WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology costs market

  1. Photovoltaic technology, performance, manufacturing cost and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of key aspects of photovoltaic energy conversion systems will provide the basis for forecasting PV module shipments from 1999 to 2010. Principal areas covered include: (1) Technology and Performance Status: The module efficiency and performance are described for commercial cell technologies including single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, ribbon silicon, film silicon on low cost substrate, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride; (2) Manufacturing cost: 1999 costs for PV technologies in production (single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, and amorphous silicon) are developed. Manufacturing costs for 10--25 MW plants and 100 MW plants will be estimated; (3) The world PV market is summarized by region, top ten companies, and technology; and (4) Forecast of the World Market (seven market sectors) to 2010 will be presented. Key assumptions, price of modules, incentive programs, price of competing electricity generation will be detailed

  2. Renewable energy technologies: costs and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, J.; Langniss, O.

    1997-01-01

    A prominent feature of renewable energy utilisation is the magnitude of renewable energy that is physically available worldwide. The present paper attempts an economic valuation of development strategies for renewable energy sources (RES) on the basis of the past development of RES markets. It comes to the conclusion that if current energy prices remain largely unchanged, it will be necessary to promote RES technologies differentially according to the technique and type of energy employed or to provide start-up funding. The more probable a long-term increase in energy prices becomes, the greater will be the proportion of successfully promoted technologies. Energy taxes on exhaustible or environmentally harmful energy carriers and other instruments to this end would contribute greatly to the attractivity of RES investment both in terms of national economy and from the viewpoint of the private investor. Renewable energies will play an important role in the hardware and services sectors of the energy market in the decades to come. Long-term promotion of market introduction programmes and unequivocal energy-political aims on the part of the government are needed if the German industry is to have a share in this growing market and be able to offer internationally competitive products [de

  3. Market diffusion, technological learning, and cost-benefit dynamics of condensing gas boilers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Dittmar, L.; Junginger, H.M.; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K.

    2009-01-01

    High costs often prevent the market diffusion of novel and efficient energy technologies. Monitoring cost and price decline for these technologies is thus important in order to establish effective energy policy. Here, we present experience curves and cost-benefit analyses for condensing gas boilers

  4. Liberalised electricity markets, new bioenergy technologies, and GHG emission reductions: interactions and CO2 mitigation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Madlener, R.

    1999-01-01

    We contrast recent developments in power and heat production with bioenergy, and natural-gas-fired condensing plants with and without decarbonisation, in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Our main focus is on CO 2 mitigation costs and carbon tax sensitivity of production costs. We find that CO 2 mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems using IGCC technology than for natural gas system using decarbonisation. However, based on current fuel prices natural-gas fired co-generation plants have the lowest production costs. Hence energy policy measures will be needed to promote biomass technologies and decarbonisation options on a liberalised market. (author)

  5. CO{sub 2} mitigation costs of large-scale bioenergy technologies in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, L [Mid-Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden). Dept. of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Ecotechnology; Madlener, R [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). CEPE

    2003-11-01

    In this study, we compare and contrast the impact of recent technological developments in large biomass-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration and condensing plants in terms of CO{sub 2} mitigation costs and under the conditions of a competitive electricity market. The CO{sub 2} mitigation cost indicates the minimum economic incentive required (e.g. in the form of a carbon tax) to equal the cost of a less carbon extensive system with the cost of a reference system. The results show that CO{sub 2} mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems than for natural gas systems with decarbonization. However, in liberalized energy markets and given the sociopolitical will to implement carbon extensive energy systems, market-based policy measures are still required to make biomass and decarbonization options competitive and thus help them to penetrate the market. This cost of cogeneration plants, however, depends on the evaluation method used. If we account for the limitation of heat sinks by expanding the reference entity to include both heat and power, as is typically recommended in life-cycle analysis, then the biomass-based gasification combined cycle (BIG/CC) technology turns out to be less expensive and to exhibit lower CO{sub 2} mitigation costs than biomass-fired steam turbine plants. However, a heat credit granted to cogeneration systems that is based on avoided cost of separate heat production, puts the steam turbine technology despite its lower system efficiency at an advantage. In contrast, when a crediting method based on avoided electricity production in natural gas fired condensing plants is employed, the BIG/CC technology turns out to be more cost competitive than the steam turbine technology for carbon tax levels beyond about $150/t C. Furthermore, steam turbine plants are able to compete with natural gas fired cogeneration plants at carbon tax levels higher than about $90/tC. (author)

  6. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  7. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates

  8. A study of the cost-effective markets for new technology agricultural aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.; Clyne, F.

    1979-01-01

    A previously developed data base was used to estimate the regional and total U.S. cost-effective markets for a new technology agricultural aircraft as incorporating features which could result from NASA-sponsored aerial applications research. The results show that the long-term market penetration of a new technology aircraft would be near 3,000 aircraft. This market penetration would be attained in approximately 20 years. Annual sales would be about 200 aircraft after 5 to 6 years of introduction. The net present value of cost savings benefit which this aircraft would yield (measured on an infinite horizon basis) would be about $35 million counted at a 10 percent discount rate and $120 million at a 5 percent discount rate. At both discount rates the present value of cost savings exceeds the present value of research and development (R&D) costs estimated for the development of the technology base needed for the proposed aircraft. These results are quite conservative as they have been derived neglecting future growth in the agricultural aviation industry, which has been averaging about 12 percent per year over the past several years.

  9. Market diffusion, technological learning, and cost-benefit dynamics of condensing gas boilers in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Dittmar, Lars; Junginger, Martin; Patel, Martin K.; Blok, Kornelis

    2009-01-01

    High costs often prevent the market diffusion of novel and efficient energy technologies. Monitoring cost and price decline for these technologies is thus important in order to establish effective energy policy. Here, we present experience curves and cost-benefit analyses for condensing gas boilers produced and sold in the Netherlands between 1981 and 2006. For the most dominant boiler type on the Dutch market, i.e., condensing gas combi boilers, we identify learning rates of 14±1% for the average price and 16±8% for the additional price relative to non-condensing devices. Economies of scale, competitive sourcing of boiler components, and improvements in boiler assembly are among the main drivers behind the observed price decline. The net present value of condensing gas combi boilers shows an overall increasing trend. Purchasing in 2006 a gas boiler of this type instead of a non-condensing device generates a net present value of 970 EUR (Euro) and realizes CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emission savings at negative costs of -120 EUR per tonne CO 2 . We attribute two-thirds of the improvements in the cost-benefit performance of condensing gas combi boilers to technological learning and one-third to a combination of external effects and governmental policies.

  10. Food Marketing Technology and Contingency Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Garth J. Holloway; Anthony C. Zwart

    1993-01-01

    Marketing activities are introduced into a rational expectations model of the food marketing system. The model is used to evaluate effects of alternative marketing technologies on the distribution of the benefits of contingency markets in agriculture. Benefits depend on two parameters: the cost share of farm inputs and the elasticity of substitution between farm and nonfarm inputs in food marketing. Over a broad spectrum of technologies, consumers are likely to be the net beneficiaries and fa...

  11. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies. (letter)

  12. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  13. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  14. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  15. Aqueous-stream uranium-removal technology cost/benefit and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present information that was gathered by Kapline Enterprises, Inc. (KEI) in order to help the Department of Energy (DOE) determine the merit of continued biosorption research funding. However, in the event that funding is continued, it is also intended to help the researchers in their efforts to develop a better uranium-removal process. This report (1) provides a comparison of DOE sites that may utilize aqueous-stream, uranium-removal biosorption technology, (2) presents a comparison of the biosorption and ion exchange processes, and (3) establishes performance criteria by which the project can be measured. It also attempts to provide focus for biosorbent ground-water-remediation research and to ask questions that need to be answered. This report is primarily a study of the US market for technologies that remove uranium from aqueous streams, but it also addresses the international market-particularly for Germany. Because KEI`s access to international market information is extremely limited, the material presented in this report represents a best effort to obtain this data. Although uranium-contaminated aqueous streams are a problem in other countries as well, the scope of this report is primarily limited to the US and Germany for two reasons: (1) Germany is the country of the biosorbent-CRADA partner and (2) time constraints.

  16. Aqueous-stream uranium-removal technology cost/benefit and market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present information that was gathered by Kapline Enterprises, Inc. (KEI) in order to help the Department of Energy (DOE) determine the merit of continued biosorption research funding. However, in the event that funding is continued, it is also intended to help the researchers in their efforts to develop a better uranium-removal process. This report (1) provides a comparison of DOE sites that may utilize aqueous-stream, uranium-removal biosorption technology, (2) presents a comparison of the biosorption and ion exchange processes, and (3) establishes performance criteria by which the project can be measured. It also attempts to provide focus for biosorbent ground-water-remediation research and to ask questions that need to be answered. This report is primarily a study of the US market for technologies that remove uranium from aqueous streams, but it also addresses the international market-particularly for Germany. Because KEI's access to international market information is extremely limited, the material presented in this report represents a best effort to obtain this data. Although uranium-contaminated aqueous streams are a problem in other countries as well, the scope of this report is primarily limited to the US and Germany for two reasons: (1) Germany is the country of the biosorbent-CRADA partner and (2) time constraints

  17. Marketing technology in macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamegawa, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we incorporate a marketing technology into a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model by assuming a matching friction for consumption. An improvement in matching can be interpreted as an increase in matching technology, which we call marketing technology because of similar properties. Using a simulation analysis, we confirm that a positive matching technology shock can increase output and consumption.

  18. Marketing technologically advanced products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bender, Horst

    1989-01-01

    This paper calls for a merger of technology and marketing under a customer value perspective; for an enhancement of the traditional technological innovation orientation of the technology-based firm with a market thrust. It establishes technology-based products as product-service offerings that are

  19. Market introduction of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    On 11 and 12 November 1997 the VDI Society for Energy Technology (VDI-GET) held a congress in Neuss on the ''Market introduction of renewable energy technologies'' The focal topics of the congress were as follows: market analyses for renewable energy technologies, the development of markets at home and abroad, and the framework conditions governing market introduction. Specifically it dealt with the market effects of national and international introduction measures, promotion programmes and their efficiency, the legal framework conditions governing market introduction, advanced and supplementary training, market-oriented research (e.g., for cost reduction), and improved marketing [de

  20. 2015 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This annual report--now in its tenth year--provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2015. The report begins with an overview of key installation trends and then covers an array of industry and technology trends. The report also discusses project performance, wind turbine prices, project costs, operations and maintenance expenses, and prices paid for wind power in the United States. The report examines policy and market factors impacting the domestic wind power market and provides a preview of possible near-term market developments, expenses, and prices paid for wind power in the United States. The report examines policy and market factors impacting the domestic wind power market and provides a preview of possible near-term market developments.

  1. Integral cost-benefit analysis of Maglev technology under market imperfections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul; Oosterhaven, Jan; Romp, Ward E.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess a proposed new mode of guided high speed ground transportation, the magnetic levitation rail system (Maglev), and to compare the results of a partial cost-benefit analysis with those of an integral CBA. We deal with an urbanconglomeration as well as a

  2. Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of environmentally based market failure constraints on the adoption of renewable energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of the resulting output of electricity, could lead to a number of renewable technologies being financially competitive with generation from coal plants. However, combined cycle natural gas technology would have a significant financial advantage over both coal and renewables under current technology options and market conditions. On the basis of cost projections made under the assumption of mature technologies and the existence of economies of scale, renewable technologies would possess a significant social cost advantage if the externalities of power production were to be 'internalised'. Incorporating environmental externalities explicitly into the electricity tariff today would serve to hasten this transition process. (author)

  3. Market Leadership Through Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias; Spengler, Thomas

    .S. market for handheld game consoles, we show that backward compatibility lets incumbents transfer network effects from the old generation to the new to some extent but that it also reduces supply of new software. We examine the tradeoff between technological progress and backward compatibility and find...... that backward compatibility matters less if there is a large technological leap between two generations. We subsequently use our results to assess the role of backward compatibility as a strategy to sustain market leadership....

  4. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-01-29

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  5. Technology development in market networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olerup, B.

    2001-01-01

    Technology procurement is used as an environmental control means in Sweden to promote the manufacturing and sale of energy-efficient technologies. The public authority in charge makes use of the market mechanism in alternating co-operative and competitive elements. The fragmented market, with its standardised products for many small customers, is brought together to specify desired product developments. These demands also include other qualities besides energy efficiency. A contest is announced in which a possible future market is indicated to manufacturers. Efforts are made to enlarge the market to motivate their investment and to keep down the unit cost. Each side in the deal is thus given an incentive to act in the desired direction. (author)

  6. Market Integration, Choice of Technology and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2010-01-01

    technologies. Market integration may induce a technological restructuring where firms either diversify their technologies or switch to a homogeneous technology. In general, market integration improves welfare. However, a small decrease of trade costs which induces a switch from heterogeneous technologies...... to a homogeneous technology may locally reduce global welfare. The model also shows that productivity differences lead to intra-industry firm heterogeneity in size and exports similar to the "new-new" trade models with monopolistic competition....

  7. Electricity costs in liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkans, J.; Junghans, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the liberalized electricity market the flexible demand determines the operation of power plants. Under market conditions the producers are forced to compete, and their power plants are normally loaded in order of increasing prices. The electricity costs consist of fixed and variable components, and the competition among producers simulates minimization of both the components. Considering the fixed costs (including maintenance, depreciation, capital costs and other permanent costs not depending on production) to be known, the total electricity costs in different operating conditions are based on the economic characteristics and the equipment load of a power plant. The paper describes the method for determination of electricity costs for condensing thermal power plants with permanent steam take-off for regeneration purposes and adjustable steam take-off for the needs of local heat energy consumers. The marginal costs for CHP plants are determined considering a number of different steam take-off from a turbine. At the electricity cost determination, auxiliary services also are taken into account. These can be reduced by adjusting the rotational speed of electric motors. The paper also shows how to determine the electricity costs for gas turbines, combined cycle gas turbines, and nuclear power plants. The position of hydro power plants among other PPs in the free market is also analysed. (authors)

  8. Technology Transfer: Marketing Tomorrow's Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Erene

    1995-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and the end of the Cold War have triggered many changes in the traditional practices of U.S. industry. To effectively apply the resources available to the United States, the federal government has firmly advocated a policy of technology transfer between private industry and government labs, in this case the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin is a strong proponent of this policy and has organized technology transfer or commercialization programs at each of the NASA field centers. Here at Langley Research Center, the Technology Applications Group (TAG) is responsible for facilitating the transfer of Langley developed research and technology to U.S. industry. Entering the program, I had many objectives for my summer research with TAG. Certainly, I wanted to gain a more thorough understanding of the concept of technology transfer and Langley's implementation of a system to promote it to both the Langley community and the community at large. Also, I hoped to become more familiar with Langley's research capabilities and technology inventory available to the public. More specifically, I wanted to learn about the technology transfer process at Langley. Because my mentor is a member of Materials and Manufacturing marketing sector of the Technology Transfer Team, another overriding objective for my research was to take advantage of his work and experience in materials research to learn about the Advanced Materials Research agency wide and help market these developments to private industry. Through the various projects I have been assigned to work on in TAG, I have successfully satisfied the majority of these objectives. Work on the Problem Statement Process for TAG as well as the development of the Advanced Materials Research Brochure have provided me with the opportunity to learn about the technology transfer process from the outside looking in and the inside looking out. Because TAG covers

  9. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  10. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  11. Water Technology Innovation: 10 Market Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Technology Innovation Blueprint offers an overview of market opportunities that include conserving and recovering energy, recovering nutrients, improving water infrastructure, reducing costs for water monitoring, and improving water quality.

  12. Marketing margins and agricultural technology in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman

    2000-01-01

    of improved agricultural technology and lower marketing margins yield welfare gains across the economy. In addition, a combined scenario reveals significant synergy effects, as gains exceed the sum of gains from the individual scenarios. Relative welfare improvements are higher for poor rural households......Improvements in agricultural productivity and reductions in marketing costs in Mozambique are analysed using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The model incorporates detailed marketing margins and separates household demand for marketed and home-produced goods. Individual simulations...

  13. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  14. 2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop "leap frog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  15. 2008 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.; Davis, S.

    2009-07-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop 'leap frog' technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  16. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  17. Market Impact Costs of Institutional Equity Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.; van der Sluis, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  18. Market Impact Costs of Institutional Equity Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, P.J.; Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  19. Market impact costs of institutional equity trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, Laura; van der Sluis, Pieter Jelle

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  20. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, INTERNET, AND MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Mihane Berisha-Namani

    2013-01-01

    Information technology developed very fast, and today's marketing activities are not possible without the help of information technology. Furthermore, it is difficult to think of a policy domain not affected by usage of information technology. Information technology is making possible and creating connections between businesses and organizations. The implications of information technology usage in marketing activities are profound too. Using information technology, companies possess the poten...

  1. Market power and technological bias in electricity generation markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, Paul; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult or very costly to avoid all market power in electricity markets. A recurring response is that a limited amount of market power is accepted with the justification that it is necessary to produce revenues to cover some of the fixed costs. It is assumed that all market participants benefit equally from the increased prices. However, this assumption is not satisfied if different production technologies are used. We assess the case of a generation mix of conventional generation and intermittent generation with exogenously varying production levels. If all output is sold in the spot market, then intermittent generation benefits less from market power than conventional generation. If forward contracts or option contracts are signed, then market power might be reduced but the bias against returns to intermittent generators persists. Thus allowing some level of market power as a means of encouraging investment in new generation may result in a bias against intermittent technologies or increase the costs of strategic deployment to achieve renewable quotas. (Author)

  2. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  3. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Walsh, Steven Thomas; Groen, Arend J.; van der Sijde, Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies

  4. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  5. Organic photovoltaics. Technology and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabec, Christoph J.

    2004-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics has come into the international research focus during the past three years. Up to now main efforts have focused on the improvement of the solar conversion efficiency, and in recent efforts 5% white light efficiencies on the device level have been realized. Despite this in comparison to inorganic technologies low efficiency, organic photovoltaics is evaluated as one of the future key technologies opening up completely new applications and markets for photovoltaics. The key property which makes organic photovoltaics so attractive is the potential of reel to reel processing on low cost substrates with standard coating and printing processes. In this contribution we discuss the economical and technical production aspects for organic photovoltaics

  6. Effects of technological learning and uranium price on nuclear cost: Preliminary insights from a multiple factors learning curve and uranium market modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahouli, Sondes

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of returns to scale, technological learning, i.e. learning-by-doing and learning-by-searching, and uranium price on the prospects of nuclear cost decrease. We use an extended learning curve specification, named multiple factors learning curve (MFLC). In a first stage, we estimate a single MFLC. In a second stage, we estimate the MFLC under the framework of simultaneous system of equations which takes into account the uranium supply and demand. This permits not only to enhance the reliability of the estimation by incorporating the uranium price formation mechanisms in the MFLC via the price variable, but also to give preliminary insights about uranium supply and demand behaviors and the associated effects on the nuclear expansion. Results point out that the nuclear cost has important prospects for decrease via capacity expansion, i.e. learning-by-doing effects. In contrast, they show that the learning-by-searching as well as the scale effects have a limited effect on the cost decrease prospects. Conversely, results also show that uranium price exerts a positive and significant effect on nuclear cost, implying that when the uranium price increases, the nuclear power generation cost decreases. Since uranium is characterized by important physical availability, and since it represents only a minor part in the total nuclear cost, we consider that in a context of increasing demand for nuclear energy the latter result can be explained by the fact that the positive learning effects on the cost of nuclear act in a way to dissipate the negative ones that an increase in uranium price may exert. Further, results give evidence of important inertia in the supply and demand sides as well as evidence of slow correlation between the uranium market and oil market which may limit the inter-fuels substituability effects, that is, nuclear capacity expansion and associated learning-by-doing benefits. - Highlights: → We study the prospects of nuclear cost

  7. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.; Margolis, R.; Barbose, G.; Bartlett, J.; Cory, K.; Couture, T.; DeCesaro, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Frickel, M.; Hemmeline, C.; Mendelsohn, T.; Ong, S.; Pak, A.; Poole, L.; Peterman, C.; Schwabe, P.; Soni, A.; Speer, B.; Wiser, R.; Zuboy, J.; James, T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts. Highlights of this report include: (1) The global PV industry has seen impressive growth rates in cell/module production during the past decade, with a 10-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 46% and a 5-year CAGR of 56% through 2008. (2) Thin-film PV technologies have grown faster than crystalline silicon over the past 5 years, with a 10-year CAGR of 47% and a 5-year CAGR of 87% for thin-film shipments through 2008. (3) Global installed PV capacity increased by 6.0 GW in 2008, a 152% increase over 2.4 GW installed in 2007. (4) The United States installed 0.34 GW of PV capacity in 2008, a 63% increase over 0.21 GW in 2007. (5) Global average PV module prices dropped 23% from $4.75/W in 1998 to $3.65/W in 2008. (6) Federal legislation, including the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA, October 2008) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA, February 2009), is providing unprecedented levels of support for the U.S. solar industry. (7) In 2008, global private-sector investment in solar energy technology topped $16 billion, including almost $4 billion invested in the United States. (8) Solar PV market forecasts made in early 2009 anticipate global PV production and demand to increase fourfold between 2008 and 2012, reaching roughly 20 GW of production and demand by 2012. (9

  8. Costs and remuneration of renewables in liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzaglia, M.

    2008-01-01

    The massive introduction of financial incentives schemes of production of energy from renewable sources result a rapid development of technology production and the market. The production costs are strongly influenced by types of technology. This studies have yet to track the costs of production [it

  9. Essays on marketing strategy in technology-intensive markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremersch, S.

    2001-01-01

    Marketing scholars have only recently started to explore the strategic marketing challenges faced by firms in technology-intensity (TI) markets. Still, technology is at the core of many contemporary markets and TI markets are unique because of their knowledge-intensity and technological turbulence.

  10. 2015 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Electricity Markets and Policy Group; Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Electricity Markets and Policy Group; Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Annual wind power capacity additions in the United States surged in 2015 and are projected to continue at a rapid clip in the coming five years. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—having been extended for several years (though with a phase-down schedule, described further on pages 68-69), as well as a myriad of state-level policies. Wind additions are also being driven by improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, yielding low power sales prices for utility, corporate, and other purchasers. At the same time, the prospects for growth beyond the current PTC cycle remain uncertain: growth could be blunted by declining federal tax support, expectations for low natural gas prices, and modest electricity demand growth. This annual report—now in its tenth year—provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2015. The report begins with an overview of key installation-related trends: trends in U.S. wind power capacity growth; how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources; the amount and percentage of wind energy in individual states; the status of offshore wind power development; and the quantity of proposed wind power capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States. Next, the report covers an array of wind power industry trends: developments in turbine manufacturer market share; manufacturing and supply-chain developments; wind turbine and component imports into and exports from the United States; project financing developments; and trends among wind power project owners and power purchasers. The report then turns to a summary of wind turbine technology trends: turbine size, hub height, rotor diameter, specific power, and IEC Class. After that, the report discusses wind power performance, cost, and pricing trends. In so doing, it describes

  11. Pros and cons of marketing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1988-10-01

    For years, high technologies have provided hospitals with marketing advantages. Hospitals used them to recruit and keep physicians and to lure patients and purchasers. Having the latest technology in a given field provided hospitals with status and prestige and enabled smaller facilities to compete with major medical centers. From a marketing point of view, technologies can produce four distinct effects that benefit the hospital: halo, monopoly, opportunity, and momentum effects. The best technology, from a competitive marketing viewpoint, meets the following criteria: The hospital can operate it at acceptable and, hopefully, competitive quality levels. The hospital can offer it at acceptable and, hopefully, competitive cost. It is sufficiently accessible to patients who need it. It gives the hospital a distinct competence in its market that can be preserved for a long time. But technology can become a risky business if: The hospital cannot attract the volume of patients needed to maintain quality. The low-volume hospital prices itself out of the competitive market. The new technology has undisclosed or undiscovered side effects. The technology is recruited by a competitor. Hospitals place more value on it than do their customers.

  12. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report: January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-01

    This report focuses on the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. It also presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. It also presents cost, price, and performance trends; and discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. The final chapter provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  13. The market for photovoltaic (PV) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzis, L.; Vejtasa, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was intended to provide the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with a market analysis for photovoltaic (PV) technologies under development by EPRI and others. The analysis was to focus on markets and factors leading to significant incremental growth for PV demand, large enough to support more efficient scale PV manufacturing capacity. EPRI anticipates that PV ultimately could provide grid-connected power, however, the 1995--2010 market dynamics are uncertain. The specific objectives of this study, therefore, were to: determine what major future domestic US markets for PV technologies will emerge and provide enough volume to support significant improvements in manufacturing costs through manufacturing economies of scale; provide insight on what is needed to gain acceptance of PV technologies for electric power generation in those major markets; provide insight on when investments in demonstration and manufacturing facilities should be made and what is needed to be successful in each element of the business that these markets could support (e.g., technology development, manufacturing, sales, installation, and service); and provide key insights on the requirements for commercial success of PV in the utility sector

  14. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis, and explores the markets, policies and prospects for a number of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a discussion of ten technology areas: bioenergy for electricity and heat, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro energy, ocean energy, solar energy (solar photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, and solar heating), and wind energy (onshore and offshore). Each technology discussion includes: the current technical and market status; the current costs of energy production and cost trends; the policy environment; the potential and projections for the future; and an analysis of the prospects and key hurdles to future expansion.

  15. 2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

  16. Marketable pollution permits with uncertainty and transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01

    Increasing interest in the use of marketable permits for pollution control has become evident in recent years. Concern regarding their performance still remains because empirical evidence has shown transaction costs and uncertainty to be significant in past and existing marketable permits programs. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical models that include transaction costs and uncertainty (in trade approval) to show their effects on market performance (i.e., equilibrium price of permits and trading volume) and aggregate control costs. We also show that in the presence of transaction costs and uncertainty the initial allocation of permits may not be neutral in terms of efficiency. Furthermore, using a numerical model for a hypothetical NO x trading program in which participants have discrete control technology choices, we find that aggregate control costs and the equilibrium price of permits are sensitive to the initial allocation of permits, even for constant marginal transaction costs and certainty

  17. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Wiser, Mark Bolinger

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market in 2010. The report analyzes trends in wind power capacity, industry, manufacturing, turbines, installed project costs, project performance, and wind power prices. It also describes trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers, and discusses financing issues.

  18. 2014 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This is the sixth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales and technologies specific to heavy trucks. The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards. In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible tables and figures.

  19. 2016 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Wind Technologies Market Report provides an annual overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market. You can find the report, a presentation, and a data file on the Files tab, below. Additionally, several data visualizations are available in the Data Visualizations tab. Highlights of this year’s report include: -Wind power additions continued at a rapid clip in 2016: $13 billion was invested in new wind power plants in 2016. In 2016, wind energy contributed 5.6% of the nation’s electricity supply, more than 10% of total electricity generation in fourteen states, and 29% to 37% in three of those states—Iowa, South Dakota, and Kansas. -Bigger turbines are enhancing wind project performance: Increased blade lengths, in particular, have dramatically increased wind project capacity factors, one measure of project performance. For example, the average 2016 capacity factor among projects built in 2014 and 2015 was 42.6%, compared to an average of 32.1% among projects built from 2004 to 2011 and 25.4% among projects built from 1998 to 2001. -Low wind turbine pricing continues to push down installed project costs: Wind turbine prices have fallen from their highs in 2008, to $800–$1,100/kW. Overall, the average installed cost of wind projects in 2016 was $1,590/kW, down $780/kW from the peak in 2009 and 2010. -Wind energy prices remain low: After topping out at nearly 7¢/kWh for power purchase agreements (PPAs) executed in 2009, the national average price of wind PPAs has dropped to around 2¢/kWh—though this nationwide average is dominated by projects that hail from the lowest-priced Interior region of the country (such as Texas, Iowa, Oklahoma). These prices, which are possible in part due to federal tax support, compare favorably to the projected future fuel costs of gas-fired generation. -The supply chain continued to adjust to swings in domestic demand for wind equipment: Wind sector employment reached a new high of

  20. 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter; Beiter, Philipp; Schwabe, Paul; Tian, Tian; Stehly, Tyler; Spitsen, Paul; Robertson, Amy; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2017-08-08

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide offshore wind policymakers, regulators, developers, researchers, engineers, financiers, and supply chain participants, with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide. In particular, this report is intended to provide detailed information on the domestic offshore wind industry to provide context to help navigate technical and market barriers and opportunities. The scope of the report covers the status of the 111 operating offshore wind projects in the global fleet through December 31, 2016, and provides the status and analysis on a broader pipeline of 593 projects at some stage of development. In addition, this report provides a wider assessment of domestic developments and events through the second quarter of 2017 to provide a more up-to-date discussion of this dynamically evolving industry.

  1. 2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This is the seventh edition of the Vehicle Technologies Market Report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 22 and 23 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 63 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 70 through 81 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 90 through 94) and fuel use (Figures 97 through 100). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 105 through 118), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 130 through 137). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  2. Transaction Costs in Housing Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ommeren, van, Jos

    2008-01-01

    According to economic theory, there are no strong reasons to tax (or to subsidise) residential moves, although low levels of taxation may be potentially justified to deal with the presence of externalities and economic stability. This is in contrast to practise in most countries where governments have created strong barriers to moving (transaction taxes, rent control) which induces substantial transaction costs. Likely, the welfare losses due to these government-induced transaction costs are ...

  3. Swedish market entry strategy utilizing Internet marketing: the utilization of Internet marketing in a cost effective and efficient way to market a virtual world

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Per

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to review published literature both printed and electronic on the subject of Internet marketing. This will aid to provide guidance on how a newly started virtual world company would be able to conduct as cost effective and efficient Internet marketing as possible with focus on entering the Swedish market. The theory part of the thesis will review the most relevant technologies and marketing concepts for the commissioner of this work. The empirical part of the the...

  4. Structural Estimation of Stock Market Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    education programs can affect consumers' investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 4–6% of labor...

  5. Using Technology to Control Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simon; Schoenberg, Doug; Richards, Dan; Morath, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examines the use of technology to control costs in the child care industry. One of these technology solutions is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). SaaS solutions can help child care providers save money in many aspects of center management. In addition to cost savings, SaaS solutions are also particularly appealing to…

  6. Emerging technologies for emerging markets

    CERN Document Server

    Vong, John

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces inclusive-cost-effective (ICE) approaches that have the potential to transform all aspects of daily lives of people at the base of the pyramid in the economic scale, who represent more than 75% of the world population. ICE means that the approaches must meet the affordability level at the base of the pyramid. This includes mobile banking and financial service technologies, mobile education, rural information and communication technologies, telemedicine, e-Health, and health social networks. This monograph is a compulsory reading for not only technology innovators, but also economists, social entrepreneurs, development specialists, health specialists, bankers and researchers and policy thinkers on technology and economic development.

  7. Sunk cost investments and market information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Stieglitz, Nils

    2008-01-01

    This paper extends the strategic management literature on how firms' sunk cost investments and market orientation mutually shapes firm performance. Using data from 314 manufacturing firms, we decompose firms' sunk cost investments into industry-specific resources and firm-specific resources...... and investigate their effect on firm performance. Our results suggest that the salient components of a firm's market orientation - i.e. customer orientation and competitor orientation - have different effects on firms' performance as well as moderate the relationship between a firm's sunk cost investments and its...

  8. Cost Linkages Transmit Volatility Across Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen; Schaur, Georg

    We present and test a model relating a firm's idiosyncratic cost, its exporting status, and the volatilities of its domestic and export sales. In prior models of trade, supply costs for domestic and exports were linear and thus additively separable. We introduce a nonlinear cost function in order...... to link the domestic and export supply costs. This theoretical contribution has two new implications for the exporting firm. First, the demand volatility in the foreign market now directly affects the firm's domestic sales volatility. Second, firms hedge domestic demand volatility with exports. The model...... has several testable predictions. First, larger firms have lower total and domestic sales volatilities. Second, foreign market volatility increases domestic sales volatilities for exporters. Third, exporters allocate output across both markets in order to reduce total sales volatility. We find...

  9. Healthcare costs for new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyen, Mathias; Debatin, Joerg F.

    2009-01-01

    Continuous ageing of the population coupled with growing health consciousness and continuous technological advances have fueled the rapid rise in healthcare costs in the United States and Europe for the past several decades. The exact impact of new medical technology on long-term spending growth remains the subject of controversy. By all measures it is apparent that new medical technology is the dominant driver of increases in health-care costs and hence insurance premiums. This paper addresses the impact of medical technology on healthcare delivery systems with regard to medical practice and costs. We first explore factors affecting the growth of medical technology and then attempt to provide a means for assessing the effectiveness of medical technology. Avoidable healthcare cost drivers are identified and related policy issues are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Healthcare costs for new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyen, Mathias; Debatin, Joerg F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Continuous ageing of the population coupled with growing health consciousness and continuous technological advances have fueled the rapid rise in healthcare costs in the United States and Europe for the past several decades. The exact impact of new medical technology on long-term spending growth remains the subject of controversy. By all measures it is apparent that new medical technology is the dominant driver of increases in health-care costs and hence insurance premiums. This paper addresses the impact of medical technology on healthcare delivery systems with regard to medical practice and costs. We first explore factors affecting the growth of medical technology and then attempt to provide a means for assessing the effectiveness of medical technology. Avoidable healthcare cost drivers are identified and related policy issues are discussed. (orig.)

  11. 2016 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This is the seventh edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 69 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 73 through 85 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 94 through 98) and fuel use (Figures 101 through 104). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 109 through 123), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 135 through 142). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  12. 2013 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This is the fifth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 24 through 51 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 56 through 64 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 73 through 75) and fuel use (Figures 78 through 81). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 84 through 95), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 106 through 110). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets.

  13. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R; Bolinger, M.

    2015-08-01

    According to the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report, total installed wind power capacity in the United States grew at a rate of eight percent in 2014, bringing the United States total installed capacity to nearly 66 gigawatts (GW), which ranks second in the world and meets 4.9 percent of U.S. end-use electricity demand in an average year. In total, 4,854 MW of new wind energy capacity were installed in the United States in 2014. The 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report also finds that wind energy prices are at an all-time low and are competitive with wholesale power prices and traditional power sources across many areas of the United States. Additionally, a new trend identified by the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report shows utility-scale turbines with larger rotors designed for lower wind speeds have been increasingly deployed across the country in 2014. The findings also suggest that the success of the U.S. wind industry has had a ripple effect on the American economy, supporting 73,000 jobs related to development, siting, manufacturing, transportation, and other industries.

  14. 2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    This report details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This third edition since this report was started in 2008 offers several marked improvements relative to its predecessors. Most significantly, where earlier editions of this report focused on supplying information through an examination of market drivers, new vehicle trends, and supplier data, this edition uses a different structure. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. In addition to making this sectional re-alignment, this year s edition of the report also takes a different approach to communicating information. While previous editions relied heavily on text accompanied by auxiliary figures, this third edition relies primarily on charts and graphs to communicate trends. Any accompanying text serves to introduce the trends communication by the graphic and highlight any particularly salient observations. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 11 through 13 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 20 and 21 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 26 through 33 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 38 through 43 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and

  15. Technology certification and technology acceptance: Promoting interstate cooperation and market development for innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-03-01

    In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges

  16. 2008 WIND TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark; Barbose, G.; Mills, A.; Rosa, A.; Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Tegen, S.; Musial, W.; Oteri, F.; Heimiller, D.; Rberts, B.; Belyeu, K.; Stimmel, R.

    2009-07-15

    The U.S. wind industry experienced a banner year in 2008, again surpassing even optimistic growth projections from years past. At the same time, the last year has been one of upheaval, with the global financial crisis impacting near-term growth prospects for the wind industry, and with federal policy changes enacted to push the industry towards continued aggressive expansion. This rapid pace of development has made it difficult to keep up with trends in the marketplace. Yet, the need for timely, objective information on the industry and its progress has never been greater. This report - the third of an ongoing annual series - attempts to meet this need by providing a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2008. As with previous editions, this report begins with an overview of key wind power installation-related trends: trends in wind capacity growth in the U.S., how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources, the amount and percentage of wind in individual states and serving specific utilities, and the quantity of proposed wind capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States. Next, the report covers an array of wind industry trends, including developments in turbine manufacturer market share, manufacturing and supply-chain investments, wind turbine and wind project size, project financing developments, and trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers. The report then turns to a discussion of wind project price, cost, and performance trends. In so doing, it reviews the price of wind power in the United States, and how those prices compare to the cost of fossil-fueled generation, as represented by wholesale power prices. It also describes trends in installed wind project costs, wind turbine transaction prices, project performance, and operations and maintenance expenses. Next, the report examines other policy and market factors impacting the

  17. 2016 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Wind power capacity in the United States experienced strong growth in 2016. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—as well as a myriad of state-level policies. Wind additions have also been driven by improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, yielding low power sales prices for utility, corporate, and other purchasers.

  18. Residential/commercial market for energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M M

    1979-08-01

    The residential/commercial market sector, particularly as it relates to energy technologies, is described. Buildings account for about 25% of the total energy consumed in the US. Market response to energy technologies is influenced by several considerations. Some considerations discussed are: industry characteristics; market sectors; energy-consumption characeristics; industry forecasts; and market influences. Market acceptance may be slow or nonexistent, the technology may have little impact on energy consumption, and redesign or modification may be necessary to overcome belatedly perceived market barriers. 7 figures, 20 tables.

  19. The challenge of technology diversification and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.

    2002-01-01

    Tecnatom is developing since several years ago the diversification of technologies and markets given its enterprise vocation of technological leadership in the services and products supplied in both the national and international nuclear market. In this paper, a description of the historical development of these technologies is made, and how the diversification is initiated in the global market, as well as the identification of the segments of the industrial market where services and products of high technology can be provided. A description of the diversification strategy is included and several results of this policy are presented for the aircraft and space market, the transport market, the industrial processes market, etc. Finally, examples of developments of new technologies of virtual reality and augmented reality are explained and how these new capabilities feedback in the nuclear market. (Author)

  20. An improved market penetration model for wind energy technology forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    An improved market penetration model with application to wind energy forecasting is presented. In the model, a technology diffusion model and manufacturing learning curve are combined. Based on a 85% progress ratio that was found for European wind manufactures and on wind market statistics, an additional wind power capacity of ca 4 GW is needed in Europe to reach a 30 % price reduction. A full breakthrough to low-cost utility bulk power markets could be achieved at a 24 GW level. (author)

  1. An improved market penetration model for wind energy technology forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    An improved market penetration model with application to wind energy forecasting is presented. In the model, a technology diffusion model and manufacturing learning curve are combined. Based on a 85% progress ratio that was found for European wind manufactures and on wind market statistics, an additional wind power capacity of ca 4 GW is needed in Europe to reach a 30 % price reduction. A full breakthrough to low-cost utility bulk power markets could be achieved at a 24 GW level. (author)

  2. An improved market penetration model for wind energy technology forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.D. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1995-12-31

    An improved market penetration model with application to wind energy forecasting is presented. In the model, a technology diffusion model and manufacturing learning curve are combined. Based on a 85% progress ratio that was found for European wind manufactures and on wind market statistics, an additional wind power capacity of ca 4 GW is needed in Europe to reach a 30 % price reduction. A full breakthrough to low-cost utility bulk power markets could be achieved at a 24 GW level. (author)

  3. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities described in subpart k of... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417...

