WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology determinations volume

  1. Analytical challenges of determining composition and structure in small volumes with applications to semiconductor technology, nanostructures and solid state science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiyong; Kuhn, Markus; Johnson, David C.

    2017-03-01

    Determining the structure and composition of small volumes is vital to the ability to understand and control nanoscale properties and critical for advancing both fundamental science and applications, such as semiconductor device manufacturing. While metrology of nanoscale materials (nanoparticles, nanocomposites) and nanoscale semiconductor structures is challenging, both basic research and cutting edge technology benefit from new and enhanced analytical techniques. This focus issue contains articles describing approaches to overcome the challenges in obtaining statistically significant atomic-scale quantification of structure and composition in a variety of materials and devices using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography.

  2. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  3. 36 CFR 223.36 - Volume determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volume determination. 223.36... Volume determination. (a) Timber sale contracts may provide for volume determination by scaling... the contract or permit provides for the determination of volume by tree measurement and the timber has...

  4. Aerospace Technology Innovation. Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Janelle (Editor); Cousins, Liz (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Commercializing technology is a daunting task. Of every 11 new product ideas, only one will successfully make it to the marketplace. Fully 46% of new product investment becomes sunk in cost. Yet, a few good companies consistently attain an 80% technology commercialization success rate and have lead the way in establishing best practices. The NASA Incubator program consists of nine incubators, each residing near a NASA research center. The purpose of the incubators is to use the best practices is to use the best practices of technology commercialization to help early stage businesses successfully launch new products that incorporate NASA technology.

  5. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike; Mix, Michael; Müller, Frank; Merk, Stefan; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo

    2005-05-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81+/-15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV(LBM)).

  6. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  7. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  8. Aerospace Technology Innovation. Volume 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Janelle (Editor); Cousins, Liz (Editor); Bennett, Evonne (Editor); Vendette, Joel (Editor); West, Kenyon (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Whether finding new applications for existing NASA technologies or developing unique marketing strategies to demonstrate them, NASA's offices are committed to identifying unique partnering opportunities. Through their efforts NASA leverages resources through joint research and development, and gains new insight into the core areas relevant to all NASA field centers. One of the most satisfying aspects of my job comes when I learn of a mission-driven technology that can be spun-off to touch the lives of everyday people. NASA's New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging is one such initiative. Not only does it promise to provide greater dividends for the country's investment in aerospace research, but also to enhance the American quality of life. This issue of Innovation highlights the new NASA-sponsored initiative in medical imaging. Early in 2001, NASA announced the launch of the New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging initiative to promote the partnership and commercialization of NASA technologies in the medical imaging industry. NASA and the medical imaging industry share a number of crosscutting technologies in areas such as high-performance detectors and image-processing tools. Many of the opportunities for joint development and technology transfer to the medical imaging market also hold the promise for future spin back to NASA.

  9. Darwinism determines technological survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevc, F.; Harkness, S.

    1996-10-01

    In an industry where new power plant planning and budgeting cycles stretch from one to three years, where a typical new generation product takes from five to 10 years to successfully enter the market and where some plants have a 30- to 50-year economic life, change is an evolutionary process. However, that change, driven by the application of new technologies, is inevitable. Twenty-five years ago, in 1971, gas turbines were perceived to have limited applications and were primarily used for part-time peaking duty. Today, they are the baseload, new power generation technology of choice. Nevertheless, more than 55% of the US`s electricity is still generated by coal-fired steam turbine plants, the technology of choice 25 years ago. Power generation technologies will evolve further, but it`s doubtful there will be any new concepts that are not evident in today`s laboratories. Twenty-five years from now, today`s coal-fires team turbine plants will still provide the majority of the electricity generated in the US. However, new natural gas or syngas-fired combined-cycle plants will make up the majority of the new additions, perhaps as much as 20% of the overall installed capacity in 2021. Still, during the next 25 years, a number of new generation technologies should become economically competitive and enter the market. Technologies moving from today`s demonstrations to widespread applications include: gasification, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, fuel cell hybrid cycles, and solar photovoltaics.

  10. Power, Ideology, and Technological Determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hess

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A Commentary on Taylor Dotson’s “Technological Determinism and Permissionless Innovation as Technocratic Governing Mentalities: Psychocultural Barriers to the Democratization of Technology”

  11. USAF Advanced Terrestrial Energy Study. Volume 2. Technology Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    volume of Stirling svstems hecause the regenerator determines the dimensions of the system envelone. Table 27. STIRLING SYSTEM VOLUME (CUBIC FEET...Rankine Cycles Batteries Gas Turbines Stirling Engines Thermal Energy Storage 20. ABSTRACT (Confilime 4n roere. olde If neo**WY 41011184100140 & Wee bi A...TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS 13 Diesels, 13 Gas Turbines. 31 Stirlings , 49 Organic Rankine Cycle; 67 Fuel Cells 83 Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System, 102 Wind

  12. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  13. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 2. Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: residual oil determination; thermal methods; heavy oil-tar sands; technology transfer; and carbon dioxide flooding. Individual papers were processed.

  14. Computer vision technology in log volume inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Log volume inspection is very important in forestry research and paper making engineering. This paper proposed a novel approach based on computer vision technology to cope with log volume inspection. The needed hardware system was analyzed and the details of the inspection algorithms were given. A fuzzy entropy based on image enhancement algorithm was presented for enhancing the image of the cross-section of log. In many practical applications the cross-section is often partially invisible, and this is the major obstacle for correct inspection. To solve this problem, a robust Hausdorff distance method was proposed to recover the whole cross-section. Experiment results showed that this method was efficient.

  15. FY02 Engineering Technology Reports Volume 1: Technology Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichino, C; Meeker, D

    2003-01-28

    Engineering has touched on every challenge, every accomplishment, and every endeavor of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during its fifty-year history. In this time of transition to new leadership, Engineering continues to be central to the mission of the Laboratory, returning to the tradition and core values of E. O. Lawrence: science-based engineering--turning scientific concepts into reality. This volume of Engineering Technical Reports summarizes progress on the projects funded for technology-base efforts. Technology-base projects effect the natural transition to reduction-to-practice of scientific or engineering methods that are well understood and established. They represent discipline-oriented, core competency activities that are multi-programmatic in application, nature, and scope. Objectives of technology-base funding include: (1) the development and enhancement of tools and processes to provide Engineering support capability, such as code maintenance and improved fabrication methods; (2) the support of Engineering science and technology infrastructure, such as the installation or integration of a new capability; (3) support for technical and administrative leadership through our technology Centers; and (4) the initial scoping and exploration of selected technology areas with high strategic potential, such as assessment of university, laboratory, and industrial partnerships. Five Centers focus and guide longer-term investments within Engineering. The Centers attract and retain top staff, develop and maintain critical core technologies, and enable programs. Through their technology-base projects, they oversee the application of known engineering approaches and techniques to scientific and technical problems.

  16. Engineering Technology Reports, Volume 2: Technology Base FY01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichino, C; Meeker, D

    2002-07-01

    Engineering has touched on every challenge, every accomplishment, and every endeavor of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during its fifty-year history. In this time of transition to new leadership, Engineering continues to be central to the mission of the Laboratory, returning to the tradition and core values of E.O. Lawrence: science-based engineering--turning scientific concepts into reality. This volume of Engineering Technical Reports summarizes progress on the projects funded for technology-base efforts. Technology-base projects effect the natural transition to reduction-to-practice of scientific or engineering methods that are well understood and established. They represent discipline-oriented, core competency activities that are multi-programmatic in application, nature, and scope. Objectives of technology-base funding include: (1) the development and enhancement of tools and processes to provide Engineering support capability, such as code maintenance and improved fabrication methods; (2) the support of Engineering science and technology infrastructure, such as the installation or integration of a new capability; (3) support for technical and administrative leadership through our technology Centers; (4) the initial scoping and exploration of selected technology areas with high strategic potential, such as assessment of university, laboratory, and industrial partnerships.

  17. Apparatus for determining changes in limb volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Wu, V. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Measuring apparatus for determining changes in the volume of limbs or other boty extremities by determining the cross-sectional area of such limbs many comprise a transmitter including first and second transducers for positioning on the surface of the limb at a predetermined distance there between, and a receiver including a receiver crystal for positioning on the surface of the limb. The distance between the receiver crystal and the first and second transducers are represented by respective first and second chords of the cross-section of the limb and the predetermined distance between the first and second transducers is represented by a third chord of the limb cross section.

  18. Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 1992. Volume 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Donald P., Ed.; Minor, Barbara B., Ed.

    The Educational Media and Technology Yearbook (EMTY) is designed to provide media and instructional technology professionals with an up-to-date, single-source overview and assessment of the field of educational technology. Each volume addresses current issues, notes trends, and provides current listings of and background information about the…

  19. Simultaneous determination of extracellular volume and blood volume with the Volemetron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planque, B.A. de; Geyskes, C.G.; Dongen, R. van; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    A new instrument, the “Volemetron”***, constructed to measure blood volume with radioactive isotopes, was adapted to determine 82Br distribution volume. Details of the technique arc given. Mean values of both RISA and 82Br distribution volume in normal men and women were determined. They were in

  20. Computer technology -- 1996: Applications and methodology. PVP-Volume 326

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, G.M. [ed.] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hsu, K.H. [ed.] [Babcock and Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Lee, T.W. [ed.] [FMC Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Nicholas, T. [ed.] [USAF Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The primary objective of the Computer Technology Committee of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division is to promote interest and technical exchange in the field of computer technology, related to the design and analysis of pressure vessels and piping. The topics included in this volume are: analysis of bolted joints; nonlinear analysis, applications and methodology; finite element analysis and applications; and behavior of materials. Separate abstracts were prepared for 23 of the papers in this volume.

  1. Technology transfer from NASA to targeted industries, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Souder, William E.; Spann, Mary S.; Watters, Harry; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the following materials to support Volume 1: (1) Survey of Metal Fabrication Industry in Alabama; (2) Survey of Electronics Manufacturing/Assembly Industry in Alabama; (3) Apparel Modular Manufacturing Simulators; (4) Synopsis of a Stereolithography Project; (5) Transferring Modular Manufacturing Technology to an Apparel Firm; (6) Letters of Support; (7) Fact Sheets; (8) Publications; and (9) One Stop Access to NASA Technology Brochure.

  2. Human choice and climate change. Volume 2: Resources and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynor, S.; Malone, E. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This book is Volume 2 of a four-volume set which assesses social science research that is relevant to global climate change from a wide-ranging interdisciplinary perspective. Attention is focused on resources and technology as they relate to climate change. This series is indispensable reading for scientists and engineers wishing to make an effective contribution to the climate change policy debate.

  3. Rotation Effects on the Target-Volume Margin Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qinghui; Chan, M; Song, Y; Burman, C

    2014-01-01

    Rotational setup errors are usually neglected in most clinical centers. An analytical formula is developed to determine the extra margin between clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) to account for setup errors. The proposed formula corrects for both translational and rotational setup errors and then incorporated into margin determination for PTV.

  4. Computer science research and technology volume 3

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Janice P

    2011-01-01

    This book presents leading-edge research from across the globe in the field of computer science research, technology and applications. Each contribution has been carefully selected for inclusion based on the significance of the research to this fast-moving and diverse field. Some topics included are: network topology; agile programming; virtualization; and reconfigurable computing.

  5. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  6. CHANNELS AND DETERMINANTS OF TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub M. Kwiatkowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential for development of all countries of modern World is highly dependent on the ability to create and absorb technology. The following paper constitutes review of the literature focused on channels and factors that determine speed of this process between countries. The first part of the paper analyses three basic channels of technology diffu-sion: international trade, Foreign Direct Investments and networking. In the second part methology proposed by UNCTAD is utilized in order to systematize determinants of technology diffusion. Examined factors are divided into four groups: related to the nature of technology, seller of technology, buyer of technology and determinants associated with economic policy and society. The analysis allows to draw a number of conclusions and highlights need for further research.

  7. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume III contains supporting materials not included in Volumes I and II.

  8. Sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Domínguez-Rebolledo, Alvaro Efrén; Garde, José Julián

    2014-01-01

    ... provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy...

  9. Engineering Technology Reports, Volume 2: Technology Base FY00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, A L; Langland, R T; Minichino, C

    2001-10-03

    In FY-2000, Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory faced significant pressures to meet critical project milestones, and immediate demands to facilitate the reassignment of employees as the National Ignition Facility (the 600-TW laser facility being designed and built at Livermore, and one of the largest R&D construction projects in the world) was in the process of re-baselining its plan while executing full-speed its technology development efforts. This drive for change occurred as an unprecedented level of management and program changes were occurring within LLNL. I am pleased to report that we met many key milestones and achieved numerous technological breakthroughs. This report summarizes our efforts to perform feasibility and reduce-to-practice studies, demonstrations, and/or techniques--as structured through our technology centers. Whether using computational engineering to predict how giant structures like suspension bridges will respond to massive earthquakes or devising a suitcase-sized microtool to detect chemical and biological agents used by terrorists, we have made solid technical progress. Five Centers focus and guide longer-term investments within Engineering, as well as impact all of LLNL. Each Center is responsible for the vitality and growth of the core technologies it represents. My goal is that each Center will be recognized on an international scale for solving compelling national problems requiring breakthrough innovation. The Centers and their leaders are as follows: Center for Complex Distributed Systems--David B. McCallen; Center for Computational Engineering--Kyran D. Mish; Center for Microtechnology--Raymond P. Mariella, Jr.; Center for Nondestructive Characterization--Harry E. Martz, Jr.; and Center for Precision Engineering--Keith Carlisle.

  10. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume II: control technology data tables. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report, the Control Technology Data Tables, is the second volume of the three-volume final report for the contract. It presents in tabular format, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts and application status. Also included is a code list which classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process, and emission source.

  11. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1, Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. This Volume, Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume is divided into ten chapters. The first chapter is a brief introduction, and the second chapter details the technical approach of the TLD. These categories are the work activities necessary for successful decontamination and decommissioning, waste management, and remedial action of the K-25 Site. The categories are characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, robotics and automation, remedial action, and waste management. Materials disposition is addressed in Chap. 9. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning.

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part B, Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.

  13. Determination of the autonomously functioning volume of the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emrich, D.; Erlenmaier, U.; Pohl, M.; Luig, H. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1993-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the autonomously functioning volume in euthyroid and hyperthyroid goitres for prognostic and therapeutic pruposes. To this end, various groups of patients were selected: Individuals without evidence of thyroid disease, euthyroid patients with diffuse goitre of normal structure and function, euthyroid patients with evidence of autonomy and patients with hyperthyroidism due to autonomy. In all of them the thyroid uptake of Technetium-99m was determined under exogeneous suppression (TcU[sub s]) in the euthyroid state and under endogenous suppression (TcU) in the hyperthyroid state. It was demonstrated that: 1. In patients with unifocal autonomy the TcU[sub s] and TcU correlated linearly with the autonomous volume delineated and measured by sonography. 2. A nearly identical result was obtained if the mean autonomous volume in individuals without thyroid disease of 2.2[+-]1.1 ml calculated by TcU[sub s]/TcU x total thyroid volume was used as a basis. 3. The critical autonomous volume, i.e. the volume at which hyperthryroidism will occur, was found to be 16 ml at a cumulated sensitivity and specificity of >0.9. The method can be used to select patients for definitive treatment before hyperthryroidism occurs and to measure the autonomously functioning volume independent of its distribution within the thyroid for treatment with radioiodine. The method is easy to perform and is also an example of how a relative parameter of a function can be converted into an absolute parameter of a functioning volume. (orig.).

  14. Measurement and determinants of infrarenal aortic thrombus volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golledge, Jonathan; Wolanski, Philippe [James Cook University, The Vascular Biology Unit, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Parr, Adam [James Cook University, The Vascular Biology Unit, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Buttner, Petra [James Cook University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Townsville, Queensland (Australia)

    2008-09-15

    Intra-luminal thrombus has been suggested to play a role in the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The aims of this study were twofold. Firstly, to assess the reproducibility of a computer tomography (CT)-based technique for measurement of aortic thrombus volume. Secondly, to examine the determinants of infrarenal aortic thrombus volume in a cohort of patients with aortic dilatation. A consecutive series of 75 patients assessed by CT angiography with maximum aortic diameter {>=}25 mm were recruited. Intra-luminal thrombus volume was measured by a semi-automated workstation protocol based on a previously defined technique to quantitate aortic calcification. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were assessed using correlation coefficients, coefficient of variation and Bland-Altman plots. Infrarenal aortic thrombus volume percentage was related to clinical, anatomical and blood characteristics of the patients using univariate and multivariate tests. Infrarenal aortic thrombus volume was related to the severity of aortic dilatation assessed by total aortic volume (r=0.87, P<0.0001) or maximum aortic diameter (r=0.74, P< 0.0001). We therefore examined the clinical determinates of aortic thrombus expressed as a percentage of total aortic volume. Aortic thrombus percentage was negatively correlated with serum high density lipoprotein (HDL, r=-0.31). By ordinal multiple logistic regression analysis serum HDL below median ({<=}1.2 mM) was associated with aortic thrombus percentage in the upper quartile adjusting for other risk factors (odds ratio 5.3, 95% CI 1.1-25.0). Infrarenal aortic thrombus volume can be measured reproducibly on CT. Serum HDL, which can be therapeutically raised, may play a role in discouraging aortic thrombus accumulation with implications in terms of delaying progression of AAA. (orig.)

  15. Determination of adrenal volume by MRI in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adrenal disorders such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia result in abnormal adrenal size and morphology, but little is known about the clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining adrenal volume. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential usefulness of MR methodology...

  16. Determination of Thyroid Volume by Ultrasonography among Schoolchildren in Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Kyung Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Iodine deficiency is defined by the goiter and the urinary iodine concentration. However, a lack of local thyroid volume reference data resulted in the vague definition of goiter, especially in school-aged children. The aim of this paper was to determine the thyroid volumes by ultrasonography in schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years living in Cagayan areas in Philippine. Methods. Cross-sectional thyroid ultrasonographic data of 158 schoolchildren aged 6–12 years from Tuguegarao and Lagum in Cagayan valley, Philippine were used. Thyroid volumes were compared based on logistic issue and urban and rural area and compared with other previously reported data. Results. The mean values of thyroid volume in Tuguerago and Lagum were 2.99±1.34 mL and 2.42±0.92 mL. The thyroid size was significantly in association with age (P<0.00, weight (P<0.00, height (P<0.00, and BSA (P<0.00 by Pearson’s correlation. The median thyroid volumes of schoolchildren investigated in this study were generally low compared to international reference data by age group but not by BSA. Conclusions. We propose for the first time local reference ultrasound values for thyroid volumes in 6–12 aged schoolchildren that should be used for monitoring iodine deficiency disorders.

  17. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume II contains the proceedings for the Short Course on Seismic Base Isolation held in Berkeley, California, August 10-14, 1992.

  18. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume I contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Seismic Base Isolation for Department of Energy Facilities held in Marina Del Rey, California, May 13-15, 1992.

  19. Technology Directions for the 21st Century, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Verheggen, Henry; McIntosh, William; Botta, Robert

    1996-01-01

    For several decades, semiconductor device density and performance have been doubling about every 18 months (Moore's Law). With present photolithography techniques, this rate can continue for only about another 10 years. Continued improvement will need to rely on newer technologies. Transition from the current micron range for transistor size to the nanometer range will permit Moore's Law to operate well beyond 10 years. The technologies that will enable this extension include: single-electron transistors; quantum well devices; spin transistors; and nanotechnology and molecular engineering. Continuation of Moore's Law will rely on huge capital investments for manufacture as well as on new technologies. Much will depend on the fortunes of Intel, the premier chip manufacturer, which, in turn, depend on the development of mass-market applications and volume sales for chips of higher and higher density. The technology drivers are seen by different forecasters to include video/multimedia applications, digital signal processing, and business automation. Moore's Law will affect NASA in the areas of communications and space technology by reducing size and power requirements for data processing and data fusion functions to be performed onboard spacecraft. In addition, NASA will have the opportunity to be a pioneering contributor to nanotechnology research without incurring huge expenses.

  20. A framework for evaluation of technology transfer programs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this volume is to describe a framework with which DOE can develop a program specific methodology to evaluate it`s technology transfer efforts. This approach could also be applied to an integrated private sector technology transfer organization. Several benefits will be realized from the application of this work. While the immediate effect will be to assist program managers in evaluating and improving program performance, the ultimate benefits will accrue to the producing industry, the states, and the nation in the form of sustained or increased domestic oil production. This benefit depends also, of course, on the effectiveness of the technology being transferred. The managers of the Technology Transfer program, and the larger federal oil and gas R&D programs, will be provided with a means to design and assess the effectiveness of program efforts as they are developed, tested and performed. The framework allows deficiencies in critical aspects of the program to be quickly identified, allowing for timely corrections and improvements. The actual process of developing the evaluation also gives the staff of the Oil R&D Program or Technology Transfer subprogram the opportunity to become oriented to the overall program goals. The structure and focus imposed by the evaluation paradigm will guide program staff in selecting activities which are consistent with achieving the goals of the overall R&D program.

  1. Determination of right ventricular volumes during aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, P; Gilbart, E; Engelman, E; de Rood, M; Vincent, J L

    1989-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate right ventricular (RV) preload by measurements of right ventricular volumes during aortic clamping and unclamping. Nine patients (aged 67 +/- 9 years) undergoing infrarenal aortic aneurysmectomy were monitored with a pulmonary artery catheter equipped with a fast-response thermistor, allowing determination of RV volumes by the thermodilution technique. Anesthesia consisted of a continuous infusion of alfentanil and 50% N2O. Aortic clamping resulted in a significant decrease in cardiac index (CI) and a significant increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR). There was no significant change in right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) (from 35% +/- 6% to 33% +/- 8%) in the presence of a significant decrease in stroke index (from 37.2 +/- 9.8 to 31.1 +/- 10.0 mL/beat/m2, P less than 0.05), indicating a significant decrease in RV end-diastolic volume (from 106 +/- 17 to 92 +/- 19 mL, P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in cardiac filling pressures. Aortic unclamping was associated with a significant increase in CI and a significant decrease in SVR. There were no significant changes in cardiac filling pressures, RVEF, or RV volumes. Measurements of RV volumes indicated that aortic clamping resulted in a decrease in RV preload, which is usually not demonstrated by measurements of right atrial pressure alone.

  2. Advanced Thermionic Technology Program: summary report. Volume 4. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Advanced Thermionic Technology Program during the past several years. This Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, has had as its goal adapting thermionic devices to generate electricity in a terrestrial (i.e., combustion) environment. Volume 4 (Part E) is a highly technical discussion of the attempts made by the Program to push the state-of-the-art beyond the current generation of converters and is directed toward potential researchers engaged in this same task. These technical discussions are complemented with Appendices where appropriate.

  3. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 3; Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  4. DEFTEST. Defence Technological and Scientific Thesaurus. Volume 2. M - Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    aoo soNO II DRS - SP- 1 (VOL 2) AR- 005 -466 DEFTEST DEFENCE TECHNOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC THESAURUS Volume 2 M-Z 1988 Edition Defence Reports...dim =1.Waf ON Sealoves Offi anwONid mu. Cho ONSMWO Pliqdu INUMMONma~ei ON-lf NT. A" am .NKS emb Co di wf Jet ofl bUSSI nm md Oi e Midib mdi Fade...fa ii IFT N~m adds Pawnrum OtaMl orgaic add CrOMI adds uorm TaY1ears"ls "Takd ugin Serb Tod ca i iPolBaine o lchmif NT n I -~ Sdenm and Technolog Oro

  5. Determination of volumes in pipeline drain operation; Determinacao de volumes em operacao de drenagem de oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luis Fernando G.; Barreto, Claudio V.; Silva, Bruno G. de [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos - SIMDUT

    2005-07-01

    Usually, pipeline and equipment maintenance requires the partial or fully drainage of the line. To develop this operation, it is necessary to preview the volumes at the drainage points to allocate the available resources to remove the liquid. With this main objective it was developed a numerical tool that is able to calculate the drainage volumes using only the data source from the GIS profile. This is possible if we consider a pipeline at no-flow state where only the gravitational forces can act in the fluid. The present paper uses a spreadsheet to determine the product volumes based in the drain points sequence and considering no flow boundaries along the pipeline. To validate the methodology a comparison is done with the results acquired in two real state drainage operations. (author)

  6. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  7. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections.

  8. Advanced Technologies for Determination of Surface Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlacek, Jan; Chabera, Petr

    2014-12-01

    For high utility value of products is significant quality of surface treatment. Among the processes that most affect the quality of surface treatment are mainly surface pretreatment processes, namely processes of cleaning (degreasing). This article is devoted to quality control after surface pre-treatment. It mainly deals with the modern method for detecting surface contamination grease based on fluorescence methods. Impurities such as grease, oil and other have characteristic fluorescence after illumination by UV source. This principle can be used to determine the purity of the substrate surface, thereby ensuring the quality of the surface. Surface cleanliness is very important factor for the correct application of subsequent technological processes.

  9. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  10. Determinants of Left Atrial Volume in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochgruber, Thomas; Krisai, Philipp; Zimmermann, Andreas J.; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Pumpol, Katrin; Kessel-Schaefer, Arnheid; Stephan, Frank-Peter; Handschin, Nadja; Sticherling, Christian; Osswald, Stefan; Kaufmann, Beat A.; Paré, Guillaume; Kühne, Michael; Conen, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Left atrial (LA) enlargement is an important risk factor for incident stroke and a key determinant for the success of rhythm control strategies in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, factors associated with LA volume in AF patients remain poorly understood. Methods Patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF were enrolled in this study. Real time 3-D echocardiography was performed in all participants and analyzed offline in a standardized manner. We performed stepwise backward linear regression analyses using a broad set of clinical parameters to determine independent correlates for 3-D LA volume. Results We included 210 patients (70.9% male, mean age 61±11years). Paroxysmal and persistent AF were present in 95 (45%) and 115 (55%) patients, respectively. Overall, 115 (55%) had hypertension, 11 (5%) had diabetes, and 18 (9%) had ischemic heart disease. Mean indexed LA volume was 36±12ml/m2. In multivariable models, significant associations were found for female sex (β coefficient -10.51 (95% confidence interval (CI) -17.85;-3.16), p = 0.0053), undergoing cardioversion (β 11.95 (CI 5.15; 18.74), p = 0.0006), diabetes (β 14.23 (CI 2.36; 26.10), p = 0.019), body surface area (BSA) (β 34.21 (CI 19.30; 49.12), pglomerular filtration rate (β -0.21 (CI -0.36; -0.06), p = 0.0064) and plasma levels of NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (β 6.79 (CI 4.05; 9.52), p<0.0001), but not age (p = 0.59) or hypertension (p = 0.42). Our final model explained 52% of the LA volume variability. Conclusions In patients with AF, the most important correlates with LA volume are sex, BSA, diabetes, renal function and NT-proBNP, but not age or hypertension. These results may help to refine rhythm control strategies in AF patients. PMID:27701468

  11. Sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Domínguez-Rebolledo, Alvaro Efrén; Garde, José Julián

    2014-01-01

    The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF) or bad freezers (BF) at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006). The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = -0.60; psperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success.

  12. Oil Formation Volume Factor Determination Through a Fused Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholami Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Volume change of oil between reservoir condition and standard surface condition is called oil formation volume factor (FVF, which is very time, cost and labor intensive to determine. This study proposes an accurate, rapid and cost-effective approach for determining FVF from reservoir temperature, dissolved gas oil ratio, and specific gravity of both oil and dissolved gas. Firstly, structural risk minimization (SRM principle of support vector regression (SVR was employed to construct a robust model for estimating FVF from the aforementioned inputs. Subsequently, an alternating conditional expectation (ACE was used for approximating optimal transformations of input/output data to a higher correlated data and consequently developing a sophisticated model between transformed data. Eventually, a committee machine with SVR and ACE was constructed through the use of hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search (GA-PS. Committee machine integrates ACE and SVR models in an optimal linear combination such that makes benefit of both methods. A group of 342 data points was used for model development and a group of 219 data points was used for blind testing the constructed model. Results indicated that the committee machine performed better than individual models.

  13. Oil Formation Volume Factor Determination Through a Fused Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Amin

    2016-12-01

    Volume change of oil between reservoir condition and standard surface condition is called oil formation volume factor (FVF), which is very time, cost and labor intensive to determine. This study proposes an accurate, rapid and cost-effective approach for determining FVF from reservoir temperature, dissolved gas oil ratio, and specific gravity of both oil and dissolved gas. Firstly, structural risk minimization (SRM) principle of support vector regression (SVR) was employed to construct a robust model for estimating FVF from the aforementioned inputs. Subsequently, an alternating conditional expectation (ACE) was used for approximating optimal transformations of input/output data to a higher correlated data and consequently developing a sophisticated model between transformed data. Eventually, a committee machine with SVR and ACE was constructed through the use of hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search (GA-PS). Committee machine integrates ACE and SVR models in an optimal linear combination such that makes benefit of both methods. A group of 342 data points was used for model development and a group of 219 data points was used for blind testing the constructed model. Results indicated that the committee machine performed better than individual models.

  14. Determining Commuting Behaviour from Monitoring Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of commuting behaviour has always been one significant focus of people to reach comprehensive knowledge of transport-related scenarios. Similarly, commuting behaviour, as one of the four major physical activities people engaged in during daily life, gained much attention in aspect of health fields. This paper, with the sample data collected by The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab study, discusses the process of how to utilize data obtained from GPS and inclinometer device, along with basic information about participants to conduct travel survey, and reconstructing participant's commuting behaviour. In the analyses of the sample, the procedure of datasets integration through DELPHI programming and protocols established to determine corresponding commuting behaviour are discussed. The details of commuting behaviour illustrated in this study included travel mode, travel duration, allocation of trip stages, and corresponding level of physical activities. This paper discusses a promise for applying advanced technologies in travel survey instead of traditional ones in terms of accuracy and reliability; it discusses the feasibility to discover the coherent relationship between health outcome and commuting behaviour from travel-tracking technologies.

  15. Determination of Acetonitrile Volume Fraction in Mobile Phase by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi; WANG Zhi-wu; GU Jing-kai; WANG Ying-wu

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development and validation of an assay for the determination of acetonitrile in the recycled mobile phase using high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The method is based on that the retention in reversed-phase liquid chromatography increases with decreasing concentration of organic phase in the mobile phase.The natural logarithm of the capacity ratio for a given solute is linearly related to the volume fraction of the organic modifier in the mobile phase.For dimethylphthalate and diethylphthalate,the linearity range is 30%--60%,and for biphenyl and terphenyl,the range is 60%-95%.Precision values(RSD) were both <1% and the accuracy(RE) was in the range of ±1%.The assay was successfully applied to the determination of acetonitrile concentration of recycled mobile phase after the distillation of the column eluent in our laboratory.

  16. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A, Characterization, decontamination, dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

  17. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades, fiber optics has emerged as a highly practical and cost-efficient communications technology. Its competitiveness vis-a-vis other transmission media, especially satellite, has become a critical question. This report studies the likely evolution and application of fiber optic networks in the United States to the end of the century. The outlook for the technology of fiber systems is assessed and forecast, scenarios of the evolution of fiber optic network development are constructed, and costs to provide service are determined and examined parametrically as a function of network size and traffic carried. Volume 1 consists of the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic technology and long distance fiber optic networks. Volume 3 develops a traffic and financial model of a nationwide long distance transmission network. Among the study's most important conclusions are: revenue requirements per circuit for LATA-to-LATA fiber optic links are less than one cent per call minute; multiplex equipment, which is likely to be required in any competing system, is the largest contributor to circuit costs; the potential capacity of fiber optic cable is very large and as yet undefined; and fiber optic transmission combined with other network optimization schemes can lead to even lower costs than those identified in this study.

  18. Enhancing economic competiveness of dish Stirling technology through production volume and localization: Case study for Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larchet, Kevin; Guédez, Rafael; Topel, Monika; Gustavsson, Lars; Machirant, Andrew; Hedlund, Maria-Lina; Laumert, Björn

    2017-06-01

    The present study quantifies the reduction in the levelized cost of electricity (LCoE) and capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a dish Stirling power plant (DSPP) through an increase in localization and unit production volume. Furthermore, the localization value of the plant is examined to determine how much investment is brought into the local economy. Ouarzazate, Morocco, was chosen as the location of the study due to the country's favorable regulatory framework with regards to solar power technologies and its established industry in the concentrating solar power (CSP) field. A detailed techno-economic model of a DSPP was developed using KTH's in-house modelling tool DYESOPT, which allows power plant evaluation by means of technical and economic performance indicators. Results on the basis of LCoE and CAPEX were compared between two different cases of production volume, examining both a minimum and maximum level of localization. Thereafter, the DSPP LCoE and localization value were compared against competing solar technologies to evaluate its competitiveness. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted around key design parameters. The study confirms that the LCoE of a DSPP can be reduced to values similar to solar photovoltaic (PV) and lower than other CSP technologies. Furthermore, the investment in the local economy is far greater when compared to PV and of the same magnitude to other CSP technologies. The competiveness of a DSPP has the potential to increase further when coupled with thermal energy storage (TES), which is currently under development.

  19. Determination of cell electroporation in small-volume samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulis, Gintautas; Praneviciŭte, Rita

    2007-01-01

    Expose of cells to electric field pulses increases the cell membrane permeability. Intracellular potassium ions leak out of the cells through aqueous pores created in the membrane. This release is used here for the determination of the fraction of electroporated cells. To determine cell membrane electroporation in small-volume samples (40-50 miacrol), mini both potassium ion-selective and reference electrodes, with tip diameters of 1-1.5 mm and minimum immersion depths of 1 mm, were utilized. The obtained calibration graph was linear within the concentration range 0.2-100 mM. The slope was 50-51 and 53-56 mV per concentration order at 10-11 and 19-21 degrees C, respectively. Detection limit of the electrode was determined to be 0.05-0.08 mM, however, it was possible to work down to concentrations in the range of 0.01 mM. Experiments have been carried out on human erythrocytes exposed to a square-wave electric pulse with the duration of 0.1-2 ms. The extracellular potassium concentrations were in the range between 0.04-0.08 mM (intact cells) and 3-5 mM (100% electroporation). The obtained dependences of the fraction of electroporated cells on the pulse intensity were of a sigmoid shape. The dependence of the pulse amplitude required to electroporate 50% of cells on the pulse duration, obtained from the release of intracellular potassium ions, coincided with the one determined from the extent of hemolysis after 24 h-incubation at low temperature.

  20. Technology Directions for the 21st Century. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Botta, Robert; Ditanna, Thomas; Verheggen, Henry; Stancati, Michael; Feingold, Harvey; Jacobs, Mark

    1996-01-01

    New technologies will unleash the huge capacity of fiber-optic cable to meet growing demands for bandwidth. Companies will continue to replace private networks with public network bandwidth-on-demand. Although asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the transmission technology favored by many, its penetration will be slower than anticipated. Hybrid networks - e.g., a mix of ATM, frame relay, and fast Ethernet - may predominate, both as interim and long-term solutions, based on factors such as availability, interoperability, and cost. Telecommunications equipment and services prices will decrease further due to increased supply and more competition. Explosive Internet growth will continue, requiring additional backbone transmission capacity and enhanced protocols, but it is not clear who will fund the upgrade. Within ten years, space-based constellations of satellites in Low Earth orbit (LEO) will serve mobile users employing small, low-power terminals. 'Little LEO's' will provide packet transmission services and geo-position determination. 'Big LEO's' will function as global cellular telephone networks, with some planning to offer video and interactive multimedia services. Geosynchronous satellites also are proposed for mobile voice grade links and high-bandwidth services. NASA may benefit from resulting cost reductions in components, space hardware, launch services, and telecommunications services.

  1. Impact of geothermal technology improvements on royalty collections on federal lands: Volume II: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the ''Impact of Geothermal Technology Improvements on Royalty Collections on Federal Lands, Final Report, Volume I.'' The material in this volume supports the conclusions presented in Volume I and details each Known Geothermal Resource Area's (KGRA's) royalty estimation. Appendix A details the physical characteristics of each KGRA considered in Volume I. Appendix B supplies summary narratives on each state which has a KGRA. The information presented in Appendix C shows the geothermal power plant area proxies chosen for each KGRA considered within the report. It also provides data ranges which fit into the IMGEO model for electric energy cost estimates. Appendix D provides detailed cost information from the IMGEO model if no Geothermal Program RandD goals were completed beyond 1987 and if all the RandD goals were completed by the year 2000. This appendix gives an overall electric cost and major system costs, which add up to the overall electric cost. Appendix E supplies information for avoided cost projections for each state involved in the study that were used in the IMGEO model run to determine at what cost/kWh a 50 MWe plant could come on line. Appendix F supplies the code used in the determination of royalty income, as well as, tabled results of the royalty runs (detailed in Appendix G). The tabled results show royalty incomes, assuming a 10% discount rate, with and without RandD and with and without a $0.01/kWh transmission cost. Individual data sheets for each KGRA royalty income run are presented in Appendix G.

  2. Accurately determining log and bark volumes of saw logs using high-resolution laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Accurately determining the volume of logs and bark is crucial to estimating the total expected value recovery from a log. Knowing the correct size and volume of a log helps to determine which processing method, if any, should be used on a given log. However, applying volume estimation methods consistently can be difficult. Errors in log measurement and oddly shaped...

  3. Determination of a comfortable volume of mouthwash for rinsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keukenmeester, R.S.; Slot, D.E.; Rosema, N.A.M.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess patient comfort when rinsing for 30 s with 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 ml volumes of mouthwash, with the goal of establishing the most agreeable volume. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a single-blind, clinical trial with duplicate assessments. Par

  4. Flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, technology, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Cheung, Arnold C; Bartling, Soenke H; Lisauskas, Jennifer; Grasruck, Michael; Leidecker, Christianne; Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas; Brady, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Flat-panel volume computed tomography (CT) systems have an innovative design that allows coverage of a large volume per rotation, fluoroscopic and dynamic imaging, and high spatial resolution that permits visualization of complex human anatomy such as fine temporal bone structures and trabecular bone architecture. In simple terms, flat-panel volume CT scanners can be thought of as conventional multidetector CT scanners in which the detector rows have been replaced by an area detector. The flat-panel detector has wide z-axis coverage that enables imaging of entire organs in one axial acquisition. Its fluoroscopic and angiographic capabilities are useful for intraoperative and vascular applications. Furthermore, the high-volume coverage and continuous rotation of the detector may enable depiction of dynamic processes such as coronary blood flow and whole-brain perfusion. Other applications in which flat-panel volume CT may play a role include small-animal imaging, nondestructive testing in animal survival surgeries, and tissue-engineering experiments. Such versatility has led some to predict that flat-panel volume CT will gain importance in interventional and intraoperative applications, especially in specialties such as cardiac imaging, interventional neuroradiology, orthopedics, and otolaryngology. However, the contrast resolution of flat-panel volume CT is slightly inferior to that of multidetector CT, a higher radiation dose is needed to achieve a comparable signal-to-noise ratio, and a slower scintillator results in a longer scanning time.

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Dismantlement, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part C, Robotics/automation, Waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  7. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination with iod......OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination...

  8. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge.

  9. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  10. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  11. Determinants of Extraocular Muscle Volume in Patients with Graves' Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer El-Kaissi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To examine factors contributing to extraocular muscle (EOM volume enlargement in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Methods. EOM volumes were measured with orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 39 patients with recently diagnosed Graves’ disease, and compared to EOM volumes of 13 normal volunteers. Thyroid function tests, uptake on thyroid scintigraphy, anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity and other parameters were then evaluated in patients with EOM enlargement. Results. 31/39 patients had one or more enlarged EOM, of whom only 2 patients had clinical EOM dysfunction. Compared to Graves’ disease patients with normal EOM volumes, those with EOM enlargement had significantly higher mean serum TSH (0.020±0.005 versus 0.007±0.002 mIU/L; P value 0.012, free-T4 (52.9±3.3 versus 41.2±1.7 pmol/L; P value 0.003 and technetium uptake on thyroid scintigraphy (13.51±1.7% versus 8.55±1.6%; P value 0.045. There were no differences between the 2 groups in anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity, the proportion of males, tobacco smokers, or those with active ophthalmopathy. Conclusions. Patients with recently diagnosed Graves’ disease and EOM volume enlargement have higher serum TSH and more severe hyperthyroidism than patients with normal EOM volumes, with no difference in anti-TSH-receptor antibody positivity between the two groups.

  12. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 4. Technology appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-19

    This volume of the 4-volume ISTUM documentation gives information on the individual technology specifications. The first chapter presents a general overview of the ISTUM technology data bases. It includes an explanation of the data-base printouts and how the separate-cost building blocks are combined to derive an aggregate-technology cost. The remaining chapters document the specific-technology-cost specifications. Boiler technologies (conventional coal steam, conventional natural gas and oil in the steam-service sector, black liquor and wood boilers, and space-heat service sector) and non-boiler conventional technologies (natural gas non-boiler, oil-fired non-boiler, coal-fired non-boiler technologies and non-boiler primary system costs) are covered in Chapter II. Chapter III, Fossil Energy Technologies, covers atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, low-Btu gasification of coal, and medium-Btu gasification. Chapter IV, Cogeneration and Self-Generation Technologies, covers the steam service sector, machine-drive service sector, and electrolytic service sector. Solar and geothermal technologies (solar steam, solar space heat, and geothermal steam technologies) are covered in Chapter V, while Chapter VI covers conservation technologies. (MCW)

  13. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2003 (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  14. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Completed Projects (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  15. Determination of fiber volume in graphite/epoxy materials using computer image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The fiber volume of graphite/epoxy specimens was determined by analyzing optical images of cross sectioned specimens using image analysis software. Test specimens were mounted and polished using standard metallographic techniques and examined at 1000 times magnification. Fiber volume determined using the optical imaging agreed well with values determined using the standard acid digestion technique. The results were found to agree within 5 percent over a fiber volume range of 45 to 70 percent. The error observed is believed to arise from fiber volume variations within the graphite/epoxy panels themselves. The determination of ply orientation using image analysis techniques is also addressed.

