovation is increasingly accessible to ordinary people of limited means. As powerful technologies become more affordable and accessible, and as people are increasingly connected around the world, ordinary people are empowered to participate in the process of innovation and share the fruits of collaborative innovation. This annotated briefing describes technology empowerment and focuses on how empowerment may create challenges to U.S. national security. U.S. defense research as a share of global innovation has dwindled in recent years. With technology empowerment, the role of U.S. defense research is likely to shrink even further while technology empowerment will continue to increase the speed of innovation. To avoid falling too far behind potential technology threats to U.S. national security, U.S. national security institutions will need to adopt many of the tools of technology empowerment.

  13. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Davies, J. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zammit, M. [AC Rochester, NY (United States); Patterson, P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  14. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Davies, J. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Zammit, M. (AC Rochester, NY (United States)); Patterson, P. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  15. Challenges of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Education and Technology Transfer in a Fast Developing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F.; Chen, L.-C.

    2014-04-01

    During the past decade, Taiwan has experienced an unusual and fast growing in the industry of mapping, remote sensing, spatial information and related markets. A successful space program and dozens of advanced airborne and ground-based remote sensing instruments as well as mobile mapping systems have been implemented and put into operation to support the vast demands of geospatial data acquisition. Moreover, in addition to the government agencies and research institutes, there are also tens of companies in the private sector providing geo-spatial data and services. However, the fast developing industry is also posing a great challenge to the education sector in Taiwan, especially the higher education for geo-spatial information. Facing this fast developing industry, the demands of skilled professionals and new technologies in order to address diversified needs are indubitably high. Consequently, while delighting in the expanding and prospering benefitted from the fast growing industry, how to fulfill these demands has become a challenge for the remote sensing and spatial information disciplines in the higher education institutes in Taiwan. This paper provides a brief insight into the status of the remote sensing and spatial information industry in Taiwan as well as the challenges of the education and technology transfer to support the increasing demands and to ensure the continuous development of the industry. In addition to the report of the current status of the remote sensing and spatial information related courses and programs in the colleges and universities, current and potential threatening issues and possible resolutions are also discussed in different points of view.

  16. Development Challenges of Game-Changing Entry System Technologies From Concept to Mission Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin; Ellerby, Don; Feldman, Jay; Gage, Peter; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Realization within the US and NASA that future exploration both Human and Robotic will require innovative new technologies led to the creation of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and investment in game changing technologies with high pay-off. Some of these investments will see success and others, due to many of the constraints, will not attain their goal. The co-authors of this proposed presentation have been involved from concept to mission infusion aspects of entry technologies that are game changing. The four example technologies used to describe the challenges experienced along the pathways to success are at different levels of maturity. They are Conformal, 3-D MAT, HEEET and ADEPT. The four examples in many ways capture broad aspects of the challenges of maturation and illustrate what led some to be exceptionally successful and how others had to be altered in order remain viable game changing technologies.

  17. Challenges to Science and Technology Development Policy in the European Integration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Novytsky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on presentday aspects of Ukraine’s science and technology development policy in light of international phenomena and integration reali ties observed across the European continent. The author examines unique traits and practical challenges charac terizing an expansion of Ukraine — EU scientific and technological cooperation with the aim of improving the efficiency of Ukraine’s national economy and optimizing its international dimension. Special attention is paid to problems of adapting Ukraine’s technological policy to European standards, and relevant specific proposals are formulated. The article maintains that today’s advances in informa tion technology and the openness of national economies as a systemdeterminant factor of models of international cooperation broaden the scope of information technolo gies. Since telecommunications and other hitech sectors are vibrantly evolving not only in highly industrialized states but also in East European and other emerging mar ket economies, a key challenge for Ukraine appears to be lending better efficiency and productivity to its na tional policy of introducing information technologies into its socioeconomic sphere. The article provides insight into the international ex perience of the creation of technoparks and demonstrates the necessity of applying such innovation techniques of economic development to Ukraine.

  18. Developing technology-enhanced active learning for medical education: challenges, solutions, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Bennett, Thomas; Carrasco, Noel; Brysacz, Stanley; Makin, Inder Raj S; Hutman, Ryan; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-04-01

    Growing up in an era of video games and Web-based applications has primed current medical students to expect rapid, interactive feedback. To address this need, the A.T. Still University-School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (Mesa) has developed and integrated a variety of approaches using technology-enhanced active learning for medical education (TEAL-MEd) into its curriculum. Over the course of 3 years (2010-2013), the authors facilitated more than 80 implementations of games and virtual patient simulations into the education of 550 osteopathic medical students. The authors report on 4 key aspects of the TEAL-MEd initiative, including purpose, portfolio of tools, progress to date regarding challenges and solutions, and future directions. Lessons learned may be of benefit to medical educators at academic and clinical training sites who wish to implement TEAL-MEd activities.

  19. On the challenge of developing advanced technologies for electrochemical energy storage and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Deog Yoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated production of sophisticated miniaturized mobile electronic devices, challenges such as the electrochemical propulsion of electric vehicles (EVs, and the need for large-scale storage of sustainable energy (i.e. load-levelling applications motivate and stimulate the development of novel rechargeable batteries and super-capacitors. While batteries deliver high energy density but limited cycle life and power density, super-capacitors provide high power density and very prolonged cycling. Lithium-ion batteries are the focus of intensive R&D efforts because they promise very high energy density that may be suitable for electrical propulsion. Here, we review research on batteries with an emphasis on Li-ion battery technology, examining its suitability for EV applications. We also briefly examine other battery systems that may be of importance for load-levelling applications, including rechargeable magnesium batteries. We give a short review of the status of technologies beyond Li-ion batteries, including Li–sulfur and Li–oxygen systems. Finally, we briefly discuss recent progress in the R&D of advanced super-capacitors.

  20. Challenges of Adopting the Use of Technology in Less Developed Countries: The Case of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Everett Rogers's theory of the diffusion of innovations, this article identifies the barriers, challenges, and successes in the adoption of technology training by teacher trainers in Cambodia. The analysis was based on data collected from an open-ended survey, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis. Findings reveal that the…

  1. Proteomics Technologies and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Proteomics is the study of proteins and their interactions in a cell. With the completion of the Human Genome Project, the emphasis is shifting to the protein compliment of the human organism. Because proteome reflects more accurately on the dynamic state of a cell, tissue, or organism, much is expected from proteomics to yield better disease markers for diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The advent of proteomics technologies for global detection and quantitation of proteins creates new opportunities and challenges for those seeking to gain greater understanding of diseases. High-throughput proteomics technologies combining with advanced bioinformatics are extensively used to identify molecular signatures of diseases based on protein pathways and signaling cascades. Mass spectrometry plays a vital role in proteomics and has become an indispensable tool for molecular and cellular biology. While the potential is great, many challenges and issues remain to be solved, such as mining low abundant proteins and integration of proteomics with genomics and metabolomics data. Nevertheless, proteomics is the foundation for constructing and extracting useful knowledge to biomedical research. In this review, a snapshot of contemporary issues in proteomics technologies is discussed.

  2. Experimental facility for development of high-temperature reactor technology: instrumentation needs and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwall Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-temperature, multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for support of thermal hydraulic materials, and system integration research for high-temperature reactors. The experimental facility includes a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX. Research topics to be addressed include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs at prototypical operating conditions. Each loop will also include an interchangeable high-temperature test section that can be customized to address specific research issues associated with each working fluid. This paper also discusses needs and challenges associated with advanced instrumentation for the multi-loop facility, which could be further applied to advanced high-temperature reactors. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST facility. A preliminary design configuration of the ARTIST facility will be presented with the required design and operating characteristics of the various components. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750 °C, high-pressure (7 MPa helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4 flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa, at a temperature of ∼450 °C. The salt loop will be thermally integrated with the steam/water loop operating at PWR conditions. Experiment design challenges include identifying suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. The instrumentation needs to be highly accurate (negligible drift in measuring operational data for extended periods of times, as data collected will be

  3. Technology Commercialisation in a Developing Country: Current Condition and Its Challenge in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Dhewanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is considered the main engine of economic growth in both developed and developing countries. Despite the important role of innovation, little has been understood about technology transfer becoming a commercial success in developing countries, especially in the Indonesian context. The purpose of this paper is to identify technology commercialisation activities in Indonesia. Based on secondary data sources, an analysis of the current state regarding the issue is constructed. The findings in this paper suggest that technology commercialisation in Indonesia is initiated at the levels of university, government research institution, and corporate. This study provides insights for policy makers, business leaders, and university administrators into the appropriate roles of institutions and organisations in promoting and assisting technology commercialisation activities of their respective inventors.Key words: Technology commercialisation, developing country, university, government research institution, corporate

  4. Online professional development for inservice teachers in Information and Communication Technology: Potentials and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zhou

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate an online professional development course for inservice teachers in the area of information and communication technology (ICT and concurrently explore the factors that influence online professional development. The study integrated quantitative and qualitative methods including survey, focus group and interview, and was conducted during the progress of the course and approximately nine months after the course was over. Data show that the online delivery of ICT professional development for inservice teachers was successful. However, a learning community was difficult to initiate in an online learning environment. Teacher participants experienced great challenges when applying what they learned from the course into their teaching. The study suggests that further online ICT professional development should incorporate face-to-face sessions and enrol more than one teacher from the same school. Professional development aiming at changes should be considered as an ongoing process and supported with school change. Résumé : L’objet de la présente étude consistait à évaluer un cours de perfectionnement professionnel en ligne pour les enseignants qualifiés dans le domaine des technologies de l’information et de la communication et à étudier les facteurs qui ont de l’influence sur le perfectionnement professionnel en ligne. L’étude a tenu compte de méthodes quantitatives et qualitatives, notamment un sondage, un groupe de discussion et une entrevue réalisée alors que le cours était donné et environ neuf mois après la fin du cours. Les données indiquent que la prestation en ligne du cours sur le perfectionnement professionnel sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication pour les enseignants qualifiés s’est avérée une réussite. Toutefois, il a été difficile d’initier une communauté d’apprentissage au milieu de l’apprentissage en ligne. Les enseignants

  5. Grand Challenges: Science, Engineering, and Societal Advances, Requiring Networking and Information Technology Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — ...the U.S. Government makes critical decisions about appropriate investments in IT R and D to help society forward both socially and economically. To inform that...

  6. Addressing the Real-World Challenges in the Development of Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) has been an on-going research effort conducted over several years. PITEX has developed and applied a model-based...

  7. Challenges in the Plasma Etch Process Development in the sub-20nm Technology Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kaushik

    2013-09-01

    For multiple generations of semiconductor technologies, RF plasmas have provided a reliable platform for critical and non-critical patterning applications. The electron temperature of processes in a RF plasma is typically several electron volts. A substantial portion of the electron population is within the energy range accessible for different types of electron collision processes, such as electron collision dissociation and dissociative electron attachment. When these electron processes occur within a small distance above the wafer, the neutral species, radicals and excited molecules, generated from these processes take part in etching reactions impacting selectivity, ARDE and micro-loading. The introduction of finFET devices at 22 nm technology node at Intel marks the transition of planar devices to 3-dimensional devices, which add to the challenges to etch process in fabricating such devices. In the sub-32 nm technology node, Back-end-of-the-line made a change with the implementation of Trench First Metal Hard Mask (TFMHM) integration scheme, which has hence gained traction and become the preferred integration of low-k materials for BEOL. This integration scheme also enables Self-Aligned Via (SAV) patterning which prevents via CD growth and confines via by line trenches to better control via to line spacing. In addition to this, lack of scaling of 193 nm Lithography and non-availability of EUV based lithography beyond concept, has placed focus on novel multiple patterning schemes. This added complexity has resulted in multiple etch schemes to enable technology scaling below 80 nm Pitches, as shown by the memory manufacturers. Double-Patterning and Quad-Patterning have become increasingly used techniques to achieve 64 nm, 56 nm and 45 nm Pitch technologies in Back-end-of-the-line. Challenges associated in the plasma etching of these multiple integration schemes will be discussed in the presentation. In collaboration with A. Ranjan, TEL Technology Center, America

  8. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  9. Multiphase boosting: A growing technology for the challenge of economical deepwater developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombi, P. [Agip S.p.A., Milan (Italy); Chiesa, G. [Snamprogetti S.p.A., Milan (Italy); Aggradi, G.F. [Nuovo Pignone, Florence (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The current operating success in the subsea prototype testing and the level of development of different pump concepts are promoting multiphase boosting as a reliable technology for the exploitation of subsea fields. From a situation where very basic questions were asked about the expected performance and reliability of this equipment the Industry is now looking at those scenarios showing the greatest potential for the application of this technology like the deep waters. Competitive options to develop subsea fields, however, may be available and, although they may present some disadvantages compared with multiphase boosting, they make use of traditional practices and proven technologies. In the above perspective, the field operational experience plays a key role to prove the suitability of the proposed systems in handling the untreated well fluids under real subsea conditions so giving multiphase boosting a distinct edge over more conventional solutions. To this end, the paper reviews the main results obtained so far by the underwater testing campaign of a prototype multiphase boosting unit at the Agip Prezioso Field, offshore Sicily. In particular, the review addresses the main technological issues encountered during the subsea operation of the boosting unit together with an initial characterization of the experienced unit performance. The above is considered to provide a significant contribution to the evaluation of the current level of maturity of this technology as well as of the present technological gap to meet the requirements posed by real industrial applications, particularly in deep waters.

  10. Research and Technology Development Activities to Address the DOE-EM Environmental Mercury Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Technology Development Program, Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), and EM s Minority Serving Institutions Partnership Program. Collectively, these multi-institutional and multidisciplinary programs are generating new tools, knowledge, and remediation approaches that will enable efficient cleanup of mercury contaminated systems locally and globally. In this talk we will highlight the progress made to date in addressing key knowledge gaps required to solve this watershed-scale conundrum.

  11. On the challenge of developing advanced technologies for electrochemical energy storage and conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Deog Yoo; Elena Markevich; Gregory Salitra; Daniel Sharon; Doron Aurbach

    2014-01-01

    The accelerated production of sophisticated miniaturized mobile electronic devices, challenges such as the electrochemical propulsion of electric vehicles (EVs), and the need for large-scale storage of sustainable energy (i.e. load-levelling applications) motivate and stimulate the development of novel rechargeable batteries and super-capacitors. While batteries deliver high energy density but limited cycle life and power density, super-capacitors provide high power density and very prolonged...

  12. Development Status and Challenge of PetroChina's Deep Drilling Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haige; Zheng Xinquan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Deep and ultra-deep drilling technologies have been developed since the late 1930s, and got great achievements especially in the last two decades. The depth of well completion has even reached to 12 kilometers. Several countries, such as US and some European countries,are leading in the advanced deep and ultra-deep drilling technologies in the world. In recent years, nevertheless,PetroChina has also made big progress in mechanical penetration rate (ROP), drilling period, amount of drilling bit used in a single well of deep drilling as well as in deep drilling equipments. Compared with the high-level technologies of complicated deep drilling in the world,PetroChina still has a long way to go.

  13. New mask technology challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2001-09-01

    Mask technology development has accelerated dramatically in recent years from the glacial pace of the last three decades to the rapid and sometimes simultaneous introductions of new wavelengths and mask-based resolution enhancement techniques. The nature of the semiconductor business has also become one driven by time-to-market as an overwhelming factor in capturing market share and profit. These are among the factors that have created enormous stress on the mask industry to produce masks with enhanced capabilities, such as phase-shifting attenuators, sub-resolution assist bars, and optical proximity correction (OPC) features, while maintaining or reducing cost and cycle time. The mask can no longer be considered a commodity item that is purchased form the lowest-cost supplier. Instead, it must now be promoted as an integral part of the technical and business case for a total lithographic solution. Improving partnership between designer, mask-maker, and wafer lithographer will be the harbinger of success in finding a profitable balance of capability, cost, and cycle time. Likewise for equipment infrastructure development, stronger partnership on the international level is necessary to control development cost and mitigate schedule and technical risks.

  14. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  15. Technical Approach for the Development of DOE Building America Builders Challenge Technology Information Packages (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D. R.; Anderson, R.

    2009-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has issued a challenge to the homebuilding industry to build 220,000 high-performance homes by 2012. To qualify, homes must meet the requirements of a performance path, prescriptive path, or participating in a partner program.

  16. Influenza Vaccine: Federal Investments in Alternative Technologies and Challenges to Development and Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    late 1990s and early 2000s, detection of the H5N1 avian influenza (also known as “bird flu”) virus in animals raised concerns among experts that it or...of infection by, for example, the H5N1 avian influenza virus (also known as “bird flu”). Alternative technologies that can be used in producing...genes. Recombinant technology is currently used in U.S.-marketed vaccines against other diseases, such as hepatitis B and the human papillomavirus

  17. Developing Successful Pedagogy with Information and Communications Technology: How Are Science Teachers Meeting the Challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laurence; Finlayson, Helen

    2004-01-01

    From the diversity of views on the role of information and communications technology (ICT) in education, this article focuses on ICT as a tool for enhancing learning in the subject-defined context. Drawing from evidence gathered from teachers' evaluations of over 300 lessons taught using ICT, we examine the implementation strategies and teacher…

  18. Information and Communication Technologies for Reconstruction and Development: Afghanistan Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Information Society (WSIS). These summits documented steps on how to establish and organize the Information Society , and their reports referenced the importance of ICT by frequently citing the phrase, ICTs as a tool for social and economic development. 1 While there is little doubt that ICTs are an engine for social and economic development, quantifying their impact is difficult. Evidence remains largely anecdotal, and the link between ICT deployment and reconstruction and development remains vague. The National Defense University (NDU) Center for

  19. Scientific and technological Challenges in the development of astronomical instrumentation: E-ELT & ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrado, David; Gallego, Jesús

    2009-12-01

    The answers to the present astrophysical questions require the development of highly sophisticated instrumentation, which needs long-term scheduling and large assets of human and material resources, managed by consortia of several institutions. Spain has carried in the last years serious efforts in this direction (GTC, ESO, ESA), but there is still a notable offset between astronomical research at the theoretical and observational levels and the development of instrumentation. Now, the incorporation of new countries to ESO (in particular Spain) to ESO and several future big projects (ALMA, E-ELT, Cosmic Vision), raise the level of exigency. The goal of this workshop is to gather the scientific teams and the industries of the sector to expose their needs and projects, and share experiences. The workshop is aimed as well at serving as an echo to convince financing agencies and the astronomical community in general of the need to promote with decision the development of astrophysical instrumentation and the tools for the analysis of related data. The formation and acknowledgement of instrumentation astronomers will be a key factor for Spain to meet the requirements of its position in Astronomy in the next decades. Here, we present the contributions most closely related to the development of E-ELT, ALMA and ESA missions.

  20. Experimental facility for development of high-temperature reactor technology: instrumentation needs and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sabharwall Piyush; O’Brien James E.; Yoon SuJong; Sun Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    A high-temperature, multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for support of thermal hydraulic materials, and system integration research for high-temperature reactors. The experimental facility includes a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed includ...

  1. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  2. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  3. Effective Use of Assistive Technologies for Inclusive Education in Developing Countries: Issues and Challenges from Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Åke; Lim, Nena; Larsson, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries face many obstacles in the process of implementing inclusive education (IE). Effective use of assistive technologies (AT) can help governments in developing countries achieve inclusive education by helping children with disabilities in schools. Despite the importance and positive impact of AT, prior research on the use of AT…

  4. Technology in Parkinson's disease: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espay, Alberto J; Bonato, Paolo; Nahab, Fatta B; Maetzler, Walter; Dean, John M; Klucken, Jochen; Eskofier, Bjoern M; Merola, Aristide; Horak, Fay; Lang, Anthony E; Reilmann, Ralf; Giuffrida, Joe; Nieuwboer, Alice; Horne, Malcolm; Little, Max A; Litvan, Irene; Simuni, Tanya; Dorsey, E Ray; Burack, Michelle A; Kubota, Ken; Kamondi, Anita; Godinho, Catarina; Daneault, Jean-Francois; Mitsi, Georgia; Krinke, Lothar; Hausdorff, Jeffery M; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Papapetropoulos, Spyros

    2016-09-01

    The miniaturization, sophistication, proliferation, and accessibility of technologies are enabling the capture of more and previously inaccessible phenomena in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, more information has not translated into a greater understanding of disease complexity to satisfy diagnostic and therapeutic needs. Challenges include noncompatible technology platforms, the need for wide-scale and long-term deployment of sensor technology (among vulnerable elderly patients in particular), and the gap between the "big data" acquired with sensitive measurement technologies and their limited clinical application. Major opportunities could be realized if new technologies are developed as part of open-source and/or open-hardware platforms that enable multichannel data capture sensitive to the broad range of motor and nonmotor problems that characterize PD and are adaptable into self-adjusting, individualized treatment delivery systems. The International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society Task Force on Technology is entrusted to convene engineers, clinicians, researchers, and patients to promote the development of integrated measurement and closed-loop therapeutic systems with high patient adherence that also serve to (1) encourage the adoption of clinico-pathophysiologic phenotyping and early detection of critical disease milestones, (2) enhance the tailoring of symptomatic therapy, (3) improve subgroup targeting of patients for future testing of disease-modifying treatments, and (4) identify objective biomarkers to improve the longitudinal tracking of impairments in clinical care and research. This article summarizes the work carried out by the task force toward identifying challenges and opportunities in the development of technologies with potential for improving the clinical management and the quality of life of individuals with PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Using Digital Technologies in Mathematics Teaching: Developing an Understanding of the Landscape Using Three "Grand Challenge" Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an understanding of the issues, interests and concerns within the mathematics education community related to the use of computers and other digital technologies in the teaching and learning of mathematics. It begins by arguing for the importance of understanding this landscape of interests and concerns, and then turns to the…

  6. SKA CSP controls: technological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffa, C.; Giani, E.; Vrcic, S.; Vela Nuñez, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project is an international effort to build the world's largest radio telescope, with eventually over a square kilometer of collecting area. For SKA Phase 1, Australia will host the low-frequency instrument with more than 500 stations, each containing around 250 individual antennas, whilst South Africa will host an array of close to 200 dishes. The scale of the SKA represents a huge leap forward in both engineering and research and development towards building and delivering a unique instrument, with the detailed design and preparation now well under way. As one of the largest scientific endeavors in history, the SKA will brings together close to 100 organizations from 20 countries. Every aspect of the design and development of such a large and complex instrument requires state-of-the-art technology and innovative approach. This poster (or paper) addresses some aspects of the SKA monitor and control system, and in particular describes the development and test results of the CSP Local Monitoring and Control prototype. At the SKA workshop held in April 2015, the SKA monitor and control community has chosen TANGO Control System as a framework, for the implementation of the SKA monitor and control. This decision will have a large impact on Monitor an Control development of SKA. As work is on the way to incorporate TANGO Control System in SKA is in progress, we started to development a prototype for the SKA Central Signal Processor to mitigate the associated risks. In particular we now have developed a uniform class schema proposal for the sub-Element systems of the SKA-CSP.

  7. Scientific challenges and opportunities in developing novel vaccines for the emerging and developing markets: New Technologies in Emerging Markets, October 16th-18th 2012, World Vaccine Congress, Lyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Sonali

    2013-04-01

    Vaccines have had a major role in enhancing the quality of life and increasing life expectancy. Despite these successes and the development of new vaccine technologies, there remain multiple infectious diseases including AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis that require effective prophylactic vaccines. New and traditional technologies have a role in the development and delivery of the new vaccine candidates. The scientific challenges, opportunities and funding models for developing vaccines for low resource settings are highlighted here.

  8. A qualitative study of the challenges related to the development of product enabled services in technology driven start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Tanev, Stoyan; Ma, Zheng

    of products and services to meet specific customer demands, thus generating additional value. This paper examines technology-based start-ups’ attitude towards the development of hybrid offerings as part of their business differentiation and positioning strategies. The main research question is answered within...... that start-ups have limited human and financial resources that is often combined with lacking business and commercialization knowledge. The screening criteria from the new venture funding organisation appear to be very much product focused, as the tangibility of the products, as compared to services, makes...... offerings and avoiding the pitfalls of a fragmented “product first and then service” strategy....

  9. Addressing the challenges of a new digital technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vivian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources at a national scale. Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any context, and to ensure teachers are supported, scaled solutions are required. One educational approach that has gained traction for delivering content to large-scale audiences are massively open online courses (MOOCs; however, little is known about what constitutes effective MOOC design, particularly within professional development contexts. To prepare teachers in Australia, we decided to ride the wave of MOOCs, developing a MOOC to deliver free computing content and pedagogy to teachers with the integration of social media to support knowledge exchange and resource building. The MOOC was designed to meet teacher needs, allowing for flexibility, ad-hoc interactions, support and the open sharing of resources. In this paper, we describe the process of developing our initiative, participant engagement and experiences, so that others encountering similar changes and reforms may learn from our experience.

  10. Verifying disarmament: scientific, technological and political challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    There is growing interest in, and hopes for, nuclear disarmament in governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) around the world. If a nuclear-weapon-free world is to be achievable, verification and compliance will be critical. VerifYing disarmament would have unprecedented scientific, technological and political challenges. Verification would have to address warheads, components, materials, testing, facilities, delivery capabilities, virtual capabilities from existing or shutdown nuclear weapon and existing nuclear energy programs and material and weapon production and related capabilities. Moreover, it would likely have far more stringent requirements. The verification of dismantlement or elimination of nuclear warheads and components is widely recognized as the most pressing problem. There has been considerable research and development done in the United States and elsewhere on warhead and dismantlement transparency and verification since the early 1990s. However, we do not today know how to verifY low numbers or zero. We need to develop the needed verification tools and systems approaches that would allow us to meet this complex set of challenges. There is a real opportunity to explore verification options and, given any realistic time frame for disarmament, there is considerable scope to invest resources at the national and international levels to undertake research, development and demonstrations in an effort to address the anticipated and perhaps unanticipated verification challenges of disarmament now andfor the next decades. Cooperative approaches have the greatest possibility for success.

  11. The Challenge of Technological Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    smaller and leaner force structure. The DoD has employed such “offset strategies” in the past to compensate for other challenges to national security. Our...LRRDPP.html). So far, more than 300 “ideas” have been submitted. Emerging themes surround the use of autonomy , range and quantities at cost (the

  12. Creating Technology-Enriched Classrooms: Implementational Challenges in Turkish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Serhat

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the status of educational technology in Turkey. In the face of severe social and economic challenges, many developing nations, including Turkey, are looking to education as a potential remedy. Recognizing that in an increasingly technology-dependent world, information and communications technology skills and…

  13. A qualitative study of the challenges related to the development of product enabled services in technology driven start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Tanev, Stoyan; Ma, Zheng;

    of products and services to meet specific customer demands, thus generating additional value. This paper examines technology-based start-ups’ attitude towards the development of hybrid offerings as part of their business differentiation and positioning strategies. The main research question is answered within...... of product-enabled services as part of an integrated value proposition. The research findings indicate an insufficient approach towards hybrid offerings where start-ups initially focus on products or services, but not as an integrated hybrid solution. This decoupled approach seems to be linked to the fact...... that start-ups have limited human and financial resources that is often combined with lacking business and commercialization knowledge. The screening criteria from the new venture funding organisation appear to be very much product focused, as the tangibility of the products, as compared to services, makes...

  14. Assurance Technology Challenges of Advanced Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, E. James

    2004-01-01

    The initiative to explore space and extend a human presence across our solar system to revisit the moon and Mars post enormous technological challenges to the nation's space agency and aerospace industry. Key areas of technology development needs to enable the endeavor include advanced materials, structures and mechanisms; micro/nano sensors and detectors; power generation, storage and management; advanced thermal and cryogenic control; guidance, navigation and control; command and data handling; advanced propulsion; advanced communication; on-board processing; advanced information technology systems; modular and reconfigurable systems; precision formation flying; solar sails; distributed observing systems; space robotics; and etc. Quality assurance concerns such as functional performance, structural integrity, radiation tolerance, health monitoring, diagnosis, maintenance, calibration, and initialization can affect the performance of systems and subsystems. It is thus imperative to employ innovative nondestructive evaluation methodologies to ensure quality and integrity of advanced space systems. Advancements in integrated multi-functional sensor systems, autonomous inspection approaches, distributed embedded sensors, roaming inspectors, and shape adaptive sensors are sought. Concepts in computational models for signal processing and data interpretation to establish quantitative characterization and event determination are also of interest. Prospective evaluation technologies include ultrasonics, laser ultrasonics, optics and fiber optics, shearography, video optics and metrology, thermography, electromagnetics, acoustic emission, x-ray, data management, biomimetics, and nano-scale sensing approaches for structural health monitoring.

  15. Development Challenges in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides essential insights into Bhutan’s developmental challenges. It analyzes and scrutinizes the sovereign state’s developmental approach, including the idea of Gross National Happiness (GNH), which has replaced Gross National Product (GNP) as a measurement of prosperity. The authors...

  16. Challenges in Developing Clinical Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Venkatesh; Vedula, Venumadhav

    2008-09-01

    Over the years, medical imaging has become very common and data intensive. New technology is needed to help visualize and analyze these large, complex data sets, especially in an acute care situation where time is of the essence. Also it is very important to present the data in an efficient and simple manner to aid the clinical decision making processes. There is a need for a clinical workstation that handles data from different modalities and performs the necessary post- processing operations on the data in order to enhance the image quality and improve the reliability of diagnosis. This paper briefly explains clinical workstation, emphasizing the requirements and challenges in design and architecture for the development of such systems.

  17. RFID Technologies : emerging issues and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.J. van; Kool, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we will present the results of a technology and policy assessment we have performed on emerging issues and policy challenges of RFID technologies. RFID is a basic component of the future internet of things. A balanced view on opportunities and threats, on drivers and barriers is needed

  18. Technology in Art Therapy: Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alders, Amanda; Beck, Liz; Allen, Pat B.; Mosinski, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    As technology advances, art therapy practices are adapting to the demands of a new cultural climate. Art therapists face a number of ethical challenges as they interact with increasingly diverse populations and employ new media. This article addresses some of the ethical and professional issues related to the use of technology in clinical…

  19. Technology in Art Therapy: Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alders, Amanda; Beck, Liz; Allen, Pat B.; Mosinski, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    As technology advances, art therapy practices are adapting to the demands of a new cultural climate. Art therapists face a number of ethical challenges as they interact with increasingly diverse populations and employ new media. This article addresses some of the ethical and professional issues related to the use of technology in clinical…

  20. RFID Technologies : emerging issues and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.J. van; Kool, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we will present the results of a technology and policy assessment we have performed on emerging issues and policy challenges of RFID technologies. RFID is a basic component of the future internet of things. A balanced view on opportunities and threats, on drivers and barriers is needed

  1. ESST Proceedings Rotterdam 2009. Beet Quality. Sustainability of beet sugar production. Energy usage - future challenges. General process technology developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the conference of the European Society for Sugar Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) between 17th and 20th June, 2009 in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) the following lectures were held: (1) Sugar beet quality during long-term storage in clamp and field (A.W.M. Huijbregts); (2) Methods used in the Netherlands to limit frost damage and to process frost-deteriorated beets (J. Strujis, M. Jaspers, M. van Dijk); (3) Biotech in sugarbeet and sugarcane: Current status (T.K. Schwartz, C. Richard); (4) Separation of water through gas hydrate (T. Boech Andersen); (5) Optimised standard of sugar manufacturing - first calculations (F. Lorenz, T. Frankenfeld); (6) Reconsidering vapour compression for sugar crystallization (A. Dolls, M. Bruhns); (7) The development of sustainability standards in the sugar industry (P. Rein); (8) Bioethanol: sugar beet, sugar cane or second generation? (W.J. Corre, J.G. Conijin); (9) The sustainability of beet sugar production in comparison with other sugar crops (P. Christodoulou, V. Kazantzi, S. Bezergianni, K. Gounaris); (10) Alternative products from sugar beets (J. Iciek, S. Wawro); (11) Alternative products from sugar beets (M. Wojtczak); (12) Increase of sugar yield by electrodialysis (J.P. Jenen, P.B. Hansen, M.P. Carter); (13) Optimal dosing of alkalizing agents in the juice purification (G. Roesner, W. Hein, F. Emerstorfer); (14) Affinity based separation technologies and their role in the current and future sugar industry (V. Kochergin); (15) Four to three-stage sugarhouse with two white sugar products (J. Jeppesen, M. Carter); (16) Practical experience of juice decalcification using a weak acid cation exchange resin plant incorporating fractal fluid distribution (E. West, P. Burroughs, P. Seymour); (17) A new process for the production of 'seed crystals' - Process development and field report from the factories (M. Walter, B. Ekelhof, S. Heppner, D. Wullbrandt); (18) Application possibilities and Properties

  2. Challenge of Goodness II: new humanitarian technology, developed in croatia and bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991-1995, and applied and evaluated in Kosovo 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents improvements of the humanitarian proposals of the Challenge of Goodness project published earlier (1). In 1999 Kosovo crisis, these proposals were checked in practice. The priority was again on the practical intervention - helping people directly - to prevent, stop, and ease suffering. Kosovo experience also prompted us to modify the concept of the Challenge of Goodness. It should include research and education (1. redefinition of health, 2. confronting genocide, 3. university studies and education, and 4. collecting experience); evaluation (1. Red Cross forum, 2. organization and technology assessment, 3. Open Hand - Experience of Good People); activities in different stages of war or conflict in: 1. prevention (right to a home, Hate Watch, early warning), 2. duration (refugee camps, prisoners-of-war camps, global hospital, minorities), 3. end of conflict (planned, organized, and evaluated protection), 4. post conflict (remaini ng and abandoned populations, prisoners of war and missing persons, civilian participation, return, and renewal). Effectiveness of humanitarian intervention may be performed by politicians, soldiers, humanitarian workers, and volunteers, but the responsibility lies on science. Science must objectively collect data, develop hypotheses, check them in practice, allow education, and be the force of good, upon which everybody can rely. Never since the World War II has anybody in Europe suffered in war and conflict so much as peoples in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. We should search for the meaning of their suffering, and develop new knowledge and technology of peace.

  3. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana;

    2014-01-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same...... engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because...

  4. Human resource management and technological challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the challenges and changes that new technologies bring to human resources (HR) of modern organizations. It examines the technological implications of the last changes taking place and how they affect the management and motivation of human resources belonging to these organizations. It looks for ways to understand and perceive how organizational HR, individually and as a team, conceptualize, invent, adapt, define and use organizational technology, as well as how they are constrained by features of it. The book provides discussion and the exchange of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications of human resources management and technological challenges and changes in the field of industry, commerce and services.

  5. Development Challenges in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2017-01-01

    The chapter aims to analyze Bhutan’s recent historical and contemporary development trajectory through a combined focus on both political economy and political culture. The combination of Gross National Happiness (GNH), democracy and the universal delivery of social services show a number of prob...... construct relating to ethnicity, religion, participation, influence and collective and individual rights. The chapter introduces the issues covered by the contributions to the book and briefly describes the aims of each chapter....

  6. APPLYING SIMPLE TECHNOLOGY ACCOMPLISHES VISUAL INSPECTION CHALLENGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, C

    2007-07-21

    This paper discusses the successful implementation of simple video technologies at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to perform complex visual inspection, monitoring, and surveillance tasks. Because SRS facilities are similar to those of an industrial plant, the environmental and accessibility considerations for remote viewing are the primary determining factors in the selection of technology. The constraints and challenges associated with remote viewing are discussed, and examples of applications are given.