  4. Liberalising energy markets: Cost management using measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girsberger, H.

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at the various factors involved in assuring good cost management and customer relations in the liberalised energy market such as price levels, additional services and added value for the customer. The additional information required by the utilities to be able to implement such customer-oriented strategies is considered and ways of collecting and processing the data on energy consumption, customer profiles and trends are described. The further analysis of the data and the compilation of reports for management, marketing, engineering and quality assurance departments are discussed, as are the information technology and equipment interfaces required to do this

  5. Information Cost, Memory Length and Market Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diks, Cees; Li, Xindan; Wu, Chengyao

    2018-07-01

    In this article, we study the instability of a stock market with a modified version of Diks and Dindo's (2008) model where the market is characterized by nonlinear interactions between informed traders and uninformed traders. In the interaction of heterogeneous agents, we replace the replicator dynamics for the fractions by logistic strategy switching. This modification makes the model more suitable for describing realistic price dynamics, as well as more robust with respect to parameter changes. One goal of our paper is to use this model to explore if the arrival of new information (news) and investor behavior have an effect on market instability. A second, related, goal is to study the way markets absorb new information, especially when the market is unstable and the price is far from being fully informative. We find that the dynamics become locally unstable and prices may deviate far from the fundamental price, routing to chaos through bifurcation, with increasing information costs or decreasing memory length of the uninformed traders.

  6. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hansen, Dana [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Wind power capacity additions in the United States rebounded in 2014, and continued growth through 2016 is anticipated. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—which is available for projects that began construction by the end of 2014. Wind additions are also being driven by recent improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, which have resulted in the lowest power sales prices ever seen in the U.S. wind sector. Growing corporate demand for wind energy and state-level policies play important roles as well. Expectations for continued technological advancements and cost reductions may further boost future growth. At the same time, the prospects for growth beyond 2016 are uncertain. The PTC has expired, and its renewal remains in question. Continued low natural gas prices, modest electricity demand growth, and limited near-term demand from state renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have also put a damper on growth expectations. These trends, in combination with increasingly global supply chains, have limited the growth of domestic manufacturing of wind equipment. What they mean for wind power additions through the end of the decade and beyond will be dictated in part by future natural gas prices, fossil plant retirements, and policy decisions.

  7. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh

  8. Export markets for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettl, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    By late 1984, nuclear power plants were in operation or under construction in 32 countries of the globe. An additional six countries had concrete plans for building nuclear power plants. Of these 38 countries, ten have shown that they posses the necessary know-how and the technical facilities to plan and build nuclear power plants practically on their own. Seven of these ten countries have already acted as exporters of nuclear power plants, albeit with very different degrees of market penetration. In addition, there have been a number of countries for quite some time whose industries have managed to manufacture many important nuclear power plant components. Their high level of technical development and the problems frequently encountered in export financing have made them very attractive partners of the true exporters of nuclear power plants. For the future, it must be expected that some of the countries which have so far limited their efforts to the construction of nuclear power plants at home will also develop into exporters of nuclear technology. The report contains a survey of the range of nuclear products available, a list of reactor vendors, reactor lines, and data on the economics of electricity generation in nuclear plants. It then goes on to offer detailed descriptions of the market and the demand situation. Interesting chapters are devoted to the selection criteria applied by importing countries, to financing problems, and to the influences exerted by the political environment. A realistic forecast is attempted in order to make a quantitative analysis of possible export contracts up until the year 2000. (orig.) [de

  9. Exploring the Market for Breakthrough Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortt, J. Roland; Langley, David J.; Pals, Nico

    In this article, the gap between futures research (long term) and market research (short term) is closed in two ways. Firstly, by describing methods of market exploration that can be used earlier on in the process of development and diffusion of breakthrough technologies, so market research can be

  10. Exploring the Market for Breakthrough Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortt, J. Roland; Langley, David J.; Pals, Nico

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the gap between futures research (long term) and market research (short term) is closed in two ways. Firstly, by describing methods of market exploration that can be used earlier on in the process of development and diffusion of breakthrough technologies, so market research can be

  11. 2011 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Fink, Sari [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The U.S. wind power industry is facing uncertain times. With 2011 capacity additions having risen from 2010 levels and with a further sizable increase expected in 2012, there are – on the surface – grounds for optimism. Key factors driving growth in 2011 included continued state and federal incentives for wind energy, recent improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technology, and the need to meet an end-of-year construction start deadline in order to qualify for the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. At the same time, the currently-slated expiration of key federal tax incentives for wind energy at the end of 2012 – in concert with continued low natural gas prices and modest electricity demand growth – threatens to dramatically slow new builds in 2013.

  12. Simulating water markets with transaction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Tohid; Binions, Olga; Harou, Julien J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an optimization model to simulate short-term pair-wise spot-market trading of surface water abstraction licenses (water rights). The approach uses a node-arc multicommodity formulation that tracks individual supplier-receiver transactions in a water resource network. This enables accounting for transaction costs between individual buyer-seller pairs and abstractor-specific rules and behaviors using constraints. Trades are driven by economic demand curves that represent each abstractor's time-varying water demand. The purpose of the proposed model is to assess potential hydrologic and economic outcomes of water markets and aid policy makers in designing water market regulations. The model is applied to the Great Ouse River basin in Eastern England. The model assesses the potential weekly water trades and abstractions that could occur in a normal and a dry year. Four sectors (public water supply, energy, agriculture, and industrial) are included in the 94 active licensed water diversions. Each license's unique environmental restrictions are represented and weekly economic water demand curves are estimated. Rules encoded as constraints represent current water management realities and plausible stakeholder-informed water market behaviors. Results show buyers favor sellers who can supply large volumes to minimize transactions. The energy plant cooling and agricultural licenses, often restricted from obtaining water at times when it generates benefits, benefit most from trades. Assumptions and model limitations are discussed. This article was corrected on 13 JUN 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  13. Commercial sector gas cooling technology frontier and market share analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine, G.D.; Mac Donald, J.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method, developed for the Gas Research Institute of the United States, that can assist planning for commercial sector natural gas cooling systems R and D. These systems are higher in first cost than conventional electric chillers. Yet, engine-driven chiller designs exist which are currently competitive in U.S. markets typified by high electricity or demand charges. Section II describes a scenario analysis approach used to develop and test the method. Section III defines the technology frontier, a conceptual tool for identifying new designs with sales potential. Section IV describes a discrete choice method for predicting market shares of technologies with sales potential. Section V shows how the method predicts operating parameter, cost, and/or performance goals for technologies without current sales potential (or for enhancing a frontier technology's sales potential). Section VI concludes with an illustrative example for the Chicago office building retrofit market

  14. Marketing mix for consumer high technology products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes an analysis upon the variables of marketing mix for high technology products used for individual consumption. There are exposed the essential aspects related to marketing policies and strategies used by high technology companies for providing consumers the best solutions tailored to their needs. A special attention is given to the necessity for inclusion in the marketing mix of the fifth element – the assistance and informational support for customers.

  15. Managing Licensing in a Market for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Ashish; Rønde, Thomas; Fosfuri, Andrea

    the technology makes licensing decisions—to centralized licensing. The business unit has superior information about licensing opportunities but may not have the appropriate incentives because its rewards depend upon product market performance. If licensing is decentralized, the business unit forgoes valuable...... licensing opportunities since the rewards for licensing are (optimally) weaker than those for product market profits. This distortion is stronger when production-based incentives are more powerful, making centralization more attractive. Growth of technology markets favors centralization and drives higher...

  16. Analysis of Effectiveness of Modern Information and Communication Technologies on Maize Marketing Efficiency in Selected Markets of Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Tione, S. E.; Katengeza, Samson P.; Mangisoni, Julius H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries have been promoting initiatives that aim at reducing information asymmetry among market players especially smallholder farmers. Using co-integration error correction models, the study assessed effectiveness of modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) based market interventions in improving maize market efficiency in Malawi. Considering that efficient markets are integrated markets when price difference is only a factor of transaction costs, Threshold Autore...

  17. Driving market dynamics with technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollecito, L.

    2002-01-01

    functions are fast becoming available at a fraction of the cost of more conventional SCADA systems, with the result that users no longer have to wait for a 'critical mass' of substations to achieve economies of scale. A brief overview of available technology suggests that the technology is at hand to enable utilities to integrate their hardware, software and communications systems in such a way that information systems become their productivity weapon of choice in the years to come

  18. Small Nuclear Technology and Market Entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J S; Schock, R N; Brown, N W; Smith, C F

    2002-01-01

    An overview of energy-system projections into the new century leads to the conclusion that nuclear power will play a significant role. How significant a role will be determined by the marketplace. Within the range of nuclear-power technologies available, small nuclear-power plants of innovative design appear to fit the needs of a number of developing nations and states. Under similar financing options used by the airline industry and others, the capital requirement barrier that puts the nuclear industry at a disadvantage in deregulated markets could be reduced. These plants have the potential advantage of modularity, are proliferation-resistant, incorporate passive safety features, minimize waste, and could be cost-competitive with fossil-fuel plants

  19. THE MARKETING MIX FOR LOW COST HEALTHCARE

    OpenAIRE

    Julie George; Dr. Manita D. Shah

    2017-01-01

    The Indian health care industry has a history of dealing with poor doctor-patient ratio, shortage of medical professionals, poor health infrastructure, and low expenditure on healthcare information technology; steep out of pocket spending (OOP), low health insurance coverage, inadequate government spending, poor access to health care facilities and social stigma related to diseases. The unique mindset and ability for frugality has successfully been applied in offering low cost healthcare of u...

  20. 2012 wind technologies market report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weaver, Samantha [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Assoc., Columbia, MD (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Assoc., Columbia, MD (United States); Fink, Sari [Exeter Assoc., Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Annual wind power capacity additions in the United States achieved record levels in 2012, motivated by the then-planned expiration of federal tax incentives at the end of 2012 and recent improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technology. At the same time, even with a short-term extension of federal tax incentives now in place, the U.S. wind power industry is facing uncertain times. It will take time to rebuild the project pipeline, ensuring a slow year for new capacity additions in 2013. Continued low natural gas prices, modest electricity demand growth, and limited near-term demand from state renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have also put a damper on industry growth expectations. In combination with global competition within the sector, these trends continue to impact the manufacturing supply chain. What these trends mean for the medium to longer term remains to be seen, dictated in part by future natural gas prices, fossil plant retirements, and policy decisions, although recent declines in the price of wind energy have boost ed the prospects for future growth

  1. Capacity choice, technology mix and market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, Guy

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic capacity choices in electricity markets comprised of heterogeneous firms. Long term strategic investments are analyzed assuming that the wholesale market is competitive. There are two technologies available to produce electricity; both are efficient and used at a first best optimum. When not all firms can invest in both technologies, there can be over investment in either of these technologies. It is shown that if the number of firms that can invest in a particular technology is limited, the development of competition solely using the other technology can decrease welfare. (author)

  2. Rethinking the Market - Technology Relationship for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    This paper revisits the 'what causes innovation - market pull or technology push?' debate to argue that the conceptualisation is flawed and that the firm is the only 'agent' capable of innovative action. The paper differentiates between 'use', 'need' and 'intended use' to obtain greater precision...... with respect to the technology-market matching process that is fundamental to innovation. The validity of the approach is demonstrated through empirical examples. These examples also show the value of distinguishing between two types of market concept used by the innovating firm. These are the 'reference...... market' which is a traded product that is a principal source of 'use' ideas for the mental construction of the 'innovation market' concept. It is the latter that can be thought to guide the construction of innovative production technology....

  3. Biopolitical Marketing and Technologies of Enclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Zwick, D.; Denegri-Knott, Janice

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of talk about consumer empowerment through new information and communication technologies. Corporate captains of marketing, Wired Magazine’s neo-libertarian techno-utopians, marketing consultants of the digital economy and many marketing academics agree that we all have more choices, more information, more entertainment, more transparency, and lower prices thanks to Amazon, Facebook, Youtube, and all the rest. We are liberated from the burdens of material owners...

  4. Technology transfer in CANDU marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The author discusses how the CANDU system lends itself to technology transfer, the scope of CANDU technology transfer, and the benefits and problems associated with technology transfer. The establishment of joint ventures between supplier and client nations offers benefits to both parties. Canada can offer varying technology transfer packages, each tailored to a client nation's needs and capabilities. Such a package could include all the hardware and software necessary to develop a self-sufficient nuclear infrastructure in the client nation

  5. Hazardous waste market and technology trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    What forces are currently driving the growth of the hazardous waste remediation market? Which factors will control the development of cleanup technologies during the next decade? At what types of sites are various technologies being applied? In an effort to answer these questions, EPA has produced an overview of trends in the demand for remedial technologies at CERCLA, RCRA corrective action, underground storage tank (UST), and other cleanup sites across the United States. The 160-page document, entitled Cleaning Up the Nation's Waste Sites: Markets and Technology Trends, was developed by EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Highlights from the report are presented below. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Solar photovoltaic markets, economics, technology, and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, J.M.J.; Molinski, T.S. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)]|[Emerging Energy Systems, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    Solar Photovoltaics (PV) are solid state semiconductor electronic devices that transform infrared, visible, or ultraviolet light energy from the sun directly into electrical energy. Selenium was used to create the first solar cell in 1883. In 1954, Bell Laboratories developed the modern day silicon solar cell, whereby impurities were added to silicon through a process called doping. Silicon doped with boron results in a positive electrical charge, while silicon doped with phosphorous results in a negative electrical charge. The atom collision from photons in sunlight provides the necessary energy to free a trapped electron in the doped silicon, which then may flow through a wire creating an electric current. Many different materials besides silicon are used to create solar cells, such as plastics, organic compounds, and theoretically even special paints, while other doping agents besides boron and phosphorous are also used, such as arsenic and gallium. This paper provided an introduction to solar PV and world solar PV growth and markets. A review of solar PV economics was also included. In 2008, the total installed costs of solar photovoltaic cells were in the range of 7 to 10 Canadian dollars. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of solar PV were presented. Solar technologies under research and development were also discussed and assessed. It was concluded that although solar PV was one of the most expensive forms of renewable generation, there is great potential for solar PV to gain broader based application as costs continue to drop. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  7. Information Technology Budgets and Costs: Do You Know What Your Information Technology Costs Each Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses yearly information technology costs for academic libraries. Topics include transformation and modernization activities that affect prices and budgeting; a cost model for information technologies; life cycle costs, including initial costs and recurring costs; cost benchmarks; and examples of pressures concerning cost accountability. (LRW)

  8. An overview of smart card technology and markets

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Furletti

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Payment Cards Center's series of discussion papers, this paper provides an overview of smart card technology and its potential for significantly increasing payment card functionality. In addition to reviewing the current market for smart cards in the U.S., this paper examines the costs and barriers associated with their wide spread adoption. European and US smart card acceptance is compared. In addition, this paper provides background on the technological and infrastructure dev...

  9. Technology mix configuration in liberalized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Rodriguez, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of technology mix in the electricity industry when investment choices are left to private investors. In particular, possible failures and investment biases in recent liberalized electricity markets are presented. In addition, the main regulatory mechanisms used in practice and their effects are analyzed. Finally, this paper explores the government intervention in technology choices in the Spanish electricity market from the beginning of the liberalization process. While some regulatory rules have adequacy complemented the market functioning, others have distorted the electricity price, which is the reference to signal right investments. (Author) 13 refs

  10. The market outlook for integrated gasification combined cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, P.R.; Maslak, C.E.; Stoll, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology was developed in the 1970s and is now competitive with other coal fired technologies. Because it is a new technology, IGCC technology developments are continuing at a rapid pace and the trend in decreasing capital costs is similar to the same trend seen during the early decades of simple cycle gas turbines. Consequently, IGCC technology is expected to be even more economical during the mid and late 1990s than it is today. The objective of this paper is to provide an examination of the basic economic principles of IGCC technology and to illustrate the extent to which this technology is a viable least-cost generation addition technology. Moreover, key reliability and emissions issues are addressed in relation to the technology alternatives. This paper is organized to first review the IGCC technology and to contrast its reliability, emission, performance and cost data with the three key commercially proven technologies: simple cycle combustion turbines, combined cycle plants, and coal-fired steam plants. Economic screening curves are used to illustrate the need for a balanced generation expansion mix of technologies. The regional market opportunity for coal fueled technology orders in the US from 1992 through 2005 is presented

  11. Innovation in Nuclear Technology for the Least Product Price and Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Romney

    2003-01-01

    In energy markets, costs dominate for all new technology introductions (pressure valves, gas turbines, reactors) both now and far into the future. Technology improves, and costs are reduced as markets are penetrated with the trend following a learning/experience curve (MCE) based on classic economic forces. The curve followed is governed by development costs and market targets, and nuclear systems follow such a curve in order to compete with other technologies and projected future cost for alternate energy initiatives. Funding impacts directly on market penetration and on the ''learning rate.'' The CANDU/AECL development path (experience curve) is a chosen balance between evolution and revolution for a competitive advantage

  12. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  13. Building the Technology Toolkit of Marketing Students: The Emerging Technologies in Marketing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fred L.; Mangold, W. Glynn; Roach, Joy; Holmes, Terry

    2013-01-01

    New information technologies are transforming marketing practice, leading to calls for marketing academics to focus their research and teaching more tightly on areas relevant to practitioners. Developments in e-commerce, business geographic information systems (GIS), and social media offer powerful marketing tools to nontechnical users. This paper…

  14. 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.; Barbose, G.; Darghouth, N.; Hoen, B.; Mills, A.; Weaver, S.; Porter, K.; Buckley, M.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.

    2014-08-01

    This annual report provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2013. This 2013 edition updates data presented in previous editions while highlighting key trends and important new developments. The report includes an overview of key installation-related trends; trends in wind power capacity growth; how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources; the amount and percentage of wind energy in individual states; the status of offshore wind power development and the quantity of proposed wind power capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States.

  15. Nano market and analysis of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This book gives descriptions of summary of nano technology with meaning, character and field, trend of technical development in domestic, current condition of nano basic research in domestic, trend of technical development in foreign country such as summary, trend of technology by industrial field, machine and metronics, material and process, standard of nano mechanism, scale of market and trend, competitiveness of nano technology of major country and research development system in Japan, Korean company and major countries.

  16. Trends in finding and development costs, their effect on financial markets and the difference technological innovation can make in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haessel, W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The need for the Canadian oil and gas industry to minimize finding and development costs was discussed. Finding and development costs include total exploration and development expenditures divided by new reserves discovered, plus extensions, plus revisions. Controlling these costs is important to creating shareholder value. Based on reserves and expenditures data from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers Statistical Handbook, Alberta finding and development costs were above $10/boe (barrel of oil equivalent) in four out of eight years between 1989 and 1996, and averaged $9.35/boe for the period. On the other hand, Alberta operating costs have declined from $7.68/boe in 1989 to less than $6.00/boe in 1995 and 1996. The lesson is clear: in order for a company to make a profit it must be able to beat the average. The relationship between finding and development costs and mergers and acquisitions was explained. (High finding and development costs tend to depress share prices and tend to make companies takeover targets). 9 figs

  17. Cost decreases in environmental technology. Evidence from four case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhuis, F. [Instituut for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    The cost of a new technology tends to decrease as its uptake grows, and environmental technology is no exception to this general rule. Factors that can bring about such cost reductions include economies of scale, 'learning-by-doing', incremental technological improvements, and growing competition. In preparing environmental policies, the potential for future cost reductions is often disregarded. The present study aims to provide some additional empirical evidence on the cost decreases in environmental technology and the factors that lie behind them. To this end, four exemplary case studies have been selected. The first case (NOx emission abatement by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)), shows a wide variety in cost estimates, without a clear trend. This is even true for the costs of a fairly homogeneous type of investment (SCR in coal fired power plants). Nevertheless, it is clear that an important cost decrease has been achieved by prolonging the lifetime of the catalyst, which is one of the main cost components in SCR. In the second case (NH3 emission abatement by chemical air scrubbers in pig farming) there is not yet sufficient experience with the technology to draw conclusions on the development of costs. However, it is already clear that economizing on the capacity of the system can contribute to important cost savings. Three-way catalytic converters in cars have shown significant price decreases following their large scale introduction on the European market in the early 1990s. Probably economies of scale have played an important role in this case, as the size of the market made mass production possible. To some extent, cost reductions may also be attributed to improvements such as the need for less materials (e.g. platinum). Furthermore, the performance of catalytic converters has improved, implying that the cost per unit of emission reduction has decreased even more than the cost of the device itself. Market prices of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

  18. Consumer Cost Differences for Traditional and Internet Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Michael J.; Strader, Troy J.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses research issues related to the economics of electronic, Internet-based markets. Discusses consumer cost-based differences for traditional and electronic markets; revenue implications for sellers and transaction intermediaries; and results of an empirical, survey-based study of an electronic market in the sports trading-card industry.…

  19. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. wind power industry experienced yet another record year in 2009, once again surpassing even optimistic growth projections from years past. At the same time, 2009 was a year of upheaval, with the global financial crisis impacting the wind power industry and with federal policy changes enacted to push the industry toward continued aggressive expansion. The year 2010, meanwhile, is anticipated to be one of some retrenchment, with expectations for fewer wind power capacity additions than seen in 2009. The rapid pace of development and change within the industry has made it difficult to keep up with trends in the marketplace, yet the need for timely, objective information on the industry and its progress has never been greater. This report - the fourth in an ongoing annual series - attempts to meet this need by providing a detailed overview of developments and trends in the United States wind power market, with a particular focus on 2009.

  20. How Is the Liberalization of Food Markets Progressing? Market Integration and Transaction Costs in Subsistence Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a modification of Baulch's parity bounds model to measure the market integration of food markets in developing countries. Instead of extrapolating a single observation of transaction costs, we estimate transaction costs. Predicted transaction costs compare well with survey data of

  1. Disclosure Regulation in Duopoly Markets: Proprietary Costs and Social Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  2. Disclosure regulation in duopoly markets : Proprietary costs and social welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  3. On Transaction-Cost Models in Continuous-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poufinas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transaction-cost models in continuous-time markets are considered. Given that investors decide to buy or sell at certain time instants, we study the existence of trading strategies that reach a certain final wealth level in continuous-time markets, under the assumption that transaction costs, built in certain recommended ways, have to be paid. Markets prove to behave in manners that resemble those of complete ones for a wide variety of transaction-cost types. The results are important, but not exclusively, for the pricing of options with transaction costs.

  4. Uncovering the Hidden Transaction Costs of Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai J.; Klein, Peter G.

    2018-01-01

    A central construct in competitive strategy research is market power, the ability to raise price above marginal cost. Positioning research focuses on attempts to build, protect, and exercise market power. However, this approach contains hidden assumptions about transaction costs. Parties made worse...... off by the exercise of market power can negotiate, bargain, form coalitions, and otherwise contract around the focal firm's attempts to appropriate monopoly profits—depending on transaction costs. We build on property rights economics to explain how transaction costs affect positioning and offer...

  5. Defining electricity markets. An arbitrage cost approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleit, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Market definition is a crucial component of antitrust policy. There is, however, no universally accepted method of carrying out market definition. While several approaches have been presented in the literature, each has its share of drawbacks. This paper suggests that a modeling technique based upon the theory of arbitrage is well suited to answering this question. After the empirical approach is presented, it is used to calculate antitrust market definitions between electricity hubs in the American West

  6. Security cost allocation under combined bilateral-pool market dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.P.; Hassan, M.Y.; Hussin, F.

    2008-01-01

    Most electricity markets around the world are a combination of bilateral and pool markets, such as NordPool and NYPOOL. In these models, market participants bid into the pool and also make bilateral contracts with each other. This paper addressed the issue of congestion management and security cost allocation in a power pool market model. The basic idea of security cost allocation is to divide the incurred security cost due to congestion relief into pool and bilateral market based on their flow contribution to the congested line. A newly proposed security cost allocation strategy of the combined bilateral-pool market was also presented along with case studies using IEEE-14 bus system that tested the proposed method. Using the proposed method, it was shown that security costs are allocated to market participants at different prices which reflect the load contribution to the security problem. This solves the problem of the uniform security cost allocation in a pure pool market system having uniform pricing, and provides a proper security signal to market participants. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Transaction costs and sequential bargaining in transferable discharge permit markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netusil, N R; Braden, J B

    2001-03-01

    Market-type mechanisms have been introduced and are being explored for various environmental programs. Several existing programs, however, have not attained the cost savings that were initially projected. Modeling that acknowledges the role of transactions costs and the discrete, bilateral, and sequential manner in which trades are executed should provide a more realistic basis for calculating potential cost savings. This paper presents empirical evidence on potential cost savings by examining a market for the abatement of sediment from farmland. Empirical results based on a market simulation model find no statistically significant change in mean abatement costs under several transaction cost levels when contracts are randomly executed. An alternative method of contract execution, gain-ranked, yields similar results. At the highest transaction cost level studied, trading reduces the total cost of compliance relative to a uniform standard that reflects current regulations.

  8. Analysis of Fuel Cell Markets in Japan and the US: Experience Curve Development and Cost Reduction Disaggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Fuel cells are both a longstanding and emerging technology for stationary and transportation applications, and their future use will likely be critical for the deep decarbonization of global energy systems. As we look into future applications, a key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters who seek to track and/or accelerate their market adoption is the ability to forecast market costs of the fuel cells as technology innovations are incorporated into market products. Specifically, there is a need to estimate technology learning rates, which are rates of cost reduction versus production volume. Unfortunately, no literature exists for forecasting future learning rates for fuel cells. In this paper, we look retrospectively to estimate learning rates for two fuel cell deployment programs: (1) the micro-combined heat and power (CHP) program in Japan, and (2) the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in California. These two examples have a relatively broad set of historical market data and thus provide an informative and international comparison of distinct fuel cell technologies and government deployment programs. We develop a generalized procedure for disaggregating experience-curve cost-reductions in order to disaggregate the Japanese fuel cell micro-CHP market into its constituent components, and we derive and present a range of learning rates that may explain observed market trends. Finally, we explore the differences in the technology development ecosystem and market conditions that may have contributed to the observed differences in cost reduction and draw policy observations for the market adoption of future fuel cell technologies. The scientific and policy contributions of this paper are the first comparative experience curve analysis of past fuel cell technologies in two distinct markets, and the first quantitative comparison of a detailed cost model of fuel cell systems with actual market data. The resulting approach is applicable to

  9. Detection and Measurement of Sales Cannibalization in Information Technology Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Novelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Characteristic features of Information Technology (IT), such as its intrinsic modularity and distinctive cost structure, incentivize IT vendors to implement growth strategies based on launching variants of a basic offering. These variants are by design substitutable to some degree and may contend for the same customers instead of winning new ones from competitors or from an expansion of the market. They may thus generate intra-organizational sales diversion – i.e., sales cannibalization. T...

  10. International technologies market for coal thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports a general framework of potential market of clean coal combustion technologies in thermal power plants, specially for commercialization and market penetration in developing countries [it

  11. Cost vs. Market Value: The Case for Reporting Endowment Investments at Market Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Harold

    1992-01-01

    The difference between cost and market value of endowment investments is significant for many colleges and universities. These investments should always be reported at market value to provide relevant, comparable, consistent, and understandable financial information. Nonmanagement users of institutional financial statements prefer market rather…

  12. Marketing technology (Martech – the most important dimension of online marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pătruțiu Balteș Loredana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the new dimension of marketing and of online marketing in particular is marketing technology. Even if it is just at the beginning, marketing technology will become the most widely used hacking tool in the near future, and will probably be used by companies on the digital market in order to stay ahead of the competition. This article defines the concept of marketing technology, along with the advantages and disadvantages that it brings to a company

  13. Marketing technology (Martech) – the most important dimension of online marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pătruțiu Balteș Loredana

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, the new dimension of marketing and of online marketing in particular is marketing technology. Even if it is just at the beginning, marketing technology will become the most widely used hacking tool in the near future, and will probably be used by companies on the digital market in order to stay ahead of the competition. This article defines the concept of marketing technology, along with the advantages and disadvantages that it brings to a company

  14. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Park

    Full Text Available Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance.

  15. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Saerom; Lee, Jaewook; Son, Youngdoo

    2016-01-01

    Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance.

  16. Dynamic Stock Market Participation of Households with Heterogeneous Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers’ decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers’ investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 5% of labor...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers’ life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed participation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers’ life cycle....

  17. Market Integration and Transport Costs in France 1825-1903

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2000-01-01

    This article argues that the appropriate standard for the analysis of commodity market integration is the transport cost adjusted law of one price. A threshold error correction model that incorporates that property is developed and applied to French wheat prices in the 19th century. This type...... to equilibrium price differentials between markets. Unlike previous studies this article shows that French wheat markets were well integrated by the middle of the 19th century...... of modeling acknowledges the fact that error corrections only take place when price differentials between markets exceed transport costs. The method used produces estimates of implied transport costs, which are quite close to observed costs, and generates more accurate estimates of the adjustment speed...

  18. Fixed Costs and the Product Market Treatment of Preference Minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Berry; Alon Eizenberg; Joel Waldfogel

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that, in the presence of substantial fixed costs, markets offer preference majorities more variety than preference minorities. This fact alone, however, does not demonstrate the market outcome is in any way biased against preference minorities. In this paper, we clarify the sense in which the market outcome may in fact be biased against preference minorities, and we provide some conditions for such bias to occur. We then estimate the degree of bias in a particular indust...

  19. Cost savings through innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, J.M.; Jackson, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Newly developed technologies can and already are saving money. Other technologies under development will provide solutions to problems which are currently impossible or too expensive to address, and still others will offer alternative strategies where baseline approaches are not acceptable to the public. All of these options will be considered as the nation decides what it wishes to accomplish, and fund, to clean up the nuclear weapons complex

  20. Technology Push / Market Pull Indicators in Healthcare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelhans, G.

    2016-07-01

    Healthcare and life sciences are among the most important drivers which form the present-day landscape of science and technology in general. A whole range of emerging areas of research and disruptive technologies are related to healthcare. The applied nature of such areas of research makes it important to specify indicators which describe these areas not only from R&D, but also from user need side. We analyze the content of domain-specific social media and online consulting services in healthcare with the help of semantic technologies in order to extract widespread and emerging user needs. We will map the corresponding topics on the agenda of scientific papers in healthcare. Understanding the intersection of these two agendas and the coverage of user needs by science and technology activities leads us to the development of the “market pull” indicators for emerging areas of research. (Author)

  1. Market penetration of energy supply technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condap, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Techniques to incorporate the concepts of profit-induced growth and risk aversion into policy-oriented optimization models of the domestic energy sector are examined. After reviewing the pertinent market penetration literature, simple mathematical programs in which the introduction of new energy technologies is constrained primarily by the reinvestment of profits are formulated. The main results involve the convergence behavior of technology production levels under various assumptions about the form of the energy demand function. Next, profitability growth constraints are embedded in a full-scale model of U.S. energy-economy interactions. A rapidly convergent algorithm is developed to utilize optimal shadow prices in the computation of profitability for individual technologies. Allowance is made for additional policy variables such as government funding and taxation. The result is an optimal deployment schedule for current and future energy technologies which is consistent with the sector's ability to finance capacity expansion.

  2. Data Centre Technology and Market Trends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; GUERRI, Marco; GRIGORE, Alexandru; BONFILLOU, Eric; VALSAN, Liviu

    2015-01-01

    In this ITTF session we will provide an overview of data center technologies and market trends in the fields of server processors, memory architectures, server platforms, storage technology (both solid state and spinning media), Intel future roadmaps, Open Compute Project hardware and server-side networking. We will begin with a peek into the evolution of processors over the last 40+ years and provide an outlook into future processor trends. The highlights of the most recent Intel server processor generation (Xeon E5-2600 v3, Haswell-EP) will be presented together with the specifics of the new generation of DDR memory technology employed. Alternative processor architectures from contenders like ARM Holdings (with their AArch64 architecture) and IBM (with their OpenPOWER initiative) will be discussed. An overview of existing enterprise solid state technology will be given, showing the kind of performance provided by the currently available enterprise SSD drives and future directions for non volatile memory b...

  3. Challenge to innovative technologies and the expected market appeal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Kenji; Nishio, Satoshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Tokimatsu, Koji; Hiwatari, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    This section describes the future of fusion energy in terms of its impact on the global energy supply and global warming mitigation, the possible entry scenarios of fusion into future energy market, and innovative technologies for deploying and expanding fusion's share in the market. Section 5.1 shows that fusion energy can contribute to the stabilization of atmospheric CO 2 concentration if fusion is introduced into the future energy market at a competitive price. Considerations regarding fusion's entry scenarios into the energy market are presented in Sec. 5.2, suggesting that fusion should replace fossil energy sources and thus contribute to global warming mitigation. In this sense, first generation fusion power plants should be a viable energy source with global appeal and be so attractive as to employed in developing countries rather than in developed countries. Favorable factors lending to this purpose are fusion's stability as a power source, and its security, safety, and environmental friendliness as well as its cost-electricity. The requirements for core plasma to expand the share of fusion in the market in the latter half of this century are given in Sec. 5.3, pointing out the importance of high beta access with low aspect ratio and plasma profile control. From this same point of view, innovative fusion technologies worthy of further development are commented on in Sec. 5.4, addressing the high temperature blanket, hydrogen production, high temperature superconductors, and hot cell maintenance. (author)

  4. Cost-effectiveness Analysis for Technology Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, A; Naware, S S

    2008-01-01

    In a developing country with limited resources, it is important to utilize the total cost visibility approach over the entire life-cycle of the technology and then analyse alternative options for acquiring technology. The present study analysed cost-effectiveness of an "In-house" magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan facility of a large service hospital against outsourcing possibilities. Cost per unit scan was calculated by operating costing method and break-even volume was calculated. Then life-cycle cost analysis was performed to enable total cost visibility of the MRI scan in both "In-house" and "outsourcing of facility" configuration. Finally, cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to identify the more acceptable decision option. Total cost for performing unit MRI scan was found to be Rs 3,875 for scans without contrast and Rs 4,129 with contrast. On life-cycle cost analysis, net present value (NPV) of the "In-house" configuration was found to be Rs-(4,09,06,265) while that of "outsourcing of facility" configuration was Rs-(5,70,23,315). Subsequently, cost-effectiveness analysis across eight Figures of Merit showed the "In-house" facility to be the more acceptable option for the system. Every decision for acquiring high-end technology must be subjected to life-cycle cost analysis.

  5. Costs, biases and betting markets: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Smith; David Paton; Leighton Vaughan-Williams

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, person-to-person wagering on Internet ‘betting exchanges’ (sometimes known as ‘matched betting’) has become an increasingly important medium for betting on horse racing, sports and special events. Established gambling operators have argued that betting exchanges should not be allowed on the grounds that they represent unfair competition. In this paper, we argue that, in fact, betting exchanges have brought about reductions in traditional market biases and significant efficien...

  6. Minimizing the cost of subsea developments through technological innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, G.; Loth, B.

    1994-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of an extensive study carried out for the UK Government. This assessed the cost and economic impact of technological innovation on subsea and floating developments in the UKCS. The study covered, innovations that could be applied to subsea developments to significantly reduce cost, including multiwell completions, composite pipelines, compartmented pipelines, pipeline specification breaking and autonomous control systems. Cost and economic models were used to assess the economic impact of technological innovation on marginal field developments. The results of these assessments were drawn up as a series of ranking lists designed to assist manufacturers and suppliers in establishing priorities for research and development funding. The study also explored the potential UKCS and World market for innovative subsea technologies and quantified the research and development required to bring key innovations into commercial use

  7. Emerging technologies for the changing global market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott; Goldberg, Ben; Everhart, Kurt

    1993-01-01

    This project served to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of technology efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi-quantative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results will be implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

  8. Cost-Optimal ATCs in Zonal Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    from the physical ATCs based on security indices only typically used in zonal electricity markets today. Determining cost-optimal ATCs requires viewing ATCs as an endogenous market construct, and leads naturally to the definition of a market entity whose responsibility is to optimize ATCs....... The optimization problem which this entity solves is a stochastic bilevel problem, which we decompose to yield a computationally tractable formulation. We show that cost-optimal ATCs depend non-trivially on the underlying network structure, and the problem of finding a setof cost-optimal ATCs is in general non...... by a factor of 2 or more, and ATCs which are zero between well-connected areas.Our results indicate that the perceived efficiency gap between zonal and nodal markets may be exagerrated if non-optimal ATCs are used....

  9. The long memory and the transaction cost in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daye; Nishimura, Yusaku; Men, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the fractal dimensions of 30 important stock markets from 2006 to 2013; the analysis indicates that the Hurst exponent of emerging markets shifts significantly away from the standard Brownian motion. We propose a model based on the Hurst exponent to explore the considerable profits from the predictable long-term memory. We take the transaction cost into account to justify why the market inefficiency has not been arbitraged away in the majority of cases. The empirical evidence indicates that the majority of the markets are efficient with a certain transaction cost under the no-arbitrage assumption. Furthermore, we use the Monte Carlo simulation to display "the efficient frontier" of the Hurst exponent with different transaction costs.

  10. Forecasting market impact costs and identifying expensive trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.; Hoevenaars, R.P.M.M.; van der Sluis, P.J.

    Often, a relatively small group of trades causes the major part of the trading costs on an investment portfolio. For the equity trades studied in this paper, executed by the world's second largest pension fund, we find that only 10% of all trades determines 75% of total market impact costs.

  11. Technology for low cost solid rocket boosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepluch, C.

    1971-01-01

    A review of low cost large solid rocket motors developed at the Lewis Research Center is given. An estimate is made of the total cost reduction obtainable by incorporating this new technology package into the rocket motor design. The propellant, case material, insulation, nozzle ablatives, and thrust vector control are discussed. The effect of the new technology on motor cost is calculated for a typical expandable 260-in. booster application. Included in the cost analysis is the influence of motor performance variations due to specific impulse and weight changes. It is found for this application that motor costs may be reduced by up to 30% and that the economic attractiveness of future large solid rocket motors will be improved when the new technology is implemented.

  12. Security of supply in electricity markets: Improving cost efficiency of supplying security and possible welfare gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Grenaa Jensen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    In liberalised markets the ability to maintain security of electricity supply is questioned because security is characterised as a public good. We discuss if this property can be modified with changing technology. Furthermore, we examine if construction of markets for security can be justified...... by possible welfare gains. From a welfare perspective it is possible that security levels are too high and obtained with too high costs. Adjusting the effort so that marginal cost for securing supply is at similar levels in generation capacity and in network maintenance could increase welfare even without...... the need to construct markets. Secondarily, a consumer defined average level of security might improve welfare. Finally, different willingness to pay among customers and construction of advanced markets might increase welfare further. We argue that several cost and welfare improvements can be achieved...