  16. Recent Progress in Data Engineering and Internet Technology Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Gaol, Ford Lumban

    2013-01-01

    The latest inventions in internet technology influence most of business and daily activities. Internet security, internet data management, web search, data grids, cloud computing, and web-based applications play vital roles, especially in business and industry, as more transactions go online and mobile. Issues related to ubiquitous computing are becoming critical.   Internet technology and data engineering should reinforce efficiency and effectiveness of business processes. These technologies should help people make better and more accurate decisions by presenting necessary information and possible consequences for the decisions. Intelligent information systems should help us better understand and manage information with ubiquitous data repository and cloud computing.   This book is a compilation of some recent research findings in Internet Technology and Data Engineering. This book provides state-of-the-art accounts in computational algorithms/tools, database management and database technologies,  intelli...

  17. Recent Progress in Data Engineering and Internet Technology Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Gaol, Ford Lumban

    2012-01-01

    The latest inventions in internet technology influence most of business and daily activities. Internet security, internet data management, web search, data grids, cloud computing, and web-based applications play vital roles, especially in business and industry, as more transactions go online and mobile. Issues related to ubiquitous computing are becoming critical.   Internet technology and data engineering should reinforce efficiency and effectiveness of business processes. These technologies should help people make better and more accurate decisions by presenting necessary information and possible consequences for the decisions. Intelligent information systems should help us better understand and manage information with ubiquitous data repository and cloud computing.   This book is a compilation of some recent research findings in Internet Technology and Data Engineering. This book provides state-of-the-art accounts in computational algorithms/tools, database management and database technologies,  intelli...

  18. The 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology 1981. Source Materials Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This is the second of two volumes of source documents commissioned by the National Science Foundation in preparing the second 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology for transmission to the Congress. This volume consists of the views of individuals selected by the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy of the American Association for…

  19. Methods for determining enzymatic activity comprising heating and agitation of closed volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neil; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Reed, David William; Jensen, Jill Renee

    2016-03-15

    Methods for determining thermophilic enzymatic activity include heating a substrate solution in a plurality of closed volumes to a predetermined reaction temperature. Without opening the closed volumes, at least one enzyme is added, substantially simultaneously, to the closed volumes. At the predetermined reaction temperature, the closed volumes are agitated and then the activity of the at least one enzyme is determined. The methods are conducive for characterizing enzymes of high-temperature reactions, with insoluble substrates, with substrates and enzymes that do not readily intermix, and with low volumes of substrate and enzyme. Systems for characterizing the enzymes are also disclosed.

  20. Methods for determining enzymatic activity comprising heating and agitation of closed volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neil; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Reed, David William; Jensen, Jill Renee

    2016-03-15

    Methods for determining thermophilic enzymatic activity include heating a substrate solution in a plurality of closed volumes to a predetermined reaction temperature. Without opening the closed volumes, at least one enzyme is added, substantially simultaneously, to the closed volumes. At the predetermined reaction temperature, the closed volumes are agitated and then the activity of the at least one enzyme is determined. The methods are conducive for characterizing enzymes of high-temperature reactions, with insoluble substrates, with substrates and enzymes that do not readily intermix, and with low volumes of substrate and enzyme. Systems for characterizing the enzymes are also disclosed.

  1. Determining avalanche modelling input parameters using terrestrial laser scanning technology

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In dynamic avalanche modelling, data about the volumes and areas of the snow released, mobilized and deposited are key input parameters, as well as the fracture height. The fracture height can sometimes be measured in the field, but it is often difficult to access the starting zone due to difficult or dangerous terrain and avalanche hazards. More complex is determining the areas and volumes of snow involved in an avalanche. Such calculations require high-resolution spa...

  2. Human choice and climate change. Volume 2: Resources and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.; Malone, E.L.

    1997-12-31

    Foreward: Preface; Introduction; The natural science of global climate change; Land and water use; Coastal zones and oceans; Energy and industry; Energy and social systems; Technological change; and Sponsoring organizations, International Advisory Board, and project participants.

  3. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

  4. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    QuEST is a publication of the NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM). This issue contains brief articles on: Risk Identification and Mitigation, Material Management and Substitution Efforts--Hexavalent Chrome-free Coatings and Low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Coatings, Lead-Free Electronics, Corn-Based Depainting Media; Alternative Energy Efforts Hydrogen Sensors and Solar Air Conditioning. Other TEERM Efforts include: Energy and Water Management and Remediation Technology Collaboration.

  5. Volume 10 No. 1 January 2010 2050 DETERMINANTS OF MICRO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-01

    Jan 1, 2010 ... ranking was used to rank the production constraints and the logit regression ... Zimbabwe is subtropical, varying in height above sea level. ... irrigation technologies dominant in the smallholder sector which ... urban migration.

  6. Combined left and right ventricular volume determination by radionuclide angiocardiography using double bolus and equilibrium technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Stubgaard, M; Møgelvang, J;

    1990-01-01

    by indicator dilution. The radionuclide technique comprised four steps: (1) a first-pass study of right ventricle; (2) a bolus study of left ventricle; (3) an equilibrium study of left ventricle; (4) determination of the distribution volume of red blood cells. Absolute volumes of left ventricle were determined......Eighteen patients with ischaemic heart disease were studied. Left and right ventricular volumes including cardiac output (forward flow) were determined by radionuclide angiocardiography using a double bolus and equilibrium technique. As reference, cardiac output was simultaneously measured...... from steps 2 + 3 + 4. Absolute volumes of right ventricle were calculated from stroke volume and right ventricular ejection fraction (EF) which in turn was determined from step 1 by creating composite systolic and composite diastolic images. There was an acceptable agreement between stroke volume...

  7. Quantitative determination of volume on MR tomograms in communicating hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langkowski, J.H.; Palmie, S.G.; Koschitzky, H. v.; Imme, M.; Maas, R.; Schmidt, K.H.; Heller, M.

    1989-02-01

    For patients with communicating hydrocephalus the implementation of a cardioventricular shunt is mostly an approved therapy. The proof of periventricular oedemas in addition to clinical signs seems to be a criterion for an indication for implantation and for the selection of a special valve. With the aid of a newly developed computer programme volume estimation of the ventricular system and the periventricular oedemas has been effected for six patients on T/sub 2/-weighted MR-tomograms (1.5 tesla). Quotients of the different volumina are correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure obtained during shunt implantation or lumbar measurement. Distinct indications have been found for a correlation between the volume of the periventricular oedemas and the pressure measurements. (orig./GDG).

  8. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program, phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The study program was contracted to evaluate concepts of hybrid propulsion, select the most optimum, and prepare a conceptual design package. Further, this study required preparation of a technology definition package to identify hybrid propulsion enabling technologies and planning to acquire that technology in Phase 2 and demonstrate that technology in Phase 3. Researchers evaluated two design philosophies for Hybrid Rocket Booster (HRB) selection. The first is an ASRM modified hybrid wherein as many components/designs as possible were used from the present Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) design. The second was an entirely new hybrid optimized booster using ASRM criteria as a point of departure, i.e., diameter, thrust time curve, launch facilities, and external tank attach points. Researchers selected the new design based on the logic of optimizing a hybrid booster to provide NASA with a next generation vehicle in lieu of an interim advancement over the ASRM. The enabling technologies for hybrid propulsion are applicable to either and vehicle design may be selected at a downstream point (Phase 3) at NASA's discretion. The completion of these studies resulted in ranking the various concepts of boosters from the RSRM to a turbopump fed (TF) hybrid. The scoring resulting from the Figure of Merit (FOM) scoring system clearly shows a natural growth path where the turbopump fed solid liquid staged combustion hybrid provides maximized payload and the highest safety, reliability, and low life cycle costing.

  9. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-09

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  10. ICSOFT 2006 : First International Conference on Software and Data Technologies, Volume 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipe, Joaquim; Shishkov, Boris; Helfert, Markus

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the first International Conference on Software and Data Technologies (ICSOFT 2006), organized by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Communication and Control (INSTICC) in cooperation with the Object Management Group (OMG), sponsored by

  11. ASEAN--USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project final report. Volume 2, Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.

    1992-06-01

    This volume reports on research in the area of energy conservation technology applied to commercial buildings in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. Unlike Volume I of this series, this volume is a compilation of original technical papers prepared by different authors in the project. In this regard, this volume is much like a technical journal. The papers that follow report on research conducted by both US and ASEAN researchers. The authors representing Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand, come from a range of positions in the energy arena, including government energy agencies, electric utilities, and universities. As such, they account for a wide range of perspectives on energy problems and the role that technology can play in solving them. This volume is about using energy more intelligently. In some cases, the effort is towards the use of more advanced technologies, such as low-emittance coatings on window glass, thermal energy storage, or cogeneration. In others, the emphasis is towards reclaiming traditional techniques for rendering energy services, but in new contexts such as lighting office buildings with natural light, or cooling buildings of all types with natural ventilation. Used in its broadest sense, the term ``technology`` encompasses all of the topics addressed in this volume. Along with the more customary associations of technology, such as advanced materials and equipment and the analysis of their performance, this volume treats design concepts and techniques, analysis of ``secondary`` impacts from applying technologies (i.e., unintended impacts, or impacts on parties not directly involved in the purchase and use of the technology), and the collection of primary data used for conducting technical analyses.

  12. Determinants And Impacts Of Poultry Production Technologies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants And Impacts Of Poultry Production Technologies On Productivity Of ... The findings showed that age, rearing experience, Total Variable cost, ... Intensification of farmer education and training (extension) and family planning ...

  13. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 4. Technology appendix. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Volume IV of the ISTUM documentation gives information on the individual technology specifications, but relates closely with Chapter II of Volume I. The emphasis in that chapter is on providing an overview of where each technology fits into the general-model logic. Volume IV presents the actual cost structure and specification of every technology modeled in ISTUM. The first chapter presents a general overview of the ISTUM technology data base. It includes an explanation of the data base printouts and how the separate-cost building blocks are combined to derive an aggregate-technology cost. The remaining chapters are devoted to documenting the specific-technology cost specifications. Technologies included are: conventional technologies (boiler and non-boiler conventional technologies); fossil-energy technologies (atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, low Btu coal and medium Btu coal gasification); cogeneration (steam, machine drive, and electrolytic service sectors); and solar and geothermal technologies (solar steam, solar space heat, and geothermal steam technologies), and conservation technologies.

  14. Determination of Royalty Rates in the International Technology Transfer Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Kapitsa, Yu.; Aralova, N.

    2015-01-01

    The existing approaches used in determination of the royalty rates for technology transfer contracts and based on the experience of research institutions of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, research organizations and universities in Europe and USA were reviewed. The analysis of the existing rates has been made as well as recommendations on determination of the royalty rates for technology transfer contracts between research institutions and foreign and domestic partners have been ...

  15. Determination of Royalty Rates in the International Technology Transfer Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapitsa, Yu.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The existing approaches used in determination of the royalty rates for technology transfer contracts and based on the experience of research institutions of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, research organizations and universities in Europe and USA were reviewed. The analysis of the existing rates has been made as well as recommendations on determination of the royalty rates for technology transfer contracts between research institutions and foreign and domestic partners have been worked out.

  16. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 1: Conceptional design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). As part of the design study critical technology issues were identified and a technology acquisition and demonstration plan was formulated.

  17. Conventional engine technology. Volume 3: Comparisons and future potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

  18. Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second volume of papers presented at the Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition held at the Johnson Space Center February 1-3, 1994. Possible technology transfers covered during the conference were in the areas of information access; innovative microwave and optical applications; materials and structures; marketing and barriers; intelligent systems; human factors and habitation; communications and data systems; business process and technology transfer; software engineering; biotechnology and advanced bioinstrumentation; communications signal processing and analysis; medical care; applications derived from control center data systems; human performance evaluation; technology transfer methods; mathematics, modeling, and simulation; propulsion; software analysis and decision tools; systems/processes in human support technology; networks, control centers, and distributed systems; power; rapid development; perception and vision technologies; integrated vehicle health management; automation technologies; advanced avionics; and robotics technologies.

  19. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2010-01-01

    This edition of the QuEST newsletter contains brief articles that discuss the NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) program, and the importance of collaboration, efforts in materials management and substitution for coatings for launch structures, Low volatile organic compound (VOC) Coatings Field Testing, Non-Chrome Coating Systems, Life Cycle Corrosion Testing, Lead-Free Electronics Testing and Corn Based Depainting and efforts in Pollution Control in the area of Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation, efforts in development of alternative energy in particular Hydrogen Sensors, Energy and Water Management, and efforts in remediation in the removal of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) contamination

  20. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, in one of their first collaborative efforts, Centro Para Prevencao da Poluicao (Portuguese Center for Pollution Prevention or C3P). teamed with Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM) and two Portuguese entities, TAP Portugal (Portuguese National Airline) and OGMA Indtistria Aeron utica de Portugal (Portuguese Aeronautics Industry), to target the reduction of hexavalent chromium, cadmium, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in aircraft maintenance operations. This project focused on two coating systems that utilize non-chrome pretreatments and low-VOC primers and topcoats.

  1. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  2. Soft Computing in Information Communication Technology Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book is a collection of the accepted papers concerning soft computing in information communication technology. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchanges of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field makes the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The present book represents a cooperative effort to seek out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of Fuzzy Logic, Machine Learning, Cryptography, Pattern Recognition, Bioinformatics, Biomedical Engineering, Advancements in ICT.

  3. CONSUMPTION VOLUMES TECHNOLOGY OF ELECTRICITY AND HEAT BY DEPARTMENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficient use of natural energy resources is one of the priorities of the state policy in the sphere of universities and institutions of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. Besides search and development the new efficient and clean energy systems it is necessary to implement optimal management of the development and operation of existing facilities, reducing their energy costs. Purpose of this work is to develop consumption volume technology of electricity and heat by scientific departments of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan (DNURT for further finding the ways to reduce energy consumption. The problem is due to the specifics of University’s energy scheme. There is a difficulty for the installation of energy meters and data acquisition about their use in individual branches and structural units. At the same time it is impossible to assess qualitatively the energy position of scientific departments. Methodology. The method to determine the electricity and heat consumption for space heating of scientific departments at the university is based on «The intersectoral rules of electricity and heat energy for institutions and public sector organizations in Ukraine» and «Codes and regulations on rationing of fuel and heat energy for heating the residential buildings as well as for economic needs in Ukraine». Findings. Developed determining expenditure technology of electricity and heat for heating by scientific departments at the DNURT named after Academician V. Lazaryan allows obtaining data on energy consumption in individual units without direct measure and analyzing the effectiveness of energy saving technologies. Originality. It is represented by energy costs in the form of two components and these components are defined on the basis of the energy audit. This enables the energy inputs to implement energy efficiency measures in the research departments of the

  4. Determinants of Foreign Technological Activity in German Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettmann, Eva; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Günther, Jutta;

    This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign technological activity across 96 German regions (1996-2009). We identify foreign inventive activity by applying the ‘cross-border-ownership concept’ to transnational patent applications. The descriptive analysis shows...... that foreign technological activity more than doubled during the observation period with persistent spatial heterogeneity in Germany. Using a pooled count data model, we estimate the effect of various sources for externalities on the extent of foreign technological activity across regions. Our results show...... that foreign technological activity is attracted by technologically specialised sectors of regions. In contrast to existing findings this effect applies both to foreign as well as domestic sources of specialisation. We show that the relation between specialization and foreign technological activity is non...

  5. Technical Note: The determination of enclosed water volume in large flexible-wall mesocosms "KOSMOS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerny

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The volume of water enclosed inside flexible-wall mesocosm bags is hard to estimate using geometrical calculations and can be strongly variable among bags of the same dimensions. Here we present a method for precise water volume determination in mesocosms using salinity as a tracer. Knowledge of the precise volume of water enclosed allows establishment of exactly planned treatment concentrations and calculation of elemental budgets.

  6. Determination of the column hold-up volume in supercritical fluid chromatography using nitrous-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Péter; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-09-27

    This study introduces a new tracer that is useful for the determination of the hold-up time or volume of packed columns, particularly of those used in supercritical fluid chromatography. The thermodynamic void volume of three columns packed with different adsorbents were determined using the weight difference method. These void volumes were used as the reference point in the further discussion. The hold-up volumes of these columns were determined under dynamic conditions, using nitrous oxide dissolved in methanol as the hold-up time marker. Changes in the hold-up volumes of these columns were monitored during changes of the volumetric flow rate of pure supercritical carbon dioxide and of dilute mixtures of organic modifier and supercritical carbon dioxide. The results suggest significant methanol enrichment on the adsorbent surface.

  7. Vicious cycles: digital technologies and determinants of health in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Katherine

    2014-06-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly important as ways to gain access to most of the important social determinants of health including employment, housing, education and social networks. However, little is known about the impact of the new technologies on opportunities for health and well-being. This paper reports on a focus group study of the impact of these technologies on people from low socio-economic backgrounds. We use Bourdieu's theories of social inequities and the ways in which social, cultural and economic capitals interact to reinforce and reproduce inequities to examine the ways in which digital technologies are contributing to these processes. Six focus group discussions with 55 people were held to examine their access to and views about using digital technologies. These data are analysed in light of Bourdieu's theory to determine how people's existing capitals shape their access to and use of digital technologies and what the implications of exclusion from the technologies are likely to be for the social determinants of health. The paper concludes that some people are being caught in a vicious cycle whereby lack of digital access or the inability to make beneficial use reinforces and amplifies existing disadvantage including low levels of reading and writing literacy. The paper concludes with a consideration of actions health promoters could take to interrupt this cycle and so contribute to reducing health inequities.

  8. Effect of intraarticular osmic acid on synovial membrane volume and inflammation, determined by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoltenberg, M; Gideon, P;

    1995-01-01

    The changes in MR-determined synovial membrane volume, early synovial enhancement, and cartilage and bone erosions after osmic acid knee synovectomy were studied. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 18 knees with persistent arthritis was performed before and 1 month after...... treatment. The synovial membrane volume was significantly reduced (median -52%) in all 9 patients brought into clinical remission (p

  9. Ultrasonographic determination of the thyroid volume in 7- 10 years old children of Bushehr port 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Morad Haseli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of thyroid volume using ultrasound has been recommended for monitoring public control of iodine deficiency programs in areas with mild iodine deficiency or with no iodine deficiency, instead of physical examination, in order to estimate the prevalence rate of goiter. The aim of this study was to determine the reference ranges of thyroid volume in Bushehr port. Methods: Thyroid volume of 1247 primary schoolchildren aged 7-10 years who were selected by probability proportionate to size method from rural and urban areas of Bushehr port was determined using ultrasonography. Medians and percentiles of thyroid volumes for age and body surface area were calculated for both genders. Results: The 97th percentiles of thyroid volume of Bushehr port schoolchildren according to age and sex were all lower than the corresponding sex-specific normative WHO reference values. Goiter prevalence was 1.68% according to WHO thyroid volume references for age in the studied population. The goiter prevalence according to age and body surface area-specific new normative WHO reference values were 7.13 and 7.17%, respectively. Conclusion: The 97th percentile for thyroid volume, calculated by ultrasonography in Bushehr port schoolchildren, were lower than the international WHO newly recommended reference values in all ages. Therefore, determination of a native reference value for estimating the prevalence rate of thyroid is highly recommended. According to ultrasonographically determined goiter prevalence, Bushehr is an iodine sufficient area.

  10. Determinants of Foreign Technological Activity in German Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettmann, Eva; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Günther, Jutta

    This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign technological activity across 96 German regions (1996-2009). We identify foreign inventive activity by applying the ‘cross-border-ownership concept’ to transnational patent applications. The descriptive analysis shows......-linear and that it is influenced by sectoral heterogeneity. Externalities related to technological diversification attract foreign R&D only into ‘higher order’ regions....

  11. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume I: technical discussion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a reference document for use by the Air Resources Board, local air pollution control districts, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that describes technological options available for the control of emissions from stationary sources located in California. Control technologies were examined for 10 industry groups and six air pollutants. Volume I, Technical Discussion, includes an overall introduction to the project, descriptions of its major elements, background information for each industry group addressed, and the project bibliography. In Volume II, Control Technology Data Tables, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts, and application status are presented in tabular format. Also included is a code list that classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process and emission source.

  12. Exploring Critical Determinants in Deploying Mobile Commerce Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad G. Yaseen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The researchs problem lies in the fact that deploying m-commerce technology in Jordan represent the first serious trail to understand and explore the critical determinants that affect deploying mobile commerce technology. Approach: This research applied TAM model using the following variables: Perceived trust, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, social and cultural values and economic issues to explore determinants. Results: The result of the distributed 210 questionnaires to mobile commerce users in Amman Stock Exchange (Brokers and Investors and 179 were returned correct and studied, reveal that perceived trust, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, social and cultural values have significant association with intention to deploy mobile commerce technology while economical issue is not significant. Conclusion: The results of the research indicate that TAM have capability in exploring critical determinants that affecting the intention to deploy mobile commerce technology in Jordanian marketplace, therefore, further studies are recommended to explore the critical determinants of deploying mobile commerce technology in other economic sectors.

  13. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  14. Quantification of antiandrogen effect determined by Lightcycler technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Vinggaard, Anne; Dalgaard, M.

    2001-01-01

    be improved by measuring hormone levels as well as determining changes in gene expression of androgen-responsive genes. A real-time RT-PCR method using LightCycler technology (Roche) suitable for quantitative determination of gene expression is described. The technique combines rapid thermocycling with online...... with testosterone with or without addition of flutamide or vinclozolin for 7 days in total. We show that we can quantify the level of gene expression by use of LightCycler technology, supported by changes in reproductive organ weights as well as in hormone levels, and that analysis of gene expression levels...

  15. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 1; Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  16. Research on surveying technology applied for DTM modelling and volume computation in open pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Wajs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial information systems of mining company can be used for monitoring of mining activity, excavation planning, calculations of the ore volume and decision making. Nowadays, data base has to be updated by sources such as surveying positioning technologies and remote sensed photogrammetry data. The presented paper contains review of the methodology for the digital terrain model, i.e. DTM, modelling and obtaining data from surveying technologies in an open pit mine or quarry. This paper reviews the application of GPS, total station measurements, and ground photogrammetry for the volume accuracy assessment of a selected object. The testing field was situated in Belchatow lignite open pit mine. A suitable object had been selected. The testing layer of coal seam was located at 8’th pit sidewall excavation area. The data were acquired two times within one month period and it was connected with monthly DTM actualization of excavation. This paper presents the technological process and the results of the research of using digital photogrammetry for opencast mining purposes in the scope of numerical volume computation and monitoring the mines by comparison of different sources. The results shows that the presented workflow allow to build DTM manually and remote sensed and the accuracy assessment was presented by the volume computation pathway. Major advantages of the techniques are presented illustrating how a terrestrial photogrammetry techniques provide rapid spatial measurements of breaklines 3D data utilized to volume calculation.

  17. Animal Science Technology. An Experimental Developmental Program. Volume II, Curriculum Course Outlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Herman G.

    This volume, the second of a two part evaluation report, is devoted exclusively to the presentation of detailed course outlines representing an Animal Science Technology curriculum. Arranged in 6 terms of study (2 academic years), outlines are included on such topics as: (1) Introductory Animal Science, (2) General Microbiology, (3) Zoonoses, (4)…

  18. Animal Science Technology. An Experimental Developmental Program. Volume I, Report of the Developmental Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Herman G.; And Others

    In 1961, administrative personnel at Delhi College in New York observed that formal training programs for animal science technicians were virtually nonexistant. Response to this apparent need resulted in the initiation of perhaps the first 2-year Animal Science Technology Program in the nation. This two-volume report is the result of an extensive…

  19. Different approaches to synovial membrane volume determination by magnetic resonance imaging: manual versus automated segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel

    1997-01-01

    Automated fast (5-20 min) synovial membrane volume determination by MRI, based on pre-set post-gadolinium-DTPA enhancement thresholds, was evaluated as a substitute for a time-consuming (45-120 min), previously validated, manual segmentation method. Twenty-nine knees [rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 13...... or synovial membrane volume, e.g. no systematic errors were found. The inter-MRI variation, evaluated in three knees and three wrists, was higher than by manual segmentation, particularly due to sensitivity to malalignment artefacts. Examination of test objects proved the high accuracy of the general...... methodology for volume determinations (maximal error 6.3%). Preceded by the determination of reproducibility and the optimal threshold at the available MR unit, automated 'threshold' segmentation appears to be acceptable when changes rather than absolute values of synovial membrane volumes are most important...

  20. Comments on 'Ionization chamber volume determination and quality assurance using micro-CT imaging'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C K

    2009-03-21

    The authors of a recent paper (McNiven et al 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 5029-43) measured the volume of a particular type of a small ionization chamber using CT images. Using four Exradin A1SL chambers, they find that the volume measured using CT imaging is, on average, 4.3% larger than the value derived from the chamber calibration coefficient. Although they point out that the effective chamber volume is defined by electric field lines between the collector and the chamber body, they do not estimate how the mechanical volume might differ from the effective volume. We have used a commercial software package to calculate the electric field in the cavity and we show that the field lines define a volume that is about 11% smaller than the mechanical volume. We also show that the effective volume is very sensitive to small changes in the chamber geometry near the base of the collector. We conclude that simply determining the mechanical volume without careful consideration of the electric field lines within the cavity is not a useful dosimetric technique.

  1. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part B, Remedial action, robotics/automation, waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WN) problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remediation, decontamination, and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume 3 B provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (Remedial Action Robotics and Automation, Waste Management) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than each technology in Vol. 2. The TEDS are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each data sheet. Volume 3 can be used in two ways: (1) technologies that are identified from Vol. 2 can be referenced directly in Vol. 3 by using the TEDS codes, and (2) technologies and general technology areas (alternatives) can be located in the index in the front of this volume.

  2. Distributed technologies in California's energy future: A preliminary report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, M.; Craig, P.; McGuire, C.B.; Simmons, M. (eds.)

    1977-09-01

    The chapters in Volume 2 of Distributed Energy Systems in California's Future are: Environmental Impacts of Alternative Energy Technologies for California; Land Use Configurations and the Utilization of Distributive Energy Technology; Land Use Implications of a Dispersed Energy Path; Belief, Behavior, and Technologies as Driving Forces in Transitional Stages--The People Problem in Dispersed Energy Futures; Development of an Energy Attitude Survey; Interventions to Influence Firms Toward the Adoption of ''Soft'' Energy Technology; The Entry of Small Firms into Distributed Technology Energy Industries; Short-Term Matching of Supply and Demand in Electrical Systems with Renewable Sources; Vulnerability of Renewable Energy Systems; and District Heating for California.

  3. Using Task Data in Diagnostic Radiology. Research Report No. 8. Volume 2. Curriculum Objectives for Radiologic Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpatrick, Eleanor; Gullion, Christina

    This volume is the result of the application of the Health Services Mobility Study (HSMS) curriculum design method in radiologic technology and is presented in conjunction with volume 1, which reports the task analysis results. Volume 2 contains job-related behavioral curriculum objectives for the aide, technician, and technologist levels in…

  4. Determination of the Surface and Volume Porosity, on the Basis of the Main Fraction of the Polifractional Matrix of Moulding and Core Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the hereby paper is to present the developed model of determining the volume and surface porosity based on the main fraction of polifractional materials, its experimental verification and utilisation for the interpretation of effects accompanying the formation of a moulding sand apparent density, porosity and permeability in the blowing processes of the core and moulds technology.

  5. Slope excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation in hydraulic projects based on laser scanning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slope excavation is one of the most crucial steps in the construction of a hydraulic project. Excavation project quality assessment and excavated volume calculation are critical in construction management. The positioning of excavation projects using traditional instruments is inefficient and may cause error. To improve the efficiency and precision of calculation and assessment, three-dimensional laser scanning technology was used for slope excavation quality assessment. An efficient data acquisition, processing, and management workflow was presented in this study. Based on the quality control indices, including the average gradient, slope toe elevation, and overbreak and underbreak, cross-sectional quality assessment and holistic quality assessment methods were proposed to assess the slope excavation quality with laser-scanned data. An algorithm was also presented to calculate the excavated volume with laser-scanned data. A field application and a laboratory experiment were carried out to verify the feasibility of these methods for excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation. The results show that the quality assessment indices can be obtained rapidly and accurately with design parameters and scanned data, and the results of holistic quality assessment are consistent with those of cross-sectional quality assessment. In addition, the time consumption in excavation project quality assessment with the laser scanning technology can be reduced by 70%−90%, as compared with the traditional method. The excavated volume calculated with the scanned data only slightly differs from measured data, demonstrating the applicability of the excavated volume calculation method presented in this study.

  6. Left ventricular volume determined from scintigraphy and digital angiography by a semi-automated geometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seldin, D.W.; Esser, P.D.; Nichols, A.B.; Ratner, S.J.; Alderson, P.O.

    1983-12-01

    The utility of a semi-automatic method of measuring left ventricular (LV) volume geometrically from gated blood-pool studies and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was investigated using computerized edge detection and spatial calibration algorithms. LAO LV volumes determined from gated blood-pool studies were compared to volumes obtained from contrast left ventriculograms in 21 patients and the applicability of this method to DSA was evaluated in 25 additional patients who also had conventional left ventriculography. There was excellent correlation between the two, both for radionuclide studies and for DSA. Computer-based geometric determinations of LV volume appear to be rapid, accurate, and less dependent on subjective operator decisions than previously reported geometric approaches.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 112 - Determination of a Worst Case Discharge Planning Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of a Worst Case Discharge Planning Volume D Appendix D to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. D Appendix D to Part 112—Determination of...

  8. Determination of equine deep digital flexor muscle volume based on distances between anatomical landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, L C; van der Meij, B R; Lamers, A A H; van der Kolk, J H; Back, W; Wijnberg, I D

    2014-01-01

    In equine medicine the use of Botox® is experimental. Dosages are determined from human treatment-protocols and limited numbers of equine studies. Determination of target-muscle volume can be helpful to extrapolate human dosages. The aim of the study was to calculate a formula enabling the

  9. Evaluation of a simple method for determining muscle volume in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantolino, Benjamin W; Challis, John H

    2016-06-14

    The quantification in vivo of muscle volume is important, for example, to understand how muscles change with aging, and respond to rehabilitation. Albracht et al. (2008) suggested that muscle volume can be estimated in vivo from the measurement of muscle cross-sectional area and muscle belly length only. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this proposed relationship for determining muscle volume for both the Vastus Lateralis (VL) and First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) using ultrasound imaging. The cross-sectional area and length of 22 cadaver FDI and 6 VL muscles in cadavers were imaged using ultrasound, these muscles were then dissected and muscle volumes measured directly using the water displacement technique. Estimated muscle volumes were compared with their direct measurement, and for the VL the percentage root mean square error in the estimation of muscle volume was 5.0%, and the Bland-Altman analysis had all volume estimates within the 95% confidence interval, with no evidence of bias (proportional or constant) in the volume estimates. In contrast, percentage root mean square error for the FDI was 18.8%, with the Bland-Altman analysis showing volume estimates outside of the 95% confidence interval and proportional bias. These results indicate that the simple method proposed by Albracht et al. (2008) for the estimation of muscle volume is appropriate the VL but not the FDI using ultrasound imaging. Morphological disparities likely account for these differences, if accurate and fast measures of the volume of the FDI are required other approaches should be explored.

  10. Left ventricular volume determination from single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunker, S.R.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Schmidt, W.P.; Cawthon, M.A.; Karl, R.D. Jr.; Bauman, J.M.; Howard, W.H. III; Rubal, B.J.

    1985-02-01

    To compare the accuracy of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with that of contrast cineangiography in measuring left ventricular end-diastolic volume, 25 consecutive patients undergoing catheterizaiton for coronary artery or valvular heart disease were first evaluated scintigraphically. SPECT volume values showed a high degree of correlation with those determined by angiography with a standard error of the estimate of 23 ml. SPECT offers a highly accurate and essentially noninvasive method for measuring chamber volumes that is independent of geometric assumptions about ventricular configuration and chest wall attenuation and does not require blood sample counting.

  11. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  12. A Novel Technology for Measurements of Dielectric Properties of Extremely Small Volumes of Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Na Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitivity sensor for measurement radio frequency (RF dielectric permittivity of liquids is described. Interference is used and parasitic effects are cancellation, which makes the sensor can catch weak signals caused by liquids with extremely small volumes. In addition, we present the relationship between transmission coefficient and permittivity of liquids under test (LUT. Using this sensor, quantitative measurements of the dielectric properties at 5.8 GHz are demonstrated of LUTs. Experiments show that the proposed method only requires the volume of 160 nanoliters for liquids. Therefore, the technology can be used for RF spectroscopic analysis of biological samples and extremely precious liquids.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1, Technology Evaluation: Part A, Decontamination and Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation is a generalized planning document that identifies broad categories of issues that keep ORNL outside full compliance with the law and other legally binding agreements. Possible generic paths to compliance, issues, and the schedule for resolution of the issues one identified. The role of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) is then to identify specific site issues (problems), identify specific technologies that can be brought to bear on the issues, and assess the current status and readiness of these remediation technologies within the constraints of the schedule commitment. Regulatory requirements and commitments contained in the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation are also included in the TLD as constraints to the application of immature technological solutions. Some otherwise attractive technological solutions may not be employed because they may not be deployable on the schedule enumerated in the regulatory agreements. The roadmap for ORNL includes a list of 46 comprehensive logic diagrams for WM of low-level, radioactive-mixed, hazardous, sanitary and industrial. and TRU waste. The roadmapping process gives comparisons of the installation as it exists to the way the installation should exist under full compliance. The identification of the issues is the goal of roadmapping. This allows accurate and timely formulation of activities.

  14. Y-12 Plant Remedial Action technology logic diagram. Volume I: Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Program addresses remediation of the contaminated groundwater, surface water and soil in the following areas located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: Chestnut Ridge, Bear Creek Valley, the Upper and Lower East Fork Popular Creek Watersheds, CAPCA 1, which includes several areas in which remediation has been completed, and CAPCA 2, which includes dense nonaqueous phase liquid wells and a storage facility. There are many facilities within these areas that are contaminated by uranium, mercury, organics, and other materials. This Technology Logic Diagram identifies possible remediation technologies that can be applied to the soil, water, and contaminants for characterization, treatment, and waste management technology options are supplemented by identification of possible robotics or automation technologies. These would facilitate the cleanup effort by improving safety, of remediation, improving the final remediation product, or decreasing the remediation cost. The Technology Logic Diagram was prepared by a diverse group of more than 35 scientists and engineers from across the Oak Ridge Reservation. Most are specialists in the areas of their contributions. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  15. DETERMINATION OF THE AGR-1 CAPSULE TO FPMS SPECTROMETER TRANSPORT VOLUMES FROM LEADOUT FLOW TEST DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Hartwell; J. B. Walter; D. M. Scates; M. W. Drigert

    2007-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a fueled multiple-capsule irradiation experiment being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. A flow experiment conducted during the AGR-1 irradiation provided data that included the effect of flow rate changes on the decay of a short-lived radionuclide (23Ne). This data has been analyzed to determine the capsule-specific downstream transport volume through which the capsule effluents must pass before arrival at the fission product monitoring system spectrometers. These resultant transport volumes when coupled with capsule outlet flow rates determine the transport times from capsule-to-detector. In this work an analysis protocol is developed and applied in order to determine capsule-specific transport volumes to precisions of better than +/- 7%.

  16. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H2O and BigBottle RAD-H2O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  17. A simple, quantitative method using alginate gel to determine rat colonic tumor volume in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-04-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the Apc(Pirc/+) rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm³. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained.

  18. Technological Determinism and Permissionless Innovation as Technocratic Governing Mentalities: Psychocultural Barriers to the Democratization of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Dotson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite no shortage of thoughtful analysis concerning how to more democratically develop and assess new technologies, practical progress toward democratized innovation has been paltry. This state of affairs suggests that the barriers to such democratic ends merit more attention. Building upon calls to more seriously examine citizens’ understandings of technology as autonomous or deterministic, this paper characterizes the assumptions, beliefs, and patterns of thought undergirding technological determinism and permissionless innovation as technocratic governing mentalities. That is, they contribute to the biasing of political discourses, practices, and organizations toward non-decision making and adaptation with regards to technological change. Indeed, permissionless innovation is quickly becoming the motto of those aiming to legitimate a “hands-off” approach to the sociotechnical “disruptions” sought by Silicon Valley entrepreneurs. Moreover, this paper explores how STS, as both an academic and political endeavor, might better respond to the challenges these modes of thinking present. Drawing upon relevant work within social psychology and communications, several fruitful avenues for engaged research regarding undermining technocratic governing mentalities become apparent. Not only is there a pressing need for accessible and parsimonious counternarratives to technological determinism and permissionless innovation but also rhetorical strategies for making the democratization of technological appear continuous with aspects of status quo systems. Finally, given that technocratic governing mentalities are likely to have practical and material roots, inquiry should be directed toward understanding how different sociotechnical arrangements impact citizens’ perception of the desirability and feasibility of democratizing technology.

  19. Proceedings of the environmental technology through industry partnership conference. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, V.P.

    1995-10-01

    The overall objective of this conference was to review the latest environmental and waste management technologies being developed under the sponsorship of METC. The focus of this conference was also to address the accomplishments and barriers affecting private sector, and lay the groundwork for future technology development initiatives and opportunities. 26 presentations were presented in: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; Contaminant plume containment and remediation; and Decontamination and decommissioning. In addition there were 10 Focus Area presentations, 31 Poster papers covering all Focus Areas, and two panel discussions on: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal issues; and the Application, evaluation, and acceptance of in-situ and ex-situ plume remediation technologies. Volume 2 contains 16 papers in a poster session and 8 papers in the contaminant plume containment and remediation and landfill stabilization Focus Areas. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

  1. Fluid Vessel Quantity Using Non-invasive PZT Technology Flight Volume Measurements Under Zero G Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Anthony A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to perform analysis of data using the Systems Engineering Educational Discovery (SEED) program data from 2011 and 2012 Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology flight volume measurements under Zero G conditions (parabolic Plane flight data). Also experimental planning and lab work for future sub-orbital experiments to use the NASA PZT technology for fluid volume measurement. Along with conducting data analysis of flight data, I also did a variety of other tasks. I provided the lab with detailed technical drawings, experimented with 3d printers, made changes to the liquid nitrogen skid schematics, and learned how to weld. I also programmed microcontrollers to interact with various sensors and helped with other things going on around the lab.

  2. Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology Flight Volume Measurements Under Zero G Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to perform analysis of data using the Systems Engineering Educational Discovery (SEED) program data from 2011 and 2012 Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology flight volume measurements under Zero G conditions (parabolic Plane flight data). Also experimental planning and lab work for future sub-orbital experiments to use the NASA PZT technology for fluid volume measurement. Along with conducting data analysis of flight data, I also did a variety of other tasks. I provided the lab with detailed technical drawings, experimented with 3d printers, made changes to the liquid nitrogen skid schematics, and learned how to weld. I also programmed microcontrollers to interact with various sensors and helped with other things going on around the lab.

  3. Temporal dynamics and determinants of whole brain tissue volume changes during recovery from alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, Stefan; Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2005-06-01

    Brain shrinkage and its partial reversibility with abstinence is a common neuroimaging finding in alcohol dependent individuals. We used an automated three-dimensional whole brain magnetic resonance imaging method (boundary shift integral) in 23 alcohol dependent individuals to measure the temporal dynamics of cerebral tissue and spinal fluid volume changes over a 12-month interval and to examine the major determinants of brain tissue change rates during abstinence and non-abstinence. We found more rapid brain tissue gain during the first month of sobriety than in the following months. The most rapid volume recovery was observed in abstinent individuals with the greatest baseline brain shrinkage and drinking severity. The rapid reversal of brain volume gains in non-abstinent individuals and tissue volume changes are modulated by duration of abstinence and non-abstinence periods, as well as recency of non-abstinence. Age, family history density of alcoholism, relapse severity, and duration or age of onset of heavy drinking were not major determinants of brain shrinkage and brain volume recovery rates. Treatment providers may use this tangible information to reinforce the biomedical benefits of sobriety. Previous quantitative measurements of brain volumes in alcohol dependent individuals performed after several weeks of abstinence likely underestimated the full extent of chronic alcohol-associated brain shrinkage.

  4. Method and system for determining a volume of an object from two-dimensional images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [Knoxville, TN; Schlicher, Bob G [Portsmouth, NH

    2010-08-10

    The invention provides a method and a computer program stored in a tangible medium for automatically determining a volume of three-dimensional objects represented in two-dimensional images, by acquiring at two least two-dimensional digitized images, by analyzing the two-dimensional images to identify reference points and geometric patterns, by determining distances between the reference points and the component objects utilizing reference data provided for the three-dimensional object, and by calculating a volume for the three-dimensional object.

  5. Clinical value of prostate segmentation and volume determination on MRI in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Brian; Türkbey, Barış; Truong, Hong; Bernardo, Marcelino; Periaswamy, Senthil; Choyke, Peter L

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant pathological enlargement of the prostate, which occurs primarily in the transitional zone. BPH is highly prevalent and is a major cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in aging males, although there is no direct relationship between prostate volume and symptom severity. The progression of BPH can be quantified by measuring the volumes of the whole prostate and its zones, based on image segmentation on magnetic resonance imaging. Prostate volume determination via segmentation is a useful measure for patients undergoing therapy for BPH. However, prostate segmentation is not widely used due to the excessive time required for even experts to manually map the margins of the prostate. Here, we review and compare new methods of prostate volume segmentation using both manual and automated methods, including the ellipsoid formula, manual planimetry, and semiautomated and fully automated segmentation approaches. We highlight the utility of prostate segmentation in the clinical context of assessing BPH.

  6. Annual Science and Engineering Technology Conference/DOD Technology Exposition (7th). Volume 2. Wednesday - Thursday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-20

    to engine teams thru AF code AF added strong staff/tech support (AQR) Interview, Dr.P. Bevilaqua, NAE Skunk-PM, Invented Lift Fan FIRST: STO-SSDash-VL...wafer-scale Pilot Line for rapid technology development Producing 4” QVGA backplanes and TDs Tools, materials and processes developed to enable...Centers of Excellence • Co-Funded by AFOSR, TD and University • Extends the capabilities and scope of AFRL • Opens up opportunity for continued focus on AF

  7. Determination of micro-litre volumes with high accuracy for flow cytometric blood cell counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, S.; Kummrow, A.; Kammel, M.; Neukammer, J.