  7. The Development of a Code of Ethics: An Online Classroom Approach to Making Connections between Ethical Foundations and the Challenges Presented by Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rochelle

    2010-01-01

    In today's organizations, ethical challenges relate to areas like fraud, right to privacy for consumers, social responsibility, and trade restrictions. For Information Technology (IT) specifically, these can translate to considerations on how technology is used to violate people's privacy, how automation leads to job reductions, or how management…

  8. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  9. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  10. Challenges in Implementing Engineering Technology Education in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmah Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.As Malaysia races against time to achieve Vision 2020 to be a developed nation, there is an urgent need for highly-skilled human resources to fulfill the requirements of the industry. This calls for an expansion of the engineering technology program to increase the number of technical graduates.  However, various challenges are faced by the institutions in the implementation of the Engineering Technology programs, which have significant negative impact on the nation in general and in particular the graduates from the programs. Data was collected from a brainstorming session between six organizations involved in providing engineering technology education in Malaysia and the UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia (UTM and a convention on Engineering Technology Future in Malaysia. These challenges are categorized into four and discussed in this paper.Keywords: Accreditation, Challenges, Engineering technology; Human resources, Technical graduates.

  11. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  12. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  13. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nawsher; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio; Inayat, Zakira; Mahmoud Ali, Waleed Kamaleldin; Alam, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. PMID:25136682

  14. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawsher Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data.

  15. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  16. Graphite technology development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    This document presents the plan for the graphite technology development required to support the design of the 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR within the US National Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. Besides descriptions of the required technology development, cost estimates, and schedules, the plan also includes the associated design functions and design requirements.

  17. Titanium Aluminide Casting Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünck, Matthias; Stoyanov, Todor; Schievenbusch, Jan; Michels, Heiner; Gußfeld, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys have been successfully introduced into civil aircraft engine technology in recent years, and a significant order volume increase is expected in the near future. Due to its beneficial buy-to-fly ratio, investment casting bears the highest potential for cost reduction of all competing production technologies for TiAl-LPTB. However, highest mechanical properties can be achieved by TiAl forging. In view of this, Access e.V. has developed technologies for the production of TiAl investment cast parts and TiAl die cast billets for forging purposes. While these parts meet the highest requirements, establishing series production and further optimizing resource and economic efficiency are present challenges. In order to meet these goals, Access has recently been certified according to aircraft standards, aiming at qualifying parts for production on technology readiness level 6. The present work gives an overview of the phases of development and certification.

  18. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  19. Advanced Mirror Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project matures critical technologies required to enable ultra-stable 4-m-or-larger monolithic or segmented ultraviolet, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) space telescope primary-mirror assemblies for general astrophysics and ultra-high-contrast observations of exoplanets.

  20. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  1. Integrating Product and Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Ellen Brilhuis; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2016-01-01

    Although dual innovation projects, defined in this article as the concurrent development of products and technologies, often occur in industry, these are only scarcely supported methodologically. Limited research has been done about dual innovation projects and their inherent challenges (e.......g. managing dependencies) and opportunities (e.g. streamlining development). This paper presents five existing reference models for technology development (TD), which were identified via a systematic literature review, where their possible integration with product development (PD) reference models...... was investigated. Based on the specific characteristics desired for dual innovation projects, such as integrated product development and coverage of multiple development stages, a set of selection criteria was employed to select suitable PD and TD reference models. The integration and adaptation of the selected...

  2. Scientific challenges in sustainable energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan

    2006-04-01

    We describe and evaluate the technical, political, and economic challenges involved with widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies. First, we estimate fossil fuel resources and reserves and, together with the current and projected global primary power production rates, estimate the remaining years of oil, gas, and coal. We then compare the conventional price of fossil energy with that from renewable energy technologies (wind, solar thermal, solar electric, biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal) to evaluate the potential for a transition to renewable energy in the next 20-50 years. Secondly, we evaluate - per the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - the greenhouse constraint on carbon-based power consumption as an unpriced externality to fossil-fuel use, considering global population growth, increased global gross domestic product, and increased energy efficiency per unit GDP. This constraint is projected to drive the demand for carbon-free power well beyond that produced by conventional supply/demand pricing tradeoffs, to levels far greater than current renewable energy demand. Thirdly, we evaluate the level and timescale of R&D investment needed to produce the required quantity of carbon-free power by the 2050 timeframe. Fourth, we evaluate the energy potential of various renewable energy resources to ascertain which resources are adequately available globally to support the projected demand. Fifth, we evaluate the challenges to the chemical sciences to enable the cost-effective production of carbon-free power required. Finally, we discuss the effects of a change in primary power technology on the energy supply infrastructure and discuss the impact of such a change on the modes of energy consumption by the energy consumer and additional demands on the chemical sciences to support such a transition in energy supply.

  3. Challenges and Development Tendency of Engineering Technology in Oil and Gas Development in Sinopec%中国石化油气田开发工程技术面临的挑战与发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 薛兆杰

    2016-01-01

    The progress of engineering technologies in oil and gas development has provided significant support for the stable grow th of crude oil production and the fast development of natural gas exploitation . As the increase of complication of reserve targets and oil price drop ,engineering technologies should be in-novatively developed to meet the challenge with wider applicatability and lower engineering cost .In this pa-per ,the trend of oil and gas development in Sinopec and related engineering technical challenges were re-viewed .Then ,the development tendency of engineering technologies was proposed .Finally ,some sugges-tions to speed up the development of engineering techniques were put forward from the aspects of engineer-ing technology innovation ,technical and economic adaptability and R & D test platform construction ,w hich will promote the development of oil and gas development engineering technologies and realize efficient de-velopment of oil and gas resources to guarantee national energy supply .%油气田开发工程技术的进步,为原油生产的稳定增长和天然气的快速发展提供了重要的支撑,但是开发对象日趋复杂化以及持续的低油价,需要开发工程技术创新发展,形成适应性更强的、成本更低的配套开发技术。总结了中国石化油气开发的趋势及工程技术面临的挑战,分析了高含水老油田、深层油气、非常规油气、深水油气对开发工程技术的需求,提出了开发工程技术的发展方向,并从工程技术创新、技术经济适应性、研发试验平台建设等方面提出加快工程技术发展的建议。这对推动油气开发工程技术发展,实现我国油气资源的高效开发、保障国家能源供应具有重要意义。

  4. Technology development for safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, H. Y.; Song, D. Y. [and others

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project are to establish the safeguards technology of the nuclear proliferation resistance to the facilities which handle with high radioactivity nuclear materials like the spent fuel, to provide the foundation of the technical independency for the establishment of the effective management of domestic spent fuels, and to construct the base of the early introduction of the key technology relating to the back-end nuclear fuel cycle through the development of the safeguards technology of the DFDF of the nuclear non-proliferation. The essential safeguards technologies of the facility such as the measurement and account of nuclear materials and the C/S technology were carried out in this stage (2002-2004). The principal results of this research are the development of error reduction technology of the NDA equipment and a new NDA system for the holdup measurement of process materials, the development of the intelligent surveillance system based on the COM, the evaluation of the safeguardability of the Pyroprocessing facility which is the core process of the nuclear fuel cycle, the derivation of the research and development items which are necessary to satisfy the safeguards criteria of IAEA, and the presentation of the direction of the technology development relating to the future safeguards of Korea. This project is the representative research project in the field of the Korea's safeguards. The safeguards technology and equipment developed while accomplishing this project can be applied to other nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as DFDF and will be contributed to increase the international confidence in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle facility of Korea and its nuclear transparency.

  5. A Framework for Addressing Challenges to Classroom Technology Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Jennifer; Mouza, Chrystalla

    2008-01-01

    Creating effective learning environments with technology remains a challenge for teachers. Despite the tremendous push for educators to integrate technology into their classrooms, many have yet to do so and struggle to find consistent success with technology-based instruction. The challenges to effective technology integration have been…

  6. Opportunities & Challenges for Green Technology in 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna

    2016-01-01

    Technology has affected the society and its surroundings in many ways and helped to develop more advanced economies including today's global economy. Science has contributed many technologies to the society which include Aircraft technology, Automobile technology, Biotechnology, Computer technology, Telecommunication technology, Internet technology, Renewable energy technology, Atomic & Nuclear technology, Nanotechnology, Space technology etc. have changed the lifestyle of the people ...

  7. Challenge of providing wireless connectivity across Africa is about researching the ways and means to develop sustainable information and communications technology in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available level ICT skills, through the provision of bursaries, internships, and the availability of challenging employment opportunities in various research and system delivery projects. The Meraka Institute will complement and work with higher education... world.’ Addressing the impact of W3C, Williams points to the consortium’s members: ‘It brings together over 400 member organisations that include important global IT players like IBM, Microsoft, Nokia, Yahoo! and Google, as well as full-time staff...

  8. Wind energy technology developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2014-01-01

    turbine blades and towers are very large series-produced components, which costs and quality are strongly dependent on the manufacturing methods. The industrial wind energy sector is well developed in Denmark, and the competitive advantage of the Danish sector and the potential for job creation......This chapter describes the present mainstream development of the wind turbine technology at present. The turbine technology development trend is characterized by up-scaling to turbines with larger capacity for both onshore and offshore applications, larger rotors and new drivetrain solution......, including the direct-drive solution without gearbox. The technology solutions are strongly influenced by the development of the international industry with a global market for components and a trend towards a “shared” development effort in collaboration between the OEM’s and component sub-suppliers. Wind...

  9. 我国技术市场发展的机遇、挑战和战略选择研究%The Research of Opportunities,Challenges and Strategic Choice of the Technology Market Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅正华; 张玢; 林耕; 李明亮

    2016-01-01

    我国技术市场经过30多年的发展,已经进入新的发展机遇期,新科技革命、经济转型、创新型国家建设以及加快全面建成小康社会的战略目标都为技术市场的发展带来了难得的机遇;与此同时,伴随机遇而来的是挑战,现有管理体制问题、技术市场发展的机制性缺陷、技术市场发展的观念性障碍以及国际技术转移等都给技术市场发展提出了新挑战。面对机遇与挑战,国家需要作出战略性的抉择,通过促进技术交易产业平稳健康发展、进一步活跃技术交易、建立和完善国家技术转移体系和技术市场法律体系、建立健全技术市场管理和组织等措施加快技术市场的发展。%Having developed 30 years,Chinese technology market had entered into a new development opportunity.The new technological revolution,the economic transformation and the strategic goals of constructing an innovative country and speeding up to build a well -off all -round society have brought a rare opportunity for the development of Chinese technolo-gy market.At the same time,along with the opportunity are challenges,such as the existing problems of management sys-tem,institutional defects of the technology market development,the ideogenetic disorder of technology market development and international technology transfer,which have put forward new challenges to the development of technology market.Fa-cing the opportunities and challenges,the government needs to make a strategic decision,take measures such as promoting steady and healthy development of the technology trading industry,further activating technology trading,establishing and perfecting the system of the national technology transfer and technology market legal system,establishing and perfecting the technology market management and organization to speed up the development of the technology market.

  10. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  11. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO. The global Floating LNG (FLNG market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  12. Workshop and conference on Grand Challenges applications and software technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    On May 4--7, 1993, nine federal agencies sponsored a four-day meeting on Grand Challenge applications and software technology. The objective was to bring High-Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Grand Challenge applications research groups supported under the federal HPCC program together with HPCC software technologists to: discuss multidisciplinary computational science research issues and approaches, identify major technology challenges facing users and providers, and refine software technology requirements for Grand Challenge applications research. The first day and a half focused on applications. Presentations were given by speakers from universities, national laboratories, and government agencies actively involved in Grand Challenge research. Five areas of research were covered: environmental and earth sciences; computational physics; computational biology, chemistry, and materials sciences; computational fluid and plasma dynamics; and applications of artificial intelligence. The next day and a half was spent in working groups in which the applications researchers were joined by software technologists. Nine breakout sessions took place: I/0, Data, and File Systems; Parallel Programming Paradigms; Performance Characterization and Evaluation of Massively Parallel Processing Applications; Program Development Tools; Building Multidisciplinary Applications; Algorithm and Libraries I; Algorithms and Libraries II; Graphics and Visualization; and National HPCC Infrastructure.

  13. Learning Analytics: drivers, developments and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ferguson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning analytics is a significant area of Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL that has emerged during the last decade. This review of the field begins with an examination of the technological, educational and political factors that have driven the development of analytics in educational settings. It goes on to chart the emergence of learning analytics, including their origins in the 20th century, the development of data-driven analytics, the rise of learning-focused perspectives and the influence of national economic concerns. It next focuses on the relationships between learning analytics, educational data mining and academic analytics. Finally, it examines developing areas of learning analytics research, and identifies a series of future challenges.

  14. Complex plasmas scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Jose; Becker, Kurt; Thomsen, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an introduction to the physics of complex plasmas, a discussion of the specific scientific and technical challenges they present, and an overview of their potential technological applications. Complex plasmas differ from conventional high-temperature plasmas in several ways: they may contain additional species, including nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles, negative ions, molecules and radicals, and they may exhibit strong correlations or quantum effects. This book introduces the classical and quantum mechanical approaches used to describe and simulate complex plasmas. It also covers some key experimental techniques used in the analysis of these plasmas, including calorimetric probe methods, IR absorption techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final part of the book reviews the emerging applications of microcavity and microchannel plasmas, the synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials through plasma electrochemistry, the large-scale generation of ozone using mi...

  15. Insider protection technology developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foesch, J.; Bortniak, P.; Waddoups, I.

    1994-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluates and develops new techniques and technologies to ensure the integrity of special nuclear material (SNM) against potential insider threats. We have evaluated several types of sensor technologies and subsystems to monitor and/or track materials and personnel. This past year`s effort has been directed at characterizing commercial developments that meet the Department of Energy`s (DOE) needs in some of these areas. Some of these evaluations are complete and some are still in progress. This paper discusses our work with infrared light (IR), radio frequency (RF), and RF proximity technologies. After these technologies are judged to be applicable to DOE`s needs, we incorporate them into the generic, real time, personnel tracking and material monitoring system.

  16. Mobile Router Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  17. Academic Training: The ITER project: technological challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 31 May, 1, 2, 3, June from 11:00 to 12:00 on 31 May and 2, 3, June. From 10:00 to 12:00 on 1 June - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 The ITER project: technological challenges J. LISTER / CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne, CH and P. BRUZZONE / CRPP-EPFL, Zürich, CH The first lecture reminds us of the ITER challenges, presents hard engineering problems, typically due to mechanical forces and thermal loads and identifies where the physics uncertainties play a significant role in the engineering requirements. The second lecture presents soft engineering problems of measuring the plasma parameters, feedback control of the plasma and handling the physics data flow and slow controls data flow from a large experiment like ITER. The last three lectures focus on superconductors for fusion. The third lecture reviews the design criteria and manufacturing methods for 6 milestone-conductors of large fusion devices (T-7, T-15, Tore Supra, LHD, W-7X, ITER). The evolution of the...

  18. Academic Training: The ITER project: technological challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 31 May, 1, 2, 3, June from 11:00 to 12:00 on 31 May and 2, 3, June. From 10:00 to 12:00 on 1 June - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 The ITER project: technological challenges J. LISTER / CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne and P. BRUZZONE / CRPP-EPFL, Zürich The first lecture reminds us of the ITER challenges, presents hard engineering problems, typically due to mechanical forces and thermal loads and identifies where the physics uncertainties play a significant role in the engineering requirements. The second lecture presents soft engineering problems of measuring the plasma parameters, feedback control of the plasma and handling the physics data flow and slow controls data flow from a large experiment like ITER. The last three lectures focus on superconductors for fusion. The third lecture reviews the design criteria and manufacturing methods for 6 milestone-conductors of large fusion devices (T-7, T-15, Tore Supra, LHD, W-7X, ITER). The evolution of the de...

  19. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

    2014-06-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank.

  20. Entrepreneurs in developing a technology based company. The challenge of the case Dynakin; Emprendedoras en el desarrollo de una empresa de base technologica. El desafio del caso Dynakin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, M.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Pena, I.

    2012-11-01

    An emerging area of interest for academics, entrepreneurs and policy makers is the analysis and understanding of how and where women entrepreneurs have made differences. Our case study, for example, focuses on women in academic environments who are creating new businesses based on the exploration and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities identified in their research activities. Adopting the feminist perspective, our paper tries to identify the opportunities and the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs during the creation process of a technology based enterprise within a university. (Author) 25 refs.

  1. Challenges and opportunities of torrefaction technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosov, V. F.; Kuzmina, J. S.; Sytchev, G. A.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Since the active exploitation and usage of classical non-renewable energy resources the most promising direction is the development of technologies of heat and electricity production from renewable sources—biomass. This is important in terms of reducing the harmful man-made influence of fuel-and-energy sector on the ecological balance. One of the most important aims when using biomass is its pre-treatment. The paper describes the fuel preliminary preparation for combustion with such technological process as torrefaction. Torrefaction allows bringing the biomass fuel as close as it possible to fossil coals for the main thermotechnical parameters. During torrefaction moisture is removed from initial material and the partial thermal decomposition of its components appears. The final torrefied product can be recommended for utilization in existing coal-fired boilers without their major reconstruction. Thus torrefaction technology enables the partial or complete replacement of fossil coal. At JIHT RAS, a torrefaction pilot plant is developed. As heat transfer medium the gas-piston engine exhaust gases were used. Results of researching and proposals for further development are showed in this paper.

  2. Fusion development and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  3. Technology maturity and technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K.; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    All of the work reported in the preceding chapters was performed in order to assess the technical, economic, and energetic feasibility of proceeding with more detailed studies of the geopressured geothermal resource. The preliminary conceptual design and costing activities represented the prime activity for component by component review of the maturity of the technology available for resource utilization facilities. The economics and energetics studies focussed attentions on the areas of major capital and energy investment; these results comprise a useful guide for focussing design in order to reduce initial and operations and maintenance costs and/or investment. The following presents a discussion of the primary technical problems identified.

  4. Lightweight, High Strength Metals With Enhanced Radiation Shielding - Technology Advancing Partnerships Challenge Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Maria Clara (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    The Technology Advancing Partnership (TAP) Challenge will seek to foster innovation throughout the Center by allowing the KSC workforce to identify a specific technology idea that needs improvement and to then work with an external partner to develop that technology. This Challenge will enable competitive partnerships with outside entities that will increase the value by bringing leveraged resources. The selected proposal from the University of Florida will develop new lightweight technologies with radiation mitigation for spacecraft.

  5. WERF Nutrient Challenge investigates limits of nutrient removal technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J B; Clark, D; Pramanik, A; Stensel, H D; Sandino, J; Tsuchihashi, R

    2010-01-01

    The WERF Nutrient Challenge is a multi-year collaborative research initiative established in 2007 to develop and provide current information about wastewater treatment nutrients (specifically nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater), their characteristics, and bioavailability in aquatic environments to help regulators make informed decisions. The Nutrient Challenge will also provide data on nutrient removal so that treatment facilities can select sustainable, cost-effective methods and technologies to meet permit limits. To meet these goals, the Nutrient Challenge has teamed with a wide array of utilities, agencies, consultants, universities and other researchers and practitioners to collaborate on projects that advance these goals. The Nutrient Challenge is focusing on a different approach to collaborating and leveraging resources (financial and intellectual) on research projects by targeting existing projects and research that correspond with its goals and funding those aspects that the Nutrient Challenge identified as a priority. Because the Nutrient Challenge is focused on collaboration, outreach is an absolutely necessary component of its effectiveness. Through workshops, webinars, a web portal and online compendium, published papers, and conference lectures, the Nutrient Challenge is both presenting important new information, and soliciting new partnerships.

  6. ABC Technology Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-14

    The Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) facility will be designed to accomplish the following mission: `Provide a weapon`s grade plutonium disposition capability in a safe, economical, and environmentally sound manner on a prudent schedule for [50] tons of weapon`s grade plutonium to be disposed on in [20] years.` This mission is supported by four major objectives: provide a reliable plutonium disposition capability within the next [15] years; provide a level of safety and of safety assurance that meets or exceeds that afforded to the public by modern commercial nuclear power plants; meet or exceed all applicable federal, state, and local regulations or standards for environmental compliance; manage the program in a cost effective manner. The ABC Technology Development Program defines the technology development activities that are required to accomplish this mission. The technology development tasks are related to the following topics: blanket system; vessel systems; reactivity control systems; heat transport system components; energy conversion systems; shutdown heat transport systems components; auxiliary systems; technology demonstrations - large scale experiments.

  7. Academic Training - Technological challenges of CLIC

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 June 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Technological challenges of CLIC R. Corsini, S. Doebert, S. Redaelli, T.Lefevre, CERN-AB and G. Arnau Izquierdo, H. Mainaud, CERN-TS Future e+e- Linear Colliders offer the potential to explore new physics at the TeV scale and beyond to very high precision. While the International Linear Collider (ILC) scheme of a collider in the 0.5 - 1 TeV range enters the engineering design phase, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study explores the technical feasibility of a collider capable of reaching into the multi-TeV energy domain. Key ingredients of the CLIC scheme are acceleration at high-frequency (30 GHz) and high-gradient (150 MV/m) in normal conducting structures and the use of the so-called Two Beam Acceleration concept, where a high-charge electron beam (drive beam) running parallel to the main beam is decelerated to provide the RF power to accelerate the main beam itself. A vigorous R&...

  8. Transmutation Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, T. Y.; Park, W. S.; Kim, Y. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The spent fuel coming from the PWR is one of the most difficult problems to be solved for the continuous use of nuclear power. It takes a few million years to be safe under the ground. Therefore, it is not easy to take care of the spent fuel for such a long time. Transmutation technology is the key technology which can solve the spent fuel problem basically. Transmutation is to transmute long-lived radioactive nuclides in the spent fuel into short-lived or stable nuclide through nuclear reactions. The long-lived radioactive nuclides can be TRU and fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129. Although the transmutation technology does not make the underground disposal totally unnecessary, the period to take care of the spent fuel can be reduced to the order of a few hundred years. In addition to the environmental benefit, transmutation can be considered to recycle the energy in the spent fuel since the transmutation is performed through nuclear fission reaction of the TRU in the spent fuel. Therefore, transmutation technology is worth being developed in economical aspect. The results of this work can be a basis for the next stage research. The objective of the third stage research was to complete the core conceptual design and verification of the key technologies. The final results will contribute to the establishment of Korean back end fuel cycle policy by providing technical guidelines.

  9. Managing Innovation and Technology in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Murad; Khan, Pervez

    2009-01-01

    Innovation and technology management is an inevitable issue in the high end technological and innovative organizations. Today, most of the innovations are limited with developed countries like USA, Japan and Europe while developing countries are still behind in the field of innovation and management of technology. But it is also becoming a subject for rapid progress and development in developing countries. Innovation and technology environment in developing countries are by nature, problematic, characterized by poor business models, political instability and governance conditions, low education level and lack of world-class research universities, an underdeveloped and mediocre physical infrastructure, and lack of solid technology based on trained human resources. This paper provides a theoretical and conceptual framework analysis for managing innovation and technology in developing countries like India and China. We present the issues and challenges in innovation and technology management and come up with pro...

  10. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kevin B; Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product's attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible.

  11. Textile technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bharat M.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this report were to evaluate and select resin systems for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Powder Towpreg Material, to develop and evaluate advanced textile processes by comparing 2-D and 3-D braiding for fuselage frame applications and develop window belt and side panel structural design concepts, to evaluate textile material properties, and to develop low cost manufacturing and tooling processes for the automated manufacturing of fuselage primary structures. This research was in support of the NASA and Langley Research Center (LaRc) Advanced Composite Structural Concepts and Materials Technologies for Primary Aircraft Structures program.

  12. Forecasting for strengthening technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mayerly Fúquene Montañez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Producing technological innovation is currently one of the key items in being more competitive. However, production sectors are facing great challenges, including analysing a large amount of available technological and market information regarding the en- vironment for strategic decision-making and being able to launch themselves onto the market with technological developments bringing the desired economic returns. Several tools for analysing information have emerged for reducing the uncertainty of tech- nological and market changes. This article provides conceptual and reflective elements so that forecasting strengthens technolo- gical development (TD. Forecasting is initially proposed as being one of the future methods of analysis having a significant im- pact on decision-making, mainly within the field of economics but which could be extrapolated to making a contribution to TD. The techniques which have been the recent instrument for collecting information for producing forecasting are described, as is work about the concept of surveillance/monitoring and the processes used for coordinating such approaches. It can thus be sta- ted that they provide an excellent basis for strengthening TD by providing platforms for new or improved developments in pro- cesses or products. Reflection about these aspects provides perspectives for implementing technological forecasting (TF in pro- duction systems so that they obtain efficient and concrete results via deterministic methods as input in decision-making in techno- logy regarding its middle- and long-term competitiveness.

  13. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; R. Bratton

    2007-09-01

    This technology development plan is designed to provide a clear understanding of the research and development direction necessary for the qualification of nuclear grade graphite for use within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor. The NGNP will be a helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Considerable effort will be required to ensure that the graphite performance is not compromised during operation. Based upon the perceived requirements the major data needs are outlined and justified from the perspective of reactor design, reatcor performance, or the reactor safety case. The path forward for technology development can then be easily determined for each data need. How the data will be obtained and the inter-relationships between the experimental and modeling activities will define the technology development for graphite R&D. Finally, the variables affecting this R&D program are discussed from a general perspective. Factors that can significantly affect the R&D program such as funding, schedules, available resources, multiple reactor designs, and graphite acquisition are analyzed.

  14. ECH Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-24

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) is needed for plasma heating, current drive, plasma stability control, and other applications in fusion energy sciences research. The program of fusion energy sciences supported by U. S. DOE, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences relies on the development of ECH technology to meet the needs of several plasma devices working at the frontier of fusion energy sciences research. The largest operating ECH system in the world is at DIII-D, consisting of six 1 MW, 110 GHz gyrotrons capable of ten second pulsed operation, plus two newer gyrotrons. The ECH Technology Development research program investigated the options for upgrading the DIII-D 110 GHz ECH system. Options included extending present-day 1 MW technology to 1.3 – 1.5 MW power levels or developing an entirely new approach to achieve up to 2 MW of power per gyrotron. The research consisted of theoretical research and designs conducted by Communication and Power Industries of Palo Alto, CA working with MIT. Results of the study would be validated in a later phase by research on short pulse length gyrotrons at MIT and long pulse / cw gyrotrons in industry. This research follows a highly successful program of development that has led to the highly reliable, six megawatt ECH system at the DIII-D tokamak. Eventually, gyrotrons at the 1.5 megawatt to multi-megawatt power level will be needed for heating and current drive in large scale plasmas including ITER and DEMO.

  15. Visual Prostheses: Technological and Socioeconomic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Troy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visual prostheses are now entering the clinical marketplace. Such prostheses were originally targeted for patients suffering from blindness through retinitis pigmentosa (RP. However, in late July of this year, for the first time a patient was given a retinal implant in order to treat dry age-related macular degeneration. Retinal implants are suitable solutions for diseases that attack photoreceptors but spare most of the remaining retinal neurons. For eye diseases that result in loss of retinal output, implants that interface with more central structures in the visual system are needed. The standard site for central visual prostheses under development is the visual cortex. This perspective discusses the technical and socioeconomic challenges faced by visual prostheses.

  16. A short guide to technology development in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Bas

    2015-03-16

    New technologies drive progress in many research fields, including cell biology. Much of technological innovation comes from "bottom-up" efforts by individual students and postdocs. However, technology development can be challenging, and a successful outcome depends on many factors. This article outlines some considerations that are important when embarking on a technology development project. Despite the challenges, developing a new technology can be extremely rewarding and could lead to a lasting impact in a given field.

  17. 大数据的技术挑战及发展趋势%Big Data Technology Challenges and Development Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏凯

    2013-01-01

    Big data is massive, diverse and high-velocity, which puts forword new requirements to traditional technologies. In big data context, technologies of data storage and management, paralel computing and data analysis are al facing rapid changes. This paper discusses the latest development and major trends of the three layers of big data technologies aforementioned. The Big Data technology innovation pattern and the reason behind it are also studied very brielfy.%大数据具有海量、多样和快速的特征,对传统技术提出了新的需求,数据存储与管理技术、计算技术和数据分析技术等都面临着重大变革。文章从大数据所具有的特征和技术挑战出发,介绍数据分析技术、计算技术和存储管理技术三个层面的发展脉络和趋势,指出国际上大数据技术创新的总体格局及其主要成因。

  18. Manufacturing Concepts of the Future – Upcoming Technologies Solving Upcoming Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne

    concepts and technologies that are being developed today which may be used to solve manufacturing challenges in the future, such as: (self) reconfigurable manufacturing systems, (focused) flexible manufacturing systems, and AI inspired manufacturing. The paper will try to offer a critical point of view...... on manufacturing challenges, concepts, and technologies, and is meant to address both academia and industry. Keywords: Reconfigurable manufacturing systems, manufacturing challenges, cognitive factory, mass-customization......This paper presents an examination of Western European manufacturers’ future challenges as can be predicted today. Some of the challenges analyzed in the paper are: globalization, individualism and customization and agility challenges. Hereafter, the paper presents a broad analysis on manufacturing...

  19. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; M.Carroll

    2010-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. This development has resulted in graphite being established as a viable structural material for HTGRs. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermomechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. This Technology Development Plan outlines the research and development (R&D) activities and associated rationale necessary to qualify nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor.

  20. Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

  1. LHC Accelerator Physics and Technology Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) incorporates many technological innovations in order to achieve its design objectives at the lowest cost. The two-in-one magnet design, with the two magnetic channels integrated into a common yoke, has proved to be an economical alternative to two separate rings and allows enough free space in the existing (LEP) tunnel for a possible future re-installation of a lepton ring for e-p physics. In order to achieve the design energy of 7 TeV per beam, with a dipole field of 8.3 T, the superconducting magnet system must operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. This requires further development of cold compressors similar to those first used at CEBAF. The LHC will be the first hadron machine to produce appreciable synchrotron radiation which, together with the heat load due to image currents, has to be absorbed at cryogenic temperatures. Finally, the LHC is the first major CERN accelerator project built in collaboration with other laboratories. A brief review of the machine design is giv...

  2. Big data related technologies, challenges and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Min; Zhang, Yin; Leung, Victor CM

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief provides a comprehensive overview of the background and recent developments of big data. The value chain of big data is divided into four phases: data generation, data acquisition, data storage and data analysis. For each phase, the book introduces the general background, discusses technical challenges and reviews the latest advances. Technologies under discussion include cloud computing, Internet of Things, data centers, Hadoop and more. The authors also explore several representative applications of big data such as enterprise management, online social networks, healthcar

  3. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  4. Graphene-based technologies for energy applications, challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Etienne; Roux, Frédéric; Emieux, Fabrice; Faucherand, Pascal; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Volonakis, George; Giustino, Feliciano; Martín-García, Beatriz; Moreels, Iwan; Alkan Gürsel, Selmiye; Bayrakçeken Yurtcan, Ayşe; Di Noto, Vito; Talyzin, Alexandr; Baburin, Igor; Tranca, Diana; Seifert, Gotthard; Crema, Luigi; Speranza, Giorgio; Tozzini, Valentina; Bondavalli, Paolo; Pognon, Grégory; Botas, Cristina; Carriazo, Daniel; Singh, Gurpreet; Rojo, Teófilo; Kim, Gunwoo; Yu, Wanjing; Grey, Clare P.; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2015-09-01

    Here we report on technology developments implemented into the Graphene Flagship European project for the integration of graphene and graphene-related materials (GRMs) into energy application devices. Many of the technologies investigated so far aim at producing composite materials associating graphene or GRMs with either metal or semiconducting nanocrystals or other carbon nanostructures (e.g., CNT, graphite). These composites can be used favourably as hydrogen storage materials or solar cell absorbers. They can also provide better performing electrodes for fuel cells, batteries, or supercapacitors. For photovoltaic (PV) electrodes, where thin layers and interface engineering are required, surface technologies are preferred. We are using conventional vacuum processes to integrate graphene as well as radically new approaches based on laser irradiation strategies. For each application, the potential of implemented technologies is then presented on the basis of selected experimental and modelling results. It is shown in particular how some of these technologies can maximize the benefit taken from GRM integration. The technical challenges still to be addressed are highlighted and perspectives derived from the running works emphasized.

  5. International Legal and Ethical Challenges Related to the Use and Development of 3D Technology in the U.S. and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Kinsley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical and legal uses of technology should be addressed when a new technology gains popularity. The main focus of this research is to provide a detailed discussion of the legal and ethical issues pertaining to the use of 3D technology. Recent court cases provide examples of current and potential concerns associated with this technology from a consumer and business perspective. With the growing interest in 3D technology worldwide, especially in China, a discussion of similar laws in China related to 3D technology provides an international outlook of some of the trials ahead as business and consumer interest in 3D technology continues to escalate.

  6. International Legal and Ethical Challenges Related to the Use and Development of 3D Technology in the U.S. and China

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberley Kinsley; Gail Brooks; Tim Owens

    2014-01-01

    Ethical and legal uses of technology should be addressed when a new technology gains popularity. The main focus of this research is to provide a detailed discussion of the legal and ethical issues pertaining to the use of 3D technology. Recent court cases provide examples of current and potential concerns associated with this technology from a consumer and business perspective. With the growing interest in 3D technology worldwide, especially in China, a discussion of similar laws in China rel...

  7. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  8. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Wearable Training-Monitoring Technology: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Marco; Varley, Matthew C

    2017-04-01

    The need to quantify aspects of training to improve training prescription has been the holy grail of sport scientists and coaches for many years. Recently, there has been an increase in scientific interest, possibly due to technological advancements and better equipment to quantify training activities. Over the last few years there has been an increase in the number of studies assessing training load in various athletic cohorts with a bias toward subjective reports and/or quantifications of external load. There is an evident lack of extensive longitudinal studies employing objective internal-load measurements, possibly due to the cost-effectiveness and invasiveness of measures necessary to quantify objective internal loads. Advances in technology might help in developing better wearable tools able to ease the difficulties and costs associated with conducting longitudinal observational studies in athletic cohorts and possibly provide better information on the biological implications of specific external-load patterns. Considering the recent technological developments for monitoring training load and the extensive use of various tools for research and applied work, the aim of this work was to review applications, challenges, and opportunities of various wearable technologies.

  10. Recent Developments in Detector Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Brau, James E

    2010-01-01

    This review provides an overview of many recent advances in detector technologies for particle physics experiments. Challenges for new technologies include increasing spatial and temporal sensitivity, speed, and radiation hardness while minimizing power and cost. Applications are directed at several future collider experiments, including the Large Hadron Collider luminosity upgrade (sLHC), the linear collider, and the super high luminosity B factory, as well as neutrino and other fixed target experiments, and direct dark matter searches. Furthermore, particle physics has moved into space, with significant contributions of detector technology, and new challenges for future efforts.

  11. Technology Development Roadmaps - a Systematic Approach to Maturing Needed Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Colllins; Layne Pincock

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. Planning and decision making represent important challenges for all projects. This paper presents the steps needed to assess technical readiness and determine the path forward to mature the technologies required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. A Technology Readiness Assessment is used to evaluate the required systems, subsystems, and components (SSC) comprising the desired plant architecture and assess the SSCs against established Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). A validated TRL baseline is then established for the proposed physical design. Technology Development Roadmaps are generated to define the path forward and focus project research and development and engineering tasks on advancing the technologies to increasing levels of maturity. Tasks include modeling, testing, bench-scale demonstrations, pilot-scale demonstrations, and fully integrated prototype demonstrations. The roadmaps identify precise project objectives and requirements; create a consensus vision of project needs; provide a structured, defensible, decision-based project plan; and, minimize project costs and schedules.