  13. TRANSACTION COSTS AND MARKET IMPACT IN INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kociński

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the major sources of transaction costs in financial markets, in particular to find the amounts of such costs on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE. Sources of transaction costs are considered: commissions, bid-ask spread and market impact. The commissions are only briefly described since they are explicitly stated and easily measured. More attention is paid to the bid-ask spread which is one of the main causes of trading costs. It is shown that the investor who wants to outperform the Polish market should usually expect a much higher bid-ask spread than it follows from the officially used calculations. Then it is demonstrated how historical spreads can be used in predicting their future values. This seems to be important from the practical point of view, since forecasting trading costs is a compelling task for financial managers. Next, market impact and market impact costs are considered. The practical method of measuring these is applied and discussed.

  14. Stranded cost recovery in electricity market reforms in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Lloyd, D.; Karimov, R.; Tishler, A.

    2003-01-01

    An important element of an electricity market reform is stranded cost recovery. This paper explains the cause of stranded costs, describes four recovery mechanisms, evaluates these mechanisms using the criteria of recovery certainty, economic efficiency and equity, reviews the financial performance of 12 utilities in the US in connection to stranded cost recovery, and shows why the mechanism used in California has contributed to the reform failure in that state. (Author)

  15. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  16. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  17. A Stochastic Market Design With Revenue Adequacy and Cost Recovery by Scenario: Benefits and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2018-01-01

    Two desirable properties of electricity market mechanisms include: i) revenue adequacy for the market, and ii) cost recovery for all generators. Previously proposed stochastic market-clearing mechanisms satisfy both properties in expectation only, or satisfy one property by scenario and another...... scheme that ensures both properties by scenario. However, this approach is cost-inefficient in general and may sacrifice other desirable market attributes. Undesirable consequences include: one group of participants will have to pay more to ensure that all other participants have their costs covered......, and thus their prices will not be equilibrium supporting; and day-ahead and real-time prices are not arbitraged in expectation, although this can be fixed by allowing virtual bidders to arbitrage but at the potential cost of increased market inefficiency. Considering these pros and cons, we propose our...

  18. Transaction costs, externalities and information technology in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B; Keen, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the economic issues which underpin the rationale for investment in information and communications technologies (ICTs). Information imperfections lead to significant transaction costs (search, negotiating and monitoring) which in turn confer a negative externality on parties involved in exchange. This divergence in private and social costs leads to a degree of resource misallocation (efficiency loss) which, uncorrected, results in a sub-optimal outcome. Traditional solutions to this problem are to rely upon direct government action to reduce the costs of transacting between market agents, or to employ tax/subsidy measures and other legislative action to achieve the desired market outcome. Three key policy questions are raised in the context of the NHS purchaser/provider relationship. Firstly, what is the optimum level of transaction costs; secondly, can ICTs assist in lowering the level of transaction costs to the optimum level; thirdly, who should bear the investment cost in reducing the level of transaction costs? The issue of property rights in different information systems is discussed and raises interesting policy questions about how much investment should be undertaken centrally rather than devolved to a more local level. In some ways this economic framework offers a post hoc justification of why different ICT systems have been introduced at various levels of the NHS. Essentially this reduces to the problem of externalities: providing good information confers a positive externality: not providing relevant, timely and accurate information confers a negative externality, by increasing further the level of transaction costs. The crucial role which ICT systems can play lies in attempting to reduce the level of transaction costs and driving the market towards what Dahlman has described as the transaction-cost-constrained equilibrium.

  19. Developing markets for renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charters, W.W.S.

    2001-01-01

    Although renewable energy resources are now being utilised more on a global scale than ever before, there is no doubt their contribution to the energy economy can still be greatly increased. Recently international support for developing these relatively new sources of energy has been driven by their benefits as assessed by reduced environmental impact, particularly reduced greenhouse gas emissions. After several decades of continuous but somewhat erratic funding for research and development of renewables, it is time to take stock of the key issues to be addressed in terms of implementation of major renewable energy programmes on a large scale worldwide. One of the first steps in this process is the identification and encouragement of reliable continuous markets both in developed and developing nations. Future energy policy and planning scenarios should take into account the factors necessary to integrate renewables in all their diverse forms into the normal energy economy of the country. Other critical factors in market development will include the mass production of high quality, reliable and reasonable cost technical products and the provision of adequate finance for demonstrating market ready and near market renewables equipment. Government agencies need to aid in the removal of legislative and institutional barriers hindering the widespread introduction of non-conventional energy sources and to encourage the implementation of government purchasing schemes. Recent moves by companies in Australia to market 'green energy' to customers should also aid in the public awareness of the ultimate potential of renewables leading to greater use in the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors. (author)

  20. Internet and E-Marketing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Ceran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic on the Internet is growing so rapidly that many companies have troubles in maintaining pace with the demands of visitors of their Web site. One of the most important usage of the Internet is, of course, in electronic business. Internet is consisted of computer and communication technologies, and makes our work easier, because the information are becoming permanent and easily accessible, wherever they are in the world, which provides easy and afordable international presentation for individuals. This significantly changes the ways of conducting business. Is the site easy to use, if the site works properly, which are the standards for online customer service, how to deliver physical products, and the like, is a key issue in e-marketing, ie. how to achieve customer satisfaction with the usage of e-marketing.

  1. HMO market penetration and hospital cost inflation in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C

    1991-11-20

    OBJECTIVE--Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) have stimulated price competition in California hospital markets since 1983, when the state legislature eliminated barriers to selective contracting by conventional health insurance plans. This study measures the impact of HMO-induced price competition on the rate of inflation in average cost per admission for 298 private, non-HMO hospitals between 1982 and 1988. DATA--HMO market penetration was calculated using discharge abstract data on insurance coverage, ZIP code of residence, and hospital of choice for 3.35 million patients in 1983 and 3.41 million patients in 1988. Data on hospital characteristics were obtained from the American Hospital Association and other sources. -HMO coverage grew from an average of 8.3% of all admissions in local hospital markets in 1983 to 17.0% of all admissions in 1988. The average rate of growth in costs per admission between 1982 and 1988 was 9.4% lower in markets with relatively high HMO penetration compared with markets with relatively low HMO penetration (95% confidence interval, 5.2 to 13.8). Cost savings for these 298 hospitals are estimated at $1.04 billion for 1988. CONCLUSION--Price competition between HMOs and conventional health insurers can significantly reduce hospital cost inflation if legislative barriers to selective contracting are removed. The impact of competition in California was modest, however, when evaluated in terms of the 74.5% average rate of California hospital cost inflation during these years.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of a ROPS social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J A; Jenkins, P; Bayes, B; Clark, S; May, J J

    2010-01-01

    Tractor rollovers are the most frequent cause of death in the farm community. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) can prevent the injuries and fatalities associated with these events; however, almost half of U.S. farms lack these essential devices. One promising strategy for increasing ROPS use is social marketing. The purpose of this study was to assess the costs associated with the New York ROPS Social Marketing Campaign in relation to the cost of fatalities and injuries averted as a result of the campaign to determine whether cost savings could be demonstrated in the initial years of program implementation. A total of 524 farmers who had retrofitted a tractor through the program were mailed a survey to assess the number of rollovers or close calls that occurred since ROPS installation. Responses were obtained from 382 farmers, two of whom indicated that they had a potential fatality/injury scenario since retrofitting their tractor through the program. The cost savings associated with the intervention was estimated using a decision-tree analysis adapted from Myers and Pana-Cryan with appropriate consumer price index adjustments. The data were compared to the cost of the New York ROPS Social Marketing Campaign to arrive at an associated cost-savings estimate relative to the intervention. This study indicates that a net savings will likely be demonstrated within the third year of the New York ROPS Social Marketing initiative. These data may provide evidence for researchers hoping to generate support from state and private agencies for similar initiatives.

  3. Canadian Food Dollar: Breakdown between Farm and Marketing Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Jessica; Weersink, Alfons; Cranfield, John

    2013-01-01

    This poster assesses the breakdown of the Canadian food dollar between farm and marketing costs. It uses input-output methods, comparable to those used by the Economic Research Service (ERS), in order to allow for Canadian-American comparison. The farm share and marketing bill provide a valuable snapshot of the dynamics of the agri-food supply chain, changing consumer demands, and the resultant value distribution of the retail food dollar.

  4. Does SDDS Subscription Reduce Borrowing Costs for Emerging Market Economies?

    OpenAIRE

    John Cady

    2005-01-01

    Does macroeconomic data transparency-as signaled by subscription to the IMF's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS)-help reduce borrowing costs in international capital markets? This question is examined using data on new issues of sovereign foreign-currency-denominated (U.S. dollar, yen, and euro) bonds for several emerging market economies. Panel econometric estimates indicate that spreads on new bond issues declined on average by close to 20 percent, or by an average of about 55 basis...

  5. Bringing Superconductor Digital Technology to the Market Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenoff, Martin

    The unique properties of superconductivity can be exploited to provide the ultimate in electronic technology for systems such as ultra-precise analogue-to-digital and digital-to-analogue converters, precise DC and AC voltage standards, ultra high speed logic circuits and systems (both digital and hybrid analogue-digital systems), and very high throughput network routers and supercomputers which would have superior electrical performance at lower overall electrical power consumption compared to systems with comparable performance which are fabricated using conventional room temperature technologies. This potential for high performance electronics with reduced power consumption would have a positive impact on slowing the increase in the demand for electrical utility power by the information technology community on the overall electrical power grid. However, before this technology can be successfully brought to the commercial market place, there must be an aggressive investment of resources and funding to develop the required infrastructure needed to yield these high performance superconductor systems, which will be reliable and available at low cost. The author proposes that it will require a concerted effort by the superconductor and cryogenic communities to bring this technology to the commercial market place or make it available for widespread use in scientific instrumentation.

  6. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market drivers and the future outlook for fuel cells.

  7. The impact of modern technology on changing marketing actions in organisations. Marketing 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Świeczak Witold

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the theory that modern technologies are changing the way in which marketing is organised and that they will transform the prevailing composition of the market, while enterprises should come to terms with the act that having a market share will no longer suffice to maintain the market leader position. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the key challenges generated by technological innovations and to identify the opportunities for marketing in light of the n...

  8. The challenges of diversification of technologies and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.

    2003-01-01

    For several years, Tecnatom has been developing a technology and market diversification strategy based on its corporate vision of technological leadership in the services and products it supplies on the national an international nuclear market. Starting with the historical development of these technologies, this article describes how diversification in the global market is initiated and identifies the industrial market segments where the provision of services and the supply of high-tech products can be expanded. It also includes the diversification strategies in these new markets, and presents some of the results obtained in the aeronautical and aerospace market, the transportation market, the industrial processes market, etc. Finally, it provides some examples of the development of new virtual reality and enhanced reality technologies and how these new capabilities are fed back to the nuclear market. (Author)

  9. Managing Licensing in a Market for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Ashish; Fosfuri, Andrea; Rønde, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , we find that interdependency across business units may result in more, not less, decentralization. Furthermore, even though centralization results in less information, centralized licensing deals are larger. Our model conforms to the existing evidence that reports heterogeneity across firms in both......Technology licensing is an important means for companies to extract more value from their intellectual assets. We build a model that helps understand how licensing activity should be organized within large corporations. More specifically, we compare decentralization—where the business unit using...... the technology makes licensing decisions—to centralized licensing. The business unit has superior information about licensing opportunities but may not have the appropriate incentives because its rewards depend on product market performance. If licensing is decentralized, the business unit forgoes valuable...

  10. Market power and state costs of HIV/AIDS drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Arleen A; Sood, Neeraj

    2007-03-01

    We examine whether U.S. states can use their market power to reduce the costs of supplying prescription drugs to uninsured and underinsured persons with HIV through a public program, the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP). Among states that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them directly to clients, those that purchase a greater volume pay lower average costs per prescription. Among states depending on retail pharmacies to distribute drugs and then claiming rebates from manufacturers, those that contract with smaller numbers of pharmacy networks have lower average costs. Average costs per prescription do not differ between the two purchase methods.

  11. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...

  12. Life-cycle private costs of hybrid electric vehicles in the current Chinese market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chengtao; Wu, Tian; Ou, Xunmin; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Xiliang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the life-cycle private cost (LCPC) of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is important for market feasibility analysis. An HEV LCPC model was established to evaluate HEV market prospects in China compared with traditional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). The Kluger HV, a full-hybrid HEV sports utility vehicle (SUV), aimed at the Chinese market, was simulated as the 2010 model's technology details were well publicized. The LCPC of the Kluger HV was roughly the same (about 1.06 times) as that of its comparable ICEV (Highlander SUV). This aligns with other compact and midsize HEV cars (e.g., Toyota Prius, Honda Civic and Toyota Camry HEV) in China. With oil prices predicted to rise in the long-term, the advantage of HEVs energy saving will partly compensate the high manufacturing costs associated with their additional motor/battery components. Besides supporting technology development, enabling policy should be implemented to introduce HEV technology into taxi fleets and business cars. This technology's cost-competitiveness, compared with traditional ICEVs, is advantageous for these higher mileage vehicles. - Highlights: ► A model is set up to evaluate the life-cycle private cost of HEVs. ► Life-cycle private costs of HEVs are higher than conventional cars in China. ► HEVs become competitive when the oil price rises

  13. Evolving markets and new end use gas technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overall, J.

    1995-01-01

    End use gas technologies, and products for residential, commercial, and industrial uses were reviewed, and markets and market drivers needed for end use technologies in the different types of markets were summarized. The range of end use technologies included: gas fireplaces, combination heating/water heating systems, integrated appliance such as heating/ventilation units, gas cooling, and space cooling for commercial markets. The present and future status of each product market was discussed. Growing markets such as cogeneration, and gas turbine technology also received attention, along with regulatory and environmental concerns. The need to be knowledgeable about current market drivers and to introduce new ones, and the evolution of technology were emphasized as means by which the industry will continue to be able to exert a decisive influence on the direction of these markets

  14. Cost reduction potentials in the German market for balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinkerbusch, Kai; Heuterkes, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article examines potential cost reductions in the market for balancing power by pooling all four German control areas. In a united control area both the procurement and the production of balancing power may be more efficient than in four separated control areas. Our data contain bids on energy procurement as well as balancing power flows in the period from December 2007 to November 2008. A reference scenario simulates the market results for secondary and tertiary balancing power. Subsequently, we simulate a united control area. We show that in the period under review the total costs of balancing power are reduced by 17%. (author)

  15. Medium-term marginal costs in competitive generation power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneses, J.; Centeno, E.; Barquin, J.

    2004-01-01

    The meaning and significance of medium-term marginal costs for a generation company in a competitive power market in analysed. A methodology to compute and decompose medium-term generation marginal costs in a competitive environment is proposed. The methodology is based on a market equilibrium model. The aim is to provide a useful tool for generation companies so that they can manage their resources in an optimal way, helping them with their operation, decision-making processes, asset valuations or contract assessments. (author)

  16. Cost and performance of innovative remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.; Kingscott, J.W.; Fiedler, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The selection and use of more cost-effective remedies requires better access to data on the performance and cost of technologies used in the field. To make data more widely available, the US Environmental Protection Agency is working jointly with member agencies of the Federal Remediation Technologies Round table to publish case studies of full-scale remediation and demonstration projects. EPA, DoD, and DOE have published case studies of cleanup projects primarily consisting of bioremediation, soil vapor extraction, and thermal desorption. Within the limits of this initial data set, the paper evaluates technology performance and cost. In the analysis of cost factors, the paper shows the use of a standardized Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Use of the WBS will be important in future reporting of completed projects to facilitate cost comparison. The paper notes the limits to normalization and thus cross-site comparison which can be achieved using the WBS. The paper identifies conclusions from initial efforts to compile cost and performance data, highlights the importance of such efforts to the overall remediation effort, and discusses future cost and performance documentation efforts

  17. Projection display industry market and technology trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph A.; Mentley, David E.

    1995-04-01

    The projection display industry is diverse, embracing a variety of technologies and applications. In recent years, there has been a high level of interest in projection displays, particularly those using LCD panels or light valves because of the difficulty in making large screen, direct view displays. Many developers feel that projection displays will be the wave of the future for large screen HDTV (high-definition television), penetrating the huge existing market for direct view CRT-based televisions. Projection displays can have the images projected onto a screen either from the rear or the front; the main characteristic is their ability to be viewed by more than one person. In addition to large screen home television receivers, there are numerous other uses for projection displays including conference room presentations, video conferences, closed circuit programming, computer-aided design, and military command/control. For any given application, the user can usually choose from several alternative technologies. These include CRT front or rear projectors, LCD front or rear projectors, LCD overhead projector plate monitors, various liquid or solid-state light valve projectors, or laser-addressed systems. The overall worldwide market for projection information displays of all types and for all applications, including home television, will top DOL4.6 billion in 1995 and DOL6.45 billion in 2001.

  18. Technology enabled evolutions in liquids marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, S.

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation, mergers, changing economic conditions, and downsizing have captured the headlines in the energy industry in recent times. To say that companies have struggled to react to these changes would be an understatement. Huge trading organizations have grown from nothing in a few years, while entire industry segments have been forced to restructure themselves. Information technology has enabled much of this change. By bringing information management out of the back office and onto the trading floors, companies have radically redesigned their work processes. The future promises even faster change, with business focus turning to innovative packaging of services with products, expanding asset bases, and reducing costs. Information technology will fuel this transformation by providing enterprise-wide trading solutions and, ultimately, linking the entire industry into a virtual supply chain. To remain competitive, companies need a strategy to manage information technology as a core asset

  19. Impact from the blockchain technology on the Nordic capital market

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria, Karlsson Lundström

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis explores how the blockchain technology might affect the capital market, a market with an established role in our current society. This exploration is conducted by a literature study and an interview study with participants within the capital market, in order to gather several opinions and experiences of the technology. The blockchain technology is a registration technology that provides a high degree of security and the possibility to cut of intermediaries. These are two su...

  20. Low-cost interferometric TDM technology for dynamic sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jeff; Cekorich, Allen

    2004-12-01

    A low-cost design approach for Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) fiber-optic interferometric interrogation of multi-channel sensor arrays is presented. This paper describes the evolutionary design process of the subject design. First, the requisite elements of interferometric interrogation are defined for a single channel sensor. The concept is then extended to multi-channel sensor interrogation implementing a TDM multiplex scheme where "traditional" design elements are utilized. The cost of the traditional TDM interrogator is investigated and concluded to be too high for entry into many markets. A new design approach is presented which significantly reduces the cost for TDM interrogation. This new approach, in accordance with the cost objectives, shows promise to bring this technology to within the threshold of commercial acceptance for a wide range of distributed fiber sensing applications.

  1. RE-COST: Cost and Business Comparisons of Renewable vs. Non-renewable Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostajo Veiga, Mercedes; Farina Alvarez, Pablo; Fernandez-Montes Moraleda, Manuel; Kleinsorge, Anne

    2012-07-15

    Based on real plant data, the RE-COST project concludes that in many OECD energy markets, new renewable energy technologies (RET) are close to be competitive with non-RET electricity plants. RET costs are decreasing rapidly, while conventional power plants are affected by lower utilisation rates, volatile coal and gas prices, CO2 pricing, and lower electricity demand than expected. If energy prices would account for air pollution and climate change, renewables would already be the most beneficial for society and business.

  2. Energy Technology and Market Risk Reduction | Integrated Energy Solutions |

    Science.gov (United States)

    renewable energy projects, including: Debt financing and structures that use cash flows generated by your ; project costs; and evolving regulatory, permitting, and retail markets through activities such as

  3. Emerging technologies in electricity generation : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) monitors the supply of electricity as well as its demand in both domestic and export markets. It monitors the main drivers affecting current trends in generation, demand, prices, infrastructure additions, and inter-regional and international trade. This document presented an assessment of renewable and other emerging technologies that are considered to have significant promise and increased application in Canada over the longer term. It provided comprehensive information on the status and prospects for these technologies, related issues and regional perspectives. Alternative and renewable resources and demand management are becoming more important in addressing air quality issues and supply adequacy. In preparation of this report, staff at the NEB participated in a series of informal meetings with electric utilities, independent power producers, provincial energy regulators, power system operators and those engaged in technology development. The report involved on-site information gathering at wind farms, small hydro facilities, biomass, solar and geothermal operations and other facilities associated with emerging energy technologies such as fuel cells and ocean energy. Clean coal technologies that refer to methods by which emissions from coal-fired generation can be reduced were also evaluated. It was noted that the prospects for emerging technologies vary among the provinces and territories depending on regional resources, provincial government policies and strategies regarding fuel preferences. It was noted that currently in Canada, only 3 per cent of the installed generating capacity consists of emerging technologies. This low penetration is due to the low cost of electricity derived from conventional sources and to the structure of the industry in which large publicly owned utilities have historically opted for large central generating stations. It was suggested that the large increase in fossil fuel prices, public concern

  4. Linking Farmers to Markets through Modern Information and Communication Technologies in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhebi, A.W.; Kundu, J.; Okolla, A.; Wambua, M.; Ochieng, W.; Fwamba, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights a market information and linkage system (MILS) developed and tested by the Kenya Agricultural Commodity Exchange Limited (KACE) that increases the efficiency of agricultural markets to work better for smallholder farmers and other small and medium sized agro-enterprises (SMEs). The MILS involves harnessing modern information and communication technologies (ICTs) to empower farmers with low-cost reliable and timely market information to enhance the bargaining power of the...

  5. Leveraging Technology to Reduce Patient Transaction Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Medical practices are under significant pressure to provide superior customer service in an environment of declining or flat reimbursement. The solution for many practices involves the integration of a variety of third-party technologies that conveniently interface with one's electronic practice management and medical records systems. Typically, the applications allow the practice to reduce the cost of each patient interaction. Drilling down to quantify the cost of each individual patient interaction helps to determine the practicality of implementation.

  6. The costs of climate policies in a second best world with labour market imperfections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guivarch, C.; Crassous, R.; Sassi, O.; Hallegatte, St.

    2009-09-01

    This article explores the critical role of labour market imperfections in climate stabilisation costs formation. To do so, we use a dynamic recursive energy-economy model that represents a second best world with market imperfections and short-run adjustments constraints along a long-term growth path. We show that the degree of rigidity of the labour markets is a central parameter and we conduct a systematic sensitivity analysis of the model results to this parameter. When labour markets are represented as highly flexible, the model results are in the usual range of existing literature, i.e. less than 2% GDP losses in 2030 for a stabilisation target at 450 ppm CO 2 equivalent, But when labour markets rigidities are accounted for, mitigation costs increase dramatically. In a second time, the article identifies accompanying measures, namely labour subsidies, which guarantees against the risk of large stabilisation costs in the case of high rigidities of the labour markets. That vision complements the usual view that mitigation is a long-term matter that depends on technology, innovation, investment and behavioural change. Here we add the warning that mitigation is also a shorter-term issue and a matter of transition on the labour market. (authors)

  7. Economic Feasibility and Market Readiness of Solar Technologies. Draft Final Report. Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, Silvio J.; Buchanan, Deborah L.; Christmas, Susan; Fellhauer, Cheryl; Glenn, Barbara; Ketels, Peter A.; Levary, Arnon; Mourning, Pete; Steggerda, Paul; Trivedi, Harit; Witholder, Robert E.

    1978-09-01

    Systems descriptions, costs, technical and market readiness assessments are reported for ten solar technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB), passive, agricultural and industrial process heat (A/IPH), biomass, ocean thermal (OTEC), wind (WECS), solar thermal electric, photovoltaics, satellite power station (SPS), and solar total energy systems (STES). Study objectives, scope, and methods. are presented. of Joint Task The cost and market analyses portion 5213/6103 will be used to make commercialization assessments in the conclusions of. the final report.

  8. The axiom about the market (cadastral cost of the reproducible factors of a single propert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Vlasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study. To prove the methodological error of the calculation of the market (cadastral value of capital construction objects, as a result of a violation of the Federal law of the Russian Federation of 29.07.1998 No. 135-FZ “On valuation activities in the Russian Federation”, article 3, in determining the market value of the property. To show that the theory and practice of measuring the value of real estate is necessary to delimit the elements of the market value formation of reproducible and not reproducible factors single property. Materials and methods. The objectives of the article are: the rules of law in assessment activities; the results of the cadastral valuation of real estate in settlements of Russia; comparative analysis of the factors determining the market (cadastral value of real estate. Results. Formulated the axiom about the market (cadastral cost of the reproducible factors of a single property. It is shown that in the theory and practice of measurement in market (cadastral value of real estate of Russia violated article 3 of the law 135-FZ of 29.07.1998. As a consequence, the market (cadastral cost of the capital construction objects 2-5 times overestimated, and the market (cadastral value of land in the 2-15 times underestimated. This is the basis of corruption, challenging the results of cadastral assessment of problems of formation of budgets of all levels, reduction in the rate of economic development of Russia. According to our results of the cadastral assessment of land plots of various categories of land in the regions of Russia there is a technology of determining the economic norms of rational use of real estate. Conclusion. Regardless of technology assessment of the property market value of reproducible improvements of the land may not exceed their replacement cost

  9. Regulating the Dutch pharmaceutical market: improving efficiency or controlling costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Rutten, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Dutch pharmaceutical market, which is heavily regulated by the government. Through the regulation of prices and promoting prudent use, the Dutch government tries to bring down the cost of pharmaceuticals, which increases every year at a higher rate than total health

  10. Endogenous Technology Adoption and Medical Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiraud, Karine; Lhuillery, Stephane

    2016-09-01

    Despite the claim that technology has been one of the most important drivers of healthcare spending growth over the past decades, technology variables are rarely introduced explicitly in cost equations. Furthermore, technology is often considered exogenous. Using 1996-2007 panel data on Swiss geographical areas, we assessed the impact of technology availability on per capita healthcare spending covered by basic health insurance whilst controlling for the endogeneity of health technology availability variables. Our results suggest that medical research, patent intensity and the density of employees working in the medical device industry are influential factors for the adoption of technology and can be used as instruments for technology availability variables in the cost equation. These results are similar to previous findings: CT and PET scanner adoption is associated with increased healthcare spending, whilst increased availability of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty facilities is associated with reductions in per capita spending. However, our results suggest that the magnitude of these relationships is much greater in absolute value than that suggested by previous studies that did not control for the possible endogeneity of the availability of technologies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Markets for Technology and the Importance of Firm-Specific Search for Innovation Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    Firms rely increasingly on external knowledge, e.g. from universities, to improve their innovation performance. Existing research models the acquisition of knowledge either as a firm-specific search or a purchase on markets for technology. The former implies that a firm chooses and develops...... relationships with knowledge sources while the latter suggests a transaction governed by markets. We argue that both mechanisms increase a firm’s innovation performance but that they are interrelated. While on the firm level firm-specific search and acquisitions on markets for technology complement each other......, the costs of firm-specific search are only justified in underdeveloped markets. Otherwise, market transactions provide higher efficiency and flexibility. This negative cross-level interaction effect is stronger the more knowledge in an industry is covered by markets for technology. We test and support...

  12. Market failures, consumer preferences, and transaction costs inenergy efficiency purchase decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott

    2004-11-23

    Several factors limit the energy savings potential and increase the costs of energy-efficient technologies to consumers. These factors may usefully be placed into two categories; one category is what economists would define as market failures and the other is related to consumer preferences. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding the roles of these factors, and develops a methodology to quantify their effects on costs and potentials of two energy efficient end uses - residential lighting and clothes washers. It notes the significant roles played by the high implicit cost of obtaining information about the benefits of the two technologies and the apparent inability to process and utilize information. For compact fluorescent lamps, this report finds a conservative estimate of the cost of conserved energy of 3.1 cents per kWh. For clothes washers, including water savings reduces the cost of conserved energy from 13.6 cents to 4.3 cents per equivalent kWh. Despite these benefits, market share remains low. About 18 million tons of CO2 could be saved cost effectively from 2005 sales of these two technologies alone. The paper also notes that trading of carbon emissions will incur transaction costs that will range from less than 10 cents per metric ton of CO2 for larger size projects and programs to a few dollars per metric ton of carbon for the smaller ones.

  13. Competitive pricing in markets with different overhead costs : Concealment or leakage of cost information?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaels, E.; Roodhooft, F.; Warlop, L.; Van Herck, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigates how leaders and followers in a duopoly set prices for two product markets that have different overhead costs. In a fully crossed two‐by‐two design, we manipulate the participants' private cost report quality as either low or high, representing the extent to

  14. NASA technology utilization program: The small business market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoy, J. K.; Garcia-Otero, F.; Johnson, F. D.; Staskin, E.

    1980-01-01

    Technology transfer programs were studied to determine how they might be more useful to the small business community. The status, needs, and technology use patterns of small firms are reported. Small business problems and failures are considered. Innovation, capitalization, R and D, and market share problems are discussed. Pocket, captive, and new markets are summarized. Small manufacturers and technology acquisition are discussed, covering external and internal sources, and NASA technology. Small business and the technology utilization program are discussed, covering publications and industrial applications centers. Observations and recommendations include small business market development and contracting, and NASA management technology.

  15. Final Report - Stationary and Emerging Market Fuel Cell System Cost Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, Vince [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); George, Paul [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Eubanks, Fritz [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jansen, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Valluri, Manoj [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Mansouri, Mahan [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Swickrath, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-04-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is focused on providing a portfolio of technology solutions to meet energy security challenges of the future. Fuel cells are a part of this portfolio of technology offerings. To help meet these challenges and supplement the understanding of the current research, Battelle has executed a five-year program that evaluated the total system costs and total ownership costs of two technologies: (1) an ~80 °C polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology and (2) a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, operating with hydrogen or reformate for different applications. Previous research conducted by Battelle, and more recently by other research institutes, suggests that fuel cells can offer customers significant fuel and emission savings along with other benefits compared to incumbent alternatives. For this project, Battelle has applied a proven cost assessment approach to assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program in making decisions regarding research and development, scale-up, and deployment of fuel cell technology. The cost studies and subsequent reports provide accurate projections of current system costs and the cost impact of state-of-the-art technologies in manufacturing, increases in production volume, and changes to system design on system cost and life cycle cost for several near-term and emerging fuel cell markets. The studies also provide information on types of manufacturing processes that must be developed to commercialize fuel cells and also provide insights into the optimization needed for use of off-the-shelf components in fuel cell systems. Battelle’s analysis is intended to help DOE prioritize investments in research and development of components to reduce the costs of fuel cell systems while considering systems optimization.

  16. Economic and technological aspects of the market introduction of renewable power technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlen, Christine M.

    Renewable energy, if developed and delivered with appropriate technologies, is cleaner, more evenly distributed, and safer than conventional energy systems. Many countries and several states in the United States promote the development and introduction of technologies for "green" electricity production. This dissertation investigates economic and technological aspects of this process for wind energy. In liberalized electricity markets, policy makers use economic incentives to encourage the adoption of renewables. Choosing from a large range of possible policies and instruments is a multi-criteria decision process. This dissertation evaluates the criteria used and the trade-offs among the criteria, and develops a hierarchical flow scheme that policy makers can use to choose the most appropriate policy for a given situation. Economic incentives and market transformation programs seek to reduce costs through mass deployment in order to make renewable technologies competitive. Cost reduction is measured in "experience curves" that posit negative exponential relationships between cumulative deployment and production cost. This analysis reveals the weaknesses in conventional experience curve analyses for wind turbines, and concludes that the concept is limited by data availability, a weak conceptual foundation, and inappropriate statistical estimation. A revised model specifies a more complete set of economic and technological forces that determine the cost of wind power. Econometric results indicate that experience and upscaling of turbine sizes accounted for the observed cost reduction in wind turbines in the United States, Denmark and Germany between 1983 and 2001. These trends are likely to continue. In addition, future cost reductions will result from economies of scale in production. Observed differences in the performance of theoretically equivalent policy instruments could arise from economic uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, a methodology for the

  17. Integrating intermittent energy sources in liberalized electricity markets: from technical costs to economic penalties as a result of market rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L.

    2003-06-01

    With the aim of preventing climatic change and ensuring the security of energy supplies, the recent European Directive on renewable energy production sources is aimed at bringing about a very substantial increase in electricity production from renewable sources in Europe by the 2010 horizon. Generally speaking, production of electricity from renewable sources will be assured by biomass and wind, and to a lesser extent by micro hydro, technologies whose characteristics are very different from the point of view of their integration into the electricity system. Their inclusion in the electricity systems will cause problems because of the intermittent nature of the production, a factor that does not enter into the paradigms of producers, system operators or regulators. The problems raised by the integration of intermittent production are technical in nature (risk of non-availability in peak periods, the need for additional reserves) and will incur adjustment costs, but the way in which the electricity markets function will impose economic penalties generally more substantial than the added technical costs. In this paper are examined in succession: (i) the additional costs raised by intermittence; (ii) the economic penalties imposed by the operating rules of de-regulated electricity markets with electricity production from renewable sources included, with particular reference to the case of the British and Nordic markets; and (iii) an analysis of the options that could limit the gap between the additional cost of intermittent production for the system and the adjustment surcharges imposed by the electricity markets, with the aim of reducing the tension between the deregulation of the electricity market and promoting the development of renewable energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  18. Analysis of the Photovoltaic Market 2001. Cost of PV Components and Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balenzategui Manzanares, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    This document tries to study the development and evolution of the photovoltaic market at a national and international scale, and to analyse its current status at the end of 2001. The paper broaches the study from different points of view. At the first step, the actual great expansion of the global market is analysed by means of the data for international sales and shipments of photovoltaic modules, which are completed with figures of the main countries and manufacturing companies involved in the market, the end-use applications, the installed power per country, the technologies used and the evolution of the cost of the modules. By using the same kind of parameters, the particular conditions of the Spanish market is then analysed, and the current national norms and plans for promotion and their short term perspectives are reviewed and discussed. As a complementary aspect, a simple cost analysis of the main components of a photovoltaic system in the Spanish market is carried out, together with the costs of complete installations. The average values for components and systems are obtained and are compared with those from preceding years. These data allow evaluating in practice how the global situation is reflected in the final cost of the photovoltaic devices for consumers. (Author) 56 refs

  19. Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (∼$4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (∼$7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO 2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices. (letter)

  20. Technology Marketing using PCA , SOM, and STP Strategy Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sunghae Jun

    2011-01-01

    Technology marketing is a total processing about identifying and meeting the technological needs of human society. Most technology results exist in intellectual properties like patents. In our research, we consider patent document as a technology. So patent data are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) for STP(Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning) strategy modeling. STP is a popular approach for developing marketing strategies. We use STP strategy m...

  1. Costs and benefits of Danish active labour market programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Svend; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Since 1994, unemployed workers in the Danish labour market have participated in active labour market programmes on a large scale. This paper contributes with an assessment of costs and benefits of these programmes. Long-term treatment effects are estimated on a very detailed administrative dataset...... prospects in the long run. When the cost side is taken into account, private and public job training still come out with surplusses, while classroom training leads to a deficit....... by propensity score matching. For the years 1995 - 2005 it is found that private job training programmes have substantial positive employment and earnings effects, but also public job training ends up with positive earnings effects. Classroom training does not significantly improve employment or earnings...

  2. Fair Division of Costs in Green Energy Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Kronborg, Dorte; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers cost allocation in networks where agents are characterized by stochastic demand and supply of a non-storable good, e.g. green energy. The grid itself creates possibilities of exchanging energy between agents and we propose to allocate common costs in proportion to the economi...... gain of being part of the grid. Our model includes a set of fundamental requirements for the associated trading platform. In particular, it is argued that a suitable mechanism deviates from a traditional market. The approach is illustrated by simulations....

  3. Prospects for natural gas in Europe. Market potential, political intervention and technological options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabelitz, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The potential market demand, the emerging fundamental political intervention in the European gas and electricity markets and the technological options available will give the gas industry in Europe a different appearance at the beginning of the 21. century. One of the key questions is: will the political intervention and technological options and innovations assist and promote the realisation of market potential? At the moment, it cannot be stated definitely whether the currently available technological options will allow the significant cost reductions hoped for in the entire gas chain to become reality in good time. Under these circumstances, a major mismatch would emerge between the market potential predicted for natural gas in Europe and the actual market development. (R.P.)

  4. Social capital and transaction costs in millet markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Damien Christophe; Marinho, Eduardo; d'Andrimont, Raphaël; Waldner, François; Radoux, Julien; Gaspart, Frédéric; Defourny, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, transaction costs are believed to be the most significant barrier that prevents smallholders and farmers from gaining access to markets and productive assets. In this study, we explore the impact of social capital on millet prices for three contrasted years in Senegal. Social capital is approximated using a unique data set on mobile phone communications between 9 million people allowing to simulate the business network between economic agents. Our approach is a spatial equilibrium model that integrates a diversified set of data. Local supply and demand were respectively derived from remotely sensed imagery and population density maps. The road network was used to establish market catchment areas, and transportation costs were derived from distances between markets. Results demonstrate that accounting for the social capital in the transaction costs explained 1-9% of the price variance depending on the year. The year-specific effect remains challenging to assess but could be related to a strengthening of risk aversion following a poor harvest.

  5. Social capital and transaction costs in millet markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Christophe Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, transaction costs are believed to be the most significant barrier that prevents smallholders and farmers from gaining access to markets and productive assets. In this study, we explore the impact of social capital on millet prices for three contrasted years in Senegal. Social capital is approximated using a unique data set on mobile phone communications between 9 million people allowing to simulate the business network between economic agents. Our approach is a spatial equilibrium model that integrates a diversified set of data. Local supply and demand were respectively derived from remotely sensed imagery and population density maps. The road network was used to establish market catchment areas, and transportation costs were derived from distances between markets. Results demonstrate that accounting for the social capital in the transaction costs explained 1–9% of the price variance depending on the year. The year-specific effect remains challenging to assess but could be related to a strengthening of risk aversion following a poor harvest.

  6. Review of methods for forecasting the market penetration of new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilshannon, S.T.; Brown, D.R.

    1996-12-01

    In 1993 the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) initiated a program called Quality Metrics. Quality Metrics was developed to measure the costs and benefits of technologies being developed by EE R ampersand D programs. The impact of any new technology is directly related to its adoption by the market. The techniques employed to project market adoption are critical to measuring a new technology's impact. Our purpose was to review current market penetration theories and models and develop a recommended approach for evaluating the market penetration of DOE technologies. The following commonly cited innovation diffusion theories were reviewed to identify analytical approaches relevant to new energy technologies: (1) the normal noncumulative adopter distribution method, (2) the Bass Model, (3) the Mansfield-Blackman Model, (4) the Fisher-Pry Model, (5) a meta-analysis of innovation diffusion studies. Of the theories reviewed, the Bass and Mansfield-Blackman models were found most applicable to forecasting the market penetration of electricity supply technologies. Their algorithms require input estimates which characterize the technology adoption behavior of the electricity supply industry. But, inadequate work has been done to quantify the technology adoption characteristics of this industry. The following energy technology market penetration models were also reviewed: (1) DOE's Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) Model, (2) DOE's Electricity Capacity Planning Submodule of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), (3) the Assessment of Energy Technologies (ASSET) model by Regional Economic Research, Inc., (4) the Market TREK model by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The two DOE models were developed for electricity generation technologies whereas the Regional Economic Research and EPRI models were designed for demand- side energy technology markets. Therefore, the review and evaluation focused on the DOE models

  7. Utilizing Ultrasound Technology to Improve Livestock Marketing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L. Lusk; Randall Little; Allen Williams; John Anderson; Blair McKinley

    2003-01-01

    This study estimates the value of using ultrasound technology to improve cattle marketing decisions by optimally choosing a particular marketing method. For the particular group of cattle analyzed, results indicate that using ultrasound information to selectively market cattle could have increased revenue by $25.53/head, $4.98/head, or $32.90/head, compared with simply marketing all animals on a live weight, dressed weight, or grid basis, respectively. Even if producers incorporate such infor...