    2010-07-01

    We have gravimetrically calibrated the volumes dispensed by 1 mL syringes in the range between 1 µL and 100 µL using ultra-pure water. Protocols are based on series of consecutive difference measurements of masses in order to precisely compensate for evaporation, being the most important disturbing quantity. We determined expanded uncertainties of volume measurements for glass syringes of typically 0.2% (expansion factor 2) when dispensing volumes of 10 µL. For polypropylene syringes, selected with respect to the manufacturer, expanded uncertainties of 0.25% (expansion factor 2) were observed. Calibrated syringes were applied for measuring concentrations of blood cells in a flow cytometer demonstrating the capability to determine reference measurement values. Since the direct interaction of blood cells and syringe walls may lead to cell adhesion, glass syringes as well as (disposable) polypropylene syringes were calibrated.

  8. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II (this volume) describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Specific INEL problem areas/contaminants are identified along with technology solutions, the status of the technologies, precise science and technology needs, and implementation requirements. Volume III provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are referenced by a TEDS codenumber in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II.

  9. Effect of intraarticular osmic acid on synovial membrane volume and inflammation, determined by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoltenberg, M; Gideon, P

    1995-01-01

    The changes in MR-determined synovial membrane volume, early synovial enhancement, and cartilage and bone erosions after osmic acid knee synovectomy were studied. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 18 knees with persistent arthritis was performed before and 1 month after...

  10. Tutorial for Collecting and Processing Images of Composite Structures to Determine the Fiber Volume Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite structures have become more common in aerospace components due to their light weight and structural efficiency. In general, the strength and stiffness of a composite structure are directly related to the fiber volume fraction, which is defined as the fraction of fiber volume to total volume of the composite. The most common method to measure the fiber volume fraction is acid digestion, which is a useful method when the total weight of the composite, the fiber weight, and the total weight can easily be obtained. However, acid digestion is a destructive test, so the material will no longer be available for additional characterization. Acid digestion can also be difficult to machine out specific components of a composite structure with complex geometries. These disadvantages of acid digestion led the author to develop a method to calculate the fiber volume fraction. The developed method uses optical microscopy to calculate the fiber area fraction based on images of the cross section of the composite. The fiber area fraction and fiber volume fraction are understood to be the same, based on the assumption that the shape and size of the fibers are consistent in the depth of the composite. This tutorial explains the developed method for optically determining fiber area fraction performed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  11. Determination of blood leukocyte concentration with constant volume acquisition on a flow cytometer is comparable to individualized single platform testing with beads as internal reference standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susan; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Flow cytometers have a constant flow rate. This enables flow cytometers to measure leukocyte concentrations in a determined volume by acquiring data at a fixed rate over a fixed time and is called constant volume acquisition (CVA). The volume aspirated by a FACS Calibur flow cytometer in 4 min...... at a high rate has a median of 163 microl (IQR 156-170) with TruCount tubes. Leukocyte concentrations of 26 healthy volunteers were measured twice on up to four occasions with a Bürker-Türk chamber, by single platform technology (SPT) with TruCount tubes and on the same data set using CVA. Total leukocyte...... concentrations determined by CVA correlated better with measurements in a Bürker-Türk (BT) chamber than with SPT. Concentrations determined with CVA were 1.86% higher than with BT whereas SPT data were 5.35% higher than BT (pCVA (p

  12. A reliable and consistent production technology for high volume compacted graphite iron castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jincheng

    2014-01-01

    The demands for improved engine performance, fuel economy, durability, and lower emissions provide a continual chalenge for engine designers. The use of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) has been established for successful high volume series production in the passenger vehicle, commercial vehicle and industrial power sectors over the last decade. The increased demand for CGI engine components provides new opportunities for the cast iron foundry industry to establish efficient and robust CGI volume production processes, in China and globaly. The production window range for stable CGI is narrow and constantly moving. Therefore, any one step single addition of magnesium aloy and the inoculant cannot ensure a reliable and consistent production process for complicated CGI engine castings. The present paper introduces the SinterCast thermal analysis process control system that provides for the consistent production of CGI with low nodularity and reduced porosity, without risking the formation of lfake graphite. The technology is currently being used in high volume Chinese foundry production. The Chinese foundry industry can develop complicated high demand CGI engine castings with the proper process control technology.

  13. Determination of Partial Molar Volumes of EPA and DHA Ethyl Esters in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The use of supercritical-fluid chromatography for determining partial molar volumes of ethyl esters of cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and cis -4,7,10,13,16,19- docosa-hexaenoic acid (DHA) in supercritical carbon dioxide is presented and discussed. Partial molar volumes of EPA and DHA esters are obtained from the variation of the retention properties with the density of mobile phase at 313.15 K, 323.15 K, 333.15 K and in the pressure range from 9 MPa to 21 MPa.

  14. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  16. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry – volume, size and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of trucking firm fuel use. We develop a simple model to show that trucking firm fuel use depends, in addition to the fuel price and the traffic volume, also on the output of the trucking firm’s production process (the movement of cargo) measured in tonkilometres...... decompose the standard definition of the rebound effect for motor vehicles, i.e. the elasticity of traffic volume with respect to fuel cost, into the elasticity by which changes in fuel costs affects freight activity and the elasticity by which changes in freight activity affect traffic volume. We estimate...... these elasticities using a simultaneous-equation model based on aggregate time-series data for Denmark for 1980-2007. Our best estimates of the short run and the long run rebound effects for road freight transportation are 19% and 28%, respectively. We also find that an increase in the fuel price surprisingly has...

  17. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 3. Gas and drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 3 contains papers from the sessions on natural gas supporting research, western gas sands project, drilling technology, and environmental effects. Individuals were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Area Groups 1-7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) problems at the INEL to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to an environmental restoration need. It is essential that follow-on engineering and system studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in this TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk to meet the site windows of opportunity. The TLD consists of three separate volumes: Volume I includes the purpose and scope of the TLD, a brief history of the INEL Waste Area Groups, and environmental problems they represent. A description of the TLD, definitions of terms, a description of the technology evaluation process, and a summary of each subelement, is presented. Volume II describes the overall layout and development of the TLD in logic diagram format. This section addresses the environmental restoration of contaminated INEL sites. Volume III (this volume) provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) activities that are reference by a TEDS code number in Volume II. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than provided for technologies in Volume II. Data sheets are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each sheet.

  19. Determining matrix elements and resonance widths from finite volume: the dangerous mu-terms

    CERN Document Server

    Takacs, G

    2011-01-01

    The standard numerical approach to determining matrix elements of local operators and width of resonances uses the finite volume dependence of energy levels and matrix elements. Finite size corrections that decay exponentially in the volume are usually neglected or taken into account using perturbation expansion in effective field theory. Using two-dimensional sine-Gordon field theory as "toy model" it is shown that some exponential finite size effects could be much larger than previously thought, potentially spoiling the determination of matrix elements in frameworks such as lattice QCD. The particular class of finite size corrections considered here are mu-terms arising from bound state poles in the scattering amplitudes. In sine-Gordon model, these can be explicitly evaluated and shown to explain the observed discrepancies to high precision. It is argued that the effects observed are not special to the two-dimensional setting, but rather depend on general field theoretic features that are common with model...

  20. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  1. Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, M [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France); Lamare, F [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609, (France); Boussion, N [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France); Turzo, A [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France); Collet, C [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Physique de Strasbourg (ENSPS), ULP, Strasbourg, F-67000 (France); Salzenstein, F [Institut d' Electronique du Solide et des Systemes (InESS), ULP, Strasbourg, F-67000 (France); Roux, C [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France); Jarritt, P [Medical Physics Agency, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Carson, K [Medical Physics Agency, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Rest, C Cheze-Le [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France); Visvikis, D [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France)

    2007-07-21

    Accurate volume of interest (VOI) estimation in PET is crucial in different oncology applications such as response to therapy evaluation and radiotherapy treatment planning. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm for automatic lesion volume delineation; namely the fuzzy hidden Markov chains (FHMC), with that of current state of the art in clinical practice threshold based techniques. As the classical hidden Markov chain (HMC) algorithm, FHMC takes into account noise, voxel intensity and spatial correlation, in order to classify a voxel as background or functional VOI. However the novelty of the fuzzy model consists of the inclusion of an estimation of imprecision, which should subsequently lead to a better modelling of the 'fuzzy' nature of the object of interest boundaries in emission tomography data. The performance of the algorithms has been assessed on both simulated and acquired datasets of the IEC phantom, covering a large range of spherical lesion sizes (from 10 to 37 mm), contrast ratios (4:1 and 8:1) and image noise levels. Both lesion activity recovery and VOI determination tasks were assessed in reconstructed images using two different voxel sizes (8 mm{sup 3} and 64 mm{sup 3}). In order to account for both the functional volume location and its size, the concept of % classification errors was introduced in the evaluation of volume segmentation using the simulated datasets. Results reveal that FHMC performs substantially better than the threshold based methodology for functional volume determination or activity concentration recovery considering a contrast ratio of 4:1 and lesion sizes of <28 mm. Furthermore differences between classification and volume estimation errors evaluated were smaller for the segmented volumes provided by the FHMC algorithm. Finally, the performance of the automatic algorithms was less susceptible to image noise levels in comparison to the threshold based techniques. The

  2. Surface area and volume determination of subgingival calculus using laser fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Fardad; Walsh, Laurence J

    2014-03-01

    Visible red (655 nm) laser fluorescence (LF) devices are currently used for identifying deposits of subgingival calculus on the root surfaces of teeth during dental examination and treatment; however, it is not known how the fluorescence readings produced by commercially available LF systems correlate to the nature of the deposits. This laboratory study explored the correlation between LF digital readings and the surface area and volume of subgingival calculus deposits on teeth. A collection of 30 extracted human posterior teeth with various levels of subgingival deposits of calculus across 240 sites were used in a clinical simulation, with silicone impression material used to replicate periodontal soft tissues. The teeth were scored by two examiners by using three commercial LF systems (DIAGNOdent, DIAGNOdent Pen and KEY3). The silicone was removed, and the teeth were removed for photography at × 20 magnification under white or ultraviolet light. The surface area, thickness, and volume were calculated, and both linear least squares regression and nonlinear (Spearman's rank method) correlation coefficients were determined. Visible red LF digital readings showed better correlation to calculus volume than to surface area. Overall, the best performance was found for the KEY3 system (Spearman coefficient 0.59), compared to the Classic DIAGNOdent (0.56) and the DIAGNOdent Pen (0.49). These results indicate that while visible red LF systems vary somewhat in performance, their LF readings provide a useful estimation of the volume of subgingival calculus deposits present on teeth.

  3. Determination of the Volume of Water for Suppressing the Thermal Decomposition of Forest Combustibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, R. S.; Zhdanova, A. O.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-07-01

    From the results of experimental studies of the processes of suppressing the thermal decomposition of the typical forest combustibles (birch leaves, fir needles, asp twigs, and a mixture of these three materials) by water aerosol, the minimum volumes of the fire-extinguishing liquid have been determined (by varying the volume of samples of the forest combustibles from 0.00002 m3 to 0.0003 m3 and the area of their open surface from 0.0001 m2 to 0.018 m2). The dependences of the minimum volume of water on the area of the open surface of the forest combustible have been established. Approximation expressions for these dependences have been obtained. Forecast has been made of the minimum volume of water for suppressing the process of thermal decomposition of forest combustibles in areas from 1 cm2 to 1 km2, as well as of the characteristic quenching times by varying the water concentration per unit time. It has been shown that the amount of water needed for effective suppression of the process of thermal decomposition of forest combustibles is several times less than is customarily assumed.

  4. Feasibility Study for the Establishment of a Pharmacy Technology Program. Volume 11, Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Patricia G.; And Others

    In December 1980, a study was conducted by William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to determine the feasibility of establishing a pharmacy technology program. Professional Life Science and Human Services staff members telephoned 13 hospital pharmacies and four retail pharmacies in WRHC's service area. It was felt that if the 15 responding pharmacies…

  5. Socio-Psychological Determinants of Public Acceptance of Technologies: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, many technologies have been associated with societal controversies, leading to public rejection of their use. It is therefore important to understand the psychological determinants of societal acceptance of emerging technologies. Socio-psychological determinants of public acceptance of

  6. The Defense Science Board 1999 Summer Study Task Force on 21st Century Defense Technology Strategies. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Study Task Force On 21ST Century Defense Technology Strategies Volume 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...3. Defense Technology Strategy and Management PART 4. Strategic Agility PART 5. Analysis and Quantitative Results iii PREFACE The Defense Science...Board (DSB) 1999 Summer Study Task Force on 21st Century Defense Technology Strategies continues a series of studies that have examined key challenges

  7. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  8. Air-kerma determination using a variable-volume cavity ionization chamber standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D T; Kessler, C; Roger, P

    2007-12-01

    A graphite-walled cavity ionization chamber of modular design and variable volume has been used to determine the air-kerma rate in the reference 60Co field at the BIPM. The chamber can be configured in five sizes. High-accuracy mechanical measurements of the volume of the air cavity were made for each configuration using a co-ordinate measuring machine. Ionization current measurements were made for each configuration and corrected for the effects of ion recombination and diffusion, stem scatter and chamber orientation. Monte Carlo calculations of cavity dose were made to evaluate the correction factors kwall and kan. A reproducibility of the ionization current per mass of 1.5 parts in 10(4) was achieved on the repeated assembly of each configuration. The results show an air-kerma rate determination that increases with volume, the total change being around 8 parts in 10(4). When analysed differentially, the air-kerma rate relative to the BIPM standard is Kdiff/KBIPM = 1.0026(6). A detailed uncertainty budget is presented. Possible reasons for the observed behaviour are discussed that might have consequences for all existing standards for air-kerma.

  9. Volume change determination of metastatic lung tumors in CT images using 3-D template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Robert D.; Wang, Peng; O'Dell, Walter G.

    2009-02-01

    The ability of a clinician to properly detect changes in the size of lung nodules over time is a vital element to both the diagnosis of malignant growths and the monitoring of the response of cancerous lesions to therapy. We have developed a novel metastasis sizing algorithm based on 3-D template matching with spherical tumor appearance models that were created to match the expected geometry of the tumors of interest while accounting for potential spatial offsets of nodules in the slice thickness direction. The spherical template that best-fits the overall volume of each lung metastasis was determined through the optimization of the 3-D normalized cross-correlation coefficients (NCCC) calculated between the templates and the nodules. A total of 17 different lung metastases were extracted manually from real patient CT datasets and reconstructed in 3-D using spherical harmonics equations to generate simulated nodules for testing our algorithm. Each metastasis 3-D shape was then subjected to 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 90% scaling of its volume to allow for 5 possible volume change combinations relative to the original size per each reconstructed nodule and inserted back into CT datasets with appropriate blurring and noise addition. When plotted against the true volume change, the nodule volume changes calculated by our algorithm for these 85 data points exhibited a high degree of accuracy (slope = 0.9817, R2 = 0.9957). Our results demonstrate that the 3-D template matching method can be an effective, fast, and accurate tool for automated sizing of metastatic tumors.

  10. Complete blood count using VCS (volume, conductivity, light scatter) technology is affected by hyperlipidemia in a child with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcebay, D G; Azik, F M; Isik, P; Bozkaya, I O; Kara, A; Tavil, E B; Yarali, N; Tunc, B

    2011-12-01

    Asparaginase, an effective drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has become an important component of most childhood ALL regimens during the remission induction or intensification phases of treatment. The incidence range of asparaginase-associated lipid abnormalities that are seen in children is 67-72%. Lipemia causes erroneous results, which uses photometric methods to analyze blood samples. We describe a case of l-asparaginase-associated severe hyperlipidemia with complete blood count abnormalities. Complete blood count analysis was performed with Beckman COULTER(®) GEN·S™ system, which uses the Coulter Volume, Conductivity, Scatter technology to probe hydrodynamically focused cells. Although an expected significant inaccuracy in hemoglobin determination occurred starting from a lipid value of 3450 mg/dl, we observed that triglyceride level was 1466 mg/dl. Complete blood count analysis revealed that exceptionally high hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels vs. discordant with red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, and hematocrit levels. Total leukocyte count altered spontaneously in a wide range, and was checked with blood smear. Platelet count was in expected range (Table 1). Thus, we thought it was a laboratory error, and the patient's follow-up especially for red cell parameters was made by red blood cell and hematocrit values.

  11. Remote-Sensing Technique for Determination of the Volume Absorption Coefficient of Turbid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, Michael; Arnone, Robert A.; Gould, Richard W., Jr.; Terrie, Gregory E.; Ladner, Sherwin D.; Wood, Christoper G.

    1998-07-01

    We use remote-sensing reflectance from particulate R rs to determine the volume absorption coefficient a of turbid water in the 400 700-nm spectral region. The calculated and measured values of a ( ) show good agreement for 0 . 5 a 10 (m 1 ). To determine R rs from a particulate, we needed to make corrections for remote-sensing reflectance owing to surface roughness S rs . We determined the average spectral distribution of S rs from the difference in total remote-sensing reflectance measured with and without polarization. The spectral shape of S rs showed an excellent fit to theoretical formulas for glare based on Rayleigh and aerosol scattering from the atmosphere.

  12. Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska

    2012-08-15

    Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.

  13. Proceedings of The Twentieth International Symposium on Space Technology and Science. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-31

    The 20th international symposium on space technology and science was held in Nagaragawa city, Gifu prefecture on May 19-25, 1996, and 401 papers were made public. Out of those, 112 papers were summed up as Volume 2 following the previous Volume 1. As to space transportation, the paper included reports titled as follows: Conceptual study of H-IIA rocket (upgraded H-II rocket); Test flight of the launch vehicle; International cooperation in space transportation; etc. Concerning microgravity science, Recent advances in microgravity research; Use of microgravity environment to investigate the effect of magnetic field on flame shape; etc. Relating to satellite communications and broadcasting, `Project GENESYS`: CRL`s R and D project for realizing high data rate satellite communications networks; The Astrolink {sup TM/SM} system; etc. Besides, the paper contained reports on the following fields: lunar and planetary missions and utilization, space science and balloons, earth observations, life science and human presence, international cooperation and space environment, etc

  14. The Egyptian Farming Practices Technological Development and Its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Abdou, Amin I.

    2005-01-01

    Tendency toward application of advanced technology in farming practices has been accelerated in Egypt since the mid Seventies of the last century. Both domestic technology generation and foreign technology transfer were encouraged. High-quality cultivars, mechanized farming operations, and modern agricultural systems, such as protected agriculture and organic farming were strongly introduced. As such, this study tended to assess the Egyptian experience in farming modernization, areas of succe...

  15. Critical Technology Determination for Future Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Vangen, Scott D.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Stecklein, Jonette M.; Rahman, Shamim A.; Rosenthal, Matthew E.; Hornyak, David M.; Alexander, Leslie; Korsmeyer, David J.; Tu, Eugene L.; Alfano, David D.; Kundrot, Craig E.; Davison, Stephen C.; Balint, Tibor S.

    2012-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) prepares to extend human presence throughout the solar system, technical capabilities must be developed to enable long duration flights to destinations such as near Earth asteroids, Mars, and extended stays on the Moon. As part of the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team, a Technology Development Assessment Team has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support this broad range of missions. Dialog between mission planners, vehicle developers, and technologists was used to identify a minimum but sufficient set of technologies, noting that needs are created by specific mission architecture requirements, yet specific designs are enabled by technologies. Further consideration was given to the re-use of underlying technologies to cover multiple missions to effectively use scarce resources. This suite of critical technologies is expected to provide the needed base capability to enable a variety of possible destinations and missions. This paper describes the methodology used to provide an architecture-driven technology development assessment ("technology pull"), including technology advancement needs identified by trade studies encompassing a spectrum of flight elements and destination design reference missions.

  16. Multi-parallel open technology to enable collaborative volume visualization: how to create global immersive virtual anatomy classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Jonathan C; Walsh, Colin; Dech, Fred; Olson, Eric; E, Michael; Parsad, Nigel; Stevens, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Many prototype projects aspire to develop a sustainable model of immersive radiological volume visualization for virtual anatomic education. Some have focused on distributed or parallel architectures. However, very few, if any others, have combined multi-location, multi-directional, multi-stream sharing of video, audio, desktop applications, and parallel stereo volume rendering, to converge on an open, globally scalable, and inexpensive collaborative architecture and implementation method for anatomic teaching using radiological volumes. We have focused our efforts on bringing this all together for several years. We outline here the technology we're making available to the open source community and a system implementation suggestion for how to create global immersive virtual anatomy classrooms. With the releases of Access Grid 3.1 and our parallel stereo volume rendering code, inexpensive globally scalable technology is available to enable collaborative volume visualization upon an award-winning framework. Based upon these technologies, immersive virtual anatomy classrooms that share educational or clinical principles can be constructed with the setup described with moderate technological expertise and global scalability.

  17. Determining cardiac fiber orientation using FSL and registered ultrasound/DTI volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormer, James; Qin, Xulei; Shen, Ming; Wang, Silun; Zhang, Xiaodong; Jiang, Rong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-04-01

    Accurate extraction of cardiac fiber orientation from diffusion tensor imaging is important for determining heart structure and function. However, the acquisition of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor images is costly and time consuming. By comparison, cardiac ultrasound imaging is rapid and relatively inexpensive, but it lacks the capability to directly measure fiber orientations. In order to create a detailed heart model from ultrasound data, a three-dimensional (3D) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with known fiber orientations can be registered to an ultrasound volume through a geometric mask. After registration, the cardiac orientations from the template DTI can be mapped to the heart using a deformable transformation field. This process depends heavily on accurate fiber orientation extraction from the DTI. In this study, we use the FMRIB Software Library (FSL) to determine cardiac fiber orientations in diffusion weighted images. For the registration between ultrasound and MRI volumes, we achieved an average Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 81.6+/-2.1%. For the estimation of fiber orientations from the proposed method, we achieved an acute angle error (AAE) of 22.7+/-3.1° as compared to the direct measurements from DTI. This work provides a new approach to generate cardiac fiber orientation that may be used for many cardiac applications.

  18. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 1 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Morever, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be of major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  19. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 2 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Moreover, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be a major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  20. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 2. Treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation technologies and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Dole, L.R.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.; Oyen, L.C.; Robinson, S.M.; Rodgers, B.R.; Tucker, R.F. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 2 discusses the definition, forms, and sources of LLRW; regulatory constraints affecting treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal; current technologies used for treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal; and the development of a matrix relating treatment technology to the LLRW stream as an aid for choosing methods for treating the waste. Detailed discussions are presented for most LLRW treatment methods, such as aqueous processes (e.g., filtration, ion exchange); dewatering (e.g., evaporation, centrifugation); sorting/segregation; mechanical treatment (e.g., shredding, baling, compaction); thermal processes (e.g., incineration, vitrification); solidification (e.g., cement, asphalt); and biological treatment.

  1. Technology transfer for the US Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, C.L.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1988-10-01

    This document contains the appendices to Technology Transfer Recommendations for the US Department of Energy's Storage Program (PNL-6484, Vol. 1). These appendices are a list of projects, publications, and presentations connected with the Energy Storage (STOR) program. In Volume 1, the technology transfer activities of the STOR program are examined and mechanisms for increasing the effectiveness of those activities are recommended.

  2. GNSS TECHNOLOGY DETERMINATION OF FLYING MACHINE GUIDANCE PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Konin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 An algorithm of calculating the guidance parameters for GNSS aircraft landing technology was considered. The simulation and evaluation of calculation parameters error were performed as well

  3. Preoperative determination of prostate cancer tumor volume: analysis through biopsy fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Antunes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Preoperative determination of prostate cancer (PCa tumor volume (TV is still a big challenge. We have assessed variables obtained in prostatic biopsy aiming at determining which is the best method to predict the TV in radical prostatectomy (RP specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biopsy findings of 162 men with PCa submitted to radical prostatectomy were revised. Preoperative characteristics, such as PSA, the percentage of positive fragments (PPF, the total percentage of cancer in the biopsy (TPC, the maximum percentage of cancer in a fragment (MPC, the presence of perineural invasion (PNI and the Gleason score were correlated with postoperative surgical findings through an univariate analysis of a linear regression model. RESULTS: The TV correlated significantly to the PPF, TPC, MPC, PSA and to the presence of PNI (p < 0.001. However, the Pearson correlation analysis test showed an R2 of only 24%, 12%, 17% and 9% for the PPF, TPC, MPC, and PSA respectively. The combination of the PPF with the PSA and the PNI analysis showed to be a better model to predict the TV (R2 of 32.3%. The TV could be determined through the formula: Volume = 1.108 + 0.203 x PSA + 0.066 x PPF + 2.193 x PNI. CONCLUSIONS: The PPF seems to be better than the TPC and the MPC to predict the TV in the surgical specimen. Due to the weak correlation between those variables and the TV, the PSA and the presence of PNI should be used together.

  4. What determines the rate of growth and technological change?

    OpenAIRE

    ROMER, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    There is substantial research about cross section and time series correlations between economic growth and various economic, social, demographic and political variables. After analyzing these correlations, the paper makes the following conclusions. Exogenous increases do not seem to cause increases in the rate of technological change, but instead seem to be associated with lower rates of return to capital. Increased openness to international trade speeds up growth and technological change as ...

  5. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-14

    has increased signifi- cantly in recent years (Figure S1 in File S1). Moreover, patent citations (a proxy for patent impact or quality [13,20]) have...however, prove relevant to the development of other technologies and to general theories of technological innovation. Materials and Methods Patent Data... bibliometric advantages of using keyword searches rather than patent codes or classes, including complete- ness, accuracy, and consistency across patent

  6. Technology Estimating: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Reeves, John D.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Greenberg, Marc; Comstock, Doug; Olds, John R.; Wallace, Jon; DePasquale, Dominic; Schaffer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA is investing in new technologies that include 14 primary technology roadmap areas, and aeronautics. Understanding the cost for research and development of these technologies and the time it takes to increase the maturity of the technology is important to the support of the ongoing and future NASA missions. Overall, technology estimating may help provide guidance to technology investment strategies to help improve evaluation of technology affordability, and aid in decision support. The research provides a summary of the framework development of a Technology Estimating process where four technology roadmap areas were selected to be studied. The framework includes definition of terms, discussion for narrowing the focus from 14 NASA Technology Roadmap areas to four, and further refinement to include technologies, TRL range of 2 to 6. Included in this paper is a discussion to address the evaluation of 20 unique technology parameters that were initially identified, evaluated and then subsequently reduced for use in characterizing these technologies. A discussion of data acquisition effort and criteria established for data quality are provided. The findings obtained during the research included gaps identified, and a description of a spreadsheet-based estimating tool initiated as a part of the Technology Estimating process.

  7. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  8. A System Analysis for Determining Alternative Technological Issues for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrale, V. J.; Small, J.

    1967-01-01

    A systems engineering methodology is provided, by which future technological ventures may be examined utilizing particular national, corporate, or individual value judgments. Three matrix analyses are presented. The first matrix is concerned with the effect of technology on population increase, war, poverty, health, resources, and prejudice. The second matrix explores an analytical technique for determining the relative importance of different areas of technology. The third matrix explores how an individual or corporate entity may determine how its capability may be used for future technological opportunities. No conclusions are presented since primary effort has been placed on the methodology of determining future technological issues.

  9. Determinants of the pace of global innovation in energy technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís M A Bettencourt

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D. Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970-2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time.

  10. Determination of 137Cs in large volume seawater using Cu-hexacyanoferrate cartridge filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visetpotjanakit, S.; Tumnoi, Y.

    2017-06-01

    A simple method to determine 137Cs in seawater has been developed based on the use of a Cu-hexacyanoferrate scavenger. The Cu-hexacyanoferrate supported on cotton wound cartridge filter was used to absorb 137Cs from seawater by passing large volumes over the cartridge filters with flowrate of 240 L hr-1. Results from the Cu-hexacyanoferrate method were proved acceptable for accuracy with bias below ± 20 % i.e. - 9.16 to + 18.55 % when compared with the traditional ammonium molybdophosphate pre-concentration method. This developed method is cost-effective and less time consuming. In addition it can be easily performed at sampling fields.

  11. Quantitative Determination of Technological Improvement from Patent Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The results in this paper establish that information contained in patents in a technological domain is strongly correlated with the rate of technological progress in that domain. The importance of patents in a domain, the recency of patents in a domain and the immediacy of patents in a domain are all strongly correlated with increases in the rate of performance improvement in the domain of interest. A patent metric that combines both importance and immediacy is not only highly correlated (r = 0.76, p = 2.6*10-6) with the performance improvement rate but the correlation is also very robust to domain selection and appears to have good predictive power for more than ten years into the future. Linear regressions with all three causal concepts indicate realistic value in practical use to estimate the important performance improvement rate of a technological domain. PMID:25874447

  12. Using CO to Determine Inhaled Contaminant Volumes and Blower Effectiveness in Several Types of Respirators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur T. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine how much contaminant could be expected to be inhaled when overbreathing several different types of respirators. These included several tight-fitting and loose-fitting powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs and one air-purifying respirator (APR. CO2 was used as a tracer gas in the ambient air, and several loose-and tight-fitting respirators were tested on the head form of a breathing machine. CO2 concentration in the exhaled breath was monitored as well as CO2 concentration in the ambient air. This concentration ratio was able to give a measurement of protection factor, not for the respirator necessarily, but for the wearer. Flow rates in the filter/blower inlet and breathing machine outlet were also monitored, so blower effectiveness (defined as the blower contribution to inhaled air could also be determined. Wearer protection factors were found to range from 1.1 for the Racal AirMate loose-fitting PAPR to infinity for the 3M Hood, 3M Breath-Easy PAPR, and SE 400 breath-responsive PAPR. Inhaled contaminant volumes depended on tidal volume but ranged from 2.02 L to 0 L for the same respirators, respectively. Blower effectiveness was about 1.0 for tight-fitting APRs, 0.18 for the Racal, and greater than 1.0 for two of the loose-fitting PAPRs. With blower effectiveness greater than 1.0, some blower flow during the exhalation phase contributes to the subsequent inhalation. Results from this experiment point to different ways to measure respirator efficacy.

  13. Using CO(2) to determine inhaled contaminant volumes and blower effectiveness in several types of respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arthur T; Koh, Frank C; Scott, William H; Rehak, Timothy E

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine how much contaminant could be expected to be inhaled when overbreathing several different types of respirators. These included several tight-fitting and loose-fitting powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and one air-purifying respirator (APR). CO(2) was used as a tracer gas in the ambient air, and several loose-and tight-fitting respirators were tested on the head form of a breathing machine. CO(2) concentration in the exhaled breath was monitored as well as CO(2) concentration in the ambient air. This concentration ratio was able to give a measurement of protection factor, not for the respirator necessarily, but for the wearer. Flow rates in the filter/blower inlet and breathing machine outlet were also monitored, so blower effectiveness (defined as the blower contribution to inhaled air) could also be determined. Wearer protection factors were found to range from 1.1 for the Racal AirMate loose-fitting PAPR to infinity for the 3M Hood, 3M Breath-Easy PAPR, and SE 400 breath-responsive PAPR. Inhaled contaminant volumes depended on tidal volume but ranged from 2.02  L to 0  L for the same respirators, respectively. Blower effectiveness was about 1.0 for tight-fitting APRs, 0.18 for the Racal, and greater than 1.0 for two of the loose-fitting PAPRs. With blower effectiveness greater than 1.0, some blower flow during the exhalation phase contributes to the subsequent inhalation. Results from this experiment point to different ways to measure respirator efficacy.

  14. Using CO2 to Determine Inhaled Contaminant Volumes and Blower Effectiveness in Several Types of Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arthur T.; Koh, Frank C.; Scott, William H.; Rehak, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine how much contaminant could be expected to be inhaled when overbreathing several different types of respirators. These included several tight-fitting and loose-fitting powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and one air-purifying respirator (APR). CO2 was used as a tracer gas in the ambient air, and several loose-and tight-fitting respirators were tested on the head form of a breathing machine. CO2 concentration in the exhaled breath was monitored as well as CO2 concentration in the ambient air. This concentration ratio was able to give a measurement of protection factor, not for the respirator necessarily, but for the wearer. Flow rates in the filter/blower inlet and breathing machine outlet were also monitored, so blower effectiveness (defined as the blower contribution to inhaled air) could also be determined. Wearer protection factors were found to range from 1.1 for the Racal AirMate loose-fitting PAPR to infinity for the 3M Hood, 3M Breath-Easy PAPR, and SE 400 breath-responsive PAPR. Inhaled contaminant volumes depended on tidal volume but ranged from 2.02 L to 0 L for the same respirators, respectively. Blower effectiveness was about 1.0 for tight-fitting APRs, 0.18 for the Racal, and greater than 1.0 for two of the loose-fitting PAPRs. With blower effectiveness greater than 1.0, some blower flow during the exhalation phase contributes to the subsequent inhalation. Results from this experiment point to different ways to measure respirator efficacy. PMID:21792358

  15. Determination of technological risk during maintenance work on oil tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Калиновський, Андрій Якович; Липовий, Володимир Олександрович; Титаренко, Андрій Вікторович

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the improvement of environmental safety at hazardous objects and surrounding areas with the presence of technological processes related to repair of oil tanks by controlling technological risks defined taking into account the influence of factors on their values.The aims of the study were man-made risks and extent of environment pollution as a result of accidents caused by process or the operation of the repair of oil tanks.In theoretical studies it was used complex ...

  16. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-01

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  17. 30 CFR 254.47 - Determining the volume of oil of your worst case discharge scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling operations, the size of your worst case discharge scenario is the daily volume possible from an... break. You must calculate this volume as follows: (1) Add the pipeline system leak detection time to...

  18. Debating Digital Childhoods: Questions Concerning Technologies, Economies and Determinisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The learning child, the child that is the object of interest through modernity and into mutated modernity, in the knowledge economy, is a digital age identity of great interest. Talk about childhood and the digital age invokes a range of questions about what is happening at this time and with these technologies and that creates more or less of a…

  19. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bettencourt, Luis M A; Kaur, Jasleen

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to low investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970-2009 which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model rev...

  20. Determination of the efficiency of a detector in gamma spectrometry of large-volume samples

    CERN Document Server

    Tertyshnik, E G

    2012-01-01

    The experimental - calculated method is proposed to determine the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE) of detectors {\\epsilon}(E) in case a measurement of the large-volume samples. Water is used as standard absorber in which the linear attenuation coefficients for photons {\\mu}0 (E) is well known. The value {\\mu} (E) in sample material (matrix of the sample) is determined experimentally by means of spectrometer. The formulas are given for calculation of the ratio {\\epsilon}(E)/ {\\epsilon}0(E), where {\\epsilon}0(E) is FEPE of the detector for photons those are arising in the container filled with water (it is found by adding in the container of the Reference radioactive solutions). To prove the validity of the method ethanol (density 0,8 g/cm3) and water solutions of salts (density 1,2 and 1,5 g/cm3) were used for simulation of the samples with different attenuation coefficients. Standard deviation between experimental and calculated efficiencies has been about 5 %.

  1. Technologies for Self-Determination for Youth with Developmental Disabilities. Technologies for Voice: A Critical Issues Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouge, James R.; Kelly, Mary L.; Roberts, Kelly D.; Leake, David W.; Stodden, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on "technologies for voice" that are related to the self-determination of youth with developmental disabilities. The authors describe a self-determination model that values family-focused, community-referenced pedagogies employing "new media" to give voice to youth and their families. In line with the adage that a picture is…

  2. Role of measurement in determining science and technology policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, John R.; Jang, Show-Ling

    1992-05-01

    The United States clearly needs an explicit policy toward research and development for high technology products and manufacturing processes. Gomory & Schmitt (1988) and Cohen & Zysman (1988) present qualitative arguments that this is so. Our research into the technology of semiconductors, computers, and telecommunication equipment (Norsworthy and Jang, 1992) provides concrete quantitative evidence as well. The costs of research and development and early manufacturing experience coupled with the nearly costless diffusion of the results of these activities, create special economic circumstances in most high technology industries. These circumstances are more complex than economies of scale, but equally powerful in their implications for market behavior. Like economies of scale, these circumstances will favor those organizations and countries whose competitive strategies acknowledge their existence, and most successfully exploit their effects. They involve aspects not only of scale economies, but of public goods, learning curves, the time value of information, and the after tax cost of capital. In this essay we attempt to describe the phenomena and illustrate them by reference to the semiconductor and related industries. It is generally understood that the benefits of research are difficult to capture by the company or industry that undertakes the research; the more basic the research, the more difficult it will generally be for the sponsoring agency to capture its benefits. Therefore, profit-seeking enterprises under conditions of competition will generally undertake less research than would be optimal from the point of view of society as a whole. A number of studies, confirm this general proposition (Griliches, 1987; Mansfield et al., 1982). Their estimates of the overall rate of return to R&D to the whole society is far above the return to private investment in general. These facts have been recognized in federal government policies that encourage research through

  3. Determinants of Indices of Cerebral Volume in Former Very Premature Infants at Term Equivalent Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Maelle

    2017-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term equivalent age (TEA) is suggested to be a reliable tool to predict the outcome of very premature infants. The objective of this study was to determine simple reproducible MRI indices, in premature infants and to analyze their neonatal determinants at TEA. A cohort of infants born before 32 weeks gestational age (GA) underwent a MRI at TEA in our center. Two axial images (T2 weighted), were chosen to realize nine measures. We defined 4 linear indices (MAfhlv: thickness of lateral ventricle; CSI: cortex-skull index; VCI: ventricular-cortex index; BOI: bi occipital index) and 1 surface index (VS.A: volume slice area). Perinatal data were recorded. Sixty-nine infants had a GA (median (interquartile range)) of 30.0 weeks GA (27.0; 30.0) and a birth weight of 1240 grams (986; 1477). MRI was done at 41.0 (40.0; 42.0) weeks post menstrual age (PMA). The inter-investigator reproducibility was good. Twenty one MRI (30.5%) were quoted abnormal. We observed an association with retinopathy of prematurity (OR [95CI] = 4.205 [1.231–14.368]; p = 0.017), surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (OR = 4.688 [1.01–21.89]; p = 0.036), early onset infection (OR = 4.688 [1.004–21.889]; p = 0.036) and neonatal treatment by cefotaxime (OR = 3.222 [1.093–9.497]; p = 0.03). There was a difference for VCI between normal and abnormal MRI (0.412 (0.388; 0.429) vs. 0.432 (0.418; 0.449); p = 0,019); BOI was higher when fossa posterior lesions were observed; VS.A seems to be the best surrogate for cerebral volume, 80% of VS.As’ variance being explained by a multiple linear regression model including 7 variables (head circumference at birth and at TEA, PMA, dopamine, ibuprofen treatment, blood and platelets transfusions). These indices, easily and rapidly achievable, seem to be useful but need to be validated in a large population to allow generalization for diagnosis and follow-up of former premature infants. PMID:28125676

  4. Determining Technological Innovation and Competitiveness: A Cross Organizational Analysis of the Malaysian Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlus Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the determinants of technological innovation in the Malaysian manufacturing industry. Its main purpose is to identify a set of management- related variables characterizing Malaysian innovative firms. Moreover, the study aimed to test whether the set of determinant differs for firms with different technological trajectories. A sample of 204 Malaysian firms was used for the investigation, with one respondent from each firm. The questionnaire measured the technological innovation, as well as 5 main potential determinants of innovation adopted from literature. Statistical analysis used, including bivariate correlation and multivariate regression, in identifying association between the technological innovation and the determining variables. The results of the analysis lead the researcher to the model of 5 important determining factors of technological innovation. The important factors were intensity of R&D, trvhnoogical trajectories,intensity of marketing, engineers, scientist and managers with experience locally and technical competency of personnel,. The analysis of technological trajectories confirmed the hypotheses that set of important determinants of innovation as well as the extent of technological innovation differs for firms in different innovation processes.Keywords: Technologies trajectories, technological innovation, intensity of R&D.

  5. Seismic design technology for Breeder Reactor structures. Volume 3: special topics in reactor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D.P. (ed)

    1983-04-01

    This volume is divided into six chapters: analysis techniques, equivalent damping values, probabilistic design factors, design verifications, equivalent response cycles for fatigue analysis, and seismic isolation. (JDB)

  6. Volume measurements of 28Si-enriched spheres using an improved optical interferometer for the determination of the Avogadro constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Naoki; Azuma, Yasushi; Inaba, Hajime; Fujii, Kenichi

    2017-04-01

    For the determination of the Avogadro constant by the x-ray crystal density method, an accurate volume measurement of 1 kg Si spheres is of primary importance. For this purpose, an optical interferometer was improved and used to measure the volumes of two 1 kg silicon spheres which were manufactured from a silicon crystal highly enriched in 28Si. The apparent volumes of the spheres, which do not take into account the influence of the surface layers on the volume measurement by interferometry, were determined with a relative standard uncertainty of as small as 2.0  ×  10‑8. The surface of the spheres was characterized by using an improved spectroscopic ellipsometer. By considering the influence of the surface layers, the core volumes of the spheres, which exclude the surface layers, were determined. These results were used for the determination of the Avogadro constant in 2015 as a framework organized by the International Avogadro Coordination project. This paper provides details on the measurements, the improvements made to the apparatus, the data analysis and the uncertainty evaluation.

  7. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 10: Space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Space Technology group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The elements of the space technology program are: (1) long duration exposure facility, (2) advanced technology laboratory, (3) physics and chemistry laboratory, (4) contamination experiments, and (5) laser information/data transmission technology. The space technology mission model is presented in tabular form. The proposed experiments to be conducted by each test facility are described. Recommended approaches for user community interfacing are included.