  12. Technology Development of Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, H. Y.; Ko, W. I. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The objective of this project is to perform R and D on the essential technologies in nuclear material measurement and surveillance and verification system, and to improve the state of being transparent on the nuclear material management of DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) through the evaluation of safeguard ability on non-proliferation fuel cycle and nuclear proliferation resistance. Nuclear material position scan system for the reduction of measurement error was developed for the spatial distribution search of spent fuel in DUPIC facility. Web-based realtime remote monitoring system was designed and constructed for satisfying the IAEA's performance criteria of continuous monitoring, and also developed a software for the function of remote control and message. And diversion paths in a proliferation resistant pyroprocess for SFR were analyzed and its protecting system against the diversion paths were suggested for enhancing proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear fuel cycle. These results could be used for planning the further R and D items in the area of safeguards. Those R and D results mentioned above would be helpful for increasing Korean nuclear transparency in the future.

  13. Developments in lubricant technology

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, S P

    2014-01-01

    Provides a fundamental understanding of lubricants and lubricant technology including emerging lubricants such as synthetic and environmentally friendly lubricants Teaches the reader to understand the role of technology involved in the manufacture of lubricants Details both major industrial oils and automotive oils for various engines Covers emerging lubricant technology such as synthetic and environmentally friendly lubricants Discusses lubricant blending technology, storage, re-refining and condition monitoring of lubricant in equipment

  14. Two Phase Technology Development Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Three promising thermal technology development initiatives, vapor compression thermal control system, electronics cooling, and electrohydrodynamics applications are outlined herein. These technologies will provide thermal engineers with additional tools to meet the thermal challenges presented by increased power densities and reduced architectural options that will be available in future spacecraft. Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland are fabricating and testing a 'proto- flight' vapor compression based thermal control system for the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Program. The vapor compression system will be capable of transporting approximately 400 W of heat while providing a temperature lift of 60C. The system is constructed of 'commercial off-the-shelf' hardware that is modified to meet the unique environmental requirements of the ULDB. A demonstration flight is planned for 1999 or early 2000. Goddard Space Flight Center has embarked upon a multi-discipline effort to address a number of design issues regarding spacecraft electronics. The program addressed the high priority design issues concerning the total mass of standard spacecraft electronics enclosures and the impact of design changes on thermal performance. This presentation reviews the pertinent results of the Lightweight Electronics Enclosure Program. Electronics cooling is a growing challenge to thermal engineers due to increasing power densities and spacecraft architecture. The space-flight qualification program and preliminary results of thermal performance tests of copper-water heat pipes are presented. Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) is an emerging technology that uses the secondary forces that result from the application of an electric field to a flowing fluid to enhance heat transfer and manage fluid flow. A brief review of current EHD capabilities regarding heat transfer enhancement of commercial heat exchangers and capillary pumped loops is presented. Goddard Space Flight

  15. 气-液微反应技术:研究现状与挑战%Gas-Liquid Microreaction Technology:Recent Developments and Future Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光文; 乐军; 袁权

    2008-01-01

    Gas-liquid microreaction technology has shown great potential in a variety of industrial relevant mass transfer operations and reactions.ThiS paper outlines the current research Status of this technology with emphasis on reactor design,hydrodynamics and mass transfer phenomena as well as reaction applications.The future chal-lenzes of this important technology are also suminarlzeo.

  16. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  17. Vaccination Against Dengue: Challenges and Current Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Bruno; Lang, Jean; Saville, Melanie; Jackson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a growing threat worldwide, and the development of a vaccine is a public health priority. The completion of the active phase of two pivotal efficacy studies conducted in Asia and Latin America by Sanofi Pasteur has constituted an important step. Several other approaches are under development, and whichever technology is used, vaccine developers face several challenges linked to the particular nature and etiology of dengue disease. We start our review by defining questions and potential issues linked to dengue pathology and presenting the main types of vaccine approaches that have explored these questions; some of these candidates are in a late stage of clinical development. In the second part of the review, we focus on the Sanofi Pasteur dengue vaccine candidate, describing the steps from research to phase III efficacy studies. Finally, we discuss what could be the next steps, before and after vaccine introduction, to ensure that the vaccine will provide the best benefit with an acceptable safety profile to the identified target populations.

  18. Present challenges of research and technology politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulow, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Research and technology in Germany are discussed. The rapid transfer of scientific knowledge and techniques from the laboratory to the manufacturing and industrial communities is identified as a priority. It is recommended that the government give maximum support to the aviation and space flight industries.

  19. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  20. Structural technology challenges for evolutionary growth of Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Harold H.

    A proposed evolutionary growth scenario for Space Station Freedom was defined recently by a NASA task force created to study requirements for a Human Exploration Initiative. The study was an initial response to President Bush's July 20, 1989 proposal to begin a long range program of human exploration of space including a permanently manned lunar base and a manned mission to Mars. This growth scenario evolves Freedom into a critical transportation node to support lunar and Mars missions. The growth scenario begins with the Assembly Complete configuration and adds structure, power, and facilities to support a Lunar Transfer Vehicle (LTV) verification flight. Evolutionary growth continues to support expendable, then reusable LTV operations, and finally, LTV and Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) operations. The significant structural growth and additional operations creating new loading conditions will present new technological and structural design challenges in addition to the considerable technology requirements of the baseline Space Station Freedom program. Several structural design and technology issues of the baseline program are reviewed and related technology development required by the growth scenario is identified.

  1. Challenges to Development and Socialization of GIS Technology%GIS技术发展与社会化的困境与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闾国年; 袁林旺; 俞肇元

    2013-01-01

    the spatial distribution of geographical phenomena. The GIS accelerator can support the progressive transmission of data according to the screen resolution constraints. And for the visualization and expression, it needs to develop various GIS ex-pression and interaction methods based on the computer vision, true three-dimensional displays, virtual reality, actual situation fusion, etc. These technologies will form the key technology system supporting the formation of the social applications of GIS. Meanwhile, the correct comprehensive view at the world of the“GIS”concept should be established. In order to develop social applications of GIS, we must firstly establish the perspective of “comprehensive observation of the world”with GIS. Secondly, GIS develops from“geographical environment oriented”towards the“people-oriented”, especially VideoGIS for the requirements of the mass media. In the construction of big demonstration projects of GIS social applications, genealogy GIS is a typical socialized GIS application, which plays important roles in the heritage of Chinese history and civilization. It should also pro-mote the genealogy GIS which represented a major social engineering, in order to increase public awareness of participation, and promote the development of social applications GIS.

  2. Challenges in hardening technologies using shallow-trench isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Draper, B.L.; Flores, R.S.

    1998-02-01

    Challenges related to radiation hardening CMOS technologies with shallow-trench isolation are explored. Results show that trench hardening can be more difficult than simply replacing the trench isolation oxide with a hardened field oxide.

  3. MELTED BUTTER TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Melted butter is made from dairy butter by rendering the fat phase. It has specific taste and aroma, high-calorie content and good assimilability. Defects of butter which appeared during the storage causes by the development of microbiological processes or by the chemical oxidation. On the development of these processes influence quality and composition of fresh butter, its physical structure, content of the increased amount of gas phase and content of heavy metals, storage conditions. Microbiological spoilage of butter occurs generally due to damage of plasma which is good environment for the development of microorganisms. Defects of microbiological origin include: unclean, sour, moldy, yeasty, cheesy, bitter taste. Defects of test and smell chemical origin are formed due to hydrolytic digestion of lipids. It's prevailed at long storage of butter in the conditions of freezing temperatures. It's picked out the following main processes of spoiling: souring, acidifying and sallowness. Often these processes take place simultaneously.It has been investigated melted butter with lactated additive. The latter improves the microbiological and toxicological safety, prolongs the storage condition of the products. Technological efficiency of the additives is achieved by a multilayer products formation from the inactive bound water, preventing microorganisms growth and by the barrier layer with lactate inhibiting hydrolytic reactions. Oil samples were obtained with the batch-type butter maker application, then they were melted and after that lactated additive were supplemented. It has been studied organoleptic and physico-chemical indices of the melted butter samples. The fatty-acid composition of melted butter were studied. Comparative analysis of fatty-acid composition of cow's milk fat and produced melted butter has shown their similarity. Also in the last sample there is increased weight fraction of linoleic and linolenic acids. The obtained

  4. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  5. Exploring Challenges and Opportunities for Eco-Feedback Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo

    This position paper explores challenges and opportunities for eco-feedback technology. Drawing on two design cases, I discuss the importance of supporting active participation as well as the articulation of work in everyday practices to facilitate reduction of consumption.......This position paper explores challenges and opportunities for eco-feedback technology. Drawing on two design cases, I discuss the importance of supporting active participation as well as the articulation of work in everyday practices to facilitate reduction of consumption....

  6. Turning Technologies into Businesses- The Challenge for the Technical Entrepreneur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Alexander

    2000-03-01

    Over the past twenty-five years, new businesses based on innovative technology have been the driving force for the US economy. Due to the abundance of early-stage capital, each year, thousands of scientists and engineers receive support to start new, technology-based businesses. However, the transition from technologist to entrepreneur is often difficult. It requires a shift in emphasis from a technology focus to a market focus. We shall discuss the challenges facing the technical entrepreneur in launching a new enterprise, and a variety of resources that are available to help the entrepreneur succeed. Many technologists fall victim to the myth that if you ``build a better mousetrap, the world will beat a path to your door." To be sure, it is important to base your business on sound technology that offers a clear advantage over current practice, and, if possible, to secure title to the technology, either by obtaining patent protection, or securing an exclusive license. Once that is done, however, the principal concern of the fledgling enterprise is building a business and obtaining the financial resources to enable it to grow. The entrepreneur must develop a clear and compelling business model, that can be communicated to a non-technical investor in a few minutes. This requires a mode of thinking and expression quite different from that commonly used in engineering or scientific discussions. Fortunately, abundant resources are available to help the technologist become a successful entrepreneur. We shall discuss the kinds of assistance that are generally available through local and national programs, and give specific examples based on the activities of the Bay Area Regional Technology Alliance in northern California.

  7. China's Spacecraft Technology Developing Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shufang

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 sees the 40th anniversary of China Academy of Space Technology (CAST).As the main satellite manufacture base,CAST has overcome many difficulties in the field of space technology,achieved project approval for several major space science and technology programs,and made many breakthroughs in core technologies and key technologies with its own intellectual property rights in 40 years development.

  8. Soft Robotics: from scientific challenges to technological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C.

    2016-05-01

    Soft robotics is a recent and rapidly growing field of research, which aims at unveiling the principles for building robots that include soft materials and compliance in the interaction with the environment, so as to exploit so-called embodied intelligence and negotiate natural environment more effectively. Using soft materials for building robots poses new technological challenges: the technologies for actuating soft materials, for embedding sensors into soft robot parts, for controlling soft robots are among the main ones. This is stimulating research in many disciplines and many countries, such that a wide community is gathering around initiatives like the IEEE TAS TC on Soft Robotics and the RoboSoft CA - A Coordination Action for Soft Robotics, funded by the European Commission. Though still in its early stages of development, soft robotics is finding its way in a variety of applications, where safe contact is a main issue, in the biomedical field, as well as in exploration tasks and in the manufacturing industry. And though the development of the enabling technologies is still a priority, a fruitful loop is growing between basic research and application-oriented research in soft robotics.

  9. Nigerian Journal of Technological Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Technological Development is a biannual publication of the Faculty of Engineering & Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Mechanical properties of millet husk ash bitumen stabilized soil block · EMAIL ...

  10. Challenges and trends in glucose monitoring technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Padma; Tomar, Reena; Kapoor, Rajiv

    2016-03-01

    It is known that diabetes is a very serious disease as it may lead to heart attack, kidney failure and neuro diseases. The present study was aimed to review and compare various techniques useful for detecting diabetes or hypoglycemia in human body. In this paper we discuss the invasive and non-invasive techniques which are used for early detection of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia and highlight their advantages as well as limitations. The use of bio impedance measurement technology has been described as it is an emerging non-invasive technique useful for the same purpose.

  11. Lithography development and research challenges for the pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    For the 32 and 22 nm half-pitch nodes of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, the industry will face the challenge of introducing new lithography technologies into manufacturing. Some can build on the extension of current optical lithography technologies. However, others require a tool, optics, mask, and resist infrastructure quite different from those supporting today's manufacturing. Developing new technology solutions for use in manufacturing takes a long time and the final stages of infrastructure development and commercialization are very costly. The readiness of lithography technologies needs to be assessed based on development progress, but it also needs to consider whether a technology receives the necessary support to intersect a given technology node. In addition to being technically challenging, enabling an infrastructure capable of supporting pilot line and then high volume manufacturing insertion on an aggressive timeline is also a significant business challenge. To share the risk and cost, the industry must consider new business models for efficient collaboration with tool and infrastructure suppliers on the one side and device manufacturers on the other.

  12. 超声导波检测技术的发展、应用与挑战%Development,applications and challenges in ultrasonic guided waves testing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何存富; 吴斌; 郑明方; 吕炎; 邓鹏; 赵华民; 刘秀成; 宋国荣; 刘增华; 焦敬品

    2016-01-01

    回顾了近三十年的超声导波技术发展及应用,阐述了导波的频散现象及其求解方法,深入分析了导波激励的力学加载原理和模态选择原则。论述了导波的传感激励方法与装置,并比较了各种激励接收方法的特点与应用场合。对超声导波在板类、管类和复合材料中的应用进行了评述,并从提高缺陷检测能力的角度,介绍了时间反转法和相控阵法在超声导波技术中的应用。最后总结了当前导波技术面临的机遇与挑战。%This paper gives an overview of the development and application of guided waves technique for NDT&E in recent 30 years. Firstly,the fundamental concepts of guided waves propagation and their characteristics are explained,and the mechanical loading principles and mode selection principles for guided wave excitation is analyzed thoroughly.Secondly,the transducer excitation method and its apparatus for ultrasonic guided waves are introduced,then the features and applications are discussed among different excitation methods.Thirdly,ultrasonic guided wave applications in plates,tubes and composite materials are described,meanwhile,the time reversal and the phased array method are introduced to improve the capability of defect detection.Finally,the challenges and opportunities in of guided ultrasonic waves in future are outlined.

  13. Technological Challenges: Designing Large Compressed Video and Multimedia Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Russ A.; Parker, Roger

    Designing a distance learning classroom requires integration of educational goals and philosophy with technology and ergonomics. The technological challenge and key to designing effective distance learning and multimedia classrooms is creating an environment in which the participants--students, and teacher--may easily interact with instructional…

  14. Multigenerational organisations: a challenge for technology and social change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Lockett, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses demographic and organisational trends associated with an ageing workforce and introduces the articles in the special issue of Technological Forecasting and Social Change on Ageing2Agility: Multi-stakeholder Technological Forecasting for the Multi-generational Challenges in the

  15. Engagement and Uncertainty: Emerging Technologies Challenge the Work of Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Weston; Wright, Wynne; Whyte, Kyle; Gasteyer, Stephen P.; Gehrke, Pat J.

    2014-01-01

    Universities' increasing applications of science and technology to address a wide array of societal problems may serve to thwart democratic engagement strategies. For emerging technologies, such challenges are particularly salient, as knowledge is incomplete and application and impact are uncertain or contested. Insights from science and…

  16. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2009-01-01

    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  17. Trends and challenges in VLSI technology scaling towards 100 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusu, S.; Sachdev, M.; Svensson, C.; Nauta, Bram

    Summary form only given. Moore's Law drives VLSI technology to continuous increases in transistor densities and higher clock frequencies. This tutorial will review the trends in VLSI technology scaling in the last few years and discuss the challenges facing process and circuit engineers in the 100nm

  18. LHC accelerator physics and technology challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1998-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) incorporates many technological innovations in order to achieve its design objectives at the lowest cost. The two-in-one magnet design, with the two magnetic channels i ntegrated into a common yoke, has proved to be an economical alternative to two separate rings and allows enough free space in the existing (LEP) tunnel for a possible future re-installation of a lept on ring for e-p physics. In order to achieve the design energy of 7 TeV per beam, with a dipole field of 8.3 T, the superconducting magnet system must operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. The LHC wi ll be the first hadron machine to produce appreciable synchrotron radiation which, together with the heat load due to image currents, has to be absorbed at cryogenic temperatures. A brief review of th e machine design is given and some of the main technological and accelerator physics issues are discussed.

  19. Challenges to Arabian gas development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mutawa, E.N.

    1989-02-01

    The Middle East has over half of the world's oil reserves and more than a quarter of the world's gas reserves. During the 1970s and early 80s, when oil prices were high, gas resource development received high priority. However, with the recent availability of cheap oil, this enthusiasm has waned. The reason is twofold: from the producer's viewpoint, natural gas projects are highly capital-intensive with long lead times, inflexible, and sometimes hampered by non-remunerative pricing. From the consumer's end, there is a new attitude of waiting to see whether prices of gas products will go down further to reach parity with cheaper energy sources such as coal. Gas resource owners who were keen to develop their resources are restricted by this new pyschology in the industry.

  20. Innovation in surgical technology and techniques: Challenges and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, James D; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2015-06-01

    The pace of medical innovation continues to increase. The deployment of new technologies in surgery creates many ethical challenges including how to determine safety of the technology, what is the timing and process for deployment of a new technology, how are patients informed before undergoing a new technology or technique, how are the outcomes of a new technology evaluated and how are the responsibilities of individual patients and society at large balanced. Ethical considerations relevant to the implementation of ECMO and robotic surgery are explored to further discussion of how we can optimize the delicate balance between innovation and regulation.

  1. Challenges facing the development of the Arabic chatbot

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHagbani, Eman Saad; Khan, Muhammad Badruddin

    2016-07-01

    The future information systems are expected to be more intelligent and will take human queries in natural language as input and answer them promptly. To develop a chatbot or a computer program that can chat with humans in realistic manner to extent that human get impressions that he/she is talking with other human is a challenging task. To make such chatbots, different technologies will work together ranging from artificial intelligence to development of semantic resources. Sophisticated chatbots are developed to perform conversation in number of languages. Arabic chatbots can be helpful in automating many operations and serve people who only know Arabic language. However, the technology for Arabic language is still in its infancy stage due to some challenges surrounding the Arabic language. This paper offers an overview of the chatbot application and the several obstacles and challenges that need to be resolved to develop an effective Arabic chatbot.

  2. Technologies for a sustainable development; Technologies pour un developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The European Event on Technology (EET), a recurrent annual event since 1992, is a major meeting opportunity for researchers and engineers as well as private and public decision-makers, on technologies, their evolution and their industrial and social implications. In less than a decade, sustainable development has become both an economic and a political priority. It was urgent and legitimate that those who are the mainsprings should take hold of the subject and give it technological content, estimate its costs and define clear timetables. The debates consist of: plenary sessions on environmental, social and economic stakes of sustainable development and the challenges for, and commitment of engineers, managers and politicians with respect to these goals; and workshops, which provide an overview of recently acquired or upcoming technologies developed by sector: energy, transports, new information technologies, new industrial manufacturing technologies (materials, products, services), waste management, global environment monitoring, water management, bio-technologies, and innovation management. This document brings together the different talks given by the participants. Among these, the following ones fall into the energy and environment scope: energy efficiency of buildings: towards energy autonomy; superconductors enable in new millennium for electric power industry; advanced gas micro-turbine-driven generator technology; environmental and technical challenges of an offshore wind farm; future nuclear energy systems; modelling combustion in engines: progress and prospects for reducing emissions; on-board computers: reduction in consumption and emissions of engine-transmission units for vehicles; polymer-lithium batteries: perspectives for zero-emission traction; hybrid vehicles and energy/environmental optimization: paths and opportunities; fuel cells and zero-emission: perspectives and developments; global change: causes, modeling and economic issues; the GMES

  3. Applications of Simulation Technology - Pitfalls and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Malik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulator based training has its own unique features and problems associated with it. There is a need to discuss these issues in order to understand the real meaning of simulator based training and to handle it effectively. Like other fields of training, use of simulation in the maritime industry is owing to the multiple factors covering technological, financial and training needs of the time. When properly used, supported by well trained and experienced instructors, simulator training, through its risk free environment, can contribute to a reduction in accidents and improve capability and efficiency, by providing trainees with the necessary experience and self confidence to carry out their roles, functions and tasks.

  4. CHALLENGES WHEN DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Maria POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing key performance indicators (KPIs represents one step closer to the achievement of objectives and strategic vision of the organization. They are important elements of the pathway towards performance, they evaluate and indicate the level of progress, guide the organizational strategy, they can be considered even the qualitative or quantitative expression of the execution of the strategy. Building reliable and appropriate measurement systems is one of the most difficult stage in the performance evaluation process. Such systems of management will help the executives and the management teams identify and build upon the elements that create competitive advantage and opportunities for better results.

  5. Progress and Challenges in High Performance Computer Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Jun Yang; Yong Dou; Qing-Feng Hu

    2006-01-01

    High performance computers provide strategic computing power in the construction of national economy and defense, and become one of symbols of the country's overall strength. Over 30 years, with the supports of governments, the technology of high performance computers is in the process of rapid development, during which the computing performance increases nearly 3 million times and the processors number expands over 10 hundred thousands times. To solve the critical issues related with parallel efficiency and scalability, scientific researchers pursued extensive theoretical studies and technical innovations. The paper briefly looks back the course of building high performance computer systems both at home and abroad,and summarizes the significant breakthroughs of international high performance computer technology. We also overview the technology progress of China in the area of parallel computer architecture, parallel operating system and resource management,parallel compiler and performance optimization, environment for parallel programming and network computing. Finally, we examine the challenging issues, "memory wall", system scalability and "power wall", and discuss the issues of high productivity computers, which is the trend in building next generation high performance computers.

  6. 66 THE CHALLENGES OF MIGRATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration occurs because individuals search for food, sex and security ... human beings in the production of food and security and in the reproduction .... Development involves generally the evolution of a better life for the members of society.

  7. Technology and Technological Knowledge: A Challenge for School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Ken

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to subjects such as mathematics and the sciences, it has been argued that technology education lacks a clear definition and a clearly defined knowledge base. This discursive article seeks to inform the debate by highlighting the matter of subject definition and in addition to examine the key issue of the knowledge which underpins…

  8. 后发国家战略性新兴产业技术创新及其挑战研究%Research of Strategic Emerging Industry Technology Innovation and its Challenges to Late -development Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐示波; 仲伟俊; 黄超

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,we fully consider globalization division and international competition of strategic emerging industry in view of the introduction of the industry in late -development country.Firstly,the concept of strategic emerging industries and its development patterns are discussed.Subsequently,the new classification of technological innovation in strategic e-merging industries is researched from the perspective of international competition.It is divided into complementary technol-ogy innovation,extensional technology innovation,alternative technology innovation and transcendental technology innova-tion.Then the challenges of overcoming industry core technology by using alternative technology innovation such as technol-ogy innovation ability,user acceptance,competition of developed countries,first -mover advantage of developed countries and its characteristics are analyzed.The revelations of research result are discussed and related suggestions are put forward finally.%针对我国这样的后发国家引进发展的战略性新兴产业,充分考虑产业的全球化分工和国际竞争,讨论战略性新兴产业的概念及其发展模式。从国际竞争的视角研究战略性新兴产业技术创新的新分类,将其分为互补性技术创新、扩展性技术创新、替代性技术创新和超越性技术创新等类型,重点剖析开展替代性技术创新攻克产业核心技术面临的技术创新能力、用户接受、先发国家竞争、先发国家的先动优势等诸多挑战及其特点。最后讨论研究结果带来的启示并提出相关建议。

  9. space technology and nigerian national challenges in disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Akinyede, J., , Dr.; Abdullahi, R.

    One of the sustainable development challenges of any nation is the nation s capacity and capabilities to manage its environment and disaster According to Abiodun 2002 the fundamental life support systems are air clean water and food or agricultural resources It also includes wholesome environment shelter and access to energy health and education All of these constitute the basic necessities of life whose provision and preservation should be a pre-occupation of the visionary leaders executive legislative and judiciary of any nation and its people in order to completely eradicate ignorance unemployment poverty and disease and also increase life expectancy Accordingly many societies around the globe including Nigeria are embarking on initiatives and developing agenda that could address redress the threats to the life supporting systems Disaster prevention management and reduction therefore present major challenges that require prompt attention locally nationally regionally and globally Responses to disasters vary from the application of space-derived data for disaster management to the disbursement of relief to the victims and the emplacement of recovery measures The role of space technology in particular in all the phases of disaster management planning against disaster disaster early warning risk reduction preparedness crises and damage assessment response and relief disbursement and recovery and reconstruction cannot be overemphasized Akinyede 2005 Therefore this paper seeks to focus on space

  10. Polypyrrole/carbon nanotube supercapacitors: Technological advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Adeel; Abuilaiwi, Faraj A.; Habib, Amir; Awais, Muhammad; Waje, Samaila B.; Atieh, Muataz A.

    2017-06-01

    The supercapacitors are advanced electrochemical energy storage devices having characteristics such as high storage capacity, rapid delivery of charge, and long cycle life. Polypyrrole (PPy) - an electronically conducting polymer, and carbon nanotubes (CNT) with high surface area and exceptional electrical and mechanical properties are among the most frequently studied advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors. The asymmetric supercapacitors composed of PPy/CNT composite electrodes offer complementary benefits to improve the specific capacitance, energy density, and stability. This article presents an overview of the recent technological advances in PPy/CNT composite supercapacitors and their limitations. Various strategies for synthesis and fabrication of PPy/CNT composites are discussed along with the factors that influence their ultimate electrochemical performance. The drawbacks and challenges of modern PPy/CNT composite supercapacitors are also reviewed, and potential areas of concern are identified for future research and development.

  11. Technological challenges for manganese nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    pressure). A shelf-propelled remotely controlled collector at the end of the riser pipe may prove more efficient than a towed collector to collect 3 million tonnes of nodules annually, at 10,000 tonnes per day for 300 active days of mining. Development...

  12. Nonproliferation Challenges in Space Defense Technology - PANEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) almost always "helps" space fission systems. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and high power fission electric systems appear able to use Proliferation Objectives While Simultaneously Helping Enable the Development and Utilization of Modern Space Fission Power and Propulsion Systems?

  13. Robotics Technology Development Program. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) is a ``needs-driven`` effort. A lengthy series of presentations and discussions at DOE sites considered critical to DOE`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Programs resulted in a clear understanding of needed robotics applications toward resolving definitive problems at the sites. A detailed analysis of the Tank Waste Retrieval (TWR), Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA), Mixed Waste Operations (MWO), and Decontamination & Dismantlement (D&D). The RTDP Group realized that much of the technology development was common (Cross Cutting-CC) to each of these robotics application areas, for example, computer control and sensor interface protocols. Further, the OTD approach to the Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E) process urged an additional organizational break-out between short-term (1--3 years) and long-term (3--5 years) efforts (Advanced Technology-AT). The RDTP is thus organized around these application areas -- TWR, CAA, MWO, D&D and CC&AT -- with the first four developing short-term applied robotics. An RTDP Five-Year Plan was developed for organizing the Program to meet the needs in these application areas.

  14. Leveraging Information Technology to Enable Army Transformation: Capabilities and Challenges for the Interim Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    is to examine the Interim Force and determine whether or not the higher technical performance expected to be gained from information technology will...which this force is being developed, underscore the capabilities information technology brings to the transformation effort, and examine the...challenges information technology presents Army planners and leaders as they further develop the campaign plan and execute the program. This study will

  15. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to

  16. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to c

  17. New Space Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Visitors from Moon Express, a privately funded commercial space company, will be visiting KSC Swamp Works. This presentation includes a high-level introduction to NASA and commercial partnerships, as well as brief background on the moon - what we used to think about it hundreds of years ago, and what we know today with advanced technologies.***This third part being added includes Swamp Works technical capabilities and has a high-level overview of a selection of projects.***

  18. Chemical technology for appropriate development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Brakel, J.

    1978-01-01

    'Chemical technology for appropriate development' is basicly a critical review of the literature. It gives a conceptual analysis of so called appropriate technology and the choice of production systems for less-development countries. The role of about 40 organizations active in this emerging field

  19. [Challenges, knowledge, decisions in the context of sustainable development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benachenhou, A

    1992-01-01

    This work explores challenges to sustainable development, identifies various currents of thought in the social sciences that are of potential relevance in the search for strategies to achieve sustainable development, and offers some reflections on the decision processes involved in selecting development strategies. 4 major challenges to sustainable development are identified. In the 1st place, the fundamental equilibrium of the exosphere is menaced by the expansion of industrial activity, with major ecological problem that of nonrecyclable waste which pollute the ecosystem. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is 1 example. The irreversibility of some effects of human activity is becoming clearer with time. A 2nd challenge is the arising from the intrinsic risks of scientific and technological development. The examples of nuclear energy and genetic manipulation demonstrate the dangers and ethical problems of allowing technological progress to occur without adequate societal control. A 3rd challenge is that of mastery of the organization and use of knowledge so that technological progress can be marshalled to reduce poverty and inequality. The 4th challenge is that of demographic growth, which accentuates poverty and inequality and aggravates pressure on resources. 3 recent currents of thought in the social sciences, all stressing interdisciplinarity, may contribute to understanding the long term modifications needed for achieving sustainable development. Among systemic approached, the thermodynamic theory of economic processes attempts to take into account the irreversible character of expenditures of energy and raw materials, while other theories examine the complexity of system interactions and the limitations of a purely quantitative approach. Decision theory may become an essential component of reflection on technological choices because of its demonstration that the criteria of rational choice differ in the cases of risk and of uncertainty

  20. Health technology assessment in Iran: challenges and views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Doaee, Shila; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Nedjati, Mina; Aboee, Parisa; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Various decisions have been made on technology application at all levels of the health system in different countries around the world. Health technology assessment is considered as one of the best scientific tools at the service of policy- makers. This study attempts to investigate the current challenges of Iran's health technology assessment and provide appropriate strategies to establish and institutionalize this program. This study was carried out in two independent phases. In the first, electronic databases such as Medline (via Pub Med) and Scientific Information Database (SID) were searched to provide a list of challenges of Iran's health technology assessment. The views and opinions of the experts and practitioners on HTA challenges were studied through a questionnaire in the second phase which was then analyzed by SPSS Software version 16. This has been an observational and analytical study with a thematic analysis. In the first phase, seven papers were retrieved; from which, twenty- two HTA challenges in Iran were extracted by the researchers; and they were used as the base for designing a structured questionnaire of the second phase. The views of the experts on the challenges of health technology assessment were categorized as follows: organizational culture, stewardship, stakeholders, health system management, infrastructures and external pressures which were mentioned in more than 60% of the cases and were also common in the views. The identification and prioritization of HTA challenges which were approved by those experts involved in the strategic planning of the Department of Health Technology Assessment will be a step forward in the promotion of an evidence- based policy- making and in the production of comprehensive scientific evidence.

  1. Current Challenges in Integrating Educational Technology into Elementary and Middle School Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Sandra Y.; Jamalian, Azadeh

    2011-01-01

    Developing curriculum and instruction for mathematics education and designing technologically enhanced learning environments are often pursued separately, but may need to be addressed together to effectively link the strengths of technology to performance in mathematics and conceptual understanding. This paper addresses current challenges with…

  2. Addressing Future Technology Challenges Through Innovation and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    thank my loving wife and children for their undying support during my fellowship and career to this point.   1   Chapter 1   Addressing...Future Technology Challenges: Innovate or Die!   I thoroughly disapprove of duels . If a man should challenge me, I would take him kindly and...forgivingly by the hand and lead him to a quiet place and kill him. - Mark Twain Duels are foolish. Mark Twain’s approach to conflict resolution is

  3. Technological development in fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Marchal, Paul; Gislason, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    increases by 3.2% per year due to technological developments, an increase often ignored in fisheries management. The documentation and quantification of technological creep improves the basis for successfully integrating the effects of technological development (and catchability changes) in fisheries...... management regulations and policies. Ways of counteracting the undesired effects of technological creep are discussed as are the potential management benefits from improved fishing technology. Specific suggestions are given on the selection, application, and tuning of fisheries management tools that can......Many marine fish stocks are overexploited and considerable overcapacity exists in fishing fleets worldwide. One of the reasons for the imbalance between resource availability and fishing capacity is technological development, which continuously increases the efficiency of the vessels—a mechanism...

  4. Challenges for health care development in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of the research done in this paper was to establish key challenges and perspectives for health care development in the Republic of Croatia in the next two decades. Empirical research was conducted in the form of semi-structured interviews involving 49 subjects, representatives of health care professionals from both, public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). The results have shown that key challenges and problems of Croatian health care can be divided into three groups: functioning of health care systems, health care personnel, and external factors. Research has shown that key challenges related to the functioning of health care are inefficiency, financial unviability, inadequate infrastructure, and the lack of system transparency. Poor governance is another limiting factor. With regard to health care personnel, they face the problems of low salaries, which then lead to migration challenges and a potential shortage of health care personnel. The following external factors are deemed to be among the most significant challenges: ageing population, bad living habits, and an increase in the number of chronic diseases. However, problems caused by the global financial crisis and consequential macroeconomic situation must not be neglected. Guidelines for responding to challenges identified in this research are the backbone for developing a strategy for health care development in the Republic of Croatia. Long-term vision, strategy, policies, and a regulatory framework are all necessary preconditions for an efficient health care system and more quality health services.

  5. Consuming technologies - developing routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Routines in daily life are crucial for consumption by households of energy and water and therefore knowledge of how routines develop and change is extremely relevant from a sustainable consumption perspective. Routines emerge, develop and change in close relation with different kinds of everyday ...

  6. Technology Transfer and the Challenges of Local Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (Marginal Fields Development Programme) and the internalization of input in the ... increasing the quantum of composite value added or created in the Nigerian ... challenges, local content development, capitalist and critical social theories.

  7. Challenges and prospects of using information technologies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The considerable attention is paid to information technologies in system of the higher education now. Using the latest technology, software and hardware in the learning process allows achieving high outcomes quality of study. The article deals with modern teaching technologies, including distance learning technology, case-technology, which is already used in practice in higher education. There remain unresolved issues of effective use of new learning technologies, the quality of the used software and hardware. The perspective directions of development of informatization of education are defined.

  8. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES IN NEW BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    case studies for comparison. Six interviews and 2 full-day workshops, gathering the perspectives of 76 people from an energy-utilities company forms the empirical background of the study. Six categories of knowledge management challenges were identified and, within each, central issues were extracted...... in the early phases. Furthermore, two new roles of the early phase, besides instigating projects, were found. This study contributes to the development of support tools for knowledge management in industry and to research with a deeper understanding of the new business development process.......The empirical study this paper is based upon, aimed to identify and describe knowledge management challenges, throughout the new business development process. This paper reports findings from the study, as well as the framework used for analysing the KM challenges, which can be applied to other...

  9. The Challenge of High Technology to Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Vernon K.

    1984-01-01

    Indicates that the challenge to schools of business education is to assist national and international economies in the transition to a high technological age and to ensure that courses and programs recognize the fundamental changes in the economic environment and prepare students for management in the 21st century. (JOW)

  10. SMD Technology Development Story for NASA Annual Technology report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seablom, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    The role of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is to enable NASA to achieve its science goals in the context of the Nation's science agenda. SMD's strategic decisions regarding future missions and scientific pursuits are guided by Agency goals, input from the science community-including the recommendations set forth in the National Research Council (NRC) decadal surveys-and a commitment to preserve a balanced program across the major science disciplines. Toward this end, each of the four SMD science divisions-Heliophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics-develops fundamental science questions upon which to base future research and mission programs. Often the breakthrough science required to answer these questions requires significant technological innovation-e.g., instruments or platforms with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. SMD's targeted technology investments fill technology gaps, enabling NASA to build the challenging and complex missions that accomplish groundbreaking science.

  11. Developing and Evaluating Collaborative Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    undertaking. This paper considers the topic of assessing collaborative technologies in the context of military logistics . A historical view of collaborative...research in military logistics is provided, as well as a discussion of current research aimed at developing a framework for assessing collaborative technologies.

  12. Technology Transfer Challenges for High-Assurance Software Engineering Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Penix, John; Markosian, Lawrence Z.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience with the challenges thar we are currently facing in our effort to develop advanced software verification and validation tools. We categorize these challenges into several areas: cost benefits modeling, tool usability, customer application domain, and organizational issues. We provide examples of challenges in each area and identrfj, open research issues in areas which limit our ability to transfer high-assurance software engineering tools into practice.

  13. AND TECHNOLOGY FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women should be part and parcel of her science and technology development. Nige- rian's effort .... based courses in University of Nigeria alone in 2000/2003 session. University of. 19 .... der, physical disability, limited English language ability.

  14. The conceptual and practical challenges to technology categorisation in the preparation of technology needs assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2015-01-01

    The strong focus in climate negotiations on the transfer and diffusion of technologies as ameans to mitigate and adapt to climate change has entailed various programs to promote the transfer and diffusion of climate technologies, including the Technology Needs Assessment project (TNA). Despite...... a framework for categorizing technologies according to the types of markets and non-markets in which they are diffused. While the framework has contributed to a higher degree of ‘market literacy’ among national stakeholders, four challenges in categorizing technologies have been identified: i) technologies...

  15. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES IN NEW BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    The empirical study this paper is based upon, aimed to identify and describe knowledge management challenges, throughout the new business development process. This paper reports findings from the study, as well as the framework used for analysing the KM challenges, which can be applied to other...... case studies for comparison. Six interviews and 2 full-day workshops, gathering the perspectives of 76 people from an energy-utilities company forms the empirical background of the study. Six categories of knowledge management challenges were identified and, within each, central issues were extracted...... and changes throughout the new business development process investigated. Significant differences from the early to the late stages of this process were identified, including; shift from personal to codified knowledge transfer and need for supporting integration of knowledge from diverse domains better...

  16. Developments in transgenic technology: applications for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Cheryl V; Tiley, Laurence S; Sang, Helen M

    2005-06-01

    Recent advances in the efficiency of transgenic technology have important implications for medicine. The production of therapeutic proteins from animal bioreactors is well established and the first products are close to market. The genetic modification of pigs to improve their suitability as organ donors for xenotransplantation has been initiated, but many challenges remain. The use of transgenesis, in combination with the method of RNA interference to knock down gene expression, has been proposed as a method for making animals resistant to viral diseases, which could reduce the likelihood of transmission to humans. Here, the latest developments in transgenic technology and their applications relevant to medicine and human health will be discussed.

  17. Multichip module technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapustinsky, J.S.; Boissevain, J.G.; Muck, R.C.; Smith, G.D.; Wong-Swanson, B.G.; Ziock, H.J.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Multichip Module (MCM) was designed and submitted for fabrication to the Lockheed Martin foundry using a licensed process called High Density Interconnect (HDI). The HDI process uses thin film techniques to create circuit interconnect patterns on multiple layers of dielectric film which are deposited directly on top of unpackaged electronic die. This results in an optimally small package that approaches the area of the bare die themselves. This project tested the capability of the Lockheed Martin foundry to produce, in an HDI process, a complex mixed-mode (analog and digital) circuit on a single MCM substrate.

  18. Insensitive control technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, C. A.; Pope, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    THe investigation of two insensitive controller synthesis techniques was reported. The finite dimensional inverse approach produces a time varying insensitive controller and/or parameter identifier by constructing inverse functions derived from a finite number of input output pair relationships. The MD/IM concept relies on the information matrix theory that was developed in the estimation and identification field. The MD/IM synthesis technique is based on the hypothesis that minimizing the information matrix will reduce system identifiability and consequently system sensitivity to uncertain parameters. The controllers designed with both techniques were evaluated on a realistic C-5A aircraft flight control problem. Results indicate that the FDI controller is more suited to trajectory type problems because of its time varying nature. The MD/IM controller performed as well as the top-rated controllers of the initial effort and has direct application to aircraft flight control problems.

  19. A short guide to technology development in cell biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Steensel (Bas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNew technologies drive progress in many research fields, including cell biology. Much of technological innovation comes from "bottom-up" efforts by individual students and postdocs. However, technology development can be challenging, and a successful outcome depends on many factors. This

  20. A short guide to technology development in cell biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Steensel (Bas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNew technologies drive progress in many research fields, including cell biology. Much of technological innovation comes from "bottom-up" efforts by individual students and postdocs. However, technology development can be challenging, and a successful outcome depends on many factors. This

  1. Internet Content Distribution : Developments and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Adrian; Erman, David; Ilie, Dragos; Constantinescu, Doru; Popescu, Alexandru

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports on recent developments and challenges focused on multimedia distribution over IP. These are subject for research within the research project "Routing in Overlay Networks (ROVER)" recently granted by the EuroNGI Network of Excellence (NoE).

  2. Working Environment and Technological Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Nielsen, Klaus T.; Jensen, Per Langaa

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the purpose, themes, overarching research questions and specific projects of the programme: Working Environment and Technological Development. The major research themes are:1) Management concepts and the working environment, which considers the visions and their and their conc......The paper describes the purpose, themes, overarching research questions and specific projects of the programme: Working Environment and Technological Development. The major research themes are:1) Management concepts and the working environment, which considers the visions...... and their and their concept of working environment2) Technology renewal, which considers the role of the working environment in connection with the development and use of concrete technologies3) Working environment planning, which considers the existing efforts to place the working environment in a planning process....

  3. Challenges on wind power development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qianjin; Shi, Jingli

    2010-09-15

    Wind power has experienced exponential growth in China in the past five years, which exceeds the most optimistic expectations. The increasing penetration and aggressive future plan are arousing big concerns about its impact on operation and security of existing power networks. This paper introduces present condition of wind power development in China and the challenges on both grid integration and regulations. Most of these challenges are economical rather than technical. Feed-in tariff policies and grid code are the key countermeasures. Accurate wind forecast and economical mass energy storage are needed to guarantee compliance of wind power to the grid.

  4. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACING CHALLENGES IN 21ST CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.

  5. Creating virtual communities of practice for learning technology in higher education: issues, challenges and experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline A. Dempster; Beetham, Helen; Jackson, Peter; Richardson, Steven

    2003-01-01

    The need for a Web portal to support the rapidly growing field of learning technology has been well established through a number of national surveys and scoping studies over recent years. The overarching vision has been the provision of a virtual environment to assist in informing and developing professional practice in the use of learning technologies. This paper outlines the issues and challenges in creating such a portal through the experiences of developing the RESULTs Network. In the pap...

  6. Review of Fin FET Technology and Circuit Design Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibin Lawrence R,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties in planar CMOS transistor scaling to secure an acceptable gate to channel control FinFET based multi-gate (MuGFET devices have been proposed as a technology option for replacing the existing technology. The desirability of FinFET that it’s operation principle is same as CMOS process. This permits to lengthening the gate scaling beyond the planar transistor limits, sustaining a steep subthreshold slope, better performance with bias voltage scaling and good matching due to low doping concentration in the channel. There are, still, several challenges and limitations that FinFET technology has to face to be competitive with other technology options: Fin shape, pitch, isolation, doping, crystallographic orientation and stressing as well as device parasitic, performance and patterning approaches will be discussed.

  7. Big Data Mining: Challenges, Technologies, Tools and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Asha M. PAWAR

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a data with large size means it has large volume, velocity and variety. Now a day's big data is expanding in a various science and engineering fields. And so there are many challenges to manage and analyse big data using various tools. This paper introduces the big data and its Characteristic concepts and Next section elaborates about the Challenges in Big data. In Particular, wed discuss about the technologies used in big data Analysis and Which Tools are mainly used to analyse t...

  8. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  9. Challenges of Information Technology Security in the NASA Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    A brief description of the NASA organization and how the CIO responsibilities are integrated into that organization followed by an introduction of the NASA ITS Program goals and objectives. An overview of the four major enterprises' cultures and how those cultures tie back to the Enterprises' missions. A description of the ITS challenges that exist stemming from the competing NASA Enterprises' requirements and how they have formed the basis of the NASA ITS Program. A talk will focus on policies and procedures and the technology being incorporated into the NASA infrastructure and how that technology ties back to the policies and procedures.

  10. The conceptual and practical challenges to technology categorisation in the preparation of technology needs assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2015-01-01

    The strong focus in climate negotiations on the transfer and diffusion of technologies as ameans to mitigate and adapt to climate change has entailed various programs to promote the transfer and diffusion of climate technologies, including the Technology Needs Assessment project (TNA). Despite...... for the challenges in formulating plans of actions for technologies. If, due to a lack of conceptual clarity, it is not clear to countries whether the diffusion of a specific technology should be implemented by a project or by means of an enabling framework, the measures proposed in the action plans may...

  11. Possibilities and Challenges designing low-carbon-energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    Footprint, concepts and tools from Life Cycle Assessment, and relevant elements from eco-efficiency theoretical frameworks. Often systemic approaches tend to be driven by completely rational models. However, our main contribution is to consider a more holistic approach that also includes socio......Though there is broad consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on the use of low-carbon technologies, and even though there is a big potential to turn to a more sustainable design and innovation, there are several elements that need to be taken...... as a study object and discusses the question: What are the main possibilities and challenges when designing low-carbon illumination technologies? To answer this question, we use a systemic approach including environmental, economic, energy and political issues using relevant concepts from the Ecological...

  12. Development of Radiochemical Separation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eil Hee; Kim, K. W.; Yang, H. B. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    This project of the second phase was aimed at the development of basic unit technologies for advanced partitioning, and the application tests of pre-developed partitioning technologies for separation of actinides by using a simulated multi-component radioactive waste containing Am, Np, Tc, U and so on. The goals for recovery yield of TRU, and for purity of Tc are high than 99% and about 99%, respectively. The work scopes and contents were as follows. 1). For the development of basic unit technologies for advanced partitioning. 1. Development of technologies for co-removal of TRU and for mutual separation of U and TRU with a reduction-complexation reaction. 2. Development of extraction system for high-acidity co-separation of An(+3) and Ln(+3) and its radiolytic evaluation. 3. Synthesis of extractants for the selective separation of An(+3) and its relevant extraction system development. 4. Development of a hybrid system for the recovery of noble metals and its continuous separation tests. 5. Development of electrolytic system for the decompositions of N-NO3 and N-NH3 compounds to nitrogen gas. 2). For the application test of pre-developed partitioning technologies for the separation of actinide elements in a simulated multi-component solution equivalent to HLW level. 1. Co-separation of Tc, Np and U by a (TBP-TOA)/NDD system. 2. Mutual-separation of Am, Cm and RE elements by a (Zr-DEHPA)/NDD system. All results will be used as the fundamental data for the development of advanced partitioning process in the future.

  13. Developing Persuasive Technology for ASD Challenged Teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Morten; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The HANDS project suggests the use of Mobile Persuasion in order to support teenagers with an autism diagnosis and normal or high IQ. The paper offers a description of the HANDS toolset and its potential. The HANDS toolset has been evaluated at four schools for teenagers with autism over a period...

  14. Developing Persuasive Technology for ASD Challenged Teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Morten; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The HANDS project suggests the use of Mobile Persuasion in order to support teenagers with an autism diagnosis and normal or high IQ. The paper offers a description of the HANDS toolset and its potential. The HANDS toolset has been evaluated at four schools for teenagers with autism over a period...

  15. Challenges Facing Adoption of Information Communication Technology in African Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgor, Titus Kiptoo

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of the universities and higher educational institutions have adopted the latest technology and implemented it productively, for the development of skilled human resource in respective area of specialization, as part of their responsibility. Information and communication Technology (ICT) has grown tremendously around the globe…

  16. Grand challenges in technology enhanced learning outcomes of the 3rd Alpine Rendez-Vous

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Frank; Sutherland, Rosamund; Zirn, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a key piece of the vision and strategy developed in STELLAR. It sets out a new mid-term agenda by defining Grand Challenges for research and development in technology-enhanced learning. Other than mere technology prizes, STELLAR Grand Challenges deal with problems at the interface of social and technical sciences. They pose problems that can be solved only in interdisciplinary collaboration. The descriptions of the Grand Challenge Problems were sent out to a number of stakeholders from industry, academia, and policy-making who responded with insightful, creative and critical comments bringing in their specific perspectives. This book will inspire everyone interested in TEL and its neighboring disciplines in their future projects. All of the listed problems, first hints with respect to the approach, measurable success indicators and funding sources are outlined. The challenges focus on what noted experts regard as important upcoming, pending, and innovative fields of research, the solution o...

  17. Behavioral health workforce development challenges in the digital health era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patricia B; Chan, Steven

    2017-09-01

    This column describes challenges for hiring, training, and supervising psychiatric rehabilitation service providers for positions that involve the use of digital health technology. Adoption and implementation of any new technology or technique requires workforce development. This article outlines considerations for policymakers, funders, and service agency administrators as digital health technologies become more widespread. The article discusses issues based on professional experience of the authors and available literature. The literature on adoption of innovations in general, and the adoption of psychiatric evidence-based practices in particular, indicates that funding and adoption of new techniques and technologies are not adequate to ensure full and sustained implementation. The use of any new treatment or technology requires training and other supports to ensure that users have the competencies needed to make it work and that the workplace supports its use. As new digital health technologies become available, considerations of their cost and effectiveness need to include an examination of the required competencies of the service providers who will use them and the added cost of developing, enhancing, and maintaining those competencies. Specific attitudes, knowledge, and skills will be relevant to hiring decisions. Relevant preservice and on-the-job training opportunities, technical assistance, and supervision will be needed. Implementation needs to be monitored, not assumed, and the rights of the people who use technology-supported services must be fully protected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  19. The Internet in developing nations: Grand challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Press, Larry

    2004-01-01

    This is a call for a "Grand Challenge" project for achieving truly global connectivity. For over a decade, we have hypothesized that the Internet could raise the quality of life in developing nations. We have conducted hundreds of studies of the state of the Internet and "e–readiness," done extensive training of technicians and policy makers, run pilot studies, and held local, regional and global conferences and workshops. After all of this activity, Internet connectivity is nearly non–existe...

  20. Lost circulation technology development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D.; Wright, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April 1991--March 1992. 8 refs.

  1. Application of GIS technology in public health: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie M; Caprarelli, Graziella

    2016-04-01

    The uptake and acceptance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has increased since the early 1990s and public health applications are rapidly expanding. In this paper, we summarize the common uses of GIS technology in the public health sector, emphasizing applications related to mapping and understanding of parasitic diseases. We also present some of the success stories, and discuss the challenges that still prevent a full scope application of GIS technology in the public health context. Geographical analysis has allowed researchers to interlink health, population and environmental data, thus enabling them to evaluate and quantify relationships between health-related variables and environmental risk factors at different geographical scales. The ability to access, share and utilize satellite and remote-sensing data has made possible even wider understanding of disease processes and of their links to the environment, an important consideration in the study of parasitic diseases. For example, disease prevention and control strategies resulting from investigations conducted in a GIS environment have been applied in many areas, particularly in Africa. However, there remain several challenges to a more widespread use of GIS technology, such as: limited access to GIS infrastructure, inadequate technical and analytical skills, and uneven data availability. Opportunities exist for international collaboration to address these limitations through knowledge sharing and governance.

  2. Process and technology challenges in swift-starting virtual teams

    OpenAIRE

    Munkvold, Bjørn E.; Zigurs, Ilze

    2007-01-01

    Virtual teams often face tight schedules and a need to start quickly and perform instantly. The goal of our study was to enhance understanding of the challenges faced by such teams. We used time–interaction–performance theory as the framework for following the processes and functions within virtual teams working on a systems development task. Our study provided a detailed examination of the group process, applied to virtual teams working under time pressure. The challenges faced by virtual te...

  3. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaruddin FH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatiha H Shabaruddin,1 Nigel D Fleeman,2 Katherine Payne3 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 3Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response or safety (avoidance of adverse events. The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are

  4. Technology Education Challenges and Solutions in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Jordán, Ramiro; Pollard, Leonard Howard; Abdallah, C.T.; Sanín, J.; Van Reenen, J.; De Giusti, Marisa Raquel; Franco, P

    2001-01-01

    The world has become dependent on informa-tion, technology, and telecommunications, better known as Information Technology and Telecommunications (IT&T), a term that encompasses the fields of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Computer Science. Increasingly, IT&T is an effective indicator of the difference between developed and developing nations. The competitiveness of a nation is directly related to its incorporation of IT&T which requires a substan-tial restructuring of the forms and...

  5. Coal India Limited - technology strategy to meet the challenges of future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, S.M.P.; Misra, S.B.C.

    1989-08-01

    The production increases of the next 5 and 10 years are challenges to Coal India. Organized and planned efforts are called for. Coal India is well aware of it and has started gearing itself up to meet the challenges right now. The proposed strategy is as follows: development and adoption of new technologies through indigenous means and by import wherever necessary; upgradation of technology; wider application of new/upgraded technologies already established; commercialization of technologies established with R D work; and R D work. The major areas where work on this strategy has been taken up are: coal exploration; shaft sinking, mine development and mine construction; underground mining; opencast mining; coal handling dispatch; coal beneficiation; coal combustion utilization; slurry pipeline transport of coal; environmental management; and electronics for coal sector, including surface telecommunication network, data base management (computer), and mining electronics, safety, communication and industrial electronics. This paper briefly describes the work being done in each of these areas.

  6. Challenges in neurological practice in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The burden of neurological illness is much higher in developing countries. Neurological disorders in these countries are mainly due to poverty and malnutrition. Spectrums of diseases are also different in comparison with developed countries. Lack of resources, ignorance, and overpopulation make it very difficult and challenging to tackle this problem. Majority of the patients are seen by general practitioners who have little knowledge about neurological illnesses. Most of the countries have very few or no neurologist. There is a greater need of taking neurological care at primary care level where majority of the patients struggle with epilepsy, stroke and neuroinfections.

  7. Challenges in developing drugs for primary headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Hargreaves, Richard; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-01-01

    This review considers the history of drug development in primary headaches and discusses challenges to the discovery of innovative headache therapeutics. Advances in headache genetics have yet to translate to new classes of therapeutics and there are currently no clear predictive human biomarkers......, there have been many near misses and failures in the discovery and development of headache therapeutics. Glutamate receptor antagonism whilst efficacious has central side effects and some approaches such as nitric oxide synthase inhibition, substance P antagonism and cortical spreading depression blockade...

  8. Technologies for HIV prevention and care: challenges for health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivia Maksud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis article aims to consider some relevant challenges to the provision of "new prevention technologies" in health services in a scenario where the "advances" in the global response to AIDS control are visible. We take as material for analysis the information currently available on the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, treatment as prevention (TASP and over the counter. The methodology consisted of the survey and analysis of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS: MEDLINE, LILACS, WHOLIS, PAHO, SciELO articles that addressed the issue of HIV prevention and care in the context of so-called new prevention technologies. The results of the studies show that there is assistance on the ground of clinics for the treatment of disease responses, but there are several challenges related to the sphere of prevention. The articles list some challenges regarding to management, organization of services and the attention given by health professionals to users. The current context shows evidence of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission, but the challenges for the provision of preventive technologies in health services permeate health professionals and users in their individual dimensions and health services in organizational and structural dimension. Interventions should be made available in a context of community mobilization; there should be no pressure on people to make HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment or for prevention. In the management is responsible for the training of health professionals to inform, clarify and make available to users, partners and family information about the new antiretroviral use strategies.

  9. Technologies for HIV prevention and care: challenges for health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksud, Ivia; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Filgueiras, Sandra Lucia

    2015-09-01

    This article aims to consider some relevant challenges to the provision of "new prevention technologies" in health services in a scenario where the "advances" in the global response to AIDS control are visible. We take as material for analysis the information currently available on the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), treatment as prevention (TASP) and over the counter. The methodology consisted of the survey and analysis of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS: MEDLINE, LILACS, WHOLIS, PAHO, SciELO) articles that addressed the issue of HIV prevention and care in the context of so-called new prevention technologies. The results of the studies show that there is assistance on the ground of clinics for the treatment of disease responses, but there are several challenges related to the sphere of prevention. The articles list some challenges regarding to management, organization of services and the attention given by health professionals to users. The current context shows evidence of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission, but the challenges for the provision of preventive technologies in health services permeate health professionals and users in their individual dimensions and health services in organizational and structural dimension. Interventions should be made available in a context of community mobilization; there should be no pressure on people to make HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment or for prevention. In the management is responsible for the training of health professionals to inform, clarify and make available to users, partners and family information about the new antiretroviral use strategies.

  10. Sensor Web Technology Challenges and Advancements for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Charles D.; Moe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Earth science decadal survey era and the role ESTO developed sensor web technologies can contribute to the scientific observations. This includes hardware and software technology advances for in-situ and in-space measurements. Also discussed are emerging areas of importance such as the potential of small satellites for sensor web based observations as well as advances in data fusion critical to the science and societal benefits of future missions, and the challenges ahead.

  11. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  12. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  13. Technological Development and Fisheries Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eigaard, O.R.; Marchal, P.; Gislason, H.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Many marine fish stocks are overexploited and considerable overcapacity exists in fishing fleets worldwide. One of the reasons for the imbalance between resource availability and fishing capacity is technological development, which continuously increases the efficiency of the vessels—a mechanism

  14. An International Development Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert P.

    1969-01-01

    Main focus of the Center is "the application of science and technology to the solution of problems faced by people in less-developed areas of the world. Adapted from paper presented at ASEE Annual Meeting, The Pennsylvania State University, June, 1969. (Author/WM)

  15. Technological Development and Fisheries Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eigaard, O.R.; Marchal, P.; Gislason, H.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Many marine fish stocks are overexploited and considerable overcapacity exists in fishing fleets worldwide. One of the reasons for the imbalance between resource availability and fishing capacity is technological development, which continuously increases the efficiency of the vessels—a mechanism ref

  16. Materials challenges in developing H{sub 2} storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, M. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States). Chemical Sciences and Materials Systems Laboratory

    2010-07-01

    The development of technically robust and commercially viable hydrogen/fuel cell propulsion technologies is a possible option for creating a sustainable transportation system. Examples of some of these technologies include hydrogen production from renewable energy sources; fuel cell propulsion using inexpensive, durable materials and designs; and practical, high energy density methods for storage of hydrogen both on-board vehicles and at fuel station facilities. Significant materials challenges for the scientific and engineering communities have been generated by the development of proton exchange membrane fuel cell/hydrogen propulsion technology. Several research and development efforts are pursuing a variety of onboard storage approaches, including compressed storage at different pressures, metal hydrides at high pressures, complex hydrides, and cryogenic storage either as a liquid or adsorbed onto porous substrates. This presentation described the results of recent research and development programs focused on hydrogen storage technologies conducted at General Motors. The presentation summarized the status, recent accomplishments and current performance gaps of hydrogen storage technologies for fuel cell applications.

  17. Technological Development in Carbon Sequestration at Petrobras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello Branco, R.; Vazquez Sebastian, G.; Murce, T.; Cunha, P.; Dino, R.; Sartori Santarosa, C.

    2007-07-01

    Petrobras defined, in its mission, the intention to act in a safe and profitable way, with social and environmental responsibility. In its vision, the company decided to be an oil and energy company, taking into account climate change mitigation. These changes were partially caused, without the company's knowledge, for many years, by the burning of fossil fuels. Among many technologies available for this mitigation, carbon sequestration is the one that, in a short space of time, can avoid the collapse of earth's climate. In order to meet this carbon sequestration challenge, there has been established, at CENPES, three strategies for its technological development: (i) establishment of a Systemic Project for Carbon Sequestration within the scope of the Environmental Technology Program - PROAMB; (ii) creation of a Group of Carbon Sequestration Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - formation of team and qualification program, which includes the realization of the International Seminar on Carbon Sequestration and Climate Change at Petrobras in October 2006; and (iii) Implementation of the Technological Network of Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation. (auth)

  18. Technological products to support the Venezuelan heavy oil development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.; Negrin, Z.; Duran, M.; Vilera, M.; Santamaria, F. [PDVSA INTEVEP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In Venezuela, important reserves of heavy oil crude are located at the Orinoco oil belt and the challenge is to develop these fields in a safe and environmentally friendly way. To address this challenge, PDVSA Intevep has been developing cutting edge technologies for more than 30 years. The aim of this paper is to present the principal inventions of PDVSA Intevep and their application in the Venezuelan traditional areas. PDVSA Intevep is the technological development and research center of the Venezuelan national oil industry; they own 773 patents, 103 trademarks, 48 copyrights, 13 trade secrets and 35 products used in different technological areas. The technologies presented will be used in the Orinoco oil belt in support of Venezuelan technological sovereignty. PDVSA Intevep has developed and adapted many technologies aimed at putting oil resources at the service of the whole population and ending social inequalities.

  19. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  20. New technology opens the door for deepwater development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dagang

    2011-01-01

    The paper provided an updated status of technology for deepwater field development, demonstrated the importance of its application through actual project example, and discussed some future technical development trends. The focus was on the floating structures. By reviewing some of the engineering aspects of the project, the technology advancement, innovations and challenges in offshore engineering were discussed and demonstrated. The author's view of technical challenges facing deepwater forwarding was discussed, which covered water depth limitations, new material application, installation methods, riser development and operational issues. An overview of technologies that will enable deepwater projects to be extended into new frontiers was presented.

  1. The Impacts of Demographic Variables on Technological and Contextual Challenges of E-learning Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldowah, Hanan; Ghazal, Samar; Naufal Umar, Irfan; Muniandy, Balakrishnan

    2017-09-01

    Information technology has achieved robust growth which has made it possible for learning to occur quickly. The rapid development of information, communication and technologies (ICT) has initiated an unparalleled transformation in universities all over the world. This development of technology and learning is offering new techniques to represent knowledge, new practices, and new global communities of learners. As a result, today’s economic and social changes force universities to try to find new learning approaches and systems. E-learning seems to be an appropriate approach in this aspect. However, the implementation of e-learning systems in universities is not an easy task because of some challenges related to context, technology, and other challenges. This paper studied the impacts of demographic data and reported the critical points for the decision makers to consider when planning and implementing e-learning in universities. A quantitative approach was used to study the effects of technological and contextual challenges on e-learning implementation in which a questionnaire was used for the data collection. According to the findings of the study, the most important challenges of the implementation of e-learning are related either to organizational (Contextual) and technological (technical) issues. The demographic variables have been found to play a direct and indirect role with the technological and contextual challenges of implementing e-learning. This paper showed that there are some significant differences in the two challenges faced by instructors in terms of the demographic variables. The result revealed that some significant differences exist between demographic variables and the two challenges of e-learning in terms of gender, age, teaching experience, ICT experience and e-learning experience. However, there is no significant difference in terms of e-learning experience. The obtained data, from such study, can provide information about what academic

  2. Technology development life cycle processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  3. Drug Development and Challenges for Neuromuscular Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouelhi, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Drug development process faces many challenges, including those encountered in clinical trials for neuromuscular diseases. Drug development is a lengthy and highly costly process. Out of 10 compounds entering first study in man (phase 1), only one compound reaches the market after an average of 14 years with a cost of $2.7 billion. Nevertheless, according to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services, prescription drugs constituted only 9 % of each health care dollar spent in USA in 2013. Examples of challenges encountered in neuromuscular clinical trials include lack of validated patient-reported outcome tools, blinding issues, and the use of placebo in addition to lack of health authority guidance for orphan diseases. Patient enrollment challenge is the leading cause of missed clinical trial deadlines observed in about 80 % of clinical trials, resulting in delayed availability of potentially life-saving therapies. Another specific challenge introduced by recent technology is the use of social media and risk of bias. Sharing personal experiences while in the study could easily introduce bias among patients that would interfere with accurate interpretation of collected data. To minimize this risk, recent neuromuscular studies incorporate as an inclusion criterion the patient's agreement not to share any of study experiences through social media with other patients during the study conduct. Consideration of these challenges will allow timely response to the high unmet medical needs for many neuromuscular diseases.

  4. Technology Development for High Efficiency Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space optical communications is a significantly more challenging operational domain than near Earth space optical communications, primarily due to effects resulting from the vastly increased range between transmitter and receiver. The NASA Game Changing Development Program Deep Space Optical Communications Project is developing four key technologies for the implementation of a high efficiency telecommunications system that will enable greater than 10X the data rate of a state-of-the-art deep space RF system (Ka-band) for similar transceiver mass and power burden on the spacecraft. These technologies are a low mass spacecraft disturbance isolation assembly, a flight qualified photon counting detector array, a high efficiency flight laser amplifier and a high efficiency photon counting detector array for the ground-based receiver.

  5. Regulatory challenges affecting ICT development in Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretova, Olga A.

    2017-01-01

    of electronic governance. The aim of this description is to highlight factors affecting the development of ICT in Ukraine, more from a regulatory stand point. The point of departure in discussing ICT development is with respect to telecom networks, and e-government services. These two issues form the basis...... for developing electronic communications, which will be mentioned repeatedly in this chapter. Ukraine’s ICT market is still budding. It is a growing market. The country became independent in 1991. It inherited the telecom legacy of the old Soviet Union and decided to forge a telecommunications path for itself...... in the region in terms of network readiness (64th place out of 139 economies) and global competitiveness (79th place out of 140 economies) in 2016. The significance of ICT policies is broadly understood at the highest political level in Ukraine, however their implementation has always posed a challenge...

  6. Dune management challenges on developed coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, Nicole A.; Brodie, Kate; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Nordstrom, Karl F.; Houser, Chris; McKenna, Kim; Moore, Laura; Rosati, Julie D.; Ruggiero, Peter; Thuman, Roberta; Walker, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    From October 26-28, 2015, nearly 100 members of the coastal management and research communities met in Kitty Hawk, NC, USA to bridge the apparent gap between the coastal dune research of scientists and engineers and the needs of coastal management practitioners. The workshop aimed to identify the challenges involved in building and managing dunes on developed coasts, assess the extent to which scientific knowledge can be applied to the management community, and identify approaches to provide means to bridge the gap between needs and potential solutions.

  7. On Technology Convergence and Platforms: Requirements Challenges from New Technologies and System Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarke, Matthias

    In this chapter, we investigate some opportunities and challenges for requirements engineering resulting from major changes in the technical context in which ICT systems operate, in particular from the continuous trend towards information and communication technology convergence. We illustrate these challenges with two major examples, one concerning requirements monitoring as a self-governance mechanism in Internet-based social networks, the other concerning the role of requirements modeling as a mediator between different cultures in embedded systems engineering for the automotive industry. Starting from a brief re-iteration of Thomas Friedman’s argument on standards evolution, we finally discuss platform strategies as an important emerging challenge for organizational RE.

  8. Rogue athletes and recombinant DNA technology: challenges for doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H

    2007-10-01

    The quest for athletic excellence holds no limit for some athletes, and the advances in recombinant DNA technology have handed these athletes the ultimate doping weapons: recombinant proteins and gene doping. Some detection methods are now available for several recombinant proteins that are commercially available as pharmaceuticals and being abused by dopers. However, researchers are struggling to come up with efficient detection methods in preparation for the imminent threat of gene doping, expected in the 2008 Olympics. This Forum article presents the main detection strategies for recombinant proteins and the forthcoming detection strategies for gene doping as well as the prime analytical challenges facing them.

  9. Privacy and technology challenges for ubiquitous social networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Seet, Boon-Chong

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitous social networking (USN) can be seen as an evolution of ubiquitous computing supporting the social well–being of people in their everyday lives. The vision of USN focuses on enhancing social interactions among its participants during users' physical meetings. This target is leading...... towards important challenges such as social sensing, enabling social networking and privacy protection. In this paper we firstly investigate the methods and technologies for acquisition of the relevant context for promotion of sociability among inhabitants of USN environments. Afterwards, we review...

  10. Electroporation-based technologies for medicine: principles, applications, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmush, Martin L; Golberg, Alexander; Serša, Gregor; Kotnik, Tadej; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2014-07-11

    When high-amplitude, short-duration pulsed electric fields are applied to cells and tissues, the permeability of the cell membranes and tissue is increased. This increase in permeability is currently explained by the temporary appearance of aqueous pores within the cell membrane, a phenomenon termed electroporation. During the past four decades, advances in fundamental and experimental electroporation research have allowed for the translation of electroporation-based technologies to the clinic. In this review, we describe the theory and current applications of electroporation in medicine and then discuss current challenges in electroporation research and barriers to a more extensive spread of these clinical applications.

  11. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil) consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels), Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  12. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  13. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels, Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  14. Development of Remote Operations Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sub; Kwon, Sung Gyu; Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Byung Suk; Park Young Soo; Lee, Won Sang [Korea Atomic Energry Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    To control the swing of the load suspended to overhead crane, various devices, anti-swing control algorithms, and experimental and pilot-scaled cranes have been developed since 1989. In this year, the problems of control algorithm are identified and new algorithms which adopt an acceleration profile planning, a velocity feedback control, a fuzzy control, and an anti-swing/position control methods are developed. Also, the report includes the program of transferring the anti-swing overhead crane technology to industry. And, to improve the cask handling safety and to increase the cask handling capacity of a facility, a Remote Cask Grappling and Lid Unbolting Device (RCG=LUD) which is suspended to an anti-swing crane and remotely controlled to hold the cask and unbolt the cask lid is developed. the controller using PMAC is tested for successful remote operations. Technology for this device has the potential for developing other technologies, such as nuclear reactor maintenance and repair. 62 refs., 73 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main

  16. Using Technology to Meet the Challenges of Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guze, Phyllis A

    2015-01-01

    Medical education is rapidly changing, influenced by many factors including the changing health care environment, the changing role of the physician, altered societal expectations, rapidly changing medical science, and the diversity of pedagogical techniques. Changes in societal expectations put patient safety in the forefront, and raises the ethical issues of learning interactions and procedures on live patients, with the long-standing teaching method of "see one, do one, teach one" no longer acceptable. The educational goals of using technology in medical education include facilitating basic knowledge acquisition, improving decision making, enhancement of perceptual variation, improving skill coordination, practicing for rare or critical events, learning team training, and improving psychomotor skills. Different technologies can address these goals. Technologies such as podcasts and videos with flipped classrooms, mobile devices with apps, video games, simulations (part-time trainers, integrated simulators, virtual reality), and wearable devices (google glass) are some of the techniques available to address the changing educational environment. This article presents how the use of technologies can provide the infrastructure and basis for addressing many of the challenges in providing medical education for the future.

  17. Using Technology to Meet the Challenges of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guze, Phyllis A.

    2015-01-01

    Medical education is rapidly changing, influenced by many factors including the changing health care environment, the changing role of the physician, altered societal expectations, rapidly changing medical science, and the diversity of pedagogical techniques. Changes in societal expectations put patient safety in the forefront, and raises the ethical issues of learning interactions and procedures on live patients, with the long-standing teaching method of “see one, do one, teach one” no longer acceptable. The educational goals of using technology in medical education include facilitating basic knowledge acquisition, improving decision making, enhancement of perceptual variation, improving skill coordination, practicing for rare or critical events, learning team training, and improving psychomotor skills. Different technologies can address these goals. Technologies such as podcasts and videos with flipped classrooms, mobile devices with apps, video games, simulations (part-time trainers, integrated simulators, virtual reality), and wearable devices (google glass) are some of the techniques available to address the changing educational environment. This article presents how the use of technologies can provide the infrastructure and basis for addressing many of the challenges in providing medical education for the future. PMID:26330687

  18. Technology development and technology gap among Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Moya, Edgar David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to study the source of the technology gaps amongst some Latin American countries and to identify whether a regional system of technological progress may be strengthened. ethodology: technology development within some Latin America countries was researched based on the technology frontier concept. In order to do that, the technological advancement of such countries was compared using standard variables and institutional systems. The concept and scope of the technology frontier, whic...

  19. Proteomics: technology development and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, S Patrick; Jayaraman, Arul

    2009-02-01

    Technology development in, and the application of, proteomics are emerging areas among chemical engineers and others who presented at the 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Annual Meeting. Overall, the centennial meeting offered a broad current perspective on the discipline of chemical engineering as it enters its second century. Biomedical and biochemical engineering continue to grow as important facets of the discipline. Within these, the value and applicability of proteomics were demonstrated in a number of interesting presentations. This year, as in the recent past, the AIChE Annual Meeting was held in conjunction with the American Electrophoresis Society Annual Meeting. American Electrophoresis Society presenters offered further academic and industrial viewpoints on the still-developing role of proteomics and proteomic technologies in biological and clinical analyses.

  20. Factors Influencing Cloud-Computing Technology Adoption in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of new technology has complicating components both from the selection, as well as decision-making criteria and process. Although new technology such as cloud computing provides great benefits especially to the developing countries, it has challenges that may complicate the selection decision and subsequent adoption process. This study…

  1. Factors Influencing Cloud-Computing Technology Adoption in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of new technology has complicating components both from the selection, as well as decision-making criteria and process. Although new technology such as cloud computing provides great benefits especially to the developing countries, it has challenges that may complicate the selection decision and subsequent adoption process. This study…

  2. 从数字城市到智慧城市的技术发展机遇与挑战%Opportunities and challenges in technology development from Digital City to Smart City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁军; 黄骞

    2013-01-01

    Today, an important change from Digital City to Smart City is occurring with in the City Informatization Progress, which brought opportunities and challenges to the concepts and techniques development.In this article, we first discuss the role while Digital City plays in the City System, then reach the conclusion that the integration between Digital City and Internet of Things would push the evolution from from Digital City to Smart City.Bybuilding a comprehensive city digital neural network system, the city system would become more and more intelligento In the end, we discuss opportunities and challenges brought bythe key technologies in Smart City development, such as Network, Internet of Things, Big Data, NoSQL, SOA, ESB, Cloud Computing, GIS ,BIM, Social Computing etc.%当前,城市信息化正在历经从数字城市向智慧城市的重要转变,这也带来了理念与技术发展的诸多机遇与挑战,本文首先讨论数字城市在城市系统中的地位与意义,进一步明确了数字城市与物联网的集成,使数字城市向智慧城市发展,通过构筑全面的城市数字神经网络系统,促使城市系统的行为智能化的趋势.最后讨论了网络通信技术、物联网、大数据与NoSQL、SOA与ESB、云计算、地理信息技术与BIM、社会计算及其他它相关技术的发展对智慧城市建设的推动作用,以及这些技术在智慧城市建设的集成应用中将带来新的机遇与挑战.

  3. Addressing climate challenges in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Simone; Monaghan, Andrew; Done, James

    2012-04-01

    Advanced Study Program/Early Career Scientist Assembly Workshop on Regional Climate Issues in Developing Countries; Boulder, Colorado, 19-22 October 2011 The Early Career Scientist Assembly (ECSA) and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) invited 35 early-career scientists from nearly 20 countries to attend a 3-day workshop at the NCAR Mesa Laboratory prior to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference in October 2011. The goal of the workshop was to examine a range of regional climate challenges in developing countries. Topics included regional climate modeling, climate impacts, water resources, and air quality. The workshop fostered new ideas and collaborations between early-career scientists from around the world. The discussions underscored the importance of establishing partnerships with scientists located in typically underrepresented countries to understand and account for the local political, economic, and cultural factors on which climate change is superimposed.

  4. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China : challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: ...

  5. Today's and future challenges in applications of renewable energy technologies for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, Mattheus F A

    2013-08-28

    Recent trends and challenges in applications of renewable energy technologies for water desalination are critically reviewed with an emphasis on environmental concerns and sustainable development. After providing an overview of wind, wave, geothermal, and solar renewable energy technologies for fresh water production, hybrid systems are assessed. Then scale-up and economic factors are considered. This is followed with a section on regulatory factors, environmental concerns, and globalization, and a final segment on selecting the most suitable renewable energy technology for conventional and emerging desalination processes. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Challenging the sustainability of micro products development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2006-01-01

    Environmental aspects are one of the biggest concerns regarding the future of manufacturing and product development sustainability. Furthermore, micro products and micro technologies are often seen as the next big thing in terms of possible mass market trend and boom. Many questions are raised......) will be presented, together with some tools used in order to implement the concepts into design activities. Micro injection moulded components and MEMS are used as examples. Specificities of micro products will be investigated through a categorization in three levels: the end products, the whole production chain...

  7. Present Challenges, Critical Needs, and Future Technological Directions for NASA's GN and C Engineering Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently undergoing a substantial redirection. Notable among the changes occurring within NASA is the stated emphasis on technology development, integration, and demonstration. These new changes within the Agency should have a positive impact on the GN&C discipline given the potential for sizeable investments for technology development and in-space demonstrations of both Autonomous Rendezvous & Docking (AR&D) systems and Autonomous Precision Landing (APL) systems. In this paper the NASA Technical Fellow for Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) provides a summary of the present technical challenges, critical needs, and future technological directions for NASA s GN&C engineering discipline. A brief overview of the changes occurring within NASA that are driving a renewed emphasis on technology development will be presented as background. The potential benefits of the planned GN&C technology developments will be highlighted. This paper will provide a GN&C State-of-the-Discipline assessment. The discipline s readiness to support the goals & objectives of each of the four NASA Mission Directorates is evaluated and the technical challenges and barriers currently faced by the discipline are summarized. This paper will also discuss the need for sustained investments to sufficiently mature the several classes of GN&C technologies required to implement NASA crewed exploration and robotic science missions.

  8. Ocean OSSEs: recent developments and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourafalou, V. H.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric OSSEs have had a much longer history of applications than OSSEs (and OSEs) in oceanography. Long standing challenges include the presence of coastlines and steep bathymetric changes, which require the superposition of a wide variety of space and time scales, leading to difficulties on ocean observation and prediction. For instance, remote sensing is critical for providing a quasi-synoptic oceanographic view, but the coverage is limited at the ocean surface. Conversely, in situ measurements are capable to monitor the entire water column, but at a single location and usually for a specific, short time. Despite these challenges, substantial progress has been made in recent years and international initiatives have provided successful OSSE/OSE examples and formed appropriate forums that helped define the future roadmap. These will be discussed, together with various challenges that require a community effort. Examples include: integrated (remote and in situ) observing system requirements for monitoring large scale and climatic changes, vs. short term variability that is particularly important on the regional and coastal spatial scales; satisfying the needs of both global and regional/coastal nature runs, from development to rigorous evaluation and under a clear definition of metrics; data assimilation in the presence of tides; estimation of real-time river discharges for Earth system modeling. An overview of oceanographic efforts that complement the standard OSSE methodology will also be given. These include ocean array design methods, such as representer-based analysis and adaptive sampling. Exciting new opportunities for both global and regional ocean OSSE/OSE studies have recently become possible with targeted periods of comprehensive data sets, such as the existing Gulf of Mexico observations from multiple sources in the aftermath of the DeepWater Horizon incident and the upcoming airborne AirSWOT, in preparation for the SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean

  9. Terra Nova development : challenges and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, G. [Petro-Canada, Inc. (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The major oil and gas fields in Canada's east coast were illustrated for this power point presentation which focused on the development concept of the Terra Nova. Terra Nova is the first floating production system (FPSO) development and only the second offshore oil development on the challenging Grand Banks of Newfoundland. It is also the first offshore facility in Canada to be certified to both offshore petroleum and shipping regulations. In addition, it represents the first fully-automated disconnectable turret, riser and mooring system on an FPSO, and the first to have glory holes for protecting subsea equipment from iceberg damage. The FPSO can withstand an impact with a 100,000 tonne iceberg. The Terra Nova project also represents the first attempt at trenching in stiff hard pan soil conditions which are typical of the Grand Banks. The physical environment design criteria for the Terra Nova in terms of water depth, air temperature, water temperature, icebergs, current, wind and waves were provided along with the functional requirements in terms of oil production, gas compression, total fluids, water injection, produced water, gas injection and water injection. An illustration of the FPSO topsides modules layout was also provided. The alliance-based contracting approach was adopted in 1995 and gave Petro-Canada access to the collective capability of major contractors that were able to face the technical challenges on Terra Nova. Some of the lessons learned from this contracting approach are that a strong central technical integration team should be implemented early and maintained through to project completion and that interfaces must be identified early and managed in a manner according to risk associated with the cost and schedule. tabs., figs.

  10. Engineering: issues, challenges and opportunities for development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The critical roles of engineering in addressing the large-scale pressing challenges facing our societies worldwide are widely recognized. Such large-scale challenges include access to affordable health care; tackling the coupled issues of energy...

  11. Dengue vaccine development: strategies and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna; Nair, Radhakrishnan R

    2015-03-01

    Infection with dengue virus may result in dengue fever or a more severe outcome, such as dengue hemorrhagic syndrome/shock. Dengue virus infection poses a threat to endemic regions for four reasons: the presence of four serotypes, each with the ability to cause a similar disease outcome, including fatality; difficulties related to vector control; the lack of specific treatment; and the nonavailability of a suitable vaccine. Vaccine development is considered challenging due to the severity of the disease observed in individuals who have acquired dengue-specific immunity, either passively or actively. Therefore, the presence of vaccine-induced immunity against a particular serotype may prime an individual to severe disease on exposure to dengue virus. Vaccine development strategies include live attenuated vaccines, chimeric, DNA-based, subunit, and inactivated vaccines. Each of the candidates is in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. Issues pertaining to selection pressures, viral interaction, and safety still need to be evaluated in order to induce a complete protective immune response against all four serotypes. This review highlights the various strategies that have been employed in vaccine development, and identifies the obstacles to producing a safe and effective vaccine.

  12. The Challenge of Teaching Educational Technology Courses Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Marge

    Based on the author's experiences teaching educational technology courses at Western Kentucky University, this paper presents time-saving ideas and survival tips for teaching online. The first section covers planning and organization, including development of a course CD that is mailed to all students at the beginning of the semester, online…

  13. Challenges when developing omega-3 enriched foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACOBSEN Charlotte

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the polyunsaturated nature of omega-3 fatty acids, lipid oxidation is a major challenge when developing omega-3 enriched foods. In multiphase food systems, several factors can affect lipid oxidation and efficacy of antioxidants, added to prevent lipid oxidation. This review discusses the influence of important factors such as oil quality, delivery systems for omega-3 fatty acids, processing conditions, composition of the food matrix on lipid oxidation in different omega-3 enriched foods (milk, yoghurt, mayonnaise and mayonnaise-based salads, dressing, energy bar and fish paté. Moreover, the effect of different antioxidants (tocopherol, EDTA, lactoferrin, caffeic acid, ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, propyl gallate, gallic acid, as well as lipophilized antioxidants is compared in different food systems.

  14. Challenges when developing omega-3 enriched foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Due to the polyunsaturated nature of omega-3 fatty acids, lipid oxidation is a major challenge when developing omega-3 enriched foods. In multiphase food systems, several factors can affect lipid oxidation and efficacy of antioxidants, added to prevent lipid oxidation. This review discusses...... the influence of important factors such as oil quality, delivery systems for omega-3 fatty acids, processing conditions, composition of the food matrix on lipid oxidation in different omega-3 enriched foods (milk, yoghurt, mayonnaise and mayonnaise-based salads, dressing, energy bar and fish paté). Moreover......, the effect of different antioxidants (tocopherol, EDTA, lactoferrin, caffeic acid, ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, propyl gallate, gallic acid, as well as lipophilized antioxidants) is compared in different food systems....

  15. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

    2010-10-01

    Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

  16. Persistent Pharmacokinetic Challenges to Pediatric Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSage

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of new therapeutic agents for the mitigation of pediatric disorders is largely hindered by the inability for investigators to assess pediatric pharmacokinetics (PK in healthy patients due to substantial safety concerns. Pediatric patients are a clinical moving target for drug delivery due to changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME and the potential for PK related toxicological (T events to occur throughout development. These changes in ADMET can have profound effects on drug delivery, and may lead to toxic or sub-therapeutic outcomes. Ethical, economical, logistical, and technical barriers have resulted in insufficient investigation of these changes by industrial, regulatory, and academic bodies, leading to the classification of pediatric patients as therapeutic orphans. In response to these concerns, regulatory agencies have incentivized investigation into these ontogenic changes and their effects on drug delivery in pediatric populations. The intent of this review is to briefly present a synopsis of the development changes that occur in pediatric patients, discuss the effects of these changes on ADME and drug delivery strategies, highlight the hurdles that are still being faced, and present some opportunities to overcome these challenges.

  17. Technology as a Time Challenge: Study, Concept and Types of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim M. Rozin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article divorce the concepts of engineering and technology. Designated four stages of technological development: the fi rst phase — “pilot technique”, it is characterized by magical conceptualization, the second — engineering (rational conceptualization, third design, fourth technology. For technical equipment is characterized by four features: technology is the artifacts, the technique can be considered as a “social body” of a person or society, technology is a useful way to use the forces of nature, and fi nally, the mediation in the form of tools, machines, and material environment that allows you to implement the ideas of man. It is argued that the conceptualization of technology is the essential characteristic of the concept. If you write, for example, about the technology of the Neolithic age or era of construction of the Egyptian pyramids, then we are talking about retrospective interpretation, from the point of view of modern understanding of technology. It’s not useless, for example, to determine preconditions of formation technology, but in terms of thinking creates problems and contradictions. The author argues that technology develops in the second half of the eighteenth century as a new reality, which describes the industrial activities in language operations and their conditions of division of labor and management. At the same time, technology is being characterized by the installation of quality, savings, standardization, and rational description of the production processes, their optimization for the training of new technologists. Discusses three stages of development of the technology and features of the main types of technology: production technology, engineering, large techno-social projects, global technology. Considering the author and the conditions of the development of new technologies. These include “technological zone of proximal development”, as well as two situation — relevant issues and

  18. Development of DUPIC safeguards technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. D.; Ko, W. I.; Song, D. Y. [and others

    2000-03-01

    During the first phase of R and D program conducted from 1997 to 1999, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. For the nuclear material measurement system, the performance test was finished and received IAEA approval, and now is being used in DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Facility(DFDF) for nuclear material accounting and control. Other systems being developed in this study were already installed in DFDF and being under performance test. Those systems developed in this study will make a contribution not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author)

  19. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  20. Technology solutions for a global business. Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Tim

    2000-07-01

    Shell's relationship with Norway goes back a long way and is very important to our future as well, as is evident from this presentation, which describes some of the pressures on a global energy business like Shell. It also deals with the fundamental importance of technology in the way we respond to those pressures. The power of innovation, and of partnerships, in keeping us at the front of the wave and, using our experiences, it is described how we at Shell deal with these issues. It also gives some examples of the benefits that have come out of our partnerships here in Norway, and the challenges and opportunities confronting those partnerships in the future.

  1. Academic Training: Technological challenges for LHC experiments, the CMS example

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 28 February, 1, 2, 3 & 4 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Technological challenges for LHC experiments, the CMS example by P. SPHICAS/CERN-PH, G. DISSERTORI/ETH, Zürich, Ch. M. MANNELLI/CERN-PH, G. HALL/Imperial College, London. GB, P. FABBRICATORE/INFN, Genova, I Monday 28 February Design principles and performances of CMS P. Sphicas/CERN-PH Tuesday 1st March Crystal calorimetry in LHC environment G. Dissertori/ETH Zürich, CH Wednesday 2 March Silicon tracking in LHC environment M. Mannelli/CERN-PH Thursday 3 March Radhard fast electronics for LHC experiments G. Hall/Imperial College London, GB Friday 4 March Design principles of thin high field superconducting solenoids P. Fabbricatore/INFN Genova, I ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  2. Internet of Things: Applications and Challenges in Technology and Standardization

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    The phrase Internet of Things (IoT) heralds a vision of the future Internet where connecting physical things, from banknotes to bicycles, through a network will let them take an active part in the Internet, exchanging information about themselves and their surroundings. This will give immediate access to information about the physical world and the objects in it leading to innovative services and increase in efficiency and productivity. This paper studies the state-of-the-art of IoT and presents the key technological drivers,potential applications, challenges and future research areas in the domain of IoT. IoT definitions from different perspective in academic and industry communities are also discussed and compared. Finally some major issues of future research in IoT are identified and discussed briefly.

  3. Academic Training: Technological challenges for LHC experiments, the CMS example

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 28 February, 1, 2, 3 & 4 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Technological challenges for LHC experiments, the CMS example by P. SPHICAS/CERN-PH, G. DISSERTORI/ETH, Zürich, Ch. M. MANNELLI/CERN-PH, G. HALL/Imperial College, London. GB, P. FABBRICATORE/INFN, Genova, I Monday 28 February Design principles and performances of CMS P. Sphicas/CERN-PH Tuesday 1st March Crystal calorimetry in LHC environment G. Dissertori/ETH Zürich, CH Wednesday 2 March Silicon tracking in LHC environment M. Mannelli/CERN-PH Thursday 3 March Radhard fast electronics for LHC experiments G. Hall/Imperial College London, GB Friday 4 March Design principles of thin high field superconducting solenoids P. Fabbricatore/INFN Genova, I ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  4. Challenging the sustainability of micro products development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2006-01-01

    Environmental aspects are one of the biggest concerns regarding the future of manufacturing and product development sustainability. Furthermore, micro products and micro technologies are often seen as the next big thing in terms of possible mass market trend and boom. Many questions are raised...... regarding the impact of size for recycling or environment. Indeed micro production is often seen as environmental friendly thanks to the small amount of material used. Such a statement can be misleading. In this article EcoDesign or Design for Environment (DFE) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA......) will be presented, together with some tools used in order to implement the concepts into design activities. Micro injection moulded components and MEMS are used as examples. Specificities of micro products will be investigated through a categorization in three levels: the end products, the whole production chain...

  5. Prospects and challenges of ecotourism development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prospects and challenges of ecotourism development in Nigeria. ... Journal of Environmental Extension ... This paper highlights the prospects and challenges of ecotourism as a veritable tool for sustainable economic development and the ...

  6. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  7. Information technology for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgaard, Jette Egelund; Guerra, Aida; Knoche, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    from a broader theme to a problem formulation designed to fit the time, discipline and theme of study. In the prospect of Education for Sustainable development (ESD) the students are to move from the conceptually complex field of sustainable development (SD) to a specific formulation of a problem...... that initiate design, implementation and test of ICT for SD. On the empirical level we draw from experiments in autumn 2009 and spring 2013 within the field of Media technology. Observations, text analysis of students’ work as well as reflections from staff has been relied on in order to analyse the practical...... frame, like sustainability, encouraged students to broaden their perspective on stressing economic, environmental as well as social concerns. However, the experiments also showed that interlinking engineering subjects with sustainability is a rather time-consuming task – and some of the students were...

  8. Digital Technology and Mental Health Interventions: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilera, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the Internet, mobile phones, social media and other digital technologies has changed our world in many ways. It has provided individuals with information that was previously only available to a select few. An example of the reach of technology is data that as of October 2012, there are over 6 billion phones worldwide (BBC, 2012. The availability of data in real time has presented hopes of intervening more efficiently and managing health problems by leveraging limited human resources. It also has an impact in changing the roles of providers and patients and in legal and ethical issues including privacy in digital health interactions. This paper will discuss why digital technology has received recent attention in the area of mental health, present some applications of technology for mental health to date, explore the challenges to full implementation in clinical settings, and present future opportunities for digital technologies.El crecimiento del Internet, los teléfonos móviles, las redes sociales y otras tecnologías digitales ha cambiado nuestro mundo de muchas maneras. Ha proporcionado a las personas con la información que antes sólo estaba disponible para un grupo selecto, por ejemplo a partir de octubre de 2012. Un ejemplo del alcance de la tecnología son los datos que dicen que hay más de 6 millones de teléfonos en todo el mundo (BBC, 2012. La disponibilidad de los datos en tiempo real a presentado la esperanza de intervenir de manera más eficiente y manejar los problemas de salud los recursos humanos limitados. También tiene un impacto en el cambio de los roles de los proveedores y los pacientes y en aspectos legales y éticos, incluyendo la privacidad en las interacciones de salud digital. Este artículo discutirá unas razones por cual la tecnología digital ha recibido atención recientemente en el área de salud mental, presentará algunas aplicaciones de la tecnología para mejorar la salud mental hasta la fecha

  9. Between tradition and technological innovation: challenges to lime Heritage conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluci Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to discuss the relationship between traditional and scientific technological knowledge as innovative and fundamental to heritage conservation. It is argued that this innovation does not necessarily come from scientific knowledge, but potentially from a wise articulation between these two types of knowledge. This discussion starts from an already long process of reflection on lime heritage conservation, as developed in LNEC from research projects.

  10. Between tradition and technological innovation: challenges to lime Heritage conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluci Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to discuss the relationship between traditional and scientific technological knowledge as innovative and fundamental to heritage conservation. It is argued that this innovation does not necessarily come from scientific knowledge, but potentially from a wise articulation between these two types of knowledge. This discussion starts from an already long process of reflection on lime heritage conservation, as developed in LNEC from research projects.

  11. Reverse osmosis desalination: water sources, technology, and today's challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Marrot, Benoit; Moulin, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Reverse osmosis membrane technology has developed over the past 40 years to a 44% share in world desalting production capacity, and an 80% share in the total number of desalination plants installed worldwide. The use of membrane desalination has increased as materials have improved and costs have decreased. Today, reverse osmosis membranes are the leading technology for new desalination installations, and they are applied to a variety of salt water resources using tailored pretreatment and membrane system design. Two distinct branches of reverse osmosis desalination have emerged: seawater reverse osmosis and brackish water reverse osmosis. Differences between the two water sources, including foulants, salinity, waste brine (concentrate) disposal options, and plant location, have created significant differences in process development, implementation, and key technical problems. Pretreatment options are similar for both types of reverse osmosis and depend on the specific components of the water source. Both brackish water and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) will continue to be used worldwide; new technology in energy recovery and renewable energy, as well as innovative plant design, will allow greater use of desalination for inland and rural communities, while providing more affordable water for large coastal cities. A wide variety of research and general information on RO desalination is available; however, a direct comparison of seawater and brackish water RO systems is necessary to highlight similarities and differences in process development. This article brings to light key parameters of an RO process and process modifications due to feed water characteristics.

  12. Challenges facing the development of cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Mayer

    2014-01-01

    Just like any other effective immunization in medicine, cancer vaccines need to have antigens with particular specificity and immunostimulatory features, the immune responses to be elicited in the body, and therapeutic effect-regression or prevention of the cancer-must be meaningful and clinically observable. There are many choices for cancer antigens, such as tissue-specific proteins, cancer-specific proteins, class I- or class II-restricted peptides derived from those, or in situ and whole-cell-derived products are some examples. Another translational issue is that cancer patients are heterogeneous with respect to the extent to which the immune system is already activated with potential to impact the tumor growth or, conversely, the extent to which the immune system has been impaired through a prior and ongoing interaction with the tumor. Conventional or immunologic tests have potential to define a subset of patients with better chance or response, so that particular vaccines can be tested. Treatment of cancer patients is expensive, and trials are slow. To meet these challenges in practical terms will require not only careful scientific technical work for product development, coordination with clinicians to define patient subsets with diseases that can show responses, but also a comprehensive, practical implementation so that we can unlock the full potential of anticancer vaccines.

  13. Development of DUPIC safeguards technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. D.; Kang, H. Y.; Ko, W. I. [and others

    2002-05-01

    DUPIC safeguards R and D in the second phase has focused on the development of nuclear material measurement system and its operation and verification, the development of nuclear material control and accounting system, and the development of remote and unmanned containment/surveillance system. Of them, the nuclear material measurement system was authenticated from IAEA and officially used for IAEA and domestic safeguards activities in DFDF. It was also verified that the system could be used for quality control of DUPIC process. It is recognised that the diagnostic software using neural network and remote and unmanned containment/surveillance system developed here could be key technologies to go into remote and near-real time monitoring system. The result of this project will eventually contribute to similar nuclear fuel cycles like MOX and pyroprocessing facility as well as the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards. In addition, it will be helpful to enhance international confidence build-up in the peaceful use of spent fuel material.

  14. Dental laboratory technology education in China: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liwei; Yue, Li; Zhou, Min; Yu, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Modern dentistry and dental education in China were first introduced from abroad by Dr. Lindsay in 1907. However, advancements in the field of dental laboratory technology did not occur to the same degree in specialties such as prosthodontics and orthodontics. Since the 1990s, orders from abroad demanding dental appliances surged as the image of China as the "world's factory" strengthened. The assembly line model, in which technicians work like simple procedure workers, was rapidly applied to denture production, while the traditional education system and apprenticeship systems demonstrated little progress in these years. The lack of advancement in dental laboratory technology education caused insufficient development in China's dental technology industry. In order to alter the situation, a four-year dental laboratory technology undergraduate educational program was established in 2005 by West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University (WCSS, SCU). This program was based on SCU's undergraduate education and WCSS's junior college education systems. The program introduced scientific methods in relevant subjects into laboratory technicians' training and made many improvements in the availability of trained faculty, textbooks, laboratory facilities, and curriculum.

  15. iPad Learning Ecosystem: Developing Challenge-Based Learning Using Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Catalina; Hargis, Jace; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL) and iPad mobile learning technology. This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking, and…

  16. Principles for fostering the transdisciplinary development of assistive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, Jennifer; Jackson, Piper; Mulvenna, Maurice; Sixsmith, Judith; Sixsmith, Andrew; Mihailidis, Alex; Kontos, Pia; Miller Polgar, Janice; Grigorovich, Alisa; Martin, Suzanne

    2016-04-07

    Developing useful and usable assistive technologies often presents complex (or "wicked") challenges that require input from multiple disciplines and sectors. Transdisciplinary collaboration can enable holistic understanding of challenges that may lead to innovative, impactful and transformative solutions. This paper presents generalised principles that are intended to foster transdisciplinary assistive technology development. The paper introduces the area of assistive technology design before discussing general aspects of transdisciplinary collaboration followed by an overview of relevant concepts, including approaches, methodologies and frameworks for conducting and evaluating transdisciplinary working and assistive technology design. The principles for transdisciplinary development of assistive technologies are presented and applied post hoc to the COACH project, an ambient-assisted living technology for guiding completion of activities of daily living by older adults with dementia as an illustrative example. Future work includes the refinement and validation of these principles through their application to real-world transdisciplinary assistive technology projects. Implications for rehabilitation Transdisciplinarity encourages a focus on real world 'wicked' problems. A transdisciplinary approach involves transcending disciplinary boundaries and collaborating with interprofessional and community partners (including the technology's intended users) on a shared problem. Transdisciplinarity fosters new ways of thinking about and doing research, development, and implementation, expanding the scope, applicability, and commercial viability of assistive technologies.

  17. Ethical and regulatory challenges in psychophysiology and neuroscience-based technology for determining behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoo, Adil E

    2010-01-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an explosion in research to understand the mechanisms of brain function. Recent advances in psychophysiology and neuroscience, while still limited, have sparked great interest in developing technologies that could peer into the brain and be used to identify or indicate certain behaviors. The polygraph (lie detector) represents an old technology used for discerning clues to the human brain; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents one of the newest efforts. The use of these technologies in intelligence and counterintelligence in the field without validation represents a major concern about its usefulness. Both research on this new technology and subsequent use on public raise ethical challenges. This article will address the overall ethical issues associated with these new technologies. The report identifies the ethical and cultural challenges in conducting research on these new tools, explores the possibility of using current U.S. regulatory requirements regarding drugs and devices as a model for regulating these new technologies, and suggests approaches for the future.

  18. Review: DNA microarray technology and drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the contrary to slow and non specific traditional drug discovery methods, DNA microarray technology could accelerate the identification of potential drugs for treating diseases like cancer, AIDS and provide fruitful results in the drug discovery. The technique provides efficient automation and maximum flexibility to the researchers and can test thousand compounds at a time. Scientists find DNA microarray useful in disease diagnosis, monitoring desired and adverse outcomes of therapeutic interventions, as well as, in the selection, assessment and quality con-trol of the potential drugs. In the current scenario, where new pathogens are expected every year, DNA microarray promises as an efficient technology to detect new organisms in a short time. Classification of carcinomas at the molecular level and prediction of how various types of tumor respond to different therapeutic agents can be made possible with the use of microarray analysis. Also, microarray technique can prove instrumental in personalized medicines development by providing microarray data of a patient which could be used for identifying diseases, treatment specific to individual and trailing disease prognosis. Microarray analysis could be beneficial in the area of molecular medicines for analysis of genetic variations and functions of genes in normal individuals and diseased conditions. The technique can give satisfactory results in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis and pharmacogenomics studies. The challenges that arise with the technology are high degree of variability with data obtained, frequent up gradation of methods and machines and lack of trained manpower. Despite this, DNA micro-array promises to be the next generation sequencer which could explain how organisms evolve and adapt looking at the whole genome. In a nutshell, Microarray technology makes it possible for molecular biologists to analyze simultaneously thousands of DNA samples and monitor their

  19. Development and Applications of Simulation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZicai

    2004-01-01

    The developing process of simulation technology is discussed in view of its development, maturation and further development.The applications of simulation technology in the fields of national economy are introduced. Finally, the level and status quo of simulation technology home and overseas are analyzed, and its future trend in the new century is presented.

  20. NASA Composite Materials Development: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Pipes, R. Byron; Johnston, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials have emerged as the materials of choice for increasing the performance and reducing the weight and cost of military, general aviation, and transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. Major advancements have been made in the ability to design, fabricate, and analyze large complex aerospace structures. The recent efforts by Boeing and Airbus to incorporate composite into primary load carrying structures of large commercial transports and to certify the airworthiness of these structures is evidence of the significant advancements made in understanding and use of these materials in real world aircraft. NASA has been engaged in research on composites since the late 1960 s and has worked to address many development issues with these materials in an effort to ensure safety, improve performance, and improve affordability of air travel for the public good. This research has ranged from synthesis of advanced resin chemistries to development of mathematical analyses tools to reliably predict the response of built-up structures under combined load conditions. The lessons learned from this research are highlighted with specific examples to illustrate the problems encountered and solutions to these problems. Examples include specific technologies related to environmental effects, processing science, fabrication technologies, nondestructive inspection, damage tolerance, micromechanics, structural mechanics, and residual life prediction. The current state of the technology is reviewed and key issues requiring additional research identified. Also, grand challenges to be solved for expanded use of composites in aero structures are identified.

  1. Challenges in Research and Development of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new "-omics" techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.

  2. The Challenges of Precision Oncology Drug Development and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Simon J; Biankin, Andrew V

    2015-01-01

    The drivers of precision medicine are clear: for patients (and physicians)--more options, durable clinical benefit, reduced exposure to non-effective drugs and potential to leverage current scientific and technological advances; for the pharmaceutical industry--the potential to tackle core challenges in discovering and developing better and more efficacious medicines, to reduce rates of attrition in drug development and to reduce development costs; for healthcare systems and payers--improved efficiency through the provision of effective care and avoiding ineffective treatments. Oncology has been at the vanguard, the improvements gained in patient survival notable. However, the increasing number of molecular subgroups requires an equally increasing number (and new generation) of highly selective agents targeting inevitably lower incidence molecular segments. Innovative trial designs (umbrella/basket studies) are emerging as a patient-centric approach to drug development, and the rise in public-private partnerships, cross-industry, government and non-profit sector collaborations is enabling implementation of complex clinical trial designs. This poses significant challenges for healthcare systems and regulatory approval. Further substantial evolution of policy and processes, particularly regulatory requirements for approval for new therapeutics, are required.

  3. Technology Transience and the Challenges It Poses to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirault, Ray J.

    2015-01-01

    Today's technologies come and go at an alarming rate, and the length of time any one technology, either software or hardware, exists before being supplanted by a newer technology is growing ever shorter. For anyone working within the field of instructional technology, this rapid replacement rate of technologies can hold immense implications for…

  4. Design and Development of Virtual Reality: Analysis of Challenges Faced by Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kami; Shelton, Brett E.

    2008-01-01

    There exists an increasingly attractive lure of using virtual reality applications for teaching in all areas of education, but perhaps the largest detriment to its use is the intimidating nature of VR technology for non-technical instructors. What are the challenges to using VR technology for the design and development of VR-based instructional…

  5. Human Subjects Protection and Technology in Prevention Science: Selected Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Anthony R; Wyman, Peter A; Mohr, David C; Perrino, Tatiana; Gallo, Carlos; Villamar, Juan; Kendziora, Kimberly; Howe, George W; Sloboda, Zili; Brown, C Hendricks

    2016-08-01

    Internet-connected devices are changing the way people live, work, and relate to one another. For prevention scientists, technological advances create opportunities to promote the welfare of human subjects and society. The challenge is to obtain the benefits while minimizing risks. In this article, we use the guiding principles for ethical human subjects research and proposed changes to the Common Rule regulations, as a basis for discussing selected opportunities and challenges that new technologies present for prevention science. The benefits of conducting research with new populations, and at new levels of integration into participants' daily lives, are presented along with five challenges along with technological and other solutions to strengthen the protections that we provide: (1) achieving adequate informed consent with procedures that are acceptable to participants in a digital age; (2) balancing opportunities for rapid development and broad reach, with gaining adequate understanding of population needs; (3) integrating data collection and intervention into participants' lives while minimizing intrusiveness and fatigue; (4) setting appropriate expectations for responding to safety and suicide concerns; and (5) safeguarding newly available streams of sensitive data. Our goal is to promote collaboration between prevention scientists, institutional review boards, and community members to safely and ethically harness advancing technologies to strengthen impact of prevention science.

  6. Is China Developing an Independent Technology Capability?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Are Chinese technology enterprises only the "hired laborers" of other countries? Does China possess high technology in a real sense? When will the country develop independent scientific and technological innovation? Those are not brand new questions. However, after the Chinese Government issued its National Guidelines on the Long- and Medium-Term Program for Science and Technology

  7. Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Charles Chamberlin; Robert Chaney; Gang Chen; Godwin Chukwu; James Clough; Steve Colt; Anthony Covescek; Robert Crosby; Abhijit Dandekar; Paul Decker; Brandon Galloway; Rajive Ganguli; Catherine Hanks; Rich Haut; Kristie Hilton; Larry Hinzman; Gwen Holdman; Kristie Holland; Robert Hunter; Ron Johnson; Thomas Johnson; Doug Kame; Mikhail Kaneveskly; Tristan Kenny; Santanu Khataniar; Abhijeet Kulkami; Peter Lehman; Mary Beth Leigh; Jenn-Tai Liang; Michael Lilly; Chuen-Sen Lin; Paul Martin; Pete McGrail; Dan Miller; Debasmita Misra; Nagendra Nagabhushana; David Ogbe; Amanda Osborne; Antoinette Owen; Sharish Patil; Rocky Reifenstuhl; Doug Reynolds; Eric Robertson; Todd Schaef; Jack Schmid; Yuri Shur; Arion Tussing; Jack Walker; Katey Walter; Shannon Watson; Daniel White; Gregory White; Mark White; Richard Wies; Tom Williams; Dennis Witmer; Craig Wollard; Tao Zhu

    2008-12-31

    The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory was created by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in response to a congressionally mandated funding opportunity through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), specifically to encourage research partnerships between the university, the Alaskan energy industry, and the DOE. The enabling legislation permitted research in a broad variety of topics particularly of interest to Alaska, including providing more efficient and economical electrical power generation in rural villages, as well as research in coal, oil, and gas. The contract was managed as a cooperative research agreement, with active project monitoring and management from the DOE. In the eight years of this partnership, approximately 30 projects were funded and completed. These projects, which were selected using an industry panel of Alaskan energy industry engineers and managers, cover a wide range of topics, such as diesel engine efficiency, fuel cells, coal combustion, methane gas hydrates, heavy oil recovery, and water issues associated with ice road construction in the oil fields of the North Slope. Each project was managed as a separate DOE contract, and the final technical report for each completed project is included with this final report. The intent of this process was to address the energy research needs of Alaska and to develop research capability at the university. As such, the intent from the beginning of this process was to encourage development of partnerships and skills that would permit a transition to direct competitive funding opportunities managed from funding sources. This project has succeeded at both the individual project level and at the institutional development level, as many of the researchers at the university are currently submitting proposals to funding agencies, with some success.

  8. Challenges and opportunities in polymer technology applied to veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, J M; Cid, A G; Ramírez-Rigo, M V; Quinteros, D; Simonazzi, A; Sánchez Bruni, S; Palma, S

    2014-04-01

    An important frontier in the administration of therapeutic drugs to veterinary species is the use of different polymers as drug delivery platforms. The usefulness of polymers as platforms for the administration of pharmaceutical and agricultural agents has been clearly recognized in the recent decades. The chemical versatility of polymers and the wide range of developed controlled-release strategies enhance the possibilities for the formulation of active molecules. In particular, the veterinary area offers opportunities for the development of novel controlled-release drug delivery technologies adapted to livestock or companion animal health needs. In some cases, it also allows to improve profitability in meat production or to meet the safety criteria related to drug residues. A number of factors affect the selection of polymers and subsequent properties of the controlled-release drug delivery system. However, their selection also dictates the release kinetics of the drug from the delivery system. Such choices are therefore crucial as they affect the success and potential of the delivery system for achieving the therapeutic goals of the veterinarian. It is the intention of this review to give an overview of the most relevant polymers, which are used or have been tested as drug delivery release rate modifiers in the veterinary field. The article highlights some recent developments focusing on their advantages and applications and analyzes the future direction of the scientific and technological advancements in this area. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Reserve growth during financial volatility in a technologically challenging world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth (growth-to-known) is the addition of oil and gas quantities to reported proved or proved-plus-probable reserves in discovered fields. The amount of reserve growth fluctuates through time with prevailing economic and technological conditions. Most reserve additions are the result of investment in field operations and in development technology. These investments can be justified by higher prices of oil and gas, the desire to maintain cash flow, and by greater recovery efficiency in well established fields. The price/cost ratio affects decisions for field abandonment and (or) implementation of improved recovery methods. Although small- to medium-size fields might show higher percentages of reserve growth, a relatively few giant fields contribute most volumetric reserve growth, indicating that companies may prefer to invest in existing fields with low geologic and production risk and an established infrastructure in order to increase their price/cost relationship. Whereas many previous estimates of reserve growth were based on past trends of reported reserves, future reserve growth is expected to be greatly affected by financial volatility and fluctuating economic and technological conditions.

  10. Challenges and Emerging Technologies within the Field of Pediatric Actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Barbara; Meredith-Jones, Kim; Terrill, Philip; Taylor, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Actigraphy as an objective measure of sleep and wakefulness in infants and children has gained popularity over the last 20 years. However, the field lacks published guidelines for sleep-wake identification within pediatric age groups. The scoring rules vary greatly and although sensitivity (sleep agreement with polysomnography) is usually high, a significant limitation remains in relation to specificity (wake agreement). Furthermore, accurate algorithm output and sleep-wake summaries usually require prior entry from daily logs of sleep-wake periods and artifact-related information (e.g., non-wear time), involving significant parent co-operation. Scoring criteria for daytime naps remains an unexplored area. Many of the problems facing accuracy of measurement are inherent within the field of actigraphy itself, particularly where sleep periods containing significant movements are erroneously classified as wake, and within quiet wakefulness when no movements are detected, erroneously classified as sleep. We discuss the challenges of actigraphy for pediatric sleep, briefly describe the technical basis and consider a number of technological approaches that may facilitate improved classification of errors in sleep-wake discrimination.

  11. Challenges and emerging technologies within the field of pediatric actigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eGalland

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Actigraphy as an objective measure of sleep and wakefulness in infants and children has gained popularity over the last 20 years. However, the field lacks published guidelines for sleep-wake identification within pediatric age groups. The scoring rules vary greatly and although sensitivity (sleep agreement with polysomnography is usually high, a significant limitation remains in relation to specificity (wake agreement. Furthermore, accurate algorithm output and sleep-wake summaries usually require prior entry from daily logs of sleep–wake periods and artefact-related information (e.g. non-wear time, involving significant parent co-operation. Scoring criteria for daytime naps remains an unexplored area. Many of the problems facing accuracy of measurement are inherent within the field of actigraphy itself, particularly where sleep periods containing significant movements are erroneously classified as wake, and within quiet wakefulness when no movements are detected, erroneously classified as sleep. We discuss the challenges of actigraphy for pediatric sleep, briefly describe the technical basis and consider a number of technological approaches that may facilitate improved classification of errors in sleep-wake discrimination.

  12. Handbook of Research on E-Transformation and Human Resources Management Technologies: Organizational Outcomes and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Digital advancements and discoveries are now challenging traditional human resource management services within businesses. The Handbook of Research on E-Transformation and Human Resources Management Technologies: Organizational Outcomes and Challenges provides practical, situated, and unique

  13. Overview of Compressed Air Energy Storage and Technology Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidai Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of power generation from renewable energy sources and due to their intermittent nature, the power grid is facing the great challenge in maintaining the power network stability and reliability. To address the challenge, one of the options is to detach the power generation from consumption via energy storage. The intention of this paper is to give an overview of the current technology developments in compressed air energy storage (CAES and the future direction of the technology development in this area. Compared with other energy storage technologies, CAES is proven to be a clean and sustainable type of energy storage with the unique features of high capacity and long-duration of the storage. Its scale and cost are similar to pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS, thus CAES has attracted much attention in recent years while further development for PHS is restricted by the availability of suitable geological locations. The paper presents the state-of-the-art of current CAES technology development, analyses the major technological barriers/weaknesses and proposes suggestions for future technology development. This paper should provide a useful reference for CAES technology research and development strategy.

  14. 技术进步挑战电信监管%Administration Facing New Challenges with Technology Advancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟雪梅

    2005-01-01

    The history of telecom industry development can be said to be the history of communications technology development and advance in a sense. Especially in the new century, information technology develops and changes quickly out of our imagination. Innovation in new services makes the limit among all services becoming not clear any more. Also the integration of telecom network, internet and TV net becomes a trend. All those bring new challenges for telecom administration.

  15. Engineering research, development and technology FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R T

    2000-02-01

    The growth of computer power and connectivity, together with advances in wireless sensing and communication technologies, is transforming the field of complex distributed systems. The ability to deploy large numbers of sensors with a rapid, broadband communication system will enable high-fidelity, near real-time monitoring of complex systems. These technological developments will provide unprecedented insight into the actual performance of engineered and natural environment systems, enable the evolution of many new types of engineered systems for monitoring and detection, and enhance our ability to perform improved and validated large-scale simulations of complex systems. One of the challenges facing engineering is to develop methodologies to exploit the emerging information technologies. Particularly important will be the ability to assimilate measured data into the simulation process in a way which is much more sophisticated than current, primarily ad hoc procedures. The reports contained in this section on the Center for Complex Distributed Systems describe activities related to the integrated engineering of large complex systems. The first three papers describe recent developments for each link of the integrated engineering process for large structural systems. These include (1) the development of model-based signal processing algorithms which will formalize the process of coupling measurements and simulation and provide a rigorous methodology for validation and update of computational models; (2) collaborative efforts with faculty at the University of California at Berkeley on the development of massive simulation models for the earth and large bridge structures; and (3) the development of wireless data acquisition systems which provide a practical means of monitoring large systems like the National Ignition Facility (NIF) optical support structures. These successful developments are coming to a confluence in the next year with applications to NIF structural

  16. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  17. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  18. Challenging and Supporting New Leader Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the kinds of support and challenge that new school leaders need in the early years of their career. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and appreciative inquiry were used to collect the stories of new school leaders. The study outlined the kinds of support that were productive in helping school principals…

  19. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: INFORMATION CHALLENGES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is discussed the role of technology development, especially in connection with social transformation and transition of humanity to the era of information/knowledge, analyzed the trend accelerating technological change and its relation to civil and military changes in society. It is emphasized the fundamental novelty of the information age, namely the transition of mankind from the production of material products mainly to intangible (information, knowledge, human cognitive processes. It is emphasized that ICT gain not only growing importance, but become a driving force of human civilization. The basic features of education in the information age, including ICT educational purpose out technology for distance education are described.

  20. Development of superconductor application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, G. W.; Kim, C. J.; Lee, H. G.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, K. B.; Won, D. Y.; Jang, K. I.; Kwon, S. C.; Kim, W. J.; Ji, Y. A.; Yang, S. W.; Kim, W. K.; Park, S. D.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, D. M.; Park, H. W.; Yu, J. K.; Lee, I. S.; Kim, J. J.; Choi, H. S.; Chu, Y.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, D. H.

    1997-09-01

    Fabrication of high Tc bulk superconductor and its application, fabrication of superconducting wire for electric power device and analysis for cryogenic system were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies for electric power system. High quality YBaCuO bulk superconductor was fabricated by controlling initial powder preparation process and prototype flywheel energy storage device was designed basically. The superconducting levitation force measuring device was made to examine the property of prepared superconductor specimen. Systematic studies onthe method of starting powder preparation, mechanical fabrication process, heat treatment condition and analysis of plastic deformation were carried out to increase the stability and reproducibility of superconducting wire. A starting power with good reactivity and fine particle size was obtained by mechanical grinding, control of phase assemblage, and emulsion drying method. Ag/BSCCO tape with good cross sectional shape and Jc of 20,000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by applying CIP packing procedure. Multifilamentary wire with Jc of 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by rolling method using square billet as starting shape. The joining of the multifilamentary wire was done by etching and pressing process and showed 50% of joining efficiency. Analysis on the heat loss in cryostat for high Tc superconducting device was carried out for optimum design of the future cryogenic system. (author). 66 refs., 104 figs.

  1. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  2. Silver Nanoparticles: Technological Advances, Societal Impacts, and Metrological Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Jiménez, Bryan; Johnson, Monique E.; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Murphy, Karen E.; Winchester, Michael R.; Vega Baudrit, José R.

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show different physical and chemical properties compared to their macroscale analogs. This is primarily due to their small size and, consequently, the exceptional surface area of these materials. Presently, advances in the synthesis, stabilization, and production of AgNPs have fostered a new generation of commercial products and intensified scientific investigation within the nanotechnology field. The use of AgNPs in commercial products is increasing and impacts on the environment and human health are largely unknown. This article discusses advances in AgNP production and presents an overview of the commercial, societal, and environmental impacts of this emerging nanoparticle (NP), and nanomaterials in general. Finally, we examine the challenges associated with AgNP characterization, discuss the importance of the development of NP reference materials (RMs) and explore their role as a metrological mechanism to improve the quality and comparability of NP measurements.

  3. Recapitalizing EMSL: Meeting Future Science and Technology Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, Andrew R.

    2008-07-01

    EMSL, located in Richland, Washington, is a national scientific user facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The vision that directed the development of EMSL as a problem-solving environment for environmental molecular science has led to significant scientific progress in many areas ranging from subsurface science to atmospheric sciences, and from biochemistry to catalysis. Our scientific staff and users are recognized nationally and internationally for their significant contributions to solving challenging scientific problems. We have explored new scientific frontiers and organized a vibrant and diverse user community in support of our mission as a national scientific user facility that provides integrated experimental and computational resources in the environmental molecular sciences. Users from around the world - from academia to industry and national laboratories to international research organizations - use the resources of EMSL because of the quality of science that we enable.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR ANODE BALL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kozhevnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology of copper anode balls manufacturing by means of cross-wedge rolling method is developed. The technology satisfies the requirements towards anode balls’ crystalline structure, form and geometrical dimensions accuracy.

  5. Energy Storage (II): Developing Advanced Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur L

    1974-01-01

    Energy storage, considered by some scientists to be the best technological and economic advancement after advanced nuclear power, still rates only modest funding for research concerning the development of advanced technologies. (PEB)

  6. Colombian capital goods industry and technological development.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleta LA; Londono JL; Uribe JD

    1982-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper, capital goods, technology, industrial development, trends, 1955-1978, Colombia - supply and demand, choice of product, Innovation, technology transfer, obstacles, tariff policy, research policy. Bibliography, diagram, statistical tables.

  7. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  8. Success factors in technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Universities in the U.S. have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This paper describes goals and philosophy of the Technology Licensing Office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This paper also relates the critical factors for susscessful technology transfer, particularly relating to new business formation. These critical factors include the quality of the technology, the quality of the management, the quality of the investor, the passion for success, and the image of the company. Descriptions of three different levels of investment are also given and the most successful level of investment for starting a new company is reviewed. Licensing to large companies is also briefly reviewed, as this type of licensing requires some different strategies than that of licensing to start-up companies. High quality critical factors and intelligent investment create rewards for the parties and successful ventures.

  9. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion: Future Directions and Technology Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the process of thermoelectric energy conversion along with key technology needs and challenges. The topics include: 1) The Case for Thermoelectrics; 2) Advances in Thermoelectrics: Investment Needed; 3) Current U.S. Investment (FY07); 4) Increasing Thermoelectric Materials Conversion Efficiency Key Science Needs and Challenges; 5) Developing Advanced TE Components & Systems Key Technology Needs and Challenges; 6) Thermoelectrics; 7) 200W Class Lightweight Portable Thermoelectric Generator; 8) Hybrid Absorption Cooling/TE Power Cogeneration System; 9) Major Opportunities in Energy Industry; 10) Automobile Waste Heat Recovery; 11) Thermoelectrics at JPL; 12) Recent Advances at JPL in Thermoelectric Converter Component Technologies; 13) Thermoelectrics Background on Power Generation and Cooling Operational Modes; 14) Thermoelectric Power Generation; and 15) Thermoelectric Cooling.

  10. Super-resolution imaging in glycoscience: New developments and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates on cell surfaces play a crucial role in a wide variety of biological processes, including cell adhesion, recognition and signaling, viral and bacterial infection, inflammation and metastasis. However, owing to the large diversity and complexity of carbohydrate structure and nongenetically synthesis, glycoscience is the least understood field compared with genomics and proteomics. Although the structures and functions of carbohydrates have been investigated by various conventional analysis methods, the distribution and role of carbohydrates in cell membranes remain elusive. This review focuses on the developments and challenges of super-resolution imaging in glycoscience through introduction of imaging principle and the available fluorescent probes for super-resolution imaging, the labeling strategies of carbohydrates, and the recent applications of super-resolution imaging in glycoscience, which will promote the super-resolution imaging technology as a promising tool to provide new insights into the study of glycoscience.

  11. Adhesive bonding of composite aircraft structures: Challenges and recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelakis, Sp.; Tserpes, K. I.

    2014-01-01

    In this review paper, the challenges and some recent developments of adhesive bonding technology in composite aircraft structures are discussed. The durability of bonded joints is defined and presented for parameters that may influence bonding quality. Presented is also, a numerical design approach for composite joining profiles used to realize adhesive bonding. It is shown that environmental ageing and pre-bond contamination of bonding surfaces may degrade significantly fracture toughness of bonded joints. Moreover, it is obvious that additional research is needed in order to design joining profiles that will enable load transfer through shearing of the bondline. These findings, together with the limited capabilities of existing non-destructive testing techniques, can partially explain the confined use of adhesive bonding in primary composite aircraft structural parts.

  12. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  13. Mobile Sensor Technologies Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence C.; Oberle, Lawrence G.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing small mobile platforms for sensor placement, as well as methods for communicating between roving platforms and a central command location. The first part of this project is to use commercially available equipment to miniaturize an existing sensor platform. We developed a five-circuit-board suite, with an average board size of 1.5 by 3 cm. Shown in the preceding photograph, this suite provides all motor control, direction finding, and communications capabilities for a 27- by 21- by 40-mm prototype mobile platform. The second part of the project is to provide communications between mobile platforms, and also between multiple platforms and a central command location. This is accomplished with a low-power network labeled "SPAN," Sensor Platform Area Network, a local area network made up of proximity elements. In practice, these proximity elements are composed of fixed- and mobile-sensor-laden science packages that communicate to each other via radiofrequency links. Data in the network will be shared by a central command location that will pass information into and out of the network through its access to a backbone element. The result will be a protocol portable to general purpose microcontrollers satisfying a host of sensor networking tasks. This network will enter the gap somewhere between television remotes and Bluetooth but, unlike 802.15.4, will not specify a physical layer, thus allowing for many data rates over optical, acoustical, radiofrequency, hardwire, or other media. Since the protocol will exist as portable C-code, developers may be able to embed it in a host of microcontrollers from commercial to space grade and, of course, to design it into ASICs. Unlike in 802.15.4, the nodes will relate to each other as peers. A demonstration of this protocol using the two test bed platforms was recently held. Two NASA modified, commercially available, mobile platforms communicated and shared data with each other and a

  14. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J. [Allied Signal Environmental Catalysts, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  15. Challenges of 22 nm and beyond CMOS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ru; WU HanMing; KANG JinFeng; XIAO DeYuan; SHI XueLong; AN Xia; TIAN Yu; WANG RunSheng; ZHANG LiangLiang; ZHANG Xing; WANG YangYuan

    2009-01-01

    It is predicted that CMOS technology will probably enter Into 22 nm node around 2012.Scaling of CMOS logic technology from 32 to 22 nm node meets more critical Issues and needs some significant changes of the technology,as well as integration of the advanced processes.This paper will review the key processing technologies which can be potentially integrated into 22 nm and beyond technology nodes,including double patterning technology with high NA water immersion lithography and EUV lithography,new device architectures,high K/metal gate (HK/MG) stack and integration technology,mobility enhancement technologies,source/drain engineering and advanced copper interconnect technology with ultra-low-k process.

  16. Information Technology Workforce Development: Public Policy Review and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Robert

    Keeping the existing information technology (IT) workforce viable and rapidly increasing the number of these workers presents a United States public policy workforce development (WD) challenge at all government levels. Public policy human capital investments have been undertaken to address the IT workforce supply and demand mismatch. States seem…

  17. Learning with Mobiles in Developing Countries: Technology, Language, and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, John M.

    2017-01-01

    In the countries of the global South, the challenges of fixed infrastructure and environment, the apparent universality of mobile hardware, software and network technologies and the rhetoric of the global knowledge economy have slowed or impoverished the development of appropriate theoretical discourses to underpin learning with mobiles. This…

  18. Learning to Teach with Technology: Strategies for Inservice Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Karen; Simkins, Michael; Penuel, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes and reports evaluation results for five key elements of the Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project's inservice professional development program. The five elements are: (a) Technology Learning Coordinators (a mentoring system), (b) Minigrants (small local grants tied to a planning process for teachers), (c) Partnerships…

  19. Technological Advances and Opportunities for the Development of Sustainable Biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    have been taken in recent years into the transition towards a bio-based economy, there are still significant technological challenges to overcome in order to develop more efficient, advanced and sustainable bio-based processes, able to compete with the optimized petrochemical production chains...

  20. Technology Transfer Challenges in Indonesia: An Experience from Industry Turbine Overhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiakto Soekarno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problems and challenges that Indonesia faces in the process of its technology transfer. Matters discussed in this paper are based on the lead writer’s personal observation and experience of the technology transfer taking place in Indonesia’s turbine maintenance and overhaul industry.The first challenge faced is the lack of basic skills on the part of factory workers. The next challenge is the lack of supporting industries. Furthermore, the low level of English proficiency of the workforce has contribution to the technology transfer problems. Final challenges are the low credibility of the government entities that oversee the turbine maintenance industry in Indonesia. The steps undertaken in the technology transfer in the turbine maintenance and overhaul industry in Indonesia is done through several complex stages.Keywords: challenges in the transfer of technology, technology transfer in Indonesia, turbine maintenance and overhaul industry.

  1. Future of printing: changes and challenges, technologies and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipphan, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    Digitalization within the graphic arts industry is described and it is explained how it is improving and changing the print production strategies and which new kinds of print production systems are developed or can be expected. The relationship of printed media and electronic media is analyzed and a positioning for the next century is given. The state of the art of conventional printing technologies, especially using direct imagine techniques, and their position within the digital workflow are shortly described. Non-impact printing multicolor printing systems are explained, based on general design criteria and linked to existing and newly announced equipment. The use of high-tech components for building up successful systems with high reliability, high quality and low production costs is included with some examples. Digital printing systems open many opportunities in print production: distributed printing, personalization, print and book on demand are explained as examples. The overview of the several printing technologies and their positioning regarding quality and productivity leads to the scenario about the important position of printed media, also in the distant future.

  2. Scientific and Technological Development of Hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, Saverio

    2010-04-01

    Hadrontherapy is a novel technique of cancer radiation therapy which employs beams of charged hadrons, protons and carbon ions in particular. Due to their physical and radiobiological properties, they allow one to obtain a more conformal treatment with respect to photons used in conventional radiation therapy, sparing better the healthy tissues located in proximity of the tumour and allowing a higher control of the disease. Hadrontherapy is the direct application of research in high energy physics, making use of specifically conceived particle accelerators and detectors. Protons can be considered today a very important tool in clinical practice due to the several hospital-based centres in operation and to the continuously increasing number of facilities proposed worldwide. Very promising results have been obtained with carbon ion beams, especially in the treatment of specific radio resistant tumours. To optimize the use of charged hadron beams in cancer therapy, a continuous technological challenge is leading to the conception and to the development of innovative methods and instruments. The present status of hadrontherapy is reviewed together with the future scientific and technological perspectives of this discipline.

  3. Teacher Education, Information and Communication Technology: Prospects and Challenges of E-Teaching Profession in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Olabode Owolabi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are indispensable within the teaching – learning process. Hence, they constitute a major input in the accomplishment of educational goals and objectives in all nations. In Nigeria, teacher education has been bedeviled with a lot of challenges in the modern day technology of imparting knowledge in the teaching and learning process. Information and Communication Technology (ICT is relatively a very new development in Nigerian educational system. ICT plays a significant role in teacher education. Hence, the objective of this paper is to discuss the prospects of ICT in teacher education as well as its challenges in E-teaching profession in Nigeria. The findings via descriptive research revealed that many teachers in Nigeria are not using ICT facilities in teaching learning process due to some challenges which include high exorbitant price of ICT facilities, lack of infrastructures in the areas of electricity supply, lack of adequate trained manpower for the development, maintenance and operation of ICT facilities, lack of commitment on the part of government towards the development of ICT, inadequate funding of internet connectivity and lukewarm attitude of many teachers to be computer literate among others. This paper proffers some probable ways of improving ICT in teacher education in Nigeria. It concludes that the importance of ICT in teacher education to improve the quality of teaching and learning process in schools cannot be over-emphasized. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  4. RF and microwave integrated circuit development technology, packaging and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Gamand, Patrice; Kelma, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    RF and Microwave Integrated Circuit Development bridges the gap between existing literature, which focus mainly on the 'front-end' part of a product development (system, architecture, design techniques), by providing the reader with an insight into the 'back-end' part of product development. In addition, the authors provide practical answers and solutions regarding the choice of technology, the packaging solutions and the effects on the performance on the circuit and to the industrial testing strategy. It will also discuss future trends and challenges and includes case studies to illustrate examples. * Offers an overview of the challenges in RF/microwave product design * Provides practical answers to packaging issues and evaluates its effect on the performance of the circuit * Includes industrial testing strategies * Examines relevant RF MIC technologies and the factors which affect the choice of technology for a particular application, e.g. technical performance and cost * Discusses future trends and challen...

  5. Additive Manufacturing Technology Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 3D Printing In Zero-G (3D Print) technology demonstration project is a proof-of-concept test designed to assess the properties of melt deposition modeling...

  6. Meeting the flow assurance challenges of deep water developments - from CAPEX development to field start up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, M.M.; Feasey, N.D. [National Aluminium Company Ltd. (Nalco), Cheshire (United Kingdom); Afonso, M.; Silva, D. [NALCO Brasil Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As oil accumulations in easily accessible locations around the world become less available developments in deeper water become a more common target for field development. Deep water projects, particularly sub sea development, present a host of challenges in terms of flow assurance and integrity. In this paper the focus will be on the chemical control of flow assurance challenges in hydrate control, scale control and wax/asphaltene control within deep water (>750 meter) developments. The opportunities for kinetic hydrate control vs. conventional thermodynamic hydrate control will be outlined with examples of where these technologies have been applied and the limitations that still exist. The development of scale control chemical formulations specifically for sub sea application and the challenges of monitoring such control programs will be highlighted with developments in real time and near real time monitoring. Organic deposit control (wax/asphaltene) will focus on the development of new chemicals that have higher activity but lower viscosity than currently used chemicals hence allowing deployment at colder temperatures and over longer distances. The factors that need to be taken into account when selecting chemicals for deep water application will be highlighted. Fluid viscosity, impact of hydrostatic head on injectivity, product stability at low temperature and interaction with other production chemicals will be reviewed as they pertain to effective flow assurance. This paper brings learning from other deep water basins with examples from the Gulf of Mexico, West Africa and Brazil, which will be used to highlight these challenges and some of the solutions currently available along with the technology gaps that exist. (author)

  7. Fundamental and Technical Challenges for a Compatible Design Scheme of Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuguang Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxyfuel combustion with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS is a carbon-reduction technology for use in large-scale coal-fired power plants. Significant progress has been achieved in the research and development of this technology during its scaling up from 0.4 MWth to 3 MWth and 35 MWth by the combined efforts of universities and industries in China. A prefeasibility study on a 200 MWe large-scale demonstration has progressed well, and is ready for implementation. The overall research development and demonstration (RD&D roadmap for oxyfuel combustion in China has become a critical component of the global RD&D roadmap for oxyfuel combustion. An air combustion/oxyfuel combustion compatible design philosophy was developed during the RD&D process. In this paper, we briefly address fundamental research and technology innovation efforts regarding several technical challenges, including combustion stability, heat transfer, system operation, mineral impurities, and corrosion. To further reduce the cost of carbon capture, in addition to the large-scale deployment of oxyfuel technology, increasing interest is anticipated in the novel and next-generation oxyfuel combustion technologies that are briefly introduced here, including a new oxygen-production concept and flameless oxyfuel combustion.

  8. Computer vision challenges and technologies for agile manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molley, Perry A.

    1996-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, a Department of Energy laboratory, is responsible for maintaining the safety, security, reliability, and availability of the nuclear weapons stockpile for the United States. Because of the changing national and global political climates and inevitable budget cuts, Sandia is changing the methods and processes it has traditionally used in the product realization cycle for weapon components. Because of the increasing age of the nuclear stockpile, it is certain that the reliability of these weapons will degrade with time unless eventual action is taken to repair, requalify, or renew them. Furthermore, due to the downsizing of the DOE weapons production sites and loss of technical personnel, the new product realization process is being focused on developing and deploying advanced automation technologies in order to maintain the capability for producing new components. The goal of Sandia's technology development program is to create a product realization environment that is cost effective, has improved quality and reduced cycle time for small lot sizes. The new environment will rely less on the expertise of humans and more on intelligent systems and automation to perform the production processes. The systems will be robust in order to provide maximum flexibility and responsiveness for rapidly changing component or product mixes. An integrated enterprise will allow ready access to and use of information for effective and efficient product and process design. Concurrent engineering methods will allow a speedup of the product realization cycle, reduce costs, and dramatically lessen the dependency on creating and testing physical prototypes. Virtual manufacturing will allow production processes to be designed, integrated, and programed off-line before a piece of hardware ever moves. The overriding goal is to be able to build a large variety of new weapons parts on short notice. Many of these technologies that are being developed are also

  9. Development of Pollution Prevention Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polle, Juergen [Brooklyn College, The City University of New York (CUNY), Brooklyn, New York, (United States); Sanchez-Delgado, Roberto [Brooklyn College, The City University of New York (CUNY), Brooklyn, New York, (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This project investigated technologies that may reduce environmental pollution. This was a basic research/educational project addressing two major areas: A. In the algae research project, newly isolated strains of microalgae were investigated for feedstock production to address the production of renewable fuels. An existing collection of microalgae was screened for lipid composition to determine strains with superior composition of biofuel molecules. As many microalgae store triacylglycerides in so-called oil bodies, selected candidate strains identified from the first screen that accumulate oil bodies were selected for further biochemical analysis, because almost nothing was known about the biochemistry of these oil bodies. Understanding sequestration of triacylglycerides in intracellular storage compartments is essential to developing better strains for achieving high oil productivities by microalgae. At the onset of the project there was almost no information available on how to obtain detailed profiles of lipids from strains of microalgae. Our research developed analytical methods to determine the lipid profiles of novel microalgal strains. The project was embedded into other ongoing microalgal projects in the Polle laboratory. The project benefited the public, because students were trained in cell cultivation and in the operation of state-of-the-art analytical equipment. In addition, students at Brooklyn College were introduced into the concept of a systems biology approach to study algal biofuels production. B. A series of new nanostructured catalysts were synthesized, and characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. Our catalyst design leads to active nanostructures comprising small metal particles in intimate contact with strongly basic sites provided by the supports, which include poly(4-vinylpyridine), magnesium oxide, functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide. The new materials display a good potential as catalysts

  10. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-05-15

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  11. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2005-11-04

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  12. Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-09-30

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  13. Meeting the Cultural Challenges of Instructional Technology in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Abbas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses instructional technology in Iran. Highlights include a historical background of Iran; Islamic faith and technology; technology without western culture and influence; access to mass communication; telecommunications conferences; Internet access, usage, and connectivity; social issues; media in schools; Internet inequalities; and…

  14. CPV 101: Intro to CPV Technology, Opportunities and Challenges (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-10-26

    The presentation describes Concentrating Photovoltaic power (CPV), why it is important, the associated the opportunities and challenges, and more than 5-dozen companies that are pursuing the approach.

  15. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu, E-mail: yamashita.kiyonobu@jaea.go.jp [Visiting Professor, at the Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); General Advisor Nuclear HRD Centre, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, TOKAI-mura, NAKA-gun, IBARAKI-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  16. A Holistic Approach towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Addressing Education Challenges in Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Sungsup; Chin, Brian; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers opportunities for governments to address key education challenges of quality, equity, and efficiency. While governments and educational institutions in developed countries may have taken up these opportunities, many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region have often missed them out.…

  17. A Holistic Approach towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Addressing Education Challenges in Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Sungsup; Chin, Brian; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers opportunities for governments to address key education challenges of quality, equity, and efficiency. While governments and educational institutions in developed countries may have taken up these opportunities, many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region have often missed them out.…

  18. EMI Architecture and Technology Development Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Balazs, K.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides a brief overview of the EMI architecture and the technology development directions presented by the four EMI technology areas and by EMI partners. The report represents the final revision of EMI technology planning covering a time period beyond the project end.

  19. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  20. Managing and Integrating Open Environmental Data - Technological Requirements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, Anusuriya; Kunkel, Ralf; Jirka, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Understanding environment conditions and trends requires information. This information is usually generated from sensor observations. Today, several infrastructures (e.g., GEOSS, EarthScope, NEON, NETLAKE, OOI, TERENO, WASCAL, and PEER-EurAqua) have been deployed to promote full and open exchange of environmental data. Standards for interfaces as well as data models/formats (OGC, CUAHSI, INSPIRE, SEE Grid, ISO) and open source tools have been developed to support seamless data exchange between various domains and organizations. In spite of this growing interest, it remains a challenge to manage and integrate open environmental data on the fly due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the data. Intuitive tools and standardized interfaces are vital to hide the technical complexity of underlying data management infrastructures. Meaningful descriptions of raw sensor data are necessary to achieve interoperability among different sources. As raw sensor data sets usually goes through several layers of summarization and aggregation, metadata and quality measures associated with these should be captured. Further processing of sensor data sets requires that they should be made compatible with existing environmental models. We need data policies and management plans on how to handle and publish open sensor data coming from different institutions. Clearly, a better management and usability of open environmental data is crucial, not only to gather large amounts of data, but also to cater various aspects such as data integration, privacy and trust, uncertainty, quality control, visualization, and data management policies. The proposed talk presents several key findings in terms of requirements, ongoing developments and technical challenges concerning these aspects from our recent work. This includes two workshops on open observation data and supporting tools, as well as the long-term environmental monitoring initiatives such as TERENO and TERENO-MED. Workshops Details

  1. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  2. Emerging challenges to structural integrity technology for high-temperature applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Shantung

    2007-01-01

    Structural integrity technology has been widely used with great success for the design, manufacture and failure prevention of modem constructions such as chemical and petrochemical plants, power generation and energy conversion systems, as well as space and oceanic exploration.The modem needs of structural integrity technology are largely attributed to the increase of service temperature of the structures that results in the efficiency improvement in energy conversion and chemical processing technologies. Besides the needs arising from large-scale high-temperature plants,the high tech developments, such as micro chemo-mechanical systems and high-power electronics, provide new challenges to structural integrity technology. The present paper summarizes the recent technical progresses in large process plants and the aviation industry, micro chemo-mechanical systems,fuel cells, high-temperature electronics, and packaging and coating technologies. The state-of-the-art of structural integrity technology for high temperature applications is reviewed.Suggestions are provided for the improvement of current design and assessment methods.

  3. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; Meseroll, Robert; Quiter, John; Shannon, Russell; Easton, John W.; Madaras, Eric I.; BrownTaminger, Karen M.; Tabera, John T.; Tellado, Joseph; Williams, Marth K.; Zeitlin, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  4. Review: DNA Microarray Technology and Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Drabu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

    On the contrary to slow and non specific traditional drug discovery methods, DNA microarray technology could
    accelerate the identification of potential drugs for treating diseases like cancer, AIDS and provide fruitful results in
    the drug discovery. The technique provides efficient automation and maximum flexibility to the researchers and
    can test thousand compounds at a time. Scientists find DNA microarray useful in disease diagnosis, monitoring
    desired and adverse outcomes of therapeutic interventions, as well as, in the selection, assessment and quality control
    of the potential drugs. In the current scenario, where new pathogens are expected every year, DNA microarray
    promises as an efficient technology to detect new organisms in a short time. Classification of carcinomas at the
    molecular level and prediction of how various types of tumor respond to different therapeutic agents can be made
    possible with the use of microarray analysis. Also, microarray technique can prove instrumental in personalized
    medicines development by providing microarray data of a patient which could be used for identifying diseases,
    treatment specific to individual and trailing disease prognosis. Microarray analysis could be beneficial in the area
    of molecular medicines for analysis of genetic variations and functions of genes in normal individuals and diseased
    conditions. The technique can give satisfactory results in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis and
    pharmacogenomics studies. The challenges that arise with the technology are high degree of variability with data
    obtained, frequent up gradation of methods and machines and lack of trained manpower. Despite this, DNA microarray
    promises to be the next generation sequencer which could explain how organisms evolve and adapt looking
    at the whole

  5. Oil heat technology research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweller, E.R. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); McDonald, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this United States Department of Energy (DOE)/Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) program is to develop a technology base for advancing the state-of-the-art related to oilfired combustion equipment. The major thrust is through technology based research that will seek new knowledge leading to improved designs and equipment optimization. The Combustion Equipment space Conditioning Technology program currently deals exclusively with residential and small commercial building oil heat technology.

  6. Engineering and Technology Challenges for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    After more than fifty years of space activities, the near-Earth environment is polluted with man-made orbital debris. The collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009 signaled a potential collision cascade effect, also known as the "Kessler Syndrome", in the environment. Various modelling studies have suggested that the commonly-adopted mitigation measures will not be sufficient to stabilize the future debris population. Active debris removal must be considered to remediate the environment. This paper summarizes the key issues associated with debris removal and describes the technology and engineering challenges to move forward. Fifty-four years after the launch of Sputnik 1, satellites have become an integral part of human society. Unfortunately, the ongoing space activities have left behind an undesirable byproduct orbital debris. This environment problem is threatening the current and future space activities. On average, two Shuttle window panels are replaced after every mission due to damage by micrometeoroid or orbital debris impacts. More than 100 collision avoidance maneuvers were conducted by satellite operators in 2010 to reduce the impact risks of their satellites with respect to objects in the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog. Of the four known accident collisions between objects in the SSN catalog, the last one, collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009, was the most significant. It was the first ever accidental catastrophic destruction of an operational satellite by another satellite. It also signaled the potential collision cascade effect in the environment, commonly known as the "Kessler Syndrome," predicted by Kessler and Cour-Palais in 1978 [1]. Figure 1 shows the historical increase of objects in the SSN catalog. The majority of the catalog objects are 10 cm and larger. As of April 2011, the total objects tracked by the SSN sensors were more than 22,000. However, approximately 6000 of

  7. Technological Innovation of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kosovo: Challenges and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valon Kastrati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to innovate, is the main challenge in the fast changing global markets, to maintain a stable economic development in the long term. The ICT can carry strategic incentives to adjust the economic structure and to modify the economic model of a country. This process can build a resource-saving and a environmentally friendly society. The technological innovation can improve the international competitiveness of the economy and the overall employment rate of young generations. The rapid development of SMEs has become a major force to support economic growth of Kosovo. However, small and medium enterprises in transitional economies are not always trusting technological innovation. Several businesses due to multiple internal and external environmental factors, show a low level of confidence over technological innovation. In fact, from an internal point of view, the management can be afraid of security issues, like leak of strategic information, or moreover company secrets. The typical example can be the reluctance to adopt cloud technology platforms to improve the management tasks and operations. Meanwhile the external threat can be an overturn of the management style that threatens positions and hierarchy within the organization.This paper aims to analyze some key factors that prevent the spread of technological enhancement in small and medium enterprises in Kosovo.Some typical case studies will be analyzed and further policy recommendations will be suggested. Keywords: SME, ICT, confidence, success, transition economy.

  8. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in Medical Education and Practice: The Major Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Karsenti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review addresses the main effects and challenges in using information and communication technologies (ICT in medical education and practice. The first challenge is to better prepare future physicians for the changing behaviours of patients, who are increasingly Internet-savvy and who sometimes appear to know more about their diseases than their physicians. The second challenge, which is closely linked to the first, is to raise awareness among physicians in training of the many benefits of using ICT to improve not only the quality of interventions and health care delivery but, from a broader perspective, the organization of the health care system itself. The third challenge is to motivate medical students and practitioners to use ICT to find information, learn and develop. It is proposed that information literacy should be a mandatory skill for all medical students. The e-learning mode of training is also addressed. Although underemployed in most medical faculties, it represents the future of initial and continuous medical training. Virtual resources and communities, simulations and 3D animations are also discussed. The fourth and final challenge is to change medical teaching practices.

  9. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  10. Innovative Technology Development Program. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, J.

    1995-08-01

    Through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a national applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program, whose goal has been to resolve the major technical issues and rapidly advance technologies for environmental restoration and waste management. The Innovative Technology Development (ITD) Program was established as a part of the DOE, Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E) Program. The plan is part of the DOE`s program to restore sites impacted by weapons production and to upgrade future waste management operations. On July 10, 1990, DOE issued a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) through the Idaho Operations Office to solicit private sector help in developing innovative technologies to support DOE`s clean-up goals. This report presents summaries of each of the seven projects, which developed and tested the technologies proposed by the seven private contractors selected through the PRDA process.

  11. Scientific and Technological Challenges of Diagnosing Burning Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, R. L.

    2009-05-01

    Research in magnetically confined fusion is now approaching a major milestone which is in evaluating and controlling burning plasma conditions. This milestone will be first met in the ITER experiment, presently being built in Cadarache, France through an international partnership, which includes China, the European Union, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the United States. In order to achieve its mission of achieving burning plasma conditions, and possibly ignition, a comprehensive set of scientific instruments (diagnostics) is being planned. That set represents the culmination of more than 50 years of development and research. More than 40 plasma parameters will be measured, including many which will be directly controlled. Some of these measurements will be done for the first time, such as probing the production, distribution and behavior of fusion produced, i.e. alpha particles, a key element in sustaining the fusion reaction process. These measurements will need to be done in a hostile environment, where a large nuclear radiation field, substantial direct particle flux, long pulse length and lack of direct access will bring severe constraints. Furthermore, the needs of the experiment will demand high reliability, low maintenance and the ability to retain a good calibration over a long period of time. We will review the challenges of the task and the opportunities for scientific breakthroughs from these state-of-the-art diagnostics instruments, as they pertain to the specific context of burning plasma conditions, together with examples of where these measurements will directly impact our scientific understanding and ability to control these conditions.

  12. Open Technology Development: Roadmap Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Linux Apache MySql (PHP/ Perl /Python) integrated services. This standardized "stack" of open source technologies enables robust web based information...ACTD Office • Sue Payton, AS&C Office • LTG Robert M. Shea, Joint Staff, J-6 • David Scantling, OSD, Business Transformation Office • Fritz

  13. State Developers Challenge the Private Lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU JIAMIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Determined to curb speculation in the red-hot property market,the Chinese government has taken a series of measures,including applying capital gains tax and tightening credit conditions. Real estate developers have started to feel the pinch as residential property sales slow down in some cities. Cashstrapped private property developers in particular feel burned.But for those State-owned developers with various government support, a tightened market might mean an opportunity to overcome their private peers.

  14. Environmental decision support systems (EDSS) development - Challenges and best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. S. McIntosh; J. C. Ascough II; S. Chen; J. Chew; S. Cuddy; A. Elmahdi; D. Haase; J. Harou; D. Hepting; A. J. Jakeman; A. Kassahun; S. Lautenbach; K. Matthews; W. Merritt; N. W. T. Quinn; I. Rodriguez-Roda; S. Sieber; M. Stavenga; A. Sulis; J. Ticehurst; M. J. Twery; M. Volk; M. Wrobel; H. van Delden; S. El-Sawah; A. Rizzoli; A. Voinov

    2011-01-01

    Despite the perceived value of DSS in informing environmental and natural resource management, DSS tools often fail to be adopted by intended end users. By drawing together the experience of a global group of EDSS developers, we have identified and assessed key challenges in EDSS development and offer recommendations to resolve them. Challenges related to engaging end...

  15. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  16. Technology-Enhanced Learning in Developing Nations: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalni Gulati

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning ‘using’ technologies has become a global phenomenon. The Internet is often seen as a value-neutral tool that potentially allows individuals to overcome the constraints of traditional elitist spaces and gain unhindered access to learning. It is widely suggested that online technologies can help address issues of educational equity and social exclusion, and open up democratic and accessible educational opportunities. The national governments and non-governmental agencies who fund educational endeavours in developing countries have advocated the use of new technologies to reduce the cost of reaching and educating large numbers of children and adults who are currently missing out on education. This paper presents an overview of the educational developments in open, distance, and technology-facilitated learning that aim to reach the educationally deprived populations of the world. It reveals the challenges encountered by children and adults in developing countries as they attempt to access available educational opportunities. The discussion questions whether, in face of these challenges, developing nations should continue to invest money, time, and effort into e-learning developments. Can technology-enhanced learning help address the poverty, literacy, social, and political problems in developing countries?

  17. KSC Education Technology Research and Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Michael R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Educational technology is facilitating new approaches to teaching and learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Cognitive research is beginning to inform educators about how students learn providing a basis for design of more effective learning environments incorporating technology. At the same time, access to computers, the Internet and other technology tools are becoming common features in K-20 classrooms. Encouraged by these developments, STEM educators are transforming traditional STEM education into active learning environments that hold the promise of enhancing learning. This document illustrates the use of technology in STEM education today, identifies possible areas of development, links this development to the NASA Strategic Plan, and makes recommendations for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Education Office for consideration in the research, development, and design of new educational technologies and applications.

  18. Technological challenges on the path to discovery in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Mario R.

    2016-05-01

    Over the next decade, NASA's Astrophysics Division expects to undertake robotic or unmanned space flight missions that will explore the nature of the universe at its largest scales, its earliest moments, and its most extreme conditions. Current innovative and maturation technology programs are being conducted by NASA's Astrophysics Division to fill the technology gaps identified by the community. One of these efforts was to establish the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to support the maturation of key technologies. In this paper, these technology programs are described; in particular the SAT program will be presented describing the process to establish priorities, the technology management components, and the efforts to move these technologies into mission concepts and flight missions. The technology roadmap for a large mission concept such as ATLAST is presented as an example of the technology gaps derived and identified from these analyses, which could focus future efforts and investment priorities. Finally, the NASA preparation for the next decade, which will study and mature four large mission concepts, is briefly outlined.

  19. The Challenges in Developing Academic Library Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankowski, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Defines collection development and discusses several issues related to this function in the academic library: (1) the importance of a collection development policy; (2) material selection; (3) faculty-library cooperation; (4) cooperation with other library departments; (5) weeding; and (6) effects of automation. Nine references are listed. (MES)

  20. Technological Developments in Networking, Education and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Elleithy, Khaled; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Karim, Mohammad A; Mahmood, Ausif

    2010-01-01

    "Technological Developments in Networking, Education and Automation" includes a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the following areas: Computer Networks: Access Technologies, Medium Access Control, Network architectures and Equipment, Optical Networks and Switching, Telecommunication Technology, and Ultra Wideband Communications. Engineering Education and Online Learning: including development of courses and systems for engineering, technical and liberal studies programs; online laboratories; intelligent

  1. Latest development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Pan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Hua-Dong; Zeng, Chao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tao; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies.

  2. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a

  3. Miniature-MCA technology developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Stephens, M.M.; Biddle, R.S.

    1991-12-31

    We have recently reduced the size of multichannel analyzers (MCAs) and have implemented more features in hardware to relieve software requirements. We built and tested a spectroscopy grade, 4096-channel MCA. Exclusive of amplifier and power supply, it fits on two boards each approximately 7 by 15 cm. This paper discusses the features and performance of the analyzer and some reasonable applications of these technologies.

  4. KNOWLEDGE SYNTHESIS IN TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yukihiro YAMASHITA; Yoshiteru NAKAMORI; Andrzej P. WIERZBICKI

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a knowledge construction model called the i-System for knowledge integration and creation and its relation to the new concept of the Creative Space. The five ontological elements of the i-System are Intelligence, Involvement, Imagination, Intervention, and Integration corresponding to five diverse dimensions of the Creative Space. The paper discusses the meanings and functions of these dimensions in knowledge integration and creation, and presents applications of the i-System to technology roadmapping and archiving.

  5. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  6. Advanced Reactor Technologies - Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne L.

    2017-08-23

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  7. The challenge of developing ethical guidelines for a research infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo

    2016-04-01

    The mission of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS RI) is to enable research to understand the greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets and perturbations. The ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and GHG emissions. Technological developments and implementations, related to GHGs, will be promoted by the linking of research, education and innovation. In order to provide this data ICOS RI is a distributed research infrastructure. The backbones of ICOS RI are the national measurement stations such as ICOS atmosphere, ecosystem and ocean stations. ICOS Central Facilities are the European level ICOS RI Centres, which have the specific tasks in collecting and processing the data and samples received from the national measurement networks. During the establishment of ICOS RI ethical guidelines were developed. These guidelines describe principles of ethics in the research activities that should be applied within ICOS RI. They should be acknowledged and followed by all researchers affiliated to ICOS RI and should be supported by all participating institutions. The presentation describes (1) the general challenge to develop ethical guidelines in a complex international infrastructure and (2) gives an overview about the content that includes different kinds of conflicts of interests, data ethics and social responsibility.

  8. Aligning Technology Education Teaching with Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to determine if there is a level of alignment between technology education curriculum and theories of intellectual development. The researcher compared Epstein's Brain Growth Theory and Piaget's Status of Intellectual Development with technology education curriculum from Australia, England, and the United…

  9. Social and Technological Development in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1997-01-01

    This papers studies the processes developing technology and its social "sorroundings", the social networks. Positions in the debate on technological change is discussed. A central topic is the enterprise external development and decision processes and their interplay with the enterprise internal...

  10. Dynamic Line Rating - Technologies and Challenges of PMU on Overhead Lines: A Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, David; Rosero, Javier; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    for line rating computation and monitoring are identified, these are: sensors, communications, management information system and information analysis tools, which are part of integral dynamic line rating systems. Finally, the benefits and challenges of using phasor measurement units for real time capacity......This article reviews direct and indirect methods developed for dynamic line rating on overhead lines, and their applications (reduction of bottlenecks, congestion costs, load shedding, among others) in the operation and control of power systems as smart grid technology. Besides, four elements...... estimation on overhead lines are analyzed, highlighting the impact of weather changes along the entire line....

  11. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  12. Japanese challenge to create a low carbon society - 'Clean coal technologies, now and future'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagaki, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Minoru; Noguchi, Yoshikazu

    2010-09-15

    Under the increase of world energy demand, especially in major developing countries, energy demand will not be satisfied without coal. It is true that 30% of carbon dioxide emission is from coal-fired power stations, and there is no other effective solution than abating these emissions. The key is Clean Coal Technologies (CCT), to make power stations to low carbon. It is necessary to develop and transfer these CCTs together with developed and developing countries. Japan, who has excellent CCTs, should play an important role to develop higher innovative technologies and is challenging to make a low carbon society in the world.

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT UNDER GLOBALIZATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl H. Gerasymchuk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The research reveals a studying of scientific and technical development of enterprise in the context of globalization processes. The authors placed high emphasis on the specification of peculiarities and theoretical aspects of scientific and technical development of enterprise, the studying of impact of scientific and technical factors of economic development. The R&D financing in Ukraine and the strong and weak sides of application of model of technological development at international technology transfer are analyzed in the paper.

  14. Empowering Personalized Medicine with Big Data and Semantic Web Technology: Promises, Challenges, and Use Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahiazar, Maryam; Taslimitehrani, Vahid; Jadhav, Ashutosh; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2014-10-01

    In healthcare, big data tools and technologies have the potential to create significant value by improving outcomes while lowering costs for each individual patient. Diagnostic images, genetic test results and biometric information are increasingly generated and stored in electronic health records presenting us with challenges in data that is by nature high volume, variety and velocity, thereby necessitating novel ways to store, manage and process big data. This presents an urgent need to develop new, scalable and expandable big data infrastructure and analytical methods that can enable healthcare providers access knowledge for the individual patient, yielding better decisions and outcomes. In this paper, we briefly discuss the nature of big data and the role of semantic web and data analysis for generating "smart data" which offer actionable information that supports better decision for personalized medicine. In our view, the biggest challenge is to create a system that makes big data robust and smart for healthcare providers and patients that can lead to more effective clinical decision-making, improved health outcomes, and ultimately, managing the healthcare costs. We highlight some of the challenges in using big data and propose the need for a semantic data-driven environment to address them. We illustrate our vision with practical use cases, and discuss a path for empowering personalized medicine using big data and semantic web technology.

  15. Development Challenges, Tuition Barriers, and High School Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian; Shi, Yaojiang

    2009-01-01

    China has made remarkable progress along the path of economic transformation over the past three decades. To continue its rapid growth in an economy with increasingly higher wages, China's key challenge is whether it can become competitive enough in quasi-skilled and skilled sectors so that more technologically advanced industries and service…

  16. Development Challenges, Tuition Barriers, and High School Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian; Shi, Yaojiang

    2009-01-01

    China has made remarkable progress along the path of economic transformation over the past three decades. To continue its rapid growth in an economy with increasingly higher wages, China's key challenge is whether it can become competitive enough in quasi-skilled and skilled sectors so that more technologically advanced industries and service…

  17. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun (and others)

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  19. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the poor.

  20. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  1. Technology Challenges and Opportunities for Very Large In-Space Structural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.

    2009-01-01

    Space solar power satellites and other large space systems will require creative and innovative concepts in order to achieve economically viable designs. The mass and volume constraints of current and planned launch vehicles necessitate highly efficient structural systems be developed. In addition, modularity and in-space deployment/construction will be enabling design attributes. While current space systems allocate nearly 20 percent of the mass to the primary structure, the very large space systems of the future must overcome subsystem mass allocations by achieving a level of functional integration not yet realized. A proposed building block approach with two phases is presented to achieve near-term solar power satellite risk reduction with accompanying long-term technology advances. This paper reviews the current challenges of launching and building very large space systems from a structures and materials perspective utilizing recent experience. Promising technology advances anticipated in the coming decades in modularity, material systems, structural concepts, and in-space operations are presented. It is shown that, together, the current challenges and future advances in very large in-space structural systems may provide the technology pull/push necessary to make solar power satellite systems more technically and economically feasible.

  2. South Coastal Community Development: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imamudin Yuliadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reality show that Indonesia is one country that have longest beach in the world. This fact give implication that economic potential of people life at the beach is important factor to indoors economic growth for improving walfare and equity economic development both national and regional scope. Research method that applied is desriptive investigative for obtain the fact about the economic problem of people at the beach especially beach potential economy for improving people economic welfare. Analitical methode at this research is location quotion (LQ, shift-share, and typology klassen. The output of this research is making the planning model of promotion system and integrated investment to realize the equality of development economic at beach are in Yogyakarta.

  3. Space Technology Mission Directorate: Game Changing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace community have deep roots in manufacturing technology and innovation. Through it's Game Changing Development Program and the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Project NASA develops and matures innovative, low-cost manufacturing processes and products. Launch vehicle propulsion systems are a particular area of interest since they typically comprise a large percentage of the total vehicle cost and development schedule. NASA is currently working to develop and utilize emerging technologies such as additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing) and computational materials and processing tools that could dramatically improve affordability, capability, and reduce schedule for rocket propulsion hardware.

  4. Medical Device Development: the challenge for ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Jennifer L; Norris, Beverley J.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Crowe, John A.

    2008-01-01

    High quality, well designed medical devices are necessary to provide safe and effective clinical care for patients as well as to ensure the health and safety of professional and lay device users. Capturing the user requirements of users and incorporating these into design is an essential component of this. The field of ergonomics has an opportunity to assist, not only with this area, but also to encourage a more general consideration of the user during medical device development. A review ...

  5. Entering the Matrix: The Challenge of Regulating Radical Leveling Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    genetically modifying plants so that they can survive in increased radiation 74 Dewey-Hagborg et...printable gun instructions when directions on how to craft fertilizer bombs and make poisons [are] still readily available.97 Technological change can be

  6. Educational Technology's Problems and Challenges in the Arab World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesh, Husni

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of centralization versus decentralization, tradition versus modernization, teacher status, administrative burdens, and educational objectives in relation to the use of educational technology in the Arab world, and suggests some possible remedies. (MBR)

  7. Technology challenges for monolithically integrated waveguide demultiplexers Invited Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lech Wosinski; Liu Liu; Ning Zhu; Lars Thylen

    2009-01-01

    A short overview of integrated waveguide demultiplexers for different applications in future highly inte- grated optical communication systems is presented. Some fabricated devices based on amorphous silicon nanowire technology are described.

  8. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Digital Technology and Mental Health Interventions: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the Internet, mobile phones, social media and other digital technologies has changed our world in many ways. It has provided individuals with information that was previously only available to a select few. An example of the reach of technology is data that as of October 2012, there are over 6 billion phones worldwide (BBC, 2012). The availability of data in real time has presented hopes of intervening more efficiently and managing health problems by leveraging limited human reso...

  10. Creating virtual communities of practice for learning technology in higher education: issues, challenges and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A. Dempster

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for a Web portal to support the rapidly growing field of learning technology has been well established through a number of national surveys and scoping studies over recent years. The overarching vision has been the provision of a virtual environment to assist in informing and developing professional practice in the use of learning technologies. This paper outlines the issues and challenges in creating such a portal through the experiences of developing the RESULTs Network. In the paper, design and participation issues are considered within the wider context of online and networked approaches to supporting practice and professional development. User participation methodologies and technical developments for RESULTs are described in relation to a review of existing representations of practice and a comprehensive survey amongst the learning technology users' community. An outline of key achievements and experiences is presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the cultural and political issues in creating a viable and sustainable facility and suggestions for possible future direction in national provision.

  11. Taiwan Perspective: Developing Smart Living Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Kung Lee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of Smart Living Technology is a recent trend in which technology is applied to daily life to increase efficiency, affordability and sustainability. The principle behind Smart Living Technology is that technology should be used to advance the needs of human beings and to increase the quality of life by the power of human creativity while at the same time sustaining the environment for future generations. As such, intelligent networks should be adopted to provide humans with full information to control an individual’s personal environment. Wireless technology can play a key role in enabling smart energy monitoring by allowing consumers to make more informed choices and to connect products and devices to a coordinated management system. The development of Smart Living Technology is based on the concept of user driven innovations. Various Living Labs have been established around the world as development centers for extension of this Smart Living Technology. In this paper, the background and current developments of Smart Living Technology are reviewed, followed by real examples taking place in Taiwan. Finally, the focus and future plan for Taiwan are discussed including a strategy for further development of Smart Living Technology in Taiwan.

  12. Ceramic Integration Technologies for Advanced Energy Systems: Critical Needs, Technical Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2010-01-01

    Advanced ceramic integration technologies dramatically impact the energy landscape due to wide scale application of ceramics in all aspects of alternative energy production, storage, distribution, conservation, and efficiency. Examples include fuel cells, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, gas turbine propulsion systems, distribution and transmission systems based on superconductors, nuclear power generation and waste disposal. Ceramic integration technologies play a key role in fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts with multifunctional properties. However, the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance requires the understanding of many thermochemical and thermomechanical factors, particularly for high temperature applications. In this presentation, various needs, challenges, and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic metal) material www.nasa.gov 45 ceramic-ceramic-systems have been discussed. Experimental results for bonding and integration of SiC based Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) LDI fuel injector and advanced ceramics and composites for gas turbine applications are presented.

  13. Hanford Site Cleanup Challenges and Opportunities for Science and Technology--A Strategic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Kreid, Dennis K.; Walton, Terry L.

    2001-02-01

    The sheer expanse of the Hanford Site, the inherent hazards associated with the significant inventory of nuclear materials and wastes, the large number of aging contaminated facilities, the diverse nature and extent of environmental contamination, and the proximity to the Columbia River make Hanford perhaps the world's largest and most complex environmental cleanup project. It is not possible to address the more complex elements of this enormous challenge in a cost-effective manner without strategic investments in science and technology. Success requires vigorous and sustained efforts to enhance the science and technology basis, develop and deploy innovative solutions, and provide firm scientific bases to support site cleanup and closure decisions at Hanford.

  14. Cleaner technology development--some practical steps for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, A K A; Bhanujan, K V

    2004-10-01

    Cleaner technologies often originate from developed countries. Little developmental work is continued on the products sourced from developing countries. These products are by and large low value products generating large quantities of hazardous waste per unit of production. Methodology is proposed for phasing out such dirty technologies! products. The development of cleaner technologies is proposed for utilizing large quantity of hazardous waste generated from identified manufacturing process.

  15. Summary of Martian Dust Filtering Challenges and Current Filter Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, William J., IV

    2017-01-01

    Traditional air particulate filtering in manned spaceflight (Apollo, Shuttle, ISS, etc.) has used cleanable or replaceable catch filters such as screens and High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance (HEPA) filters. However, the human mission to Mars architecture will require a new approach. It is Martian dust that is the particulate of concern but the need also applies to particulates generated by crew. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) high-lighted this concern in its Mars Science, Goals, Objectives, Investigations and Priorities document [7], by saying specifically that one high priority investigation will be to "Test ISRU atmospheric processing systems to measure resilience with respect to dust and other environmental challenge performance parameters that are critical to the design of a full-scale system." By stating this as high priority the MEPAG is acknowledging that developing and adequately verifying this capability is critical to success of a human mission to Mars. This architecture will require filtering capabilities that are highly reliable, will not restrict the flow path with clogging, and require little to no maintenance. This paper will summarize why this is the case, the general requirements for developing the technology, and the status of the progress made in this area.

  16. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases.

  17. Developments and challenges for autonomous unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    It is widely anticipated that autonomous vehicles will have a transformational impact on military forces and will play a key role in many future force structures. As a result, many tasks have already been identified that unmanned systems could undertake more readily than humans. However, for this to occur, such systems will need to be agile, versatile, persistent, reliable, survivable and lethal. This will require many of the vehicles 'cognitive' or higher order functions to be more fully developed, whereas to date only the 'component' or physical functions have been successfully automated and

  18. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert W.; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R.; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials. PMID:26934531

  19. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert W; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-03-01

    Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

  20. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment.Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

  1. Challenges, developments and perspectives in intermittent ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although more than half the world's river networks comprise channels that periodically cease to flow and dry [intermittent rivers (IRs)], river ecology was largely developed from and for perennial systems. Ecological knowledge of IRs is rapidly increasing, so there is a need to synthesise this knowledge and deepen ecological understanding.In this Special Issue, we bring together 13 papers spanning observational case studies, field and laboratory experiments and reviews to guide research and management in this productive field of freshwater science. We summarise new developments in IR ecology, identify research gaps and needs, and address how the study of IRs as highly dynamic ecosystems informs ecological understanding more broadly.This series of articles reveals that contemporary IR ecology is a multifaceted and maturing field of research at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial ecology. This research contributes to fresh water and general ecology by testing concepts across a range of topics, including disturbance ecology, metacommunity ecology and coupled aquatic-terrestrial ecosystems.Drying affects flow continuity through time and flow connectivity across longitudinal, lateral and vertical dimensions of space, which aligns well with the recent emphasis of mainstream ecology on meta-system perspectives. Although most articles here focus on the wet phase, there is growing interest in dry phases, and in the terrestrial vegetation and invertebrate assemb

  2. A taxonomy of management challenges for developing shared services arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Sol, H.G.

    Shared service centres (SSCs) are an organisational arrangement to deliver services. During SSC development organisations encounter a variety of challenges affecting its success or failure. Yet in this embryonic research field a systematic insight into management challenges is absent. Drawing on

  3. A taxonomy of management challenges for developing shared services arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Sol, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Shared service centres (SSCs) are an organisational arrangement to deliver services. During SSC development organisations encounter a variety of challenges affecting its success or failure. Yet in this embryonic research field a systematic insight into management challenges is absent. Drawing on lit

  4. Challenges Achieved By Innovative Technologies Our Link to a Safer, Cleaner, Healthier Tomorrow - 12369

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Heidi [Department of Energy Fellow (United States); Shoffner, Peggy; Lagos, Leonel E. [Project Management Professional - PMP (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The River Corridor Closure Project is the nation's largest environmental cleanup closure project where innovative technologies are being utilized to overcome DOE's environmental clean-up challenges. DOE provides a Technology Needs Statement that specifies their on-site challenges and the criteria to overcome those challenges. This allows for both the private sector and federally funded organizations to respond with solutions that meet their immediate needs. DOE selects the company based on their ability to reduce risk to human health and the environment, improve efficiency of the cleanup, and lower costs. These technologies are our link to a cleaner, safer, healthier tomorrow. (authors)

  5. A Roadmap for Strategic Development of Geothermal Exploration Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Benjamin R. [SRA International Inc. and Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Ziagos, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur [Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Hass, Eric [Geothermal Technologies Office, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-02-13

    Characterizing productive geothermal systems is challenging yet critical to identify and develop an estimated 30 gigawatts electric (GWe) of undiscovered hydrothermal resources in the western U.S. This paper, undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO), summarizes needs and technical pathways that target the key geothermal signatures of temperature, permeability, and fluid content, and develops the time evolution of these pathways, tying in past and current GTO exploration Research and Development (R&D) projects. Beginning on a five-year timescale and projecting out to 2030, the paper assesses technologies that could accelerate the confirmation of 30 GWe. The resulting structure forms the basis for a Geothermal Exploration Technologies Roadmap, a strategic development plan to help guide GTO R&D investments that will lower the risk and cost of geothermal prospect identification. This roadmap is currently open for public comment. Send your comments to geothermal@ee.doe.gov.

  6. Another 25 Years of AIED? Challenges and Opportunities for Intelligent Educational Technologies of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkwart, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts an analysis of some current trends and future developments in computer science, education, and educational technology. Based on these trends, two possible future predictions of AIED are presented in the form of a utopian vision and a dystopian vision. A comparison of these two visions leads to seven challenges that AIED might…

  7. Sasol process technology - the challenge of synfuels from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.N.

    1986-08-01

    Description is given of how the design challenges were met in commissioning the Sasol Two plant in 1980, a larger plant than Sasol One, and devoted to producing liquid fuels. The design parameters included treating South African coals of poor quality with high ash contents, and rapidity in building the plant.

  8. Science, Sport and Technology--A Contribution to Educational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Kelly; Reis, Paula; Esteves, Dulce; Bras, Rui; Branco, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Improve students' ability to link knowledge with real life practice, through enhancing children or teenagers' ability to think critically by way of making observations, posing questions, drawing up hypotheses, planning and carrying out investigations, analysing data and therefore improve their decision making is an educational challenge. Learning…

  9. Technologies and challenges in large-scale phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2013-01-01

    , and apoptosis, rely on phosphorylation. This PTM is thus involved in many diseases, rendering localization and assessment of extent of phosphorylation of major scientific interest. MS-based phosphoproteomics, which aims at describing all phosphorylation sites in a specific type of cell, tissue, or organism, has...... with focus on the various challenges and limitations this field currently faces....

  10. DENGUE VACCINE, CHALLENGES, DEVELOPMENT AND STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Marbawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenyakit demam Dengue endemik di lebih dari 100 negara di dunia. Obat anti virus Dengue efektif belum ditemukan danpengendalian vektor dinilai kurang efektif, sehingga diperlukan upaya pencegahan dengan vaksinasi. Vaksin Dengue yangideal adalah murah, mencakup 4 serotipe, efektif dalam memberikan kekebalan, cukup diberikan sekali seumur hidup, aman,memberi kekebalan jangka panjang, stabil dalam penyimpanan dan stabil secara genetis (tidak bermutasi. Beberapakandidat vaksin yang telah dan sedang dikembangkan oleh para peneliti di seluruh dunia adalah tetravalent live attenuatedvaccine, vaksin Chimera (ChimeriVax, vaksin subunit dan vaksin DNA. Vaksin Dengue dipandang sebagai pendekatan yangefektif dan berkesinambungan dalam mengendalikan penyakit Dengue. Tahun 2003 telah terbentuk Pediatric DengueVaccine Initiative (PDVI, yaitu sebuah konsorsium internasional yang bergerak dalam advokasi untuk meyakinkanmasyarakat internasional akan penting dan mendesaknya vaksin Dengue. Konsorsium vaksin Dengue Indonesia saat iniberupaya mengembangkan vaksin Dengue dengan menggunakan strain virus lokal.Kata kunci: Dengue, virus, vaksinABSTRACTDengue fever is endemic in more than 100 countries in the world. The effective dengue antiviral drug has not been found yet,and vector control is considered less effective. Prevention program by vaccination is needed. An ideal dengue vaccine shouldbe inexpensive, covering four serotypes (tetravalent, effective in providing immunity, given once a lifetime, safe, stable instorage and genetically. Several vaccine candidates have been and are being developed included attenuated tetravalentvaccine, ChimeriVax, sub- unit vaccines and DNA vaccines. Dengue vaccine is seen as an effective and sustainable approachto controll Dengue infection. In 2003, Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI has been formed as an internationalconsortium involved in advocacy to convince the international community about the essence and urgency

  11. DEFORESTATION: ENVIRONMENT CHALLENGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romit Agrawal, Gorang Vashistha, Rahul Mutha [Gujarat National Law University, Gujarat (India)

    2008-09-30

    This paper deals with the concept of deforestation, its impact on environment and measure to attain sustainable development. Spanning over in various parts, this research paper looks at the problem of deforestation and global warming. The first part of this paper deals with definition and general introduction of deforestation and corporate social responsibility. In this part, authors have relied on various reports proving the degradation of environment due to corporations in India and have emphasized on the concern of corporations towards the environment. The next part gives a brief overview of the problem of deforestation and its impact on environment leading to deforestation. It also highlights the causes, effect, reasons, and other issues related to deforestation. Relying on various reports and statistics, authors in this part, have mentioned that what a forest is, what the causes of deforestation are and how it is degrading the environment. The third part of this paper deals with the legislative and judicial response to deforestation problem. In this part, authors have supported their arguments with handful of International treaties, legislations and case laws relating to the problem of global warming. The fourth part of this paper deals with the concept that how corporate social responsibility can play a significant role in lessen the degradation of environment and how global warming will be reduced. Authors have also mentioned the emerging concept of carbon credits. This paper is than concluded with the remarks and suggestion of authors that corporate social responsibility is a measure to lessen global warming and to attain sustainable development.

  12. Development of nuclear transmutation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Seok; Song, Tae Young; Yoo, Jae Kwon; Choi, Byung Ho; Shin, Hee Sung; Gil, Chung Sup; Kim, Jung Do

    1997-08-01

    A basic characteristics and neutronic code development for accelerator driven subcritical reactor have been performed. In the field of basic characteristic study, the world-wide technical trends for a subcritical reactor has been investigated and some new directions for the subcritical system development were investigated. For the analysis of subcritical reactor core, a Montecarlo depletion code was developed by combining LAHET code with ORIGEN2 code. In addition, one-point kinetics equation for subcritical reactor programmed in order to analyze the dynamic behavior of subcritical core. (author). 26 tabs., 49 figs.

  13. Packaging Technologies for 500 C SiC Electronics and Sensors: Challenges in Material Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Behelm, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550C. The 96 alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been successfully tested with high temperature SiC discrete transistor devices at 500C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC junction field-effect-transistor (JFET) with a packaging system composed of a 96 alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board was tested on low earth orbit for eighteen months via a NASA International Space Station experiment. In addition to packaging systems for electronics, a spark-plug type sensor package based on this high temperature interconnection system for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was also developed and tested. In order to further significantly improve the performance of packaging system for higher packaging density, higher operation frequency, power rating, and even higher temperatures, some fundamental material challenges must be addressed. This presentation will discuss previous development and some of the challenges in material science (technology) to improve high temperature dielectrics for packaging applications.

  14. Coherent Architecture Development as a Basis for Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Poul Martin

    coherence. Despite the acceptance and results presented in multiple studies from the application of architectures, the research on architecture work in a technology development context is limited. Technologies are often developed and represented in the form of product sub-systems that are made available......The subject of this PhD thesis is architecture-centered design. It elaborates especially on two specific areas: the coherence in architectures in a technology development context and the identification of critical development areas via property-based reasoning, based on an understanding of cette...... for product developers. Technologies, which in their infancy indicate a 'jack of all trades, master of none', have a risk of being developed without a clearly defined need or identification of which products it can be used in. A common approach for developing such a technology includes exploration of what...

  15. Scientific Grand Challenges: Crosscutting Technologies for Computing at the Exascale - February 2-4, 2010, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-02-06

    The goal of the "Scientific Grand Challenges - Crosscutting Technologies for Computing at the Exascale" workshop in February 2010, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and the National Nuclear Security Administration, was to identify the elements of a research and development agenda that will address these challenges and create a comprehensive exascale computing environment. This exascale computing environment will enable the science applications identified in the eight previously held Scientific Grand Challenges Workshop Series.

  16. Development of krypton recovery and storage technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Shin-ichiro; Shoji, Hisashi; Kurihara, Takayuki; Kawashima, Nobuyoshi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Osawa, Toshiyuki; Yamato, Haruo; Aizawa, Toshihiro [Sanko Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    The Krypton-Recovery Development Facility was constructed as a pilot plant which has a piratical capacity at Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Various tests such as performance confirmation corresponding to parameter changing of each process by cold test, safety assurance of confinement performance of radioactive gas etc. and confirmation of the krypton recovery rate by connecting run with the reprocessing process were executed in order to develop recovery and storage technology of radioactive krypton from the shearing and dissolution process off-gas aiming to reduce the release of radioactivity to the environment. As a result, it was assured that krypton recovery rate with a cryogenic distillation was beyond the target value of 90% as krypton recovery technology, and storage technology by high pressure cylinder method was established as storage technology of recovered krypton. The immobilization technology of recovered krypton that is necessary for long term storage by ion implantation method is under development. (author)

  17. Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Grandell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  18. Robotics in neurosurgery: state of the art and future technological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, L; Li, Q; Jain, S; Kaur, G

    2004-06-01

    The use of robotic technologies to assist surgeons was conceptually described almost thirty years ago but has only recently become feasible. In Neurosurgery, medical robots have been applied to neurosurgery for over 19 years. Nevertheless this field remains unknown to most neurosurgeons. The intrinsic characteristics of robots, such as high precision, repeatability and endurance make them ideal surgeon's assistants. Unfortunately, limitations in the current available systems make its use limited to very few centers in the world. During the last decade, important efforts have been made between academic and industry partnerships to develop robots suitable for use in the operating room environment. Although some applications have been successful in areas of laparoscopic surgery and orthopaedics, Neurosurgery has presented a major challenge due to the eloquence of the surrounding anatomy. This review focuses on the application of medical robotics in neurosurgery. The paper begins with an overview of the development of the medical robotics, followed by the current clinical applications in neurosurgery and an analysis of current limitations. We discuss robotic applications based in our own experience in the field. Next, we discuss the technological challenges and research areas to overcome those limitations, including some of our current research approaches for future progress in the field.

  19. Human brain MRI at 500 MHz, scientific perspectives and technological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Denis; Schild, Thierry

    2017-03-01

    The understanding of the human brain is one of the main scientific challenges of the 21st century. In the early 2000s the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission launched a program to conceive and build a ‘human brain explorer’, the first human MRI scanner operating at 11.7 T. This scanner was envisioned to be part of the ambitious French-German project Iseult, bridging together industrial and academic partners to push the limits of molecular neuroimaging, from mouse to man, using ultra-high field MRI. In this article we provide a summary of the main neuroscience and medical targets of the Iseult project, mainly to acquire within timescales compatible with human tolerances images at a scale of 100 μm at which everything remains to discover, and to create new approaches to develop new imaging biomarkers for specific neurological and psychiatric disorders. The system specifications, the technological challenges, in terms of magnet design, winding technology, cryogenics, quench protection, stability control, and the solutions which have been chosen to overcome them and build this outstanding instrument are provided. Lines of the research and development which will be necessary to fully exploit the potential of this and other UHF MRI scanners are also outlined.

  20. Thermal Energy for Lunar In Situ Resource Utilization: Technical Challenges and Technology Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Pierce E. C.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Heller, Richard S.; Gustafson, Robert; Stern, Ted; Nakamura, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen production from lunar raw materials is critical for sustaining a manned lunar base but is very power intensive. Solar concentrators are a well-developed technology for harnessing the Sun s energy to heat regolith to high temperatures (over 1375 K). The high temperature and potential material incompatibilities present numerous technical challenges. This study compares and contrasts different solar concentrator designs that have been developed, such as Cassegrains, offset parabolas, compound parabolic concentrators, and secondary concentrators. Differences between concentrators made from lenses and mirrors, and between rigid and flexible concentrators are also discussed. Possible substrate elements for a rigid mirror concentrator are selected and then compared, using the following (target) criteria: (low) coefficient of thermal expansion, (high) modulus of elasticity, and (low) density. Several potential lunar locations for solar concentrators are compared; environmental and processing-related challenges related to dust and optical surfaces are addressed. This brief technology survey examines various sources of thermal energy that can be utilized for materials processing on the lunar surface. These include heat from nuclear or electric sources and solar concentrators. Options for collecting and transporting thermal energy to processing reactors for each source are examined. Overall system requirements for each thermal source are compared and system limitations, such as maximum achievable temperature are discussed.

  1. Technological Microbiology: Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Luciana C.; Bessa, Layara A.

    2017-01-01

    Over thousands of years, modernization could be predicted for the use of microorganisms in the production of foods and beverages. However, the current accelerated pace of new food production is due to the rapid incorporation of biotechnological techniques that allow the rapid identification of new molecules and microorganisms or even the genetic improvement of known species. At no other time in history have microorganisms been so present in areas such as agriculture and medicine, except as recognized villains. Currently, however, beneficial microorganisms such as plant growth promoters and phytopathogen controllers are required by various agricultural crops, and many species are being used as biofactories of important pharmacological molecules. The use of biofactories does not end there: microorganisms have been explored for the synthesis of diverse chemicals, fuel molecules, and industrial polymers, and strains environmentally important due to their biodecomposing or biosorption capacity have gained interest in research laboratories and in industrial activities. We call this new microbiology Technological Microbiology, and we believe that complex techniques, such as heterologous expression and metabolic engineering, can be increasingly incorporated into this applied science, allowing the generation of new and improved products and services. PMID:28539920

  2. Technological opportunities and paths of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plichta, Kirsten

    1993-01-01

    in the industry. 6) It is argued that such paths of incremental improvement at the industry level may be an outcome of a) the dynamics that produce the technological opportunities; b) the institutions that govern decisions and expectations and c) the criteria by which the chooses between different firms......Executive summary: 1) The technological development of firms in an industry is influenced by the opportunities for improving product and process, their ability to identify such opportunities and their ability to appropriate the benefit of the development effort. 2) Firms' historically developed...... technological knowledge, their production, development and other routines as well prior investments in products and production equipment play an important role with regard to the technological opportunities that firms' identify and select for development. 3) Because history matters and because firms are bounded...

  3. Constructive Technology Assessment for HIT development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høstgaard, Anna Marie Balling; Bertelsen, Pernille; Petersen, Lone Stub

    2013-01-01

    Experience and time has shown a need for new evaluation methods for evaluating Health Information Technology (HIT), as summative evaluation methods fail to accommodate the rapid and constant changes in HIT over time and to involve end-users, which has been recognized as an important success factor...... in HIT development. A new evaluation methodology, including an analytical framework, has been developed specifically for HIT development: Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) for HIT. It offers solutions to both the problems associated with summative technology evaluation and a way to involve end......-users. The CTA methodology is based on a Socio-technical understanding of technological development as an open ended, emergent process. The CTA was used during the EHR development process in the Region of North Jutland where it proved successful inproviding learning and feedback between all relevant groups...

  4. Management and Information Technology Challenges for the Modern Organization

    CERN Document Server

    Ekman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Information technology has come to play an important role in organizations over the last few decades. Though it began as an entity dealt with by specialists, IT has evolved to become an everyday tool with both operational and strategic impacts. Most modern organizations have adopted different forms of IT, and become dependent on their computer-based information systems and their peripherals for everyday operations. Information technology offers opportunities to increase efficiency, customer value, and competitiveness. Given the financial investment in IT required by organizations to remain com

  5. Integrated Micro Product and Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the issues of integrated micro product and technology development. The implications of the decisions in the design phase on the subsequent manufacturing processes are considered vital. A coherent process chain is a necessary prerequisite for the realisation of the industrial...... potential of micro technology....

  6. Cognitive development in advanced mathematics using technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, David

    2000-12-01

    This paper considers cognitive development in mathematics and its relationship with computer technology, with special emphasis on the use of visual imagery and symbols and the later shift to formal axiomatic theories. At each stage, empirical evidence is presented to show how these forms of thinking are enhanced, changed, or impeded by the use of technology.

  7. Integrated Micro Product and Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the issues of integrated micro product and technology development. The implications of the decisions in the design phase on the subsequent manufacturing processes are considered vital. A coherent process chain is a necessary prerequisite for the realisation of the industrial...... potential of micro technology....

  8. Development of PLC Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jianming; Cuiwei

    2005-01-01

    In China there built a large scale of power line communication (Abbr. PLC)testing network. This paper presents the research and development on PLC technology in China and also the application and popularization of PLC in Chinese market. At the end, the next focal points of PLC technology research are deeply discussed.

  9. China's High-technology Standards Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are several major technology standards, including audio video coding (AVS), automotive electronics, third generation (3G) mobile phones, mobile television, wireless networks and digital terrestrial television broadcasting, that have been released or are currently under development in China. This article offers a detailed analysis of each standard and studies their impact on China's high-technology industry.

  10. [Pharmaceutical technology: development and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traisnel, M

    1994-06-01

    Production of pharmaceutics cannot be compared to the manufacture of consumer goods: pharmaceutical manufacturing is the study and bulk manufacture of the ingredients from which medicines are made, and is concerned with the mixing, preparing, packing, of the ingredients into a dosage form for the patient, in according to the good manufacturing practices (GMP). Development and manufacture are not discrete activities but links in a single chain of activity. Research and development, pharmaceutical training, regulatory requirements: these concepts are present with three ways: bioavailability, targeting and compliance.

  11. Apparel Trade: The Challenge Facing Developing Economies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparel Trade: The Challenge Facing Developing Economies and Mauritius. ... after the complete phasing out of the Multi-Fibre Agreement (MFA), that the quantitative ... The post MFA era is thus expected to allow for free competition between ...

  12. Mass media and challenges of sustainable development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass media and challenges of sustainable development in Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Being an integral part of the social system, the mass media is a major stakeholder in the realization of sustainable ...

  13. Impact of leadership responses to communication challenges in organizational development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahrawar Said; Muzammel Shah

    2017-01-01

    ... and as result the organization suffers. A literary gap was identified where the impact of leadership responses and its impacts on communication challenges in organizational development was not previously studied and analyzed empirically...

  14. Development of hydrogen storage technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrogen to deliver energy for cars, portable devices and buildings is seen as one of the key steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. South Africa’s national hydrogen strategy, HySA, aims to develop and guide innovation along the value...

  15. Developments in Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    dation by Navy Antarctic Development Squadron Sixco im) rtu ;R Rsusn(rgnGaut (VXE-6). Figure 1 shows the polar research aircraft at Center), h rbnadm...perits inu /t sialler quantities of winu- (see Ref. I foi a surs e)). In particular, it found earl) spherit. tracers to be Ietec tedl than isas pretimish

  16. Technology development multidimensional review for engineering and technology managers

    CERN Document Server

    Neshati, Ramin; Watt, Russell; Eastham, James

    2014-01-01

    Developing new products, services, systems, and processes has become an imperative for any firm expecting to thrive in today’s fast-paced and hyper-competitive environment.  This volume integrates academic and practical insights to present fresh perspectives on new product development and innovation, showcasing lessons learned on the technological frontier.  The first part emphasizes decision making.  The second part focuses on technology evaluation, including cost-benefit analysis, material selection, and scenarios. The third part features in-depth case studies to present innovation management tools, such as customer needs identification, technology standardization, and risk management. The fourth part highlights important international trends, such as globalization and outsourcing. Finally the fifth part explores social and political aspects.

  17. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Leroy E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-09-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

  18. Geo energy research and development: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeger, R.K.

    1982-03-01

    Sandia Geo Energy Programs related to geothermal, coal, oil and gas, and synfuel resources have provided a useful mechanism for transferring laboratory technologies to private industry. Significant transfer of hardware, computer programs, diagnostics and instrumentation, advanced materials, and in situ process understanding has occurred through US/DOE supported programs in the past five years. The text briefly reviews the technology transfer procedures and summarizes 32 items that have been transferred and another 20 technologies that are now being considered for possible transfer to industry. A major factor in successful transfer has been personal interactions between Sandia engineers and the technical staff from private industry during all aspects of the technology development.

  19. Space power development impact on technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Fitzgerald, T. J.; Gilje, R. I.; Gordon, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the selection of a specific spacecraft power technology and the identification of technology development to meet system requirements. Requirements which influence the selection of a given technology include the power level required, whether the load is constant or transient in nature, and in the case of transient loads, the time required to recover the power, and overall system safety. Various power technologies, such as solar voltaic power, solar dynamic power, nuclear power systems, and electrochemical energy storage, are briefly described.

  20. Nuclear Technology for the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Iain

    2017-01-01

    Science, technology and innovation will play a crucial role in helping countries achieve the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Since the discovery of nuclear fission in the 1930s, the peaceful applications of nuclear technology have helped many countries improve crops, fight pests, advance health, protect the environment and guarantee a stable supply of energy. Highlighting the goals related to health, hunger, energy and the environment, in this presentation I will discuss how nuclear technology contributes to the SDGs and how nuclear technology can further contribute to the well-being of people, help protect the planet and boost prosperity.

  1. The Assurance Challenges of Advanced Packaging Technologies for Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in microelectronic parts performance are driving towards finer feature sizes, three-dimensional geometries and ever-increasing number of transistor equivalents that are resulting in increased die sizes and interconnection (I/O) counts. The resultant packaging necessary to provide assemble-ability, environmental protection, testability and interconnection to the circuit board for the active die creates major challenges, particularly for space applications, Traditionally, NASA has used hermetically packaged microcircuits whenever available but the new demands make hermetic packaging less and less practical at the same time as more and more expensive, Some part types of great interest to NASA designers are currently only available in non-hermetic packaging. It is a far more complex quality and reliability assurance challenge to gain confidence in the long-term survivability and effectiveness of nonhermetic packages than for hermetic ones. Although they may provide more rugged environmental protection than the familiar Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs), the non-hermetic Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) packages that are the focus of this presentation present a unique combination of challenges to assessing their suitability for spaceflight use. The presentation will discuss the bases for these challenges, some examples of the techniques proposed to mitigate them and a proposed approach to a US MIL specification Class for non-hermetic microcircuits suitable for space application, Class Y, to be incorporated into M. IL-PRF-38535. It has recently emerged that some major packaging suppliers are offering hermetic area array packages that may offer alternatives to the nonhermetic CCGA styles but have also got their own inspectability and testability issues which will be briefly discussed in the presentation,

  2. Teacher Challenges to Implement Engineering Design in Secondary Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Todd R.; Wicklein, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the current status of technology education teacher practices with respect to engineering design. This article is the third article in a three-part series presenting the results of this study. The first article in the series titled "Examination of Engineering Design Curriculum Content" highlighted the research…

  3. Coordination challenges on marrying information technology with service supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yan; Akkermans, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Information technology (IT) advancement is boosting service innovations, and transforms service platforms towards highly or completely IT-enabled. The increasing extent of digitalization and the high rate of innovation makes service delivery processes highly automated and service platforms highly in

  4. Religious Education and Information Technology: Challenges and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2008-01-01

    With advances in information technology, the velocity of information production on the global level has expanded as well. This acceleration has led to the delegitimizing of knowledge, the equating of information with knowledge, and the giving of predominance to information rather than knowledge. This advance has created epistemological challenges…

  5. Design and Technology and the Challenge of Refugee Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Susan

    2000-01-01

    A resource designed to introduce design and technology to refugee students for whom English is an additional language uses graphics to help explain tasks. As a standalone resource, it can be used at any time during the year and it can be varied to suit students' abilities. (SK)

  6. Responding to Challenges in Teacher Professional Development for ICT Integration in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, Jo; Forkosh-Baruch, Alona; Prestridge, Sarah; Albion, Peter; Edirisinghe, Shiyama

    2016-01-01

    There is wide agreement that teacher professional development (TPD) is a necessary element in educational change, especially for the more effective application of technology to enhance learning. The research literature reports many examples of successful TPD but there remain many challenges to wider and deeper success in the variety of different…

  7. Challenges and strategies in anti-cancer nanomedicine development: An industry perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, J.I.; Lammers, T.G.G.M.; Ashford, M.B.; Puri, S.; Storm, G.; Barry, S.T.

    2017-01-01

    Successfully translating anti-cancer nanomedicines from pre-clinical proof of concept to demonstration of therapeutic value in the clinic is challenging. Having made significant advances with drug delivery technologies, we must learn from other areas of oncology drug development, where patient strat

  8. Development of the public information and communication technology assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie; Watzke, James; Birch, Gary

    2008-09-01

    Public information and communication technologies, such as information kiosks, automated banking machines and ticket dispensers, allow people to access services in a convenient and timely manner. However, the development of these technologies has occurred largely without consideration of access by people with disabilities. Inaccessible technical features make operation of a public technology difficult and barriers in the environment create navigational challenges, limiting the opportunity of people with disabilities to use these devices and access the services they provide. This paper describes the development of a tool that individuals, disability advocacy groups, business owners, healthcare providers, and urban planners can use to evaluate the accessibility of public technologies and the surrounding environment. Evaluation results can then be used to develop recommendations and advocate for technical and environmental changes to improve access. Tool development consisted of a review of the literature and key Canadian Standards Association documents, task analysis, and consultation with accessibility experts. Studies of content validity, tool usability, inter-rater and test-retest reliability were conducted in sites across Canada. Accessibility experts verified the content validity of the tool. The current version of the tool has incorporated the findings of a usability study. Initial testing indicated excellent agreement for inter-rater and test-retest reliability scores. Social exclusion can arise when public technologies are not accessible. This newly developed instrument provides detailed information that can be used to advocate for more accessible and inclusive public information and communication technologies.

  9. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh W. Rimmer

    2004-05-12

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the seventeen subprojects awarded in the first year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices. Due to the time taken up by the solicitation/selection process, these cover the initial 6-month period of project activity only. The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 1999, U.S. mining operations produced $66.7 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $533 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Originally set up by Virginia Tech and West Virginia University, this endeavor has been expanded into a seven-university consortium--Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, University of Utah, Montana Tech, New Mexico Tech and University of Nevada, Reno--that is supported through U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation (2) Solid-liquid separation (3) Chemical/Biological Extraction (4) Modeling and Control, and (5) Environmental Control.

  10. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  11. Development of Nuclear Analytical Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Joon; Kim, J. Y.; Sohn, S. C. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The pre-treatment and handling techniques for the micro-particles in swipe samples were developed for the safeguards purpose. The development of screening technique for the swipe samples has been established using the nuclear fission track method as well as the alpha track method. The laser ablation system to take a nuclear particle present in swipe was designed and constructed for the determination of the enrichment factors for uranium or plutonium, and its performance was tested in atmosphere as well as in vacuum. The optimum conditions for the synthesis of silica based micro-particles were obtained for mass production. The optimum ion exchange resin was selected and the optimum conditions for the uranium adsorption in resin bead technique were established for the development of the enrichment factor for nuclear particles in swipe. The established technique was applied to the swipe taken directly from the nuclear facility and also to the archive samples of IAEA's environmental swipes. The evaluation of dose rate of neutron and secondary gamma-ray for the radiation shields were carried out to design the NIPS system, as well as the evaluation of the thermal neutron concentration effect by the various reflectors. D-D neutron generator was introduced as a neutron source for the NIPS system to have more advantages such as easier control and moderation capability than the {sup 252}Cf source. Simulated samples for explosive and chemical warfare were prepared to construct a prompt gamma-ray database. Based on the constructed database, a computer program for the detection of illicit chemical and nuclear materials was developed using the MATLAB software.

  12. Technological innovation and developmental strategies for sustainable management of aquatic resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Julius Ibukun

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable use and allocation of aquatic resources including water resources require implementation of ecologically appropriate technologies, efficient and relevant to local needs. Despite the numerous international agreements and provisions on transfer of technology, this has not been successfully achieved in developing countries. While reviewing some challenges to technological innovations and developments (TID), this paper analyzes five TID strategic approaches centered on grassroots technology development and provision of localized capacity for sustainable aquatic resources management. Three case studies provide examples of successful implementation of these strategies. Success requires the provision of localized capacity to manage technology through knowledge empowerment in rural communities situated within a framework of clear national priorities for technology development.

  13. Nigerian Journal of Technological Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technological Development: Editorial Policies. Journal Home > About the ... Frequency. This journal published two issues, in one volume per year. ... Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,. Mississipi State University,. USA. Prof.

  14. Readiness for banking technologies in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    banking, internet banking and automated teller machine (ATM) banking to ... businesses in developing countries are building unique ways to market products ... characteristics such as technology readiness, it is therefore important for banks in.

  15. Challenges, Strategies and Techniques for International Training in Technology for Cultural Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, R.; Almagro Vidal, A.

    2013-07-01

    Technology to document and investigate cultural heritage sites is rapidly advancing - multispectral and high dynamic range imaging, spherical high resolution photography, three-dimensional laser scanning and unmanned aerial vehicles are only a few of the new technologies available to heritage conservation professionals to record monuments, buildings, city centres and landscapes. These advanced tools are giving architects, engineers and conservation professionals' new insights and additional information which helps to make better informed decisions. But this technology and the knowledge about its correct use are extremely unevenly distributed across the world. The Digital Divide is present and growing in the field of cultural heritage preservation (Letellier, 2001). Many of those responsible for the management, maintenance and care of some of the world's most significant cultural heritage sites do not have access to or information about the latest technologies. They are also confronted with an overwhelming assortment of new technologies and consultants or developers that promote them and therefore must allocate their limited budgets with limited information. What is to be done about bridging this gap? Obviously cost and accessibility are issues. However one of the most important challenges to be addressed is education. As the base knowledge of these technologies is very uneven this leads to further questions: Are there strategies or methodologies for teaching this technology? How to combine and balance different professional backgrounds from different and so unevenly distributed places around the world and provide them all with useful information to make good documentation and conservation decisions? This paper will describe the methodology developed over the last ten years in teaching documentation technologies to diverse groups of cultural heritage professionals and students from Côte d'Ivoire, Germany, Belgium, Kosovo, Albania, Nigeria, Egypt, Japan, Iraq

  16. Fundamental Technology Development for Gas-Turbine Engine Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Simon, Donald L.; Hunter, Gary W.; Arnold, Steven M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Anderson, Lynn M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated vehicle health management technologies promise to dramatically improve the safety of commercial aircraft by reducing system and component failures as causal and contributing factors in aircraft accidents. To realize this promise, fundamental technology development is needed to produce reliable health management components. These components include diagnostic and prognostic algorithms, physics-based and data-driven lifing and failure models, sensors, and a sensor infrastructure including wireless communications, power scavenging, and electronics. In addition, system assessment methods are needed to effectively prioritize development efforts. Development work is needed throughout the vehicle, but particular challenges are presented by the hot, rotating environment of the propulsion system. This presentation describes current work in the field of health management technologies for propulsion systems for commercial aviation.

  17. Advances in space technology: the NSBRI Technology Development Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, R H; Charles, H K; Pisacane, V L

    2002-01-01

    As evidenced from Mir and other long-duration space missions, the space environment can cause significant alterations in the human physiology that could prove dangerous for astronauts. The NASA programme to develop countermeasures for these deleterious human health effects is being carried out by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The NSBRI has 12 research teams, ten of which are primarily physiology based, one addresses on-board medical care, and the twelfth focuses on technology development in support of the other research teams. This Technology Development (TD) Team initially supported four instrumentation developments: (1) an advanced, multiple projection, dual energy X ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanning system: (2) a portable neutron spectrometer; (3) a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer: and (4) a cardiovascular identification system. Technical highlights of the original projects are presented along with an introduction to the five new TD Team projects being funded by the NSBRI.

  18. Advances in space technology: the NSBRI Technology Development Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, R. H.; Charles, H. K. Jr; Pisacane, V. L.

    2002-01-01

    As evidenced from Mir and other long-duration space missions, the space environment can cause significant alterations in the human physiology that could prove dangerous for astronauts. The NASA programme to develop countermeasures for these deleterious human health effects is being carried out by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The NSBRI has 12 research teams, ten of which are primarily physiology based, one addresses on-board medical care, and the twelfth focuses on technology development in support of the other research teams. This Technology Development (TD) Team initially supported four instrumentation developments: (1) an advanced, multiple projection, dual energy X ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanning system: (2) a portable neutron spectrometer; (3) a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer: and (4) a cardiovascular identification system. Technical highlights of the original projects are presented along with an introduction to the five new TD Team projects being funded by the NSBRI.

  19. Vaccine development and deployment: opportunities and challenges in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjukta Sen; Nair, G Balakrish; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Ganguly, Nirmal Kumar

    2013-04-18

    The Indian economy is among the fastest growing economies in the world. The country forayed into manufacturing vaccines starting with a few public-sector manufacturers in the late 1960s but has emerged as the major supplier of basic Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) because of substantial private-sector investment in the area. The Indian vaccine industry is now able to produce new and more complex vaccines such as the meningitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, rotavirus vaccine and influenza A (H1N1) vaccines. This has been possible because of an attractive investment environment, effective and innovative governmental support, international partnerships and the growing in-country technical work force. A large number of vaccines, including those mentioned, is available and administered in the private sector within the country, but India has been slow in introducing new vaccines in its publically funded programs. Growth in the economy and technological accomplishments are not reflected in a reduction in health inequalities, and India continues to contribute significantly to global child mortality figures. This paper reviews the development of the Indian vaccine industry, policy support for it and its current status. It also highlights opportunities and challenges for the introduction of new and underutilized vaccines at home.

  20. Diagnosing Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Development under the Agricultural Innovation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and analyzing issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework. The survey consisted of two groups: agricultural researchers of Agriculture-Research and Education Organization and all faculty members of public agricultural faculties of Ministry of Scientific, Research and Technology. Using Cochran sampling formula and multi-stage sampling method, 188 researchers and 205 faculty members were selected in order to fill in the survey questionnaire. Using the SPSS, collected data analyzed based on explanatory factor analysis. Totally, factor analysis of three sets of issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework led to extract 13 factors, including agricultural structure and policy, infrastructure and resources of agricultural development, supportive services for agricultural development (level of agricultural development, investment and capacity building in research and technology, management of research and technology development, research and technology productivity, research culture, networks for research and technology development (level of national innovation system, agricultural research policy, impacts and effectiveness of agricultural research and technology development, integrated management of research and technology, institutional development for agricultural research and technology and systematic synergy of agricultural research and higher education (level of agricultural innovation system. Totally, these three sets of factors explained 64%, 75% and 73% of the total variances. Finally, using conceptual clustering for the extracted factors, a conceptual model of issues and challenges of agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework was presented.

  1. Exploiting Challenges of Sub-20 nm CMOS for Affordable Technology Scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    For the past four decades, cost and features have driven CMOS scaling. Severe lithography and material limitations seen below the 20 nm node, however, are challenging the fundamental premise of affordable CMOS scaling. Just continuing to co-optimize leaf cell circuit and layout designs with process technology does not enable us to exploit the challenges of a sub-20 nm CMOS. For affordable scaling it is imperative to work past sub-20 nm technology impediments while exploiting its features. To ...

  2. Contemporary challenges to the Church Mission from the perspective of post-modern art and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Istodor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The secular challenges coming from postmodern art and postmodern technology constitute a serious challenge to be addressed by the mission and life of the Church. The distortion of the Christian Orthodox teaching and the blasphemous trends coming from the contemporary art scene is adding to the distortion of man as God’s special creation from the point of view of genetic engineering, biotechnology, and artificial intelligence, as the core elements of God’s empowerment of man through technology.

  3. Technological Solutions to Social and Citizen Problems. The Case of Civic and Public Challenges in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Adalberto TENA-ESPINOZA-DE-LOS-MONTEROS

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the process of civic innovation that, based on technological solutions and open initiatives, the civic society’s organization Codeando México suggests for the attention and solution of social and civic problems in Mexico. The Retos Cívicos (Civic Challenges) and Retos Públicos (Public Challenges) initiatives are addressed and described as experiences of innovation in the implementation of technological strategies for the solution of social and civic problems. A reflection...

  4. Development and Application of Universal Formability Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using mathematical plasticity theories, universal formability (UF) technology has been developed and applied in the automotive stamping engineering and production. As a formability analysis tool, this technology is the major methodology for the development of stamping expert system (solution provider) for (a) product design and feasibility analysis, (b) material automatic selection using nomograms, (c) draw die design using pre-models, and (d) UF and robustness analysis of die performance in finite element analysis (FEA) environment.

  5. Technological Development and Software Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Romeu, Andrés; Martínez Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the differences in piracy rates from one country to another. Like previous papers on the topic, we find that more developed countries have lower incentives for pirating. Unlike previous papers, we find that the piracy rate is positively correlated with the tax burden rate but negatively correlated with the domestic market size and exports over GDP. We also separate the impacts of education and R&D on piracy, and find two effects with opposite signs. Moreover, we find...

  6. Wearable technology to help with visual challenges - two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálmán, Viktor; Baczó, Csaba; Livadas, Makis; Csielka, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Today as embedded computing technology and sensors become cheaper and smaller wearable technologies experience an unprecedented boom. This article presents two wearable systems that aim to help people with low vision and the blind in performing everyday tasks and doing sports. DIGIGLASSES is a project aimed at creating a pair of augmented reality digital glasses that present controlled light and contrast levels and marks selectable features on the field of vision to aid in everyday tasks. BLINDTRACK is guidance system that uses wireless localization and an innovative haptic feedback belt to guide blind runners along the running track. Both systems are briefly presented along with the most relevant technical details and user feedback where applicable. Both projects were funded by the EU FP7. Corresponding author V. Kalman: viktor.kalman@ateknea.com.

  7. PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION FACING THE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cristiana Lucretia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This essay aims to signal up the detrimental effects of sedentary behaviours determined by extensive use of technology. Material: The paper is a survey of the most relevant data related to physical inactivity consequences with a specific reference to the Eastern Europe countries. Results . There is no doubt that children and young people will prefer the technology and its commodities, but they need to be encouraged to practice exercise, to control their posture and weight. Physical activity favorably influences on mental health and reduces the incidence and severity of diseases and pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and obesity. Conclusions . Promoting physical activity as a healthy life style component in schools and in universities targets the enhancement of vigour, resilience, employement and social outcomes for graduates and comunities.

  8. NASA Advanced Radiator Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, J. Kent; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1994-07-01

    A practical implementation of the two-phase working fluid of lithium and NaK has been developed experimentally for pumped loop radiator designs. The benefits of the high heat capacity and low mass of lithium have been integrated with the shutdown capability enabled by the low freezing temperature of NaK by mixing these liquid metals directly. The stable and reliable start up and shutdown of a lithium/NaK pumped loop has been demonstrated through the development of a novel lithium freeze-separation technique within the flowing header ducts. The results of a highly instrumented liquid metal test loop are presented in which both lithium fraction as well as loop gravitational effects were varied over a wide range of values. Diagnostics based on dual electric probes are presented in which the convective behavior of the lithium component is directly measured during loop operation. The uniform distribution of the lithium after a freeze separation is verified by neutron radiography. The operating regime for reliable freeze/thaw flow behavior is described in terms of correlations based on dimensional analysis.

  9. DECOMMISSIONING CHALLENGES AT THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, K. A.; Hoover, J.

    2002-02-25

    This paper presents a discussion of the demolition of the Building 788 cluster at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colorado. The Building 788 Cluster was a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage facilities and ancillary structures. Topics covered include the methods employed for Project Planning, Regulatory Compliance, Waste Management, Hazard Identification, Radiological Controls, Risk Management, Field Implementation, and Cost Schedule control, and Lessons Learned and Project Closeout.

  10. Science, technology and the 'grand challenge' of aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Birgit; Peine, Alexander; Moors, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the themes addressed and the approaches used in this special issue. We start by briefly discussing the state of the art in research and policy making related to science, technology and ageing. We argue that an important gap characterizes this state of the art: current ...... on the socio-material constitution of later life that implicates an important agenda for the future study of ageing and gerontechnology innovation....

  11. Microscale technology and biocatalytic processes: Opportunities and challenges for synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Roland; Plazl, Igor; Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona

    2015-01-01

    Despite the expanding presence of microscale technology in chemical synthesis and energy production as well as in biomedical devices and analytical and diagnostic tools, its potential in biocatalytic processes for pharmaceutical and fine chemicals, as well as related industries, has not yet been ......, and the future outlook for the implementation of these key green engineering methods and the role of supporting tools such as mathematical models to establish sustainable production processes are discussed....

  12. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Technology Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Hill

    2007-07-01

    This plan describes the GNEP Technology Demonstration Program (GNEP-TDP). It has been prepared to guide the development of integrated plans and budgets for realizing the domestic portion of the GNEP vision as well as providing the basis for developing international cooperation. Beginning with the GNEP overall goals, it describes the basic technical objectives for each element of the program, summarizes the technology status and identifies the areas of greatest technical risk. On this basis a proposed technology demonstration program is described that can deliver the required information for a Secretarial decision in the summer of 2008 and support construction of facilities.

  13. Survey of Technologies for Web Application Development

    CERN Document Server

    Doyle, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Web-based application developers face a dizzying array of platforms, languages, frameworks and technical artifacts to choose from. We survey, classify, and compare technologies supporting Web application development. The classification is based on (1) foundational technologies; (2)integration with other information sources; and (3) dynamic content generation. We further survey and classify software engineering techniques and tools that have been adopted from traditional programming into Web programming. We conclude that, although the infrastructure problems of the Web have largely been solved, the cacophony of technologies for Web-based applications reflects the lack of a solid model tailored for this domain.

  14. Developing Technological Capabilities in Agro-Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the emergence and trajectory of a new agro-industry in Ghana, the pineapple export industry, using the technological capabilities approach. It explains the limited expansion of the industry and its declining competitiveness in the face of new competition by looking at how...... Ghanaian exporters developed technological capabilities initially and the incentives and disincentives to building on those capabilities. The article argues that at the heart of the industry's crisis was an inability to further develop technological capabilities. The crisis had systemic features that have...

  15. Surgical Care in Jamaica in the Laparoendoscopic Era: Challenges and Future Prospects for Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Plummer, Joseph Martin; Roberts, Patrick Oral; Leake, Pierre Anthony; Mitchell, Derek Ian

    2011-01-01

    In an era of technology-dependent surgery, Jamaica and other developing countries must deal with the wide disparity between their surgical practices and those of developed nations. Although there is still a place for the well-trained surgeon, the current emphasis in developed nations is less on the individual surgeon and more on the surgery team and system, with increasing costs despite diminishing government support. At the University of the West Indies, we are challenged to continue providi...

  16. Energy in the perspective of the sustainable development: The 2000W society challenge

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    As energy plays a central role in the world development, it represents as well a major challenge for sustainable development. Today, more than 80% of the primary energy consumption is based on fossil fuels and the share is likely to remain high in the future. Even if technology developments will reduce the specific consumption, the world energy demand is likely to increase in line with its population. Energy and material efficiency and the integration of the renewable resources will therefore...

  17. Banking, Technology Workers and Their Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lesley; West, Jim

    2001-01-01

    An Australian bank developed a four-stage career development strategy for information technology workers: (1) career coaching sessions with executives; (2) career coaching seminars for line managers and team leaders; (3) staff career planning workshops; and (4) online career development support. The program resulted in increased satisfaction,…

  18. The Public Sphere, Globalization and Technological Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Sikka

    2006-01-01

    Tina Sikka examines the emergence and transformation of Habermas's theory of the public sphere, looking at how this concept informs the debates around communication technologies in development. Development (2006) 49, 87–93. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100277

  19. Capitalizing on App Development Tools and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional developers and others creating apps must choose from a wide variety of app development tools and technologies. Some app development tools have incorporated visual programming features, which enable some drag and drop coding and contextual programming. While those features help novices begin programming with greater ease, questions…

  20. The challenge of census taking in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, R R; Torrey, B B

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the new and inexpensive technologies that have been developed at the U.S. Bureau of the Census in order to assist in data processing of census results in developing countries. The process of U.S. technical assistance in this field is described. The authors then consider differences and similarities in processing and producing census data. The article concludes with a discussion of the available technologies, including microcomputing software developed for the 1990 census round.