  8. Competition between biofuels. Modeling technological learning and cost reductions over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, M.; Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.; Lensink, S.M.; Londo, H.M.

    2009-10-01

    A key aspect in modeling the (future) competition between biofuels is the way in which production cost developments are computed. The objective of this study was threefold: (1) to construct a (endogenous) relation between cost development and cumulative production (2) to implement technological learning based on both engineering study insights and an experience curve approach, and (3) to investigate the impact of different technological learning assumptions on the market diffusion patterns of different biofuels. The analysis was executed with the European biofuel model BioTrans, which computes the least cost biofuel route. The model meets an increasing demand, reaching a 25% share of biofuels of the overall European transport fuel demand by 2030. Results show that 1st generation biodiesel is the most cost competitive fuel, dominating the early market. With increasing demand, modestly productive oilseed crops become more expensive rapidly, providing opportunities for advanced biofuels to enter the market. While biodiesel supply typically remains steady until 2030, almost all additional yearly demands are delivered by advanced biofuels, supplying up to 60% of the market by 2030. Sensitivity analysis shows that (a) overall increasing investment costs favour biodiesel production, (b) separate gasoline and diesel subtargets may diversify feedstock production and technology implementation, thus limiting the risk of failure and preventing lock-in and (c) the moment of an advanced technology's commercial market introduction determines, to a large degree, its future chances for increasing market share.

  9. Gas to fuel and chemicals: from technology to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercialization of natural gas reserves via synthesis to liquid products is a particularly active area of research which could permit this energy carrier to penetrate new markets. This study provides a global perspective of developments in this area, the technology and its economic and environmental implications, completed by a full review of current projects. A number of research centres as well as engineering companies and oil and gas companies are engaged in significant research programmes to improve the processes employed in the gas to liquids chain. This section provides a complete picture of the recent technology developments and the areas for potential future improvement.The research activities of each organisation and the process scheme employed are described.The implications of the major differences in the technologies are reviewed. Each step in the GTL chain-feed preparation, syngas production, the Fischer-Tropsch process and product work up is covered. The relationship between the products from the process and the technology employed is discussed. Aside from the technological aspects, the economics of the GTL process remains the major hurdle to be overcome if this technology is to be more widely utilized.The key parameters affecting the economics of GTL developments are the cost of natural gas, capital investments and the impact of economies of scale.The key driver for the oil and gas companies is to provide a way of commercializing natural gas reserves when other means, such as pipeline transportation or LNG, are not viable. This section provides a review of the costs and economics of the GTL chain taking into account the process configuration and resulting capital costs, the products produced, the effect of scale and other relevant factors.The aim is to provide an understanding of the economic factors affecting the GTL chain. Middle distillate fuels produced from the GTL process are sulphur and aromatics free and will be attractive for use in the

  10. Integrated Cost Allocation of Transmission Usage under Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermagasantos Zein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost allocation of transmission usage on the power networks is an important issue especially in the modern electricity market mechanism. In this context, all costs that have been embedded in the transmission, embedded cost, should be covered by the transmission users. This paper follows general methods, where generators are fullyresponsible to cover the embedded cost. It proposes a method to determine the cost allocation of transmission usage based on decomposition through the superposition techinique to determine power flow contributions from an integrated base case of the results of the power flow calculations of all transactions, bilateral and nonbilateral contracts. Mathematically, the applied formulations are illustrated clearly in this paper. The proposed method has been tested with 5-bus system and the results are much different compared to a few of the published methods. This is shown by the test results on the 5 bus system. The published methods produce total power flow contributions in each line is greater than the actual. And they earn total revenues approximately 11.6% greater than the embedded cost. While on the proposed method, the power flow contribu tions are equal to the actual and the revenues are equal to the embedded cost. It shows also that the proposed method gives results as expected.

  11. Parametric Cost and Schedule Modeling for Early Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Research NoteNational Security Rep rt PARAMETRIC MODELING FOR EARLY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT COST AND SCHEDULE Chuck...Alexander NSR_11x17_Cover_CostModeling_v8.indd 1 11/20/17 3:15 PM PARAMETRIC COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Chuck...COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT iii Contents Figures

  12. Applied technology center business plan and market survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Robert F.; Marchesini, Roberto

    1990-01-01

    Business plan and market survey for the Applied Technology Center (ATC), computer technology transfer and development non-profit corporation, is presented. The mission of the ATC is to stimulate innovation in state-of-the-art and leading edge computer based technology. The ATC encourages the practical utilization of late-breaking computer technologies by firms of all variety.

  13. Marketing strategy - sales system for energy saving technology in the heat market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dommann, D

    1984-06-04

    Modern industrial society is undergoing a period of upheaval which is sparing no company. Today's greatest challenge to management is to get this transition under control. The process of change inevitably effects marketing policies and company employees. There are doubtlessly many viable marketing strategies available, but they are of little use if they cannot be applied in the market by qualified personnel. In this article the author gives suggestions for selling energy conserving technology in today's heat market using a systematic sales method.

  14. AGENCY COSTS DAN KEBIJAKAN DIVIDEN PADA EMERGING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darman Darman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to analyze agency costs and dividend policy onemerging market. The research population was 147 manufacture industry companies listedat the Indonesian Stock Exchange. Sample were retrieved bases on purposive sampling method,there were 25 companies, which were fulfilling the condition needed, starting from 2000until 2005, pooling data with analysis unit n = 6 x 25 = 150. Research used ordinary leastsquare. Research results showed that agency costs did not significantly influence dividendpolicy. Research conclusion was that agency costs were not important factors of dividendpolicy. Next analysis result showed that insider ownership, institutional ownership, dispertionof ownership, and free cash flow did not significantly influence dividen policy. Thecollateralizable asset significantly influenced dividend policy. This finding showed that therewas no agencial conflicts between manager (agent and stockholders (principals in emergingmarket (manufacture industry companies listed at the Indonesian Stock Exchange. However,there were agencial conflicts between stockholders and creditor (bondholders.

  15. From Non-market Support to Cost-Competitive Incentives. Wind Energy Commercialization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenqiang, Liu; Xiliang, Zhang; Shuhua, Gu; Gan, Lin

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of wind energy in China. By examining the economics of windfarm development, it compares the economics of wind technology with other conventional energy technologies and analyzes the role of alternative policy instruments. Meanwhile, it identifies the major constraints of wind technology development and the defects of current non-market support from the government. It shows that the development of wind power will be directly subject to rational policy change, incentive mechanisms and institutional framework building. Particular importance is paid to market incentives to reach the objectives of commercialization and industrialization of wind power. The paper recommends some cost-competitive incentive measure and policies to drive the wind power market. It concludes that promising market incentives to speed up the development of wind energy include: (i) establish market competition mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) adjust tax policies and government subsidies; (iii) stimulate investment incentive policies and regulations; and (iv) change governmental institutions and management modes. (author)

  16. The impact of modern technology on changing marketing actions in organisations. Marketing 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świeczak Witold

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theory that modern technologies are changing the way in which marketing is organised and that they will transform the prevailing composition of the market, while enterprises should come to terms with the act that having a market share will no longer suffice to maintain the market leader position. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the key challenges generated by technological innovations and to identify the opportunities for marketing in light of the new communication and information technologies so that quantifiable benefits can be gained. The research topic underpinning this paper is: 1 an analysis of social media use by the Millennial generation; 2 an evaluation of the attitudes of SMEs towards the incorporation of information technology into their current marketing practices; 3 determining the implementation possibilities of Marketing 4.0 by promoting a flexible approach to organising marketing actions. Following a review of the available literature on the subject, we will present a concept of the model of the flexible organisation of marketing actions. The D3I2C concept combines today’s marketing actions and digital transformation. It can be harnessed by academia and other organisations seeking guidance on the implementation of transformation in the organisation of marketing actions.

  17. A market-driven commercialization strategy for gasification-based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klara, J.M.; Tomer, B.J.; Stiegel, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In the wake of deregulation of power generation in the US, market-based competition is driving electricity generators to low-cost risk system. In such an environment, gasification-based technologies will not be competitive with low capital cost, efficient, and reliable natural gas-fired facilities for baseload power generation in the foreseeable future. The lack of a near-term market application poses a serious threat to the progress of gasification technology. With a reduction in direct federal funding of large-scale demonstration plants as the trend to reduce the size of government continues, an alternate approach to commercialize gasification-based technologies has been developed at DOE/FETC. This new strategy employs gasification in near-term markets where, due to its ability to coproduce a wide variety of commodity and premium products to meet market requirements, it is an attractive alternative. By obtaining operating experience in near-term coproduction applications, gasification system modules can be refined and improved leading to commercial guarantees and acceptance of gasification technology as a cost-effective technology for baseload power generation when this market begins to open domestically, sometime after 2005

  18. Advanced secondary batteries: Their applications, technological status, market and opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, M.

    1989-03-01

    Program planning for advanced battery energy storage technology is supported within the NEMO Program. Specifically this study had focused on the review of advanced battery applications; the development and demonstration status of leading battery technologies; and potential marketing opportunity. Advanced secondary (or rechargeable) batteries have been under development for the past two decades in the U.S., Japan, and parts of Europe for potential applications in electric utilities and for electric vehicles. In the electric utility applications, the primary aim of a battery energy storage plant is to facilitate peak power load leveling and/or dynamic operations to minimize the overall power generation cost. In the application for peak power load leveling, the battery stores the off-peak base load energy and is discharged during the period of peak power demand. This allows a more efficient use of the base load generation capacity and reduces the need for conventional oil-fired or gas-fire peak power generation equipment. Batteries can facilitate dynamic operations because of their basic characteristics as an electrochemical device capable of instantaneous response to the changing load. Dynamic operating benefits results in cost savings of the overall power plant operation. Battery-powered electric vehicles facilitate conservation of petroleum fuel in the transportation sector, but more importantly, they reduce air pollution in the congested inner cities.

  19. Biopower market impact: Applying advanced technologies to specific needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, C.E.; Bain, R.L.; Craig, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of biopower on the electric power capacity in the United States is projected to increase 5- to 10-fold by the year 2010. A number of competing technologies will likely be available that will provide a variety of advantages for the U.S. economy, from creating jobs in rural areas to increasing the demand for component manufacturing. Biopower also offers environmental advantages over conventional fossil fuel-fired power plants, particularly global climate change benefits. Feedstock type and availability, proximity to users or transmission stations, and markets for potential byproducts will influence which biomass conversion technology is selected and the scale of operation. Cofiring biomass in aging coal-fired power plants represents a near-term alternative for reducing sulfur and CO 2 emissions. Producing biocrude from pyrolysis processes may be suitable for isolated feedstock supplies with high transportation costs or to supply fuel to a single large family in a centralized area. Integrated gasification/combined cycle (IGCC) systems offer high efficiencies and low capital costs. More advanced systems, including fuel cells, will offer additional opportunities for increasing the impact of biopower on the nation's power production

  20. Radiation technology enabled market access to Indian mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    International trade in agricultural produce is subject to quarantine barriers imposed by importing countries to limit the entry of exotic pests and pathogens. Radiation technology provides an effective alternative to fumigants which are being gradually phased out. The technology has enabled market access to Indian mangoes in the US market after a gap of 18 years. The technology provides opportunity for export of other fruits and vegetables as well to countries like US, Australia and New Zealand. (author)

  1. Deviation Among Technology Reviews: An Informative Enrichment of Technology Evolution Theory for Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sood (Ashish); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding technological change is of critical importance to marketers, as it bears new markets, new brands, new customers, and new market leaders. This paper examines the deviation among reviews of a technology’s performance and its consequences for inferences on technology evolution

  2. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Technology Validation and Market Introduction 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for technology validation and market introduction, including ENERGY STAR, building energy codes, technology transfer application centers, commercial lighting initiative, EnergySmart Schools, EnergySmar

  3. Deviation Among Technology Reviews: An Informative Enrichment of Technology Evolution Theory for Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Ashish; Stremersch, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding technological change is of critical importance to marketers, as it bears new markets, new brands, new customers, and new market leaders. This paper examines the deviation among reviews of a technology’s performance and its consequences for inferences on technology evolution patterns. The basic premise of the current paper is that technology evolution literature, while highly relevant, is misguided in that it ignores potential deviation among technology reviews. Using...

  4. Educational Blogging: Integrating Technology into Marketing Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Melike Demirbag; Piskin, Burak; Bol, Beste

    2010-01-01

    The major challenge of marketing education is that the discipline continually reinvents itself. Marketing approaches and practices once new rapidly become old and many texts grow outdated in a short period of time, increasing the pressure on the instructors to provide the students with the latest knowledge. The changing environment of business…

  5. Systems analysis on the condition of market penetration for hydrogen technologies using linear programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.; Ihara, S.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be an important energy carrier, especially in the frame of global warming problem solution. The purpose of this study is to examine the condition of market penetration of hydrogen technologies in reducing CO 2 emissions. A multi-time-period linear programming model (MARKAL, Market Allocation)) is used to explore technology options and cost for meeting the energy demands while reducing CO 2 emissions from energy systems. The results show that hydrogen technologies become economical when CO 2 emissions are stringently constrained. 9 figs., 2 refs

  6. Marketing-mix and technology: evolution and proactive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberemok Svetlana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to survive the marketing subjects have to be able to adapt their business-processes to the changing environmental conditions. Those who will correctly predict the direction of the economic vector and will apply adequate and proactive tools and marketing technologies will achieve the greatest success. The article presents the results of the analysis of the leading specialists in the field of marketing and management ideas concerning the transformation of the existing tools and marketing technologies and appearing of the new ones.

  7. Least cost 100% renewable electricity scenarios in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliston, Ben; MacGill, Iain; Diesendorf, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Least cost options are presented for supplying the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) with 100% renewable electricity using wind, photovoltaics, concentrating solar thermal (CST) with storage, hydroelectricity and biofuelled gas turbines. We use a genetic algorithm and an existing simulation tool to identify the lowest cost (investment and operating) scenarios of renewable technologies and locations for NEM regional hourly demand and observed weather in 2010 using projected technology costs for 2030. These scenarios maintain the NEM reliability standard, limit hydroelectricity generation to available rainfall, and limit bioenergy consumption. The lowest cost scenarios are dominated by wind power, with smaller contributions from photovoltaics and dispatchable generation: CST, hydro and gas turbines. The annual cost of a simplified transmission network to balance supply and demand across NEM regions is a small proportion of the annual cost of the generating system. Annual costs are compared with a scenario where fossil fuelled power stations in the NEM today are replaced with modern fossil substitutes at projected 2030 costs, and a carbon price is paid on all emissions. At moderate carbon prices, which appear required to address climate change, 100% renewable electricity would be cheaper on an annual basis than the replacement scenario

  8. Modelling diffusion feedbacks between technology performance, cost and consumer behaviour for future energy-transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Martino; Brand, Christian; Banister, David

    2014-04-01

    Emerging technologies will have important impacts on sustainability objectives. Yet little is known about the explicit feedbacks between consumer behaviour and technological change, and the potential impact on mass market penetration. We use the UK as a case-study to explore the dynamic interactions between technology supply, performance, cost, and heterogeneous consumer behaviour and the resulting influence on long term market diffusion. Simulations of competing vehicle technologies indicate that petrol hybrids (HEVs) dominate the market over the long-term because they benefit from improved performance and are able to reach the steep part of the diffusion curve by 2025 while competing technologies remain in the early stages of growth and are easier to displace in the market. This is due to the cumulative build-up of stock and slow fleet turnover creating inertia in the technological system. Consequently, it will be difficult to displace incumbent technologies because of system inertia, cumulative growth in stock, long operational life, and consumer risk aversion to new unproven technologies. However, when accounting for both technological and behavioural change, simulations indicate that if investment can reach 30-40% per annum growth in supply, combined with steady technology improvements, and more sophisticated agent decision making such as accounting for full technology lifecycle cost and performance, full battery electric vehicles could displace the incumbent system by 2050.

  9. 2014-2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Aaron

    2015-11-18

    This presentation provides an overview of progress toward offshore wind cost reduction in Europe and implications for the U.S. market. The presentation covers an overview of offshore wind developments, economic and performance trends, empirical evidence of LCOE reduction, and challenges and opportunities in the U.S. market.

  10. Cost-saving production technologies and partial ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Barcena-Ruiz; Norma Olaizola

    2007-01-01

    This work analyzes the incentives to acquire cost-saving production technologies when cross-participation exists at ownership level. We show that cross-participation reduces the incentives to adopt the cost-saving production technology.

  11. Allocation of Transaction Cost to Market Participants Using an Analytical Method in Deregulated Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasankari, S.; Jeslin Drusila Nesamalar, J.; Charles Raja, S.; Venkatesh, P.

    2014-04-01

    Transmission cost allocation is one of the major challenges in transmission open access faced by the electric power sector. The purpose of this work is to provide an analytical method for allocating transmission transaction cost in deregulated market. This research work provides a usage based transaction cost allocation method based on line-flow impact factor (LIF) which relates the power flow in each line with respect to transacted power for the given transaction. This method provides the impact of line flows without running iterative power flow solution and is well suited for real time applications. The proposed method is compared with the Newton-Raphson (NR) method of cost allocation on sample six bus and practical Indian utility 69 bus systems by considering multilateral transaction.

  12. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  13. A Novel Marketing Strategy based on Information Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Marketing, electronic data interchange, internet data center, electric ordering system Abstract:Marketing is the process of performing market research, selling products and/or services to customers and promoting them via advertising to further enhance sales. It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments. Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications.

  14. Technology and trend management at the interface of technology push and market pull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Hofmann, Maximilian; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Technology push and market pull innovation strategies are playing an important role for the effective management of ideas, technologies, and trends. The coexistence of these two approaches led to many debates and the focus switched several times from putting more effort into technology push aspects...... to fostering market pull approaches in the last decades. Still, there is no in-depth exploration of the interface of technology push and market pull and only few conceptual models are dealing with the connection between technology push and market pull in particular. Therefore, this study puts an exploratory...... focus on the innovation management processes of a global outdoor manufacturer with a special emphasis on the interface between technology push and market pull. From the case findings and our literature we conceptualise a non-linear innovation model that systematically integrates market pull...

  15. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  16. Marketing and 21 st Century Technological Challenges: The Need ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing and 21 st Century Technological Challenges: The Need for Curricula Review. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Marketing had over the years served the dominant function of bridging the gap between production and consumption through a conceptualized, well structured programme of academic ...

  17. Buying Modular Systems in Technology-Intensive Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, R.T.; Stremersch, S.; Weiss, Allen M.; Dellaert, B.

    2003-01-01

    Technology-intensive markets consist of products that are often interdependent and operate together as a modular system. Although prior research has extensively addressed standardization and network externalities in such markets, it has not addressed the buying of modular systems. The authors

  18. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  19. Technology for Price Management in Industrial Differential Product Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Orlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies price behavior of oligopolies in industrial market where price competition is replaced by non-price competition. There is a developed technology for pricing management of the products of industrial enterprises, which, unlike the existing ones, takes into account the dynamics of changes in consumer preferences and changes in the pricing policy of the enterprise competitor and is based on usage of system dynamics models to simulate the financial and economic performance of enterprises and the fuzzy model for situational analysis and decisionmaking on changes in prices for the products. A pricing simulation model is offered. It is based on system-dynamic modeling method, which takes into account the complex cause-to-effect concatenation of factors on price such as product quality, cost, price competition, price elasticity of economic demand, competitors’ quantity of output and estimates the impact of changing factors of internal and external enterprise environment on the effectiveness of its activities.The simulation model allows us to conduct diverse experiments and analyze the impact of management decisions on the efficiency of the enterprise. Based on the fuzzy approach a price decision-making model is developed. It operates not only precise (numeric values, but also qualitative assessments of variables and provides an adequate use of logical relationships and the laws of the mutual influence of market and production and economic factors. Qualitative dependences, which establish the influence of external and internal factors on the price change, are identified as a result of the study of economic laws and legal conformity that are in the context of rapid economic change and market turbulence may not be strictly formalized and take the form of linguistic statements, which express the conditional relationship between the qualitative assessments of initial factors and changes in the relative price.

  20. SOCIAL FACTOR VERSUS UTILITARIAN TECHNOLOGY: SOCIAL MARKETING VERSUS UTILITARIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhilesh Dholakia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão e a convergência tecnológica de serviços vêm ampliando e modificando a utilização de produtos e serviços no setor telecomunicações, criando um novo mercado e ampliando seu público alvo pelas diversas características de utilização. O artigo desenvolvido apresenta uma pesquisa qualitativa, pelo estudo netnográfico (uma nova estrutura de avaliação qualitativa, onde discussões temáticas são retiradas de websites de confiança para serem organizados dado às palavras chaves utilizadas, passando posteriormente por um processo de codificação e interpretação sobre os fatores pesquisados baseado no consumo e comportamento do uso do iPhone, aparelho móvel celular com diversas integrações de produtos e convergências de serviços. Nesta pesquisa, foram avaliados os fatores utilitários e sociais / hedônicos, apresentando que o mercado do setor possui uma nova gama de serviços, atraindo novos grupos de usuários ao seu contexto, deixando assim cada vez mais diversificado o tipo de marketing utilizado no setor. O fator social (imagem pessoal é apontado como fator primário na decisão de escolha e uso do dispositivo, onde a apresentação no mercado e marketing para estes produtos estimulam cada vez mais a utilidade como um valor social. Identificando o dispositivo celular como um produto utilitário dado o tipo de serviço e utilização a que este se propõe, acredita-se que este mercado utilitário muda seu sentido quando certa quantidade de integrações são hedônicas amplificando a diversificação de uso, os valores sociais e hedônicos. Os autores definem este uso de um produto tecnológico com diversas integrações hedônicas como um comportamento utilitário social, onde a utilidade do produto passa a ser social (apresentação pessoal ou diversão individual.

  1. Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    (Leading abstract). The conference ''Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology'' took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  2. Electric energy storage systems in a market-based economy. Comparison of emerging and traditional technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazempour, S. Jalal; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Haghifam, M.R.; Yousefi, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike markets for storable commodities, electricity markets depend on the real-time balance of supply and demand. Although much of the present-day grid operate effectively without storage technologies, cost-effective ways of storing electrical energy can make the grid more efficient and reliable. This work addresses an economic comparison between emerging and traditional Electric Energy Storage (EES) technologies in a competitive electricity market. In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate Self-Scheduling (SS) approach must first be developed for each of them to determine their maximum potential of expected profit among multi-markets such as energy and ancillary service markets. Then, these technologies are economically analyzed using Internal Rate of Return (IRR) index. Finally, the amounts of needed financial supports are determined for choosing the emerging technologies when an investor would like to invest on EES technologies. Among available EES technologies, we consider NaS battery (Natrium Sulfur battery) and pumped-storage plants as emerging and traditional technologies, respectively. (author)

  3. Discovering magic of mobile technology in business: strategic marketing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bolat, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology penetrated all aspects of social and business existence. Studies around mobile technology mostly address the use and adoption process of mobile marketing or mobile commerce from a consumer perspective rather than from a business perspective. Another concern of majority of studies on the use of mobile technology is a focus on technical nature of mobile devices despite the fact that true magic of technology resides in its mobilisation and usage – the deployment of mobile techn...

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  5. Designing Cost-Competitive Technology Products through Cost Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, T.; Wouters, Marc

    2004-01-01

    SYNOPSIS: As manufacturing innovations spread throughout leading organizations, product development becomes a more important source of competitive advantage. Within product development, cost management receives increasing attention. To date, cost management in new product development focuses

  6. First international ash marketing and technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    A total of 42 papers were presented in sessions with the following headings: production and disposal of ash - an international review; environmental, health, safety, and legal aspects of ash handling; marketing of ash; development of new uses for ash; cementitious use of ash; ash in manufactured products; and geotechnical uses of ash.

  7. SOA and Web Technology for Building BSE Market Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu VINTE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual representation as a map of the stock market data can offer access, in a quick and rele-vant manner for human participants, to the overall state of the market at a given point in time. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of our academic research upon building the market map for Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE. We will focus on the algorithm for generat-ing the market map, the system architecture, and web technology employed for capturing the required data and making the map publicly available through the portal www.bursa.ase.ro. Mathematics Subject Classification: 68M14 (Distributed Systems

  8. Market analysis of APS/SCM applications and technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Prášil, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis aims to describe a current worldwide market of APS/SCM technologies and applications , i.e. advanced planned scheduling /supply chain management. In the first part, the APS/SCM is described in theory. The APS/SCM is defined and its benefits and impacts on company are discussed. The next part of the work is focused on the market with APS/SCM and the distribution of forces in the market. The demand and supply of this market segment is analyzed. In the last part, solutions of...

  9. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30-70 - Patent costs and technology transfer costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technology transfer costs. 970.3102-05-30-70 Section 970.3102-05-30-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-30-70 Patent costs and technology transfer costs. (a) For management and operating contracts that do not include the clause at 970.5227-3, Technology Transfer Mission, the...

  10. Predicting the market penetration of the next generation of coal-fired technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, M.K.; McCall, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses what role clean coal-fired technology will have in future generating capacity based on availability and prices of coal and natural gas, the nuclear option, environmental regulations, limitations of current air pollution control technologies, and economics. The topics of the paper include the need for new electric generating capacity, why coal must remain a source of energy for generating electricity, technology effectiveness and market penetration analysis methodologies, coal-fired technology economic and technical assumptions, cost estimates, and high and low growth scenarios

  11. Marketing strategy - sales system for energy saving technology in the heat market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dommann, D.

    1984-06-04

    Modern industrial society is undergoing a period of upheaval which is sparing no company. Today's greatest challenge to management is to get this transition under control. The process of change inevitably effects marketing policies and company employees. There are doubtlessly many viable marketing strategies available, but they are of little use if they cannot be applied in the market by qualified personnel. In this article the author gives suggestions for selling energy conserving technology in today's heat market using a systematic sales method.

  12. Technology transfer in a horizontally differentiated product-market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.; Balasubramanian, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers technology transfer in a Cournot-duopoly market where the firms produce horizontally differentiated products. It turns out that without the threat of imitation from the licensee, the licenser always transfers its best technology. However, the patent licensing contract consists

  13. Evolutionary technology adoption in an oligopoly market with forward-looking firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamantia, F.; Radi, D.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an evolutionary oligopoly game of technology adoption in a market with isoelastic demand and two possible (linear) production technologies. While one technology is characterized by lower marginal costs, the magnitude of fixed costs entails that a technology does not necessarily dominate the other. Firms are forward-looking as they assess the profitability of employing either technology according to the corresponding expected profits. The dynamics of the system is studied through a piecewise-smooth map, for which we present a local stability analysis of equilibria and show the occurrence of smooth and border collision bifurcations. Global analysis of the model is also presented to show the coexistence of attractors and its economic significance. This investigation reveals that firms can fail to learn to adopt the more efficient technology.

  14. Thesis: the ''evolutions of the long term European gas market - organisation and costs''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvry, V.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the main conclusions of the thesis defended by the author on January 30, 1998: recalls of some characteristics of the European gas market, the stakes of the gas market liberation, the regulatory aspects, the tariffs problem, the competition in the gas marketing segment, and different possible modeling of the gas market evolution (contracts, costs, competition). (J.S.)

  15. Marketing technologies for building competitiveness of companies export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Tsygankova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In context of post-industrial development of global economy, escalating competition in international goods markets, the definition of competitive export is proposed based upon both existing criteria – sustainability, effectiveness, adaptivity and fair competition, and on those described in the work – ecological performance, service maintenance, brand awareness and high technology. Given that, it is proved that with the aim of detailing the elements of competitive export, the latter should be typified depending upon the performer (export competitiveness of a company, country, region and subject (export competitiveness of goods, services, rights upon intellectual property objects, keeping in mind universal and specific features of export criteria proposed to be characterised through a range of indices on corporate and state levels. Groups of factors affecting export competitiveness building are systematized (institutional, financial and economic, marketing, foreign trade, scientific and technological, resource-related and social and ecological. Marketing technologies are typified on corporate level under the following criteria: novelty, object, creative component availability, internationalization stages, international marketing forms, digitalization level, management functions, customer-centreness scale, international marketing activity stages, financial security, specific features of intercorporate coordination. The practice of applying international marketing technologies by companies is investigated. In context of necessity to overcome crisis phenomena and increase competitive export volume, an assessment is made of integrating national manufacturing into regulated global chains of creating added value with the relevant rating, in particular, depending upon the available potential, minimality of technical and organizational changes, marketing relevancy, enabling to determine the manufacturing areas most prepared to cooperation, and

  16. Cheap versus expensive trades: Assessing the determinants of market impact costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.; van der Sluis, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses the determinants of market impact costs of institutional equity trades, using unique data from the world's second largest pension fund. We allow the impact of trade characteristics and market conditions on trading costs to depend on the level of trading costs itself and establish

  17. cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in aba south local

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the cost and returns of catfish marketing in Aba South ... significantly influenced net income should be considered in policy issues. ... entrepreneur/manager at a profit. .... marketers were well experienced in their business.

  18. Cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in Aba South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. ... The constraints militating against catfish marketing were also identified. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Costs And Returns Analysis Of Palm Wine Marketing In Uyo Area Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Costs And Returns Analysis Of Palm Wine Marketing In Uyo Area Of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. ... Abstract. This study examined the marketing of palm wine (Ukot) in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The socio ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  20. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Frattini, Federico; Massis, Alfredo De; Chiesa, Vittorio; Cassia, Lucio; Campopiano, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners' literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish a...

  1. Near Field Communication: Technology and Market Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Arcese

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the different hi-tech content domains, the telecommunications industry is one of the most relevant, in particular for the Italian economy. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC represents an example of innovative production and a technological introduction in the telecommunications context. It has a threefold function: card emulator, peer-to-peer communication and digital content access, and it could be pervasively integrated in many different domains, especially in the mobile payment one. The increasing attention on NFC technology from the academic community has improved an analysis on the changes and the development perspective about mobile payments. It has considered the work done by the GSMA (Global System for Mobile Communications Association and the NFC Forum in recent years. This study starts from an analysis of the scientific contributions to Near Field Communication and how the main researches on this topic were conceived. Our focus is on the diffusion rates, the adoption rates and the technology life cycle. After that, we analyze the technical-economical elements of NFC. Finally, this work presents the state of art of the improvements to this technology with a deeper focus on NFC technologies applied to the tourism industry. In this way, we have done a case analysis that shows some of the NFC existent applications linked to each stage of the tourism value chain.

  2. Caste Discrimination and Transaction Costs in the Labor Market: Evidence from Rural North India

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Ito

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an empirical attempt to quantify caste-based discrimination in thelabor market using household data taken from rural North India. In the regressionanalysis, transaction costs associated with entry into the labor market and reservationwages are estimated simultaneously along with market wages. The estimation resultsprovide evidence of the existence of transaction costs in the labor market anddiscrimination against backward classes with regard to access to regular employment. Inli...

  3. Secondary Products (Markets, Competition, and Technological Improvements)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1988-01-01

    Competitiveness, imports, exports, and technological improvements--these are issues facing secondary wood-product manufacturers. The major problems focus on increasing foreign imports and the inability of U.S. industries to repell the imports. How and where should we, as researchers, allocate our efforts to enhance the competitiveness of secondary forest industries in...

  4. Outdoor Lighting Networks: Market, Technologies and Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Wang, J.; Chen, R.; Jiang , D.; Yang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Providing the right amount of light where and when it is needed is an opportunity to transform today’s cities into smart and livable urban spaces. New technologies are being introduced, such are adaptivecontrols and outdoor lighting networks, which can deliver energy andcost savings through adaptive

  5. 2014–2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron Smith, Tyler Stehly, Walt Musial

    2015-09-30

    This report provides data and analysis to assess the status of the U.S. offshore wind industry through June 30, 2015. It builds on the foundation laid by the Navigant Consortium, which produced three market reports between 2012 and 2014. The report summarizes domestic and global market developments, technology trends, and economic data to help U.S. offshore wind industry stakeholders, including policymakers, regulators, developers, financiers, and supply chain participants, to identify barriers and opportunities.

  6. Solar thermal technology and market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabba, S.

    2000-01-01

    The solar heating industry in Europe has reached maturity after more than two decades of technical development. High quality systems are now available with reliability and durability of the products being assured. The European solar market, now the world's largest, has been growing since the late 1980s, despite the fact that conventional energy sources are usually available and inexpensive. This is a new phenomenon and marks the beginning of changes in energy supply and consumption that will be experienced throughout the world in this new century. Almost 10 million square metres of solar thermal collectors now exist in Europe saving more than 1.5 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions and about 500,000 tonnes of oil. The solar heating industry has created some 10,000 jobs. (author)

  7. Analysis of the Photovoltaic Market 2001. Cost of PV Components and Systems; Analisis del Mercado Fotovoltaico 2001. Coste de Componentes y Sistemas Fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balenzategui Manzanares, J. L.

    2002-07-01

    This document tries to study the development and evolution of the photovoltaic market at a national land international scale, and to analyse its current status at the end of 2001. The paper broaches the study from different points of view. At the first step, the actual great expansion of the global market is analysed by means of the data for international sales and shipments of photovoltaic modules which are completed with figures of the main countries and manufacturing companies involved in the market, the end-use applications, the installed power per country, the technologies used and the evolution of the cost of the modules. By using the same kind of parameters, the particular conditions of the Spanish market is then analysed, and the current national norms and plans for promotion and their short-term perspectives are reviewed and discussed. As a complementary/aspect , a simple cost analysis of the main components of a photovoltaic system in the Spanish market is carried out, together with the costs of complete installations. The average values for components and systems are obtained and are compared with those from preceding years. These data allow evaluating in practice how the global situations is reflected in the final cost of the photovoltaic devices for consumers. (Author) 56 refs.

  8. The external costs of electricity generation: a comparison of generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemiroglu, E [Economics for the Environment Consultancy, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    Electricity generation, like any economic activity, leads to costs that can be grouped in two categories: (a) private or internal and (b) external. Private costs are those paid by the buyers and sellers of energy within the market system. The external costs, however, are not included in the market price mechanism as they accrue to third parties other than the buyer and the seller. External costs include environmental external costs and non-environmental external costs. There are two conditions for the existence of external costs: (a) market failure, or the inability of markets to account for the cost of environmental impacts of energy generation and the market structure and (b) government or policy failure, or the policies that cause private generators to pay either higher or lower costs than they would if these interventions did not exist. A third reason can be added for the existence of non-environmental externalities: energy security, or certain costs faced by society as a result of over-reliance on imported energy. Section A introduces the concept of external costs and benefits. Section B looks at the environmental externalities of energy generation. The procedure is to develop the methodology to estimate what are known as externality adders, i.e. a monetary value for the environmental costs and benefits associated with selected generation technologies, expressed in pence per kilowatt-hour. The result is an `adder` because, in principle, the sum can be added to the private cost of generating electricity to obtain a measure of the `full` or `social` cost. The selected generation technologies are conventional coal, wind power, small-scale hydro, energy crops, incineration of municipal solid waste and energy recovery from landfill. The data reported are based on the application of the technologies in Scotland, but the methodology can be applied anywhere. Section C takes a brief look at the non-environmental externalities including the general theory and evidence

  9. The external costs of electricity generation: a comparison of generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemiroglu, E.

    1995-01-01

    Electricity generation, like any economic activity, leads to costs that can be grouped in two categories: (a) private or internal and (b) external. Private costs are those paid by the buyers and sellers of energy within the market system. The external costs, however, are not included in the market price mechanism as they accrue to third parties other than the buyer and the seller. External costs include environmental external costs and non-environmental external costs. There are two conditions for the existence of external costs: (a) market failure, or the inability of markets to account for the cost of environmental impacts of energy generation and the market structure and (b) government or policy failure, or the policies that cause private generators to pay either higher or lower costs than they would if these interventions did not exist. A third reason can be added for the existence of non-environmental externalities: energy security, or certain costs faced by society as a result of over-reliance on imported energy. Section A introduces the concept of external costs and benefits. Section B looks at the environmental externalities of energy generation. The procedure is to develop the methodology to estimate what are known as externality adders, i.e. a monetary value for the environmental costs and benefits associated with selected generation technologies, expressed in pence per kilowatt-hour. The result is an 'adder' because, in principle, the sum can be added to the private cost of generating electricity to obtain a measure of the 'full' or 'social' cost. The selected generation technologies are conventional coal, wind power, small-scale hydro, energy crops, incineration of municipal solid waste and energy recovery from landfill. The data reported are based on the application of the technologies in Scotland, but the methodology can be applied anywhere. Section C takes a brief look at the non-environmental externalities including the general theory and evidence

  10. Impact of marketing, information system, modularity, and low-cost solution on the implementation of CIM in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Hussain B.; McGaughey, Ronald; Gunasekaran, Angappa

    2000-10-01

    Globalization can have a dramatic impact on manufacturing sector due to the fact that the majority of establishments in this industry are small to medium manufacturing companies. The role of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the national economy has been emphasized all over the world, considering their contribution to the total manufacturing output and employment opportunities. The lack of marketing forces to regulate the operation of SMEs has been a fundamental cause of low efficiency for a long time. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is emerging as one of the most promising opportunities for shrinking the time delays in information transfer and reducing manufacturing costs. CIM is the architecture for integrating the engineering, marketing and manufacturing functions through information system technologies. SMEs in general have not made full use of new technologies although their investments in CIM technology tended to be wider in scale and scope. Most of the SMEs only focus on the short-term benefit, but overlook a long- term and fundamental development on applications of new technologies. With the help of suitable information systems, modularity and low cost solutions, SMEs can compete in the global market. Considering the importance of marketing, information system, modularity and low cost solutions in the implementation of CIM in SMEs, a model has been developed and studied with the help of an empirical study conducted with British SMEs to facilitate the adoption of CIM. Finally, a summary of findings and recommendations are presented.