  8. Annual Proceedings of Selected Papers on the Practice of Educational Communications and Technology Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (33rd, Anaheim, California, 2010). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    For the thirty-third year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. This is Volume #2 of the 33rd "Annual Proceedings of Selected Papers on the Practice of Educational Communications and Technology." This volume includes…

  9. Determination of protein and solvent volumes in protein crystals from contrast variation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, J. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    By varying the relative values of protein and solvent scattering densities in a crystal, it is possible to obtain information on the shape and dimensions of protein molecular envelopes. Neutron diffraction methods are ideally suited to these contrast variation experiments because H/D exchange leads to large differential changes in the protein and solvent scattering densities and is structurally non-perturbing. Low resolution structure factors have been measured from cubic insulin crystals with differing H/D contents. Structure factors calculated from a simple binary density model, in which uniform scattering densities represent the protein and solvent volumes in the crystals, were compared with these data. The contrast variation differences in the sets of measured structure factors were found to be accurately fitted by this simple model. Trial applications to two problems in crystal structure determination illustrate how this fact may be exploited. (1) A translation function that employs contrast variation data gave a sharp minimum within 1-9{Angstrom} of the correctly positioned insulin molecule and is relatively insensitive to errors in the atomic model. (2) An ab initio phasing method for the contrast variation data, based on analyzing histograms of the density distributions in trial maps, was found to recover the correct molecular envelope.

  10. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  11. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste area groups 1--7 and 10 Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Meservey, R.H.; Little, M.; Ferguson, J.S.; Gilmore, M.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Technology Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternatives for environmental restoration projects at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The diagram (three volumes) documents suggested solutions to the characterization, retrieval, and treatment phases of cleanup activities at contaminated sites within 8 of the laboratory`s 10 waste area groups. Contaminated sites at the laboratory`s Naval Reactor Facility and Argonne National Laboratory-West are not included in this diagram.

  12. In vitro and in vivo accuracy of sonographic gallbladder volume determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I B; Monrad, H; Grønvall, S;

    1993-01-01

    being more precise. The absolute deviation was independent of the size of the volume and of the shape of the gallbladder. In vivo Simpson's method was validated on 11 patients with cholecystitis. The gallbladder volumes (mean 65 mL; Range 20 mL to 130 mL) measured by sonography differed from...

  13. Reproductive Technologies and the Legal Determination of Fatherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Sally

    2005-01-01

    In Re D is the most recent in a line of cases to have raised problems with the determination of legal fatherhood under s.28(3) of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act (1990). The judgment is interesting in particular as a demonstration of the growing currency of the idea that a child has a right to ‘genetic truth’ and for further evidencing a ‘fragmentation of fatherhood’.

  14. Renewable energy technologies in the Maldives - determining the potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Alphen, Klaas; Hekkert, Marko P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80115, NL 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands); van Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-10-15

    The Maldives is one of the most vulnerable countries to the projected impacts of climate change, due to a combination of the small sizes of the islands and their low height above sea level. Like other small island developing states, the Maldives depends overwhelmingly on petroleum imports for their electricity production, which creates serious economic and financial difficulties. The Government of Maldives is therefore committed to promote sustainable energy and has been actively pursuing several inter-related initiatives to overcome the existing barriers to the utilization of renewable energy technologies. To assist this, the quantification and evaluation of the potentials of available solar and wind resources in the country for electricity applications has been performed. The hybrid system design tool HOMER has been used to create optimal renewable energy (RE) system designs. In order to evaluate these different RE alternatives a multi-criteria analysis is performed using a number of criteria that are likely to be decisive in implementation decisions. The evaluation shows that fully RE system configurations are not financially viable in the Maldives while the RE-diesel hybrid systems could bring down the price of electricity with 5-10 cent/kWh in smaller outer islands. Assuming that these latter systems with a high probability of adoption are implemented, the results show that 10% of the electricity in the Maldives could be supplied by RE based systems in a cost effective way. (author)

  15. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AS A DETERMINANT OF SMES COLLABORATION AND INNOVATIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Cvetanovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of small and medium-sized enterprise (SMEs development around the world show that the most significant factor for increasing their numbers and improving business success is the free enterprise, as exogenous, and innovation as an endogenous variable. At the same time, the dominant view in economic theory is that innovation is a key generator of changes for which the SMEs can be considered as a kind of metaphors for a successful business over the last twenty years in a number of economies. Arguing that cooperation between SMEs is increasingly common generic strategy of their development, the paper first explains the importance of collaboration to increase innovation and competitiveness, and then provides possible models using information technology such as Workflow Management Systems (WfMS, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA and Service-Oriented Cloud Computing Architecture (SOCCA to support the collaboration of these business entities. Solutions provided are aimed at improving the innovativeness of SMEs and fully follow the requirements of the so-called fifth-generation innovation process whose key attributes are integration and flexibility.

  16. Two-dimensional echocardiographic determination of right atrial emptying volume: a noninvasive index in quantifying the degree of tricuspid regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Ren, J F; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S; Kimbiris, D; Kalman, P

    1983-09-01

    Contrast echocardiography and inferior vena cava ultrasonography are useful techniques in diagnosing tricuspid regurgitation (TR) but are not helpful in estimating the severity. Using a computerized light-pen method for tracing the right atrial (RA) border during systole and diastole in the apical 4-chamber view, single-plane volume determinations were calculated in 10 normal subjects (Group I), 18 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and no TR (Group II), 14 patients with mitral stenosis and mild TR (Group IIIa), and 8 patients with mitral stenosis and severe TR (Group IIIb). TR was quantitated as absent, mild or severe by contrast right ventriculography. The RA end-systolic volume was 36.4 +/- 13.1 ml in Group I patients, 59.1 +/- 16.8 ml in Group II patients, 76.9 +/- 55.4 ml in Group IIIa patients, and 154.6 +/- 57.3 ml in Group IIIb patients (all Groups versus Group I, p less than 0.001). The mean RA emptying volume, which equals RA end-systolic volume--RA end-diastolic volume, was 15.3 +/- 5.0 for Group I, 17.7 +/- 3.0 for Group II, 30.4 +/- 8.0 for Group IIIa, and 71.6 +/- 25.4 for Group IIIb. All 8 patients with severe TR but none of the 14 patients with mild TR had an RA emptying volume greater than 40 ml (p less than 0.001). In addition, all 28 patients in Groups I and II but only 4 of 14 patients in Group III had an RA emptying volume less than 26 ml (p less than 0.01). The mean RA pressure measured at cardiac catheterization correlated with RA emptying volume (r = 0.71, p less than 0.001). Thus, RA emptying volume is useful for separating severe TR from mild TR in patients with mitral stenosis.

  17. Determining the quality of water in environmental measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfig, K.W.; Kramp, E.

    1983-11-01

    The present high degree of pollution of our water resources due to environmental effects endangers the natural cleaning processes. With the growing demand for water from domestic, industrial and other users, certain minimum requirements must be postulated for the quality of water returned to the natural circuit. This requires continuous control and monitoring of the quality of water in many industrial and community areas, such as water treatment plants, for example. Measuring processes and equipment are used to an increasing degree here. This article reports on processes for determining important parameters for the quality of water. Processes with and without treatment of samples are mentioned.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM CASE STUDIES: DEMONSTRATING PROGRAM OUTCOMES, VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This bookle...

  19. Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Dual-Use Space Technology Transfer Conference and Exhibition held at the Johnson Space Center February 1-3, 1994. Possible technology transfers covered during the conference were in the areas of information access; innovative microwave and optical applications; materials and structures; marketing and barriers; intelligent systems; human factors and habitation; communications and data systems; business process and technology transfer; software engineering; biotechnology and advanced bioinstrumentation; communications signal processing and analysis; new ways of doing business; medical care; applications derived from control center data systems; human performance evaluation; technology transfer methods; mathematics, modeling, and simulation; propulsion; software analysis and decision tools systems/processes in human support technology; networks, control centers, and distributed systems; power; rapid development perception and vision technologies; integrated vehicle health management; automation technologies; advanced avionics; ans robotics technologies. More than 77 papers, 20 presentations, and 20 exhibits covering various disciplines were presented b experts from NASA, universities, and industry.

  20. Using thermal balance model to determine optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed in a laboratory-scale composting reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjiang; Pang, Li; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Yuansheng; Zhou, Kexun; Luo, Fei

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive model of thermal balance and degradation kinetics was developed to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material. Biological heat production and five channels of heat loss were considered in the thermal balance model for a representative reactor. Degradation kinetics was developed to make the model applicable to different types of substrates. Simulation of the model showed that the internal energy accumulation of compost was the significant heat loss channel, following by heat loss through reactor wall, and latent heat of water evaporation. Lower proportion of heat loss occurred through the reactor wall when the reactor volume was larger. Insulating materials with low densities and low conductive coefficients were more desirable for building small reactor systems. Model developed could be used to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed before the fabrication of a lab-scale composting system.

  1. Sonographic Determination of Residual Bladder Volume after Application of Different Cystotomy Closure Techniques in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IU Khan1*, MA Khan2, SG Bokhari2, A Safdar2, M Shoaib1, H Akbar2, S Aslam2, MA Khan2 and A Noor2

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Residual urine volume is measured to diagnose various neurogenic and obstructive disorders of the urinary bladder. However, it is hypothesized that cystotomy closure using inverting patterns decreases intraluminal diameter of urinary bladder which consequently reduce residual bladder volume. This study aimed to investigate the ideal suturing style for cystotomy incision closure which would exert the least effect on residual bladder volume. The effect of various suturing styles on residual bladder volume was studied sonographically. Residual Bladder Volume (RBV was calculated by the formula, i.e. RBV=L×W× (DL+DT/2×0.625, where L=longitudinal diameter, W=transverse diameter, DL= depth at longitudinal diameter, DT=depth at transverse diameter. 24 healthy mongrel dogs were selected and randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D (n=6. In groups A, B and C, the cystotomy incision was subsequently closed by two-layered appositional suturing pattern, two-layered inverting pattern and three layers (using a combination of appositional and inverting styles, respectively. Group-D remained as sham-operated Control. The results clearly showed that the three-layered closure technique using a combination of appositional and inverting patterns (Group-C, significantly reduced the bladder volume (P<0.01. Two-layered inverting patterns (Group B, also reduced the bladder volume but not up to a significant level, whereas, the appositional suturing technique (group-A exerted the least effect on residual bladder volume. Conclusively, it was inferred that a two-layered appositional suturing pattern should be preferred for closure of cystotomy incision to avoid significant changes in residual bladder volume.

  2. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of rufinamide in low volume plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáll, Zsolt; Vancea, Szende; Dogaru, Maria T; Szilágyi, Tibor

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of rufinamide in plasma was achieved using a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase column (Zorbax SB-C18 100mm×3mm, 3.5μm) under isocratic conditions. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of water containing 0.1% formic acid and methanol (50:50, v/v). The mass spectrometric detection of the analyte was in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) using an electrospray positive ionization (ESI positive). The monitored ions were 127m/z derived from 239m/z rufinamide and 108m/z derived from 251m/z the internal standard (lacosamide). Protein precipitation with methanol was applied for sample preparation using only 50μl aliquots. The concentration range was 40-2000ng/ml for rufinamide in plasma. The limit of detection was 1.25ng/ml and the lower limit of quantification was established at 5ng/ml rufinamide concentration. Selectivity and matrix effect was verified using individual human, rat and rabbit plasma samples. Short-term, post-preparative and freeze-thaw stability was also investigated. The proposed method provides accuracy, precision and high-throughput (short runtime 4.5min) for quantitative determination of rufinamide in plasma. This is the first reported liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for analysis of rufinamide from low volume plasma samples. The LC-MS/MS method was validated according to the current official guidelines and can be applied to accurately measure rufinamide level of large number of plasma samples from clinical studies or therapeutic drug monitoring.

  3. Limb volume measurement: from the past methods to optoelectronic technologies, bioimpedance analysis and laser based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavezzi, A; Schingale, F; Elio, C

    2010-10-01

    Accurate measurement of limb volume is considered crucial to lymphedema management. Various non-invasive methods may be used and have been validated in recent years, though suboptimal standardisation has been highlighted in different publications.

  4. Does external technology acquisition determine export performance? Evidence from Chinese manufacturing firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Cao, Wei; Zhou, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Although technology profile has been one of the key determinants of firms’ export performance in the international business literature, most research has focused on only the role of internal technology efforts rather than the role of external technology. This study thus aims to extend our...... understanding of the determinants of export performance by examining the impact of the inter-organizational dimension of innovation strategy to export performance, which has been ignored in the prevailing “strategy tripod” perspective of exporting research. This study is based on a sample of 141 Chinese...... indigenous manufacturing firms that engaged in inward technology licensing between 2000 and 2003. The empirical results indicate that external technology acquisitions positively influence Chinese firms’ export performance. Moreover the exporting performance of using external technology varies depending...

  5. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  6. Method for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria. Volume II. Methodological Tools: Computer Analysis, Data Collection Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-25

    This volume presents (1) Methods for computer and hand analysis of numerical language performance data (includes examples) (2) samples of interview, observation, and survey instruments used in collecting language data. (Author)

  7. The Emergence of the Global Fintech Market: Economic and Technological Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    HADDAD, Christian; Hornuf, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the economic and technological determinants inducing entrepreneurs to establish ventures with the purpose of reinventing financial technology (fintech). We find that countries witness more fintech startup formations when the latest technology is readily available and people have more mobile telephone subscriptions. Furthermore, the available labor force has a positive impact on the development of this new market segment. Finally, the more sound the financial system, the lower t...

  8. The emergence of the global fintech market: Economic and technological determinants

    OpenAIRE

    HADDAD, Christian; Hornuf, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the economic and technological determinants inducing entrepreneurs to establish ventures with the purpose of reinventing financial technology (fintech). We find that countries witness more fintech startup formations when the latest technology is readily available, capital markets are well-developed, and people have more mobile telephone subscriptions. Furthermore, the available labor force has a positive impact on the development of this new market segment. Finally, the more so...

  9. The emergence of the global fintech market: Economic and technological determinants

    OpenAIRE

    HADDAD, Christian; Hornuf, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the economic and technological determinants inducing entrepreneurs to establish ventures with the purpose of reinventing financial technology (fintech). We find that countries witness more fintech startup formations when the latest technology is readily available and people have more mobile telephone subscriptions. Furthermore, the available labor force has a positive impact on the development of this new market segment. Finally, the more sound the financial system, the lower t...

  10. Distribution and determinants of choroidal thickness and volume using automated segmentation software in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Preeti; Jing, Tian; Marziliano, Pina; Cheung, Carol Y; Baskaran, Mani; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2015-02-01

    To objectively quantify choroidal thickness and choroidal volume using fully automated choroidal segmentation software applied to images obtained from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI SD OCT) in a population-based study; and evaluate the ocular and systemic determinants of choroidal thickness and choroidal volume. Prospective cross-sectional study. Participants ranging in age from 45 to 85 years were recruited from the Singapore Malay Eye Study-2 (SiMES-2), a follow-up population-based study. All participants (n = 540) underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination, including EDI SD OCT for measurements of thickness and volume of the choroid. The intrasession repeatability of choroidal thickness at 5 measured horizontal locations and macular choroidal volume using automated choroidal segmentation software was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.97-0.99). Choroid was significantly thicker under the fovea (242.28 ± 97.58 μm), followed by 3 mm temporal (207.65 ± 80.98 μm), and was thinnest at 3 mm nasal (142.44 ± 79.19 μm) location. The mean choroidal volume at central macular region (within a circle of 1 mm diameter) was 0.185 ± 0.69 mm(3). Among the range of ocular and systemic factors studied, age, sex, and axial length were the only significant predictors of choroidal thickness and choroidal volume (all P choroidal segmentation software, we provide fast, reliable, and objective measurements of choroidal thickness and volume in a population-based sample. Male sex, younger age, and shorter axial length are the factors independently associated with thicker choroid and larger choroidal volume. These factors should be taken into consideration when interpreting EDI SD OCT-based choroidal thickness measurements in clinics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Technological developments for strontium-90 determination using AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satou, Yukihiko, E-mail: yukihiko@ied.tsukuba.ac.jp [Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Group, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Shibayama, Nao; Izumi, Daiki [Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Group, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kinoshita, Norikazu [Institute of Technology, Shimizu Corporation, 3-4-17 Etchujima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8530 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is one of method used for {sup 90}Sr determination. It would enable rapid {sup 90}Sr measurements from environmental samples such as water, soil, and milk. However, routine analysis of {sup 90}Sr using AMS has not yet been achieved because of difficulties associated with isobaric separation and production of intense negative ion beams characterized by currents from hundreds of nanoamperes to several microamperes. We have developed a rapid procedure for preparing samples with optimum compositions for use with AMS, which enables production of intense Sr beam currents from an ion source. Samples of SrF{sub 2} were prepared from a standard Sr solution and agricultural soil. The time required to prepare a SrF{sub 2} sample from a soil sample was 10 h. Negative {sup 88}SrF{sub 3}{sup −} ions were successfully extracted at 500 nA from mixed samples of SrF{sub 2} and PbF{sub 2}. In the present work, negative ions of {sup 90}Zr, included as an impurity, were accelerated with a tandem accelerator operated at a terminal voltage of 5 MV. Ions characterized by a charge state of 6+ were channeled into a gas counter. An atomic ratio of {sup 90}Zr/{sup 88}Sr of 3 × 10{sup −8} was estimated for the soil sample. No signal was detected from the assay of PbF{sub 2}, which was pressed in an aluminum cathode, for a mass number of 90. PbF{sub 2} revealed good performance in the production of negative SrF{sub 3}{sup −} molecular ion beams and detection of {sup 90}Sr with a gas counter.

  12. Technological developments for strontium-90 determination using AMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Shibayama, Nao; Izumi, Daiki; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is one of method used for 90Sr determination. It would enable rapid 90Sr measurements from environmental samples such as water, soil, and milk. However, routine analysis of 90Sr using AMS has not yet been achieved because of difficulties associated with isobaric separation and production of intense negative ion beams characterized by currents from hundreds of nanoamperes to several microamperes. We have developed a rapid procedure for preparing samples with optimum compositions for use with AMS, which enables production of intense Sr beam currents from an ion source. Samples of SrF2 were prepared from a standard Sr solution and agricultural soil. The time required to prepare a SrF2 sample from a soil sample was 10 h. Negative 88SrF3- ions were successfully extracted at 500 nA from mixed samples of SrF2 and PbF2. In the present work, negative ions of 90Zr, included as an impurity, were accelerated with a tandem accelerator operated at a terminal voltage of 5 MV. Ions characterized by a charge state of 6+ were channeled into a gas counter. An atomic ratio of 90Zr/88Sr of 3 × 10-8 was estimated for the soil sample. No signal was detected from the assay of PbF2, which was pressed in an aluminum cathode, for a mass number of 90. PbF2 revealed good performance in the production of negative SrF3- molecular ion beams and detection of 90Sr with a gas counter.

  13. Determinants of Intention to Use eLearning Based on the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnoose, Alfie Chacko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find some of the predominant factors that determine the intention of students to use eLearning in the future. Since eLearning is not just a technology acceptance decision but also involves cognition, this study extended its search beyond the normal technology acceptance variables into variables that could affect…

  14. Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 1: Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    During World War 11, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was built as part of the Manhattan Project to supply enriched uranium for weapons production. In 1945, Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) was originally used to house a uranium isotope separation process based on electromagnetic separation technology. With the startup of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site gaseous diffusion plant In 1947, Alpha-4 was placed on standby. In 1953, the uranium enrichment process was removed, and installation of equipment for the Colex process began. The Colex process--which uses a mercury solvent and lithium hydroxide as the lithium feed material-was shut down in 1962 and drained of process materials. Residual Quantities of mercury and lithium hydroxide have remained in the process equipment. Alpha-4 contains more than one-half million ft{sup 2} of floor area; 15,000 tons of process and electrical equipment; and 23,000 tons of insulation, mortar, brick, flooring, handrails, ducts, utilities, burnables, and sludge. Because much of this equipment and construction material is contaminated with elemental mercury, cleanup is necessary. The goal of the Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 is to provide a planning document that relates decontamination and decommissioning and waste management problems at the Alpha-4 building to the technologies that can be used to remediate these problems. The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 builds on the methodology transferred by the U.S. Air Force to the Environmental Management organization with DOE and draws from previous technology logic diagram-efforts: logic diagrams for Hanford, the K-25 Site, and ORNL.

  15. Statistical representative elementary volumes of porous media determined using greyscale analysis of 3D tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, S.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Sørensen, H. O.

    2017-09-01

    Digital rock physics carries the dogmatic concept of having to segment volume images for quantitative analysis but segmentation rejects huge amounts of signal information. Information that is essential for the analysis of difficult and marginally resolved samples, such as materials with very small features, is lost during segmentation. In X-ray nanotomography reconstructions of Hod chalk we observed partial volume voxels with an abundance that limits segmentation based analysis. Therefore, we investigated the suitability of greyscale analysis for establishing statistical representative elementary volumes (sREV) for the important petrophysical parameters of this type of chalk, namely porosity, specific surface area and diffusive tortuosity, by using volume images without segmenting the datasets. Instead, grey level intensities were transformed to a voxel level porosity estimate using a Gaussian mixture model. A simple model assumption was made that allowed formulating a two point correlation function for surface area estimates using Bayes' theory. The same assumption enables random walk simulations in the presence of severe partial volume effects. The established sREVs illustrate that in compacted chalk, these simulations cannot be performed in binary representations without increasing the resolution of the imaging system to a point where the spatial restrictions of the represented sample volume render the precision of the measurement unacceptable. We illustrate this by analyzing the origins of variance in the quantitative analysis of volume images, i.e. resolution dependence and intersample and intrasample variance. Although we cannot make any claims on the accuracy of the approach, eliminating the segmentation step from the analysis enables comparative studies with higher precision and repeatability.

  16. Determination of volume fractions of texture components with standard distributions in Euler space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Hyung; Rollett, A. D.; Oh, K. H.

    2004-03-01

    The intensities of texture components are modeled by Gaussian distribution functions in Euler space. The multiplicities depend on the relation between the texture component and the crystal and sample symmetry elements. Higher multiplicities are associated with higher maximum values in the orientation distribution function (ODF). The ODF generated by Gaussian function shows that the S component has a multiplicity of 1, the brass and copper components, 2, and the Goss and cube components, 4 in the cubic crystal and orthorhombic sample symmetry. Typical texture components were modeled using standard distributions in Euler space to calculate a discrete ODF, and their volume fractions were collected and verified against the volume used to generate the ODF. The volume fraction of a texture component that has a standard spherical distribution can be collected using the misorientation approach. The misorientation approach means integrating the volume-weighted intensity that is located within a specified cut-off misorientation angle from the ideal orientation. The volume fraction of a sharply peaked texture component can be collected exactly with a small cut-off value, but textures with broad distributions (large full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)) need a larger cut-off value. Larger cut-off values require Euler space to be partitioned between texture components in order to avoid overlapping regions. The misorientation approach can be used for texture's volume in Euler space in a general manner. Fiber texture is also modeled with Gaussian distribution, and it is produced by rotation of a crystal located at g 0, around a sample axis. The volume of fiber texture in wire drawing or extrusion also can be calculated easily in the unit triangle with the angle distance approach.

  17. Evaluation of spacecraft technology programs (effects on communication satellite business ventures), volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenburg, J. S.; Kaplan, M.; Fishman, J.; Hopkins, C.

    1985-01-01

    The computational procedures used in the evaluation of spacecraft technology programs that impact upon commercial communication satellite operations are discussed. Computer programs and data bases are described.

  18. Rapid determination of benzene derivatives in water samples by trace volume solvent DLLME prior to GC-FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao, Chun Peng; Wei, Chao Hai; Feng, Chun Hua [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering; Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, Guangzhou (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Protection and Eco-Remediation

    2012-05-15

    An inexpensive, simple and environmentally friendly method based on dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) for rapid determination of benzene derivatives in water samples was proposed. A significant improvement of DLLME procedure was achieved. Trace volume ethyl acetate (60 {mu}L) was exploited as dispersion solvent instead of common ones such as methanol and acetone, the volume of which was more than 0.5 mL, and the organic solvent required in DLLME was reduced to a great extent. Only 83-{mu}L organic solvent was consumed in the whole analytic process and the preconcentration procedure was less than 10 min. The advantageous approach coupled with gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector was proposed for the rapid determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers in water samples. Results showed that the proposed approach was an efficient method for rapid determination of benzene derivatives in aqueous samples. (orig.)

  19. Variation in the measurement of cranial volume and surface area using 3D laser scanning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S; Flores, Louise M; Miller, Kevin W P; Walker, Phillip L

    2010-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner models of human crania can be used for forensic facial reconstruction, and for obtaining craniometric data useful for estimating age, sex, and population affinity of unidentified human remains. However, the use of computer-generated measurements in a casework setting requires the measurement precision to be known. Here, we assess the repeatability and precision of cranial volume and surface area measurements using 3D laser scanner models created by different operators using different protocols for collecting and processing data. We report intraobserver measurement errors of 0.2% and interobserver errors of 2% of the total area and volume values, suggesting that observer-related errors do not pose major obstacles for sharing, combining, or comparing such measurements. Nevertheless, as no standardized procedure exists for area or volume measurements from 3D models, it is imperative to report the scanning and postscanning protocols employed when such measurements are conducted in a forensic setting.

  20. Idealized Shale Sorption Isotherm Measurements to Determine Pore Volume, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R.; Wang, B.; Aljama, H.; Rupp, E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One method for mitigating the impacts of anthropogenic CO2-related climate change is the sequestration of CO2 in depleted gas and oil reservoirs, including shale. The accurate characterization of the heterogeneous material properties of shale, including pore volume, surface area, pore size distributions (PSDs) and composition is needed to understand the interaction of CO2 with shale. Idealized powdered shale sorption isotherms were created by varying incremental amounts of four essential components by weight. The first two components, organic carbon and clay, have been shown to be the most important components for CO2 uptake in shales. Organic carbon was represented by kerogen isolated from a Silurian shale, and clay groups were represented by illite from the Green River shale formation. The rest of the idealized shale was composed of equal parts by weight of SiO2 to represent quartz and CaCO3 to represent carbonate components. Baltic, Eagle Ford, and Barnett shale sorption measurements were used to validate the idealized samples. The idealized and validation shale sorption isotherms were measured volumetrically using low pressure N2 (77K) and CO2 (273K) adsorbates on a Quantachrome Autosorb IQ2. Gravimetric isotherms were also produced for a subset of these samples using CO2 and CH4adsorbates under subsurface temperature and pressure conditions using a Rubotherm magnetic suspension balance. Preliminary analyses were inconclusive in validating the idealized samples. This could be a result of conflicting reports of total organic carbon (TOC) content in each sample, a problem stemming from the heterogeneity of the samples and different techniques used for measuring TOC content. The TOC content of the validation samples (Eagle Ford and Barnett) was measured by Rock-Eval pyrolysis at Weatherford Laboratories, while the TOC content in the Baltic validation samples was determined by LECO TOC. Development of a uniform process for measuring TOC in the validation samples is

  1. Design and construct an optical device to determine relative blood volume in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Tofangchiha, Shahnaz; Abouei, Vahid; Sharifian, Hani

    2014-04-01

    Occurrence of hypotension during hemodialysis in nearly 20-30% of patients, shows is the necessity of continuous monitoring the patients' blood pressure during hemodialysis. Since directly and non-invasively continuous blood pressure monitoring, is not easy, finding a parameter related to blood pressure, for indirect monitoring is of great value. Related blood volume (RBV) is one of the parameters, related to blood pressure and have a good potential to reflect the patient's hemodynamic condition. The main objective of this study was to design and construct an optical device to determine the RBV in patients undergoing hemodialysis, during the process. After initial studies in order to select a proper sensor, using the ORCAD software, an analog circuit was designed. The implementation and modification of the circuit was done by the clinical tests, using expired blood. Afterwards, for calculation the RBV, controlling the display, data storage and sending it to the computer, an ATmega16 microcontroller was used. For programing the microcontroller, CodeVision software and then Altium Designer software were used for the circuit compression, in order to design the printed circuit board. Finally, all parts of the analog and digital circuit, AC to DC converter and the LCD were embedded in a box. After finalization of the device and before testing it in a real situation, expired blood was used for final evaluation. The evaluation was done by changing the blood concentration, at the start point by adding water to it. In fact, the device can track the changes in blood concentration and display the RBV. After this evaluation, the device was tested in a clinical situation. The results showed there are no interactions between this device and the other devices used in the dialysis section and it can work properly in order to measure the RBV. Considering the hypotension and its consequences in a patient on hemodialysis, solving this problem seems necessary. One method for

  2. Technology of high-level nuclear waste disposal. Advances in the science and engineering of the management of high-level nuclear wastes. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P.L.; Breslin, J.J. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The papers in this volume cover the following subjects: waste isolation and the natural geohydrologic system; repository perturbations of the natural system; radionuclide migration through the natural system; and repository design technology. Individual papers are abstracted.

  3. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Workshop. Volume 1: Presentation material and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelott, John C. (Editor); Devol, William (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of the workshop was to identify future NASA needs for technology that will allow the management of subcritical cryogenic fluids in the low gravity space environment. Workshop participants were asked to identify those technologies which will require in-space experimentation and are thus candidates for inclusion in the flight experiment being defined at the Lewis Research Center.

  4. Focus on Technology's Impact on Postsecondary Education. Network News. Volume 23, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Orange, Hans P., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Network News" provides an overview of technology's impact on postsecondary education. Particular attention is paid to recent studies looking at distance education and access. This issue contains the following articles: (1) New NCES Report: Distance Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions 2000-2001; (2) How Does Technology Affect…

  5. The Objective Force Soldier/Soldier Team. Volume II - The Science and Technology Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Number 703767-9007 DSN 427-9007 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39.18 DISCLAIMER This report is the product of the Army Science...MOSAIC. Commercial technology air interfaces and protocols, such as CDMA , Bluetooth, and Personnel Data Assistants (PDAs) will provide technology

  6. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  7. Determination Of Partial Molar Volumes Of Iron Species In Silicate Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C. A.; Kress, V. C.

    2009-12-01

    One of the major questions of planetary geology is the composition and conditions of the Earth interior. Magmas are among our most important windows into the interior. Iron, being a major element with multiple valence states, is an important influence on redox state. One way to investigate redox state is via a volume equation of state. Density data are used in computing partial molar volumes, which may then be used to construct a volume equation of state. We have devised an apparatus which permits high-quality density measurements in silicate melts at high temperatures (up to ≈1500 °C) and reduced oxygen fugacity at atmospheric pressure using the Archimedean single-bob method. With this apparatus, we have collected the first high-quality density data of iron-bearing silicate melts which had their iron predominately as ferrous. We measured the density of Columbia River Basalt (approximate temperature range: 1250 °C -- 1450 °C) and an artificial composition in the FeO-FeO1.5-CaO-SiO2 system (≈1460 °C) at the oxygen fugacity corresponding to the Iron-Wüstite buffer. We used these data in conjunction with literature density data gathered at thermodynamic equilibrium to calculate the partial molar volume of the iron species as a function of temperature at standard pressure. We speciated iron according to: 0.4 FeO + 0.6 FeO1.5 ↔ FeO1.3 The partial molar volumes of FeO, FeO1.5, and FeO1.3 were fit well with no compositional dependence, despite the wide range of compositions included in this study. To the extent that melt structure can be inferred from partial molar volumes, this result suggests that there is no compositional dependency to the structure of any of these iron species. Our partial molar volumes of FeO and FeO1.5 are consistent within one standard error of those found by Lange & Carmichael (1987) and Ghiorso & Kress (2004). However, our partial molar volume for FeO1.3 at reference temperature was one-third that of Ghiorso & Kress (2004) (Lange

  8. Diagnostic value of kidney length and volume in sonography for determining kidney scar among infants with urinary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Jalili

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of kidney scar could prevent vesico urethral reflax and its complications such as hypertension and renal failure. This study was conducted to determine average kidney length and volume in infants by sonography to accurate diagnosis of scars.Methods: This study was conducted on infants with the history of UTI who referred to Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah Iran, for DMSA scan. They underwent kidney sonography before DMSA scan. Difference in kidney length and volume were calculated and data was recorded and were analyzed using statistical tests.Results: Right kidney length was less than left in 60% of right kidney scars this rate was 77.8% in nonscar patients (P=0.657. Left kidney length was less than right in 50% of left kidney scar and that was 22% in nonscar patients (P=0.241. Kidney volume was smaller than other side in 55.6% of right kidney scar and 62.5% of left kidney scar. Higher length detected in 100% and 47% of right and left kidney inflammation respectively. Higher volume detected in 40% and 76.5% of right and left kidney inflammation.Conclusion: In comparison with other studies suggesting kidney length as a valuble predictor for diagnosis of scar we did not find any relationship between scar and kidney length or volume.

  9. Practical aspects of the technical and technological development level determining the machine-building enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Shevliuga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the technical-technological development level of the machine-building enterprise on the basis of the proposed methodological approach. The results of the analysis. Low innovation activity of enterprises creates opportunities for improving many of its aspects. The technical-technological development is an essential part of modern enterprise innovation activity, which is an important component of successful functioning of enterprises. However, the question of finding funding sources for implementation of innovative changes remains open. Therefore it is necessary to involve different sources of funding to carry out the changes The proposed research and methodical recommendations facilitate application of scientific foundations for calculating the technical-technological development level in practice. The approach is aimed at the efficient use of existing fixed assets and introduction of technological innovations. The technical and technological components of the technical-technological development of machine-building enterprise “Turbomash Ltd” are examined in the article. The determination of its level allows defining the enterprise position in a competitive environment. The partial indicators of technical and technological TTD components during the period of 2009-2013 years are used in the calculation. On the basis of partial indicators for the technical and technological components integrated indicators are calculated. With the help of expert estimations weight characteristics of partial indicators are determined. Conclusions and directions of futher researches. According to the calculation results analyzed enterprise is positioned in the two-dimensional matrix based on integral indicators for the technical and technological components. Recommendations concerning measures of increasing the technical-technological development level of the enterprise are offered. For its increasing

  10. Who’s Afraid of Technological Determinism? Another Look at Medium Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Potts

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of medium theory as a model. In surveying the critical reception of medium theory, the paper re-evaluates the charge of technological determinism that has been brought against this theoretical model. Alternative models incorporating technologies and social systems, such as Actor Network Theory, are considered, but the paper affirms the emphasis in medium theory on the intrinsic properties of media technologies. The paper points to the tacit influence of medium theory in everyday claims made for new media technologies and their transforming capacity. As a result of a reconsideration of medium theory, the paper proposes a theoretical approach sensitive both to the social context of media technologies and to the properties of those technologies themselves.

  11. Treatment of emphysema using bronchoscopic lung volume reduction coil technology : an update on efficacy and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade several promising bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) treatments were developed and investigated. One of these treatments is BLVR treatment with coils. The advantage of this specific treatment is that it works independently of collateral flow, and also shows promise for pat

  12. 28. annual offshore technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 3: Construction and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The 32 papers in this volume cover the following topics: Gulf of Mexico developments -- Popeye and SeaStar; Materials, utilization and fabrication; Mooring and station keeping; Offshore pipelines; and Platform installation. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 4. Special topics in piping and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D.P.

    1983-04-01

    This volume is divided into five chapters: experimental verification of piping systems, analytical verification of piping restraint systems, seismic analysis techniques for piping systems with multisupport input, development of floor spectra from input response spectra, and seismic analysis procedures for in-core components. (DLC)

  15. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 4. Special topics in piping and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D.P.

    1983-04-01

    This volume is divided into five chapters: experimental verification of piping systems, analytical verification of piping restraint systems, seismic analysis techniques for piping systems with multisupport input, development of floor spectra from input response spectra, and seismic analysis procedures for in-core components. (DLC)

  16. Investigation of Adaptive-threshold Approaches for Determining Area-Time Integrals from Satellite Infrared Data to Estimate Convective Rain Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; VonderHaar, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research is being carried out as a collaborative effort between the two participating organizations, with the satellite data analysis to determine values for the ATIs being done primarily by the STC-METSAT scientists and the associated radar data analysis to determine the 'ground-truth' rainfall estimates being done primarily at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T). Synthesis of the two separate kinds of data and investigation of the resulting rainfall-versus-ATI relationships is then carried out jointly. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'adaptive-threshold approach'. In the former, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts as determined by radar. Work on the second, or 'adaptive-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values has explored two avenues: (1) attempt involved choosing IR thresholds to match the satellite ATI values with ones separately calculated from the radar data on a case basis; and (2) an attempt involved a striaghtforward screening analysis to determine the (fixed) offset that would lead to the strongest correlation and lowest standard error of estimate in the relationship between the satellite ATI values and the corresponding rainfall volumes.

  17. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor.

  18. Emerging Technologies Program Integration Report. Volume 2. Background, Delphi and Workshop Data. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-04

    models for specific a;plication domains. --Need experience with specific applications that will push the hardware/ .’ software/conceptual resources...militaryf impact of this technology: A. How might the tecnology in question change US military capabilities? Diminish days lost due to common viral...capability. To achieve necessary goals will require pushing of 7m1 wave tube, solid state device and antenna technologies. Oirk R. Klose . REPORTER: AV 995

  19. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transportation systems. Volume 6: Impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Consequences that might occur if certain technological developments take place in intercity transportation are described. These consequences are broad ranging, and include economic, environmental, social, institutional, energy-related, and transportation service implications. The possible consequences are traced through direct (primary) impacts to indirect (secondary, tertiary, etc.) impacts. Chains of consequences are traced, reaching as far beyond the original transportation cause as is necessary to identify all impacts felt to be influenced significantly by the technological development considered.

  20. Uncertainty reevaluation in determining the volume of a silicon sphere by spherical harmonics in an Avogadro project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ji-Tao; Wu Xue-Jian; Li Yan

    2011-01-01

    To determine the Avogadro constant with a target relative uncertainty of 2×10-8,the uncertainty component of the silicon sphere's volume introduced by the spherical harmonics method,which is usually used in determining the sphere's volume,is reevaluated. By means of representing the shape of the silicon sphere by an ellipsoid with Gaussian white noise in its diameters,the uncertainty of the current mapping methods based on the spherical harmonics theory can be estimated theoretically. It is evidenced that the uncertainty component attributed to the current mapping method is underestimated. To eliminate this effect as much as possible,the number of mapping points should be increased to more than before. Moreover,a new mapping method is proposed to accomplish the equal-area mapping with large number points on the silicon sphere.

  1. Determination of turnover and cushion gas volume of a prospected gas storage reservoir under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubik, A. [RAG-AG Wien (Austria); Baffoe, J.; Schulze-Riegert, R. [SPT Group GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Gas storages define a key contribution for building a reliable gas supply chain from production to consumers. In a competitive gas market with short reaction times to seasonal and other gas injection and extraction requirements, gas storages also receive a strong focus on availability and precise prediction estimates for future operation scenarios. Reservoir management workflows are increasingly built on reservoir simulation support for optimizing production schemes and estimating the impact of subsurface uncertainties on field development scenarios. Simulation models for gas storages are calibrated to geological data and accurate reproduction of historical production data are defined as a prerequisite for reliable production and performance forecasts. The underlying model validation process is called history matching, which potentially generates alternative simulation models due to prevailing geological uncertainties. In the past, a single basecase reference model was used to predict production capacities of a gas storage. The working gas volume was precisely defined over a contracted plateau delivery and the required cushion gas volume maintains the reservoir pressure during the operation. Cushion and working gas Volume are strongly dependent on reservoir parameters. In this work an existing depleted gas reservoir and the operation target as a gas storage is described. Key input data to the reservoir model description and simulation is reviewed including production history and geological uncertainties based on large well spacing, limited core and well data and a limited seismic resolution. Target delivery scenarios of the prospected gas storage are evaluated under uncertainty. As one key objective, optimal working gas and cushion gas volumes are described in a probabilistic context reflecting geological uncertainties. Several work steps are defined and included in an integrated workflow design. Equiprobable geological models are generated and evaluated based on

  2. High-volume extraction of nucleic acids by magnetic bead technology for ultrasensitive detection of bacteria in blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Melanie; Kleesiek, Knut; Dreier, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid isolation, the most technically demanding and laborious procedure performed in molecular diagnostics, harbors the potential for improvements in automation. A recent development is the use of magnetic beads covered with nucleic acid-binding matrices. We adapted this technology with a broad-range 23S rRNA real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay for fast and sensitive detection of bacterial contamination of blood products. We investigated different protocols for an automated high-volume extraction method based on magnetic-separation technology for the extraction of bacterial nucleic acids from platelet concentrates (PCs). We added 2 model bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli, to a single pool of apheresis-derived, single-donor platelets and assayed the PCs by real-time RT-PCR analysis with an improved primer-probe system and locked nucleic acid technology. Co-amplification of human beta(2)-microglobulin mRNA served as an internal control (IC). We used probit analysis to calculate the minimum concentration of bacteria that would be detected with 95% confidence. For automated magnetic bead-based extraction technology with the real-time RT-PCR, the 95% detection limit was 29 x 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU)/L for S. epidermidis and 22 x 10(3) CFU/L for E. coli. No false-positive results occurred, either due to nucleic acid contamination of reagents or externally during testing of 1030 PCs. High-volume nucleic acid extraction improved the detection limit of the assay. The improvement of the primer-probe system and the integration of an IC make the RT-PCR assay appropriate for bacteria screening of platelets.