  11. Medical Representatives' Intention to Use Information Technology in Pharmaceutical Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Eun-Seon; Chang, Hyejung

    2016-10-01

    Electronic detailing (e-detailing), the use of electronic devices to facilitate sales presentations to physicians, has been adopted and expanded in the pharmaceutical industry. To maximize the potential outcome of e-detailing, it is important to understand medical representatives (MRs)' behavior and attitude to e-detailing. This study investigates how information technology devices such as laptop computers and tablet PCs are utilized in pharmaceutical marketing, and it analyzes the factors influencing MRs' intention to use devices. This study has adopted and modified the theory of Roger's diffusion of innovation model and the technology acceptance model. To test the model empirically, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 221 MRs who were working in three multinational or eleven domestic pharmaceutical companies in Korea. Overall, 28% and 35% of MRs experienced using laptop computers and tablet PCs in pharmaceutical marketing, respectively. However, the rates were different across different groups of MRs, categorized by age, education level, position, and career. The results showed that MRs' intention to use information technology devices was significantly influenced by perceived usefulness in general. Perceived ease of use, organizational and individual innovativeness, and several MR characteristics were also found to have significant impacts. This study provides timely information about e-detailing devices to marketing managers and policy makers in the pharmaceutical industry for successful marketing strategy development by understanding the needs of MRs' intention to use information technology. Further in-depth study should be conducted to understand obstacles and limitations and to improve the strategies for better marketing tools.

  12. Technology Management within Product Lines in High Technology Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangee, Kumar R.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the nuances of product line management has been of great interest to business scholars and practitioners. This assumes greater significance for firms conducting business in technologically dynamic industries, where they face certain challenges regarding the management of multiple, overlapping technologies within their product lines.…

  13. Technology-driven online marketing performance measurement: lessons from affiliate marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Bowie, David; Paraskevas, Alexandros; Mariussen, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Although the measurement of offline and online marketing is extensively researched, the literature on online performance measurement still has a number of limitations such as slow theory advancement and predominance of technology- and practitioner-driven measurement approaches. By focusing on the widely employed but under-researched affiliate marketing channel, this study addresses these limitations and evaluates the effectiveness of practitioner-led online performance assessment. The paper o...

  14. Analysis of efficiency and marketing trends cost optimization in enterprises of baking branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukan О.М.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, at the bakery industry, little attention is paid to marketing activities. Limited financial resources and the lack of a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of marketing activities leads to a reduction in marketing budgets and a decrease in the profitability of the enterprise as a whole. Therefore, despite the complexity of conducting an analysis of the cost effectiveness of marketing activities, in market conditions it is necessary to control the level of costs and the formation of optimal marketing budgets. In the work it is determined that the main direction of marketing activity evaluation is the analysis of the cost effectiveness for its implementation. A scientific-methodical approach to the analysis of the effectiveness of marketing costs in the bakery industry is suggested. The analysis of the cost effectiveness of marketing activities on the basis of the assumption that marketing costs are a factor variable determining the patterns of changes in the values of the resulting indicators of financial and economic activities of the enterprise, such as net income from sales of products, gross profit, financial results from operating activities and net profit (losses. The main directions of optimization of marketing activities at bakery enterprises are given.

  15. Cost uncertainty for different levels of technology maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.F.; Franklin, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    It is difficult at best to apply a single methodology for estimating cost uncertainties related to technologies of differing maturity. While highly mature technologies may have significant performance and manufacturing cost data available, less well developed technologies may be defined in only conceptual terms. Regardless of the degree of technical maturity, often a cost estimate relating to application of the technology may be required to justify continued funding for development. Yet, a cost estimate without its associated uncertainty lacks the information required to assess the economic risk. For this reason, it is important for the developer to provide some type of uncertainty along with a cost estimate. This study demonstrates how different methodologies for estimating uncertainties can be applied to cost estimates for technologies of different maturities. For a less well developed technology an uncertainty analysis of the cost estimate can be based on a sensitivity analysis; whereas, an uncertainty analysis of the cost estimate for a well developed technology can be based on an error propagation technique from classical statistics. It was decided to demonstrate these uncertainty estimation techniques with (1) an investigation of the additional cost of remediation due to beyond baseline, nearly complete, waste heel retrieval from underground storage tanks (USTs) at Hanford; and (2) the cost related to the use of crystalline silico-titanate (CST) rather than the baseline CS100 ion exchange resin for cesium separation from UST waste at Hanford

  16. Large-scale offshore wind energy. Cost analysis and integration in the Dutch electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Noord, M.

    1999-02-01

    the total construction time is reduced to 7 years. Different financing options are regarded: a required internal rate of return of 10% or even 5% reduces the kWh cost price with 27% up to 50%. The effect of including the lifetimes of components in the price calculations is analysed, as well as the effect of considering the electrical grid as part of the public grid. With a maximum public effort the kWh cost price could be reduced to 8 ct. Integration of large-scale offshore wind energy in the distribution system can cause several technical and economic effects. These effects are caused by the variable wind supply, and can vary from insufficient grid connection capacity to the potential danger of a black out in the distribution system and large price fluctuations on the electricity market. To solve these problems, the application of backup power is introduced. Three types are regarded: an old coal plant, a new STEG plant, and hydroelectric power from Norway. Calculations show a moderate effect on the wind energy price due to backup power: this price increases with 6% up to 13%. In the backup power calculations an assumed market price is used, which makes it possible to predict a provisional value of an OWE green certificate. Finally, a comparison is made between the effect of possible technology improvements, public incentive effects and the effect of using backup power. This results in the conclusion that the feasibility of large-scale offshore wind energy depends more on public policy than on technology. 22 refs

  17. Switching benefits and costs in the Irish health insurance market: an analysis of consumer surveys

    OpenAIRE

    KEEGAN, CONOR; Teljeur, Conor; Turner, Brian; THomas, Steve

    2018-01-01

    PUBLISHED Relatively little analysis has taken place internationally on the consumer-reported benefits and costs to switching insurer in multi-payer health insurance markets. Ideally, consumers should be willing to switch out of consideration for price and quality and switching should be able to take place without incurring significant switching costs. Costs to switching come in many forms and understanding the nature of these costs is necessary if policy interventions to improve market co...

  18. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable renewable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility and sufficient capacity, and greater concern for overgeneration from renewable sources not well matched in time with electric loads. Hydrogen systems have the potential to support the grid in each of these areas. However, limited information is available about the economic competitiveness of hydrogen system configurations. This paper quantifies the value for hydrogen energy storage and demand response systems to participate in select California wholesale electricity markets using 2012 data. For hydrogen systems and conventional storage systems (e.g., pumped hydro, batteries), the yearly revenues from energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets are compared to the yearly cost to establish economic competitiveness. Hydrogen systems can present a positive value proposition for current markets. Three main findings include: (1) For hydrogen systems participating in California electricity markets, producing and selling hydrogen was found to be much more valuable than producing and storing hydrogen to later produce electricity; therefore systems should focus on producing and selling hydrogen and opportunistically providing ancillary services and arbitrage. (2) Tighter integration with electricity markets generates greater revenues (i.e., systems that participate in multiple markets receive the highest revenue). (3) More storage capacity, in excess of what is required to provide diurnal shifting, does not increase competitiveness in current California wholesale energy markets. As more variable renewable generation is installed, the importance of long duration storage may become apparent in the energy price or through additional markets, but currently, there is not a sufficiently large price differential between days to generate enough revenue to offset the cost of additional storage. Future work will involve

  19. Acceptance and marketability of the food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The food irradiation technology has been struggling for forty years for acceptance and utilization. The issue of consumer acceptance is addressed and judged not to be the critical factor in terms of priority and timing. The producing/processing marketing industries must first accept the technology for valid business or social reasons. If they become convinced that they cannot afford to pass up the technology, they will accept the process and offer irradiated products. These industries understand public acceptance and use professionals in market development and advertising to achieve consumption of their products. Consumer acceptance can best be developed by the food industry, while the research and development community, in concert with national and international agencies, can and should provide the industry with every assistance in reaching a consensus on the validity of food irradiation as an appropriate and useful technology

  20. 2008 Industrial Technologies Market Report, May 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energetics; DOE

    2009-07-01

    The industrial sector is a critical component of the U.S. economy, providing an array of consumer, transportation, and national defense-related goods we rely on every day. Unlike many other economic sectors, however, the industrial sector must compete globally for raw materials, production, and sales. Though our homes, stores, hospitals, and vehicles are located within our borders, elements of our goods-producing industries could potentially be moved offshore. Keeping U.S. industry competitive is essential to maintaining and growing the U.S. economy. This report begins with an overview of trends in industrial sector energy use. The next section of the report focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors. The report also highlights several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry. Finally, the report presents policies, incentives, and drivers that can influence the competitiveness of U.S. industrial firms.

  1. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  2. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  3. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies

  4. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs

  5. Lower cost air measurement technology – what is on the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is to the MARAMA 2014 annual monitoring meeting and is an invited talk to provide an overview on lower cost air measurement technology. This presentation is to the MARAMA 2014 annual monitoring meeting and is an invited talk to provide an overview on lower cost air measurement technology.

  6. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1987-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies

  7. Marketing Social Service Programs Using Political Campaign Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how human services agencies can use strategies and information technologies similar to those used in political campaigns to identify needs and attitudes for social services campaigns. Marketing for social services programs is described, and the use of computers for a political campaign and for a teenage pregnancy program is compared.…

  8. Risk, Incentives and Coordination Costs in Agro-Food Chains in the Presence of Futures Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on developing conceptual models to examine the role of futures markets for risk-shifting, incentives and coordination costs in the context of commodity marketing channels. The empirical analysis is conducted for different marketing channel structures (two-stage and three-stage

  9. Using the market at a cost: How the introduction of green certificates in Sweden lead to market inefficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundqvist, Thomas; Nilsson, Mats

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the transactions costs in the Swedish electricity retail market arising as a result of the implementation of a green certificate system. Since transaction costs cannot be measured directly, we analyze the margin between what the retailers pay for the certificates and what they charge the end-users for the certificate service. Our results show the necessity to put either market or regulatory pressure on the retailers. There are strong indications that the retailers have used the green certificate market to extract oligopoly rents. We propose that the competitive pressure on the retailers should be strengthened by, for example, shifting the quota obligation to the retailers and/or by including the pricing of the certificate-service in the end-user price of electricity. Furthermore, we restate the obvious fact that the number of policy instruments implemented in a particular market matters insofar that each and every policy will create transaction costs. (Author)

  10. Analisa Pengaruh Relationship Marketing Dan Switching Cost Terhadap Customer Loyalty Di Hotel “X” Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Yosswanta, Tigrent; Susanto, Michael Triadi; Ervanto, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui sejauh mana pengaruh Relationship Marketing dan Switching Cost terhadap Customer Loyalty di Hotel “X” Surabaya. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah kuantitatif kausal yang bertujuan menguji hubungan sebab akibat. Sedangkan teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah kuesioner. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan Relationship Marketing berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap Customer Loyalty. Sedangkan, Switching Cost b...

  11. THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THE LOW-COST MARKETS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaconu Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to be considered a low-cost market, the cost advantage of one or more factors of production offered by a state – generally, a developing one – must be exploited by the multinational firms. Therefore, we may speak about these markets only after 19

  12. Marketing techniques and cost calculations of radiation vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Chai Chee Keong; Najib Mohammed Zakey; Hafizuddin Maseri

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how RVNRL is promoted to the latex based industries locally and abroad. RVNRL promotion requires patience and very challenging. This is a fact since the product is new to the market. Cost is important in deciding its market and potential usage. The elements that contribute to the cost is described in this paper. (Author)

  13. The impact of power market structure on the pass-through of CO2 emissions trading costs to electricity prices. A theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.; Chen, Yihsu; Hobbs, B.F.

    2009-06-01

    This paper analyses the impact of power market structure on the pass-through rate (PTR) of CO2 emissions trading costs on electricity prices from a theoretical point of view, including graphical illustrations and mathematical proofs. Market structure refers in particular to the number of firms active in the market as well as to the shape of the power demand and supply curves. In addition, it analyses the impact of other power market related factors on the PTR of carbon costs to electricity prices, notably the impact of ET-induced changes in the merit order of power generation technologies or the impact of pursuing other market strategies besides maximising generators' profits, such as maximising market shares or sales revenues of power companies. It shows that each of these factors can have a significant impact on the rate of passing-through carbon costs to electricity prices

  14. The impact of power market structure on CO2 cost pass-through to electricity prices under quantity competition. A theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.; Chen, Y.; Hobbs, B.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the impact of power market structure on the pass-through rate (PTR) of CO2 emissions trading (ET) costs on electricity prices. Market structure refers in particular to the number of firms active in the market and the intensity of oligopolistic competition as measured by the conjectural variation, as well as to the functional form of the power demand and supply curves. In addition, we analyse briefly the impact of other power market-related factors on the PTR of carbon costs to electricity prices. These include in particular the impact of ET-induced changes in the merit order of power generation technologies and the impact of pursuing other market strategies besides maximising generator profit, such as maximising market shares or sales revenues of power companies. Each of these factors can have a significant impact on the rate of passing-through carbon costs to electricity prices.

  15. The impact of power market structure on the pass-through of CO2 emissions trading costs to electricity prices. A theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Chen, Yihsu [Merced School of Engineering, University of California, Merced, CA (United States); Hobbs, B.F. [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2009-06-15

    This paper analyses the impact of power market structure on the pass-through rate (PTR) of CO2 emissions trading costs on electricity prices from a theoretical point of view, including graphical illustrations and mathematical proofs. Market structure refers in particular to the number of firms active in the market as well as to the shape of the power demand and supply curves. In addition, it analyses the impact of other power market related factors on the PTR of carbon costs to electricity prices, notably the impact of ET-induced changes in the merit order of power generation technologies or the impact of pursuing other market strategies besides maximising generators' profits, such as maximising market shares or sales revenues of power companies. It shows that each of these factors can have a significant impact on the rate of passing-through carbon costs to electricity prices.

  16. Switching benefits and costs in the Irish health insurance market: an analysis of consumer surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Conor; Teljeur, Conor; Turner, Brian; Thomas, Steve

    2018-05-10

    Relatively little analysis has taken place internationally on the consumer-reported benefits and costs to switching insurer in multi-payer health insurance markets. Ideally, consumers should be willing to switch out of consideration for price and quality and switching should be able to take place without incurring significant switching costs. Costs to switching come in many forms and understanding the nature of these costs is necessary if policy interventions to improve market competition are to be successful. This study utilises data from consumer surveys of the Irish health insurance market collected between 2009 and 2013 (N [Formula: see text] 1703) to examine consumer-reported benefits and costs to switching insurer. Probit regression models are specified to examine the relationship between consumer characteristics and reported switching costs, and switching behaviour, respectively. Overall evidence suggests that switchers in the Irish market mainly did so out of consideration for price. Transaction cost was the most common switching cost identified, reported by just under 1 in 7 non-switchers. Psychological switching costs may also be impacting behaviour. Moreover, high-risk individuals were more likely to experience switching costs and this was reflected in actual switching behaviour. A recent information campaign launched by the market regulator may prove beneficial in reducing perceived transaction costs in the market, however, a more focused campaign aimed at high-risk consumers may be necessary to reduce inequalities. Policy-makers should also consider the impact insurer behaviour may have on decision-making.

  17. Mobil/Badger to market zeolite-based cumene technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotman, D.

    1993-01-01

    Badger (Cambridge, MA) and Mobil (Fairfax, VA) are ready to jointly license a new cumene technology that they say achieves higher yields and product purity than existing processes. The zeolite-based technology is scheduled to be introduced at next month's DeWitt Petrochemical Review in Houston. The Mobil/Badger technology aims to challenge the dominant position of UOP's (Des Plaines, IL) solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalyst process - which accounts for 80%-90% of the world's cumene production. In addition, Monsanto/Kellogg's aluminum chloride-based technology has gained significant momentum since its introduction in the 1980s. And late last year, ABB Lummus Crest (Bloomfield, NJ) also began marketing a zeolite-based cumene technology. While all the technologies make cumene via the alkylation of benzene with propylene, the Mobil/Badger process uses a zeolite-containing catalyst designed by Mobil to selectively catalyze the benzene/propylene reaction, avoiding unwanted propylene oligomerization. Because the olefin reactions are so fast, says Frank A. Demers, Badger's v.p./technology development and marketing, other zeolite technologies are forced to use complex reactor arrangements to stop the propylene-propylene reactions. However, he says, 'Mobil has designed a catalyst that wants to react benzene with propylene to make cumene.'

  18. Energy market and reserve market modeling in simultaneous and serial implementation methods with the aim of reducing electricity costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Ghoraba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In competitive electricity markets, power needed for the network’s reserve is purchased from the ancillary service market. In this market, producing units and buyers alike announce their offers. As will be seen, energy market and reserve market implementation is possible with simultaneous method and serial method by choosing each of the methods based on the type of market and other conditions. In this paper, the energy market and the active power reserve market are simulated in two formations as serial and simultaneous for a uniform pricing system. In each method, limitations of transferring power over the lines, based on available transfer capacity (ATC, is considered alongside the other constraints in the energy market and the active power reserve market. Then, during network overload, economic dispatch is accomplished between winner units in the reserve market by using a linear optimization problem, and needed power is provided from these units at a minimal cost. Finally, our proposed methods are implemented on an IEEE 39-bus test system and results are analyzed.

  19. Management of busbar costs and spending tradeoffs for the transition to competitive markets in electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corio, M.R.; Boyd, G. [Applied Economic Research Co., Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Competition is changing the fundamental basis for doing business in the electricity generation market. As the market moves toward competitive market conditions, electricity will be viewed increasingly as a commodity--not only supplied to customers within a utility`s service area, but brokered and marketed outside its area as well. With movement toward retail wheeling being considered in California, Michigan, and New York, it may soon become a reality as well. This means that a utility can no longer feel secure as the monopoly supplier of electricity within its own franchise area. To remain the main supplier in its current service area and compete for customers in other service areas, utilities will need to understand and examine all the components of ``busbar costs`` at its generating units. As competition drives the market to marginal costs, generating units with costs exceeding the market clearing price for electricity may soon have a limited role in the generation market. As the industry evolves, competition in the marketplace will force uneconomic plants to reduce costs or go out of business. This paper discusses results of studies addressing the evaluation of cost effectiveness, benchmarking of cost-efficiency, and development of marginal cost curves for busbar costs based on the development and aggregation of the three key measures which determine the cost and level of output (generation): (1) reliability; (2) heat rate; and (3) planned outage factor.

  20. Management of busbar costs and spending tradeoffs for the transition to competitive markets in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corio, M.R.; Boyd, G.

    1995-01-01

    Competition is changing the fundamental basis for doing business in the electricity generation market. As the market moves toward competitive market conditions, electricity will be viewed increasingly as a commodity--not only supplied to customers within a utility's service area, but brokered and marketed outside its area as well. With movement toward retail wheeling being considered in California, Michigan, and New York, it may soon become a reality as well. This means that a utility can no longer feel secure as the monopoly supplier of electricity within its own franchise area. To remain the main supplier in its current service area and compete for customers in other service areas, utilities will need to understand and examine all the components of ''busbar costs'' at its generating units. As competition drives the market to marginal costs, generating units with costs exceeding the market clearing price for electricity may soon have a limited role in the generation market. As the industry evolves, competition in the marketplace will force uneconomic plants to reduce costs or go out of business. This paper discusses results of studies addressing the evaluation of cost effectiveness, benchmarking of cost-efficiency, and development of marginal cost curves for busbar costs based on the development and aggregation of the three key measures which determine the cost and level of output (generation): (1) reliability; (2) heat rate; and (3) planned outage factor

  1. Technology and labour market in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Burciu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the digital economy represents the main engine of innovation, competitiveness and growth potential at European level, being a real opportunity for entrepreneurs and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. The faster a company embraces technology, the more successful it can become. Technology dominates the present times more and more, preparing new and challenging horizons, leading the world to a new dimension, improving our lives in all the possible ways. Technology holds a real challenge for the labour market which, on the one hand, should adapt to the new pace imposed by computers and smart devices. On the other hand, there is an increasing and stringent demand of highly qualified personnel to get further the current “tech revolution”. In this context, it is interesting to study how the EU Member States have developed their infrastructure, education and which is the status of labour market in IT&C, using a cluster analysis applied on 2014 data obtained from Eurostat.

  2. Solar Thermal Technologies Dynamics and Strategies for Market Creation in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali Shah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to sketch Sindh's RE (Renewable Energy based scenario, it is vital to trace the dynamics of simplest RETs (Renewable Energy Technologies such as STTs (Solar Thermal Technologies. STTs are simple to operate, easy to maintain and requires low cost of fabrication. Due to these advantages, STTs possess scope for mass market creation in Sindh as can provide alternate energy solutions to meet daily fuel requirements of heating and cooking etc. The paper identifies that the low awareness creates a negative perception about the price and efficiency of these technologies in masses, which can be removed once the awareness increases. This paper consists of survey findings, which traces the trends for STTs utilization in Sindh by testing various hypotheses to identify the suitable tactics required for their market creation. Finally the key policy recommendations are provided at the end.

  3. Transaction costs and marketing decision: a case study of smallholder tomato farmers in Makurdi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Osebeyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of transaction costs and other institutional and socio-economic factors on smallholder tomato farmers marketing decision in Makurdi Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria. The study used a survey data from 165 randomly selected farm households. Using a Logit model, the study found that the probability of market participation is significantly affected by transaction cost variables (namely access to market information, market distance and transport cost. Education and dependency ratio also had significant effect on decision to sell in the market. While access to market information and education significantly increase the probability of tomato farmers’ participation in the market, transport cost, market distance and dependency ratio significantly decrease the probability. The study stresses the need for government intervention by means of providing the necessary infrastructures that will help to reduce transaction costs and thus increase farmers’ participation in the market. Also policies to provide adequate and timely information about the market situations as well as polices to enhance access to education are advocated.

  4. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, David; Hamer, John

    2017-06-30

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the innovative high-performance deposition technology required to deliver dramatic reductions in the cost of manufacturing OLED lighting in production equipment. The current high manufacturing cost of OLED lighting is the most urgent barrier to its market acceptance. The new deposition technology delivers solutions to the two largest parts of the manufacturing cost problem – the expense per area of good product for organic materials and for the capital cost and depreciation of the equipment. Organic materials cost is the largest expense item in the bill of materials and is predicted to remain so through 2020. The high-performance deposition technology developed in this project, also known as the next generation source (NGS), increases material usage efficiency from 25% found in current Gen2 deposition technology to 60%. This improvement alone results in a reduction of approximately $25/m2 of good product in organic materials costs, independent of production volumes. Additionally, this innovative deposition technology reduces the total depreciation cost from the estimated value of approximately $780/m2 of good product for state-of-the-art G2 lines (at capacity, 5-year straight line depreciation) to $170/m2 of good product from the OLEDWorks production line.

  5. Forecasting market impact costs and identifying expensive trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, L.; Hoevenaars, Roy P.M.M.; van der Sluis, Pieter Jelle

    Often, a relatively small group of trades causes the major part of the trading costs on an investment portfolio. Consequently, reducing the trading costs of comparatively few expensive trades would already result in substantial savings on total trading costs. Since trading costs depend to some

  6. Likely market-penetrations of renewable-energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probert, S.D.; Mackay, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The learning-curve concept is considered to be an important tool for predicting the future costs of renewable-energy technology systems. This paper sets out the underlying rationale for learning-curve theory and the potential for its application to renewable technologies, such as photovoltaic-module and wind-power generator technologies. An indication of the data requirements for carrying out learning-curve projections is given together with an assessment of the requirements necessary for an analysis to be undertaken of the application of learning curves to other renewable-energy technologies. The paper includes a cost comparison and a figure-of-merit criterion applicable to photovoltaic-module and wind-power-turbine technologies. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  8. Data, Technology & Social Media: Their Invasive Role in Contemporary Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prakash Vel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketers have paid a huge price for their inability to decipher which trend has come to stay and which one is a fad. Such a challenge has jeopardized the survival of blue-chip brands, as marketers anticipated in vain the end of existing red ocean strategies. Essentially, the traditional marketing strategies associated with the success of well-known brands in the past are losing their relevance in the current context. There is the need to identify and understand modern trends and their implications to marketing strategy development. In light of this, this study examines fourteen (14 fundamental ‘game changing’ trends that are poised to impact the traditional practices and perceptions associated with marketing at the operational and strategic levels. The study presents the trends under three categories, the invasive role of technology, data, and social media, alongside looking at their impact on contemporary marketing. Each trend has been identified and analyzed based on in-depth interviews with industry experts as the primary source of data. Relevant data has also been given to present a holistic perspective on each trend. 

  9. 2014-2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report provides data and analysis to assess the status of the U.S. offshore wind industry through June 30, 2015. It builds on the foundation laid by the Navigant Consortium, which produced three market reports between 2012 and 2014. The report summarizes domestic and global market developments, technology trends, and economic data to help U.S. offshore wind industry stakeholders, including policymakers, regulators, developers, financiers, and supply chain participants, to identify barriers and opportunities. Title page contains link to associated data tables posted at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/64283_data_tables.xlsx.

  10. INFLUENCE OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR: A CASE OF THE HIGH-TECHNOLOGY MARKET OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Zhurylo; Olga Prygara

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to research consumer behaviour types and to develop marketing strategies of communicative influence on the consumer in the high-technology goods market. Methodology. Marketing research in Ukrainian market of high-tech goods is conducted to define motivations of the consumers and the peculiarities of their market behaviour. The profiles of target customers are developed and the typology of consumer behaviour is formed, based on the reasons of purchasing of high-tech...

  11. Efficient Allocation of Reserve Costs in RTO Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

    2006-10-15

    RTOs' make-whole payments for generation commitment are needed partly because of flaws in the design of reserve markets. Markets might be made more efficient with greater locational differentiation in reserve prices and incorporation of make-whole payments into reserve prices. (author)

  12. Balancing the fit and logistics costs of market segmentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkensteen, M.; Sierksma, G.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Segments are typically formed to serve distinct groups of consumers with differentiated marketing mixes, that better fit their specific needs and wants. However, buyers in a segment are not necessarily geographically closely located. Serving a geographically dispersed segment with one marketing mix

  13. Effects of technological change in regional labor markets in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Elizabeth Rodríguez Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological change has meant that organizations require workers with higher qualifications, development, implementation and adaptation of technology looking to stay at the forefront in international competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes that have occurred in regional labor markets in Mexico on occupational and wage and identify to what extent these changes may have resulted from technological change and if this behavior is spatially homogeneous. The information source is made up of microdata from the National Survey of Urban Employment (Employment Survey 2000–2004. The empirical analysis –considering workers officiating at high and low technological intensity and applying a Mincerian income function with different classification criteria: education, sex, age groups and regions– during the period indicate that there have been significant changes in the Mexican labor market as a result of biased technological change, as it provides statistical evidence indicating the existence of a higher wage premium for subordinates in the technological area, and different effects at the regional level, encouraging more to the border.

  14. From national air carriers to low-cost companies: Effects of successful marketing strategy implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Huge changes in marketing strategies and, more generally - in business philosophies are not so often. During the last 20 years global and/or national companies have already defined their general approaches of marketing instruments implementation. Therefore, when a contemporary company changes something in its marketing approach, it usually only refers to 'subtle adjustment' of the already determined strategy. Another reason for changes in a particular segment of marketing is a crisis of some kind that forces firms to implement innovations, especially regarding the elements such as costs - price - or service quality. A global enterprise segment consisting of low tariff airline companies is here identified as the one that has dramatically changed its marketing approach within the last 20 years, which continually resulted in its improved market position and business results. Changes in marketing strategies of low-cost companies have truly been revolutionary and are completely the consequence of recognizing the real needs of clients who use services of air transport. The success of low-cost airline companies is forcing the traditional, classic, air carriers to adapt their marketing instruments to this new model of business management. This paper also identifies one very significant assumption of the low-cost carriers phenomenon and their marketing approach - the liberalization of the global air transport market.

  15. Identifying influential factors on integrated marketing planning using information technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hamdi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to identify important factors influencing integrated marketing planning using information technology. The proposed study designs a questionnaire for measuring integrated marketing planning, which consists of three categories of structural factors, behavioral factors and background factors. There are 40 questions associated with the proposed study in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for structural factors, behavioral factors and background factors as 0.89, 0.86 and 0.83, respectively. Using some statistical test, the study has confirmed the effects of three factors on integrated marketing. In addition, the implementation of Freedman test has revealed that structural factors were the most important factor followed by background factors and behavioral factors.

  16. Bioremediation in Germany: Markets, technologies, and leading companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, T.; Glass, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation has become an internationally accepted remediation tool. Commercial bioremediation activities take place in many European countries, but Germany and the Netherlands are the clear European leaders, with both having a long history of public and private sector activity in biological technologies. The German bioremediation market has been driven by government regulation, in particular the waste laws that apply to contaminated soils. The 1994 German market for bioremediation is estimated at $70 to 100 million (US $). There are at least 150 companies active in bioremediation in Germany, most of which practice bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, either in situ or ex situ. Because of their predominance in the current European market, German firms are well positioned to expand into those nations in the European Union (EU) currently lacking an environmental business infrastructure

  17. Estimating costs in the economic evaluation of medical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, B R; Elixhauser, A

    1990-01-01

    The complexities and nuances of evaluating the costs associated with providing medical technologies are often underestimated by analysts engaged in economic evaluations. This article describes the theoretical underpinnings of cost estimation, emphasizing the importance of accounting for opportunity costs and marginal costs. The various types of costs that should be considered in an analysis are described; a listing of specific cost elements may provide a helpful guide to analysis. The process of identifying and estimating costs is detailed, and practical recommendations for handling the challenges of cost estimation are provided. The roles of sensitivity analysis and discounting are characterized, as are determinants of the types of costs to include in an analysis. Finally, common problems facing the analyst are enumerated with suggestions for managing these problems.

  18. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liess, Martin [Rhein Main University of Applied Sciences, Rüsselsheim, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2014-03-24

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

  19. Creating markets for efficient technologies by establishment of strategic niche markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wene, Clas-Otto; Nilsson, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Creation of markets for more efficient technologies requires careful targeting of actors that have an interest in driving the process further. Such will both reduce the resources needed and make use of the actors self-interest for development and thus uphold the learning process. This is done by identification of strategic niche markets (SNM) where those suppliers and users, that have the biggest interest and benefit of the change will act. Both the identification and the development is a dynamic process that is better designed and operated by use of a triangulation method introduced by the IEA in its recent work

  20. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S.A.; Grunsrud, G.P. [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs.

  1. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S A; Grunsrud, G P [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1999-12-31

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs.

  2. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefton, S.A.; Grunsrud, G.P.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs

  3. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  4. PROMOTING GOAT MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN SEMI-ARID ZIMBABWE FOR FOOD SECURITY AND INCOME GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André van Rooyen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing demand for livestock products including goat meat offers small-scale farmers in semi-arid Zimbabwe opportunities for increased market participation. However, existing goat markets are largely informal, with poorly developed inputs and services. Transaction costs are high, resulting in low prices. In addition, access to market information is limited and negates informed decision-making. Also, farmers are unable to realize the full potential of their herds because of insufficient investment in management practices. Farmers use the cash from goat sales for food, education and human health. Yet, they lose up to 26% of their goat herds to mortality, attributed to dry season feed shortages, animal health and inappropriate housing. While farmers do react to market development, it is not in a consistent enough manner to realize the returns from their investments. More needs to be done to improve production, reduce transaction costs and increase market access to ensure growth within the sector. We hypothesize that improved market access will provide farmers with the incentive to invest in management technologies to enhance offtake and increase the quality of their goats. Innovation Platforms, forums that facilitate communication between farmers, market players, input and service suppliers around local production and marketing systems, were established in two locations in Zimbabwe. The stakeholders meet to identify challenges and opportunities with regards to both production and marketing and collectively identify and evaluate improvements in management technologies and markets. This new approach places technology and market development in a local context based on common interests and strong partnerships between the private and public sectors. It builds local capacity, aligns production with market demands, and improves the overall efficiency of the system, thereby increasing food security and income growth and supporting the development of

  5. China's bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Kahn, Matthew E

    2013-04-02

    Megacity growth in the developing world is fueled by a desire to access their large local labor markets. Growing megacities suffer from high levels of traffic congestion and pollution, which degrade local quality of life. Transportation technology that allows individuals to access the megacity without living within its boundaries offers potentially large social benefits, because individuals can enjoy the benefits of urban agglomeration while not paying megacity real estate rents and suffering from the city's social costs. This paper presents evidence supporting the claim that China's bullet trains are playing this role. The bullet train is regarded as one of the most significant technological breakthroughs in passenger transportation developed in the second half of the 20th century. Starting in 2007, China has introduced several new bullet trains that connect megacities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou with nearby cities. Through facilitating market integration, bullet trains will stimulate the development of second- and third-tier cities. By offering households and firms a larger menu of location alternatives, bullet trains help to protect the quality of life of the growing urban population. We document that this transport innovation is associated with rising real estate prices in the nearby secondary cities.

  6. The impact of Pulpwood Rail Freight Costs on the Minnesota-Wisconsin Pulpwood Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Lothner

    1976-01-01

    Transportation costs affect the marketing and utilization of pulpwood. Their impact on the procurement and utilization of pulpwood often prove difficult to measure because deriving an average annual measure of the transportation cost is difficult. This note, by means of a simple index method for measuring regional interstate pulpwood rail freight costs, illustrates...

  7. Theory and Evidence of Switching Costs in the Market for College Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation develops and estimates a model of switching costs in the market for college textbooks. First, in a theoretical setting, this paper characterizes the professor's adoption decision, which includes a trade-off between time and course quality. The professor faces a time cost when he switches textbooks. This switching cost leads…

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in Iranian pharmaceutical market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Davari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The FOLFOX regimen + cetuximab provides lower costs per additional life years gained (more cost-effective compared with its alternatives in the treatment of patients with unresectable metastatic CRC. However, according to the WHO indicator, none of the cetuximab regimens could be considered as cost effective for the Iranian health care market.

  9. Clean Coal Technology: Region 4 Market Description, South Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Region 4 Market Description Summary provides information that can be used in developing an understanding of the potential markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs) in the South Atlantic Region. This region (which geographically is Federal Region 4) consists of the following eight states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. In order to understand the potential market. A description is provided of the region's energy use, power generation capacity, and potential growth. Highlights of state government activities that could have a bearing on commercial deployment of CCTs are also presented. The potential markets characterized in this summary center on electric power generation by investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and involve planned new capacity additions and actions taken by utilities to comply with Phases I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Regulations, policies, utility business strategies, and organizational changes that could impact the role of CCTs as a utility option are identified and discussed. The information used to develop the Region 4 Market Description is based mainly on an extensive review of plans and annual reports of 29 investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal coal-using electric utilities and public information on strategies and actions for complying with the CAAA of 1990

  10. The importance of vehicle costs, fuel prices, and fuel efficiency to HEV market success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Patterson, P. D.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-12-08

    Toyota's introduction of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) named ''Prius'' in Japan and Honda's proposed introduction of an HEV in the United States have generated considerable interest in the long-term viability of such fuel-efficient vehicles. A performance and cost projection model developed entirely at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is used here to estimate costs. ANL staff developed fuel economy estimates by extending conventional vehicle (CV) modeling done primarily under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Together, these estimates are employed to analyze dollar costs vs. benefits of two of many possible HEV technologies. We project incremental costs and fuel savings for a Prius-type low-performance hybrid (14.3 seconds zero to 60 mph acceleration, 260 time) and a higher-performance ''mild'' hybrid vehicle, or MHV (11 seconds 260 time). Each HEV is compared to a U.S. Toyota Corolla with automatic transmission (11 seconds 260 time). The base incremental retail price range, projected a decade hence, is $3,200-$3,750, before considering battery replacement cost. Historical data are analyzed to evaluate the effect of fuel price on consumer preferences for vehicle fuel economy, performance, and size. The relationship between fuel price, the level of change in fuel price, and consumer attitude toward higher fuel efficiency is also evaluated. A recent survey on the value of higher fuel efficiency is presented and U.S. commercial viability of the hybrids is evaluated using discount rates of 2090 and 870. Our analysis, with our current HEV cost estimates and current fuel savings estimates, implies that the U.S. market for such HEVS would be quite limited.

  11. The cost of radiotherapy in a decade of technology evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Werf, Evelyn; Verstraete, Jan; Lievens, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify changes in radiotherapy costs occurring in a decade of medical–technological evolution. Materials and methods: The activity-based costing (ABC) model of University Hospitals Leuven (UHL) radiotherapy (RT) department was adapted to current RT standards. It allocated actual resource costs to the treatments based on the departmental work-flow and patient mix in 2009. A benchmark with the former model analyzed the cost increases related to changes in RT infrastructure and practice over 10 years. Results: A considerable increase in total RT costs was observed, resulting from higher capital investments (96%) and personnel cost (103%), the latter dominating the total picture. Treatment delivery remains the most costly activity, boosted by the cost of improved quality assurance (QA), 23% of total product costs, coming along with more advanced RT techniques. Hence, cost increases at the product level are most obvious for complex treatments, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), representing cost increases ranging between 38% and 88% compared to conformal approaches. Conclusions: The ABC model provides insight into the financial consequences of evolving technology and practice. Such data are a mandatory first step in our strive to prove RT cost-effectiveness and thus support optimal reimbursement and provision of radiotherapy departments.

  12. [Cost of assisted reproduction technology in a public hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Espigares, José Luis; Martínez Navarro, Luis; Castilla Alcalá, José Antonio; Hernández Torres, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Most studies on the costs of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) identify the total cost of the procedure with the direct cost, without considering important items such as overhead or intermediate costs. The objective of this study was to determine the cost per ART procedure in a public hospital in 2003 and to compare the results with those in the same hospital in 1998. Data from the Human Reproduction Unit of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital in Granada (Spain) from 1998 and 2003 were analyzed. Since the total costs of the unit were known, the cost of the distinct ART procedures performed in the hospital was calculated by means of a methodology for cost distribution. Between 1998 and 2003, the activity and costs of the Human Reproduction Unit analyzed evolved differently. Analysis of activity showed that some techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection, were consolidated while others, such as stimulation without assisted reproduction or intracervical insemination were abandoned. In all procedures, unit costs per cycle and per delivery decreased in the period analyzed. Important changes took place in the structure of costs of ART in the Human Reproduction Unit of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital between 1998 and 2003. Some techniques were discontinued, while others gained importance. Technological advances and structural innovations, together with a "learning effect," modified the structure of ART-related costs.

  13. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frattini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners’ literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish an effective commercialization from an unsuccessful one, especially in high-technology environments. This paper discusses the results of a research project that aimed to understand the ingredients for success in the commercialization of a technological innovation. The first stage of the research consisted of a comparative historical analysis of 18 innovations, which were commercialized in consumer high-tech markets in the last 30 years. The analysis advocates that an effective commercialization comprises three sub-strategies: Early adoption strategy, Adoption network configuration strategy and Mainstream adoption strategy, with each one characterized by a coherent set of commercialization dimensions. The relative importance of each sub-strategy in determining the innovation commercial success depends on the type of innovation that is commercialized, be it radical or incremental and discontinuous or continuous.