  3. Determining the lymph node clinical target volume of upper esophageal carcinoma with computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Minghuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation is an important modality for cervical and upper-thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Delineating the lymph node clinical target volume (CTVn for EC remains a challenging task. The present paper retrospectively analyzes the distribution of affected lymph nodes of cervical and upper thoracic ESCC on CT images to provide a reference for determination of CTVn. The cases of untreated cervical or upper-thoracic ESCC patients with regional lymph node metastases at diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed. CT scans were done to assess the extent of circumferential involvement and the local-regional lymph node status. Based on the CT criteria (cervical, mediastinal and upper abdominal lymph nodes were considered to be positive for malignancy when they were larger than 8-12 mm in short-axis diameter according to different station respectively. Detailed lymph node stations were recorded for every case and the distribution information of loco-regional node metastasis for these patients was analyzed. A total of 256 patients were diagnosed with node metastasis and qualified for the study, including 206 men and 50 women (age range 37-85 years, median 60. This included 205 upper thoracic cases and 51 of cervical lesion. The length of the primary tumors ranged from 1.0 cm to 9.0 cm, median 4.5 cm. The size of the enlarged lymph nodes ranged from 0.8 to 5.0 cm median 1.4 cm, mean 1.61 cm. The number of involved stations ranged from 1 to 7 median 2. The lymph node stations, with an involved probability of 10% or more, included the upper and middle neck, supraclavicular and lower neck, upper paraesophageal and upper paratracheal area for cervical lesions, and the supraclavicular and lower neck, upper paraesophageal, upper paratracheal, lower paratracheal, aortopulmonary and subcarinal areas for upper thoracic EC, respectively. The mid-upper neck nodes were more likely to be involved in cervical EC than thoracic EC (X 2 test, p=0.000. Fewer

  4. Survey of Technology with Possible Applications to United States Coast Guard Buoy Tenders. Volume 1. Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    performance. Zig - zag tests show SWATH ships have half the overshoot of conventional ships. At slow speeds, the widely separated propulsion units aid...Ii S2 2-13 C, Lb 0 00 2-14 ’rkpl I% -W N~ louw W ME ’ K’.MM w~~b Af’- w~t W pw -.J 1 W ’W SS U. C ’U . 2-15 Mill ll WRII9PqWWmWIK"-wPFll7TW W.F K...Evaluation of a Compound Cycle Engine for Shipboard Gensets," Report No. DTNSRDC-PASD-CR-1886. 6.19 Mills , R.G., "Innovative Technology on Steam

  5. Building Technology Forecast and Evaluation (BTFE). Volume 2. Evaluation of Two Structural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    are all one piece of formwork , erected and stripped as a single unit. Use of half or full tunnels depends on the room width, form weight, and crane...expected to be good. 1.3 Formwork / Tunnel lorms are metal sheets and are E Temporary designed adequately; scaffolding is Supports used as required. 1.4...structural systems with potential advantage to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE): tunnel forming systems and composite panellzed systems. Volume 11

  6. Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Volume 2. Chapter 18. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    U.S. Department of Transportation PFe 1rs Aviation Administration DOT/FAA/CT-88/10 HANDBOOK- VOLUME H DIGITAL SYSTEMS VALIDATION - CHAPTER 18 tw...18-29 improve identification, control, and auditing of software. SCM and SQA methods in RTCA/DO-178A are drawn directly from proven methods of hardware...procedures, and practices; reviews and audits ; configuration management; medium control; testing; supplier control; and appropriate records. A brief

  7. Advances on Propulsion Technology for High-Speed Aircraft. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    drag, or cruise. As the prime contractor for NASA, ATK GASL had the unique perspective of seeing the complete program from start to finish. Although... prime contractor to NASA for the execution of the program and had overall responsibility for the detailed design and manufacture and support to flight...Digest, Volume 26, Number 4 (2005) [9] 9 Tyll, J., Erdos , J., Bakos, R., Low-Cost Free-Flight Testing of Hypersonic Airbreathing I Engines, ISOABE 2001

  8. Precise determination of universal finite volume observables in the Gross-Neveu model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzec, T.

    2007-01-26

    The Gross-Neveu model is a quantum field theory in two space time dimensions that shares many features with quantum chromo dynamics. In this thesis the continuum model and its discretized versions are reviewed and a finite volume renormalization scheme is introduced and tested. Calculations in the limit of infinitely many fermion flavors as well as perturbative computations are carried out. In extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of the one flavor and the four flavor lattice models with Wilson fermions a set of universal finite volume observables is calculated to a high precision. In the one flavor model which is equivalent to the massless Thirring model the continuum extrapolated Monte-Carlo results are confronted with an exact solution of the model. (orig.)

  9. Determination of volume, shape and refractive index of individual blood platelets

    CERN Document Server

    Kolesnikova, Irina V; Yurkin, Maxim A; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Maltsev, Valeri P; Semyanov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    Light scattering patterns (LSP) of blood platelets were theoretically and experimentally analyzed. We used spicular spheroids as a model for the platelets with pseudopodia. The discrete dipole approximation was employed to simulate light scattering from an individual spicular spheroid constructed from a homogeneous oblate spheroid and 14 rectilinear parallelepipeds rising from the cell centre. These parallelepipeds have a weak effect on the LSP over the measured angular range. Therefore, a homogeneous oblate spheroid was taken as a simplified optical model for platelets. Using the T-matrix method, we computed the LSP over a range of volumes, aspect ratios and refractive indices. Measured LSPs of individual platelets were compared one by one with the theoretical set and the best fit was taken to characterize the measured platelets, resulting in distributions of volume, aspect ratio and refractive index.

  10. Evaluation of spacecraft technology programs (effects on communication satellite business ventures), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenburg, J. S.; Gaelick, C.; Kaplan, M.; Fishman, J.; Hopkins, C.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial organizations as well as government agencies invest in spacecraft (S/C) technology programs that are aimed at increasing the performance of communications satellites. The value of these programs must be measured in terms of their impacts on the financial performane of the business ventures that may ultimately utilize the communications satellites. An economic evaluation and planning capability was developed and used to assess the impact of NASA on-orbit propulsion and space power programs on typical fixed satellite service (FSS) and direct broadcast service (DBS) communications satellite business ventures. Typical FSS and DBS spin and three-axis stabilized spacecraft were configured in the absence of NASA technology programs. These spacecraft were reconfigured taking into account the anticipated results of NASA specified on-orbit propulsion and space power programs. In general, the NASA technology programs resulted in spacecraft with increased capability. The developed methodology for assessing the value of spacecraft technology programs in terms of their impact on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures is described. Results of the assessment of NASA specified on-orbit propulsion and space power technology programs are presented for typical FSS and DBS business ventures.

  11. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 3: Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Mid to late 1980's power management technology needs to support development of a general purpose space platform, capable of suplying 100 to 250 KWe to a variety of users in low Earth orbit are examined. A typical, shuttle assembled and supplied space platform is illustred, along with a group of payloads which might reasonably be expected to use such a facility. Examination of platform and user power needs yields a set of power requirements used to evaluate power management options for life cycle cost effectivness. The most cost effective ac/dc and dc systems are evaluated, specifically to develop system details which lead to technology goals, including: array and transmission voltages, best frequency for ac power transmission, and advantages and disadvantages of ac and dc systems for this application. System and component requirements are compared with the state-of-the-art to identify areas where technological development is required.

  12. Advanced Processing Technology semiannual report, March--December 1991. Volume 1, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Kline-Simon, K. [eds.

    1991-12-31

    This first issue of the APT Semiannual Report focuses on APT`s defense-related technologies. These technologies are a continuation of the research, development, and engineering work performed by LLNLs Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Program. SIS was the first large-scale DOE venture that had environmentally conscious manufacturing processes and facilities as its deliverables. The objectives were to create a facility where the only outputs were either usable products or disposable wastes, and to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to safeguards, security, health and safety. To meet these objectives, revolutionary changes were needed in plutonium processing operations, chemistry, and equipment. New processes had to be developed that enhanced worker safety, minimized operator radiation dose, minimized waste at the point of generation, and provided for built-in recycling of residues. The SIS Program developed and demonstrated the technology (both chemistry and physics) necessary to provide plutonium with individual isotopic tailoring. This process made it possible to transform fuel-grade plutonium into weapon-grade material. However, due to the changing world political climate, the country`s need for plutonium to make new weapons has decreased dramatically. As a result, the planned SIS plutonium-separation plant will not be built. After the SIS Program was canceled in 199 1, Congress directed that the plutonium processing technologies under development for the SIS Program be redirected to the weapons program. APT took over the development of the innovative SIS technologies and is applying them to the development of a new, reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex -- Complex 21. ``Close Out of the SIS Program`` describes the completion of the SIS research and development work, and the transfer of key technologies to support this reconfiguration effort.

  13. Advanced Processing Technology semiannual report, March--December 1991. Volume 1, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Kline-Simon, K. [eds.

    1991-12-31

    This first issue of the APT Semiannual Report focuses on APT`s defense-related technologies. These technologies are a continuation of the research, development, and engineering work performed by LLNLs Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Program. SIS was the first large-scale DOE venture that had environmentally conscious manufacturing processes and facilities as its deliverables. The objectives were to create a facility where the only outputs were either usable products or disposable wastes, and to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to safeguards, security, health and safety. To meet these objectives, revolutionary changes were needed in plutonium processing operations, chemistry, and equipment. New processes had to be developed that enhanced worker safety, minimized operator radiation dose, minimized waste at the point of generation, and provided for built-in recycling of residues. The SIS Program developed and demonstrated the technology (both chemistry and physics) necessary to provide plutonium with individual isotopic tailoring. This process made it possible to transform fuel-grade plutonium into weapon-grade material. However, due to the changing world political climate, the country`s need for plutonium to make new weapons has decreased dramatically. As a result, the planned SIS plutonium-separation plant will not be built. After the SIS Program was canceled in 199 1, Congress directed that the plutonium processing technologies under development for the SIS Program be redirected to the weapons program. APT took over the development of the innovative SIS technologies and is applying them to the development of a new, reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex -- Complex 21. ``Close Out of the SIS Program`` describes the completion of the SIS research and development work, and the transfer of key technologies to support this reconfiguration effort.

  14. Technology assessment of solar energy systems. Scenario development and methodology. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.

    1981-07-01

    Included are a general overview of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy systems (TASE) project and a description of the study approach, the development of the TASE scenarios, energy and environmental assumptions, and assumptions and forecasts of the FOSSIL2 National Energy Model upon which the TASE scenarios were based. The Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) model was used to generate the analytical data base for TASE. Improvements made to SEAS to allow it to model solar and biomass energy technologies are also described.

  15. Shuttle Ground Operations Efficiencies/Technologies Study (SGOE/T). Volume 5: Technical Information Sheets (TIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Technology Information Sheet was assembled in database format during Phase I. This document was designed to provide a repository for information pertaining to 144 Operations and Maintenance Instructions (OMI) controlled operations in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), and PAD. It provides a way to accumulate information about required crew sizes, operations task time duration (serial and/or parallel), special Ground Support Equipment (GSE). required, and identification of a potential application of existing technology or the need for the development of a new technolgoy item.

  16. Fiscal years 1994--1998 Information Technology Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    A team of senior managers from across the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), working with the Office of Information Resources Management (IRM), has completed an NRC Strategic Information Technology (IT) Plan. The Plan addresses three major areas: (1) IT Program Management, (2) IT Infrastructure, and (3) Information and Applications Management. Key recommendations call for accelerating the replacement of Agency workstations, implementing a new document management system, applying business process reengineering to selected Agency work processes, and establishing an Information Technology Council to advise the Director of IRM.

  17. Space Applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS), phase 2. Volume 1: Telepresence technology base development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, D. L.; Minsky, M. L.; Thiel, E. D.; Kurtzman, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The field of telepresence is defined, and overviews of those capabilities that are now available, and those that will be required to support a NASA telepresence effort are provided. Investigation of NASA's plans and goals with regard to telepresence, extensive literature search for materials relating to relevant technologies, a description of these technologies and their state of the art, and projections for advances in these technologies over the next decade are included. Several space projects are examined in detail to determine what capabilities are required of a telepresence system in order to accomplish various tasks, such as servicing and assembly. The key operational and technological areas are identified, conclusions and recommendations are made for further research, and an example developmental program is presented, leading to an operational telepresence servicer.

  18. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  19. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  20. Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue : verification of arms control treaties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

  1. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology. Volume 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    Articles in this issue of "Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology" include: (1) Input Data Processing Techniques in Intrusion Detection Systems--Short Review (Suhair H. Amer and John A. Hamilton, Jr.); (2) Semantic Annotation of Stock Photography for CBIR Using MPEG-7 standards (R. Balasubramani and V. Kannan); (3) An Experimental Study…

  2. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  3. Short transmembrane domains with high-volume exoplasmic halves determine retention of Type II membrane proteins in the Golgi complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Trenchi, Alejandra; González Montoro, Ayelén; Valdez Taubas, Javier; Maccioni, Hugo J F

    2013-12-01

    It is still unclear why some proteins that travel along the secretory pathway are retained in the Golgi complex whereas others make their way to the plasma membrane. Recent bioinformatic analyses on a large number of single-spanning membrane proteins support the hypothesis that specific features of the transmembrane domain (TMD) are relevant to the sorting of these proteins to particular organelles. Here we experimentally test this hypothesis for Golgi and plasma membrane proteins. Using the Golgi SNARE protein Sft1 and the plasma membrane SNARE protein Sso1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model proteins, we modified the length of their TMDs and the volume of their exoplasmic hemi-TMD, and determined their subcellular localization both in yeast and mammalian cells. We found that short TMDs with high-volume exoplasmic hemi-TMDs confer Golgi membrane residence, whereas TMDs with low-volume exoplasmic hemi-TMDs, either short or long, confer plasma membrane residence to these proteins. Results indicate that the shape of the exoplasmic hemi-TMD, in addition to the length of the entire TMD, determine retention in the Golgi or exit to the plasma membrane of Type II membrane proteins.

  4. Determination of Internal Target Volume for Radiation Treatment Planning of Esophageal Cancer by Using 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaojian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Lu, Haijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Radiation Oncology Center, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao (China); Tai, An; Johnstone, Candice; Gore, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To determine an efficient strategy for the generation of the internal target volume (ITV) for radiation treatment planning for esophageal cancer using 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Methods and Materials: 4DCT sets acquired for 20 patients with esophageal carcinoma were analyzed. Each of the 4DCT sets was binned into 10 respiratory phases. For each patient, the gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the 4DCT set at each phase. Various strategies to derive ITV were explored, including the volume from the maximum intensity projection (MIP; ITV{sub M}IP), unions of the GTVs from selected multiple phases ITV2 (0% and 50% phases), ITV3 (ITV2 plus 80%), and ITV4 (ITV3 plus 60%), as well as the volumes expanded from ITV2 and ITV3 with a uniform margin. These ITVs were compared to ITV10 (the union of the GTVs for all 10 phases) and the differences were measured with the overlap ratio (OR) and relative volume ratio (RVR) relative to ITV10 (ITVx/ITV10). Results: For all patients studied, the average GTV from a single phase was 84.9% of ITV10. The average ORs were 91.2%, 91.3%, 94.5%, and 96.4% for ITV{sub M}IP, ITV2, ITV3, and ITV4, respectively. Low ORs were associated with irregular breathing patterns. ITV3s plus 1 mm uniform margins (ITV3+1) led to an average OR of 98.1% and an average RVR of 106.4%. Conclusions: The ITV generated directly from MIP underestimates the range of the respiration motion for esophageal cancer. The ITV generated from 3 phases (ITV3) may be used for regular breathers, whereas the ITV generated from 4 phases (ITV4) or ITV3 plus a 1-mm uniform margin may be applied for irregular breathers.

  5. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    The general goal of this study is to present the prospects of shale oil within the context of (1) environmental constraints, (2) available natural and economic resources, and (3) the characteristics of existing and emerging technology. The objectives are: to review shale oil technologies objectively as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

  6. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  7. Economic Feasibility and Market Readiness of Solar Technologies. Draft Final Report. Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, Silvio J.; Buchanan, Deborah L.; Christmas, Susan; Fellhauer, Cheryl; Glenn, Barbara; Ketels, Peter A.; Levary, Arnon; Mourning, Pete; Steggerda, Paul; Trivedi, Harit; Witholder, Robert E.

    1978-09-01

    Systems descriptions, costs, technical and market readiness assessments are reported for ten solar technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB), passive, agricultural and industrial process heat (A/IPH), biomass, ocean thermal (OTEC), wind (WECS), solar thermal electric, photovoltaics, satellite power station (SPS), and solar total energy systems (STES). Study objectives, scope, and methods. are presented. of Joint Task The cost and market analyses portion 5213/6103 will be used to make commercialization assessments in the conclusions of. the final report.

  8. ICAM (Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing) Manufacturing Cost/Design Guide. Volume 7. Technology Transfer Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    advanced composite structures for production. Conduct material and manufacturing trade-off studies on ATF advanced design, NASA composite wing, and...255-7371. D-17 .* . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . - . , o , . . - .’. TTD4502 60000 12 Sept 1984 CC tE % > LL 00 o0h K; Cr A .’ TTD450260000 12... coatings on the internal "Top-of-the-Line" Manu- observing the effect of the surfaces of hollowf~acturing Technology Success proposed change. Potential

  9. Engineering Technology Reports, Volume 1: Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, A L; Langland, R T; Minichino, C

    2001-10-03

    In FY-2000, Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory faced significant pressures to meet critical project milestones, and immediate demands to facilitate the reassignment of employees as the National Ignition Facility (the 600-TW laser facility being designed and built at Livermore, and one of the largest R&D construction projects in the world) was in the process of re-baselining its plan while executing full-speed its technology development efforts. This drive for change occurred as an unprecedented level of management and program changes were occurring within LLNL. I am pleased to report that we met many key milestones and achieved numerous technological breakthroughs. This report summarizes our efforts to perform feasibility and reduce-to-practice studies, demonstrations, and/or techniques--as structured through our technology centers. Whether using computational engineering to predict how giant structures like suspension bridges will respond to massive earthquakes or devising a suitcase-sized microtool to detect chemical and biological agents used by terrorists, we have made solid technical progress. Five Centers focus and guide longer-term investments within Engineering, as well as impact all of LLNL. Each Center is responsible for the vitality and growth of the core technologies it represents. My goal is that each Center will be recognized on an international scale for solving compelling national problems requiring breakthrough innovation. The Centers and their leaders are as follows: Center for Complex Distributed Systems--David B. McCallen; Center for Computational Engineering--Kyran D. Mish; Center for Microtechnology--Raymond P. Mariella, Jr.; Center for Nondestructive Characterization--Harry E. Martz, Jr.; and Center for Precision Engineering--Keith Carlisle.

  10. Technology Scenario for the Year 2005. Volume II. Detailed Scenes for Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    from a very considerable distance, acoustic devices that analyse radiated sound signatures, and IR receivers that analyse heat radiation patterns...to counter with nasking tactics of one kind or another--such a.s radiation of false electromagnetic signatures, electronic jamming, etc. Only a...ries Science, Technology, and I novat ion. Treparedl 1,r tile :atioana[ Science Foundation. Columbus: Bat telleo, 1973. .ieittv, .1. Kell Iv, ’ Solair

  11. 2005 5th Annual CMMI Technology Conference and User Group. Volume 3 - Wednesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-17

    formerly Sperry Flight Systems) and 2 years with Tracor Aerospace, developed or managed the development of embedded software for avionics systems...estimating, tracking, forecasting, and benchmarking. Mr. Ross, during 17 years with Honeywell Air Transport Systems (formerly Sperry Flight Systems...Implementing CMMI in a Services Environment Thomas E. Zience and Roger W. Lee BAE Systems Information Technology All Rights Reserved by BAE Systems Information

  12. WSTIAC: Weapon Systems Technology Information Analysis Center. Volume 6, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Computational Neuroscience Program 2004. Associate Editor; Journal of Counter Ordinance Technology. Joel L EDavis, Program Manager, Cognitive and Neural...tests were against unitary (nonseparating) targets representative of the Journal of the Optical Society of America A, involves of SCUD-type ballistic...Agent ( CSEA ) and prime contractor for the Aegis Weapon System agencies. A single query searches across 30 databases and and Vertical Launch System

  13. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence trace mercury determination by trapping complexation: Application in advanced oxidation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custo, Graciela [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Litter, Marta I. [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad de General San Martin, San Lorenzo 3391 Villa Ballester, 1653. Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rodriguez, Diana [Universidad Nacional de Lujan, Ruta 5 y 7. Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vazquez, Cristina [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Laboratorio de Quimica de Sistemas Heterogeneos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, P. Colon 850 (C1063ACU), Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: Cristina.Vazquez@cnea.gov.ar

    2006-11-15

    It is well known that Hg species cause high noxious effects on the health of living organisms even at very low levels (5 {mu}g/L). Quantification of this element is an analytical challenge due to the peculiar physicochemical properties of all Hg species. The regulation of the maximal allowable Hg concentration led to search for sensitive methods for its determination. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence is a proved instrumental analytical tool for the determination of trace elements. In this work, the use of total reflection X-ray fluorescence for Hg quantification is investigated. However, experimental determination by total reflection X-ray fluorescence requires depositing a small volume of sample on the reflector and evaporation of the solvent until dryness to form a thin film. Because of volatilization of several Hg forms, a procedure to capture these volatile species in liquid samples by using complexing agents is proposed. Acetate, oxalic acid, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid and ammonium pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate were assayed for trapping the analytes into the solution during the preparation of the sample and onto the reflector during total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements. The proposed method was applied to evaluate Hg concentration during TiO{sub 2}-heterogeneous photocatalysis, one of the most known advanced oxidation technologies. Advanced oxidation technologies are processes for the treatment of effluents in waters and air that involve the generation of very active oxidative and reductive species. In heterogeneous photocatalysis, Hg is transformed to several species under ultraviolet illumination in the presence of titanium dioxide. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was demonstrated to be applicable in following the extent of the heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction by determining non-transformed Hg in the remaining solution.

  14. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence trace mercury determination by trapping complexation: Application in advanced oxidation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custo, Graciela; Litter, Marta I.; Rodríguez, Diana; Vázquez, Cristina

    2006-11-01

    It is well known that Hg species cause high noxious effects on the health of living organisms even at very low levels (5 μg/L). Quantification of this element is an analytical challenge due to the peculiar physicochemical properties of all Hg species. The regulation of the maximal allowable Hg concentration led to search for sensitive methods for its determination. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence is a proved instrumental analytical tool for the determination of trace elements. In this work, the use of total reflection X-ray fluorescence for Hg quantification is investigated. However, experimental determination by total reflection X-ray fluorescence requires depositing a small volume of sample on the reflector and evaporation of the solvent until dryness to form a thin film. Because of volatilization of several Hg forms, a procedure to capture these volatile species in liquid samples by using complexing agents is proposed. Acetate, oxalic acid, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid and ammonium pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate were assayed for trapping the analytes into the solution during the preparation of the sample and onto the reflector during total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements. The proposed method was applied to evaluate Hg concentration during TiO 2-heterogeneous photocatalysis, one of the most known advanced oxidation technologies. Advanced oxidation technologies are processes for the treatment of effluents in waters and air that involve the generation of very active oxidative and reductive species. In heterogeneous photocatalysis, Hg is transformed to several species under ultraviolet illumination in the presence of titanium dioxide. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was demonstrated to be applicable in following the extent of the heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction by determining non-transformed Hg in the remaining solution.

  15. Annual Proceedings of Selected Papers on the Practice of Educational Communications and Technology Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (32nd, Louisville, KY, 2009). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    For the thirty-second year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. This volume includes papers presented at the national convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology held in Louisville, KY. This…

  16. Determination of Energy Characteristic and Microporous Volume by Immersion Calorimetry in Carbon Monoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Moreno-Piraján

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon monoliths disc and honeycomb type were prepared by chemical activation of coconut shell with zinc chloride at different concentrations, without using a binder. The structures were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77 K and immersion calorimetry into benzene. The experimental results showed that the activation with zinc chloride produces a wide microporous development, with micropore volume between 0,38 and 0,79 cm3g-1, apparent BET surface area between 725 and 1523 m2g-1 and immersion enthalpy between 73,5 and 164,2 Jg-1. We compared the experimental enthalpy with calculated enthalpy by equation Stoeckli-Kraehenbuehl finding a data dispersion from which can infer that the structures are not purely microporous; this fact is ratified with similar behavior that the evidence t the product EoWo.

  17. Determinants of agricultural water saving technology adoption: an empirical study of 10 provinces of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,China has been faced by an increasingly severe water shortage due to the continua growth of demand on water resources.Although the Chinese government has been actively promoting the agricultural water-saving technology adoption,it is ill-informed of the adoption degree of the current agricultural water saving technologies as well as the function of the governmental policies.Therefore,this paper analyzes the aforesaid problems based on investigative data of 10 provinces in China.The results demonstrate that although there is a rapid increase of adopted agricultural water-saving technologies,the actual adoption area is rather limited.Moreover,the governmental policies and scarcity of water resources are the determinants of agricultural water-saving technology adoption.Ultimately,the paper proposes some policy suggestions.

  18. Turbo system technology for downsized high volume engines with PZEV capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernsson, Haakan; Johansson, Lena [Volvo Car Corp., Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Turbo charging is not anymore only used for exotic high performance vehicles. Instead boosting technology will be used to provide high specific power output, reduced fuel consumption and consequently lower CO2 emissions for all types of vehicles in the future. The main reason for this change is the obvious need for a shift towards more fuel efficient down-sized engines which output that enables a lower fuel consumption. This new way of using turbo charging introduces a new set of demands which needs to be fulfilled before this technology can be applied efficiently in to mass production. Since one of the most basic down-sizing features is a high specific low end torque with an associated excellent transient behavior at low speeds, the overall charging efficiency, must be high over a broad speed and load range. The down-sizing effect also imply a more frequent use of the high specific power, which means that smaller engines needs to cope with a high exhaust gas temperature more often. High specific power output also has to be combined with strict US and EC emission legislation i.e. fulfillment of PZEV and Euro 6 emissions. This will add new challenges to turbo system development. Simultaneously, material prices have increased significantly over the last five years. Unfortunately, these new requirements have a tendency to push the piece price in the wrong direction, which means that down-sizing have a tendency to add high on-cost to the most price sensitive products. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to discuss possible solutions for future turbo system technology. (orig.)

  19. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology Volume 53, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    the velocity distribution in ping-pong- Martian north polar cap 1996-1997 [1999, eng] 53-3536 Ishii , S. ball avalanches [1998, eng] 53-2020 Iwasaki...warming [1988, Siberian Platform [1997, eng] 53-1740 Scharroo, R. eng] 53-1118 Sawa ,Y. Antarctic elevation change from 1992 to 1996 [1998, Schlich,R. Size...freezing technology for environmental remediation. road surface. Ishii , S., et al, [1998,eng] 53-2958 Atlantic Oceans-Reykjanes Ridge Dash, J.G., [1999,eng

  20. Light sources for high-volume manufacturing EUV lithography: technology, performance, and power scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenkov, Igor; Brandt, David; Ershov, Alex; Schafgans, Alexander; Tao, Yezheng; Vaschenko, Georgiy; Rokitski, Slava; Kats, Michael; Vargas, Michael; Purvis, Michael; Rafac, Rob; La Fontaine, Bruno; De Dea, Silvia; LaForge, Andrew; Stewart, Jayson; Chang, Steven; Graham, Matthew; Riggs, Daniel; Taylor, Ted; Abraham, Mathew; Brown, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is expected to succeed in 193-nm immersion multi-patterning technology for sub-10-nm critical layer patterning. In order to be successful, EUV lithography has to demonstrate that it can satisfy the industry requirements in the following critical areas: power, dose stability, etendue, spectral content, and lifetime. Currently, development of second-generation laser-produced plasma (LPP) light sources for the ASML's NXE:3300B EUV scanner is complete, and first units are installed and operational at chipmaker customers. We describe different aspects and performance characteristics of the sources, dose stability results, power scaling, and availability data for EUV sources and also report new development results.

  1. Army Science and Technology Master Plan, Fiscal Year 1997 - Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    be demonstrated in FY97 and 98, respectively, to exploit both commercial CDMA and BCDMA technology for MSE access. In order to extend ATM services to...Florence John Appel MAJ Paul Begeman TARDEC SARD-TT Armor Center, DFD (810)574-5473 697-8432 (502)624-8994 DSN : 786-5473 227-8432 464-8994 III.G.06. Hit...AATD SARDA-TF Avn Center (DCD) ATZQ-CD 804-878-4130 703-697-8434 334-255-3370/3489 DSN 927-4130 DSN 227-8434 DSN 558 A-4-2 D. AIR AND SPACE VEHICLES

  2. Conceptual design and systems analysis of photovoltaic power systems. Volume III(1). Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittman, P.F.

    1977-05-01

    Conceptual designs were made and analyses were performed on three types of solar photovoltaic power systems. Included were Residential (1 to 10 kW), Intermediate (0.1 to 10 MW), and Central (50 to 1000 MW) Power Systems to be installed in the 1985 to 2000 time period. Subsystem technology presented here includes: insolation, concentration, silicon solar cell modules, CdS solar cell module, array structure, battery energy storage, power conditioning, residential power system architectural designs, intermediate power system structural design, and central power system facilities and site survey.

  3. Planetary/DOD entry technology flight experiments. Volume 2: Planetary entry flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H. E.; Krieger, R. J.; Mcneilly, W. R.; Vetter, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The technical feasibility of launching a high speed, earth entry vehicle from the space shuttle to advance technology for the exploration of the outer planets' atmospheres was established. Disciplines of thermodynamics, orbital mechanics, aerodynamics propulsion, structures, design, electronics and system integration focused on the goal of producing outer planet environments on a probe shaped vehicle during an earth entry. Major aspects of analysis and vehicle design studied include: planetary environments, earth entry environment capability, mission maneuvers, capabilities of shuttle upper stages, a comparison of earth entry planetary environments, experiment design and vehicle design.

  4. Determinants of the Use of Technological Innovation in Distance Learning: A Study with Business School Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Leal, Edvalda; Luiz Albertin, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This study's overall purpose is to identify the factors determining the use of technological innovation in Distance Learning (DL), as perceived by instructors of Business Education programs. The theoretical basis for the study is the Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT). The study's sample is made up of 436 instructors; we used a quantitative…

  5. 75 FR 15655 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AP91 Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources... Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (D205- 02), Environmental Protection Agency... facilities. Brick and Structural Clay Products; Clay 327122 Ceramic wall and floor tile manufacturing...

  6. Psycho-Social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnachi, N. O.; Okpube, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on the "Psycho-social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)". The females were found to be underrepresented in STEM fields. The under-representation results from gender stereotype, differences in spatial skills, hierarchical and territorial segregations and…

  7. Industrial applications study. Volume III. Technology data base evaluation of waste recovery systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence W.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was undertaken to estimate the present and potential technical and economic characteristics of a wide range of components and complete systems capable of converting industrial and commercial waste heat into mechanical or electrical power and/or building and process heating and cooling. The component and system technologies evaluated include: Rankine-, Stirling-, and Brayton-cycle power systems; reciprocating-, rotary-, and turbo-expanders; heat exchangers and heat pumps; thermally driven cooling and dehumidification systems; and integrated systems capable of providing multiple outputs. Extensive analyses were conducted of Rankine-cycle systems using steam, halogenated hydrocarbons, and other organic compounds as working fluids. Performance characteristics, recoverable output power, and installed costs were estimated and are presented herein for Rankine-cycle systems utilizing selected working fluids over a range of waste heat source temperatures between approximately 200 and 1000/sup 0/F. Data describing the performance capabilities, technology and installed costs of heat exchangers, expanders and thermally driven absorption, vapor compression, steam-jet cooling and refrigeration systems are presented herein together with limited performance and cost estimates for Stirling-cycle power recovery systems. The component and system data were used to provide a preliminary assessment of the recoverable energy and associated system costs when integrated with generalized waste heat sources identified by Drexel University from their two-digit SIC industrial energy survey.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Jamie [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Drury, Easan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Brown, Stephen R. [HDR/DTA, Portland, ME (Untied States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felker, Fort [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goodrich, Alan C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hagerman, George [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neil, Sean [Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, Portland, OR (United States); Paquette, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  10. Nanoprobe NAPPA Arrays for the Nanoconductimetric Analysis of Ultra-Low-Volume Protein Samples Using Piezoelectric Liquid Dispensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Pechkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the evolution and the advances of the nanobiotechnologies applied to the systematic study of proteins, namely proteomics, both structural and functional, and specifically the development of more sophisticated and largescale protein arrays, have enabled scientists to investigate protein interactions and functions with an unforeseeable precision and wealth of details. Here, we present a further advancement of our previously introduced and described Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA-based nanoconductometric sensor. We coupled Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation factor Monitoring (QCM_D with piezoelectric inkjet printing technology (namely, the newly developed ActivePipette, which enables to significantly reduce the volume of probe required for genes/proteins arrays. We performed a negative control (with master mix, or MM and a positive control (MM_p53 plus MDM2. We performed this experiment both in static and in flow, computing the apparent dissociation constant of p53-MDM2 complex (130 nM, in excellent agreement with the published literature. We compared the results obtained with the ActivePipette printing and dispensing technology vs. pin spotting. Without the ActivePipette, after MDM2 addition the shift in frequency (Δf was 7575 Hz and the corresponding adsorbed mass was 32.9 μg. With the ActivePipette technology, after MDM2 addition Δf was 7740 Hz and the corresponding adsorbed mass was 33.6 μg. With this experiment, we confirmed the sensing potential of our device, being able to discriminate each gene and protein as well as their interactions, showing for each one of them a unique conductance curve. Moreover, we obtained a better yield with the ActivePipette technology.

  11. Determination of the steam volume fraction in the event of loss of cooling of the spent fuel storage pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledkov, R. M.; Galkin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, O. E.; Strebnev, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    When one solves engineering problems related to the cooling of fuel assemblies (FAs) in a spent fuel storage pool (SFSP) and the assessment of nuclear safety of FA storage in an SFSP in the initial event of loss of SFSP cooling, it is essential to determine the coolant density and, consequently, steam volume fractions φ in bundles of fuel elements at a pressure of 0.1-0.5 MPa. Such formulas for calculating φ that remain valid in a wide range of operating parameters and geometric shapes of channels and take the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling into account are currently almost lacking. The results of systematization and analysis of the available formulas for φ are reported in the present study. The calculated values were compared with the experimental data obtained in the process of simulating the conditions of FA cooling in an SFSP in the event of loss of its cooling. Six formulas for calculating the steam volume fraction, which were used in this comparison, were chosen from a total of 11 considered relations. As a result, the formulas producing the most accurate values of φ in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling were selected. In addition, a relation that allows one to perform more accurate calculations of steam volume fractions in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling was derived based on the Fedorov formula in the two-group approximation.

  12. Evaluation of a Novel Approach for Automatic Volume Determination of Glioblastomas Based on Several Manual Expert Segmentations

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Kuhnt, Daniela; Carl, Barbara; Kappus, Christoph; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The glioblastoma multiforme is the most common malignant primary brain tumor and is one of the highest malignant human neoplasms. During the course of disease, the evaluation of tumor volume is an essential part of the clinical follow-up. However, manual segmentation for acquisition of tumor volume is a time-consuming process. In this paper, a new approach for the automatic segmentation and volume determination of glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme) is presented and evaluated. The approach uses a user-defined seed point inside the glioma to set up a directed 3D graph. The nodes of the graph are obtained by sampling along rays that are sent through the surface points of a polyhedron. After the graph has been constructed, the minimal s-t cut is calculated to separate the glioblastoma from the background. For evaluation, 12 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data sets were manually segmented slice by slice, by neurosurgeons with several years of experience in the resection of gliomas. Afterwards, the manual se...

  13. Determination of respirable mass concentration using a high volume air sampler and a sedimentation method for fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.

  14. Distributed technologies in California's energy future. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, M.; Craig, P.; McGuire, C.B.; Simmons, M. (eds.)

    1977-09-01

    This interim report contains eight of the eighteen chapters included in the complete report. In Chapter I, pertinent data, facts, and observations are made following an initial summary. Chapter II is an introduction, citing especially the writings of Amory Lovins. The criteria used in defining distributed systems, suggested by Lovins, are that the technologies be renewable, environmentally benign, local, subject to graceful failure, foolproof, flexible, comprehensible, and matched in energy quality. The following chapters are: The Energy Predicament; The California Setting; Energy Resources for California's Future; Alternative Energy Futures for California; Issues and Problems; and Directions for Future Work. Six appendices deal with residential heating loads and air conditioning, allocations, co-generation, population projections, and the California wind energy resource. (MCW)

  15. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  16. Lewis Structures Technology, 1988. Volume 3: Structural Integrity Fatigue and Fracture Wind Turbines HOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The charter of the Structures Division is to perform and disseminate results of research conducted in support of aerospace engine structures. These results have a wide range of applicability to practioners of structural engineering mechanics beyond the aerospace arena. The specific purpose of the symposium was to familiarize the engineering structures community with the depth and range of research performed by the division and its academic and industrial partners. Sessions covered vibration control, fracture mechanics, ceramic component reliability, parallel computing, nondestructive evaluation, constitutive models and experimental capabilities, dynamic systems, fatigue and damage, wind turbines, hot section technology (HOST), aeroelasticity, structural mechanics codes, computational methods for dynamics, structural optimization, and applications of structural dynamics, and structural mechanics computer codes.

  17. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  18. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  19. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium on Space Technology and Science. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-31

    The 20th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science was held in Japan on May 19-25, 1996, and a lot of papers were made public. This proceedings has 252 papers of all the papers read in the symposium including the following: Computational fluid dynamics in the design of M-V rocket motors in the propulsion field; Joint structures of carbon-carbon composites in the field of materials and structures; On-orbit attitude control experiment of ETS-VI in the field of astrodynamics, navigation, guidance and control; Magnetic transport of bubbles in liquid in microgravity; The outline and development status of JEM-EF in the field of on-orbit and ground support systems. The proceedings also includes the papers titled Conceptual study of H-IIA rocket in the space transportation field; Microgravity research in the microgravity science field; `Project Genesys` in the field of satellite communications and broadcasting.

  20. New Technology for Remote Testing of Response Time of Installed Thermocouples. Volume 2 - Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    specific need for a thermocouple with known rapid response time. Glawe and Holanda ~ have reported an extensive study to determine thermocouple time...Continuous Flow Crvo.qenic Tunnel," NASA Technical Memorandum 81825, May 1980. Glawe, G. E., Holanda , R., Krause, L. N., "Recovery and Radiation Corrections

  1. The Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC): A Multifunction, Low Power, Attitude Determination Technology Breakthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dennehy, Neil; Gambino, Joel; Maynard, Andrew; Brady, T.; Buckley, S.; Zinchuk, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC) is a miniature, low power, stellar inertial attitude determination system with an accuracy of better than 0.1 degree (1 sigma) in three axes. The ISC consumes only 3.5 Watts of power and is contained in a 2.5 kg package. With its embedded on-board processor, the ISC provides attitude quaternion information and has Lost-in-Space (LIS) initialization capability. The attitude accuracy and LIS capability are provided by combining a wide field of view Active Pixel Sensor (APS) star camera and Micro- ElectroMechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensor information in an integrated sensor system. The performance and small form factor make the ISC a useful sensor for a wide range of missions. In particular, the ISC represents an enabling, fully integrated, micro-satellite attitude determination system. Other applications include using the ISC as a single sensor solution for attitude determination on medium performance spacecraft and as a bolt on independent safe-hold sensor or coarse acquisition sensor for many other spacecraft. NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) has selected the ISC technology for a Space Technology 6 (ST6) flight validation experiment scheduled for 2004. NMP missions, such a s ST6, are intended to validate advanced technologies that have not flown in space in order to reduce the risk associated with their infusion into future NASA missions. This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of the ISC and outlines the technology validation plan. A number of mission applications for the ISC technology are highlighted, both for the baseline ST6 ISC configuration and more ambitious applications where ISC hardware and software modifications would be required. These applications demonstrate the wide range of Space and Earth Science missions that would benefit from infusion of the ISC technology.

  2. Reliability and validity of non-invasive determined haemoglobin mass and blood volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoni, Nazzareno; Andersen, Andreas Breenfeldt; Oberholzer, Laura

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method used for the determination of haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) is associated with blood sample analysis (in this study: Radiometer ABL800). As an alternative hereto the aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a portable and non-invas...

  3. Genetic Determinants of Metabolism and Benign Prostate Enlargement: Associations with Prostate Volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Giri

    Full Text Available Prostate enlargement leading to clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is associated with metabolic dysregulation and obesity. The genetic basis of this association is unclear. Our objective was to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs previously associated with metabolic disorders are also associated with prostate volume (PV. Participants included 876 men referred for prostate biopsy and found to be prostate cancer free. PV was measured by transrectal ultrasound. Samples were genotyped using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip platform. Multivariable adjusted linear regression models were used to evaluate SNPs (additive coding in relation to natural-log transformed (log PV. We compared SNP-PV results from biopsy-negative men to 442 men with low-grade prostate cancer with similar levels of obesity and PV. Beta-coefficients from the discovery and replication samples were then aggregated with fixed effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. SNP rs11736129 (near the pseudo-gene LOC100131429 was significantly associated with log-PV (beta: 0.16, p-value 1.16x10(-8 after adjusting for multiple testing. Other noteworthy SNPs that were nominally associated (p-value < 1x10(-4 with log-PV included rs9583484 (intronic SNP in COL4A2, rs10146527 (intronic SNP in NRXN3, rs9909466 (SNP near RPL32P31, and rs2241606 (synonymous SNP in SLC12A7. We found several SNPs in metabolic loci associated with PV. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and elucidate the mechanism between these genetic loci, PV, and clinical BPH.

  4. Genetic Determinants of Metabolism and Benign Prostate Enlargement: Associations with Prostate Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Ayush; Edwards, Todd L; Motley, Saundra S; Byerly, Susan H; Fowke, Jay H

    2015-01-01

    Prostate enlargement leading to clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is associated with metabolic dysregulation and obesity. The genetic basis of this association is unclear. Our objective was to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with metabolic disorders are also associated with prostate volume (PV). Participants included 876 men referred for prostate biopsy and found to be prostate cancer free. PV was measured by transrectal ultrasound. Samples were genotyped using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip platform. Multivariable adjusted linear regression models were used to evaluate SNPs (additive coding) in relation to natural-log transformed (log) PV. We compared SNP-PV results from biopsy-negative men to 442 men with low-grade prostate cancer with similar levels of obesity and PV. Beta-coefficients from the discovery and replication samples were then aggregated with fixed effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. SNP rs11736129 (near the pseudo-gene LOC100131429) was significantly associated with log-PV (beta: 0.16, p-value 1.16x10(-8)) after adjusting for multiple testing. Other noteworthy SNPs that were nominally associated (p-value < 1x10(-4)) with log-PV included rs9583484 (intronic SNP in COL4A2), rs10146527 (intronic SNP in NRXN3), rs9909466 (SNP near RPL32P31), and rs2241606 (synonymous SNP in SLC12A7). We found several SNPs in metabolic loci associated with PV. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and elucidate the mechanism between these genetic loci, PV, and clinical BPH.

  5. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, contains Appendices 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 covering the following topics: Eastern North American Empirical Ground Motion Data; Examination of Variance of Seismographic Network Data; Soil Amplification and Vertical-to-Horizontal Ratios from Analysis of Strong Motion Data From Active Tectonic Regions; Revision and Calibration of Ou and Herrmann Method; Generalized Ray Procedure for Modeling Ground Motion Attenuation; Crustal Models for Velocity Regionalization; Depth Distribution Models; Development of Generic Site Effects Model; Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Site Response Methodologies; Plots of Amplification Factors; Assessment of Coupling Between Vertical & Horizontal Motions in Nonlinear Site Response Analysis; and Modeling of Dynamic Soil Properties.