  14. Decommissioning of Swedish nuclear power reactors. Technology and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The main topics discussed are planning, technology and costs of decommissioning nuclear power reactors. Oskarshamn-3 (BWR) and Ringhals-4 (PWR) have been used as reference reactors. 29 refs, figs, tabs

  15. CENET: Cost Efficiency in a New Era with new Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, Jan E.; Lund, Bjoernar; Bos, Christian F.M.; Stokka, Sigmund

    1997-12-31

    This report relates to the CENET (Cost Efficiency in a New Era with new Technology) project the oil and gas in Europe. Key objectives of the CENET project are to determine the role of RTD (Research and Technology Development) in European oil and gas industry towards improved value and cost reduction with a particular focus on the means of developing offshore European marginal fields commercially, to identify RTD areas with the largest potential for improved value and cost reduction and technological developments and advances which are likely to increase European competitiveness internationally, and to provide guidance to European governments when deciding RTD priorities. A new era with new technology concerns increased oil and gas potential during the next century, a new era with clean, safe and cost efficient energy production, a new era with a new business structure, and globalization of the industry. 44 tabs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. After Anik-E: The markets and the technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kenneth E.

    This paper deals with the likely developments in the market for telecommunications in the broadest sense. The impact of the potential universal personal telephone/data sets using integrated services digital network (ISDN) based technology is considered, as well as the impacts of high definition television, a mobile satellite service market encompassing land, marine, and aeronautical segments, and the potential impact of fiber optic links. Included in this portion of the paper are projections of regulatory change required to meet these new applications and technological trends. A Canadian communications satellite market hypothesis for a 12-15 year period commencing at the beginning of the 21st Century, (the approximate lifetime of an Anik F series of satellites) is then presented. Finally, the paper deals with the satellite technologies required to meet these needs. These include various types of on-board processing together with programmable beam shaping and beam switching. The likelihood of the replacements to Anik E following the trend of those satellites and using a hybrid configuration is considered, as is the possibility of a three or four frequency band satellite, utilizing the L, C, Ku, and Ka bands, possibly with cross band switchable strapping.

  17. Distinctive marketing and information technology capabilities and strategic types : A cross-national investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Nason, Robert W.; Di Benedetto, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine the relationship between strategic type and development of distinctive marketing, market-linking, technology, and information technology (IT) capabilities to implement innovation strategy. They hypothesize that prospectors must build technical and IT capabilities, whereas

  18. Shaping sustainable energy technologies and use - a system, policy or market responsibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    The article present the problem of delegating energy technology innovation to new market condition after liberalisation.......The article present the problem of delegating energy technology innovation to new market condition after liberalisation....

  19. The potential impact of externalities considerations on the market for biomass power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swezey, B.G.; Porter, K.L.; Feher, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Of all the renewable energy sources used for power generation, biomass energy has experienced the greatest growth over the last decade. Spurred by requirements established in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), as well as various tax incentives, biomass-based power generation now provides more than 50 billion kWh of electric energy from 10,000 MW of installed capacity. The overwhelming majority of this capacity, primarily wood-based, has been developed by the nonutility sector. However, the biomass industry is currently facing more difficult market conditions due to a reduction in federal incentives and changes in the generation market, such as lower utility avoided costs, slower demand growth, and greater competition among both generators and fuel sources. States are increasingly contemplating the inclusion of market externalities costs and benefits associated with different generation options in electricity resource planning and procurement decisions. Market externalities, as they relate to generation resources and technologies, represent impacts that are not wholly reflected in the market price of electricity derived from these sources. These impacts, which can be either positive or negative, can encompass environmental, economic and other social factors, but state considerations have focused predominantly on environmental externalities costs, especially air emissions. The explicit quantification of externalities could measurably affect the competitive standing of various energy resources and technologies in future generation resource acquisitions. This paper summarizes work undertaken to assess the status the externalities considerations in state and utility electricity resource planning processes and to determine how externalities considerations might help or hinder future development of biomass power plants. (author)

  20. Industry-Cost-Curve Approach for Modeling the Environmental Impact of Introducing New Technologies in Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätelhön, Arne; von der Assen, Niklas; Suh, Sangwon; Jung, Johannes; Bardow, André

    2015-07-07

    The environmental costs and benefits of introducing a new technology depend not only on the technology itself, but also on the responses of the market where substitution or displacement of competing technologies may occur. An internationally accepted method taking both technological and market-mediated effects into account, however, is still lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). For the introduction of a new technology, we here present a new approach for modeling the environmental impacts within the framework of LCA. Our approach is motivated by consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) and aims to contribute to the discussion on how to operationalize consequential thinking in LCA practice. In our approach, we focus on new technologies producing homogeneous products such as chemicals or raw materials. We employ the industry cost-curve (ICC) for modeling market-mediated effects. Thereby, we can determine substitution effects at a level of granularity sufficient to distinguish between competing technologies. In our approach, a new technology alters the ICC potentially replacing the highest-cost producer(s). The technologies that remain competitive after the new technology's introduction determine the new environmental impact profile of the product. We apply our approach in a case study on a new technology for chlor-alkali electrolysis to be introduced in Germany.

  1. Research on application model of blockchain technology in distributed electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S.; Zeng, B.; Huang, Y. Z.

    2017-11-01

    In the context of current energy Internet, the emergence of a large number of energy productive consumers will create a new business model. In the decentralized electricity market, the cost of traditional centralized solution construction, management and maintenance is too high, and it is difficult to support the collection, transmission, reception, storage and analysis of massive data. To provide a solution to this phenomenon, we apply the blockchain technology to this distributed electricity market to achieve peer to peer transactions in the power systems. The blockchain technology which is very popular nowadays will be used in power system to establish a credible direct transaction between devices. At first, this article analyzes the future direction of the development of power systems, studies the characteristics of decentralized power systems and summarizes the main issues in the development process. Then, we analyze the basic characteristics of blockchain and put forward a new transaction framework in consideration of problems existing in current energy market. The transaction framework is based on the blockchain technology in the distributed electricity market and includes the pricing method, the power transaction system architecture, various modules of the trading system and the details of the whole transaction system runtime. This framework provides a viable solution for increasingly complex energy transactions.

  2. Pipeline cost reduction through effective project management and applied technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A. [TransCanada Pipeline Ltd., Alberta (Canada); Babuk, T. [Empress International Inc., Westwood, NJ (United States); Mohitpour, M. [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Murray, M.A. [National Energy Board of Canada (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Pipelines are regarded by many as passive structures with the technology involved in their construction and operation being viewed as relatively simple and stable. If such is the case how can there be much room for cost improvement? In reality, there have been many technological and regulatory innovations required within the pipeline industry to meet the challenges posed by ever increasing consumer demand for hydrocarbons, the effects of aging infrastructure and a need to control operating and maintenance expenditures. The importance of technology management, as a subset of overall project management, is a key element of life cycle cost control. Assurance of public safety and the integrity of the system are other key elements in ensuring a successful pipeline project. The essentials of best practise project management from an owner/ operator's perspective are set out in the paper. Particular attention is paid to the appropriate introduction of new technology, strategic procurement practice and material selection, indicating that capital cost savings of up to 15% are achievable without harming life cycle cost. The value of partnering leading to technical innovation, cost savings and improved profitability for all the participants is described. Partnering also helps avoid duplicated effort through the use of common tools for design, planning schedule tracking and reporting. Investing in appropriate technology development has been a major source of cost reduction in recent years and the impact of a number of these recently introduced technologies in the areas of materials, construction processes and operation and maintenance are discussed in the paper. (author)

  3. Using the market at a cost: How the introduction of green certificates in Sweden led to market inefficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mats; Sundqvist, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the transactions costs in the Swedish electricity retail market arising as a result of the implementation of a green certificate system. Since transaction costs cannot be measured directly, we analyze the margin between what the retailers pay for the certificates and what they charge the end-users for the certificate service. Our results highlight some costs of implementing new policy and the necessity of a careful regulatory design. We propose that the price transparency should be strengthened by, for example, shifting the quota obligation to the retailers and/or by including the pricing of the certificate-service in the end-user price of electricity. Furthermore, we restate the obvious fact that the number of policy instruments implemented in a particular market matters insofar that each and every policy will create transaction costs. (author)

  4. Electrical markets, energy security and technology diversification: nuclear as cover against gas and carbon price risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, F.A.; Newbery, D.M.; Nuttall, W.J.; Neufville, R. de

    2005-01-01

    Recent tension in the oil and gas markets has brought back the concept of energy offer diversification. Electrical production technology diversification in a country helps improve the security of supply and make up for the negative effects of hydrocarbons price variations. The portfolio and real options theories help to quantify the optimum diversification level for a country or a power company. The cover value of a nuclear investment for a power company facing cost uncertainties (price of gas and of carbon dioxide emission permit) and proceeds (price of electricity) is assessed. A strong link between the prices of gas and electricity reduces incentives to private producers to diversify, disputing the capacity of a liberalized electrical market to achieve optimum technology diversity from a domestic point of view. (authors)

  5. The Co-evolution of Technologies and Markets - On Market Transparency in Nanotech Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    and the environment associated with nanotechnology. There are some early indications that firms are developing new nano strategies where nano activities increasingly are treated discretely. The paper investigates these trends using the flat glass industry as case based on bibliometric studies and other company......This paper suggests to look into the market formation processes related to emerging technologies, using nanotechnology as a case. This is in contrast to the usual focus on knowledge generation aspects when analyzing technology evolution in evolutionary economic research. Although nanotechnology...... communication as well as in depth case analyses. The paper concludes tentatively that while the market for nano products seems to approach commercialization it is becoming still less transparent. This may have important implications for the further commercialization of nanotechnology, which are discussed...

  6. Photo acoustic imaging: technology, systems and market trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, Marc; d'Humières, Benoît; Cochard, Jacques

    2017-03-01

    Although the Photo Acoustic effect was observed by Graham Bell in 1880, the first applications (gas analysis) occurred in 1970's using the required energetic light pulses from lasers. During mid 1990's medical imaging research begun to use Photo Acoustic effect and in vivo images were obtained in mid-2000. Since 2009, the number of patent related to Photo Acoustic Imaging (PAI) has dramatically increased. PAI machines for pre-clinical and small animal imaging have been being used in a routine way for several years. Based on its very interesting features (non-ionizing radiation, noninvasive, high depth resolution ratio, scalability, moderate price) and because it is able to deliver not only anatomical, but functional and molecular information, PAI is a very promising clinical imaging modality. It penetrates deeper into tissue than OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) and provides a higher resolution than ultrasounds. The PAI is one of the most growing imaging modality and some innovative clinical systems are planned to be on market in 2017. Our study analyzes the different approaches such as photoacoustic computed tomography, 3D photoacoustic microscopy, multispectral photoacoustic tomography and endoscopy with the recent and tremendous technological progress over the past decade: advances in image reconstruction algorithms, laser technology, ultrasound detectors and miniaturization. We analyze which medical domains and applications are the most concerned and explain what should be the forthcoming medical system in the near future. We segment the market in four parts: Components and R&D, pre-clinical, analytics, clinical. We analyzed what should be, quantitatively and qualitatively, the PAI medical markets in each segment and its main trends. We point out the market accessibility (patents, regulations, clinical evaluations, clinical acceptance, funding). In conclusion, we explain the main market drivers and challenges to overcome and give a road map for medical

  7. HMO market penetration and costs of employer-sponsored health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L C; Cantor, J C; Long, S H; Marquis, M S

    2000-01-01

    Using two employer surveys, we evaluate the role of increased health maintenance organization (HMO) market share in containing costs of employer-sponsored coverage. Total costs for employer health plans are about 10 percent lower in markets in which HMOs' market share is above 45 percent than they are in markets with HMO enrollments of below 25 percent. This is the result of lower premiums for HMOs than for non-HMO plans, as well as the competitive effect of HMOs that leads to lower non-HMO premiums for employers that continue to offer these benefits. Slower growth in premiums in areas with high HMO enrollments suggests that expanded HMO market share may also lower the long-run growth in costs.

  8. Marketing Strategic Choices for Wind Technology in China : case: Chinese Domestic Wind Technology Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yi

    2011-01-01

    There are almost 80 wind turbine manufacturers in China. However, the supportive government policies are the fact behind the rapid growth of those case companies. In reality, there are less than 10 Chinese wind turbine manufacturers with actual production capacity. Most of them lack core technology and depend in many ways on state patronage. The current situation is worrisome. Therefore, the correct comprehension of wind power market conditions and the consequent adoption of right marketing s...

  9. Marketing strategic choice for wind power technology in China : case: Chinese domestic wind technology companies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yi

    2011-01-01

    There are almost 80 wind turbine manufacturers in China. However, the supportive government policies are the fact behind the rapid growth of those case companies. In reality, there are less than 10 Chinese wind turbine manufacturers with actual production capacity. Most of them lack core technology and depend in many ways on state patronage. The current situation is worrisome. Therefore, the correct comprehension of wind power market conditions and the consequent adoption of right marketing s...

  10. Information Technology-Based Innovation in International Marketing Education: An Exploration of Two Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, Rudolf R.; Haghirian, Parissa; Yu, Shasha

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) innovations have and continue to have a significant impact on international marketing practice and customer interactions. With the marketing environment becoming increasingly dependent on technology, marketing teaching in higher education faces a challenging task of effectively leveraging technology in diverse learning…

  11. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  12. Transaction costs in milk marketing: a comparison between Canada and Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royer, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study measures the magnitude of transaction costs incurred by milk producers in their contractual relations with dairy processors in two different coordination mechanisms: centralized contracting through a marketing board and decentralized bilateral contracting. Interviews and surveys were

  13. COST ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE COMPUTERIZED SYSTEMS FOR THE MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION OF MULTIPLE FOOD COMMODITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Epperson, James E.; Helmreich, D.P.; Moon, Leonard C.; Carley, Dale H.; Huang, Chung L.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors make cost comparisons among alternative computerized marketing systems. The systems described could encompass any number of commodities and stages of distribution involving cash and/or futures transactions.

  14. Cost analysis, cost recovery, marketing and fee-based services a guide for the health sciences librarian

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This outstanding volume won the 1986 Ida and George Eliot Prize--awarded by the Medical Library Association for the work judged most effective in furthering medical librarianship. Library professionals review the controversy behind fee-for-service programs and provide a rationale for incorporating them into contemporary library philosophies of service. Some fee-based services are necessary for survival in a society that treats information as a marketable commodity; this comprehensive book gives practical advice on cost analysis, cost recovery and marketing of reference services, and presents i

  15. An Assessment of the Impact of Information Technology on Marketing and Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hosseini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Technology on Marketing and Advertising by using structural equations modeling. To do this, 200 marketing and information technology (IT experts participated in the study. They answered questionnaires regarding IT, marketing mix and advertising. For data analysis, structural equations modeling using SMARTPLS were used. The results showed that the effect of IT on marketing mix and advertising was positive and significant. The effect of marketing mix on advertising was positive and significant. The indirect effect of IT on advertising via marketing mix was therefore positive and significant. Totally, the results emphasized the effect of technology on marketing mix and advertising.

  16. OPPORTUNITIES TO MARKET U.S. TECHNOLOGIES THROUGHOUT THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D

    1999-01-01

    This project involves an open-ended, continuous process of information gathering with respect to Latin American and Caribbean environmental issues. This entails the development of contacts with individuals and institutions conducting research and work on issues of sustainability and environmental technology in the Americas. As part of this phase, a database containing information on firms, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), governmental institutions, and other participants in Latin America's environmental sector was developed and is continually being updated. In addition, FIU-HCET's efforts were geared toward determining environmental technological needs in different parts of the region and identifying the most significant and lucrative markets. The project requires that FIU-HCET continually cement those contacts already established, continue updating the database to be made available to external users, and identify U.S. companies with the necessary expertise to participate in the Latin American and Caribbean markets. To aid in this endeavor, comprehensive, country-specific studies of the market for environmental goods and services are drafted and published by FIU-HCET. FIU-HCET, with sponsorship from OST, will make new, innovative, and more cost-effective technologies available for transfer throughout the Western Hemisphere. Environmental/energy technology development projects encompass the range of problems experienced by LACN. This includes mixed waste characterization and treatment, soils and groundwater remediation. In addition, future activities will include the issues of energy, climate change, and fossil fuels.

  17. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürkan, Gül; Langestraat, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of certificates. We analyze these two different renewable obligation policies in a mathematical representation of an electricity market with random availabilities of renewable generation outputs and random electricity demand. We also present another, alternative, banding policy. We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three obligation policies. We carry out a simulation study via sampling. A key finding is that the UK banding policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met, hence potentially resulting in more pollution. Our alternative provides a way to make sure that the target is met while supporting less established technologies, but it comes with a significantly higher consumer price. Furthermore, as an undesirable side effect, we observe that a cost reduction in a technology with a high banding (namely offshore wind) leads to more CO 2 emissions under the UK banding policy and to higher consumer prices under the alternative banding policy. - Highlights: • We model and analyze three renewable obligation policies in a mathematical framework. • We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three policies. • We carry out a simulation study via sampling. • The UK policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met. • Cost reductions can lead to more pollution or higher prices under banding policies

  18. The market for environmental efficient technology; Markedet for miljoeeffektiv teknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engbo Rasmussen, Peter; Madsen, Peter G. [COWI (Denmark)

    2006-08-31

    As part of governmental preparation of a Danish action plan for environmental efficient technology, COWI has made an analysis of the global market for technological solutions to important environmental challenges. The analysis focuses on technology for solving environmental challenges connected with climate changes, exploitation of water resources as well as pollution that poses a threat to health including air pollution and chemicals. The Analysis is based on reports made in Denmark, significant export countries, the European Union and different international organizations e.g. OECD and the International Energy Agency. This report presents results of the analysis. Due to the fact that the analysis was completed late in 2005 it is solely based on data and reports known at the time. (BA)

  19. Cost effectiveness and efficiency in assistive technology service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C G

    1993-01-01

    In order to develop and maintain a viable service delivery program, the realities of cost effectiveness and cost efficiency in providing assistive technology must be addressed. Cost effectiveness relates to value of the outcome compared to the expenditures. Cost efficiency analyzes how a provider uses available resources to supply goods and services. This paper describes how basic business principles of benefit/cost analysis can be used to determine cost effectiveness. In addition, basic accounting principles are used to illustrate methods of evaluating a program's cost efficiency. Service providers are encouraged to measure their own program's effectiveness and efficiency (and potential viability) in light of current trends. This paper is meant to serve as a catalyst for continued dialogue on this topic.

  20. Making Markets for Low-Cost Schooling: The Devices and Investments behind Bridge International Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riep, Curtis B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the market-making devices behind Bridge International Academies: a for-profit education company aiming to school millions of nursery and primary aged-students living on less than $2 per day. A wide variety of devices are utilised by Bridge International Academies to construct mass markets for low-cost schooling, including GPS…

  1. 26 CFR 1.471-4 - Inventories at cost or market, whichever is lower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lower. 1.471-4 Section 1.471-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-4 Inventories at cost or market, whichever is lower. (a) In general—(1) Market definition. Under ordinary circumstances and for normal goods...

  2. Interim monitoring of cost dynamics for publicly supported energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin, 1225 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]|[Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The combination of substantial public funding of nascent energy technologies and recent increases in the costs of those that have been most heavily supported has raised questions about whether policy makers should sustain, alter, enhance, or terminate such programs. This paper uses experience curves for photovoltaics (PV) and wind to (1) estimate ranges of costs for these public programs and (2) introduce new ways of evaluating recent cost dynamics. For both technology cases, the estimated costs of the subsidies required to reach targets are sensitive to the choice of time period on which cost projections are based. The variation in the discounted social cost of subsidies exceeds an order of magnitude. Vigilance is required to avoid the very expensive outcomes contained within these distributions of social costs. Two measures of the significance of recent deviations are introduced. Both indicate that wind costs are within the expected range of prior forecasts but that PV costs are not. The magnitude of the public funds involved in these programs heightens the need for better analytical tools with which to monitor and evaluate cost dynamics. (author)

  3. Assessing the Doha Round: Market Access, Transactions Costs and Aid for Trade Facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard; Nicita, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the predicted trade impacts of a successful Doha Round with the trade effects of actions aimed at reducing domestic trade costs for traders in developing countries and the world as a whole. We show that a relatively small reduction in trade costs will generate trade impacts that are larger than what is likely to emerge even from a relatively ambitious Doha Round market access outcome. This illustrates the importance of complementing market access commitments with measures ...

  4. Identifying the best market to sell: A cost function formulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1TCS Innovation Labs, Tata Consultancy Services, Yantra Park, Thane (West), ... the ineffective growth of commodity futures market in India. ... They show, theoretically, using the concepts of strong correlation, that the farmer's opti- ... over-hedging, full-hedging, or under-hedging strategies, depending on whether the two ...

  5. 2016 Offshore Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Spitsen, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report is intended to provide stakeholders with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide.

  6. Association of Hospital Market Concentration With Costs of Complex Hepatopancreaticobiliary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Marcelo; Chen, Sophia Y; Dillhoff, Mary; Schmidt, Carl; Canner, Joseph K; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2017-09-20

    Trade-offs involved with market competition, overall costs to payers and consumers, and quality of care have not been well defined. Less competition within any given market may enable provider-driven increases in charges. To examine the association between regional hospital market concentration and hospital charges for hepatopancreaticobiliary surgical procedures. This study included all patients undergoing hepatic or pancreatic resection in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2011. Hospital market concentration was assessed using a variable-radius Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) in the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Hospital Market Structure files. Data were analyzed from November 19, 2016, through March 2, 2017. Hepatic or pancreatic resection. Multivariable mixed-effects log-linear models were constructed to determine the association between HHI and total costs and charges for hepatic or pancreatic resection. Weighted totals of 38 711 patients undergoing pancreatic resection (50.8% men and 49.2% women; median age, 65 years [interquartile range, 55-73 years]) and 52 284 patients undergoing hepatic resection (46.8% men and 53.2% women; median age, 59 years [interquartile range, 49-69 years]) were identified. Higher institutional volume was associated with lower cost of pancreatic resection (-5.4%; 95% CI, -10.0% to -0.5%; P = .03) and higher cost of hepatic resection (13.4%; 95% CI, 8.2% to 18.8%; P markets relative to moderately concentrated markets, although overall charges were 8.3% lower (95% CI, -14.0% to -2.3%; P = .008) in highly concentrated markets. For hepatic resections, hospitals in highly concentrated markets had 8.4% lower costs (95% CI, -13.0% to -3.6%; P = .001) compared with those in unconcentrated markets and charges that were 13.4% lower (95% CI, -19.3% to -7.1%; P markets and 10.5% lower (95% CI, -16.2% to -4.4%; P = .001) compared with unconcentrated markets. Higher market concentration was

  7. Technology learning in a global - local perspective: - the interplay between technology diffusion, niche markets and experience curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    for energy services to the Markal model and to carry forward the influence of spillover into the MSG6 macro economic model. With the soft-link it is possible to investigate feedback on demand for energy service from the non-energy sectors of the economy at a sector level. Finally, a method to evaluate technology specific national policies to the realization of a global scenario is suggested.The assessment shows that the national technology composition and Co2 emissions exhibit sensitivity to spillover and thus the global scenario. Moreover, spillover may generate substantial benefit for a small open economy like Norway. Without the spillover from international deployment a domestic technology relies only on endogenous national learning. However, with high but realistic learning rates offshore floating wind power may become cost-efficient even if initially deployed only in Norwegian niche markets. The influence of spillover on the non-energy sectors, though modest, is most pronounced on the industrial chemicals production. Implementing a technology specific policy, e.g., a feed-in tariff in response to an Eu directive in addition to spillover and the general Co2 incentive, increases early deployment. The elucidation of the application of spillover on the national energy system analysis in a globalized energy technology market and the combination of spillover and a national soft-linked hybrid model, exchanging information at a sector level, and adds new elements to national policy analysis. Moreover, the exertion to coordinate national efforts with a portfolio of globally desirable low-carbon technologies provides a new indicator for the national contribution to a shift in the global technology path.(au)

  8. Determinants of Transactions Costs in the Brazilian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zoratto Sanvicente

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lesmond (2005 method for estimating transactions costs, based on a limited-dependent variable model, is used in order to test for the significance of plausible explanations for cross sectional cost differences. Variables such as liquidity, volatility, firm size, quality of corporate governance and participation in ADR programs are considered, in addition to the possible impact of the 2008 crisis. Daily data for 1999-2009 are used, covering at least 250 securities each year. The average total transaction cost declined from 2.95% in 1999 to 1.22% in 2009. Stock volatility and quality of corporate governance appear to be the most relevant factors associated with the measure of transactions cost.

  9. Marginal cost and congestion in the Italian electricity market: An indirect estimation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigerna, Simona; Andrea Bollino, Carlo; Polinori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we construct an indirect measure of the supply marginal cost function for the main generators from the observed bid data in the Italian electricity market in the period 2004–2007. We compute the residual demand function for each generator, taking explicitly into account the issue of transmission line congestion. This procedure allows recovering correct zonal Lerner index and the implied measure of the marginal cost function. We find evidence of a stable U-shaped marginal cost function for three main Italian generators, but a flat function for ENEL, the former national monopolist. The policy relevance of our approach lies in the possibility to offer some empirical knowledge of the marginal cost function of each generator to the regulator to design appropriate policy measures geared to the promotion of competitive market conditions. We propose a new market surveillance mechanism, which is based on the principle of sanctioning excessive deviations from the estimated measure of the marginal cost function presented in this work. -- Highlights: •We construct an indirect measure of the supply marginal cost function. •We compute the residual demand function taking into account transmission line congestion. •We find a general evidence of a stable U-shaped marginal cost function for Italian generators. •We find flat marginal cost function for the former national monopolist. •We use excessive deviations from estimated marginal cost function as a new market surveillance mechanism

  10. Pebble bed modular reactors versus other generation technologies. Costs and challenges for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily; Parks, Brian; Schneider, Erich; Sekar, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    South Africa is Africa's major economy, with plans to double its electricity generation capacity by 2026. South Africa has spent almost two decades developing a nuclear reactor known as a Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), which could provide substantial benefits to the electricity grid but was recently mothballed due to high costs. This work estimates the lifecycle financial costs of South African PBMRs, then compares these costs to those of five other generation options: coal, nuclear as pressurized water reactors (PWRs), wind, and solar as photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP). Each technology is evaluated with low, base case, and high assumptions for capital costs, construction time, and interest rates. Decommissioning costs, project lifetime, capacity factors, and sensitivity to carbon price are also considered. PBMR could be cost competitive with coal under certain low cost conditions, even without a carbon price. However, international lending practices and other factors suggest that a high capital cost, high interest rate nuclear plant is likely to be competing with a low capital cost, low interest rate coal plant in a market where cost recovery is challenging. PBMR could potentially become more competitive if low rate international loans were available to nuclear projects or became unavailable to coal projects. (author)

  11. Development of Manufacturing Technology to Accelerate Cost Reduction of Low Concentration and

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrick, Adam [The Solaria Corporation, Fremont, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The purpose of this project was to accelerate deployment of cost-effective US-based manufacturing of Solaria’s unique c-Si module technology. This effort successfully resulted in the development of US-based manufacturing technology to support two highly-differentiated, market leading product platforms. The project was initially predicated on developing Solaria’s low-concentration PV (LCPV) module technology which at the time of the award was uniquely positioned to exceed the SunShot price goal of $0.50/Wp for standard c-Si modules. The Solaria LCPV module is a 2.5x concentrator that leverages proven, high-reliability PV module materials and low silicon cell usage into a technology package that already had the lowest direct material cost and leading Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). With over 25 MW commercially deployed globally, the Solaria module was well positioned to continue to lead in PV module cost reduction. Throughout the term of the contract, market conditions changed dramatically and so to did Solaria’s product offerings to support this. However, the manufacturing technology developed for the LCPV module was successfully leveraged and optimized to support two new and different product platforms. BIPV “PowerVision” and High-efficiency “PowerXT” modules. The primary barrier to enabling high-volume PV module manufacturing in the US is the high manual labor component in certain unique aspects of our manufacturing process. The funding was used to develop unique manufacturing automation which makes the manual labor components of these key processes more efficient and increase throughput. At the core of Solaria’s product offerings are its unique and proprietary techniques for dicing and re-arranging solar cells into modules with highly-differentiated characteristics that address key gaps in the c-Si market. It is these techniques that were successfully evolved and deployed into US-based manufacturing site with SunShot funding. Today, Solaria

  12. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments: Cost Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.

  13. Innovation in technology for the least product price and cost - a new minimum cost relation for reductions during technological learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    By analogy with the concepts of human learning, we show and introduce a new method to obtain least product cost and price that includes the effect of innovation and technological learning in manufacturing and production. This key result is a new paradigm instead of the usual economic 'power law' formulation. The new analysis is based on extensive analysis of many technological systems, and is directly related to the presence of learning as experience is accumulated. The results agree with the observed data. By using a consistent basis, the method replaces previous empirical 'power law' descriptions of the technological learning curve with a new 'marginal minimum cost equation' (MCE). (author)

  14. Healthcare technology: physician collaboration in reducing the surgical cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steven A; Obremskey, William T; Bozic, Kevin J

    2013-06-01

    The increasing cost of providing health care is a national concern. Healthcare spending related to providing hospital care is one of the primary drivers of healthcare spending in the United States. Adoption of advanced medical technologies accounts for the largest percentage of growth in healthcare spending in the United States when compared with other developed countries. Within the specialty of orthopaedic surgery, a variety of implants can result in similar outcomes for patients in several areas of clinical care. However, surgeons often do not know the cost of implants used in a specific procedure or how the use of an implant or technology affects the overall cost of the episode of care. The purposes of this study were (1) to describe physician-led processes for introduction of new surgical products and technologies; and (2) to inform physicians of potential cost savings of physician-led product contract negotiations and approval of new technology. We performed a detailed review of the steps taken by two centers that have implemented surgeon-led programs to demonstrate responsibility in technology acquisition and product procurement decision-making. Each program has developed a physician peer review process in technology and new product acquisition that has resulted in a substantial reduction in spending for the respective hospitals in regard to surgical implants. Implant costs have decreased between 3% and 38% using different negotiating strategies. At the same time, new product requests by physicians have been approved in greater than 90% of instances. Hospitals need physicians to be engaged and informed in discussions concerning current and new technology and products. Surgeons can provide leadership for these efforts to reduce the cost of high-quality care.

  15. Cost-estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Various advanced power plant concepts are currently under development. These include several advanced light water reactors as well as the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor and the advanced liquid-metal reactor. One measure-of the attractiveness of a new concept is cost. Invariably, the cost of a new type of power plant will be compared with other alternative forms of electric generation. In order to make reasonable comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules and assumptions must be applied when developing cost estimates. This paper describes the cost-estimate guidelines developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to be used in developing cost estimates for the advanced nuclear reactors and how these guidelines relate to the DOE cost verification process

  16. Marginal CO2 cost pass-through under imperfect competition in power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavs'ka, Liliya; Gulli, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    In line with economic theory, carbon ETS determines a rise in marginal cost equal to the carbon opportunity cost regardless of whether carbon allowances are allocated free of charge or not. This paper aims at evaluating to what extent firms in imperfectly competitive markets will pass-through into electricity prices the increase in cost. By using the load duration curve approach and the dominant firm with competitive fringe model, we show that the result is ambiguous. The increase in price can be either lower or higher than the marginal CO 2 cost, depending on several structural factors: the degree of market concentration, the available capacity (whether there is excess capacity or not), the power plant mix in the market and the power demand level (peak vs. off-peak hours). The empirical analysis of the Italian context (an emblematic case of imperfectly competitive market), which can be split into four sub-markets with different structural features, provides a contribution supporting the model predictions. Market power, therefore, would determine a significant deviation from the 'full pass-through' rule but we cannot know the sign of this deviation, a priori, i.e. without before taking carefully into account the structural features of the power market. (author)

  17. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Using geographical indications for signalling quality and reducing transaction costs of marketing Uyui honey from Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakaje, A.E.G.; Bosselmann, Aske Skovmand; Hansted, L.

    2018-01-01

    data were collected on, cultural and historical identity, the local ecosystem, marketing and value addition technologies. The policy and legal framework for GI certification were also reviewed. Seven honey samples from Uyui District were tested for physicochemical characteristics and compared...

  19. Economic and marketing aspects of using food irradiation technology in treatment of Egyptian exports in domietta harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Khateeb, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The present study discuss the economic and marketing aspects for the establishment of food irradiation facility in Domietta harbour and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. This study is concerned with carrying out an economic evaluation for the application of food exports from Domietta harbour. The study has been carried out according to the approach applied in the evaluation of economic projects and also considering the requirements of technology projects for food preservation.The study is divided into two sections.The first section: concerned with the marketing and technical aspects where the suitable commodity mix was determined for the agricultural crops which are proposed for irradiation. The marketing study comprised determination of the commodity mix, distributions of the commodity mix all over the year according to the harvest seasons and determination the type and capacity of the source. The second section: comprises the economic analysis according to the method adopted by the International Bank for Development taking into consideration the effect of applying radiation technology on the national income. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating the known capital costs with the annual operation cost and annual throughputs. The cost benefit of the proposed food irradiation facility was analyzed taking into account the cost of the capital investment, operation cost and other additional parameters. The results of this study showed that there is no economic feasibility for the establishment of an irradiation facility for the radiation treatment of food commodities exported from Domietta harbour

  20. Prices and costs of irregularity in renewable resources in the liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.

    2004-01-01

    The problems raised by incorporating irregular production are of a technical nature (risk of non-availability during peak demand, the requirements for additional reserves) but the electricity markets methods of operation impose economic penalties, which greatly exceed these additional technical costs. In this document, the authors examine the nature of the technical problems posed by irregularity of production and the additional costs resulting from this, and then analyse the origins of the economic penalties that the operation of liberalized electricity markets impose, taking in particular the example of the British market, the New Energy Trading Arrangement (NETA). It would appear that the markets' operating rules may conflict, in certain cases, with the targets for promoting electricity generation from renewable resources. Two types of solutions can therefore be envisaged: a set of rules to limit the impact on irregular production or collective handling of the adjustment to production from renewable resources as already exists in the Nordic electricity markets. (authors)

  1. How vulnerable is the emissions market to transaction costs?: An ABMS Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kangil; Han, Taek-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The impact of transaction costs on the early emissions trading market is examined by applying an agent-based model and simulation (ABMS) approach. For a realistic model set up, bounded rationality, stochastic characteristics, and learning-by-doing are considered in our search processes. Marginal abatement cost parameters are obtained from Yoo et al. (2010), which is an experimental study on the emissions trading in the Korean power sector. Sensitivity analyses are performed on market performance indices with regard to transaction cost parameters, which represent scales and the learning elasticities of transaction costs. A total of 960 simulations were run in this sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis results consistently show that higher transaction costs worsen market performance. The most remarkable finding in these results is that welfare performance of all the transactions decreases by up to 50% as the scale parameters of transaction costs increase, implying that welfare gain from introducing emissions trading disappears significantly. However, with learning curve effect, welfare performance could be regained by up to 26%. In sum, although transaction costs significantly encroach upon trade gains at the early stage, based on our simulation results, the welfare loss by way of transaction costs is lessened as the knowledge of market participants progresses. - Highlights: • Impact of transaction costs on small and early, primitive emissions trading market • Bounded Rationality (BR) and Zero Intelligence Plus (ZIP) agents concept • Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) parameters delineate Korean power companies • With transaction costs, welfare gain from trade found to be shrunken • As learning proceeds, welfare loss is reduced

  2. Cost Allocation of Transmission Losses in Electric Market Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Dermawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to calculate cost allocation of transmission losses (losses, based on a certain price of energy (i.e. a marginal price of system. Here is developed a mathematic model through manipulating of the network equation to separate losses. This model uses complex power injection and, does not use approximations and assumptions in determining the cost allocation of losses. Its calculation begins from the results of load flow calculation and then is continued to calculate power distribution from a generator to every load and every line. Finally, to be calculated separating of losses and cost allocation of losses. The proposed method is easy to be understood and applied. An illustration results on IEEE 14-bus system show that the method is always consistent with expectancies and somewhat different with a few reference methods.

  3. Recruitment in a Monopsonistic Labour Market: Will Travel Costs be reimbursed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, Jan; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    Reimbursement of commuting costs by employers has attracted little attention from economists. We develop a theoretical model of a monopsonistic employer who determines an optimal recruitment policy in a spatial labour market with search frictions and show that partial reimbursement of commuting cost

  4. A Transforming Electricity System: Understanding the Interactions Between Clean Energy Technologies, Markets, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, David

    The U.S. electricity system is currently undergoing a dramatic transformation. State-level renewable portfolio standards, abundant natural gas at low prices, and rapidly falling prices for wind and solar technologies are among the factors that have ushered in this transformation. With objective, rigorous, technology-neutral analysis, NREL aims to increase the understanding of energy policies, markets, resources, technologies, and infrastructure and their connections with economic, environmental, and security priorities. The results of these analyses are meant to inform R&D, policy, and investment decisions as energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies advance from concept to commercial application to market penetration. This talk will provide an overview of how NREL uses high-fidelity data, deep knowledge of energy technology cost and performance, and advanced models and tools to provide the information needed to ensure this transformation occurs economically, while maintaining system reliability. Examples will be explored and will include analysis of tax credit impacts on wind and solar deployment and power sector emissions, as well as analysis of power systems operations in the Eastern Interconnection under 30% wind and solar penetration scenarios. Invited speaker number 47185.

  5. PRAGMATICS OF USING A MODIFIED CAPM MODEL FOR ESTIMATING COST OF EQUITY ON EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Semenyuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to forming pragmatic recommendations for the development and implementation the modified CAPM model in the process of estimating the equity value on emerging markets. Original CAPM model allows estimating the cost of equity on the developed capital markets. At the same time it requires the information received on the market data basis. But, as show recent empirical research, the classical model does not always produce acceptable results of the equity estimation. In addition, CAPM model in its classical form can’t be used to estimate the cost of equity for countries with emerging markets. This is due with lower efficiency in emerging markets, with lower level of liquidity and capitalization, which makes the information obtained from these markets not entirely reliable. Therefore in practice are increasingly using different modification CAPM models, that allow consider for more specific factors which affect the cost of equity. These factors, which are not considered in the classical CAPM model, include the size of the corporation and country risk. The first factor is actual for developed and emerging markets and needed to account during the equity estimation and modification the CAPM model. Country risk is associated with differences and peculiarities of the economies different countries and in the first place should be taken into account when estimating the cost of equity in emerging capital markets, which are considered by investors as more risky for investment. This factor should also be taken into account in estimating the cost of equity. Methodology In the process of constructing a modified CAPM model, theoretical and methodological provisions were used, which are set out in the work R. Banz, G. Bekaert, M. Goedhart, R. Grabowski, R. Grinold, D. Vessels, A. Damodaran, M. Dempsey, J. Zhang, R. Ibbotson, P. Kaplan, T. Koller, K. Kroner, L. Kruschwitz, M. Long, A. Lofler, G. Mandl, M. Miller, F. Modilyani, K. Nunes, D

  6. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country's coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently

  7. Effects of market, e-marketing, and technology orientations on innovativeness and performance in Turkish health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Hanifi Murat; Sürer, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of strategic orientation on innovativeness and performance in health organizations in Turkey. We test hypotheses that market, e-marketing, and technology orientations positively affect innovativeness and performance. Market and technology orientations are found not have a significant effect on performance, but e-marketing orientation and innovativeness have a significant and positive effect. We also investigate indirect effects on innovativeness and performance. The analyses of direct and indirect effects are an important contribution to understanding relationships among research variables.

  8. Effects of Market, E-Marketing, and Technology Orientations on Innovativeness and Performance in Turkish Health Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Hanifi Murat; Sürer, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of strategic orientation on innovativeness and performance in health organizations in Turkey. We hypothesize that market, e-marketing, and technology orientations positively affect innovativeness and performance. Market and technology orientations are found not have a significant effect on performance, but e-marketing orientation and innovativeness have a significant and positive effect. We also investigate indirect effects on innovativeness and performance. The analyses of direct and indirect effects are an important contribution to understanding relationships among research variables.

  9. Theoretical aspects of the acceptance of new technologies on the smartphone market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoczi, N.; Lobontiu, G.

    2017-05-01

    Adoption of new technologies on mobile phone market in the past 30 years has transformed the industry and had a large impact on the global economy. Technological progress, as the main factor in the adoption of new technologies, has enabled reduce costs and increase equipment performance. The smartphone is perceived by consumers as a sustainable element, to which the price sensitivity is less important. Consumers are willing to pay more in exchange for better quality and features of the product. Smartphones have changed the way people communicate with others, find information and manage their daily life. In addition, recent developments of new operating systems, abundant applications and competition between suppliers have facilitated a marked increase of the users' number.

  10. Market Channels of Technology Startups that Internationalize Rapidly from Inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simar Yoos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of technology startups that internationalize rapidly from inception has increased in recent years. However, little is known about their channels to market. This article addresses a gap in the "born global" literature by examining the channels used by six startups that internationalized rapidly from inception as well as the programs they used to support their channel partners and customers. The six startups examined combined the use of the Internet with: i a relationship with a multi-national, ii distributors, iii re-sellers, or iv a direct sales force. They also delivered programs to support partners and customers that focused on communications, alliance and network development, education, marketing and promotion, and financial incentives. This article informs entrepreneurs who need to design go-to-market channels to exploit global opportunities about decisions made by other entrepreneurs who launched born-global companies. Normative rules and practitioner-oriented approaches are needed to help entrepreneurs explain and apply the results presented in this article.

  11. Farmers' choice of cattle marketing channels under transaction cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theoretical predictions of transaction cost economics were tested based on primary data collected from 230 cattle farm households in 13 communities of the Okhahlamba Local Municipality. The results of a multinomial logit regression revealed some unique insights. They showed that the probability of selling at auction ...

  12. Cost recovery of congested infrastructure under market power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2017-01-01

    The Mohring–Harwitz (1962) theorem states that the degree of self-financing of congested infrastructure is equal to the elasticity of the capacity cost function in the optimum, so that under neutral scale economies exact self-financing applies. The theorem breaks down when the infrastructure is used

  13. Effects of internalising external production costs in a North European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Ramskov, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of integrating national power markets is to improve the overall efficiency thereby making a potential for reducing electricity prices. However, efficiency is not necessarily improved if external environmental protection costs are neglected. In this paper, we analyse the effects of regulating an integrated power market by using environmental producer taxes based on external production costs. The analysis is based on an empirical equilibrium model for the North European power market. The results show that internalising costs will increase electricity producer prices by 40-50% in the period from 1995 to 2020. Further, demand for electricity will be reduced by 10%. We conclude, however, that in order to achieve the national Kyoto targets of reducing CO 2 emissions, further regulation is needed, such as national CO 2 taxes or cost efficient mechanisms like tradeable permits and joint implementation. (author)

  14. Cost/benefit of high technology in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethlin, J.H.

    1987-08-01

    High technology is frequently blamed as a main cause for the last decade's disproportionate rise in health expenditure. Total costs for all large diagnostic and therapeutic appliances are typically less than 1% of annual expenditure on health care. CT, DSA, MRI, interventional radiology, ESWL, US, mammography, computers in radiology and PACS may save 10-80% of total cost for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Expenditure on high technology is in general vastly overestimated. Because of its medical utility, a slower deployment cannot be desirable. (orig.)

  15. Cost/benefit of high technology in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethlin, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    High technology is frequently blamed as a main cause for the last decade's disproportionate rise in health expenditure. Total costs for all large diagnostic and therapeutic appliances are typically less than 1% of annual expenditure on health care. CT, DSA, MRI, interventional radiology, ESWL, US, mammography, computers in radiology and PACS may save 10-80% of total cost for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Expenditure on high technology is in general vastly overestimated. Because of its medical utility, a slower deployment cannot be desirable. (orig.)

  16. The Models of Market Economy on the Modern Technological Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolovska Zoia M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the status of software provision of simulation modeling of economic systems and disclosing the possibilities of application of the integrated software-technological platforms in the building of market models. Problems in the field of applied introduction of the method of simulation modeling have been defined; the status of the software-technological provision of the simulation modeling of economic systems has been analyzed. It has been suggested to use the integrated system of multi-approach simulation modeling AnyLogic as one of the most powerful modern software platforms. The variant of the model of competitive multi-product market adapted to the specifics of pharmaceutical industry enterprises has been considered. The work of the model can be illustrated by results of the situational simulation experiments on the example of the pharmaceutical company «Farmak». The possibilities of parametric adjustment of imitation experiments together with the spectrum of their application in practical activity of pharmaceutical enterprises have been demonstrated.

  17. Labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children with spina bifida: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, John M; Grosse, Scott D; Goodman, Allen C; Li, Kemeng

    2009-01-01

    Caregiver productivity costs are an important component of the overall cost of care for individuals with birth defects and developmental disabilities, yet few studies provide estimates for use in economic evaluations. This study estimates labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children and adolescents with spina bifida. Case families were recruited from a state birth defects registry in Arkansas. Primary caregivers of children with spina bifida (N = 98) reported their employment status in the past year and demographic characteristics. Controls were abstracted from the Current Population Survey covering the state of Arkansas for the same time period (N = 416). Estimates from regression analyses of labor market outcomes were used to calculate differences in hours worked per week and lifetime costs. Caregivers of children with spina bifida worked an annual average of 7.5 to 11.3 hours less per week depending on the disability severity. Differences in work hours by caregivers of children with spina bifida translated into lifetime costs of $133,755 in 2002 dollars using a 3% discount rate and an age- and sex-adjusted earnings profile. Including caregivers' labor market productivity costs in prevention effectiveness estimates raises the net cost savings per averted case of spina bifida by 48% over the medical care costs alone. Information on labor market productivity costs for caregivers can be used to better inform economic evaluations of prevention and treatment strategies for spina bifida. Cost-effectiveness calculations that omit caregiver productivity costs substantially overstate the net costs of the intervention and underestimate societal value.

  18. QUALITY COSTS AS THE FACTOR OF COMPETITIVENESS INCREASE AT DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Lazibat, Tonći; Matić, Božo

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of quality costs as the factor of competitiveness at the world market. For this purpose it is given definition of quality costs, their structure and characteristics, and the control system-supervision, as the subsystem of quality system determined by international standards ISO 9000ff. There are also analyzed experiences in monitoring the quality costs in developed countries and countries in transition-transitional countries, with a special retrospect to the...

  19. Ethics and the Marketing of Technology for Training and Performance Improvement: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Saul

    2003-01-01

    This commentary is intended to start a conversation on ethical behavior in the marketing of our work, with a special focus on the issues that arise when marketing technology and related services. The general literature on marketing ethics suggests that marketers have more relaxed ethical values than the general public. Therefore, ethics should be…

  20. MARKETING TECHNOLOGIES AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR EFFICIENT DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Svyatnenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the essence and characteristics of marketing technologies, necessity of their use in domestic enterprises in conditions of competition. The problems of interpretation of the term "marketing techniques", their species and main characteristics are examined. The aim of the article is to research roles marketing technologies in ensuring the effective development of domestic enterprises in modern conditions.

  1. 3D CAPTURING PERFORMANCES OF LOW-COST RANGE SENSORS FOR MASS-MARKET APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Guidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the first Kinect as motion controller device for the Microsoft XBOX platform (November 2010, several similar active and low-cost range sensing devices have been introduced on the mass-market for several purposes, including gesture based interfaces, 3D multimedia interaction, robot navigation, finger tracking, 3D body scanning for garment design and proximity sensors for automotive. However, given their capability to generate a real time stream of range images, these has been used in some projects also as general purpose range devices, with performances that for some applications might be satisfying. This paper shows the working principle of the various devices, analyzing them in terms of systematic errors and random errors for exploring the applicability of them in standard 3D capturing problems. Five actual devices have been tested featuring three different technologies: i Kinect V1 by Microsoft, Structure Sensor by Occipital, and Xtion PRO by ASUS, all based on different implementations of the Primesense sensor; ii F200 by Intel/Creative, implementing the Realsense pattern projection technology; Kinect V2 by Microsoft, equipped with the Canesta TOF Camera. A critical analysis of the results tries first of all to compare them, and secondarily to focus the range of applications for which such devices could actually work as a viable solution.

  2. Guidelines for target costing adoption in the development of products for the residential real estate market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reymard Savio Sampaio de Melo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study focuses on the problems associated with the traditional practice of reducing costs in construction and the need to increase business competitiveness in the residential real estate sector. In this context, target costing is a promising approach to improve the competitiveness of companies by ensuring that the products launched on the market do not jeopardize the company's results and value delivery to customers. However, far too little attention is paid to target costing implementation by companies that develop residential real state products for sale and face strong market competition. Thus, this paper seeks to investigate whether the standard framework of target costing in the literature applies - with or without adjustments - to real estate developers. Case study was the research strategy adopted. Guidelines are proposed for the introduction of target costing in the development process of residential real estate products. The proposed guidelines are related to the three main sections of the target costing process: market-driven costing, product-level target costing and component-level target costing.

  3. The adoption of energy efficiency enhancing technologies. Market Performance and Policy Strategies in Case of Heterogeneous Firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics, Free University Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    The adoption of energy-efficiency enhancing technologies by heterogeneous firms is analyzed. The fact that energy use does not only cause external environmental costs through pollution, but also directly affects the profitability of the firm and hence its behaviour on input and output markets is taken for granted. It is demonstrated that the consideration of such market processes may have important implications for the efficiency of environmental policies concerned with energy use. The analysis focuses in particular on the efficiency of the market-led adoption and diffusion process under various policy regimes. It is shown that the promotion of energy-efficiency enhancing technologies might have unexpected effects in that it could lead to an increase in energy use, while the use of energy taxes might actually reduce the attractiveness of energy-saving technologies. 22 refs.

  4. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate ampersand Treat (E ampersand T), and Pump ampersand Treat (P ampersand T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios

  5. Generic atorvastatin, the Belgian statin market and the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Sinnaeve, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    This study examines how the market entry of generic atorvastatin influences the Belgian statin market and the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy. Using IMS Health data, the Belgian 2000-2011 statin market was analyzed in terms of total expenditure, annual price of statin treatment, and patient numbers. A simulation analysis projected statin market shares from 2012 to 2015 following market entry of generic atorvastatin. This analysis was based on three scenarios regarding the number of patients taking specific statins. Savings associated with an atorvastatin price reduction of 50-70 % were calculated. A literature review of economic evaluations assessed the cost-effectiveness of generic atorvastatin. Statin expenditure increased from €113 million in 2000 to €285 million in 2011 due to higher expenditure on atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Although the number of patients treated with simvastatin increased by nearly 800 %, the resulting increase in expenditure was partially offset by price reductions. Atorvastatin is projected to become the dominant product in the Belgian statin market (market share of 47-66 % by 2015). Annual savings would attain €108.6-€153.7 million for a 50 % reduction in the atorvastatin price and €152.0-€215.2 million for a 70 % price reduction. The literature suggests that generic atorvastatin is cost-effective as compared to simvastatin. The limited evidence about the cost-effectiveness of rosuvastatin as compared with generic atorvastatin is inconclusive. Generic atorvastatin is cost-effective as compared to simvastatin, is projected to become the dominant product in the Belgian statin market and is expected to generate substantial savings to health care payers.

  6. Development of Advanced Life Cycle Costing Methods for Technology Benefit/Cost/Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of this three-year grant is to provide NASA Langley's System Analysis Branch with improved affordability tools and methods based on probabilistic cost assessment techniques. In order to accomplish this objective, the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) needs to pursue more detailed affordability, technology impact, and risk prediction methods and to demonstrate them on variety of advanced commercial transports. The affordability assessment, which is a cornerstone of ASDL methods, relies on the Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ALCCA) program originally developed by NASA Ames Research Center and enhanced by ASDL. This grant proposed to improve ALCCA in support of the project objective by updating the research, design, test, and evaluation cost module, as well as the engine development cost module. Investigations into enhancements to ALCCA include improved engine development cost, process based costing, supportability cost, and system reliability with airline loss of revenue for system downtime. A probabilistic, stand-alone version of ALCCA/FLOPS will also be developed under this grant in order to capture the uncertainty involved in technology assessments. FLOPS (FLight Optimization System program) is an aircraft synthesis and sizing code developed by NASA Langley Research Center. This probabilistic version of the coupled program will be used within a Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method to determine what types of technologies would have to be infused in a system in order to meet customer requirements. A probabilistic analysis of the CER's (cost estimating relationships) within ALCCA will also be carried out under this contract in order to gain some insight as to the most influential costs and the impact that code fidelity could have on future RDS (Robust Design Simulation) studies.

  7. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    2007-01-01

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials. (author)

  8. Total cost of ownership of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles: A probabilistic analysis and projection across market segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Geng; Inderbitzin, Alessandro; Bening, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    While electric vehicles (EV) can perform better than conventional vehicles from an environmental standpoint, consumers perceive them to be more expensive due to their higher capital cost. Recent studies calculated the total cost of ownership (TCO) to evaluate the complete cost for the consumer, focusing on individual vehicle classes, powertrain technologies, or use cases. To provide a comprehensive overview, we built a probabilistic simulation model broad enough to capture most of a national market. Our findings indicate that the comparative cost efficiency of EV increases with the consumer's driving distance and is higher for small than for large vehicles. However, our sensitivity analysis shows that the exact TCO is subject to the development of vehicle and operating costs and thus uncertain. Although the TCO of electric vehicles may become close to or even lower than that of conventional vehicles by 2025, our findings add evidence to past studies showing that the TCO does not reflect how consumers make their purchase decision today. Based on these findings, we discuss policy measures that educate consumers about the TCO of different vehicle types based on their individual preferences. In addition, measures improving the charging infrastructure and further decreasing battery cost are discussed. - Highlights: • Calculates the total cost of ownership across competing vehicle technologies. • Uses Monte Carlo simulation to analyse distributions and probabilities of outcomes. • Contains a comprehensive assessment across the main vehicle classes and use cases. • Indicates that cost efficiency of technology depends on vehicle class and use case. • Derives specific policy measures to facilitate electric vehicle diffusion

  9. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  10. Energy technology R&D portfolio management: Modeling uncertain returns and market diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistline, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyzes energy R&D decisions with uncertainty in research outcomes and markets. • R&D is shown to be more valuable in second-best planning and policy environments. • Deterministic R&D approaches likely undervalue the optionality of technologies. - Abstract: The allocation of research and development (R&D) funds across a portfolio of programs must simultaneously consider uncertainty from research outcomes and from market acceptance of the resulting technologies. We introduce a stochastic R&D portfolio management framework for addressing both sources of uncertainty and present numerical results for energy technology R&D strategy under uncertainties in climate policy and natural gas prices. Numerical experiments indicate that R&D may be more valuable in second-best planning environments where decision-makers use expected-value approaches, and recourse investments occur after R&D has reduced costs. We also find that deterministic R&D valuation approaches likely overestimate the expected value of R&D success but undervalue the optionality and hedging potential of technologies relative to sequential decision-making approaches under uncertainty. The results also highlight the role of R&D in second-best policy environments.

  11. Cost of providing injectable contraceptives through a community-based social marketing program in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Downing, Janelle; Bell, Suzanne; Weidert, Karen; Godefay, Hagos; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2016-06-01

    To provide a cost analysis of an injectable contraceptive program combining community-based distribution and social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia. We conducted a cost analysis, modeling the costs and programmatic outcomes of the program's initial implementation in 3 districts of Tigray, Ethiopia. Costs were estimated from a review of program expense records, invoices, and interviews with health workers. Programmatic outcomes include number of injections and couple-year of protection (CYP) provided. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the average number of injections provided per month by community health workers (CHWs), the cost of the commodity, and the number of CHWs trained. The average programmatic CYP was US $17.91 for all districts with a substantial range from US $15.48-38.09 per CYP across districts. Direct service cost was estimated at US $2.96 per CYP. The cost per CYP was slightly sensitive to the commodity cost of the injectable contraceptives and the number of CHWs. The capacity of each CHW, measured by the number of injections sold, was a key input that drove the cost per CYP of this model. With a direct service cost of US $2.96 per CYP, this study demonstrates the potential cost of community-based social marketing programs of injectable contraceptives. The findings suggest that the cost of social marketing of contraceptives in rural communities is comparable to other delivery mechanisms with regards to CYP, but further research is needed to determine the full impact and cost-effectiveness for women and communities beyond what is measured in CYP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Technological Evaluation Report 42. Contrasting LMS Marketing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Carriere

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The first section of this report examines the CourseCompass learning management system (LMS, made available to educators by the Pearson publishing group as a vehicle for the company’s extensive content library. The product’s features are discussed, and the implications of Pearson’s software/ textbook “bundling” policy for the integrity of course design. The second section of the report reviews Wordcircle, an open source (OS LMS provided as a free hosted service or as source code downloadable for installation on the user’s own server. The contrasting marketing approaches of these two products are discussed in the light of the increasing move by distance educators from proprietary to open source LMS products. As in previous reports in the series, the reviews are based on the six evaluation criteria of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD: cost, complexity, control, clarity, common technical framework, and features.

  13. The uranium enrichment market and long-term technological options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider-Maunoury, A.

    1992-01-01

    The world enrichment market situation is clearly delineated up to the year 2000. Including the East European countries, worldwide enriched uranium requirements should reach 40 million separative work units (SWUs) a year and production capacity should reach 44 millions SWUs. Two-thirds of this capacity will be supplied by the gaseous diffusion process and one-third by the centrifuge process. The enrichment processes currently considered are: (i) the gaseous diffusion process, (ii) the centrifuge process, (iii) the chemical treatment process and (iv) the laser processes, long-term assessment of the enrichment market up to the year 2015. Two scenarios may be envisioned for the (i) Public opinion will continue to block the development of nuclear power, and requirements will level off at 40 million SWUs. (ii) Changing attitudes will favor a reasonable approach enabling a revival of nuclear power expansion around 1995. Requirements should then increase starting in 2005 and would readily attain 60 million SWUs a year by 2015. Depending on market conditions, enrichment process options will be influenced either entirely by cost considerations, without allowance for the time factor, or by need to meet demand. Demonstrations of the industrial validity of laser processes are expected by 1992 - 1995 and, if interest in nuclear power makes a comeback, decisions should be made between 1995 and 2000 to build new large-capacity enrichment plants. The gaseous diffusion process may still be used for a long time if nuclear power is judiciously employed. The centrifuge process will be fully mature by the year 2000. The uranium vapor laser processes offer the most promise and should ultimately prevail. the chemical processes, though outsiders, deserve watching. (author)

  14. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and

  15. Low cost construction technologies and materials - case study Mozambuique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cost or affordable construction technologies and materials are often touted as a panacea in meeting the ever growing demand for rapid housing delivery in developing economies. Mozambique as with most of the developing world, from both historical...

  16. Transforming Learning through Technology: Educating More, Costing Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Face-to-face instruction has been held as the gold standard of a quality academic program. But using information technology to redesign traditional courses can actually improve the quality of teaching, cut costs, and improve access and success. A strong redesign often involves active learning opportunities; individualized, on-demand assistance; a…

  17. What Do Information Technology Support Services Really Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Karen; Smallen, David

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the cost of information-technology support services in higher education institutions. The report describes the project's origins and work to date and reports initial results in three areas: network services, desktop repair services, and administrative information systems, looking in each case at economies of scale, outsourcing…

  18. Effect of repeat purchase and dynamic market size on diffusion of an innovative technological consumer product in a segmented market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, S.; Gupta, A.; Govindan, K.

    2014-01-01

    creates a spectrum effect in market with an aim to create wider product awareness and influence the market size. Whereas the differentiated promotion strategy plays major role in external influence component in the respective segment and target for adoption by the current potential segment. Previous......This study develops diffusion models for technological consumer products under the marketing environment when a product is marketed in a segmented market and observes two distinctive promotional strategies of mass and differentiated promotion; an under explored study area. Mass promotion strategy...... studies on segmented diffusion models assumed only first time purchase and constant market size which may yield underestimated results and fail to give appropriate insight of the diffusion process. The study develops and validates generalized diffusion models for segmented market incorporating...

  19. Impacts Of Electricity Market Reform And Non-Reform Factors On Technology Uptake: Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Structure and ownership: The first phase of the reform (1992–2000) encouraged private participation in the generation segment. By 1998, foreign-owned IPPs accounted for around 4800 MW of generating capacity. During the 1990s, over 90% of the new capacity was built by foreign-owned IPPs [86]. In the second phase of the reform (2001 to present), the vertically integrated electricity utility was unbundled, regulatory arrangements including open access to network services were developed and the WESM was created. These changes further promoted private participation in the power sector. Price signals generated from the competitive electricity market act as the main driving force to make new investments in generation. Besides, the pressure from market competition pushes investors to select the most efficient and advanced generating technologies to meet growing demand. In the Visayas region, for example, rapid growth in electricity demand drove up electricity prices, which attracted private investors to build three new coal fired power plants in 2010 and 2011. These plants use low cost and highly efficient circulating fluidized bed technology. Regulatory arrangements: The EPIRA of 2001 established the ERC to promote competition, encourage market development, ensure customer choice and penalize abuse of market power in the electricity industry. The ERC is also mandated by law to maintain a level playing field in the competitive sectors (generation and supply) and to regulate the transmission and distribution sectors. The EPIRA also mandates the ERC to enforce market share limitations wherein no generation company can own, operate or control more than 30% of the total installed generating capacity of a grid and/or more than 25% of the total national installed capacity. The ERC must also ensure that before a generation company can operate and supply power, it must secure a certificate of compliance with all the appropriate licences or clearances (health, environment and

  20. An Assessment of the Impact of Information Technology on Marketing and Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Hosseini; S. Mohammadi; H. Safari

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Technology on Marketing and Advertising by using structural equations modeling. To do this, 200 marketing and information technology (IT) experts participated in the study. They answered questionnaires regarding IT, marketing mix and advertising. For data analysis, structural equations modeling using SMARTPLS were used. The results showed that the effect of IT on marketing mix and advertising was positive and significant. The effect of marketi...

  1. The impact of new technology on compact disposal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, H.W.; Zidow, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    The cost of disposal of low-level waste (LLW) has increased dramatically since the 1960s. In the '60s waste was put into the ground for a fee of less than $1/ft 3 in truck-size quantities. Fees for the same burial services today begin in the $30/ft 3 range and increase rapidly from that level. Although the user fees associated with compacts will clearly exceed $100/ft 3 , improved operating techniques by the generators will reduce the amount of waste produced. Current estimates suggest this reduction will drive the per-cubic-foot cost of disposal over the $200 mark. Technology is the only solution to this predicament. While costs already incurred will contribute to the fixed portion of the base user fees, the means to minimize the variable portion of the fees in now at hand. This variable portion results from on-site processing costs, waste form stability enhancements, and ongoing disposal unit construction. Technology exists to minimize volume through ultra compaction and selective incineration, greatly reducing the ongoing disposal unit construction requirements. Vitrification of incinerator residue provides waste form stability far in excess of that provided by concrete overpacks. As overpacks represent the second largest material cost at an engineered barrier facility, the potential for cost savings is substantial

  2. Regulatory intervention on the dynamic European gas market. Neoclassical economics or transaction cost economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanjer, Aldo R.

    2009-01-01

    Shifts at the international gas market indicate that the transaction cost perspective provides better underpinnings for European gas regulation than the current neoclassical perspective. Three implications are that policymakers should: (1) allow alternative coordination measures to complement market exchange; (2) recognize that less than perfect competition outcomes may be optimal and (3) be more reticent in prescribing interventionist measures. Finally, the analysis provides the foundations for the empirical research required to complement this paper's theoretical approach. (author)

  3. The Cost of Collateralized Borrowing in the Colombian Money Market: Does Connectedness Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Constanza Martínez; Carlos León

    2014-01-01

    Under the view that the market is a weighted and directed network (Barabási, 2003), this document is a first attempt to model the Colombian money market within a spatial econometrics framework. By estimating two standard spatial econometric models, we study the cost of collateralized borrowing (i.e. sell/buy backs) among Colombian financial institutions, and its relationship with the effects induced by traditional variables (leverage, size and borrowing levels), and by spatial variables resul...

  4. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarojini, Nadimpally; Marwah, Vrinda; Shenoi, Anjali

    2011-08-12

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality.This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy

  5. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojini Nadimpally

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies

  6. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy

  7. An equivalent marginal cost-pricing model for the district heating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Junli; Ge, Bin; Xu, Hongsheng

    2013-01-01

    District heating pricing is a core element in reforming the heating market. Existing district heating pricing methods, such as the cost-plus pricing method and the conventional marginal-cost pricing method, cannot simultaneously provide both high efficiency and sufficient investment cost return. To solve this problem, the paper presents a new pricing model, namely Equivalent Marginal Cost Pricing (EMCP) model, which is based on the EVE pricing theory and the unique characteristics of heat products and district heating. The EMCP model uses exergy as the measurement of heating product value and places products from different district heating regions into the same competition platform. In the proposed model, the return on investment cost is closely related to the quoted cost, and within the limitations of the Heating Capacity Cost Reference and the maximum compensated shadow capacity cost, both lower and higher price speculations of heat producers are restricted. Simulation results show that the model can guide heat producers to bid according to their production costs and to provide reasonable returns on investment, which contributes to stimulate the role of price leverage and to promote the optimal allocation of heat resources. - Highlights: • Presents a new district heating pricing model. • Provides both high market efficiency and sufficient investment cost return. • Provides a competition mechanism for various products from different DH regions. • Both of lower and higher price speculations are restricted in the new model

  8. Internalizing environmental costs: A survey of progress in estimating the external environmental costs of electricity production and a review of market-based policies to incorporate them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, J.H.; Helcke, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production of electricity creates environmental insults whose costs are not fully reflected in the prices paid by consumers for electricity services. Failure to incorporate these external costs leads to economically inefficient production and consumption decisions. The present work reviews two related efforts to address this market distortion. The first concerns progress in estimating the uninternalized environmental costs of electricity production. The second concerns market-based approaches to internalizing these costs in electricity production and consumption decisions. 10 tabs.; 41 refs

  9. Electricity to natural gas competition under customer-side technological change: a marginal cost pricing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulli', Francesco

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the impact of technological change (on the customer side of the meter) on the network energy industry (electricity and natural gas). The performances of the small gas fired power technologies and the electrical reversible heat pumps have improved remarkably over the last ten years, making possible (or more viable) two opposite technological trajectories: the fully gas-based system, based on the use of small CHP (combined heat and power generation) plants, which would involve a wide decentralisation of energy supply; the fully electric-based system, based on the use of reversible electric heat pumps, which would imply increasing centralisation of energy supply. The analysis described in this paper attempts to evaluate how these two kinds of technological solutions can impact on inter-service competition when input prices are ste equals to marginal costs of supply in each stage of the electricity and natural gas industries. For this purpose, unbundled prices over time and over space are simulated. In particular the paper shows that unbundling prices over space in not very important in affecting electricity to natural gas competition and that, when prices are set equal to long-run marginal costs, the fully electric-based solution (the reversible heat pump) is by far preferable to the fully gas-based solution (the CHP gas fired small power plant). In consequence, the first best outcome of the technological change would involve increasing large power generation and imported (from the utility grid) electricity consumption. Given this framework, we have to ask ourselves why operators, regulators and legislators are so optimistic about the development of the fully gas-based solutions. In this respect, the paper suggests that market distortions (such as market power, energy taxation and inefficient pricing regulation) might have give an ambiguous representation of the optimal technological trajectory, inducing to overestimate the social value

  10. Advance market commitments for vaccines against neglected diseases: estimating costs and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Ernst R; Glennerster, Rachel; Kremer, Michael R; Lee, Jean; Levine, Ruth; Weizsäcker, Georg; Williams, Heidi

    2007-05-01

    The G8 is considering committing to purchase vaccines against diseases concentrated in low-income countries (if and when desirable vaccines are developed) as a way to spur research and development on vaccines for these diseases. Under such an 'advance market commitment,' one or more sponsors would commit to a minimum price to be paid per person immunized for an eligible product, up to a certain number of individuals immunized. For additional purchases, the price would eventually drop to close to marginal cost. If no suitable product were developed, no payments would be made. We estimate the offer size which would make revenues similar to the revenues realized from investments in typical existing commercial pharmaceutical products, as well as the degree to which various model contracts and assumptions would affect the cost-effectiveness of such a commitment. We make adjustments for lower marketing costs under an advance market commitment and the risk that a developer may have to share the market with subsequent developers. We also show how this second risk could be reduced, and money saved, by introducing a superiority clause to a commitment. Under conservative assumptions, we document that a commitment comparable in value to sales earned by the average of a sample of recently launched commercial products (adjusted for lower marketing costs) would be a highly cost-effective way to address HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Sensitivity analyses suggest most characteristics of a hypothetical vaccine would have little effect on the cost-effectiveness, but that the duration of protection conferred by a vaccine strongly affects potential cost-effectiveness. Readers can conduct their own sensitivity analyses employing a web-based spreadsheet tool. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Marginal Cost Pricing in a World without Perfect Competition: Implications for Electricity Markets with High Shares of Low Marginal Cost Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-02

    A common approach to regulating electricity is through auction-based competitive wholesale markets. The goal of this approach is to provide a reliable supply of power at the lowest reasonable cost to the consumer. This necessitates market structures and operating rules that ensure revenue sufficiency for all generators needed for resource adequacy purposes. Wholesale electricity markets employ marginal-cost pricing to provide cost-effective dispatch such that resources are compensated for their operational costs. However, marginal-cost pricing alone cannot guarantee cost recovery outside of perfect competition, and electricity markets have at least six attributes that preclude them from functioning as perfectly competitive markets. These attributes include market power, externalities, public good attributes, lack of storage, wholesale price caps, and ineffective demand curve. Until (and unless) these failures are ameliorated, some form of corrective action(s) will be necessary to improve market efficiency so that prices can correctly reflect the needed level of system reliability. Many of these options necessarily involve some form of administrative or out-of-market actions, such as scarcity pricing, capacity payments, bilateral or other out-of-market contracts, or some hybrid combination. A key focus with these options is to create a connection between the electricity market and long-term reliability/loss-of-load expectation targets, which are inherently disconnected in the native markets because of the aforementioned market failures. The addition of variable generation resources can exacerbate revenue sufficiency and resource adequacy concerns caused by these underlying market failures. Because variable generation resources have near-zero marginal costs, they effectively suppress energy prices and reduce the capacity factors of conventional generators through the merit-order effect in the simplest case of a convex market; non-convexities can also suppress prices.

  12. Analyzing the effect of customer loyalty on virtual marketing adoption based on theory of technology acceptance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Ghafari Ashtiani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most advantages of the internet and its expansion is probably due to its easy and low cost access to unlimited information and easy and fast information exchange. The accession of communication technology for marketing area and emergence of the Internet leads to creation and development of new marketing models such as viral marketing. In fact, unlike other marketing methods, the most powerful tool for selling products and ideas are not done by a marketer to a customer but from a customer to another one. The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between customers' loyalty and the acceptance of viral marketing based on the theory of technology acceptance model (TAM model among the civil engineers and architects who are the members of Engineering Council in Isfahan (ECI. The research method is descriptive–survey and it is applicable in target. The statistical population includes civil engineers and architects who are the members of Engineering Council in Isfahan including 14400 members. The sample size was determined 762 members based on Cochran sampling formula, the sample was selected as accessible. The data was collected by field method. Analyzing the data and recent research hypothesis, the data was extracted from the questionnaires. Then, all the data was analyzed by computer and SPSS and LISREL software. According to the results of the data, the loyalty of the civil engineers and architects members of ECI was associated with the acceptance and practical involvement of viral marketing.

  13. Practical aspects of photovoltaic technology, applications and cost (revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide the reader with the background, understanding, and computational tools needed to master the practical aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology, application, and cost. The focus is on stand-alone, silicon solar cell, flat-plate systems in the range of 1 to 25 kWh/day output. Technology topics covered include operation and performance of each of the major system components (e.g., modules, array, battery, regulators, controls, and instrumentation), safety, installation, operation and maintenance, and electrical loads. Application experience and trends are presented. Indices of electrical service performance - reliability, availability, and voltage control - are discussed, and the known service performance of central station electric grid, diesel-generator, and PV stand-alone systems are compared. PV system sizing methods are reviewed and compared, and a procedure for rapid sizing is described and illustrated by the use of several sample cases. The rapid sizing procedure yields an array and battery size that corresponds to a minimum cost system for a given load requirement, insulation condition, and desired level of service performance. PV system capital cost and levelized energy cost are derived as functions of service performance and insulation. Estimates of future trends in PV system costs are made.

  14. Passenger vehicles that minimize the costs of ownership and environmental damages in the Indian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Patwardhan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Full costs (private and social) are evaluated for Indian passenger cars. • Diesel has low ownership costs, but higher climate and health damages. • Compressed natural gas cars have lower costs and damages than petrol cars. • Electric cars have higher damages due to electricity generation emissions. • CNG and less carbon intensive electricity minimizes Indian cars’ full cost. - Abstract: Rapid expansion of population and income growth in developing countries, such as India, is increasing the demand for many goods and services, including four-wheeled passenger cars. Passenger cars provide personal mobility; however, they also have negative implications for human wellbeing from increased air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, we evaluate the range of passenger vehicles available in the Indian market to identify options that minimize costs, human health effects and climate damages. Our approach is to compare alternative fuel/powertrain vehicles with similar conventional gasoline fueled vehicles and assess the differences in full (private and societal) costs for each pair. Private costs are the combination of capital costs and the discounted expected future fuel costs over the vehicle lifetime. The costs to human health from air quality are calculated using intake fractions to estimate exposure and literature values for the damage costs adjusted by benefits transfer methods. We use the Social Cost of Carbon to estimate climate damages. We find that, on average, the net present value (NPV) of the full costs of compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are lower than comparable gasoline vehicles, while, diesel vehicles have higher costs. Presently, electric vehicles have higher private costs (due to high capital costs) and societal costs (due to electricity generation emissions). Either a less carbon intensive electricity grid or an increase in the CNG fleet would minimize total costs, human health effects and GHG emissions from the

  15. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y; Adelman, S

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  16. Structure of Cost of Equity as the Dependence on the Corporate- and Market Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Konečný

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Companies, like all living creatures, goes through their life cycle, which includes some partial phases. Each of these phases is specific. Depending up the corporate life cycle, there are changed managerial decisions, that have an considerable influence, among others, on financial indicators like liquidity (current ratio, quick ratio, cash ratio, return (on investment, assets, equity, sales, economic value added, or cost of capital. The purpose of this article is to show relations between corporate life cycle and the structure of cost of equity. Furthermore, there will be, besides the corporate life cycle, considered also the market life cycle and market positions, that can companies hold on the market, on which they are acting. Methodology/methods: There is used a method, based on the analysis of secondary data, gotten from financial statements of selected companies and from statistical and analytical documents, published by Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. There are selected 39 companies, acting on the czech market with motor vehicles production. The data are gathered for periods from 2002 up to 2010. There is used a model by Reiners (2004 to identify phases of corporate- and market life cycle and market positions. For finding out the structure of cost of equity there is used the constructional model by Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Scientific aim: The selected companies are divided into groups with considering different phases of their life cycle and with considering their different market positions. There are for each period found out numbers of companies from these groups, that reached the minimal value, the value within the interval and maximal value of all risk rewards, that are, besides the riskless rate, components of cost of equity. Findings: The greatest part of cost of equity, reached on the market, is the riskless rate. Other components (and their shares on the cost of equity

  17. A MERGE model with endogenous technological change and the cost of carbon stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, Socrates

    2007-01-01

    Two stylized backstop systems with endogenous technological learning (ETL) are introduced in the 'model for evaluating regional and global effects' (MERGE): one for the electric and the other for the non-electric markets. Then the model is applied to analyze the impacts of ETL on carbon-mitigation policy, contrasting the resulting impacts with the situation without ETL. We model research and development (R and D) spending and learning subsidies for the demonstration and deployment stage as control variables, and we investigate the ability of this extra spending to create path-dependent experience and knowledge to aid in the implementation of carbon-free technologies. Based on model estimations and sensitivity analyses, we conclude that increased commitments for the development of new technologies to advance along their learning curves has a potential for substantial reductions in the cost of mitigating climate change and thereby helping to reach safe concentrations of carbon in the atmosphere

  18. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical ''more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison

  19. Price setting under cost uncertainty and menu costs - the case of the Danish petrol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stampe Christensen, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper derives the optimal pricing policy for a firm facing menu costs and stochastic production cost. The pricing policy is a boundary pricing policy and numerical comparative static analysis shows how exogenous parameters - the drift and variance of the production cost, the discount factor and the menu costs - affect the boundaries. Analyzing daily data for the Danish petrol price illustrates that a boundary pricing policy indeed has been followed for the period 1988-1992, with occasional shifts in both the desired mark-up and more importantly in the width of the bounds. While the theoretical model can say nothing of the shifts in desired mark-up, changes in the width of the bounds are found to be consistent with the implications of the model. (au)

  20. Financial restructuring and stranded costs: quantification and effect on market rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, F.; Marcus, W.