  6. Application of New Technologies to Radiation Biodosimetry in Mammalian Systems. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    7. Dose - response curve of mouse peripheral lympocytes after irradiation with 137Cs gamma ray .................................................... 15...plottea against radiation dose, a dose response curve for chromosome damage in CHO cells is obtained (Fig. 10). Although there is a substantial overlap i...carcinoma cells. When the dose response curve was determined by plotting initial elution slopes vs. radiation dose (Fig. 13), a linear relation was

  7. Aquila Remotely Piloted Vehicle System Technology Demonstration (RPV-STD) Program. Volume 3. Field Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    crash . After this flight, the RPVs were provided with distinctive orientation paint markings, and very strict RC flight command and control...the Impact and target is determined by pinpointing the point of Impact with a curso . The miss distance is displayd In the OCS for artillery adjastment...Northing Time FOV-w - Comments Not Trletng Fgh - Semsor Operator did look am objects for practice. loweat distrotion In oCS Crash (flown lift bil

  8. Determination of fugitive coal-dust emissions from rotary railcar dumping. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookman, E.T.; Carnes, D.H.; Catizone, P.A.; Kelley, K.J.

    1984-09-01

    TRC Environmental Consultants, Inc. conducted 72 field tests to determine particulate emission levels for a rotary railcar coal dumper operated by the Potomac Electric Power Company. Approximately 60 parameters were monitored as part of the testing program. These parameters related to particulate emissions, meteorology, and coal properties. The railcar dumper was situated inside of a shed. No other control devices were in operation during the test program. Emissions were measured at the entrance and exit doorways of the shed using the mass flux technique. Background levels were accounted for using the upwind/downwind technique. The amount of particulate material that deposited within the shed was also recorded. The study resulted in the determination of emission levels that were one to two orders of magnitude less than those cited in the literature. These emission levels were found to correlate the strongest with the moisture content of the coal and whether the coal was washed or unwashed.

  9. Combined first pass and equilibrium radionuclide cardiographic determination of stroke volume for quantitation of valvular regurgitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Aldershvile, J; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    1988-01-01

    A new noninvasive procedure for quantitation of cardiac valve regurgitation was evaluated using a combination of first pass and gated equilibrium radionuclide cardiography in 38 subjects with and without cardiac valve disease. Left-sided cardiac catheterization was performed to determine the seve......A new noninvasive procedure for quantitation of cardiac valve regurgitation was evaluated using a combination of first pass and gated equilibrium radionuclide cardiography in 38 subjects with and without cardiac valve disease. Left-sided cardiac catheterization was performed to determine...... with mild mitral incompetence and 2+ aortic regurgitation, 37% in patients with moderate mitral incompetence and 3+ aortic regurgitation and 57% in patients with severe mitral incompetence and 4+ aortic regurgitation. These findings suggest that combined first pass and gated equilibrium radionuclide...

  10. Transforming Science and Technology: Our Future Depends on It. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2: Proceedings and Contributions to the International Gender and Science and Technology Conference (7th, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, July 31-August 5, 1993) = Transformer les sciences et la technologie: notre avenir en depend. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2. Les soumissions a la septieme conference internationale sur l'equite des sexes en science et en technologie (du 31 juillet au 5 aout 1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Sharon, Ed.; Holmes, Ann, Ed.

    This two-volume set of papers was produced for the seventh International Gender and Science and Technology (GASTA) Conference. Abstracts of all papers and other presentations have been translated and are published in both English and French. Papers are published in the language in which they were submitted (English or French). GASAT provides a…

  11. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-07-01

    The preliminary requirements and technology advances required for cost effective space power management systems for multi-100 kilowatt requirements were identified. System requirements were defined by establishing a baseline space platform in the 250 KE KWe range and examining typical user loads and interfaces. The most critical design parameters identified for detailed analysis include: increased distribution voltages and space plasma losses, the choice between ac and dc distribution systems, shuttle servicing effects on reliability, life cycle costs, and frequency impacts to power management system and payload systems for AC transmission. The first choice for a power management system for this kind of application and size range is a hybrid ac/dc combination with the following major features: modular design and construction-sized minimum weight/life cycle cost; high voltage transmission (100 Vac RMS); medium voltage array or = 440 Vdc); resonant inversion; transformer rotary joint; high frequency power transmission line or = 20 KHz); energy storage on array side or rotary joint; fully redundant; and 10 year life with minimal replacement and repair.

  12. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 5. Heat pipe topical, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-01

    Work performed by Dynatherm Corporation for Teledyne Isotopes during a program entitled ''Heat Pipe Fabrication, Associated Technical Support and Reporting'' is reported. The program was initiated on November 29, 1972; the main objectives were accomplished with the delivery of the heat pipes for the HPG. Life testing of selected heat pipe specimens is continuing to and beyond the present date. The program consisted of the following tasks: Heat Pipe Development of Process Definition; Prototype Heat Pipes for Fin Segment Test; HPG Heat Pipe Fabrication and Testing; Controlled Heat Pipe Life Test; and Heat Pipe Film Coefficient Determination. (TFD)

  13. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. Therefore, empirically based approaches that are used for other regions, such as Western North America, are not appropriate for Eastern North America. Moreover, recent advances in science and technology have now made it possible to combine theoretical and empirical methods to develop new procedures and models for estimating ground motion. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. Specifically considered are magnitudes M from 5 to 8, distances from 0 to 500 km, and frequencies from 1 to 35 Hz.

  14. Rapid Determination of Optimal Conditions in a Continuous Flow Reactor Using Process Analytical Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow reactors (CFRs are an emerging technology that offer several advantages over traditional batch synthesis methods, including more efficient mixing schemes, rapid heat transfer, and increased user safety. Of particular interest to the specialty chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing industries is the significantly improved reliability and product reproducibility over time. CFR reproducibility can be attributed to the reactors achieving and maintaining a steady state once all physical and chemical conditions have stabilized. This work describes the implementation of a smart CFR with univariate physical and multivariate chemical monitoring that allows for rapid determination of steady state, requiring less than one minute. Additionally, the use of process analytical technology further enabled a significant reduction in the time and cost associated with offline validation methods. The technology implemented for this study is chemistry and hardware agnostic, making this approach a viable means of optimizing the conditions of any CFR.

  15. ASRDI oxygen technology survey, Volume 7: Characteristics of metals that influence system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis of the material and process factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems is presented. In addition, the practices of those who specify, build, or use oxygen systems relative to the previous is summarized. Alloys based on iron, copper, nickel, and aluminum were investigated representing the bulk of metals found in oxygen systems. Safety-related characteristics of other miscellaneous metals are summarized. It was found that factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems exit in all phases of the evolutionary process, from smelting and mill techniques through end-production fabrication. The safety of a given metal in an oxygen system was determined to be influenced by the particular service requirement. The metal characteristics should favorably influence fulfillment of these requirements. Thus, no singular metal or alloy could be classified as safest for all types of oxygen service.

  16. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 1: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transport and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews the economics, regulation and planning of CCS for power plants and industry, and goes on to explore developments and innovation in post- and pre-combustion and advanced combustion processes and technologies for CO{sub 2} capture in power plants. This coverage is extended with sections on CO{sub 2} compression, transport and injection and industrial applications of CCS technology, including in the cement and concrete and iron and steel industries.

  17. Determining the nonlinear refractive index of fused quartz by femtosecond laser Z-scan technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Ren, Huan; Ma, Hua; Shi, Zhendong; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Quan; Feng, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Yurong; Chen, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Z-scan technology is an experimental technique for determining the nonlinear refractive index based on the principle of transformation of phase distortion to amplitude distortion when a laser beam propagates through a nonlinear material. For most of the Z-scan system based on the nanosecond or picosecond laser, the accumulation of thermal effects becomes a big problem in nonlinear refractive index measurement especially for the nonlinear materials such as fused quartz and neodymium glass which have a weak nonlinear refractive effect. To overcome this problem, a system for determining the nonlinear refractive index of optical materials based on the femtosecond laser Z-scan technology is presented. Using this system, the nonlinear refractive index of the fused quartz is investigated.

  18. Technological determinants of the lifetime well-being in the 21th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhironkin Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with technological determinants of the lifetime social well-being, as conditions of maintaining the level and style of consumption, social status throughout the whole life. Despite the high importance of the problem of the social well-being and the relevance of its solution for the development of modern society, the issues of its correlation with the technological level of production and the development of information technologies are still poorly researched. As the problem of the life-time wellbeing take on special significance, it is important to analyze its conditions, related not only to social benefits, but also to the scientific and technological progress. For the future innovation and the digital stage of social well-being is its network well-being. It is based on the usage of the Internet for professional activity and personal self-fulfillment during the whole conscious life. Network well-being also reflects the convergence of information and network, industrial, financial, marketing, and social technologies. The formation of the life-time network well-being requires from the Government some measures of social adjustment, fiscal policy and the regulation of employment to encourage Internet Education and Internet employment, enhancing the prestige of working in high-tech industries.

  19. Applying a new method for direct collection, volume quantification and determination of N2 emission from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhong; Gao, Yan; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Junyao; Yan, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    The emission of N2 is important to remove excess N from lakes, ponds, and wetlands. To investigate the gas emission from water, Gao et al. (2013) developed a new method using a bubble trap device to collect gas samples from waters. However, the determination accuracy of sampling volume and gas component concentration was still debatable. In this study, the method was optimized for in situ sampling, accurate volume measurement and direct injection to a gas chromatograph for the analysis of N2 and other gases. By the optimized new method, the recovery rate for N2 was 100.28% on average; the mean coefficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.9997; the limit of detection was 0.02%. We further assessed the effects of the new method, bottle full of water, vs. vacuum bag and vacuum vial methods, on variations of N2 concentration as influenced by sample storage times of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days at constant temperature of 15°C, using indices of averaged relative peak area (%) in comparison with the averaged relative peak area of each method at 0 day. The indices of the bottle full of water method were the lowest (99.5%-108.5%) compared to the indices of vacuum bag and vacuum vial methods (119%-217%). Meanwhile, the gas chromatograph determination of other gas components (O2, CH4, and N2O) was also accurate. The new method was an alternative way to investigate N2 released from various kinds of aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Applying a new method for direct collection, volume quantification and determination of N2 emission from water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhong Liu; Yan Gao; Honglian Wang; Junyao Guo; Shaohua Yan

    2015-01-01

    The emission of N2 is important to remove excess N from lakes,ponds,and wetlands.To investigate the gas emission from water,Gao et al.(2013) developed a new method using a bubble trap device to collect gas samples from waters.However,the determination accuracy of sampling volume and gas component concentration was still debatable.In this study,the method was optimized for in situ sampling,accurate volume measurement and direct injection to a gas chromatograph for the analysis of N2 and other gases.By the optimized new method,the recovery rate for N2 was 100.28% on average; the mean coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.9997; the limit of detection was 0.02%.We further assessed the effects of the new method,bottle full of water,vs.vacuum bag and vacuum vial methods,on variations of N2 concentration as influenced by sample storage times of 1,2,3,5,and 7 days at constant temperature of 15℃,using indices of averaged relative peak area (%) in comparison with the averaged relative peak area of each method at 0 day.The indices of the bottle full of water method were the lowest (99.5%--108.5%) compared to the indices of vacuum bag and vacuum vial methods (119%-217%).Meanwhile,the gas chromatograph determination of other gas components (O2,CH4,and N2O) was also accurate.The new method was an alternative way to investigate N2 released from various kinds of aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Determination of properties of clean coal technology post-process residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities of using modern measuring devices to determine the properties of process residues (Polish acronym: UPP. UPP was taken from the combustion process from a power plant in Silesia. Determining the properties of UPP is the basis for making decisions about its practical application, for example, as a raw material to obtain useful products such as: pozzolan, cenosphere or zeolite, for which there is demand. The development of advanced technology and science has given rise to modern and precise research tools that contribute to the development of appropriate methods to assess the properties of post-process residue. For this study the following were used: scanning electron microscope with EDS microanalysis and an analyzer for particle size-, shape- and number- analysis. The study conducted confirms the effectiveness of SEM analysis to determine the properties of post-process residue from Clean Coal Technologies (CCT. The results obtained are an introduction to further research on the determination of properties of CCT post-process residue. Research to determine the properties of CCT post-process residue only began relatively recently.

  2. Girls And Science And Technology (GASAT). Proceedings of the Conference (1st, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, November 9-13, 1981). Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raat, Jan H.; And Others

    An international conference was held: (1) to determine what can be done to make science (particularly physics) and technology more attractive to girls; (2) to examine how girls who study science and technology can have the same opportunities as boys have; and (3) to see that girls have the same results in science and technology as boys have. These…

  3. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  4. Determination of the Representative Elementary Volume for the study of sandstones and siltstones by X-Ray microtomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquiel Salvi Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available X-Ray computerized microtomography (µ-CT besides providing two-dimensional images (2-D of the transversal sections of the sample, the biggest attraction of the methodology is the rendering of three-dimensional images (3-D, enabling a more real analysis of the porous structure of the rock. However, the reconstruction, visualization and analysis of such 3-D images are limited in computer terms. Thus, it is not always possible to reconstruct the images with the total size of the microtomographed sample. Therefore, this study aims at determining the Representative Elementary Volume (REV in reservoir rocks concerning their porosity. In order to collect microtomographic data from reservoir rocks, a microtomograph Skyscan model 1172 was utilized for the sandstone and siltstone samples scanning. After the analysis of the graphs obtained by REV, it was concluded that the most adequate dimensions for the reconstructed volume in each analyzed sample were approximately 1400 × 1400 × 1400 µm, which are dimensions that can easily be reconstructed, visualized and analyzed.

  5. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 5. Appendix V-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 5, Appendix V - D. This appendix includes the final verification run data package (PAH, TCLP herbicides, TCLP pesticides).

  6. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (36th, Anaheim, California, 2013). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    For the thirty-sixth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the annual AECT Convention in Anaheim, California. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  7. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (38th, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2015). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    For the thirty-eighth time, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the annual AECT Convention in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  8. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (32nd, Louisville, KY, 2009). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    For the thirty-second year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the national AECT Convention in Louisville, Kentucky. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  9. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (37th, Jacksonville, Florida, 2014). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    For the thirty-seventh year, the Research and Theory Division and the Division of Instructional Design of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) sponsored the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the annual AECT Convention in Jacksonville, Florida. This year's Proceedings…

  10. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (36th, Anaheim, California, 2013). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    For the thirty-sixth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the annual AECT Convention in Anaheim, California. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  11. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (33rd, Anaheim, California, 2010). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    For the thirty-third year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the national AECT Convention in Anaheim, California. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  12. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (35th, Louisville, Kentucky, 2012). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    For the thirty-fifth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the national AECT Convention in Louisville, Kentucky. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  13. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (35th, Louisville, Kentucky, 2012). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    For the thirty-fifth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the national AECT Convention in Louisville, Kentucky. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  14. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (28th, Orlando, Florida, 2005). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.; Crawford, Margaret, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    For the twenty-eighth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the National AECT Convention in Orlando, Florida. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  15. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (28th, Orlando, Florida, 2005). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.; Crawford, Margaret, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    For the twenty-eighth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the National AECT Convention in Orlando, Florida. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  16. Technology of high-level nuclear waste disposal. Advances in the science and engineering of the management of high-level nuclear wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P.L. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    The twenty papers in this volume are divided into three parts: site exploration and characterization; repository development and design; and waste package development and design. These papers represent the status of technology that existed in 1981 and 1982. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  17. Two-dimensional echocardiographic determination of left atrial emptying volume: a noninvasive index in quantifying the degree of nonrheumatic mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J F; Kotler, M N; DePace, N L; Mintz, G S; Kimbiris, D; Kalman, P; Ross, J

    1983-10-01

    Several noninvasive techniques, including radionuclide angiography and Doppler echocardiography, have attempted to measure the regurgitant volume in patients with mitral regurgitation; however, none of these techniques are entirely satisfactory. Utilizing a computerized light pen method for tracing the left atrial endocardial border during systole and diastole in two orthogonal planes (apical four and two chamber views), biplane volume determinations were calculated in 12 normal subjects and 30 patients with nonrheumatic mitral regurgitation. Left atrial emptying volume determinations were performed by subtracting the left atrial end-diastolic volume from the left atrial end-systolic volume. The degree of mitral regurgitation was visually assessed as normal (0, trivial, Group I, 12 patients), mild (1+, Group II, 4 patients), moderate (2+, Group III, 8 patients), moderately severe (3+, Group IV, 12 patients) and severe (4+, Group V, 6 patients) by contrast left ventricular angiography and also quantitatively by regurgitant fraction at cardiac catheterization. All 18 patients with moderately severe (Group IV) and severe (Group V) mitral regurgitation had a left atrial emptying volume greater than 40 ml compared with none of the normal subjects and patients with mild (Group II) or moderate (Group III) mitral regurgitation. There was good correlation between left atrial emptying volume and mitral regurgitant fraction (r = 0.85, p less than 0.01). Thus, in patients with nonrheumatic mitral regurgitation, left atrial emptying volume is useful in separating mild from severe mitral regurgitation.

  18. Determination of amphetamines in hair by GC/MS after small-volume liquid extraction and microwave derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Pinjia; Zhu, Dan; He, Hongyuan; Wang, Yanyan; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Liang

    2009-09-01

    We report here on the results of a procedure for the determination of amphetamine drugs in hair. The procedure is simple and sensitive. The results from the procedure using small-volume extraction matches perfectly with those either from using the derivatization method or selected ion monitoring (SIM) detection. We validated our method using four different amine drugs, including amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxy-amphetamine and methylenedioxy-methamphetamine. The detection limit for these drugs is about 50 +/- 7.5 pg/mg in hair and the intra-day and inter-day reproducibility are within 15% at most drug concentrations. Moreover, we also showed the utility of the procedure in analyses of authentic hair samples taken from amphetamine abusers, and demonstrated that the method meets the requirement for the analysis of a trace amounts of amphetamines in human hair.

  19. Determining the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of a compacted sand-bentonite mixture under constant volume and free-swell conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Yu-Jun; Loiseau, Cyril; Delage, Pierre; 10.1016/j.pce.2008.10.017

    2008-01-01

    Highly compacted sand-bentonite mixtures are often considered as possible engineered barriers in deep high-level radioactive waste disposals. In-situ, the saturation of these barriers from their initially unsaturated state is a complex hydro-mechanical coupled process in which temperature effects also play a role. The key parameter of this process is the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the barrier. In this paper, isothermal infiltration experiments were conducted to determine the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity according to the instantaneous profile method. To do so, total suction changes were monitored at different locations along the soil specimen by using resistivity relative humidity probes. Three constant volume infiltration tests were conducted showing, unexpectedly, a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity during infiltration. One test performed under free-swell conditions showed the opposite and standard trend. These observations were interpreted in terms of microstructure changes during wett...

  20. CD4 enumeration technologies: a systematic review of test performance for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna W Peeling

    Full Text Available Measurement of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (CD4 is a crucial parameter in the management of HIV patients, particularly in determining eligibility to initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART. A number of technologies exist for CD4 enumeration, with considerable variation in cost, complexity, and operational requirements. We conducted a systematic review of the performance of technologies for CD4 enumeration.Studies were identified by searching electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE using a pre-defined search strategy. Data on test accuracy and precision included bias and limits of agreement with a reference standard, and misclassification probabilities around CD4 thresholds of 200 and 350 cells/μl over a clinically relevant range. The secondary outcome measure was test imprecision, expressed as % coefficient of variation. Thirty-two studies evaluating 15 CD4 technologies were included, of which less than half presented data on bias and misclassification compared to the same reference technology. At CD4 counts 350 cells/μl, bias ranged from -70.7 to +47 cells/μl, compared to the BD FACSCount as a reference technology. Misclassification around the threshold of 350 cells/μl ranged from 1-29% for upward classification, resulting in under-treatment, and 7-68% for downward classification resulting in overtreatment. Less than half of these studies reported within laboratory precision or reproducibility of the CD4 values obtained.A wide range of bias and percent misclassification around treatment thresholds were reported on the CD4 enumeration technologies included in this review, with few studies reporting assay precision. The lack of standardised methodology on test evaluation, including the use of different reference standards, is a barrier to assessing relative assay performance and could hinder the introduction of new point-of-care assays in countries where they are most needed.

  1. CD4 Enumeration Technologies: A Systematic Review of Test Performance for Determining Eligibility for Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W.; Sollis, Kimberly A.; Glover, Sarah; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Landay, Alan L.; Cheng, Ben; Barnett, David; Denny, Thomas N.; Spira, Thomas J.; Stevens, Wendy S.; Crowley, Siobhan; Essajee, Shaffiq; Vitoria, Marco; Ford, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Measurement of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (CD4) is a crucial parameter in the management of HIV patients, particularly in determining eligibility to initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART). A number of technologies exist for CD4 enumeration, with considerable variation in cost, complexity, and operational requirements. We conducted a systematic review of the performance of technologies for CD4 enumeration. Methods and Findings Studies were identified by searching electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE using a pre-defined search strategy. Data on test accuracy and precision included bias and limits of agreement with a reference standard, and misclassification probabilities around CD4 thresholds of 200 and 350 cells/μl over a clinically relevant range. The secondary outcome measure was test imprecision, expressed as % coefficient of variation. Thirty-two studies evaluating 15 CD4 technologies were included, of which less than half presented data on bias and misclassification compared to the same reference technology. At CD4 counts 350 cells/μl, bias ranged from -70.7 to +47 cells/μl, compared to the BD FACSCount as a reference technology. Misclassification around the threshold of 350 cells/μl ranged from 1-29% for upward classification, resulting in under-treatment, and 7-68% for downward classification resulting in overtreatment. Less than half of these studies reported within laboratory precision or reproducibility of the CD4 values obtained. Conclusions A wide range of bias and percent misclassification around treatment thresholds were reported on the CD4 enumeration technologies included in this review, with few studies reporting assay precision. The lack of standardised methodology on test evaluation, including the use of different reference standards, is a barrier to assessing relative assay performance and could hinder the introduction of new point-of-care assays in countries where they are most needed. PMID:25790185

  2. Tumor volume in subcutaneous mouse xenografts measured by microCT is more accurate and reproducible than determined by 18F-FDG-microPET or external caliper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Jesper

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animal studies tumor size is used to assess responses to anticancer therapy. Current standard for volumetric measurement of xenografted tumors is by external caliper, a method often affected by error. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if microCT gives more accurate and reproducible measures of tumor size in mice compared with caliper measurements. Furthermore, we evaluated the accuracy of tumor volume determined from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET. Methods Subcutaneously implanted human breast adenocarcinoma cells in NMRI nude mice served as tumor model. Tumor volume (n = 20 was determined in vivo by external caliper, microCT and 18F-FDG-PET and subsequently reference volume was determined ex vivo. Intra-observer reproducibility of the microCT and caliper methods were determined by acquiring 10 repeated volume measurements. Volumes of a group of tumors (n = 10 were determined independently by two observers to assess inter-observer variation. Results Tumor volume measured by microCT, PET and caliper all correlated with reference volume. No significant bias of microCT measurements compared with the reference was found, whereas both PET and caliper had systematic bias compared to reference volume. Coefficients of variation for intra-observer variation were 7% and 14% for microCT and caliper measurements, respectively. Regression coefficients between observers were 0.97 for microCT and 0.91 for caliper measurements. Conclusion MicroCT was more accurate than both caliper and 18F-FDG-PET for in vivo volumetric measurements of subcutaneous tumors in mice.18F-FDG-PET was considered unsuitable for determination of tumor size. External caliper were inaccurate and encumbered with a significant and size dependent bias. MicroCT was also the most reproducible of the methods.

  3. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 1. Primary model documentation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Roger E.; Herod, J. Steven; Andrews, Gwen L.; Budzik, Philip M.; Eissenstat, Richard S.; Grossmann, John R.; Reiner, Gary M.; Roschke, Thomas E.; Shulman, Michael J.; Toppen, Timothy R.; Veno, William R.; Violette, Daniel M.; Smolinski, Michael D.; Habel, Deborah; Cook, Alvin E.

    1979-10-01

    ISTUM is designed to predict the commercial market penetration of various energy technologies in the industrial sector out to the year 2000. It is a refinement and further development of Market Oriented Program Planning Study task force in 1977. ISTUM assesses the comparative economic competitiveness of each technology and competes over 100 energy technologies - conventionals, fossil/energy, conservation, cogeneration, solar, and geothermal. A broad overview of the model, the solution of the model, and an in-depth discussion of strength and limitations of the model are provided in Volume I. (MCW)

  4. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption : a comparison of three models to explain and predict mobile communication technology behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption in an attempt to better understand people’s behavior for adopting and using innovative information and communication technologies. In particular, this study emphasizes the compariso

  6. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Advanced Retrofit Roof Technologies Using Field-Test Data Phase Three Final Report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents some miscellaneous data from two low-slope and two steep-slope experimental roofs. The low-slope roofs were designed to compare the performance of various roof coatings exposed to natural weatherization. The steep-slope roofs contained different combinations of phase change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface and above-sheathing ventilation, with standing-seam metal panels on top. The steep-slope roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. This article describes phase three (3) of a study that began in 2009 to evaluate the energy benefits of a sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing standing-seam metal roofing panels combined with energy efficient features like above-sheathing-ventilation (ASV), phase change material (PCM) and rigid insulation board. The data from phases 1 and 2 have been previously published and reported [Kosny et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011; Biswas and Childs, 2012; Kosny et al., 2012]. Based on previous data analyses and discussions within the research group, additional test roofs were installed in May 2012, to test new configurations and further investigate different components of the dynamic insulation systems. Some experimental data from phase 3 testing from May 2012 to December 2013 and some EnergyPlus modeling results have been reported in volumes 1 and 3, respectively, of the final report [Biswas et al., 2014; Biswas and Bhandari, 2014].

  8. DETERMINANTS OF ADOPTION OF POTATO PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY PACKAGE BY SMALLHOLDER FARMERS: EVIDENCES FROM EASTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu KETEMA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Potato production plays an important role in improving household income and nutrition and thereby contributes to food security. Despite of this, the current productivity of the crop is below the potential. Low level of use of improved potato technology package is among the causes for low productivity. In this context, this study analysed the factors influencing adoption of potato technology package by smallholder farmers in Gurawa, Haramaya, Kombolcha, Meta, and Habro districts of Eastern Ethiopia. The analysis was based on a household survey conducted on 214 randomly selected potato growing households. A two-limit Tobit model was used to analyse the factors affecting adoption which is measured in an index computed from five components of the technology package. Variation in districts, access to irrigation, farm size, membership to cooperatives, and annual income of the households were found to significantly affect the adoption of potato technology package. Policy makers, planners and development practitioners are required to give due attention to these determinants in order to support smallholder farmers in production and productivity improvements from potato production.

  9. Determinants of technology adoption in the retail trade industry – the case of SMEs in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Romero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the determinants of small and medium-sized enterprises’ technology adoption in the retail trade industry. From the theoretical perspective, two types of influential factors are differentiated in this respect: the personal characteristics of the manager/business owner and the business’s organizational characteristics. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 268 small and medium-sized enterprises in the Spanish retail trade sector. A logistic regression specification is used as an econometric method. The results indicate that both the acquisition of new technical and electronic equipment and the obtaining of new software are affected by the two types of determinants previously pointed out. The manager/business owner’s entrepreneurial motivation and educational background have significant influences on technology adoption in this type of companies. Furthermore, being part of a business group, carrying out training activities for the employees and inter-firm cooperation also positively influence technology adoption in the retail trade industry.

  10. Technology Estimating 2: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Wallace, Jon; Schaffer, Mark; May, M. Scott; Greenberg, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    As a leader in space technology research and development, NASA is continuing in the development of the Technology Estimating process, initiated in 2012, for estimating the cost and schedule of low maturity technology research and development, where the Technology Readiness Level is less than TRL 6. NASA' s Technology Roadmap areas consist of 14 technology areas. The focus of this continuing Technology Estimating effort included four Technology Areas (TA): TA3 Space Power and Energy Storage, TA4 Robotics, TA8 Instruments, and TA12 Materials, to confine the research to the most abundant data pool. This research report continues the development of technology estimating efforts completed during 2013-2014, and addresses the refinement of parameters selected and recommended for use in the estimating process, where the parameters developed are applicable to Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) used in the parametric cost estimating analysis. This research addresses the architecture for administration of the Technology Cost and Scheduling Estimating tool, the parameters suggested for computer software adjunct to any technology area, and the identification of gaps in the Technology Estimating process.

  11. Annual Proceedings of Selected Papers on the Practice of Education Communications and Technology Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (38th, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2015). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    For the thirty-eighth time, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the annual AECT Convention in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  12. Tribological Technology. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    TABLE 7 PRESSURE-VISCOSITY COEFFICIENTS (REF. 11) I - . ..- 445 103 -- 02 -s 10 00 A04wCm eve * oPe’-re’ -.* : ;-T’ enl mne-SI C. oC-ftht’E 050 100...821745~r A𔃿 32 l C 225 Mt25 5 12 o60 310 it 34C 6 85 io 11 * 3f5 . 295 t~ri~ Lortoing.~ eve lrsi~in4635 W-ongor St. K-o,- CrY. Wi~- 84 112 -7.BLE 11...forming on the surfaces and this phenomenon has been used by March and Rabinowicz (1976) for incipient fatigu 6 investigations using a rolling four-ball

  13. Determination of the minimum size of a statistical representative volume element from a fibre-reinforced composite based on point pattern statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, Trias et al. [1] determined the minimum size of a statistical representative volume element (SRVE) of a unidirectional fibre-reinforced composite primarily based on numerical analyses of the stress/strain field. In continuation of this, the present study determines the minimum...

  14. Determining student teachers' perceptions on using technology via Likert scale, visual association test and metaphors: A mixed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevhibe Kobak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine senior student teachers’ perceptions on using technology by approaching various points of view. In this study, researchers collected data through Technology Perceptions Scale, Visual Association Activity and Technology Metaphors. The participants of the study were 104 senior student teachers who were enrolled in Balıkesir University Necatibey Faculty of Education. In this descriptive study, researchers interpreted qualitative data in conjunction with quantitative data. Based on the data obtained, even though student teachers’ perceptions on using technology were found positive in the light of Likert scale, there was no significant relation in terms of gender and enrolled undergraduate program. According to the results of visual association test, student teachers ranked smartboard, Internet and computer in the first three, and portable media player, mobile phone and video/camera in the last three. Besides, researchers analyzed and classified student teachers’ metaphors about technology under 9 categories: 1developing-changing technology, 2rapidly progressing technology, 3 limitless-endless technology, 4beneficial technology, 5harmful technology, 6both beneficial and harmful technology, 7indispensible technology, 8technology as a necessity, 9 all-inclusive technology. At the end of the study, those nine categories which were acquired using the content analysis technique are presented in a table which shows the interaction between categories in a holistic view.

  15. Tumor volume in subcutaneous mouse xenografts measured by microCT is more accurate and reproducible than determined by 18F-FDG-microPET or external caliper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Munk; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjaer; Binderup, Tina;

    2008-01-01

    and reproducible measures of tumor size in mice compared with caliper measurements. Furthermore, we evaluated the accuracy of tumor volume determined from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET. METHODS: Subcutaneously implanted human breast adenocarcinoma cells in NMRI nude mice served as tumor model. Tumor volume...... systematic bias compared to reference volume. Coefficients of variation for intra-observer variation were 7% and 14% for microCT and caliper measurements, respectively. Regression coefficients between observers were 0.97 for microCT and 0.91 for caliper measurements. CONCLUSION: MicroCT was more accurate...

  16. Comparison of imaging-based gross tumor volume and pathological volume determined by whole-mount serial sections in primary cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ying Zhang,1,* Jing Hu,1,* Jianping Li,1 Ning Wang,1 Weiwei Li,1 Yongchun Zhou,1 Junyue Liu,1 Lichun Wei,1 Mei Shi,1 Shengjun Wang,2 Jing Wang,2 Xia Li,3 Wanling Ma4 1Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi'an, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To investigate the accuracy of imaging-based gross tumor volume (GTV compared with pathological volume in cervical cancer.Methods: Ten patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I–II cervical cancer were eligible for investigation and underwent surgery in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT scans were taken the day before surgery. The GTVs under MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT (GTV-MRI, GTV-PET, GTV-CT were calculated automatically by Eclipse treatment-planning systems. Specimens of excised uterine cervix and cervical cancer were consecutively sliced and divided into whole-mount serial sections. The tumor border of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections was outlined under a microscope by an experienced pathologist. GTV through pathological image (GTV-path was calculated with Adobe Photoshop.Results: The GTVs (average ± standard deviation delineated and calculated under CT, MRI, PET, and histopathological sections were 19.41 ± 11.96 cm3, 12.66 ± 10.53 cm3, 11.07 ± 9.44 cm3, and 10.79 ± 8.71 cm3, respectively. The volume of GTV-CT or GTV-MR was bigger than GTV-path, and the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05. Spearman correlation analysis showed that GTV-CT, GTV-MRI, and GTV-PET were significantly correlated with GTV-path (P < 0.01. There was no significant difference in the lesion coverage factor among the three modalities.Conclusion: The present study showed that GTV defined under 40% of maximum standardized

  17. A numerical-statistical approach to determining the representative elementary volume (REV of cement paste for measuring diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete diffusivity is a function of its microstructure on many scales, ranging from nanometres to millimetres. Multi-scale techniques are therefore needed to model this parameter. Representative elementary volume (REV, in conjunction with the homogenization principle, is one of the most common multi-scale approaches. This study aimed to establish a procedure for establishing the REV required to determine cement paste diffusivity based on a three-step, numerical-statistical approach. First, several series of 3D cement paste microstructures were generated with HYMOSTRUC3D, a cement hydration and microstructure model, for different volumes of cement paste and w/c ratios ranging from 0.30 to 0.60. Second, the finite element method was used to simulate the diffusion of tritiated water through these microstructures. Effective cement paste diffusivity values for different REVs were obtained by applying Fick’s law. Finally, statistical analysis was used to find the fluctuation in effective diffusivity with cement paste volume, from which the REV was then determined. The conclusion drawn was that the REV for measuring diffusivity in cement paste is 100x100x100 μm3.

    La difusividad del hormigón depende de su microestructura a numerosas escalas, desde nanómetros hasta milímetros, por lo que se precisa de técnicas multiescala para representar este parámetro. Junto con el principio de homogeneización, uno de los métodos multiescala más habituales es el volumen elemental representativo (VER. El objeto de este estudio era establecer un procedimiento que permitiera determinar el VER necesario para calcular la difusividad de la pasta de cemento, basándose en un método numéricoestadístico que consta de tres etapas. Primero, se crearon varias series de microestructuras de pasta de cemento en 3D con HYMOSTRUC3D, un programa que permite crear un modelo de la hidratación y microestructura del cemento. Luego se empleó el método de

  18. Determination of somatic oncogenic mutations linked to target-based therapies using MassARRAY technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca-Cardeñosa, Marta J.; Mongort, Cristina; Alonso, Elisa; Navarro, Samuel; Burgues, Octavio; Vivancos, Ana; Cejalvo, Juan Miguel; Perez-Fidalgo, José Alejandro; Roselló, Susana; Ribas, Gloria; Cervantes, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutation analysis represents a useful tool in selecting personalized therapy. The aim of our study was to determine the presence of common genetic events affecting actionable oncogenes using a MassARRAY technology in patients with advanced solid tumors who were potential candidates for target-based therapies. The analysis of 238 mutations across 19 oncogenes was performed in 197 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of different tumors using the OncoCarta Panel v1.0 (Sequenom Hamburg, Germany). Of the 197 specimens, 97 (49.2%) presented at least one mutation. Forty-nine different oncogenic mutations in 16 genes were detected. Mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA were detected in 40/97 (41.2%) and 30/97 (30.9%) patients respectively. Thirty-one patients (32.0%) had mutations in two genes, 20 of them (64.5%) initially diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The co-occurrence of mutation involved mainly KRAS, PIK3CA, KIT and RET. Mutation profiles were validated using a customized panel and the Junior Next-Generation Sequencing technology (GS-Junior 454, Roche). Twenty-eight patients participated in early clinical trials or received specific treatments according to the molecular characterization (28.0%). MassARRAY technology is a rapid and effective method for identifying key cancer-driving mutations across a large number of samples, which allows for a more appropriate selection for personalized therapies. PMID:26968814

  19. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 3. Appendix on service and fuel demands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This book is the third volume of the ISTUM report. The first volume of the report describes the primary model logic and the model's data inputs. The second volume lists and evaluates the results of one model run. This and the fourth volume give supplementary information in two sets of model data - the energy consumption base and technology descriptions. Chapter III of Vol. I, Book 1 describes the ISTUM demand base and explains how that demand base was developed. This volume serves as a set of appendices to that chapter. The chapter on demands in Vol. I describes the assumptions and methodology used in constructing the ISTUM demand base; this volume simply lists tables of data from that demand base. This book divides the demand tables into two appendices. Appendix III-1 contains detailed tables on ISTUM fuel-consumption estimates, service-demand forecasts, and size and load-factor distributions. Appendix III-2 contains tables detailing ISTUM allocations of each industry's fuel consumption to service sectors. The tables show how the ECDB was used to develop the ISTUM demand base.

  20. Progresses in Applications of Stable Isotope Technology to Determining Geographical Origins of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Li-ming

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of proper geographical origin of traditional Chinese medicine is critical for guaranteeing the quality and efficacy of the medicine, safeguarding the market order, and reducing the medical negligence rate due to fake products. Stable isotope technology, as one of the most efficient methods to determine agricultural products authenticity and traceability, have great advantages and theoretical basis for determining geo-origin of traditional Chinese medicine, and it has been applied to many expensive herbs. In this review, the basic principles of isotopic traceability were firstly introduced. We then elaborate in details the frequently-used isotopic indicators in the geo origin studies of traditional Chinese medicine. We also provide a summary of current research progresses and point out some directions for future research. The purpose of this paper is to promote the applications of stable isotopes to traditional Chinese medicine traceability studies and the establishment of the isotopic database and the improvement of the medicine traceability.

  1. Analysis of variance in determinations of equivalence volume and of the ionic product of water in potentiometric titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braibanti, A; Bruschi, C; Fisicaro, E; Pasquali, M

    1986-06-01

    Homogeneous sets of data from strong acid-strong base potentiometric titrations in aqueous solution at various constant ionic strengths have been analysed by statistical criteria. The aim is to see whether the error distribution matches that for the equilibrium constants determined by competitive potentiometric methods using the glass electrode. The titration curve can be defined when the estimated equivalence volume VEM, with standard deviation (s.d.) sigma (VEM), the standard potential E(0), with s.d. sigma(E(0)), and the operational ionic product of water K(*)(w) (or E(*)(w) in mV), with s.d. sigma(K(*)(w)) [or sigma(E(*)(w))] are known. A special computer program, BEATRIX, has been written which optimizes the values of VEM, E(0) and K(*)(w) by linearization of the titration curve as a Gran plot. Analysis of variance applied to a set of 11 titrations in 1.0M sodium chloride medium at 298 K has demonstrated that the values of VEM belong to a normal population of points corresponding to individual potential/volume data-pairs (E(i); v(i)) of any titration, whereas the values of pK(*)(w) (or of E(*)(w)) belong to a normal population with members corresponding to individual titrations, which is also the case for the equilibrium constants. The intertitration variation is attributable to the electrochemical component of the system and appears as signal noise distributed over the titrations. The correction for junction-potentials, introduced in a further stage of the program by optimization in a Nernst equation, increases the noise, i.e., sigma(pK(*)(w)). This correction should therefore be avoided whenever it causes an increase of sigma(pK(*)(w)). The influence of the ionic medium has been examined by processing data from acid-base titrations in 0.1M potassium chloride and 0.5M potassium nitrate media. The titrations in potassium chloride medium showed the same behaviour as those in sodium chloride medium, but with an s.d. for pK(*)(w) that was smaller and close to the

  2. Environmental Restoration/Waste Management - applied technology. Semiannual report, July 1992--June 1993, Volume 1, Number 2, and Volume 2, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P.W.; Bruner, J.M.; Price, M.E.; Talaber, C.J. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Restoration/Waste Management-Applied Technology (ER/WM-AT) Program is developing restoration and waste treatment technologies needed for the ongoing environmental cleanup of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and treatment technologies for wastes generated in the nuclear weapons production complex. These technologies can find application to similar problems nationally and even worldwide. They can be demonstrated at the Livermore site, which mirrors (on a small scale) many of the environmental and waste management problems of the rest of the DOE complex. Their commercialization should speed cleanup, and the scope of the task should make it attractive to US industry. The articles in this semi-annual report cover the following areas: ceramic final forms for residues of mixed waste treatment; treatment of wastes containing sodium nitrate; actinide volatility in thermal oxidation processes; in situ microbial filters for remediating contaminated soils; collaboration with scientists in the former Soviet Union on new ER/WM technologies; and fiber-optic sensors for chlorinated organic solvents.

  3. Assessment of the use of space technology in the monitoring of oil spills and ocean pollution: Technical volume. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, U. R. (Editor); Chafaris, G.; Chestek, J.; Contrad, J.; Frippel, G.; Gulatsi, R.; Heath, A.; Hodara, H.; Kritikos, H.; Tamiyasu, K.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of space systems and technology for detecting and monitoring ocean oil spills and waste pollution was assessed as well as the impact of this application on communication and data handling systems. Agencies charged with responsibilities in this area were identified and their measurement requirements were ascertained in order to determine the spatial resolution needed to characterize operational and accidental discharges. Microwave and optical sensors and sensing techniques were evaluated as candidate system elements. Capabilities are described for the following: synthetic aperture radar, microwave scatterometer, passive microwave radiometer, microwave altimeter, electro-optical sensors currently used in airborne detection, existing space-based optical sensors, the thematic mapper, and the pointable optical linear array.

  4. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Standardized Uptake Value (SUV-shape Scheme for Thyroid Volume Determination in Graves’ Disease: A Comparison with Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yangchun chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of thyroid volume measurement using 99mTc pertechnetate single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images, acquired by the standardized uptake value (SUV-shape scheme designed by our expert team.Methods: A total of 18 consecutive patients with Graves’ disease (GD were subjected to both ultrasonographic and 99mTc pertechnetate SPECT examinations of thyroid within a five-day interval. The volume of thyroid lobes and isthmus was measured by ultrasonography (US according to the ellipsoid volume equation. The total thyroid volume, determined as the sum of the volume of both lobes and isthmus, was recorded as TV-US (i.e., thyroid volume measured by US and set as the reference. The thyroid volume was defined according to our SUV-shape scheme and was recorded as TV-SS (i.e., thyroid volume determined by the SUV-shape scheme. The data were analyzed using the Bland-Altman plot, linear regression analysis, Spearman’s rank correlation, and paired t-test, if necessary.Results: The values of TV-SS (40.2±29.4 mL and TV-US (43.0±34.7 mL were not significantly different (t=0.813; P=0.43. The linear regression equation of the two values was determined as TV-US= 1.072 × TV-SS − 0.29(r=0.906; P

  5. Determination of Shale Volume and Distribution Patterns and Effective Porosity from Well Log Data Based On Cross-Plot Approach for A Shaly Carbonate Gas Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Siyamak; Moeini, Mohammad; Kamal Ghassem al-Askari, Mohammad; Hamed Mahvelati, Elaheh

    2016-10-01

    Determination of shale volume distribution is one of the most important factors that has to be considered in formation evaluation, since existence of shale reduces effective porosity and permeability of the reservoir. In this paper, shale volume and distribution (dispersed, laminar and structural) and formation effective porosity are estimated from well log data and cross-plots. Results show that distribution of shale is mainly dispersed with few of laminar ones, and the quality of reservoir (effective porosity) decreases with depth resulting in low productivity of gas wells drilled in lower zones. Good agreement of estimated shale volumes and effective porosities from neutron-density cross-plot with the values determined from gamma ray log (CGR) and core analysis demonstrates the accuracy and applicability of these plots in determination of petrophysical parameters from conventional log data.

  6. [The research progress in determining lignocellulosic content by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; An, Dong; Xia, Tian; Huang, Yan-Hua; Li, Hong-Chao; Zhang, Yun-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology, as a new analytic method, can be used to determine the content of lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose which is faster, effective, easier to operate, and more accurate than the traditional wet chemical methods. Nowadays it has been widely used in measuring the composition of lignocelluloses in woody plant and herbaceous plant. The domestic and foreign research progress in determining the lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose content in woody plant ( wood and bamboo used as papermaking raw materials and wood served as potential biomass energy) and herbaceous plant (forage grass and energy grass) by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology is comprehensively summarized and the advances in method studies of measuring the composition of lignocelluloses by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology are summed up in three aspects, sample preparation, spectral data pretreatment and wavelength selection methods, and chemometric analysis respectively. Four outlooks are proposed combining the development statues of wood, forage grass and energy grass industry. First of all, the authors need to establish more feasible and applicable models for a variety of uses which can be used for more species from different areas, periods and anatomical parts. Secondly, comprehensive near infrared reflectance spectroscopy data base of grass products quality index needs to be improved to realize on-line quality and process control in grassproducts industry, which can guarantee the quality of the grass product. Thirdly, the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy quality index model of energy plant need to be built which can not only contribute to breed screening, but also improve the development of biomass industry. Besides, modeling approaches are required to be explored and perfected any further. Finally, the authors need to try our best to boost the advancement in the determination method of lignin, cellulose and hemi

  7. Beyond Volume: Hospital-Based Healthcare Technology for Better Outcomes in Cerebrovascular Surgical Patients Diagnosed With Ischemic Stroke: A Population-Based Nationwide Cohort Study From 2002 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Jang, Sung-In

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the level of hospital-based healthcare technology was related to the 30-day postoperative mortality rates, after adjusting for hospital volume, of ischemic stroke patients who underwent a cerebrovascular surgical procedure. Using the National Health Insurance Service-Cohort Sample Database, we reviewed records from 2002 to 2013 for data on patients with ischemic stroke who underwent cerebrovascular surgical procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models to test our hypothesis. A total of 798 subjects were included in our study. After adjusting for hospital volume of cerebrovascular surgical procedures as well as all for other potential confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) of 30-day mortality in low healthcare technology hospitals as compared to high healthcare technology hospitals was 2.583 (P technology hospitals with high volume as compared to high healthcare technology hospitals with high volume was the highest (10.014, P technology hospitals had the highest 30-day mortality rate, irrespective of hospital volume. Although results of our study provide scientific evidence for a hospital volume/30-day mortality rate relationship in ischemic stroke patients who underwent cerebrovascular surgical procedures, our results also suggest that the level of hospital-based healthcare technology is associated with mortality rates independent of hospital volume. Given these results, further research into what components of hospital-based healthcare technology significantly impact mortality is warranted.

  8. A robust method for pulse peak determination in a digital volume pulse waveform with a wandering baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dae-Geun; Farooq, Umar; Park, Seung-Hun; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a robust method for pulse peak determination in a digital volume pulse (DVP) waveform with a wandering baseline. A proposed new method uses a modified morphological filter (MMF) to eliminate a wandering baseline signal of the DVP signal with minimum distortion and a slope sum function (SSF) with an adaptive thresholding scheme to detect pulse peaks from the baseline-removed DVP signal. Further in order to cope with over-detected and missed pulse peaks, knowledge based rules are applied as a postprocessor. The algorithm automatically adjusts detection parameters periodically to adapt to varying beat morphologies and fluctuations. Compared with conventional methods (highpass filtering, linear interpolation, cubic spline interpolation, and wavelet adaptive filtering), our method performs better in terms of the signal-to-error ratio, the computational burden (0.125 seconds for one minute of DVP signal analysis with the Intel Core 2 Quad processor @ 2.40 GHz PC), the true detection rate (97.32% with an acceptance level of 4 ms ) as well as the normalized error rate (0.18%). In addition, the proposed method can detect true positions of pulse peaks more accurately and becomes very useful for pulse transit time (PTT) and pulse rate variability (PRV) analyses.

  9. MGA: A gamma-ray spectrum analysis code for determining plutonium isotopic abundances. Volume 3, FORTRAN listing of the GA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnink, R

    1991-09-01

    Nondestructive measurements of x-ray and gamma-ray emissions can be used to determine the abundances of various actinides in a sample. Volume 1 of this report describes the methods and algorithms we have developed to determine the relative isotopic abundances of actinides in a sample, by analyzing gamma-ray spectra obtained using germanium detector systems. Volume 2 is a guide to using the MGA (Multiple Group Analysis) computer program we have written to perform plutonium isotopic analyses. This report contains a listing of the FORTRAN instructions of the code.

  10. The control of volume flow heating gases oh coke plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostúr Karol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with mixture and coke gases volume quantity determination for coke battery in term of their optimal redistribution at single blocks in consideration of accurate observance of corresponding technological temperature.

  11. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations. 63.55 Section 63.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.55 Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected...

  12. Determination of saturation pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of semi-volatile aerosols: the integrated volume mentod

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the integrated volume method for estimating saturation pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of a whole aerosol distribution. We measure the change of total volume of an aerosol distribution between a reference state and several heated states, with the heating...

  13. Reliability of In Vivo Determination of Forearm Muscle Volume Using 3.0 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C. Smeulders; S. van den Berg; J. Oudeman; A.J. Nederveen; M. Kreulen; M. Maas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for quantifying muscle volume of forearm muscles feasibility and reliability of volume estimation of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU). Materials and Methods: Forearms of 10 subjects were scanned twice. Mu

  14. What factors determine therapists' acceptance of new technologies for rehabilitation – a study using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Miguel Cruz, Antonio; Rios Rincon, Adriana; Buttar, Vickie; Ranson, Quentin; Goertzen, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine what factors affect the acceptance behavior and use of new technologies for rehabilitation by therapists at a large rehabilitation hospital in Canada. A self-administrated paper-based survey was created by adapting scales with high levels of internal consistency in prior research using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Items were scored on a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from "strongly disagree (1)" to "strongly agree (7)". The target population was all occupational therapists (OT) and physical therapists (PT) involved with the provision of therapeutic interventions at the hospital. Our research model was tested using partial least squares (PLS) technique. Performance expectancy was the strongest salient construct for behavioral intention to use new technologies in rehabilitation, whereas neither effort expectancy nor social influence were salient constructs for behavioral intention to use new technologies; (4) facilitating condition and behavioral intention to use new technologies were salient constructs for current use of new technologies in rehabilitation, with facilitating condition the strongest salient for current use of new technologies in rehabilitation. In a large rehabilitation hospital where use of new technologies in rehabilitation is not mandatory, performance expectancy, or how the technology can help in therapists' work, was the most important factor in determining therapists' acceptance and use of technologies. However, effort expectancy and social influence constructs were not important, i.e. therapists were not influenced by the degree of difficulty or social pressures to use technologies. Behavioral intention and facilitating condition, or institutional support, are related to current use of new technologies in rehabilitation.

  15. Determination of concept technology - the ontology of the concept as a component of the knowledge development in caring science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Eila-Sisko; Nordman, Tina; Eriksson, Katie

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ontology of the concept of technology from the perspective of caring science. The aim is to increase knowledge of the concept in caring science and to answer the research question concerning what the concept of technology is in caring science. In literature, the concept of technology is used diversely referring it to caring technology, nursing technology, wellbeing technology, information technology, telenursing and technology in care named by a specific device or an area of nursing or medicine. The definition of the concept of technology and its ontology has not been determined from the viewpoint of caring science. Eriksson's model of concept determination provides a method to explore the ontology of the concept. This includes an etymological and semantic analysis as well as a determination of essence and basic category of the concept. The results showed that the concept of technology is multidimensional. It has evolved and altered over the centuries. The origin of the concept formulated from the Greek word 'techne', which has wider ontological dimensions. It is universal, it can be taught and it depends on the substance. Subsequently, the concept was introduced an ethical dimension, and it also developed more to the direction of engineering, mechanics and technical know-how. The semantic analysis revealed synonyms of the concept: art, equipment and knowledge. These introduced concepts such as craft, skill, treatment, engineering, science, study method and way. The nuances of the concept framed its nature. On the one hand, it stands out as practical and advanced, but on the other hand, it is difficult and conventional. The knowledge gained in this study will help to understand the phenomenon of technology in caring science.

  16. Quantitative Determination of Germinability of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Urediospores Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is an important disease on wheat. In this study, quantitative determination of germinability of Pst urediospores was investigated by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS combined with quantitative partial least squares (QPLS and support vector regression (SVR. The near infrared spectra of the urediospore samples were acquired using FT-NIR MPA spectrometer and the germination rate of each sample was measured using traditional spore germination method. The best QPLS model was obtained with vector correction as the preprocessing method of the original spectra and 4000–12000 cm−1 as the modeling spectral region while the modeling ratio of the training set to the testing set was 4 : 1. The best SVR model was built when vector normalization was used as the preprocessing method, the modeling ratio was 5 : 1 and the modeling spectral region was 8000–11000 cm−1. The results showed that the effect of the best model built using QPLS or SVR was satisfactory. This indicated that quantitative determination of germinability of Pst urediospores using near infrared spectroscopy technology is feasible. A new method based on NIRS was provided for rapid, automatic, and nondestructive determination of germinability of Pst urediospores.

  17. DETERMINATION OF THE GROUND-WATER LEVEL BY MODERN NON-DISTRUCTIVE METHODS (GPR TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. NICU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the ground-water level by modern non-dis¬tructive methods (ground-penetrating radar technology. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR is now a well-accepted geophysical technique, which unfortunately in our country its less used. Historically, the development of GPR comes from the use of radio echosounding to determine ice thickness and it was only a short step to enlarge the domain of research such as permafrost, geological investigation (bedrock, sedimentology, environmental assessment and hydrogeophysical studies (under-ground water location, soil water content. The GPR method measures the travel time of electromagnetic impulses in subsurface materials. An impulse radar system radiates repetitive electromagnetic impulses into the soil. A bandwidth antenna is usually placed in close proximity and electromagnetic coupled to the ground surface. It detects and measures the depth of reflecting discontinuities in subsurface soils and other earth materials to within a few centimeters depending of antenna frequency. For over 30 years, GPR has been used extensively for hydropedological investigations. Our research aims to determine the groundwater to estimate the degree of evolution of hydro-geomorphological processes.

  18. The Mineral Question: How Energy and Technology will determine the Future of Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo eBardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost 150 years after that William Stanley Jevons published his paper The Coal Question (Jevons, 1866 the debate on mineral depletion has been ongoing between two main schools of thought: one that sees depletion as an important problem for the near future and another that sees technology and human ingenuity as the most important factors in making depletion a problem for the remote future. Today, however, we have created intellectual tools that permit us to frame the problem on the basis of physical factors, in particular on the basis of thermodynamics. The present paper examines the problem of mineral depletion from a broad viewpoint, with a specific view on the role of energy in the mining and production processes. The conclusion is that energy is a fundamental factor in determining how long we can expect the supply of mineral resources to last at the present prices and production levels. The rapid depletion of our main energy resources, fossil fuels, is creating a serious supply problem that is already being felt in terms of high prices of all mineral commodities. Technology can mitigate the problem, but not solve it. In a non remote future, the world's industrial system will have to undergo fundamental changes in order to adapt to a reduced supply of mineral commodities.

  19. Determination of Glucose Levels during Dialysis Treatment: Different Sensors and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sbrignadello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of glycemia in subjects with renal failure, thus treated with hemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis, is clinically relevant, since glucose levels may influence the determination of other solutes, such as creatinine, as well as some ions, such as sodium, whose degree of removal during dialysis sessions should be controlled carefully. Also, glucose levels should be controlled to avoid possible events of hypoglycemia during the treatment, especially in diabetic subjects. Indeed, even cases of hypoglycemic coma are documented. The glucose measurement during the dialysis treatment can be performed with different sensors and technologies: for instance, with traditional glucose meters, with instruments for continuous glucose monitoring, or with optical sensors. The aim of this review study was to analyze these different approaches and briefly discuss possible advantages and limitations.

  20. Indicator strip and portable instrument technologies for determining nitroesters or moisture in combustible cartridge cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Ho, C.H.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Bates, B.E.

    1993-10-01

    The sometimes large round-to-round variability observed in accelerated environmental testing, plus difficulties in quantifying the environmental histories of a given round suggest the need for nondestructive rapid tests of munitions to supplement lifetime prediction models in quality assurance of munitions. Technologies are being developed for reagent strips which can be affixed to rounds and which will visually indicate the presence and extent of nitroester migration by a visible color change. A solid state adaptation of a modified Griess reagent develops a red-purple color in the presence of nitroesters. Performance of current designs tested in the laboratory suggest a short-term (ca. one month) single usage. Dielectric capacitance is a promising means for rapid, nondestructive moisture determinations using a portable battery-powered instrument. Laboratory studies with a modified, inexpensive, commercial device have demonstrated fast (a few seconds) detection of case wall moisture content.

  1. A GIS-based method to determine the volume of lahars: Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Salinas, E.; Renschler, C. S.; Palacios, D.

    2009-10-01

    Lahars are flows composed of water and volcanic sediment which are often dangerous for people living near volcanoes. Therefore, a reliable estimation of lahar volume is needed to effectively assess the risk. This paper proposes a new method to calculate the volume of lahar sediments found in channels of volcanic landscapes. The method requires surveys of several cross-sections along a gorge, a Digital Elevation Model of the study area and measurements of the thickness of the lahar deposits. With these data and a Geographical Information System (GIS), the volume is calculated for the erosive section where deposit volume is divided into oblique parallelepipeds and the sedimentary section where deposit volume is divided into polyhedrons. This new method was applied to the 1997 and 2001 lahars that occurred in the channel of a gorge at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico. The estimated volumes are 1.85 × 10 5 and 1.6 × 10 5 m 3, respectively, which is about 40% less than those obtained by the traditional method that multiplies lahar flow-path length, sediment width and sediment depth. This observation suggests that the traditional method tends to overestimate volumes.

  2. Systematic determination of thyroid volume by ultrasound examination from infancy to adolescence in Japan: the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Midorikawa, Sanae; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Shibata, Yoshisada; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Although several reports have defined normal thyroid volume depending on either age or body surface, there are no sequential reference values on childhood thyroid volume evaluated by using ultrasonography and epidemiological analysis in Japan. The aim of the present study was to establish updated reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound examination and epidemiological analysis in 0-19 year-old Japanese children. It is based on a cross-sectional study conducted from October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The subjects were 38,063 children who were examined by ultrasonography as the initial preliminary survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey in October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The width, thickness, and height of each lobe were measured and the volume of each lobe was calculated by the mean of the elliptical shape volume formula. The values of thyroid volume at the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of age and body surface area for each gender group were obtained from 0-19 year-old children. Positive correlation was observed between thyroid volume and either age or body surface. The right lobe was significantly larger than the left lobe. The thyroid volume in females was larger than that in males after adjusting body surface area. The reference values of childhood thyroid for each age or body surface area were obtained by this extensive survey using ultrasound. These reference values may be used to define the normal size of thyroid gland by echosonography in Japanese children, although thyroid volume may be affected by dimorphic factors such as sex hormones.

  3. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology - Volume 1 and Selected Papers on the Practice of Educational Communications and Technology - Volume 2 (34th, Jacksonville, Florida, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    For the thirty-fourth year, the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the annual AECT Convention in Jacksonville, FL. A limited quantity of these Proceedings were printed and sold in both hardcopy and electronic…

  4. Bone volume fraction and fabric anisotropy are better determinants of trabecular bone stiffness than other morphological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquer, Ghislain; Musy, Sarah N; Wandel, Jasmin; Gross, Thomas; Zysset, Philippe K

    2015-06-01

    As our population ages, more individuals suffer from osteoporosis. This disease leads to impaired trabecular architecture and increased fracture risk. It is essential to understand how morphological and mechanical properties of the cancellous bone are related. Morphology-elasticity relationships based on bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and fabric anisotropy explain up to 98% of the variation in elastic properties. Yet, other morphological variables such as individual trabeculae segmentation (ITS) and trabecular bone score (TBS) could improve the stiffness predictions. A total of 743 micro-computed tomography (μCT) reconstructions of cubic trabecular bone samples extracted from femur, radius, vertebrae, and iliac crest were analyzed. Their morphology was assessed via 25 variables and their stiffness tensor (CFE) was computed from six independent load cases using micro finite element (μFE) analyses. Variance inflation factors were calculated to evaluate collinearity between morphological variables and decide upon their inclusion in morphology-elasticity relationships. The statistically admissible morphological variables were included in a multiple linear regression model of the dependent variable CFE. The contribution of each independent variable was evaluated (ANOVA). Our results show that BV/TV is the best determinant of CFE(r(2) adj  = 0.889), especially in combination with fabric anisotropy (r(2) adj  = 0.968). Including the other independent predictors hardly affected the amount of variance explained by the model (r(2) adj  = 0.975). Across all anatomical sites, BV/TV explained 87% of the variance of the bone elastic properties. Fabric anisotropy further described 10% of the bone stiffness, but the improvement in variance explanation by adding other independent factors was marginal (variables do not bring any further contribution. These overall conclusions remain to be confirmed for specific bone diseases and postelastic properties.

  5. Colorimetric determinations of lithium levels in drop-volumes of human plasma for monitoring patients with bipolar mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qassem, M; Hickey, M; Kyriacou, P A

    2016-08-01

    Lithium preparations are considered the most reliable form of mood stabilizing medication for patients with Bipolar disorder. Nevertheless, lithium is a toxic element and its therapeutic range is extremely narrow, with levels of 0.61.0 mEq considered normal, whereas levels above 1.5 mEq are toxic. Thus unfortunately, many patients reach toxic levels that lead to unnecessary complications. It is believed that personal monitoring of blood lithium levels would benefit patients taking lithium medication. Therefore, our aim is to develop a personal lithium blood level analyzer for patients with bipolar mood disorder, and we report here our initial results of a colorimetric-based method used to test drop-volumes of human plasma that had been spiked with lithium. It was possible to validate results with standard flame photometry readings. Applying the Partial Least Squares (PLS) method on preprocessed spectra, therapeutic concentrations of lithium in a single drop can be predicted in a rapid manner, and furthermore, the calibration results were used to select effective wavelengths which were employed as inputs in Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). The simplified algorithms of this would prove useful when developing a personal lithium analyzer. Overall, both calibration methods gave high correlation and small error outputs with a R2= 0.99036 and RMSEC = 0.03778, and R2= 0.994148 and RMSEC= 0.0294404, for PLS and MLR methods, respectively. The results show that the spectrophotometric determination of blood lithium levels can be extended beyond laboratory applications and indicate the capability of this testing principle to be employed in a personal monitoring device. Future work will now focus on the technical development of a miniaturized system for measurement of lithium levels in blood with an acceptable level of accuracy and sensitivity.

  6. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendixes on small MOX fuel fabrication facility description, site description, residual radionuclide inventory estimates, decommissioning, financing, radiation dose methodology, general considerations, packaging and shipping of radioactive materials, cost assessment, and safety (JRD)

  7. Office of Technology Development`s Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation Mid-Year Program Review. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document, Volume 2, presents brief summaries of programs being investigated at USDOE sites for waste processing, remedial action, underground storage tank remediation, and robotic applications in waste management.

  8. Are you bleeding? Validation of a machine-learning algorithm for determination of blood volume status: application to remote triage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caroline A. Rickards; Nisarg Vyas; Kathy L. Ryan; Kevin R. Ward; David Andre; Gennifer M. Hurst; Chelsea R. Barrera; Victor A. Convertino

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that low-level physiological signals can be used to develop a machine-learning algorithm for tracking changes in central blood volume that will...

  9. Is the Maxillary Sinus Really Suitable in Sex Determination? A Three-Dimensional Analysis of Maxillary Sinus Volume and Surface Depending on Sex and Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Heussen, Nicole; Peters, Florian; Steiner, Timm; Hölzle, Frank; Modabber, Ali

    2015-11-01

    The morphometric analysis of maxillary sinus was recently presented as a helpful instrument for sex determination. The aim of the present study was to examine the volume and surface of the fully dentate, partial, and complete edentulous maxillary sinus depending on the sex. Computed tomography data from 276 patients were imported in DICOM format via special virtual planning software, and surfaces (mm) and volumes (mm) of maxillary sinuses were measured. In sex-specific comparisons (women vs men), statistically significant differences for the mean maxillary sinus volume and surface were found between fully dentate (volume, 13,267.77 mm vs 16,623.17 mm, P sexes, no differences were only measured for female and male partially dentate fully edentulous sinuses (2 teeth missing) and between partially edentulous sinuses in women and men (1 teeth vs 2 teeth missing). With a corresponding software program, it is possible to analyze the maxillary sinus precisely. The dentition influences the volume and surface of the pneumatic maxillary sinus. Therefore, sex determination is possible by analysis of the maxillary sinus event through the increase in pneumatization.

  10. The use of DNA technologies in determining the biotreatability of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, A. [HydroQual, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    HydroQual Laboratories is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Golder Associates and uses biological testing for measuring the effect of toxins and their impact on various links in the food chain in order to evaluate and improve environmental health. It has expertise in various fields of the natural sciences and is ISO certified. This presentation discussed the use of DNA technologies in determining the biotreatability of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The paper presented biotreatability studies run by the company which included bench scale testing on various types of contaminants. The testing involved multiple treatments, determination of dosage, and additional amendments. The strategy may vary based on bench test results and legislation. Trichloroethylene/perchloroethylene remediation strategies were also presented for chemical oxidation; aerobic bioremediation; abiotic remediation; and anaerobic biostimulation and augmentation. Biostimulation was defined as the addition of nutrients to influence the redox potential. The presentation also reviewed anaerobic dehalorespiration; detection methods; DNA isolation; polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and biotreatability case studies. The presentation concluded with some future directions and other uses of PCR. tabs., figs.

  11. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A: Characterization, dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the characterization and dismantlement data sheets.

  12. Foreign vs. domestic: What determines the origin of Chinese firms’ inward technology licensing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of cross-border technology sourcing urges us to ask a question: what factors and conditions may influence firms' decisions of sourcing technology domestically or internationally? Research on this topic is scattered in the literature but a comprehensive understanding...... categories of factors that are relevant in this respect: (1) technology supplier’s characteristics; (2) technology seeker’s characteristics; (3) features of technology itself; and (4) external contextual factors. We test our hypotheses based on Chinese firms’ inward technology licensing. We found well...

  13. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D. [Enserch Environmental Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE`s Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ``demonstration`` version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing.

  14. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR DETERMINING THE SUITABILITY OF USTS FOR UPGRADING WITH CATHODIC PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field applications of three alternate technologies for assessing the suitability of underground storage tanks for upgrading by the addition of cathodic protection were observed and documented. The technologies were applied to five existing underground storage tanks that were slat...

  15. Sex determination using discriminant analysis of upper and lower extremity bones: New approach using the volume and surface area of digital model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, U-Young; Kim, In-Beom; Kwak, Dai-Soon

    2015-08-01

    This study used 110 CT images taken from donated Korean cadavers to create 3-D models of the following upper and lower limb bones: the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, hip bone (os coxa), femur, patella (knee cap), tibia, talus, and calcaneus. In addition, the bone volume and surface area were calculated to determine sex differences using discriminant analysis. Significant sex differences were found in all bones with respect to volume and surface area (phip bone>tibia>humerus>scapula), although the order of surface area was different. The largest surface area in men was the femur and in women was the hip bone (psex determination (94%). When using the surface area of multiple bones, the maximum accuracy (99.4%) was achieved. The equation was as follows: (discriminant equation of surface area; femalesex determination.

  16. Using Ray Tracing to Evaluate the Performance of Several Methods for Determining the Ground Range and Refractive Index of Ionospheric Scattering Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, R. A.; Frissell, N. A.; de Larquier, S.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of three methods used by HF radars in the SuperDARN network for determining the ground ranges to ionospheric scattering volumes. Each method uses somewhat different approaches, but the same equivalent-path analysis. We also show that Snell's Law can be added to this analysis to determine the refractive index of each scattering volume and thereby correct Doppler velocity measurements for ionospheric refraction. Two of these methods make their predictions using the group range to the scattering volume and a virtual height model, while the third method uses the group range and the elevation angle each backscattered return. The effectiveness of each of these methods is evaluated using ray tracing analyses through the International Reference Ionosphere. Ray tracings analysis provides determinations of the initial elevation angle, group range, group range, and refractive index of each ionospheric volume that backscatters signals to the radar. The initial or final elevation angle and the group range are used as inputs to the geolocation methods and the ground range and refractive index serve as reference data against which the predictions of the geolocation methods can be evaluated. We find that the methods using virtual height models actually change the initial elevation angle determined from ray tracing to a different elevation angle that is consistent with the virtual height model. Due to this change, predictions of the ground range and refractive index of scattering volumes located with virtual-height models are rarely consistent with the predictions obtained from ray tracing. In contrast, the geolocation method that uses the group range and initial or final elevation angle yields predictions that are in good agreement with ray tracing. Modifications to the equivalent-path analysis are required to obtain consistent predictions of the ground range and refractive index of backscatter from the topside F-layer.

  17. Determining Science Teachers' Levels of Motivation and Self-Regulation Regarding Use of Education Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Hülya Aslan; Baysal, Yunus Emre

    2017-01-01

    In line with the growing importance of use of education technologies in the field of education, teachers are increasingly expected to use education technologies in class environment and to provide students with appropriate environments and opportunities to use these technologies. This situation makes it necessary to investigate teachers'…

  18. [Hyperspectral technology combined with CARS algorithm to quantitatively determine the SSC in Korla fragrant pear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Bai-Shao; Ni, Jun-Hui; Li, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has large data volume and high dimensionality, and original spectra data includes a lot of noises and severe scattering. And, quality of acquired hyperspectral data can be influenced by non-monochromatic light, external stray light and temperature, which resulted in having some non-linear relationship between the acquired hyperspectral data and the predicted quality index. Therefore, the present study proposed that competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) algorithm is used to select the key variables from visible and near infrared hyperspectral data. The performance of CARS was compared with full spectra, successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE), genetic algorithm (GA) and GA-SPA (genetic algorithm-successive projections algorithm). Two hundred Korla fragrant pears were used as research object. SPXY algorithm was used to divided sample set to correction set with 150 samples and prediction set with 50 samples, respectively. Based on variables selected by different methods, linear PLS and nonlinear LS-SVM models were developed, respectively, and the performance of models was assessed using parameters r2, RMSEP and RPD. A comprehensive comparison found that GA, GA-SPA and CARS can effectively select the variables with strong and useful information. These methods can be used for selection of Vis-NIR hyperspectral data variables, particularly for CARS. LS-SVM model can obtain the best results for SSC prediction of Korla fragrant pear based on variables obtained from CARS method. r2, RMSEP and RPD were 0.851 2, 0.291 3 and 2.592 4, respectively. The study showed that CARS is an effectively hyperspectral variable selection method, and nonlinear LS-SVM model is more suitable than linear PLS model for quantitatively determining the quality of fra- grant pear based on hyperspectral information.

  19. Artifacts in conventional computed tomography (CT) and free breathing four-dimensional CT induce uncertainty in gross tumor volume determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte Fredberg; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund; Af Rosenschöld, Per Munck;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Artifacts impacting the imaged tumor volume can be seen in conventional three-dimensional CT (3DCT) scans for planning of lung cancer radiotherapy but can be reduced with the use of respiration-correlated imaging, i.e., 4DCT or breathhold CT (BHCT) scans. The aim of this study...... was to compare delineated gross tumor volume (GTV) sizes in 3DCT, 4DCT, and BHCT scans of patients with lung tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 36 patients with 46 tumors referred for stereotactic radiotherapy of lung tumors were included. All patients underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, 4DCT......, and BHCT scans. GTVs in all CT scans of individual patients were delineated during one session by a single physician to minimize systematic delineation uncertainty. The GTV size from the BHCT was considered the closest to true tumor volume and was chosen as the reference. The reference GTV size...

  20. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumerman, Judy A.

    2000-01-01

    This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

  1. A transient, HEX-Z nodal code corrected by discontinuity factors. Volume 2, Monte Carlo determination of discontinuity factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A.S.G.; Henry, A.F.

    1993-12-31

    This document constitutes Volume 2 of the Final Report of a three- year study supported by the special Research Grant Program for Nuclear Energy Research set up by the US Department of Energy. Since the material content is entirely distinct from that of Volume 1, the present report is written as a stand-along document. The original motivation for the overall research effort was to provide a fast and accurate computer program for the analysis of transients in heavy water or graphite-moderated reactors being considered as candidates for the New Production Reactor.

  2. Determination of inorganic elements in animal feeds by NIRS technology and a fibre-optic probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Inmaculada; Alvarez-García, Noelia; González-Pérez, Claudio; Villaescusa-García, Virginia

    2006-05-15

    In the present work we study the use of near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for the analysis of the mineral composition of animal feeds. The method allows immediate control of the feeds without prior sample treatment or destruction through direct application of the fibre-optic probe on the sample. The regression method employed was modified partial least squares (MPLS). The calibration results obtained using forty samples of animal feeds allowed the determination of Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, K, P, Zn and Cu, with a standard error of prediction (SEP(C)) and a correlation coefficient (RSQ) of 0.129 and 0.859 for Fe; 0.175 and 0.816 for Mn; 5.470 and 0.927 for Ca; 2.717 and 0.862 for Na; 4.397 and 0.891 for K; 2.226 and 0.881 for P; 0.153 and 0.764 for Zn, and 0.095 and 0.918 for Cu, respectively. The robustness of the method was checked by applying it to 10 animal feeds samples of unknown mineral composition in the external validation.

  3. Determination of technology transfer requirements for enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T.D.; Scott, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    A detailed field study was conducted to determine the technical information needs of current and potential users of enhanced oil recovery data. Under the direction of the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), the study (1) identifies groups which have a need for EOR-related information, (2) delineate the specific information needs of each user-group, and (3) outlines methods for improved transfer of appropriate information to the end users. This study also assesses attitudes toward the EOR-related efforts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the BETC, and the role each should play in facilitating the commercialization of EOR processes. More than 300 users and potential users of EOR information were surveyed. Included in the survey sample were representatives of major oil companies, independent oil companies, engineering consulting firms, university and private research organizations, financial institutions and federal, state, and local policy-making bodies. In-depth questionnaires were specifically designed for each group. This study analyzes each group's position pertaining to (1) current level of EOR activity or interest, (2) current and projected EOR information needs, (3) assessments of the BETC's current information services and suggestions for improvement, (4) delineation of technical and economic constraints to increased EOR activity, and (5) steps the DOE might take to enhance the attractiveness of commercial EOR operations.

  4. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 2. Appendices. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE. This volume contains the appendices.

  5. Simulation and Experimental Determination of Technological Liquid Molding Parameters of Tubing Basalt Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Badanina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to one of the most important and urgent tasks in mechanical engineering development - the creation of low-density and environmentally-friendly thermoinsulation from available cheap basalt fibers for products to operate at temperatures up to 700°C.One of the most effective applications of such thermo-insulation is to develop and provide highly porous coatings from short basalt fibers by liquid filtration for tubing (T to supply superheated up to 420° C steam under pressure of 35 MPa in the deep layers with severe highviscosity oil. Tubing with the short low-density basalt insulation can be used for a greater depth than the vacuum-insulated tubing, which are also called "thermo-cases", and do not fully meet business needs for long-term reliability of oil vacuum tubes, too large mass per unit length of their design and, as a consequence, the impossibility to use such pipes for deep wells.The aim of the work is to simulate a liquid filtration process of short fibers and determine technological parameters of producing thermal insulation coatings of tubing pipes from basalt fibers and mineral binder shaped as cylinders and cylindrical shells. The paper proposes a mathematical model of free filtration deposition of short fibers from liquid slurry, which describes dynamics of creating thermal insulation products and allows us to determine the rational parameters of their manufacturing process. It shows methods to improve the products quality while forming the thermal insulation by filtration through additional vacuum deposition of a filtrate chamber and the final prepressing of sediment layer, giving dimensions and shape to the final product.The paper defines a prescription hydro mass composition. It shows that to increase the compressive strength of highly fibrous rings and cylindrical shells it is necessary to use based on oxide А12O3 5-7% by weight mineral binder, which fixes basalt fibers in places of their contacts. It

  6. Advanced Technology Section semiannual progress report, April 1-September 30, 1977. Volume 1. Biotechnology and environmental programs. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Mrochek, J.E. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Research efforts in six areas are reported. They include: centrifugal analyzer development; advanced analytical systems; environmental research; bioengineering research;bioprocess development and demonstration; and, environmental control technology. Individual abstracts were prepared for each section for ERA/EDB. (JCB)

  7. Hybrid location determination technology within urban and indoor environment based on Cell-ID and path loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng; LEI Jian-jun; XIA Ying; GE Jun-wei; BAE Hae-young

    2004-01-01

    The location determination technology based on simple delay evaluations or GPS is not accurate enough or even impossible in urban and indoor environments due to the multi-path propagation. To enhance the location accuracy and reduce the operation cost within these environments, this paper proposes a novel hybrid location determination technology which combines CELL-ID with the database correlation method. The proposed method generate the prediction database of path loss according to CELL-ID, and after the computation the smallest squared error of measured path loss and the prediction path loss,the location of the mobile terminal is decided by the coordinates of the best matching matrix entry.

  8. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Burghelea; Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

    2014-01-01

    In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changin...

  9. Determination of the volume-specific surface area by using transmission electron tomography for characterization and definition of nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Michel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission electron microscopy (TEM remains an important technique to investigate the size, shape and surface characteristics of particles at the nanometer scale. Resulting micrographs are two dimensional projections of objects and their interpretation can be difficult. Recently, electron tomography (ET is increasingly used to reveal the morphology of nanomaterials (NM in 3D. In this study, we examined the feasibility to visualize and measure silica and gold NM in suspension using conventional bright field electron tomography. Results The general morphology of gold and silica NM was visualized in 3D by conventional TEM in bright field mode. In orthoslices of the examined NM the surface features of a NM could be seen and measured without interference of higher or lower lying structures inherent to conventional TEM. Segmentation by isosurface rendering allowed visualizing the 3D information of an electron tomographic reconstruction in greater detail than digital slicing. From the 3D reconstructions, the surface area and the volume of the examined NM could be estimated directly and the volume-specific surface area (VSSA was calculated. The mean VSSA of all examined NM was significantly larger than the threshold of 60 m2/cm3. The high correlation between the measured values of area and volume gold nanoparticles with a known spherical morphology and the areas and volumes calculated from the equivalent circle diameter (ECD of projected nanoparticles (NP indicates that the values measured from electron tomographic reconstructions are valid for these gold particles. Conclusion The characterization and definition of the examined gold and silica NM can benefit from application of conventional bright field electron tomography: the NM can be visualized in 3D, while surface features and the VSSA can be measured.

  10. Dispersed and piled woody residues volumes in coastal Douglas-fir cutblocks determined using high-resolution imagery from a UAV and from ground-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Gougeon, F.

    2015-12-01

    After forest harvest significant amounts of woody residues are left dispersed on site and some subsequently piled and burned. Quantification of residues is required for estimating C budgets, billable waste, harvest efficiency, bioenergy potential and smoke emissions. Trofymow (et al 2014 CJFR) compared remote sensing methods to ground-based waste and residue survey (WRS) methods for residue piles in 4 cutblocks in the Oyster River (OR) area in coastal BC. Compared to geospatial methods using 15cm orthophotos and LiDAR acquired in 2011 by helicopter, the WRS method underestimated pile wood by 30% to 50% while a USFS volume method overestimated pile wood by 50% if site specific packing ratios were not used. A geospatial method was developed in PCI Geomatica to analyze 2-bit images of logs >15cm diameters to determine dispersed wood residues in OR and compare to WRS methods. Across blocks, geospatial and WRS method wood volumes were correlated (R2=0.69), however volumes were 2.5 times larger for the geospatial vs WRS method. Methods for dispersed residues could not be properly compared as individual WRS plots were not georeferenced, only 12 plots were sampled in total, and low-resolution images poorly resolved logs. Thus, a new study in 2 cutblocks in the Northwest Bay (NWB) area acquired 2cm resolution RGB air-photography in 2014-15 using an Aeryon Sky Ranger UAV prior to and after burn pile construction. A total of 57 dispersed WRS plots and 24 WRS pile or accumulation plots were georeferenced and measured. Stero-pairs were used to generate point-clouds for pile bulk volumes. Images processed to 8-bit grey scale are being analyzed with a revised PCI method that better accounts for log overlaps. WRS methods depend on a good sample of plots and accurate determination of stratum (dispersed, roadside, piles, accumulations) areas. Analysis of NWB blocks shows WRS field methods for stratum area differ by 5-20% from that determined using orthophotos. Plot-level wood

  11. An Examination of the Determinants of Top Management Support of Information Technology Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence that top management support promotes information technology project success, existing research fails to offer insight into the antecedents of top management support of such projects. This gap in the literature is significant since the exploitation of information technology offers organizations unique opportunities for…

  12. Determination of Pre-Service Classroom Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Sendil; Dogru, Serpil; Bayir, Gülsu

    2017-01-01

    It seems to be a must for teachers and pre-service teachers to have information and skills necessary for the use of technology in education. This requires effective planning of how technology should be integrated into the teacher training curriculums of education faculties and continuous revision of this plan. In this regard, the purpose of the…

  13. Determinants of Mobile Wireless Technology for Promoting Interactivity in Lecture Sessions: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Chin Lay; Balakrishnan, Vimala

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify adoption factors of mobile wireless technology to increase interactivity between lecturers and students during lectures. A theoretical framework to ascertain lecturers' intentions to use mobile wireless technology during lectures (dependent variable) is proposed with seven independent variables. The…

  14. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1995. Volume 1: Agency summary, human space flight, and science, aeronautics and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA budget request has been restructured in FY 1995 into four appropriations: human space flight; science, aeronautics, and technology; mission support; and inspector general. The human space flight appropriations provides funding for NASA's human space flight activities. This includes the on-orbit infrastructure (space station and Spacelab), transportation capability (space shuttle program, including operations, program support, and performance and safety upgrades), and the Russian cooperation program, which includes the flight activities associated with the cooperative research flights to the Russian Mir space station. These activities are funded in the following budget line items: space station, Russian cooperation, space shuttle, and payload utilization and operations. The science, aeronautics, and technology appropriations provides funding for the research and development activities of NASA. This includes funds to extend our knowledge of the earth, its space environment, and the universe and to invest in new technologies, particularly in aeronautics, to ensure the future competitiveness of the nation. These objectives are achieved through the following elements: space science, life and microgravity sciences and applications, mission to planet earth, aeronautical research and technology, advanced concepts and technology, launch services, mission communication services, and academic programs.

  15. Determinants of the probability of adopting quality protein maize (QPM technology in Tanzania: A logistic regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory, T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of technology is an important factor in economic development. The thrust of this study was to establish factors affecting adoption of QPM technology in Northern zone of Tanzania. Primary data was collected from a random sample of 120 smallholder maize farmers in four villages. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and quantitative methods. Logit model was used to determine factors that influence adoption of QPM technology. The regression results indicated that education of the household head, farmers’ participation on demonstration trials, attendance to field days, and numbers of livestock owned have positively influenced the rate of adoption of the technology. Access to credit, and poor QPM marketing problem perception by farmers negatively influenced the rate of adoption. The study recommended government to ensure efficiency input-output linkage for QPM production.

  16. Thermal Power Systems, Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology Project. Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 1978. Volume II. Detailed report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-15

    Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver technology is the goal of this Project. The energy thus produced must be economically competitive with other sources. This Project supports the industrial development of technology and hardware for extracting energy from solar power to achieve the stated goal. Present studies are working to concentrate the solar energy through mirrors or lenses, to a working fluid or gas, and through a power converter change it to an energy source useful to man. Rankine-cycle and Brayton-cycle engines are currently being developed as the most promising energy converters for our near future needs. Accomplishments on point-focusing technology in FY 1978 are detailed.