    1999-03-01

    Fred Baird, Director of Putnam, Hayes and Bartlett Inc., predicted that the province`s market rules would not inhibit new investment, an important point, since the prime test of real competition is the possibility of new entries into the market. Ontario`s approach to competition will ensure that marginal prices are competitive, and will limit Genco`s ability to charge above-market rents or practice volume accommodation strategies that would lead to unnecessary investment. Genco will not have control over the residual market, since the company will not be the supplier of last resort. These are crucial factors of success since the point of dealing with market power is to move towards an economically efficient outcome. Bill Marcus, Principal Economist of JBS Energy Inc. of Sacramento, California discussed strategies for calculating stranded debt and the treatment of Ontario Hydro`s nuclear recovery costs. He identified two critical differences in Ontario`s administrative method for calculating stranded costs: (1) past costs (such as decommissioning) are lumped in with future costs, and (2) the overall figures are based on aggregate calculations, covering the whole corporation. In most other jurisdictions `going forward costs` like fuel costs, operating and maintenance, capital additions, and retubing, are excluded. The difference is important because operating subsidies (which is what is involved in this method of calculation) harm both competitors as well as ratepayers. With respect to nuclear assets he prophesied that Ontario Hydro`s nuclear optimization program, if successful, will add only limited value to the nuclear assets, but will cannibalize the value of the rest of Ontario Hydro. He recommended that the Ministry of Finance pursue a strategy that maximizes the value of the whole company, not just the nuclear assets.

  1. Cost effectiveness analysis of the SEAMIST trademark membrane system technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Booth, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the cost and performance characteristics of SEAMIST trademark, an innovative technology that facilitates measurements of contaminants in both vertical and horizontal vadose zone boreholes. This new technology consists of an airtight membrane linear that is pneumatically emplaced inside the borehole structure. Sampling ports with attached tubing, absorbent collectors, or various in situ measuring devices can be fabricated into the linear and used for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, herbicides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, or radioactive substances. In addition, small instruments can be guided through the lined borehole and measurements taken inside at specified intervals

  2. Case Studies in the Field of Marketing Education: Learner Impact, Case Performance, and Cost Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spais, George S.

    2005-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to identify a methodology that will help educators in marketing to efficiently manage the design, impact, and cost of case studies. It is my intention is to examine the impact of case study characteristics in relation to the degree of learner involvement in the learning process. The author proposes that…

  3. Does Medicaid managed care market penetration impact provider participation, costs, utilization, and access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, Jenny

    2010-09-01

    Key findings. (1) An increase in commercial plan penetration increased the liklihood [sic] that a physician would accept new Medicaid patients, but this did not significantly impact enrollee costs. (2) An increase in Medicaid-dominant HMO market penetration increased the probability that individuals reported using the ED as their primary source of care.

  4. Marketing Professors' Perspectives on the Cost of College Textbooks: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Lawrence S.; Stevens, Robert E.; Clow, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    Textbooks are an integral component of the higher education process. However, a great deal of concern about the high costs of college textbooks has been expressed by those inside and outside of higher education. The authors focus on the results of a pilot study of a survey of marketing professors' criteria and use of textbooks and their reactions…

  5. The potential of urban tree plantings to be cost effective in carbon credit markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.R. McHale; E.G. McPherson; I.C. Burke

    2007-01-01

    Emission trading is considered to be an economically sensitive method for reducing the concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere. There has been debate about the viability of using urban tree plantings in these markets. The main concern is whether or not urban planting projects can be cost effective options for investors. We...

  6. Cost of Conflicts in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) aims to promote social and economic development in the region. Conflicts, particularly in the area of the Great Lakes, are adversely affecting the regional integration agenda, although their actual costs have yet to be assessed. This grant will support the ...

  7. The Cost of Technical Trading Rules in the Forex Market: A Utility-based Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.D.R. Dewachter (Hans); M. Lyrio (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe compute the opportunity cost for rational risk averse agents of using technical trading rules in the foreign exchange rate market. Our purpose is to investigate whether these rules can be interpreted as near-rational investment strategies for rational investors. We analyze four

  8. Cost reduction in PV manufacturing. Impact on grid-connected and building-integrated markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    In the past three years there have been several key events or changes that can lead to fully economic, massive deployment to the grid-connected and central PV markets. The factors discussed in this report include: (1) significant cost reduction in single crystal and polycrystal silicon so that modules profitably priced at $3.10-$3.30 per peak watt and installed grid-connected systems with installed cost of $5.50 per watt are being offered; (2) several new thin film plants - amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium diselenide are being built for 1996, 1997 production with greatly reduced costs; (3) government subsidized volume orders for PV in grid-connected houses (Japan, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the United States) provide volume (2000+ units per year) that lead to reduced costs; (4) environmental benefits for PV are being applied in Europe and Japan permitting 'early adopters' to enter the market; and (5) government and commercial acceptance of PV building integrated products, especially in Europe, are expanding PV markets. The combination of these forces lead to the prediction that an 'accelerated' market mode could start in the year 2000

  9. Econometric analysis of the effect of marketing costs on grain prices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Econometric analysis of the effect of marketing costs on grain prices in Kaduna State of Nigeria. JAL Effiong. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research Vol. 6 (1) 2006: pp. 11-14. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Adjustment in property space markets: taking long-term leases and transaction costs seriously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Englund, P.; Gunnelin, Å.; Hendershott, P.H.; Söderberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    Markets for property space adjust only gradually because tenants and landlords are constrained by long-term leases and transaction and information costs. Not only do rents adjust slowly, but space occupancy, which depends on historical rents, often differs from demand at current rent. This creates

  11. The identification of technology regimes in banking : Implications for the market power-fragility nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetter, M.; Poghosyan, T.

    Neglecting the existence of different technologies in banking can contaminate efficiency, market power, and other performance measures. By simultaneously estimating (i) technology regimes conditional on exogenous factors, (ii) efficiency conditional on risk management, and (iii) Lerner indices of

  12. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '96. Technical session: Energy costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The two papers of this session deal with the costs of two different energy generation systems, one is based on photovoltaic energy conversion, and the other is the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear energy generation. The author shows that the costs of these two energy systems in Germany are much more governed by decisions taken in the political domain than is the case in other countries. Although German science and technology in these two engineering fields hold a top rank worldwide, the high costs that seem inevitable in Germany are expected to be a major reason why the photovoltaic industry will have to leave the country and go abroad to exploit the better chances there. (DG) [de

  13. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  14. Technology choice in a least-cost expansion analysis framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guziel, K.A.; South, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the current outlook for new capacity additions by electric utilities is uncertain and tenuous. Regardless of the amount, it is inevitable that new capacity will be needed in the 1990s and beyond. The fundamental question about the additional capacity requirements centers on technology choice and the factors influencing the decision process. Under current market conditions, utilities have become capital aversive due to rate base disallowances by state regulatory commissions, difficulties in funding long-term capital-intensive projects, uncertainties about future demand, and the ability to purchase power from sources such as independent power producers (IPPs) and cogenerators. Instead of building capital-intensive power plants, utilities have begun relying on natural gas technologies, which permit rapid construction/deployment and low capital investment

  15. Application Possibilities of Social Marketing Technologies for Publicity of Electronic Government Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays e-government projects and projects in the public sector are changing the consistency and reality of our daily life and will need to be managed by project managers, who uge modern marketing tools and technologies. Social marketing is one of the modern marketing tools and, probably, it is the best tool to provide marketing in public sector project management, It has been changing in different ways since the founding of social marketing: the aim of social marketing, the technologies for using i ; but nowadays it’s hard to imagine public sector projects and, especially, egovernment projects, without using social marketing technologies. The usage of social marketing technologies can improve public sector project management and make the project more attractive to society or some part of it. This scientific paper represents social marketing transformation, the way in which social marketing needs to be used in the public sector project management process and analyses the phases of social marketing. It also gives some practical advics for public sector organizations o, how to implement social marketing in the e-government project deployment process.

  16. Resource Communication Technology and Marketing of Textile Products: A U.S. Textile Industry Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative positivistic case study was to explore whether resource communication technology has helped or would help the marketing of textile products in the U.S. textile industry. The contributions of human capital in the marketing department, the marketing-demand information system function, and the product supply chain…

  17. Technology Estimating: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Reeves, John D.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Greenberg, Marc; Comstock, Doug; Olds, John R.; Wallace, Jon; DePasquale, Dominic; Schaffer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA is investing in new technologies that include 14 primary technology roadmap areas, and aeronautics. Understanding the cost for research and development of these technologies and the time it takes to increase the maturity of the technology is important to the support of the ongoing and future NASA missions. Overall, technology estimating may help provide guidance to technology investment strategies to help improve evaluation of technology affordability, and aid in decision support. The research provides a summary of the framework development of a Technology Estimating process where four technology roadmap areas were selected to be studied. The framework includes definition of terms, discussion for narrowing the focus from 14 NASA Technology Roadmap areas to four, and further refinement to include technologies, TRL range of 2 to 6. Included in this paper is a discussion to address the evaluation of 20 unique technology parameters that were initially identified, evaluated and then subsequently reduced for use in characterizing these technologies. A discussion of data acquisition effort and criteria established for data quality are provided. The findings obtained during the research included gaps identified, and a description of a spreadsheet-based estimating tool initiated as a part of the Technology Estimating process.

  18. State distributed PV policies: Can low cost (to government) policies have a market impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasko, Vitaliy A.; Doris, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of distributed generation photovoltaic (PV) markets. The focus is on low-cost market opening policies instead of various forms of government subsidies aimed at reducing installation costs. The ideas tested in this work are: (1) low-cost market opening policies can be effective in facilitating PV market growth without subsidizing projects, and (2) policies can be made more effective if states and localities stage their enactment in a particular order. The policies selected for evaluation emerge from a policy stacking theory outlined in Doris (2012), NREL/CP-7A30-54801, Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A cross-section econometric analysis that takes into account the quality of interconnection standards, net metering standards, Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), RPS set-asides, and a non-policy determinant (population) explains about 70% of the variation in newly installed PV capacity across states and indicates that all of the selected policies are significant. Nonparametric statistical tests confirm the regression results. Qualitative evidence is also presented indicating that effective policy ordering starts with improving interconnection standards, closely followed by improvements in net metering standards, and eventually strengthened by the enactment of an RPS and set-asides. - Highlights: • Impacts of low cost market opening policies on PV capacity are evaluated. • Impact of a strategic policy enactment sequence is evaluated. • Effective interconnection, net metering, RPS, and set-asides increase PV capacity. • Effective ordering is market preparation, then creation, then expansion policies

  19. Cost Characteristics of Telecom Networks and their Implications for Market Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    The paper analyses the cost structure of telecom operators and test the hypotheses of economies of scale and economies of density. The impact of new technologies and the regulatory implications are analysed.......The paper analyses the cost structure of telecom operators and test the hypotheses of economies of scale and economies of density. The impact of new technologies and the regulatory implications are analysed....

  20. Technology learning for fuel cells. An assessment of past and potential cost reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoots, K.; Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Kramer, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells have gained considerable interest as a means to efficiently convert the energy stored in gases like hydrogen and methane into electricity. Further developing fuel cells in order to reach cost, safety and reliability levels at which their widespread use becomes feasible is an essential prerequisite for the potential establishment of a 'hydrogen economy'. A major factor currently obviating the extensive use of fuel cells is their relatively high costs. At present we estimate these at about 1100 EUR(2005)W for an 80 kW fuel cell system but notice that specific costs vary markedly with fuel cell system power capacity. We analyze past fuel cell cost reductions for both individual manufacturers and the global market. We determine learning curves, with fairly high uncertainty ranges, for three different types of fuel cell technology - AFC, PAFC and PEMFC - each manufactured by a different producer. For PEMFC technology we also calculate a global learning curve, characterised by a learning rate of 21% with an error margin of 4%. Given their respective uncertainties, this global learning rate value is in agreement with those we find for different manufacturers. In contrast to some other new energy technologies, R and D still plays a major role in today's fuel cell improvement process and hence probably explains a substantial part of our observed cost reductions. The remaining share of these cost reductions derives from learning-by-doing proper. Since learning-by-doing usually involves a learning rate of typically 20%, the residual value for pure learning we find for fuel cells is relatively low. In an ideal scenario for fuel cell technology we estimate a bottom-line for specific (80 kW system) manufacturing costs of 95 EUR(2005)W. Although learning curves observed in the past constitute no guarantee for sustained cost reductions in the future, when we assume global total learning at the pace calculated here as the only cost reduction mechanism, this ultimate cost

  1. A Market Model for Evaluating Technologies That Impact Critical-Material Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ananth V.; Vedantam, Aditya

    2016-07-01

    A recent Critical Materials Strategy report highlighted the supply chain risk associated with neodymium and dysprosium, which are used in the manufacturing of neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets (PM). In response, the Critical Materials Institute is developing innovative strategies to increase and diversify primary production, develop substitutes, reduce material intensity and recycle critical materials. Our goal in this paper is to propose an economic model to quantify the impact of one of these strategies, material intensity reduction. Technologies that reduce material intensity impact the economics of magnet manufacturing in multiple ways because of: (1) the lower quantity of critical material required per unit PM, (2) more efficient use of limited supply, and (3) the potential impact on manufacturing cost. However, the net benefit of these technologies to a magnet manufacturer is an outcome of an internal production decision subject to market demand characteristics, availability and resource constraints. Our contribution in this paper shows how a manufacturer's production economics moves from a region of being supply-constrained, to a region enabling the market optimal production quantity, to a region being constrained by resources other than critical materials, as the critical material intensity changes. Key insights for engineers and material scientists are: (1) material intensity reduction can have a significant market impact, (2) benefits to manufacturers are non-linear in the material intensity reduction, (3) there exists a threshold value for material intensity reduction that can be calculated for any target PM application, and (4) there is value for new intellectual property (IP) when existing manufacturing technology is IP-protected.

  2. 75 FR 47631 - Swets Information Services, Operations Department, Information Technology Group, Marketing Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,668] Swets Information Services, Operations Department, Information Technology Group, Marketing Group, Finance Group, Runnemede..., Information Technology (IT) Group, Marketing Group and the Finance Group into one entity instead of...

  3. Asia's coal and clean coal technology market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.; Binsheng Li

    1992-01-01

    The Asian region is unique in the world in having the highest economic growth rate, the highest share of coal in total primary energy consumption and the highest growth rate in electricity generation capacity. The outlook for the next two decades is for accelerated efforts to control coal related emissions of particulates and SO 2 and to a lessor extent NO x and CO 2 . Only Japan has widespread use of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) however a number of economies have plans to install CCTs in future power plants. Only CCTs for electricity generation are discussed, and are defined for the purpose of this paper as technologies that substantially reduce SO 2 and/or NO x emissions from coal-fired power plants. The main theses of this paper are that major increases in coal consumption will occur over the 1990-2010 period, and this will be caccompanied by major increases in coal related pollution in some Asian economies. Coal fired electricity generation is projected to grow at a high rate of about 6.9 percent per year over the 1990-2010 period. CCTs are projected to account for about 150 GW of new coal-fired capacity over the 1990-2010 period of about one-third of all new coal-fired capacity. A speculative conclusion is that China will account for the largest share of CCT additions over the 1990-2010 period. Both the US and Japan have comparative advantages that might be combined through cooperation and joint ventures to gain a larger share of the evolving CCT market in Asia. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Cables, Sharks and Servers: Technology and the Geography of the Foreign Exchange Market

    OpenAIRE

    Eichengreen, Barry; Lafarguette, Romain; Mehl, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the impact of technology on production and trade in services, focusing on the foreign exchange market. We identify exogenous technological changes by the connection of countries to submarine fiber-optic cables used for electronic trading, but which were not laid for purposes related to the foreign exchange market. We estimate the impact of cable connections on the share of offshore foreign exchange transactions. Cable connections between local markets and matching servers in the ma...

  5. Future of printing: changes and challenges, technologies and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipphan, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    Digitalization within the graphic arts industry is described and it is explained how it is improving and changing the print production strategies and which new kinds of print production systems are developed or can be expected. The relationship of printed media and electronic media is analyzed and a positioning for the next century is given. The state of the art of conventional printing technologies, especially using direct imagine techniques, and their position within the digital workflow are shortly described. Non-impact printing multicolor printing systems are explained, based on general design criteria and linked to existing and newly announced equipment. The use of high-tech components for building up successful systems with high reliability, high quality and low production costs is included with some examples. Digital printing systems open many opportunities in print production: distributed printing, personalization, print and book on demand are explained as examples. The overview of the several printing technologies and their positioning regarding quality and productivity leads to the scenario about the important position of printed media, also in the distant future.

  6. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  7. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  8. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  9. Japanese manufacturers' cost-performance marketing strategy for the delivery of solar photovoltaic homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, M.

    2005-02-01

    Japanese manufacturers have been gaining a global reputation for their design approaches to industrialized housing, which is often equipped with PV systems. Homes are produced on a cost performance marketing strategy. In 2004, 13.7 per cent of the 1,160,083 houses built in Japan were pre-fabricated. The pre-fabricated housing industry has been given considerable government support. In response to growing demands for sustainable housing, the government has implemented promotional programs aiming to support the installations of photovoltaic systems. Details of various programs were presented, including: value-added production; housing sustainability; PV rooftop systems; and a mass custom design approach. It was concluded that the cost performance marketing strategy has a significant impact on production and design approaches. However, quality-oriented production may also result in successful commercialization of innovative housing. The Japanese marketing approach allows consumers to understand the added value of packaged innovations rather than the cost. It was suggested that this marketing strategy should be examined further, when considering approaches to innovative housing in other countries. 38 refs., 3 figs

  10. Japanese manufacturers' cost-performance marketing strategy for the delivery of solar photovoltaic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, M.

    2005-02-01

    Japanese manufacturers have been gaining a global reputation for their design approaches to industrialized housing, which is often equipped with PV systems. Homes are produced on a cost performance marketing strategy. In 2004, 13.7 per cent of the 1,160,083 houses built in Japan were pre-fabricated. The pre-fabricated housing industry has been given considerable government support. In response to growing demands for sustainable housing, the government has implemented promotional programs aiming to support the installations of photovoltaic systems. Details of various programs were presented, including: value-added production; housing sustainability; PV rooftop systems; and a mass custom design approach. It was concluded that the cost performance marketing strategy has a significant impact on production and design approaches. However, quality-oriented production may also result in successful commercialization of innovative housing. The Japanese marketing approach allows consumers to understand the added value of packaged innovations rather than the cost. It was suggested that this marketing strategy should be examined further, when considering approaches to innovative housing in other countries. 38 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Assessment of the competing technologies to fuel cells in the stationary power and CHP markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pears, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the commercial technologies that are likely to compete with fuel cells in the fields of stationary power and cogeneration markets. The competing technologies examined include clean coal technologies, reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines, and stirling engines. Energy and environmental legislation, and the ranking of the competing technologies are discussed. (UK)

  12. Benefits and costs of integrating technology into undergraduate nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Mary Ellen Smith; Cornelius, Frances H

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology over the last decade have resulted in increased opportunities for educators to become more innovative in classroom and clinical teaching. These innovations have allowed students and faculty to access essential clinical information at the point of care/need. By capitalizing on technologies such as personal digital assistants and course delivery shells, faculty and students have both portable and remote access to information that can guide practice and learning activities in clinical, classroom, and distance settings. For instance, a student can use a personal digital assistant to research a patient's new medication at the bedside, study course information, access references during class in response to a question, or download clinical materials from home. Although the benefits of having ready access to information seem obvious, there are costs and strategic planning activities associated with implementing these projects. Clearly, the objective of any academic nursing program is to develop skills among students so they can efficiently access information and use that information to guide their nursing practice. To do so, academic nursing administrators must have the forethought to envision how new technologies can support achieving this goal as well as the ability to put in place the infrastructure supports needed for success. This article presents a case study of how one institution developed the necessary infrastructure and garnished the appropriate resources to implement an ambitious technology initiative integrated throughout a large undergraduate nursing program. In addition, how the integration of technology, online and mobile, can enhance clinical learning will be discussed.

  13. Cost of equity on the Polish and global coal market - comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Michalak

    2014-01-01

    The mining industry in Poland as well as in the world is considered to be a strategic industry, of special significance for the economy. At the same time it is an industry requiring high capital outlays. Equity plays an important role in financing of the mining enterprises. The objective of the article is to compare the cost of equity on the Polish and global coal market. The object of the research are the Polish and foreign mining enterprises listed on the stock markets. The basic research m...

  14. DETERMINING COSTS-RETURNS PROFITABILITY IN HONEY MARKETING IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adinya, I.B; Ayuk, E.A; Akpet, S.O; Agiopu, B.F

    2017-01-01

    This study examined costs-returns profitability in honey marketing in Cross River State. Honey contains 29 percent of protein, 19 percent of amino acid, vitamins and minerals for bodybuilding. Honey mixed with aloe vera gel is use for cure of dandruff and rapid hair growth. This mixture could also help to prevent hair breakage. Honey pollen enhances vitality and brings about a longer life span. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 honey marketers in the study area by means of struct...

  15. Redesign of an in-market food processor for manufacturing cost reduction using DFMA methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Harlalka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the time and cost involved in the product development is very important to stay competitive in the market. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA is a cost-reduction framework for designers to evaluate manufacturing aspects of a product design. A case study on an in-market food processor, this paper aims to demonstrate the significance of DFMA implementation on an Indian consumer product. Even though many DFMA case studies have been published till date, very few have dealt with the Indian consumer durables category. In this paper, various cost-reduction opportunities are identified in the design of a food processor manufactured by a reputed company in India. Using the DFMA study, design ideas are developed with an objective of reducing the overall manufacturing cost of the product. As a result of DFMA implementation, significant improvement in terms of the product’s architecture, assembly time and design efficiency is identified. Overall cost reduction of 0.25 USD (United States Dollar was achieved and an improvement in the Design for Assembly (DFA index from 15.99 to 19.93 is reported. This procedure utilized in this paper can be adopted for any consumer durable products of similar type and design improvements and cost reduction can be achieved.

  16. Technology transfer by multinational firms: the resource cost of transferring technological know-how

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teece, D J

    1977-06-01

    The essence of modern economic growth is the increase in the stock of useful knowledge and the extension of its application. Since the origins of technical and social innovations have never been confined to the borders of any one nation, the economic growth of all countries depends to some degree on the successful application of a transnational stock of knowledge. Nevertheless, economists have been remarkably slow in addressing themselves to the economics of international technology transfer. This paper addresses itself to this need. The starting-point is Arrow's suggestion (Am. Econ. Review, 52: 29-35 (May 1969)) that the cost of communication, or information transfer, is a fundamental factor influencing the world-wide diffusion of technology. The purpose of the paper is to examine the level and determinants of the costs involved in transferring technology. The value of the resources that have to be utilized to accomplish the successful transfer of a given manufacturing technology is used as a measure of the cost of transfer. The resource cost concept is therefore designed to reflect the ease or difficulty of transferring technological know-how from manufacturing plants in one country to manufacturing plants in another. 32 references.

  17. A Note on the Analysis of Time Cost by Difference of Transaction System in the Agricultural Wholesale Market of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The purpose of this study is to prove objectively that the market-wholesaler system, introduced to agricultural wholesale market in Korea for the first time, has better operational efficiency than the existing auction system. From an analytical viewpoint, we estimated the time value of two transaction systems at the agricultural wholesale market using the calculation methods of the congestion cost and the accumulation cost, and estimated the operational efficiencies divided...

  18. The Finnish power market: Are imports from Russia low-cost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, Camila; Gore, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Electricity market integration of high- and low-price areas is expected to bring benefits to the consumers in a high-price area. However, these potential benefits are highly dependent on the market characteristics and the policy interventions. We use simulation to study the effects of different alternatives for the expansion and operation of the interconnector Finland–Russia on the Finnish market (a high-price area). Our results show that the current trading arrangement, where a single trader owns the transmission rights, and limits the trade during peak hours to avoid capacity charges in Russia, is beneficial for Finland at the current interconnection capacity. However, if the interconnector is expanded, the behaviour of the trader would create significant distortions in the Finnish market. We also analyse the pros and cons of maintaining a strategic reserve in Finland in combination with the different scenarios of interconnection expansion and trading arrangements. We conclude that in the absence of trust in imports, the need for a strategic reserve is undeniable. This will slightly reduce the economic benefits of integration for Finnish consumers, but it will significantly improve reliability. - Highlights: • We model the likely long-term dynamics of the interconnection Finland–Russia. • Different cross-border arrangements and capacity adequacy policies are considered. • Discriminatory access to the interconnector undermines the benefits of integration. • Market coupling reduces supply costs but creates reliability concerns. • Keeping a strategic reserve reduces the benefits of market coupling

  19. The impact of hospital market structure on patient volume, average length of stay, and the cost of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C; Luft, H S

    1985-12-01

    A variety of recent proposals rely heavily on market forces as a means of controlling hospital cost inflation. Sceptics argue, however, that increased competition might lead to cost-increasing acquisitions of specialized clinical services and other forms of non-price competition as means of attracting physicians and patients. Using data from hospitals in 1972 we analyzed the impact of market structure on average hospital costs, measured in terms of both cost per patient and cost per patient day. Under the retrospective reimbursement system in place at the time, hospitals in more competitive environments exhibited significantly higher costs of production than did those in less competitive environments.

  20. Marketing equipment at the leading edge of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, K.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter describes the involvement of a gas utility, Brooklyn Union Gas Company, in the marketing of small cogeneration modules and as project managers for their installation. The topics of the chapter include a background of Brooklyn Union, a description of the TOTEM 15 kW module, the economic impact f the TOTEM on the market for natural gas, and the economics of marketing and servicing the TOTEM

  1. INFORMATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN ESTIMATION OF T HE P HARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Babintseva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An analytical study of methodologies of integral pharmaceutical market analysis is undertaken. It’s offered to use as an additional indicator of the pharmaceutical market state the trend of morbidity indexes of socially significant diseases. High informational value has also distribution curve of rendering harm risks of patients in the dynamics. A new approach to the analysis of the pharmaceutical market based on the trend characteristics’ may become the main in the decision- making.

  2. Is scorpion antivenom cost-effective as marketed in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Edward P; Bakall, Maja; Skrepnek, Grant H; Boyer, Leslie V

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of scorpion antivenom compared to no antivenom, in the United States, using a decision analysis framework. A decision analytic model was created to assess patient course with and without antivenom. Costs were determined from the perspective of a health care payer. Cost data used in the model were extracted from Arizona Medicaid. The probability of clinical events occurring with and without antivenom was obtained from the published literature, medical claims obtained from Arizona Medicaid, and results of recent clinical trials. Patients that became so ill that mechanical ventilator support was necessary were considered treatment failures. A Monte Carlo simulation was run 1000 times and sampled simultaneously across all variable distributions in the model. The mean success rate was 99.87% (95% CI 99.64%-99.98%) with scorpion antivenom and 94.31% (95% CI 91.10%-96.61%) without scorpion antivenom. The mean cost using scorpion antivenom was $10,708 (95% CI $10,556 - $11,010) and the mean cost without scorpion antivenom was $3178 (95% CI $1627 - $5184). Since the 95% CIs do not overlap for either the success or cost, use of the scorpion antivenom was significantly more effective and significantly more expensive than no antivenom. Cost-effectiveness analysis found that the scorpion antivenom was not cost-effective at its current price as marketed in the United States. The scorpion antivenom marketed in the United States is extremely effective, but too costly to justify its use in most clinical situations. Formulary committees should restrict the use of this antivenom to only the most severe scorpion envenomations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EU's forest fuel resources, energy technology market and international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asikainen, A.; Laitila, J.; Parikka, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the project is to provide for the Finnish bioenergy technology, machine and appliance manufactures information about forest fuel resources in the EU and international bioenergy trade mechanisms. The projects results act as an instrument for market potential assessments and provide information to the local energy producer about biomass as an energy source. The possibilities to use forest chips in CHP and heating plants will be investigated in the case studies. Total number of case studies will be 3-4, and they will mainly be located in Eastern Europe, where also large forest resources and utilisation potential are found. Case studies include three main tasks: 1) Assessment of forest fuel resources around the CHP or heating plant. 2) Forest fuel procurement cost study and 3) Study on the economics forest fuel based energy production. The project will be carried out as cooperation between Finnish research institutes and companies, and local actors. First case study was carried out at Poland. (orig.)

  4. Formation of the Innovation Component of Marketing Technologies of Enterprises That Produce Mineral Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golodniuk Olena S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main marketing technologies of building competitive advantages by enterprises that produce Ukrainian mineral waters. It considers individual innovations of the conceptual (eco-marketing and applied (branding, benchmarking and competitive reconnaissance nature with consideration of their significance for participants of this market. It offers directions of increasing the innovation component of topical marketing technologies with the aim of implementation of their results into management of competitive advantages of enterprises. It draws a conclusion about a necessity of: reducing evident and growth of a number of latent competitive advantages, based on intellectual technologies, and also development and realisation of a conceptual model of providing marketing innovations in the system of managing competitive advantages of enterprises; and formation of the system of monitoring marketing innovations with the aim of development of additional services and means of building competitive advantages of enterprises that produce mineral waters.

  5. Least cost, utility scale abatement from Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). Part 2: Scenarios and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, M.J.; Jeppesen, M.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Manzie, C.; Alpcan, T.; Dargaville, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the second of a two part study that considers least cost, greenhouse gas abatement pathways for an electricity system. Part 1 of this study formulated a model for determining these abatement pathways, and applied this model to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) for a single reference scenario. Part 2 of this study applies this model to different scenarios and considers the policy implications. These include cases where nuclear power generation and CCS (carbon capture and storage) are implemented in Australia, which is presently not the case, as well as a more detailed examination of how an extended, RPS (renewable portfolio standard) might perform. The effect of future fuel costs and different discount rates are also examined. Several results from this study are thought to be significant. Most importantly, this study suggests that Australia already has utility scale technologies, renewable and non-renewable resources, an electricity market design and an abatement policy that permit continued progress towards deep greenhouse gas abatement in its electricity sector. In particular, a RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears to be close to optimal as a greenhouse gas abatement policy for Australia's electricity sector for at least the next 10–15 years. - Highlights: • Considers scenarios and policy implications for Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). • An extended form of RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears near optimal until roughly 2030. • For up to 80% abatement, the inclusion of nuclear achieves only marginal benefit by 2050. • CCS (Carbon capture and storage) does not appear competitive with current cost estimates.

  6. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bogomolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.Research priorities is the development of food therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, innovative methods of complex processing of raw materials with maximum preservation of the original chemical composition and on the basis of a new product release in generation functionality. This article explores the many reasons for the lag of the Patriotic-owned enterprises in terms of technological development, analyzes the features of innovation in the bakery production of Russia, proposed the current directions for the innovative development of grain-processing industry. The observation revealed that during the years of market transformations in the bakeries have been significant changes, especially in the volume of products sold. Based on the results of statistical studies, it was found that at least 75% of the population consume daily baked goods and this makes them appropriate nutrient enrichment. The current state and bakeries, bakeries and revealed a high degree of wear of the process equipment. Over the past 14 years, marked by a decline in production, which led to a decline in production output and profitability constraints. It was found that in bakeries and bakeries deterioration index technique is approximately 67%. With respect to raw materials for bread production, noted that the creation of a civilized grain market in Russia requires the solution of a number of key issues. It is established that is currently happening aggression from industrialized countries to seize the Russian food market, leading to a narrowing of the domestic demand for domestic products, and this causes the drop in the economic growth of the food industry. The analysis revealed that there is considerable potential for the development of the industry.

  7. Technology in the Marketing Activities of Schools as an Example to Institutional Isomorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Çağla Garipağaoğlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand and explore the isomorphic changes in the private school chain sector in Turkey over the last five years regarding the effects of recent technology adoptions for school marketing activities. Qualitative research model was used and the two largest school chains were selected with concept sampling strategy. To collect data, we interviewed the chief marketing officers of the two selected school chains by using a semi-structured interview guideline. The data was analyzed by using content analysis. The results of the study provide a relatively new perspective based on the concept of institutional isomorphism to the use of technologies for marketing purposes (both as a marketing tool and a marketing product in the private school chain sector. The results show that technology is a powerful marketing product, which is used by schools as a marketing strategy, as well. This eventually leads to convergence of learning environments in different schools. Technology is considered to be a powerful tool for marketing school’s activities, as well, and this power is acknowledged by both school chains. Similarly, use of technology as a marketing tool becomes an isomorphic force for the two competing schools.

  8. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  9. The emergence of the global fintech market: Economic and technological determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Christian; Hornuf, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the economic and technological determinants inducing entrepreneurs to establish ventures with the purpose of reinventing financial technology (fintech). We find that countries witness more fintech startup formations when the latest technology is readily available, capital markets are well-developed, and people have more mobile telephone subscriptions. Furthermore, the available labor force has a positive impact on the development of this new market segment. Finally, the more so...

  10. Transmission cost allocation for an efficient tariff action of electricity in a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, C.; Caldon, R.; Lorenzoni, A.

    1999-01-01

    The work is focused on the evaluation of the costs of an electricity transmission system operator and on their allocation among the users of the grid in liberalized market. After a recall of the goals of an efficient tariff for transmission, an original method for the cost allocation is proposed called ZI. Based on the marginal cost approach, this method could be the base for setting an efficient transmission tariff that at the same time covers costs and stimulates efficient behaviours. The performances of such an approach have been tested on a real 47 bus grid and ZI tariffs have been compared to the traditional postage stamp ones, highlighting the strong differences between them [it

  11. A Transmission-Cost-Based Model to Estimate the Amount of Market-Integrable Wind Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    are made to share the expenses in transmission derived from their integration, they may see the doors of electricity markets closed for not being competitive enough. This paper presents a model to decide the amount of wind resources that are economically exploitable at a given location from a transmission......In the pursuit of the large-scale integration of wind power production, it is imperative to evaluate plausible frictions among the stochastic nature of wind generation, electricity markets, and the investments in transmission required to accommodate larger amounts of wind. If wind producers......-cost perspective. This model accounts for the uncertain character of wind by using a modeling framework based on stochastic optimization, simulates market barriers by means of a bi-level structure, and considers the financial risk of investments in transmission through the conditional value-at-risk. The major...

  12. ChotuKool - Indian Godrej is creating a disruptive innovation - a low-cost refrigerator for the BOP market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Raman, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A disruptive innovation is a technology whose performance does not currently meet the requirements of the developed market. However, it does meet the requirements of a lower-end market, with customers that have lover performance requirements and are more sensitive to price. Indian Godrej followed...... these principles and developed a "simple" refrigerator, which is especially targeted for the Bottom-of Pyramid (BOP) market......A disruptive innovation is a technology whose performance does not currently meet the requirements of the developed market. However, it does meet the requirements of a lower-end market, with customers that have lover performance requirements and are more sensitive to price. Indian Godrej followed...

  13. Integral Cost-Benefit Analysis of Maglev Rail Projects Under Market Imperfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paul Elhorst

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates a new mode of high speed ground transportation, the magnetic levitation rail system (Maglev. The outcomes of this evaluation provide policy information on the interregional redistribution of employment and population and the national welfare improvement of two Dutch urban-conglomeration and two Dutch core-periphery projects. This article also compares the results of an integral cost- benefit analysis with those of a conventional cost-benefit analysis and concludes that the additional economic benefits due to market imperfections vary from –1% to +38% of the direct transport benefits, depending on the type of regions connected and the general condition of the economy.

  14. Ancillary reactive power service allocation cost in deregulated markets: a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J. Horacio Tovar; Jimenez-Guzman, Miguel; Gutierrez-Alcaraz, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to allocate reactive power costs in deregulated markets. Reactive power supply service is decomposed into voltage regulation and reactive power spinning reserve. The proposed methodology is based on sensitivities and the postage-stamp method in order to allocate the total costs service among all participants. With the purpose of achieving this goal, the system operator identifies voltage support and/or reactive power requirements, and looks out for suitable providers. One case study is presented here to illustrate the methodology over a simplified southeastern Mexican grid. (Author)

  15. Analysis of Effectiveness of Modern Information and Communication Technologies on Maize Marketing Efficiency in Lilongwe and Dedza Districts and Selected Markets of Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Tione, Sarah Ephridah

    2011-01-01

    Government of Malawi has been promoting initiatives like Malawi Agriculture Commodity Exchange (MACE) that aim at reducing information asymmetry among market players especially smallholder farmers. Using co-integration error correction models, the study assessed effectiveness of modern ICT based market interventions on improving maize marketing efficiency in Malawi. Considering that efficient markets are integrated markets when price difference is only a factor of transaction costs, TAR model...

  16. Security cost analysis in electricity markets based on voltage security criteria and Web-based implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient and transparent method for electricity market operators to analyze transaction security costs and to quantify the correlation between market operation and power system operation. Rescheduling and take-risk strategies were proposed and discussed with reference to transaction impact computations, thermal and voltage limits and voltage stability criteria. The rescheduling method is associated with an iterative generation dispatch or load curtailment approach to minimize the amount of rescheduling. The take-risk method considered operating risks to facilitate transactions. The SATC concept was also proposed to accurately evaluate transmission congestion. The impact of transaction was calculated using a new sensitivity formula to find the most effective rescheduling direction and the most effective cost distribution. A new pricing method called Nodal Congestion Price was also proposed to determine proper price signals. The paper also presents an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based short term load forecasting method that considers the effect of price on the load. A web-based prototype was implemented to allow all market participants access to the proposed analysis and pricing techniques. Several case studies have validated the effectiveness of the proposed method which would help independent system operators in determining congestion prices, coordinate transactions and make profitable market decisions

  17. Pyrolysis and gasification of waste: a worldwide technology and business review. Vol.1: Markets and trends; Vol. 2: Technologies and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The two volume report, Pyrolysis and Gasification of Waste; a Worldwide Technology and Business Review, covers technology trends and market forces, applications and markets, market profiles by region, decision makers' preferences, and the market forecast for 1999 to 2008 in Volume I. Technologies and processes are addressed in Volume II, with technology concepts, analysis of the processes, a comparative review of selected processes examined. A directory of suppliers, process developers and licenses is provided in the appendices to Volume II. (UK)

  18. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-Based Pricing, and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Noel

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines dynamic pricing behavior in retail gasoline markets for 19 Canadian cities over 574 weeks. I find three distinct retail pricing patterns: 1. cost-based pricing, 2. sticky pricing, and 3. steep, asymmetric retail price cycles that, while seldom documented empirically, resemble those of Maskin & Tirole[1988]. Using a Markov switching regression, I estimate the prevalence of patterns and the structural characteristics of the cycles. Retail price cycles prevail in over 40% of ...

  19. The Hidden Costs of Tax Evasion: Collaborative Tax Evasion in Markets for Expert Services

    OpenAIRE

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Beck, Adrian; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally examine the impact of tax evasion attempts on the performance of credence goods markets, where contractual incompleteness results from asymmetric information on the welfare maximizing quality of the good. Our results suggest that tax evasion attempts – independently of whether they are successful or not – lead to efficiency losses in the form of too low quality and less frequent trade. Thus, shadow economies may reduce welfare not only by inducing agents to incur costs to hi...

  20. Is Historical Cost Accounting a Panacea? Market Stress, Incentive Distortions, and Gains Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Ellul, Andrew; Jotikasthira, Chotibhak; Lundblad, Christian T; Wang, Yihui

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the trading incentives of financial institutions induced by the interaction between regulatory accounting rules and capital requirements by investigating insurance companies’ trading behavior during the recent financial crisis. According to insurance regulation, life insurers have a greater degree of flexibility to hold downgraded instruments at historical cost, whereas property and casualty insurers are forced to re-mark many of their downgraded securities to market price...