  17. Effects of methylprednisolone on concanavalin A-induced human lymphocyte blastogenesis: a comparative analysis by flow cytometry, volume determination and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marder, P.; Schmidtke, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    The inhibition of concanavalin A-induced human peripheral blood lymphocyte blastogenesis by methylprednisolone (MP) was studied by using flow cytometry and tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) incorporation. Flow cytometric determinations of volume, low angle forward light scatter, and nucleic acid showed MP to be a potent inhibitor of blastogenesis. The effects were concentration-dependent and correlated with /sup 3/H-TdR uptake. By using the single cell analytic capability of flow cytometry, the target stages of the cell cycle where MP affects lymphocyte activation were determined. Evidence is presented that steroids can block both early and late phases of this process.

  18. High-temperature liquid-metal technology review. A Bimonthly Technical Progress Review, Volume 7, Number 2, April 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1969-04-01

    The purpose of the High-Temperature Liquid-Metal Technology Review is to provide up-to-date information on the various research and development programs in the United States in the field of high-temperature liquid-metal technology. The method is to publish reviews prepared by members of the Department of Applied Science of the Brookhaven National Laboratory on current topical and progress reports submitted by contracting organizations. When results and conclusions are reported, it is intended that the individual reviews become both summaries and critiques. Thirteen reviews are presented in this issue.

  19. The Role of Self-Determination Theory in Explaining Teachers' Motivation to Continue to Use E-Learning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorebo, Oystein; Halvari, Hallgier; Gulli, Vebjorn Flaata; Kristiansen, Roar

    2009-01-01

    Based on self-determination theory, this study proposes an extended information systems continuance theory in the context of teachers' utilization of e-learning technology in connection with on-site courses. In the proposed model teachers' extrinsic motivation (i.e. perceived usefulness), confirmation of pre-acceptance expectations and intrinsic…

  20. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We

  1. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed technology, safety and cost information are presented for the conceptual decommissioning of a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Alternate methods of decommissioning are described including immediate dismantlement, safe storage for a period of time followed by dismantlement and entombment. Safety analyses, both occupational and public, and cost evaluations were conducted for each mode.

  2. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage. (MOW)

  3. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  4. Determination of the Most Suitable Technology Transfer Strategy for Wind Turbines Using an Integrated AHP-TOPSIS Decision Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dinmohammadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high-speed development of industrial products and goods in the world has caused “technology” to be considered as a crucial competitive advantage for most large organizations. In recent years, developing countries have considerably tended to promote their technological and innovative capabilities through importing high-tech equipment owned and operated by developed countries. There are currently a variety of solutions to transfer a particular technology from a developed country. The selection of the most profitable technology transfer strategy is a very complex decision-making problem for technology importers as it involves different technical, environmental, social, and economic aspects. In this study, a hybrid multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM model based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is proposed to evaluate and prioritise various technology transfer strategies for wind turbine systems. For this purpose, a number of criteria and sub-criteria are defined from the viewpoint of wind energy investors, wind turbine manufacturers, and wind farm operators. The relative importance of criteria and sub-criteria with respect to the ultimate goal are computed using the eigenvalue method and then, the technology transfer alternatives are ranked based on their relative closeness to the ideal solution. The model is finally applied to determine the most suitable wind turbine technology transfer strategy among four options of reverse engineering, technology skills training, turn-key contracts, and technology licensing for the renewable energy sector of Iran, and the results are compared with those obtained by classical decision-making models.

  5. Demonstration project as a procedure for accelerating the application of new technology (Charpie Task Force report). Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This report examines the issues associated with government programs proposed for the ''commercialization'' of new energy technologies; these programs are intended to hasten the pace at which target technologies are adopted by the private sector. The ''commercial demonstration'' is the principal tool used in these programs. Most previous government interventions in support of technological change have focused on R and D and left to the private sector the decision as to adoption for commercial utilization; thus there is relatively little in the way of analysis or experience which bears direct application. The analysis is divided into four sections. First, the role of R, D, and D within the structure of the national energy goals and policies is examined. The issue of ''prices versus gaps'' is described as a crucial difference of viewpoint concerning the role of the government in the future of the energy system. Second, the process of technological change as it occurs with respect to energy technologies is then examined for possible sources of misalignment of social and private incentives. The process is described as a series of investments. Third, correction of these sources of misalignment then becomes the goal of commercial demonstration programs as this goal and the means for attaining it are explored. Government-supported commercialization may be viewed as a subsidy to the introduction stage of the process; the circumstances under which such subsidies are likely to affect the success of the subsequent diffusion stage are addressed. The discussion then turns to the political, legal, and institutional problems. Finally, methods for evaluation and planning of commercial demonstration programs are analyzed. The critical areas of ignorance are highlighted and comprise a research agenda for improved analytical techniques to support decisions in this area.

  6. Demonstration project as a procedure for accelerating the application of new technology (Charpie Task Force report). Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This report examines the issues associated with government programs proposed for the ''commercialization'' of new energy technologies; these programs are intended to hasten the pace at which target technologies are adopted by the private sector. The ''commercial demonstration'' is the principal tool used in these programs. Most previous government interventions in support of technological change have focused on R and D and left to the private sector the decision as to adoption for commercial utilization; thus there is relatively little in the way of analysis or experience which bears direct application. The analysis is divided into four sections. First, the role of R, D, and D within the structure of the national energy goals and policies is examined. The issue of ''prices versus gaps'' is described as a crucial difference of viewpoint concerning the role of the government in the future of the energy system. Second, the process of technological change as it occurs with respect to energy technologies is then examined for possible sources of misalignment of social and private incentives. The process is described as a series of investments. Third, correction of these sources of misalignment then becomes the goal of commercial demonstration programs as this goal and the means for attaining it are explored. Government-supported commercialization may be viewed as a subsidy to the introduction stage of the process; the circumstances under which such subsidies are likely to affect the success of the subsequent diffusion stage are addressed. The discussion then turns to the political, legal, and institutional problems. Finally, methods for evaluation and planning of commercial demonstration programs are analyzed. The critical areas of ignorance are highlighted and comprise a research agenda for improved analytical techniques to support decisions in this area.

  7. Determination of Technological Electric Power Consumption for Its Transportation while Using Block-Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavlovets

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for calculation of the technological electric power consumption for its transportation in the elements of power network while using block-stations under conditions of differently-directed electric power transfer.The calculation of technological electric power consumption for its transportation can be applied while supplying several consumers with one element of power network simultaneously with block-station operation. 

  8. Ethical and regulatory challenges in psychophysiology and neuroscience-based technology for determining behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoo, Adil E

    2010-01-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an explosion in research to understand the mechanisms of brain function. Recent advances in psychophysiology and neuroscience, while still limited, have sparked great interest in developing technologies that could peer into the brain and be used to identify or indicate certain behaviors. The polygraph (lie detector) represents an old technology used for discerning clues to the human brain; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents one of the newest efforts. The use of these technologies in intelligence and counterintelligence in the field without validation represents a major concern about its usefulness. Both research on this new technology and subsequent use on public raise ethical challenges. This article will address the overall ethical issues associated with these new technologies. The report identifies the ethical and cultural challenges in conducting research on these new tools, explores the possibility of using current U.S. regulatory requirements regarding drugs and devices as a model for regulating these new technologies, and suggests approaches for the future.

  9. Determination of Antibacterial and Technological Properties of Vaginal Lactobacilli for Their Potential Application in Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Serrazanetti, Diana I.; Parolin, Carola; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers A.; Vitali, Beatrice; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2017-01-01

    Functional foods could differently affect human health in relation to the gender. Recent studies have highlighted the anti-Candida and anti-Chlamydia activities of some Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vagina of healthy women. Considering these important beneficial activities on women's health, the preparation of functional food containing active vaginal lactobacilli can represent a great scientific challenge for the female gender. In this context, the aim of this work was to study some functional and technological properties of 17 vaginal strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus vaginalis in the perspective to include them in dairy products. The antagonistic activities against the pathogenic and spoilage species associated to food products and against the principal etiological agents of the genitourinary tract infections were evaluated. Moreover, the vaginal lactobacilli were characterized for their antibiotic resistance, and for their fermentation kinetics and viability during the refrigerated storage in milk. Finally, the volatile molecule profiles of the obtained fermented milks were determined. The results showed that several strains, mainly belonging to the species Lactobacillus crispatus, exhibited a significant antagonistic activity against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms of food interest, as well as against urogenital pathogens. All the vaginal lactobacilli showed antimicrobial activity against strains belonging to the foodborne pathogenic species Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Eenterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. In addition, most of the Lactobacillus strains were active toward the main pathogens responsible of vaginal and urinary tract infections including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Proteus mirabilis. The antimicrobial activity can be attributed to the high production of organic acids. The fermentation kinetics in milk

  10. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...

  11. In vitro isotopic determination of diffusion volumes by transferrin labelled with indium 111. study of the correlation with SARI 125; Determination isotopique in vitro de volumes de diffusion par la transferrine marquee a l'indium 111. Etude de la correlation avec la SARI 125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porot, C.L. [CHU Jean-Minjoz, Service de medecine nucleaire, 25 - Besancon (France); Angoue, O.R. [CHU Jean-Minjoz, laboratoire de biophysique et statistiques, 25 - Besancon (France); Berthetc, L.O. [CHU Jean-Minjoz, 25 - Besancon (France); Ungureanu, C.O.; Boulahdour, H.A.

    2010-07-01

    Serum albumin labeled with iodine 125 (S.A.R.I. 125) is the reference tracer used in measuring isotopic plasma volume. It has been causing a suspension of manufacturing leading to a supply disruption and resulting in the search for an alternative to measure plasma volume under consideration for measuring blood volume. Plasma transferrin labeled with indium-111 (Tf-{sup 111}In) is a potentially useful marker. To this end, we assessed the level of activity to be administered to determine a volume of distribution. The study of the correlation between the volume of distribution values obtained with S.A.R.I. 125 and Tf-{sup 111}In was then performed. Tf is an autologous protein which the labelling is easy and stable. Tf-{sup 111}In is a valid alternative to the S.A.R.I. 125 for measuring the plasma volume. The activity required for this examination shall not exceed 100 micro curies. (N.C.)

  12. Liver volume measurement: reason of the difference between in vivo CT-volumetry and intraoperative ex vivo determination and how to cope it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehues SM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Volumetric assessment of the liver regularly yields discrepant results between pre- and intraoperatively determined volumes. Nevertheless, the main factor responsible for this discrepancy remains still unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically determine the difference between in vivo CT-volumetry and ex vivo volumetry in a pig animal model. Material and Methods Eleven pigs were studied. Liver density assessment, CT-volumetry and water displacement volumetry was performed after surgical removal of the complete liver. Known possible errors of volume determination like resection or segmentation borders were eliminated in this model. Regression analysis was performed and differences between CT-volumetry and water displacement determined. Results Median liver density was 1.07 g/ml. Regression analysis showed a high correlation of r2 = 0.985 between CT-volumetry and water displacement. CTvolumetry was found to be 13% higher than water displacement volumetry (p Conclusion In this study the only relevant factor leading to the difference between in vivo CT-volumetry and ex vivo water displacement volumetry seems to be blood perfusion of the liver. The systematic difference of 13 percent has to be taken in account when dealing with those measures.

  13. Proceedings of the Fifth CANMET/ACI International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology : volume 1 and supplementary papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, V.M. (ed.) [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Venturino, M. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    This conference brought together researchers from industry, academia, and government agencies from around the world to discuss the recent advances in concrete technology and to discuss areas that need more research. The presentations focused on all aspects of concrete technology and sustainability with most of them dealing with the issue of supplementing cementing materials with admixtures such as fly ash. In addition to the referenced proceedings, a book of supplementary papers was also published. Cement blends were found to prolong the longevity of concrete. An added benefit is that they avoid the huge cost of repairs and replacement cycles. The use of fly ash in cement is considered to be a viable waste product material for cement mixtures. A total of 64 papers were presented at this conference, of which 13 have been processed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Summary Report on Phase I Results from the 3D Printing in Zero G Technology Demonstration Mission, Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Beshears, R. D.; Rolin, T. D.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Ordonez, E. A.; Ryan, R. M.; Ledbetter, F. E., III

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration to date has been confined to low-Earth orbit and the Moon. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique opportunity for researchers to prove out the technologies that will enable humans to safely live and work in space for longer periods of time and venture beyond the Earth/Moon system. The ability to manufacture parts in-space rather than launch them from Earth represents a fundamental shift in the current risk and logistics paradigm for human spaceflight. In September 2014, NASA, in partnership with Made In Space, Inc., launched the 3D Printing in Zero-G technology demonstration mission to explore the potential of additive manufacturing for in-space applications and demonstrate the capability to manufacture parts and tools on orbit using fused deposition modeling. This Technical Publication summarizes the results of testing to date of the ground control and flight prints from the first phase of this ISS payload.

  15. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  16. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    This chapter deals with the analysis and engineering scaling of solid breeded blankets. The limits under which full component behavior can be achieved under changed test conditions are explored. The characterization of these test requirements for integrated testing contributes to the overall test matrix and test plan for the understanding and development of fusion nuclear technology. The second chapter covers the analysis and engineering scaling of liquid metal blankets. The testing goals for a complete blanket program are described. (MOW)

  17. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    This chapter deals with the analysis and engineering scaling of solid breeded blankets. The limits under which full component behavior can be achieved under changed test conditions are explored. The characterization of these test requirements for integrated testing contributes to the overall test matrix and test plan for the understanding and development of fusion nuclear technology. The second chapter covers the analysis and engineering scaling of liquid metal blankets. The testing goals for a complete blanket program are described. (MOW)

  18. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a Reference Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. Main report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWe.

  19. Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program. Semiannual progress report, October 1991--March 1992: Volume 9, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W E [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is conducted for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program focus is on the development and validation of technology for the assessment of fracture-prevention margins in commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The HSST Program is organized in 11 tasks: program management, fracture methodology and analysis, material characterization and properties, special technical assistance, fracture analysis computer programs, cleavage-crack initiation, cladding evaluations, pressurized-thermal-shock technology, analysis methods validation, fracture evaluation tests, and warm prestressing. The program tasks have been structured to place emphasis on the resolution fracture issues with near-term licensing significance. Resources to execute the research tasks are drawn from ORNL with subcontract support from universities and other research laboratories. Close contact is maintained with the sister Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program at ORNL and with related research programs both in the United States and abroad. This report provides an overview of principal developments in each of the II program tasks from October 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992.

  20. Are You Bleeding? Validation of a Machine-learning Algorithm for Determination of Blood Volume Status: Application to Remote Triage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    thoracic electrical bioimpedance, Doppler ultrasound), and/or restrict movement and dexterity (e.g., finger photoplethysmog- raphy). While some of...contrast, advantages of the technology utilized in this study include the ability to continuously collect low-level physiological signals without...during supine and sitting bicycle exercise in normal subjects. Am J Cardiol 41: 52–59, 1978. 27. Trinity JD, McDaniel J, Venturelli M, Fjeldstad AS, Ives

  1. Experimental Evaluation of the Applicability of Capacitive and Optical Measurement Methods for the Determination of Liquid Hydrogen Volume Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert HOLLER

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a capacitive and a vision-based method for measuring the velocity of cryogenic hydrogen flows. The capacitive sensing principle exploits the spatial frequency signature of perturbations moving through a multi-electrode structure. This setup increases the sensitivity to dielectric permittivity variations compared to a simple two-electrode structure while preserving the ability to detect small perturbations. The vision-based method relies on a high-speed camera system that monitors the liquid hydrogen flow through an optical window yielding the flow velocity by cross-correlating subsequent images of the flow. Although a comprehensive analysis of the obtainable measurement uncertainty was not performed yet, current measurement results show the applicability of both principles for the non-invasive measurement of the volume flow of cryogenic fuels inside conveyor pipes.

  2. The effect of strain path change on subgrain volume fraction determined from in situ X-ray measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Lienert, U.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of dislocation structures in individual bulk grains in copper during strain path changes is studied with a new in situ synchrotron technique which combines high angular resolution with fast three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping. Deformed copper contains regions with vanishing...... dislocation density called subgrains bounded by dislocation rich walls. With the new technique reciprocal space maps, consisting of sharp peaks arising from the subgrains superimposed on a cloud of lower intensity arising from the dislocation walls, are obtained, which allows properties such as subgrain...... volume fraction to be quantified. The studied strain path changes are tension-tension sequences. Polycrystalline copper sheets are pre-deformed in tension to 5% strain, and tensile samples are cut with varying angles between the first and second loading axis. The second tensile deformation up...

  3. Improved method to determine the molar volume and compositions of the NaCl-H2O-CO2 system inclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of Parry’s method (1986), an improved method was established to determine the molar volume (Vm) and compositions (X) of the NaCl-H2O-CO2 (NHC) system inclusion. To use this method, the determination of Vm-X only requires three microthermometric data of a NHC inclusion: partial homog-enization temperature (Th ,CO2), salinity (S) and total homogenization temperature (Th). Theoretically, four associated equations are needed containing four unknown parameters: X CO2, XNaCl, Vm and F (volume fraction of CO2 phase in total inclusion when occurring partial homogenization). When they are released, the Vm-X are determined. The former three equations, only correlated with Th ,CO2, S and F, have simplified expressions:XCO2=f1(Th,CO2,S,F),XNaCl=f2(Th,CO2,S,F),Vm=f3(Th,CO2,S,F). The last one is the thermodynamic relationship of X CO2, XNaCl, Vm and Th:f4(XCO2,XNaCl,Vm,Th)=0.Since the above four associated equations are complicated, it is necessary to adopt iterative technique to release them. The technique can be described by:(i) Freely input a F value (0≤F≤1),with Th ,CO2 and S, into the former three equations. As a result,X CO 2,XNaCl and the molar volume value recorded as Vm1 are derived. (ii) Input the X CO2 and XNaCl gotten in the step above into the last equation, and another molar volume value recorded as Vm2 is determined. (iii) If Vm1 is unequal to Vm2, the calculation will be restarted from “(i)”. The iteration is completed until Vm1 is equal to Vm2, which means that the four associated equations are released. Compared to Parry’s (1986) solution method, the improved method is more convenient to use, as well as more accurate to determine X CO 2. It is available for a NHC inlusion whose partial homogenization temperature is higher than clatherate melting temperature and there are no solid salt crystals in the inclusion at parital homogenization.

  4. Techniques for mapping the types, volumes, and distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs and for determining their effects on oil production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, B.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of correlation of log signatures with information on distribution of the types and volumes of clays in sandstone pore spaces determined from detailed CT-scan, XRD, SEM, and thin section analyses of core samples from three sandstone reservoirs. The log signatures are then analyzed to determine if suitable mathematical/statistical parameter(s) could be calculated from the logs to determine their effects on permeability and oil production. The variability measures obtained from power spectral analysis of permeability and wireline log data in clayey formations have been correlated with oil production from two oil fields. Compared with the conventional measures of permeability variations like the Dykstra-Parsons coefficients, the new measure appears to correlate better with oil production.

  5. Techniques for mapping the types, volumes, and distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs and for determining their effects on oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, B.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of correlation of log signatures with information on distribution of the types and volumes of clays in sandstone pore spaces determined from detailed CT-scan, XRD, SEM, and thin section analyses of core samples from three sandstone reservoirs. The log signatures are then analyzed to determine if suitable mathematical/statistical parameter(s) could be calculated from the logs to determine their effects on permeability and oil production. The variability measures obtained from power spectral analysis of permeability and wireline log data in clayey formations have been correlated with oil production from two oil fields. Compared with the conventional measures of permeability variations like the Dykstra-Parsons coefficients, the new measure appears to correlate better with oil production.

  6. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  7. Determination of Different Biological Factors on the Base of Dried Blood Spot Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhenko, V K; Mishchenko, A S; Tuzhilin, A A; Shishkin, A M

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that distinct biological indices (analytes) have distinct variability. We try to use some mathematical algorithms to pick out a set of blood parameters which give an opportunity to retrieve the initial volume of the blood spotted, and use it to calculate exact concentrations of analyts interesting to a physician. For our analysis we used the database of biochemical blood parameters obtained in Russian Scientific Center of Roentgen-Radiology during 1995-2000, which includes more than 30000 of patients.

  8. A method for rapid in situ extraction and laboratory determination of Th, Pb, and Ra isotopes from large volumes of seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, M.; Murphy, David J.; Santschi, Peter H.; Orr, James C.; Schink, David R.

    1993-04-01

    An in situ pump and six channel extraction system, operating typically at 351 min -1, can not only filter seawater samples but also extract dissolved Th, Pb and Ra isotopes from large volumes of seawater at six different depths on a single lowering. By gamma counting the ash residues of three cartridges (one particle extractor and two nuclide extractors), we can determine 234Th and 210Pb concentrations in the particulate and dissolved phase. Extraction efficiencies for 234Th from the dissolved phase average 93 ± 5% and for 210Pb average ≥90%. At the same time we can determine radium isotopic ratios precisely, but, at present radium concentrations can only be established by the determination of 226Ra in a 30-1 cohort sample. This system can be deployed easily from ships having an A-frame. It eliminates the problems of transporting and processing large volumes of samples and involves relatively little manual labor and analytical time. We have tested and used this device repeatedly in the Gulf of Mexico. Our preliminary results agree well with values of 234Th and 210Pb concentrations and 228Ra/ 226Ra activity ratios reported in the literature for the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Determining the feasibility of objective adherence measurement with blister packaging smart technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzenoort, H.A. van; Neef, C.; Verberk, W.W.; Iperen, H.P. van; Leeuw, P.W. de; Kuy, P.H. van der

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The results of a feasibility study of blister-pack smart technology for monitoring medication adherence are reported. METHODS: Research in the area of objective therapy compliance measurement has led to the development of microprocessor-driven systems that record the time a unit dose is

  10. Accuracy of progress ratios determined from experience curves: the case of photovoltaic technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Junginger, H.M.; de Moor, H.H.C.; Schaeffer, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Learning curves are extensively used in policy and scenario studies. Progress ratios (PRs) are derived from historical data and are used for forecasting cost development of many technologies, including photovoltaics (PV). Forecasts are highly sensitive to uncertainties in the PR. A PR usually is det

  11. Assessment of the Technology and Practice for Determining Casing Degradation during Offshore Drilling Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Ecologic Instruments Bohemia NY Envirotech 12881 Knott Ave. Ste 106 Ecosystem Research and Garden Grove, CA 92645 Technology Corp. P. 0. Box 35712...Environmental Olympus Corp. of America/ Instruments, Inc. Indusria fib ericDe P. 0. Box 590 Industrial Fiberoptics Dept. Pilgrim Station 2 Nevada Drive

  12. Determining the feasibility of objective adherence measurement with blister packaging smart technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzenoort, H.A. van; Neef, C.; Verberk, W.W.; Iperen, H.P. van; Leeuw, P.W. de; Kuy, P.H. van der

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The results of a feasibility study of blister-pack smart technology for monitoring medication adherence are reported. METHODS: Research in the area of objective therapy compliance measurement has led to the development of microprocessor-driven systems that record the time a unit dose is rem

  13. Dynamic programming to determine optimum investments in information technology on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of integrating the information about a number of information technology (IT) applications on dairy farms is gaining interest because of the potential to improve economic results. In this study optimal investment patterns involving five IT applications are evaluated: (1) automated con

  14. "Whose Child Is This?": Determining Legal Status for Lesbian Parents Who Used Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jan; Skinner, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have helped heterosexuals, lesbians, and gays fulfill desires to become parents. In this article, we identify assumptions upon which parentage rights in the United States are based. Examining recent legal decisions in California concerning 3 families headed by lesbian parents who used ARTs, we find that…

  15. Five Steps to Help You Determine if You Need the New "It" Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozikowski, Chester, III

    2010-01-01

    Technologists may find themselves alone on the bleachers trying to find supporters for the next "it" technology. Despite their enthusiasm, many times "it" ends up unused because a thorough evaluation was not performed prior to purchase. Before technologists lobby for approval or support of a new project, the author presents five questions for them…

  16. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  17. Documentation of the analysis of the benefits and costs of aeronautical research and technology models, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, J. C.; Braun, R. L.; Denny, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of the benefits and costs of aeronautical research and technology (ABC-ART) models are documented. These models were developed by NASA for use in analyzing the economic feasibility of applying advanced aeronautical technology to future civil aircraft. The methodology is composed of three major modules: fleet accounting module, airframe manufacturing module, and air carrier module. The fleet accounting module is used to estimate the number of new aircraft required as a function of time to meet demand. This estimation is based primarily upon the expected retirement age of existing aircraft and the expected change in revenue passenger miles demanded. Fuel consumption estimates are also generated by this module. The airframe manufacturer module is used to analyze the feasibility of the manufacturing the new aircraft demanded. The module includes logic for production scheduling and estimating manufacturing costs. For a series of aircraft selling prices, a cash flow analysis is performed and a rate of return on investment is calculated. The air carrier module provides a tool for analyzing the financial feasibility of an airline purchasing and operating the new aircraft. This module includes a methodology for computing the air carrier direct and indirect operating costs, performing a cash flow analysis, and estimating the internal rate of return on investment for a set of aircraft purchase prices.

  18. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  19. Heavy-section steel technology program: Semiannual progress report for April--September 1996. Volume 13, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program focus is on the development and validation of technology for the assessment of fracture-prevention margins in commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The HSST Program is organized in seven tasks: (1) program management, (2) constraint effects analytical development and validation, (3) evaluation of cladding effects, (4) ductile to cleavage fracture mode conversion, (5) fracture analysis methods development and applications, (6) material property data and test methods, and (7) integration of results into a state-of-the-art methodology. The program tasks have been structured to place emphasis on the resolution fracture issues with near-term licensing significance. Resources to execute the research tasks are drawn from ORNL with subcontract support from universities and other research laboratories. Close contact is maintained with the sister Heavy-Section Steel irradiation Program at ORNL and with related research programs both in the US and abroad. This report provides an overview of principal developments in each of the seven program tasks from April 1996--September 1996.

  20. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  1. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changing people`s lives, living conditions, their needs and their behaviour as consumers. The literature highlights the factors that influence purchasing behaviour and changes manifested in terms of values, stressing the importance of promoting and protecting consumer`s rights and interests, The new responsible consumer can become a key driving force of sustainable development only if it is able to capitalize on new opportunities and to counter new risks of modern marketing technologies based on the Internet and mobile communications. This involves the assimilation of new knowledge throughout life to keep up with the accelerating pace of technological innovation and diffusion of e-commerce solutions and mobile commerce. We study the correlation between the composite index of consumer conditions and the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes in some Member States, based on secondary analysis of the data available at EU level,. The results confirm that the consumer`s situation is better in countries where the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes is higher. At the same time, however, the correlation is not linear. This shows that the consumer`s situation does not depend exclusively on formal continuing education but also other factors such as timeliness and severity of legal and institutional framework of consumer protection, the acquisition of knowledge through informal means, the requirement of different customers in different

  2. Determination of ice thickness, subice topography and ice volume at Glacier No. 1 in Tien Shan, China by ground penetrating radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙波; 张鹏; 焦克勤; 邓新生; 温家洪

    2003-01-01

    We describe a radio-echo sounding (RES) survey for the determination of ice thickness, subglacial topography and ice volume of Glacier No. 1, in Tien Shah,China, using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Radar data were collected with 100-MHz antennas that were spaced at 4 m with a step size of 8 m. The images produced from radar survey clearly show the continuity of bedrock echoes and the undulation features of the bedrock surface. Radar results show that the maximum ice thickness of Glacier No. 1 is 133 m, the thickness of the east branch of Glacier No. 1 averages at 58.77 m while that of the west branch of Glacier No. 1 averages at 44.84 m. Calculation on ice volume indicates that the ice volume of the east branch of Glacier No. 1 is 51.87 × 106 m3 and that of the west branch of Glacier No. 1 is 20.21 × 106 m3. The amplitude of the undulation of the bedrock surface topography revealed by radar profiles is larger than that of the glacier surface topography, indicating that the surface relief does not directly depend on that of the bedrock undulation in Glacier No. 1, in Tien Shan.

  3. [Determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by large volume sample injection with enrichment column for on-line preconcentration coupled with ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; He, Qingqing; Yang, Lili; Hu, Enyu; Wang, Meifei

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by ion chromatography with large volume sample injection for on-line preconcentration was established. A high capacity Dionex IonPac AG23 guard column was simply used as the enrichment column instead of the loop for the preconcentration of bromate. High purity KOH solution used as eluent for gradient elution was on-line produced by an eluent generator automatically. The results showed that a good linear relationship of bromate was exhibited in the range of 0.05-51.2 μg/L (r ≥ 0.999 5), and the method detection limit was 0.01 μg/L. Compared with conventional sample injection, the injection volume was up to 5 mL, and the enrichment factor of this method was about 240 times. This method was successfully applied for several real samples of pure water which were purchased in the supermarket, and the recoveries of bromate were between 90%-100% with the RSDs (n = 6) of 2.1%-6.4% at two spiked levels. This method without pretreatment is simple, and of high accuracy and precision. The preconcentration can be achieved by large volume sample injection. It is suitable for the analysis of trace and ultra-trace level bromate.

  4. Serum thyroxine and age - rather than thyroid volume and serum TSH - are determinants of the thyroid radioiodine uptake in patients with nodular goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, S J; Fast, S; Nielsen, V E;

    2011-01-01

    patients (146 females; age range: 22-87 yrs.) with nodular goiter (median 64 ml, range: 20-464 ml) selected for 131I therapy. Serum TSH was sub-normal in 42.4%. None were treated with anti-thyroid drugs. The thyroid RAIU was determined at 24h and 96h. The goiter volume was measured by ultrasound (n=127......Background: 131I therapy is widely used for treatment of non-toxic goiters. A limitation for this treatment is a low thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU), often encountered in these patients. Aim: To estimate the impact of various factors on the thyroid RAIU. Methods: We examined prospectively 170...

  5. Use of combined maximum and minimum intensity projections to determine internal target volume in 4-dimensional CT scans for hepatic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the accuracy of the combined maximum and minimum intensity projection-based internal target volume (ITV delineation in 4-dimensional (4D CT scans for liver malignancies. Methods 4D CT with synchronized IV contrast data were acquired from 15 liver cancer patients (4 hepatocellular carcinomas; 11 hepatic metastases. We used five approaches to determine ITVs: (1. ITVAllPhases: contouring gross tumor volume (GTV on each of 10 respiratory phases of 4D CT data set and combining these GTVs; (2. ITV2Phase: contouring GTV on CT of the peak inhale phase (0% phase and the peak exhale phase (50% and then combining the two; (3. ITVMIP: contouring GTV on MIP with modifications based on physician's visual verification of contours in each respiratory phase; (4. ITVMinIP: contouring GTV on MinIP with modification by physician; (5. ITV2M: combining ITVMIP and ITVMinIP. ITVAllPhases was taken as the reference ITV, and the metrics used for comparison were: matching index (MI, under- and over-estimated volume (Vunder and Vover. Results 4D CT images were successfully acquired from 15 patients and tumor margins were clearly discernable in all patients. There were 9 cases of low density and 6, mixed on CT images. After comparisons of metrics, the tool of ITV2M was the most appropriate to contour ITV for liver malignancies with the highest MI of 0.93 ± 0.04 and the lowest proportion of Vunder (0.07 ± 0.04. Moreover, tumor volume, target motion three-dimensionally and ratio of tumor vertical diameter over tumor motion magnitude in cranio-caudal direction did not significantly influence the values of MI and proportion of Vunder. Conclusion The tool of ITV2M is recommended as a reliable method for generating ITVs from 4D CT data sets in liver cancer.

  6. 5{sup th} international geothermal conference. Conference volume. Risk management, financing, power plant technology, EGS/HFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jochen; Hoffmann, Nadine; Brian, Marcus (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    Within the 5th International Geothermal Conference at 27th to 28th April, 2009, in Freiburg (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Worldwide development of geothermal energy (Ladislaus Rypach); (b) Geothermal developments and applications in Turkey (Orhan Mertoglu); (c) Guermat Elektrik: Turkish experiences in geothermal financings (John F. Wolfe); (d) Geothermal exploration success: Using data and best practices from the oil and gas industry (Jan-Diederik van Wees); (e) Implementing geothermal power projects - risk management and financing from the investor's point of view (Christian Jokiel); (f) Risks and risk mitigation in the Upper Rhine Graben geothermal province (Christian Hecht); (g) The Soultz geothermal plant: from the concept to the first geothermal kWh (Albert Genter); (h) Binary power plant technologies for geothermal power generation (Kathrin Rohloff); (i) Kalina power plants - 10 years of operational experience (Gestur R. Bardarson); (j) 1,200 MW experience with innovative geothermal power plants (Hilel Legmann); (k) Challenges of managing geothermal power plant projects (Norbert Hartlieb); (l) Requirements for geothermal power plants (Athanasios Tsoubaklis); (m) Credit programme on productivity risk in deep geothermal projects (Karin Freier, Peter Hasenbein, Stephan Jacob); (n) Geothermal projects in the light of the financial crisis (Thomas G. Engelmann); (o) Insurability of geothermal projects (Matthias Kliesch); (p) Requirements for equity investors to finance a geothermal project (Thoma G. Engelmann); (q) Aspects of project development from an investor's perspective (Bernhard Gubo); (r) Project requirements and challenges in geothermal projects (Olaf Heil); (s) The 'quest' for appropriate locations for HFR projects in Southern Germany (Wolfgang Bauer); (t) Status of the Soultz geothermal power plant and the deep reservoir after some months of circulation (Albert Genter); (u) Hot

  7. Disruptive Technologies: Achieving the Asymmetric Edge on the Battlefield (WSTIAC Quarterly. Volume 7, Number 4, December 31, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-31

    specific chem-bio spectra. The identification of a specific signature of the chem-bio spectrum (e.g., smells, odors, perfumes ) can determine the pres...New programs that are starting up to discover what is being developed • New product offerings in the commercial market – commer- cial off the shelf

  8. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We

  9. Coopetition Effect Determinants: Competitor’s Size, Geographical Scope, Market and Technological Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cygler Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Goal: The article is aimed at conducting an empirical analysis of the value and significance of coopetitors’ attributes thanks to which coopetition, which is a combination of cooperation and competition between competitors, generates a substantial corporate profit. Four major competitors’ attributes have been analysed: its size, geographical scope, market and technological position. The research also includes the Porter’s value chain.

  10. Acceptability of novel lifelogging technology to determine context of sedentary behaviour in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Juliet A.; Skelton, Dawn A.; Sebastien F.M. Chastin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lifelogging, using body worn sensors (activity monitors and time lapse photography) has the potential to shed light on the context of sedentary behaviour. The objectives of this study were to examine the acceptability, to older adults, of using lifelogging technology and indicate its usefulness for understanding behaviour. Method: 6 older adults (4 males, mean age: 68yrs) wore the equipment (ActivPALTM and Vicon RevueTM/SenseCamTM) for 7 consecutive days during free-living activity...

  11. Determinants of Trade with Solar Energy Technology Components: Evidence on the Porter Hypothesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Groba, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Studies analyzing renewable energy market development usually investigate additional capacity or investment. Characteristics, roles and determinants of cross border trade with renewable energy system components remain blurred. Environmental regulation and renewable energy policies are important in promoting renewable energy use. Yet, the effect of respective policies on determining exports remains ambiguous. The Porter hypothesis and the lead market literature argue that environmental regulat...

  12. Determinants of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cirrhosis with special emphasis on the central blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in cirrhosis. Although the activated RAAS may have several determinants, the system is often considered a surrogate marker of effective hypovolaemia. In this study we investigated the activity...

  13. Impedance recordings to determine change in extracellular volume in the brain following cardiac arrest in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis-Heutinck, LFM; Savenije, B; Postema, F; Van Voorst, A; Lambooij, E; Korf, J

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes a method to determine the onset and development of brain damage in broiler chickens. Exsanguination disrupts the brain metabolism and causes the brain to become ischemic. Energy-requiring systems in the cell membrane fail, which results in an ionic shift over the membrane

  14. Determinants of acute mortality of Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to ultra-low volume permethrin used for mosquito management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robert K D; Preftakes, Collin J; Bodin, Jennifer L; Brown, Christopher R; Piccolomini, Alyssa M; Schleier, Jerome J

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few experimental studies and risk assessments of the effects on non-target insects from ultra-low volume (ULV) insecticides used for management of adult mosquitoes. Therefore, we evaluated factors that may influence the ability of an insect to intercept the insecticide at the time of application by using Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in field bioassay experiments in 2011 and 2015. Treatment factors included different distances, two cage heights (ground-level and 1.5 m above ground) to the point of the application, and covered vs. uncovered cage faces (2015 only). Insecticides used included a water-based formulation (Aqua-Reslin®) and an oil-based formulation (Permanone® 30-30) of permethrin. Cage height was highly significant both years, with much less acute (i.e., short-term exposure) mortality at ground-level compared with 1.5 m. In 2011, acute mortality was less at ground-level (mean = 3.2%, median = 0%) compared to 1.5 m (mean = 85.2%, median = 100%). Cage type also was highly significant, with less mortality in covered cages compared to uncovered cages. Mortality by cage height and cage type was as follows: ground level, covered cage (mean = 2.8%, median = 0.1%); ground level, uncovered cage (mean = 41.9%, median = 9.6%); 1.5 m, covered cage (mean = 6.8%, median = 0%); 1.5 m, uncovered cage (mean = 83.7%, median = 100%). Results suggest that acute mortality to non-target insects may vary considerably based on their height and their ability to directly intercept the insecticide as the aerosol passes through the area being sprayed.

  15. Comparative method validation for closantel determination in cattle and sheep milk according to European Union Volume 8 and Veterinary International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devreese, Mathias; Maes, An; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2014-08-01

    A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for quantitative determination of closantel in bovine and ovine colostrum and tank milk. Sample preparation consisted of extracting milk samples with acetonitrile/acetone (80/20, v/v) followed by SPE clean-up with Oasis mixed anion exchange columns. After elution with 5% formic acid in acetonitrile and evaporation to dryness, the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile and water. HPLC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column and a gradient elution program with 1mM ammonium acetate in water and acetonitrile. For closantel determination in bovine milk, the method was validated according to EU Volume 8 guidelines whereas for ovine milk both EU Volume 8 and VICH GL49 criteria were applied. The linear range of the method is between 10 and 2000 μg/kg, the limit of quantification 10 μg/kg and limit of detection is 0.63 and 0.32 μg/kg for sheep colostrum and tank milk and 1.27 and 1.24 μg/kg for cattle colostrum and tank milk, respectively. Both guidelines cover a similar set of parameters (linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification), although the acceptance criteria might differ (accuracy and precision) or no specific acceptability ranges are specified in neither guidelines (LOD and LOQ). For some parameters, only one of the guidelines indicates acceptance criteria: EU Volume 8 for applicability, practicability and susceptibility and VICH GL 49 for linearity, specificity and analyte stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  17. (99m) Tc-labelled human serum albumin cannot replace (125) I-labelled human serum albumin to determine plasma volume in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    -labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and iodine-labelled human serum albumin (125I-HSA), as the former may have advantages at repeated measurements and the latter is the classical gold standard. Study population and methods In 88 patients, (64 with liver disease, mainly cirrhosis, and 24 patients without......Summary Background and aims Determination of plasma volume (PV) is important in several clinical situations. Thus, patients with liver disease often have augmented PV as part of their sodium–water retention. This study was undertaken to compare PV determination by two indicators: technetium...... liver disease), simultaneous measurements of PV were taken with 99mTc-HSA and 125I-HSA after 1 h in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained before and 10 min after quantitative injection of the two indicators. In a subset of patients (n = 32), the measurements were repeated within 1 h. Results...

  18. Determination of fugitive coal-dust emissions from rotary railcar dumping. Volume 2. Appendices A-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookman, E.T.; Carnes, D.H.; Catizone, P.A.; Kelley, K.J.

    1984-09-01

    TRC Environmental Consultants, Inc. conducted 72 field tests to determine particulate emission levels for a rotary railcar coal dumper operated by the Potomac Electric Power Company. Approximately 60 parameters were monitored as part of the testing program. These parameters related to particulate emissions, meteorology, and coal properties. The railcar dumper was situated inside of a shed. No other control devices were in operation during the test program. Emissions were measured at the entrance and exit doorways of the shed using the mass flux technique. Background levels were accounted for using the upwind/downwind technique. The amount of particulate material that deposited within the shed was also recorded. The study resulted in the determination of emission levels that were one to two orders of magnitude less than those cited in the literature. These emission levels were found to correlate the strongest with the moisture content of the coal and whether the coal was washed or unwashed.

  19. Determinação da curva volume versus duração por meio da distribuição do valor extremo generalizada para estimativa do volume de espera em reservatórios = Determination of volume duration curve by generalized extreme value distribution to estimate waiting water volume in reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos reservatórios de usos múltiplo de água, existe conflito para o controle de cheias, principalmente para a geração de energia elétrica. Para controlar cheias é necessário um volume vazio capaz de absorver uma eventual cheia sem causar danos nas áreas à jusante. Por outro lado, para gerar energia é desejável alocar o menor volume de proteção possível, ao passo que para controlar cheias é desejável ter uma estimativa confiável da possibilidade do reservatório falhar quando um dado volume de proteção é alocado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi construir a Curva Volume x Duração, empregada para estimar volume de espera, através do ajuste das séries de volumes máximos afluentes usando a distribuição GEV e momentos LH. Foram usados volumes afluentes observados em várias estações fluviométricas de rios do estado do Paraná, Brasil. Todos os ajustes dos volumesmáximos afluentes foram aceitos através do teste de qualidade de ajuste proposto por Wang (1998. A curva volume x duração foi adequadamente construída usando valores de volumes máximos afluentes observados em diferentes estações fluviométricas.In the reservoirs of multiple uses of water, exist conflict to control floods, mainly for generation of electric energy. To control floods it's necessary an empty volume able to absorb an accidental flood without causing damage in the areas downstream. On the other side, to generate energy it's desirable to place the smallest volume of possible protection, whereas to control floods it's desirable to have a reliable estimate in case the reservoir fails when a given volume of protection is placed. The objective of this work was to construct the Volume Curve x Length, used to estimate the waiting volume, through the adjustments of the series of the affluent maximum volume using the distribution GEV and moments LH. Affluent volumeswere used and observed in several fluviometrics stations of rivers in Paraná state, Brazil

  20. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster