WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology cost analysis

  1. Cost-benefit analysis of space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Stevenson, S. M.; Sivo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of the implications and problems associated with the use of cost-benefit techniques is presented. Knowledge of these problems is useful in the structure of a decision making process. A methodology of cost-benefit analysis is presented for the evaluation of space technology. The use of the methodology is demonstrated with an evaluation of ion thrusters for north-south stationkeeping aboard geosynchronous communication satellites. A critique of the concept of consumers surplus for measuring benefits is also presented.

  2. Cost analysis methodology: Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisnant, R.A. (Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report describes work done under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project. PVMaT is a five-year project to support the translation of research and development in PV technology into the marketplace. PVMaT, conceived as a DOE/industry partnership, seeks to advanced PV manufacturing technologies, reduce PV module production costs, increase module performance, and expand US commercial production capacities. Under PVMaT, manufacturers will propose specific manufacturing process improvements that may contribute to the goals of the project, which is to lessen the cost, thus hastening entry into the larger scale, grid-connected applications. Phase 1 of the PVMaT project is to identify obstacles and problems associated with manufacturing processes. This report describes the cost analysis methodology required under Phase 1 that will allow subcontractors to be ranked and evaluated during Phase 2.

  3. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.

    2014-09-01

    This cost of ownership analysis identifies the factors impacting the value proposition for fuel cell backup power and presents the estimated annualized cost of ownership for fuel cell backup power systems compared with the incumbent technologies of battery and diesel generator systems. The analysis compares three different backup power technologies (diesel, battery, and fuel cell) operating in similar circumstances in four run time scenarios (8, 52, 72, and 176 hours).

  4. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments: Cost Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.

  5. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technology candidates for the 1980's, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R. E.; Maertins, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cost/benefit analyses to evaluate advanced material technologies projects considered for general aviation and turboprop commuter aircraft through estimated life-cycle costs, direct operating costs, and development costs are discussed. Specifically addressed is the selection of technologies to be evaluated; development of property goals; assessment of candidate technologies on typical engines and aircraft; sensitivity analysis of the changes in property goals on performance and economics, cost, and risk analysis for each technology; and ranking of each technology by relative value. The cost/benefit analysis was applied to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business-type jet aircraft configured with two TFE731-3 turbofan engines, and to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business type turboprop aircraft configured with two TPE331-10 turboprop engines. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis was applied to a commercial turboprop aircraft configured with a growth version of the TPE331-10.

  6. Cost Savings Analysis Guidelines for Manufacturing Technology Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-28

    14 3.2.1 ’CHANGED COSTO SAMPLE PROJECT .................. .. 16 3.2.1.1 COST SAVINGS NARRATIVE ..................... 17 3.2.1.2 RECURRING COSTS...the Level II refurbishment techniques, develop additional Level III regrinding techniques, and produce a generic manual on bearing rework procedures...40 c L0 4) 10 4) ) 4-0 4 0C A 0~~ 0 10 4C C 4) I L.~1 0 f ) AU 1 .01 4S *~~C P;ir L 0I. 0 4) - 0 0IC C I-.C*12 IA Iii 0 0 0~~~ N b>v> *w .0 o a ab2 0

  7. Methodology for conceptual remote sensing spacecraft technology: insertion analysis balancing performance, cost, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, David A.; Duclos, Donald P.; Barrera, Mark J.; Mosher, Todd J.; Lao, Norman Y.

    1997-12-01

    Emerging technologies and micro-instrumentation are changing the way remote sensing spacecraft missions are developed and implemented. Government agencies responsible for procuring space systems are increasingly requesting analyses to estimate cost, performance and design impacts of advanced technology insertion for both state-of-the-art systems as well as systems to be built 5 to 10 years in the future. Numerous spacecraft technology development programs are being sponsored by Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agencies with the goal of enhancing spacecraft performance, reducing mass, and reducing cost. However, it is often the case that technology studies, in the interest of maximizing subsystem-level performance and/or mass reduction, do not anticipate synergistic system-level effects. Furthermore, even though technical risks are often identified as one of the largest cost drivers for space systems, many cost/design processes and models ignore effects of cost risk in the interest of quick estimates. To address these issues, the Aerospace Corporation developed a concept analysis methodology and associated software tools. These tools, collectively referred to as the concept analysis and design evaluation toolkit (CADET), facilitate system architecture studies and space system conceptual designs focusing on design heritage, technology selection, and associated effects on cost, risk and performance at the system and subsystem level. CADET allows: (1) quick response to technical design and cost questions; (2) assessment of the cost and performance impacts of existing and new designs/technologies; and (3) estimation of cost uncertainties and risks. These capabilities aid mission designers in determining the configuration of remote sensing missions that meet essential requirements in a cost- effective manner. This paper discuses the development of CADET modules and their application to several remote sensing satellite

  8. A method for the analysis of the benefits and costs for aeronautical research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.; Hoy, H. H.; Anderson, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A relatively simple, consistent, and reasonable methodology for performing cost-benefit analyses which can be used to guide, justify, and explain investments in aeronautical research and technology is presented. The elements of this methodology (labeled ABC-ART for the Analysis of the Benefits and Costs of Aeronautical Research and Technology) include estimation of aircraft markets; manufacturer costs and return on investment versus aircraft price; airline costs and return on investment versus aircraft price and passenger yield; and potential system benefits--fuel savings, cost savings, and noise reduction. The application of this methodology is explained using the introduction of an advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft in the medium range market in 1978 as an example.

  9. R&D portfolio analysis of low carbon energy technologies to reduce climate change mitigation costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdybel, Rose M.

    In this dissertation we analyze the effects of low carbon energy technology R&D portfolios on the cost of climate change mitigation. We use the results to create the analytical foundation for a decision support system aimed at effectively communicating the effects of uncertainty to decision makers. Specifically, we focus on three main areas. The first is generating a correlated probability distribution around detailed energy price forecasts. The second is showing how the availability of advanced energy technologies and combinations of them affect the marginal abatement cost curve. The third is creating the analytic foundation for a decision support system (DSS) by using an integrated assessment model to analyze the effects of combinations of low carbon energy technologies on CO2 concentration stabilization costs and then combining the results with probabilistic data from expert elicitations to analyze R&D portfolios. The third part also involves creating a multivariate regression model to represent the relationship between variables for additional analysis.

  10. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  11. Lean VOC-Air Mixtures Catalytic Treatment: Cost-Benefit Analysis of Competing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baldissone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various processing routes are available for the treatment of lean VOC-air mixtures, and a cost-benefit analysis is the tool we propose to identify the most suitable technology. Two systems have been compared in this paper, namely a “traditional” plant, with a catalytic fixed-bed reactor with a heat exchanger for heat recovery purposes, and a “non-traditional” plant, with a catalytic reverse-flow reactor, where regenerative heat recovery may be achieved thanks to the periodical reversal of the flow direction. To be useful for decisions-making, the cost-benefit analysis must be coupled to the reliability, or availability, analysis of the plant. Integrated Dynamic Decision Analysis is used for this purpose as it allows obtaining the full set of possible sequences of events that could result in plant unavailability, and, for each of them, the probability of occurrence is calculated. Benefits are thus expressed in terms of out-of-services times, that have to be minimized, while the costs are expressed in terms of extra-cost for maintenance activities and recovery actions. These variable costs must be considered together with the capital (fixed cost required for building the plant. Results evidenced the pros and cons of the two plants. The “traditional” plant ensures a higher continuity of services, but also higher operational costs. The reverse-flow reactor-based plant exhibits lower operational costs, but a higher number of protection levels are needed to obtain a similar level of out-of-service. The quantification of risks and benefits allows the stakeholders to deal with a complete picture of the behavior of the plants, fostering a more effective decision-making process. With reference to the case under study and the relevant operational conditions, the regenerative system was demonstrated to be more suitable to treat lean mixtures: in terms of time losses following potential failures the two technologies are comparable (Fixed bed

  12. [Robot technology in the Italian Health-CARE system: cost-efficacy economic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Gaetano; Antonucci, Michele; Palermo, Giuseppe; D'Agostino, Daniele; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Racioppi, Marco; Pinto, Francesco; Sacco, Emilio; Bassi, Pierfrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Robotic technology is used in multiple fields of surgery, especially radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the introduction of robotic technology in the Italian Public Heath-care context, from the perspective of the Health Technology Assessment (HTA). An economic analysis that compares the costs and effectiveness of the method was developed. Data were compared with those of the most important international literature, analyzing structural and organizational problems related to the method. A systematic review of literature on tertiary literature (Health Technology Assessment reports) and secondary (systematic reviews) published since 2002 was conducted. The review was also conducted on more recent primary literature regarding the clinical effectiveness and the economic analysis in the fields of surgery where Da Vinci robot is most promising. 18 studies were selected out of a total of 65 evaluated. The "Break-Even Point" (BEP) is the minimum number of cases needed to be treated in order to achieve a balance between costs and revenues, below which the system is losing money. It was calculated that the total fixed costs are € 378,000 and variable costs are € 3,810 per surgery. Considering that the current value of DRG (Diagnosis-Related Group) refunded by the public Health-care system is actually € 4,553, the BEP would be achieved performing 508 surgeries, so that the robotic technology does not generate neither profit nor loss. It is not possible to demonstrate the superiority of robotic surgery in terms of efficacy. The robotic surgery is safe and effective only if performed by surgical teams with relevant experience. Considering the reported case of an Italian University Hospital with public Health-care system refund, the BEP target of 508 radical prostatectomies could be achieved after a few years. The use of the robot in multiple fields on one hand shortens recovery time costs, but on the other hand

  13. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  14. A methodology for spacecraft technology insertion analysis balancing benefit, cost, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, David Allen

    Emerging technologies are changing the way space missions are developed and implemented. Technology development programs are proceeding with the goal of enhancing spacecraft performance and reducing mass and cost. However, it is often the case that technology insertion assessment activities, in the interest of maximizing performance and/or mass reduction, do not consider synergistic system-level effects. Furthermore, even though technical risks are often identified as a large cost and schedule driver, many design processes ignore effects of cost and schedule uncertainty. This research is based on the hypothesis that technology selection is a problem of balancing interrelated (and potentially competing) objectives. Current spacecraft technology selection approaches are summarized, and a Methodology for Evaluating and Ranking Insertion of Technology (MERIT) that expands on these practices to attack otherwise unsolved problems is demonstrated. MERIT combines the modern techniques of technology maturity measures, parametric models, genetic algorithms, and risk assessment (cost and schedule) in a unique manner to resolve very difficult issues including: user-generated uncertainty, relationships between cost/schedule and complexity, and technology "portfolio" management. While the methodology is sufficiently generic that it may in theory be applied to a number of technology insertion problems, this research focuses on application to the specific case of small (goals, not-to-exceed costs, or hard schedule requirements. MERIT'S contributions to the engineering community are its: unique coupling of the aspects of performance, cost, and schedule; assessment of system level impacts of technology insertion; procedures for estimating uncertainties (risks) associated with advanced technology; and application of heuristics to facilitate informed system-level technology utilization decisions earlier in the conceptual design phase. MERIT extends the state of the art in technology

  15. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The materials technologies studied included thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils, turbine disks, cases, turbine vanes and engine and nacelle composite materials. The cost/benefit of each technology was determined in terms of Relative Value defined as change in return on investment times probability of success divided by development cost. A recommended final ranking of technologies was based primarily on consideration of Relative Values with secondary consideration given to changes in other economic parameters. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits were thermal barrier coated temperature nacelle/engine system composites.

  16. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  17. Gauging Technology Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Rich

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the role technology plays in a school district, district personnel should know the costs associated with technology, understand the consequences of technology purchases, and be able to measure the benefits of technology, so they can make more informed decisions. However, determining costs and benefits of current technology or…

  18. Analysis of the cost impact of the new technologies in e-tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina DRUMEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of new technologies on retail is studied in terms of costs. Starting from the idea that reducing costs should have a significant effect of the new technologies in retail, it is investigated the possibility that it actually constitutes the basis of a new facette of the cost leadership generic strategy. Exploratory research tracks some automation effects on transaction costs and labour costs in retail. General business models in the field are analysed, with a focus on some concrete ways of implementation in retail, particularly as e-tail. In the background we grasp and discuss the aspects of the financial flows related to trade. Even when those issues may prevail, one cannot elude discussing the cultural and ethical standards associated to the trade new features induced by e-tail and the new technologies.

  19. Cost-benefit analysis for the installation of cogeneration CSP technology in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the installation of an innovative cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water (DSW with concentrated solar power (CSP technology in Cyprus is economically feasible. The study takes into account the following generating technologies, (a CSP-DSW technology 4 MWe, (b CSP-DSW technology 10 MWe, (c CSP-DSW technology 25 MWe and (d CSP-DSW technology 50 MWe with or without CO2 trading for two different cases of electricity purchasing tariff. For all above cases the electricity unit cost or benefit before tax, as well as internal rate of return (IRR and payback period (PBP are calculated. The results indicate that the electricity unit cost or benefit for both cases of electricity purchasing tariff are decreased or increased with the increase of the capacity factor and the capacity size of the plant. Also, the additional benefit due to the CO2 ETS price of 10 €/tCO2 for all scenarios is 0.8 €c/kWh. Specifically, for the electricity purchasing tariff of 26 €c/kWh case, the investment in CSP-DSW technology for every capacity size is very attractive, since, the CSP-DSW scenarios have high after tax IRR and low PBP. Despite the lower electricity unit cost benefit in the case of electricity purchasing tariff of 12.83 €c/kWh compared to that of the 26 €c/kWh case, which in some cases there is cost and not benefit, for CSP-DSW plants of 25 MWe and 50 MWe, the investment in this technology is still attractive.

  20. Renewable Energies and CO2 Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends- 2012 Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero-Lemus, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Providing up-to-date numerical data across a range of topics related to renewable energy technologies, Renewable Energies and CO2 offers a one-stop source of key information to engineers, economists and all other professionals working in the energy and climate change sectors. The most relevant up-to-date numerical data are exposed in 201 tables and graphs, integrated in terms of units and methodology, and covering topics such as energy system capacities and lifetimes, production costs, energy payback ratios, carbon emissions, external costs, patents and literature statistics. The data are first presented and then analyzed to project potential future grid, heat and fuel parity scenarios, as well as future technology tendencies in different energy technological areas. Innovative highlights and descriptions of preproduction energy systems and components from the past four years have been gathered from selected journals and international energy departments from G20 countries. As the field develops, readers are in...

  1. Cost analysis methodology: Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project. Annual subcontract report, 11 March 1991--11 November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisnant, R.A. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report describes work done under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project. PVMaT is a five-year project to support the translation of research and development in PV technology into the marketplace. PVMaT, conceived as a DOE/industry partnership, seeks to advanced PV manufacturing technologies, reduce PV module production costs, increase module performance, and expand US commercial production capacities. Under PVMaT, manufacturers will propose specific manufacturing process improvements that may contribute to the goals of the project, which is to lessen the cost, thus hastening entry into the larger scale, grid-connected applications. Phase 1 of the PVMaT project is to identify obstacles and problems associated with manufacturing processes. This report describes the cost analysis methodology required under Phase 1 that will allow subcontractors to be ranked and evaluated during Phase 2.

  2. Cost effectiveness analysis of the SEAMIST{trademark} membrane system technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Booth, S.R.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the cost and performance characteristics of SEAMIST{trademark}, an innovative technology that facilitates measurements of contaminants in both vertical and horizontal vadose zone boreholes. This new technology consists of an airtight membrane linear that is pneumatically emplaced inside the borehole structure. Sampling ports with attached tubing, absorbent collectors, or various in situ measuring devices can be fabricated into the linear and used for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, herbicides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, or radioactive substances. In addition, small instruments can be guided through the lined borehole and measurements taken inside at specified intervals.

  3. Using Technology to Control Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simon; Schoenberg, Doug; Richards, Dan; Morath, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examines the use of technology to control costs in the child care industry. One of these technology solutions is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). SaaS solutions can help child care providers save money in many aspects of center management. In addition to cost savings, SaaS solutions are also particularly appealing to…

  4. Lifecycle Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Versus Other Technologies for Electrical Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ramsden, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis evaluating the economic viability of hydrogen for medium- to large-scale electrical energy storage applications compared with three other storage technologies: batteries, pumped hydro, and compressed air energy storage (CAES).

  5. Technology and cost efficiency in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Günter

    1995-01-01

    Technology and cost efficiency in banking : a "thick frontier"-analysis of the German banking industry / Günter Lang and Peter Welzel. - Augsburg, 1995. - 26 S. - (Volkswirtschaftliche Diskussionsreihe ; 130)

  6. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.; Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.

    2016-01-01

    Low Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and high levels of uncertainty make it challenging to develop cost estimates of new technologies in the R&D phase. It is however essential for NASA to understand the costs and benefits associated with novel concepts, in order to prioritize research investments and evaluate the potential for technology transfer and commercialization. This paper proposes a framework to perform a cost-benefit analysis of a technology in the R&D phase. This framework was developed and used to assess the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. Following the definition of a case study for a cryogenic tank cylinder of specified geometry, data was gathered through interviews with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity. This data served as the basis to produce process flowcharts and timelines, mass estimates, and rough order-of-magnitude cost and schedule estimates. The scalability of the results was subsequently investigated to understand the variability of the results based on tank size. Lastly, once costs and benefits were identified, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to assess the relative value of these achieved benefits for potential stakeholders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results predict a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Compared to the composite manufacturing technique, these results predict cost savings of 35 to 58 percent; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels

  7. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The analy

  8. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The

  9. Documentation of the analysis of the benefits and costs of aeronautical research and technology models, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, J. C.; Braun, R. L.; Denny, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of the benefits and costs of aeronautical research and technology (ABC-ART) models are documented. These models were developed by NASA for use in analyzing the economic feasibility of applying advanced aeronautical technology to future civil aircraft. The methodology is composed of three major modules: fleet accounting module, airframe manufacturing module, and air carrier module. The fleet accounting module is used to estimate the number of new aircraft required as a function of time to meet demand. This estimation is based primarily upon the expected retirement age of existing aircraft and the expected change in revenue passenger miles demanded. Fuel consumption estimates are also generated by this module. The airframe manufacturer module is used to analyze the feasibility of the manufacturing the new aircraft demanded. The module includes logic for production scheduling and estimating manufacturing costs. For a series of aircraft selling prices, a cash flow analysis is performed and a rate of return on investment is calculated. The air carrier module provides a tool for analyzing the financial feasibility of an airline purchasing and operating the new aircraft. This module includes a methodology for computing the air carrier direct and indirect operating costs, performing a cash flow analysis, and estimating the internal rate of return on investment for a set of aircraft purchase prices.

  10. The Total Cost of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Presents overview of areas to consider when planning for the total cost of technology, including a brief look at the planning needed, equipment that should be considered, infrastructure needs, software considerations, maintenance issues, training, upgrades, and planning for system failures. (Author/PKP)

  11. Lean systems approaches to health technology assessment: a patient-focused alternative to cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John F P

    2006-12-01

    Many countries now use health technology assessment (HTA) to review new and emerging technologies, especially with regard to reimbursement, pricing and/or clinical guidelines. One of the common, but not universal, features of these systems is the use of economic evaluation, normally cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), to confirm that new technologies offer value for money. Many have criticised these systems as primarily being concerned with cost containment, rather than advancing the interests of patients or innovators. This paper calls into question the underlying principles of CEA by arguing that value in the healthcare system may in fact be unconstrained. It is suggested that 'lean management principles' can be used not only to trim waste from the health system, but as a method of creating real incentives for innovation and value creation. Following the lean paradigm, this value must be defined purely from the patients' perspective, and the entire health system needs to work towards the creation of such value. This paper offers as a practical example a lean approach to HTA, arguing that such an approach would lead to better incentives for innovation in health, as well as more patient-friendly outcomes in the long run.

  12. [Indirect costs in health technology assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Wrona, Witold; Macioch, Tomasz; Golicki, Dominik; Niewada, Maciej; Hermanowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    In the health technology assessment it is crucial to define the perspective of the analysis. When the societal perspective is chosen it is necessary to include all the costs incurred by the society, also the costs of lost productivity resulting from absence of sick employees from work or their reduced efficiency at work. The aim of this article is to present the notion of indirect costs, their importance in health technology assessment and the methods of calculation. The economic literature has been reviewed for the state of knowledge on indirect costs. Three methods of calculation are described: human capital method, friction cost method or health state valuation. Indirect costs in Western European countries can amount to more than half of total costs attributed to the illness and its treatment. In the literature there is no consensus regarding the proper method of indirect costs calculation. It is necessary to conduct further theoretical and empirical research in the area of indirect costs and enhance discussion among Polish pharmacoeconomists.

  13. Energy recovery efficiency and cost analysis of VOC thermal oxidation pollution control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warahena, Aruna S K; Chuah, Yew Khoy

    2009-08-01

    Thermal oxidation of VOC is extremely energy intensive, and necessitates high efficiency heat recovery from the exhaust heat. In this paper, two independent parameters heat recovery factor (HRF) and equipment cost factor (ECF) are introduced. HRF and ECF can be used to evaluate separately the merits of energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of VOC oxidation systems. Another parameter equipment cost against heat recovery (ECHR) which is a function of HRF and ECF is introduced to evaluate the merit of different systems for the thermal oxidation of VOC. Respective cost models were derived for recuperative thermal oxidizer (TO) and regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO). Application examples are presented to show the use and the importance of these parameters. An application examples show that TO has a lower ECF while RTO has a higher HRF. However when analyzed using ECHR, RTO would be of advantage economically in longer periods of use. The analytical models presented can be applied in similar environmental protection systems.

  14. A cost evaluation methodology for surgical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Imad; Wolff, Sandrine; Gronfier, Agnes; Mutter, Didier; Swanström, Lee L; Swantröm, Lee L

    2015-08-01

    To create and validate a micro-costing methodology that surgeons and hospital administrators can use to evaluate the cost of implementing innovative surgical technologies. Our analysis is broken down into several elements of fixed and variable costs which are used to effectively and easily calculate the cost of surgical operations. As an example of application, we use data from 86 robot assisted gastric bypass operations made in our hospital. To validate our methodology, we discuss the cost reporting approaches used in 16 surgical publications with respect to 7 predefined criteria. Four formulas are created which allow users to import data from their health system or particular situation and derive the total cost. We have established that the robotic surgical system represents 97.53 % of our operating room's medical device costs which amounts to $4320.11. With a mean surgery time of 303 min, personnel cost per operation amounts to $1244.73, whereas reusable instruments and disposable costs are, respectively, $1539.69 and $3629.55 per case. The literature survey demonstrates that the cost of surgery is rarely reported or emphasized, and authors who do cover this concept do so with variable methodologies which make their findings difficult to interpret. Using a micro-costing methodology, it is possible to identify the cost of any new surgical procedure/technology using formulas that can be adapted to a variety of operations and healthcare systems. We hope that this paper will provide guidance for decision makers and a means for surgeons to harmonise cost reporting in the literature.

  15. Educational Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Donald L.

    Traditional approaches to the cost analysis of educational programs involve examining annual budgets. Such approaches do not properly consider the cost of either new capital expenditures or the current value of previously purchased items. This paper presents the methodology for a new approach to educational cost analysis that identifies the actual…

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.; Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2016-01-01

    This cost-benefit analysis assesses the benefits of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results report a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Production cost savings of 35 to 58 percent were reported over the composite manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels when compared with conventional metallic manufacturing. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. A case study compared these three alternatives for manufacturing a cylinder of specified geometry, with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity, with cost analyses performed by the analogy and parametric methods. Furthermore, a scalability study was conducted for three tank diameters to assess the highest potential payoff of the ANNST process for manufacture of large-diameter cryogenic tanks. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was subsequently used with a group of selected subject matter experts to assess the value of the various benefits achieved by the ANNST method for potential stakeholders. The AHP study results revealed that decreased final cylinder mass and quality assurance were the most valued benefits of cylinder manufacturing methods, therefore emphasizing the relevance of the benefits achieved with the ANNST process for future projects.

  17. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V. (, - Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  18. A Cost Estimation Analysis of U.S. Navy Ship Fuel-Savings Techniques and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    coastal waters during the present conflict in Iraq have experienced excessive filter usage rates and premature RO membrane failures. New... microfiltration (MF) technology can provide a superior level of filtration in most waters and can be renewed by backflushing techniques developed under an...ONR program. MF can facilitate operation in coastal and littoral waters and will also allow operating the RO plant at higher membrane recoveries

  19. Information Technology Budgets and Costs: Do You Know What Your Information Technology Costs Each Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses yearly information technology costs for academic libraries. Topics include transformation and modernization activities that affect prices and budgeting; a cost model for information technologies; life cycle costs, including initial costs and recurring costs; cost benchmarks; and examples of pressures concerning cost accountability. (LRW)

  20. Aqueous-stream uranium-removal technology cost/benefit and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present information that was gathered by Kapline Enterprises, Inc. (KEI) in order to help the Department of Energy (DOE) determine the merit of continued biosorption research funding. However, in the event that funding is continued, it is also intended to help the researchers in their efforts to develop a better uranium-removal process. This report (1) provides a comparison of DOE sites that may utilize aqueous-stream, uranium-removal biosorption technology, (2) presents a comparison of the biosorption and ion exchange processes, and (3) establishes performance criteria by which the project can be measured. It also attempts to provide focus for biosorbent ground-water-remediation research and to ask questions that need to be answered. This report is primarily a study of the US market for technologies that remove uranium from aqueous streams, but it also addresses the international market-particularly for Germany. Because KEI`s access to international market information is extremely limited, the material presented in this report represents a best effort to obtain this data. Although uranium-contaminated aqueous streams are a problem in other countries as well, the scope of this report is primarily limited to the US and Germany for two reasons: (1) Germany is the country of the biosorbent-CRADA partner and (2) time constraints.

  1. Integrating Efficiency of Industry Processes and Practices Alongside Technology Effectiveness in Space Transportation Cost Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents past and current work in dealing with indirect industry and NASA costs when providing cost estimation or analysis for NASA projects and programs. Indirect costs, when defined as those costs in a project removed from the actual hardware or software hands-on labor; makes up most of the costs of today's complex large scale NASA space/industry projects. This appears to be the case across phases from research into development into production and into the operation of the system. Space transportation is the case of interest here. Modeling and cost estimation as a process rather than a product will be emphasized. Analysis as a series of belief systems in play among decision makers and decision factors will also be emphasized to provide context.

  2. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores potential channels through which information technology (IT) affects economic development. The channel emphasized here is the reduction of transaction costs through the use of information technology. We discuss the nature of transaction costs, their possible impacts on economic outcomes, and the impacts of IT on transaction costs. We provide a theoretical discussion of how a reduction in transaction costs may affect the number of intermediate goods that are produced, and i...

  3. Cost Analysis of a Transition to Green Vehicle Technology for Light Duty Fleet Vehicles in Public Works Department Naval Support Activity Monterey (PWD Monterey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    replacing ICEs with green technologies on the federal fleet level. The current leader in this research is the AVTA, a subcomponent of the Idaho...the market that may provide additional benefits. C. FOLLOW-ON RESEARCH Possibilities for future research are as follows: 1. Determine the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT COST ANALYSIS OF A TRANSITION TO GREEN VEHICLE

  4. The Cost of Change in Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullias, Dave

    1987-01-01

    The author states that two costs will be involved in the coming change in technology education: financial and personal. He questions what group of educators will teach technology education in the future. (CH)

  5. An Analysis of the Technological Structure of Refineries and Blenders: Estimation of the Leontief Multiproduct Cost Function and Reservation Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Leontief multiproduct flexible cost function aims to give an approach to the technology used by refineries and blenders. In general, this cost function satisfies rational behavior restrictions imposed by economic theory. The estimated marginal costs are incorporated in a monopolistic competition model to calculate the virtual prices of other products provided by refineries and blenders in the hypothetical situation in which reformulated gasoline is absent in fuel markets. I have found that conventional gasoline and other product prices are greater than those in the mentioned hypothetical case. This result reflects the fact that consumers are being charged with high prices in order to have available a fuel which satisfies the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA regulations. Finally, when all the products become perfect substitutes, i.e. consumers are not interested in the quality of fuels, price differences tend to be negligibly small.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing continuation of assisted reproductive technology with conversion to intrauterine insemination in patients with low follicle numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Mumford, Sunni; Royster, G Donald; Segars, James; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2014-08-01

    To compare the cost effectiveness of proceeding with oocyte retrieval vs. converting to intrauterine insemination (IUI) in patients with ≤4 mature follicles during assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Probabilistic decision analysis. The cost effectiveness of completing ART cycles in poor responders was compared to that for converting the cycles to IUI. Not applicable. Not applicable. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Cost effectiveness, which was defined as the average direct medical costs per ongoing pregnancy. In patients with 1-3 mature follicles, completing ART was more cost effective if the cost of a single ART cycle was between $10,000 and $25,000. For patients with 4 mature follicles, if an ART cycle costcost effective to continue with oocyte retrieval than to convert to IUI. In patients with ≤4 mature follicles following ovarian stimulation in ART cycles, it was on average more cost effective to proceed with oocyte retrieval rather than convert to IUI. However, important factors, such as age, prior ART failures, other fertility factors, and medications used in each individual case need to be considered before this analysis model can be adapted by individual practices. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Standard cost elements for technology programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Carisa B.; Wagenfuehrer, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The suitable structure for an effective and accurate cost estimate for general purposes is discussed in the context of a NASA technology program. Cost elements are defined for research, management, and facility-construction portions of technology programs. Attention is given to the mechanisms for insuring the viability of spending programs, and the need for program managers is established for effecting timely fund disbursement. Formal, structures, and intuitive techniques are discussed for cost-estimate development, and cost-estimate defensibility can be improved with increased documentation. NASA policies for cash management are examined to demonstrate the importance of the ability to obligate funds and the ability to cost contracted funds. The NASA approach to consistent cost justification is set forth with a list of standard cost-element definitions. The cost elements reflect the three primary concerns of cost estimates: the identification of major assumptions, the specification of secondary analytic assumptions, and the status of program factors.

  8. Low-cost training technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    The differences between flight training technology and flight simulation technology are highlighted. Examples of training technologies are provided, including the Navy's training system and the interactive cockpit training device. Training problems that might arise in the near future are discussed. These challenges follow from the increased amount and variety of information that a pilot must have access to in the cockpit.

  9. Extensive analysis of hydrogen costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinea, D.M.; Martin, D.; Garcia-Alegre, M.C.; Guinea, D. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Arganda, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Automatica Industrial; Agila, W.E. [Acciona Infraestructuras, Alcobendas, Madrid (Spain). Dept. I+D+i

    2010-07-01

    Cost is a key issue in the spreading of any technology. In this work, the cost of hydrogen is analyzed and determined, for hydrogen obtained by electrolysis. Different contributing partial costs are taken into account to calculate the hydrogen final cost, such as energy and electrolyzers taxes. Energy cost data is taken from official URLs, while electrolyzer costs are obtained from commercial companies. The analysis is accomplished under different hypothesis, and for different countries: Germany, France, Austria, Switzerland, Spain and the Canadian region of Ontario. Finally, the obtained costs are compared to those of the most used fossil fuels, both in the automotive industry (gasoline and diesel) and in the residential sector (butane, coal, town gas and wood), and the possibilities of hydrogen competing against fuels are discussed. According to this work, in the automotive industry, even neglecting subsidies, hydrogen can compete with fossil fuels. Hydrogen can also compete with gaseous domestic fuels. Electrolyzer prices were found to have the highest influence on hydrogen prices. (orig.)

  10. Cost of ownership for future lithography technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Andrew J.; Wüest, Andrea; Hughes, Greg; Litt, Lloyd C.; Goodwin, Frank

    2008-11-01

    The cost of ownership (COO) of candidate technologies for 32 nm and 22 nm half-pitch lithography is calculated. To more accurately compare technologies with different numbers of process steps, a model that includes deposition, etching, metrology, and other costs is created. Results show lithography COO for leading edge layers will increase by roughly 50% from the 45 nm to the 32 nm half-pitch nodes. Double patterning and extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technologies have roughly the same COO under certain conditions. For 22 nm half-pitch nodes, EUVL has a significant cost advantage over other technologies under certain mask cost assumptions. Double patterning, however, may be competitive under worst case EUVL mask cost assumptions. Sensitivity studies of EUVL COO to throughput and uptime show EUVL may be cost-competitive at lower uptime and throughput conditions. In spite of these higher costs, total lithography costs for 32 nm and 22 nm half-pitches remain within reach of the Moore's Law trend. Finally, the COO of 450 mm lithography is calculated and shows the expected cost reduction is between 0% and 15%.

  11. Television broadcast from space systems: Technology, costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    Broadcast satellite systems are described. The technologies which are unique to both high power broadcast satellites and small TV receive-only earth terminals are also described. A cost assessment of both space and earth segments is included and appendices present both a computer model for satellite cost and the pertinent reported experience with the Japanese BSE.

  12. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Lopez, R.; Wilson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 {mu}m stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1{mu}m, and preferably 0.5 {mu}m, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015 % at 0.3 {mu}m and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03 % penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. 33 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Philipson, Tomas J

    2008-09-01

    While cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis has provided a guide to allocating often scarce resources spent on medical technologies, less emphasis has been placed on the effect of such criteria on the behavior of innovators who make health care technologies available in the first place. A better understanding of the link between innovation and cost-effectiveness analysis is particularly important given the large role of technological change in the growth in health care spending and the growing interest of explicit use of CE thresholds in leading technology adoption in several Westernized countries. We analyze CE analysis in a standard market context, and stress that a technology's cost-effectiveness is closely related to the consumer surplus it generates. Improved CE therefore often clashes with interventions to stimulate producer surplus, such as patents. We derive the inconsistency between technology adoption based on CE analysis and economic efficiency. Indeed, static efficiency, dynamic efficiency, and improved patient health may all be induced by the cost-effectiveness of the technology being at its worst level. As producer appropriation of the social surplus of an innovation is central to the dynamic efficiency that should guide CE adoption criteria, we exemplify how appropriation can be inferred from existing CE estimates. For an illustrative sample of technologies considered, we find that the median technology has an appropriation of about 15%. To the extent that such incentives are deemed either too low or too high compared to dynamically efficient levels, CE thresholds may be appropriately raised or lowered to improve dynamic efficiency.

  14. Endogenous Technology Adoption and Medical Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiraud, Karine; Lhuillery, Stephane

    2016-09-01

    Despite the claim that technology has been one of the most important drivers of healthcare spending growth over the past decades, technology variables are rarely introduced explicitly in cost equations. Furthermore, technology is often considered exogenous. Using 1996-2007 panel data on Swiss geographical areas, we assessed the impact of technology availability on per capita healthcare spending covered by basic health insurance whilst controlling for the endogeneity of health technology availability variables. Our results suggest that medical research, patent intensity and the density of employees working in the medical device industry are influential factors for the adoption of technology and can be used as instruments for technology availability variables in the cost equation. These results are similar to previous findings: CT and PET scanner adoption is associated with increased healthcare spending, whilst increased availability of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty facilities is associated with reductions in per capita spending. However, our results suggest that the magnitude of these relationships is much greater in absolute value than that suggested by previous studies that did not control for the possible endogeneity of the availability of technologies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Retention payoff-based cost per day open regression equations: Application in a user-friendly decision support tool for investment analysis of automated estrus detection technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K A; Heersche, G; Bewley, J M

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the economic implications of investing in automated estrus detection (AED) technologies can be overwhelming for dairy producers. The objectives of this study were to develop new regression equations for estimating the cost per day open (DO) and to apply the results to create a user-friendly, partial budget, decision support tool for investment analysis of AED technologies. In the resulting decision support tool, the end user can adjust herd-specific inputs regarding general management, current reproductive management strategies, and the proposed AED system. Outputs include expected DO, reproductive cull rate, net present value, and payback period for the proposed AED system. Utility of the decision support tool was demonstrated with an example dairy herd created using data from DairyMetrics (Dairy Records Management Systems, Raleigh, NC), Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (Columbia, MO), and published literature. Resulting herd size, rolling herd average milk production, milk price, and feed cost were 323 cows, 10,758kg, $0.41/kg, and $0.20/kg of dry matter, respectively. Automated estrus detection technologies with 2 levels of initial system cost (low: $5,000 vs. high: $10,000), tag price (low: $50 vs. high: $100), and estrus detection rate (low: 60% vs. high: 80%) were compared over a 7-yr investment period. Four scenarios were considered in a demonstration of the investment analysis tool: (1) a herd using 100% visual observation for estrus detection before adopting 100% AED, (2) a herd using 100% visual observation before adopting 75% AED and 25% visual observation, (3) a herd using 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI) before adopting 100% AED, and (4) a herd using 100% TAI before adopting 75% AED and 25% TAI. Net present value in scenarios 1 and 2 was always positive, indicating a positive investment situation. Net present value in scenarios 3 and 4 was always positive in combinations using a $50 tag price, and in scenario 4, the $5

  16. Cost effectiveness and efficiency in assistive technology service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C G

    1993-01-01

    In order to develop and maintain a viable service delivery program, the realities of cost effectiveness and cost efficiency in providing assistive technology must be addressed. Cost effectiveness relates to value of the outcome compared to the expenditures. Cost efficiency analyzes how a provider uses available resources to supply goods and services. This paper describes how basic business principles of benefit/cost analysis can be used to determine cost effectiveness. In addition, basic accounting principles are used to illustrate methods of evaluating a program's cost efficiency. Service providers are encouraged to measure their own program's effectiveness and efficiency (and potential viability) in light of current trends. This paper is meant to serve as a catalyst for continued dialogue on this topic.

  17. Open source home care technology : technical design and development, user research, cost-benefit analysis, and business modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, Marike; Gyaltsen-Lohuis, Elles; Keijzer, Ander de; Nauta, Jan M.; Balkenende, Rens; Donninger, Niels; Alphen, Guido van

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the work in progress for the Hightech@home project. The aim of this project is to develop technology and knowledge concerning open source home care technology, utilizing open standards. Currently, there is limited availability of high tech sensor and communication technology whil

  18. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  19. An introduction to cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponovo, Ernest

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basics of cost accounting for healthcare providers and how these concepts relate to decision making in medical practice. By understanding cost accounting and cost analysis, providers can be better prepared to compete and survive in a changing healthcare environment.

  20. Cost Analysis: Methods and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Martin M.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that librarians need to be concerned with cost analysis of library functions and services because, in the allocation of resources, decision makers will favor library managers who demonstrate understanding of the relationships between costs and productive outputs. Factors that should be included in a reliable scheme for cost accounting are…

  1. Development of Advanced Life Cycle Costing Methods for Technology Benefit/Cost/Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of this three-year grant is to provide NASA Langley's System Analysis Branch with improved affordability tools and methods based on probabilistic cost assessment techniques. In order to accomplish this objective, the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) needs to pursue more detailed affordability, technology impact, and risk prediction methods and to demonstrate them on variety of advanced commercial transports. The affordability assessment, which is a cornerstone of ASDL methods, relies on the Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ALCCA) program originally developed by NASA Ames Research Center and enhanced by ASDL. This grant proposed to improve ALCCA in support of the project objective by updating the research, design, test, and evaluation cost module, as well as the engine development cost module. Investigations into enhancements to ALCCA include improved engine development cost, process based costing, supportability cost, and system reliability with airline loss of revenue for system downtime. A probabilistic, stand-alone version of ALCCA/FLOPS will also be developed under this grant in order to capture the uncertainty involved in technology assessments. FLOPS (FLight Optimization System program) is an aircraft synthesis and sizing code developed by NASA Langley Research Center. This probabilistic version of the coupled program will be used within a Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method to determine what types of technologies would have to be infused in a system in order to meet customer requirements. A probabilistic analysis of the CER's (cost estimating relationships) within ALCCA will also be carried out under this contract in order to gain some insight as to the most influential costs and the impact that code fidelity could have on future RDS (Robust Design Simulation) studies.

  2. Cost Optimization and Technology Enablement COTSAT-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Lindsay, Michael C.; Klupar, Peter Damian; Swank, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Cost Optimized Test of Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT-1) is an ongoing spacecraft research and development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The space industry was a hot bed of innovation and development at its birth. Many new technologies were developed for and first demonstrated in space. In the recent past this trend has reversed with most of the new technology funding and research being driven by the private industry. Most of the recent advances in spaceflight hardware have come from the cell phone industry with a lag of about 10 to 15 years from lab demonstration to in space usage. NASA has started a project designed to address this problem. The prototype spacecraft known as Cost Optimized Test of Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT-1) and CheapSat work to reduce these issues. This paper highlights the approach taken by NASA Ames Research center to achieve significant subsystem cost reductions. The COSTAT-1 research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing spacecraft. The COTSAT-1 team demonstrated building a fully functional spacecraft for $500K parts and $2.0M labor. The COTSAT-1 system, including a selected science payload, is described within this paper. Many of the advancements identified in the process of cost reduction can be attributed to the use of a one-atmosphere pressurized structure to house the spacecraft components. By using COTS hardware, the spacecraft program can utilize investments already made by commercial vendors. This ambitious project development philosophy/cycle has yielded the COTSAT-1 flight hardware. This paper highlights the advancements of the COTSAT-1 spacecraft leading to the delivery of the current flight hardware that is now located at NASA Ames Research Center. This paper also addresses the plans for COTSAT-2.

  3. System technology analysis of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles: Moderate lift/drag (0.75-1.5). Volume 3: Cost estimates and work breakdown structure/dictionary, phase 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Technology payoffs of representative ground based (Phase 1) and space based (Phase 2) mid lift/drag ratio aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicles (AOTV) were assessed and prioritized. A narrative summary of the cost estimates and work breakdown structure/dictionary for both study phases is presented. Costs were estimated using the Grumman Space Programs Algorithm for Cost Estimating (SPACE) computer program and results are given for four AOTV configurations. The work breakdown structure follows the standard of the joint government/industry Space Systems Cost Analysis Group (SSCAG). A table is provided which shows cost estimates for each work breakdown structure element.

  4. Cost analysis and estimating tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Changes in production processes reflect the technological advances permeat­ ing our products and services. U. S. industry is modernizing and automating. In parallel, direct labor is fading as the primary cost driver while engineering and technology related cost elements loom ever larger. Traditional, labor-based ap­ proaches to estimating costs are losing their relevance. Old methods require aug­ mentation with new estimating tools and techniques that capture the emerging environment. This volume represents one of many responses to this challenge by the cost analysis profession. The Institute of Cost Analysis (lCA) is dedicated to improving the effective­ ness of cost and price analysis and enhancing the professional competence of its members. We encourage and promote exchange of research findings and appli­ cations between the academic community and cost professionals in industry and government. The 1990 National Meeting in Los Angeles, jointly spo~sored by ICA and the National Estimating Society (NES),...

  5. Total Cost of Technology Ownership: Doing It Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Describes several factors related to investing in educational technology: Total cost of ownership, availability of qualified information technology staff, support and planning, and outside resources. (PKP)

  6. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  7. The costs of introducing new technologies into space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, E. N.; Partma, H.; Ruhland, W.

    1992-01-01

    A review is conducted of cost-research studies intended to provide guidelines for cost estimates of integrating new technologies into existing satellite systems. Quantitative methods are described for determining the technological state-of-the-art so that proposed programs can be evaluated accurately in terms of their contribution to technological development. The R&D costs associated with the proposed programs are then assessed with attention given to the technological advances. Also incorporated quantifiably are any reductions in the costs of production, operations, and support afforded by the advanced technologies. The proposed model is employed in relation to a satellite sizing and cost study in which a tradeoff between increased R&D costs and reduced production costs is examined. The technology/cost model provides a consistent yardstick for assessing the true relative economic impact of introducing novel techniques and technologies.

  8. A pharmacist-led information technology intervention for medication errors (PINCER): a multicentre, cluster randomised, controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Anthony J; Rodgers, Sarah; Cantrill, Judith A; Armstrong, Sarah; Cresswell, Kathrin; Eden, Martin; Elliott, Rachel A; Howard, Rachel; Kendrick, Denise; Morris, Caroline J; Prescott, Robin J; Swanwick, Glen; Franklin, Matthew; Putman, Koen; Boyd, Matthew; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-04-07

    Medication errors are common in primary care and are associated with considerable risk of patient harm. We tested whether a pharmacist-led, information technology-based intervention was more effective than simple feedback in reducing the number of patients at risk of measures related to hazardous prescribing and inadequate blood-test monitoring of medicines 6 months after the intervention. In this pragmatic, cluster randomised trial general practices in the UK were stratified by research site and list size, and randomly assigned by a web-based randomisation service in block sizes of two or four to one of two groups. The practices were allocated to either computer-generated simple feedback for at-risk patients (control) or a pharmacist-led information technology intervention (PINCER), composed of feedback, educational outreach, and dedicated support. The allocation was masked to researchers and statisticians involved in processing and analysing the data. The allocation was not masked to general practices, pharmacists, patients, or researchers who visited practices to extract data. [corrected]. Primary outcomes were the proportions of patients at 6 months after the intervention who had had any of three clinically important errors: non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prescribed to those with a history of peptic ulcer without co-prescription of a proton-pump inhibitor; β blockers prescribed to those with a history of asthma; long-term prescription of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or loop diuretics to those 75 years or older without assessment of urea and electrolytes in the preceding 15 months. The cost per error avoided was estimated by incremental cost-effectiveness analysis. This study is registered with Controlled-Trials.com, number ISRCTN21785299. 72 general practices with a combined list size of 480,942 patients were randomised. At 6 months' follow-up, patients in the PINCER group were significantly less likely to have

  9. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30-70 - Patent costs and technology transfer costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technology transfer costs. 970.3102-05-30-70 Section 970.3102-05-30-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-30-70 Patent costs and technology transfer costs. (a) For management and operating contracts that do not include the clause at 970.5227-3, Technology Transfer Mission,...

  10. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and

  11. Designing Cost-Competitive Technology Products through Cost Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, T.; Wouters, Marc

    2004-01-01

    SYNOPSIS: As manufacturing innovations spread throughout leading organizations, product development becomes a more important source of competitive advantage. Within product development, cost management receives increasing attention. To date, cost management in new product development focuses

  12. Costs and benefits of health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekelle, Paul G; Morton, Sally C; Keeler, Emmett B

    2006-04-01

    An evidence report was prepared to assess the evidence base regarding benefits and costs of health information technology (HIT) systems, that is, the value of discrete HIT functions and systems in various healthcare settings, particularly those providing pediatric care. PubMed, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register, and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) were electronically searched for articles published since 1995. Several reports prepared by private industry were also reviewed. Of 855 studies screened, 256 were included in the final analyses. These included systematic reviews, meta-analyses, studies that tested a hypothesis, and predictive analyses. Each article was reviewed independently by two reviewers; disagreement was resolved by consensus. Of the 256 studies, 156 concerned decision support, 84 assessed the electronic medical record, and 30 were about computerized physician order entry (categories are not mutually exclusive). One hundred twenty four of the studies assessed the effect of the HIT system in the outpatient or ambulatory setting; 82 assessed its use in the hospital or inpatient setting. Ninety-seven studies used a randomized design. There were 11 other controlled clinical trials, 33 studies using a pre-post design, and 20 studies using a time series. Another 17 were case studies with a concurrent control. Of the 211 hypothesis-testing studies, 82 contained at least some cost data. We identified no study or collection of studies, outside of those from a handful of HIT leaders, that would allow a reader to make a determination about the generalizable knowledge of the study's reported benefit. Beside these studies from HIT leaders, no other research assessed HIT systems that had comprehensive functionality and included data on costs, relevant information on organizational context and process change, and data on implementation. A small body of literature supports a role for HIT in improving the quality of pediatric

  13. A cost-benefit analysis of a pellet boiler with electrostatic precipitator versus conventional biomass technology: A case study of an institutional boiler in Syracuse, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan I; Biton, Leiran; Hopke, Philip K; Zhang, K Max; Rector, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Biomass facilities have received increasing attention as a strategy to increase the use of renewable fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from the electric generation and heating sectors, but these facilities can potentially increase local air pollution and associated health effects. Comparing the economic costs and public health benefits of alternative biomass fuel, heating technology, and pollution control technology options provides decision-makers with the necessary information to make optimal choices in a given location. For a case study of a combined heat and power biomass facility in Syracuse, New York, we used stack testing to estimate emissions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for both the deployed technology (staged combustion pellet boiler with an electrostatic precipitator) and a conventional alternative (wood chip stoker boiler with a multicyclone). We used the atmospheric dispersion model AERMOD to calculate the contribution of either fuel-technology configuration to ambient primary PM2.5 in a 10km×10km region surrounding the facility, and we quantified the incremental contribution to population mortality and morbidity. We assigned economic values to health outcomes and compared the health benefits of the lower-emitting technology with the incremental costs. In total, the incremental annualized cost of the lower-emitting pellet boiler was $190,000 greater, driven by a greater cost of the pellet fuel and pollution control technology, offset in part by reduced fuel storage costs. PM2.5 emissions were a factor of 23 lower with the pellet boiler with electrostatic precipitator, with corresponding differences in contributions to ambient primary PM2.5 concentrations. The monetary value of the public health benefits of selecting the pellet-fired boiler technology with electrostatic precipitator was $1.7 million annually, greatly exceeding the differential costs even when accounting for uncertainties. Our analyses also showed complex spatial

  14. Nuclear enterprises at the Institute for Energy Technology - IFE. A socio-economic cost/benefit analysis; Nukleaere virksomheter ved Institutt for energiteknikk - IFE. En samfunnsoekonomisk kost/nytte-analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-15

    A cost-benefit analysis concerning the research reactors JEEP II at Kjeller and the Halden Reactor in Halden, operated by the Institute for Energy Technology. It is concluded for both of the reactors that the benefits of continued operations are outweigh the cost. Financing, accident risk, waste management and nuclear competence are some of the aspects treated. The Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry initiated the evaluation on behalf of the Norwegian Government

  15. Nuclear enterprises at the Institute for Energy Technology - IFE. A socio-economic cost/benefit analysis; Nukleaere virksomheter ved Institutt for energiteknikk - IFE. En samfunnsoekonomisk kost/nytte-analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-15

    A cost-benefit analysis concerning the research reactors JEEP II at Kjeller and the Halden Reactor in Halden, operated by the Institute for Energy Technology. It is concluded for both of the reactors that the benefits of continued operations are outweigh the cost. Financing, accident risk, waste management and nuclear competence are some of the aspects treated. The Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry initiated the evaluation on behalf of the Norwegian Government

  16. Incremental costs of introducing jet injection technology for delivery of routine childhood vaccinations: comparative analysis from Brazil, India, and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ulla K; Santos, Andreia C; Nundy, Neeti; Jacoby, Erica; Matthias, Dipika

    2011-01-29

    Disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) have the potential to deliver vaccines safely and affordably to millions of children around the world. We estimated the incremental costs of transitioning from needles and syringes to delivering childhood vaccines with DSJIs in Brazil, India, and South Africa. Two scenarios were assessed: (1) DSJI delivery of all vaccines at current dose and depth; (2) a change to intradermal (ID) delivery with DSJIs for hepatitis B and yellow fever vaccines, while the other vaccines are delivered by DSJIs at current dose and depth. The main advantage of ID delivery is that only a small fraction of the standard dose may be needed to obtain an immune response similar to that of subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Cost categories included were vaccines, injection equipment, waste management, and vaccine transport. Some delivery cost items, such as training and personnel were excluded as were treatment cost savings caused by a reduction in diseases transmitted due to unsafe injections. In the standard dose and depth scenario, the incremental costs of introducing DSJIs per fully vaccinated child amount to US$ 0.57 in Brazil, US$ 0.65 in India and US$ 1.24 in South Africa. In the ID scenario, there are cost savings of US$ 0.11 per child in Brazil, and added costs of US$ 0.45 and US$ 0.76 per child in India and South Africa, respectively. The most important incremental cost item is jet injector disposable syringes. The incremental costs should be evaluated against other vaccine delivery technologies that can deliver the same benefits to patients, health care workers, and the community. DSJIs deserve consideration by global and national decision-makers as a means to expand access to ID delivery and to enhance safety at marginal additional cost. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using technology to reveal true costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John; Sett, Ajit

    2012-02-01

    Healthcare leaders should address three important questions as they prepare to implement new costing systems: Do all providers in their organizations' systems, networks, or partnerships share the same definitions of unit of care and of fixed, variable, incremental, direct, and indirect costs? What are the maintenance processes and protocols for cost center and period matching of revenues and costs? If some providers within a network or partnership are not using costing systems, can an enterprise derive surrogate cost per unit of care?

  18. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  19. 软件成本估算技术比较及趋势分析%Technological Comparison and Tendency Analysis of Software Cost Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文艳

    2009-01-01

    总结软件成本估算的研究应用情况, 对比分析软件成本估算的6种估算方法、6种建模技术、12种估算工具,在此基础上,提出软件成本估算的发展趋势,为关联研究和应用提供了参考.%This paper summarizes the research and application situation to software cost estimation. On base of comparing and analyzing six types of estimation method, six types of building model technology, twelve types of cost estimation tool, proposes the development tendency of software cost estimation. It provides references for research and application.

  20. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Bluestein, Joel [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Rodriguez, Nick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Knoke, Stu [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  1. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  2. Methodology and Technology for Design to Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华; 曾庆良; 熊光楞

    2001-01-01

    Product cost is one of the most important factors affectingproduct market share. Traditionally, product costs are estimated after they are manufactured. However, in this way, the best opportunity to control product cost is lost. In this paper, a method trying to reduce product cost at the design stage is proposed. This method is called Design to Cost (DTC). According to this method, product structure can be optimized with the application of value engineering and Design for Manufacturing/Assembly (DFMA) criteria in the conceptual stage of product design. During embodiment design, products are evaluated economically on the basis of the product model which includes manufacturing, assembly and test cost information. According to the results, products are redesigned before manufacture, and the production cost is reduced.

  3. Economics of infection control surveillance technology: cost-effective or just cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Jon P; Schweizer, Marin L; McGregor, Jessina C; Perencevich, Eli N

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that informatics tools, such as automated alert and decision support systems, may increase the efficiency and quality of infection control surveillance. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of these tools. We focus on 2 types of economic analyses that have utility in assessing infection control interventions (cost-effectiveness analysis and business-case analysis) and review the available literature on the economics of computerized infection control surveillance systems. Previous studies on the effectiveness of computerized infection control surveillance have been limited to assessments of whether these tools increase the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance over traditional methods. Furthermore, we identified only 2 studies that assessed the costs associated with computerized infection control surveillance. Thus, it remains unknown whether computerized infection control surveillance systems are cost-effective and whether use of these systems improves patient outcomes. The existing data are insufficient to allow for a summary conclusion on the cost-effectiveness of infection control surveillance technology. All future studies of computerized infection control surveillance systems should aim to collect outcomes and economic data to inform decision making and assist hospitals with completing business-cases analyses.

  4. Advanced Technology-Based Low Cost Mars Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R. A.; Gamber, R. T.; Clark, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) has for many years been considered one of the most ambitious as well as most scientifically interesting of the suite of desired future planetary missions. This paper defines low- cost MSR mission concepts based on several exciting new technologies planned for space missions launching over the next 10 years. Key to reducing cost is use of advanced spacecraft & electronics technology.

  5. High efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on high efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology are presented. Topics covered include: high efficiency, low cost GaAs/Ge solar cells; advantages of Ge; comparison of typical production cells for space applications; panel level comparisons; and solar cell technology trends.

  6. Lower cost air measurement technology – what is on the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is to the MARAMA 2014 annual monitoring meeting and is an invited talk to provide an overview on lower cost air measurement technology. This presentation is to the MARAMA 2014 annual monitoring meeting and is an invited talk to provide an overview on lower cost air measurement technology.

  7. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1987-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  8. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  10. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  11. Cost analysis helps evaluate contract profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, R W

    2000-02-01

    A cost-accounting analysis can help group practices assess their costs of doing business and determine the profitability of managed care contracts. Group practices also can use cost accounting to develop budgets and financial benchmarks. To begin a cost analysis, group practices need to determine their revenue and cost centers. Then they can allocate their costs to each center, using an appropriate allocation basis. The next step is to calculate costs per procedure. The results can be used to evaluate operational cost efficiency as well as help negotiate managed care contracts.

  12. Variable cost of ICU care, a micro-costing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabatsou, Dimitra; Tsironi, Maria; Tsigou, Evdoxia; Boutzouka, Eleni; Katsoulas, Theodoros; Baltopoulos, George

    2016-08-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) costs account for a great part of a hospital's expenses. The objective of the present study was to measure the patient-specific cost of ICU treatment, to identify the most important cost drivers in ICU and to examine the role of various contributing factors in cost configuration. A retrospective cost analysis of all ICU patients who were admitted during 2011 in a Greek General, seven-bed ICU and stayed for at least 24hours was performed, by applying bottom-up analysis. Data collected included demographics and the exact cost of every single material used for patients' care. Prices were yielded from the hospital's purchasing costs and from the national price list of the imaging and laboratory tests, which was provided by the Ministry of Health. A total of 138 patients were included. Variable cost per ICU day was €573.18. A substantial cost variation was found in the total costs obtained for individual patients (median: €3443, range: €243.70-€116,355). Medicines were responsible for more than half of the cost and antibiotics accounted for the largest part of it, followed by blood products and cardiovascular drugs. Medical cause of admission, severe illness and increased length of stay, mechanical ventilation and dialysis were the factors associated with cost escalation. ICU variable cost is patient-specific, varies according to each patient's needs and is influenced by several factors. The exact estimation of variable cost is a pre-requisite in order to control ICU expenses.

  13. Technology Estimating 2: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Wallace, Jon; Schaffer, Mark; May, M. Scott; Greenberg, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    As a leader in space technology research and development, NASA is continuing in the development of the Technology Estimating process, initiated in 2012, for estimating the cost and schedule of low maturity technology research and development, where the Technology Readiness Level is less than TRL 6. NASA' s Technology Roadmap areas consist of 14 technology areas. The focus of this continuing Technology Estimating effort included four Technology Areas (TA): TA3 Space Power and Energy Storage, TA4 Robotics, TA8 Instruments, and TA12 Materials, to confine the research to the most abundant data pool. This research report continues the development of technology estimating efforts completed during 2013-2014, and addresses the refinement of parameters selected and recommended for use in the estimating process, where the parameters developed are applicable to Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) used in the parametric cost estimating analysis. This research addresses the architecture for administration of the Technology Cost and Scheduling Estimating tool, the parameters suggested for computer software adjunct to any technology area, and the identification of gaps in the Technology Estimating process.

  14. Costs and Benefits of Advanced Aeronautical Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, J. C.; Denny, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Programs available from COSMIC used to evaluate economic feasibility of applying advanced aeronautical technology to civil aircraft of future. Programs are composed of three major models: Fleet Accounting Module, Airframe manufacturer Module, and Air Carrier Module.

  15. SOLIDWORKS COSTING ANALYSYS ON A DESIGNED PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin IANCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paperwork are presented the SolidWorks analysis steps taken for costing study of a designed part, using Costing module. There are presented the settings that have to be done for such analysis and the results shown by this software module. The costing elements that are taken into account are specific to default costing templates in SolidWorks, but can be adjusted (edited to costs specific to a given enterprise.

  16. Investigating the Total Cost of Technology in Schools: Tools and Strategies for Managing Technology Investments. Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, Pat

    This document describes total cost of ownership (TCO) as a useful tool in the effective planning of technology use in schools. TCO is an analysis of all the costs of computer technology in a school in comparison with the value derived from the current investment. It also includes an assessment of strategies that can be implemented to reduce costs.…

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis in markets with high fixed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Ericson, Keith M Marzilli

    2010-01-01

    We consider how to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis when the social cost of a resource differs from the posted price. From the social perspective, the true cost of a medical intervention is the marginal cost of delivering another unit of a treatment, plus the social cost (deadweight loss) of raising the revenue to fund the treatment. We focus on pharmaceutical prices, which have high markups over marginal cost due to the monopoly power granted to pharmaceutical companies when drugs are under patent. We find that the social cost of a branded drug is approximately one-half the market price when the treatment is paid for by a public insurance plan and one-third the market price for mandated coverage by private insurance. We illustrate the importance of correctly accounting for social costs using two examples: coverage for statin drugs and approval for a drug to treat kidney cancer (sorafenib). In each case, we show that the correct social perspective for cost-effectiveness analysis would be more lenient than researcher recommendations.

  18. The cost of radiotherapy in a decade of technology evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Werf, Evelyn; Verstraete, Jan; Lievens, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    To quantify changes in radiotherapy costs occurring in a decade of medical-technological evolution. The activity-based costing (ABC) model of the University Hospitals Leuven (UHL) radiotherapy (RT) department was adapted to current RT standards. It allocated actual resource costs to the treatments based on the departmental work-flow and patient mix in 2009. A benchmark with the former model analyzed the cost increases related to changes in RT infrastructure and practice over 10 years. A considerable increase in total RT costs was observed, resulting from higher capital investments (96%) and personnel cost (103%), the latter dominating the total picture. Treatment delivery remains the most costly activity, boosted by the cost of improved quality assurance (QA), 23% of total product costs, coming along with more advanced RT techniques. Hence, cost increases at the product level are most obvious for complex treatments, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), representing cost increases ranging between 38% and 88% compared to conformal approaches. The ABC model provides insight into the financial consequences of evolving technology and practice. Such data are a mandatory first step in our strive to prove RT cost-effectiveness and thus support optimal reimbursement and provision of radiotherapy departments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CENET: Cost Efficiency in a New Era with new Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, Jan E.; Lund, Bjoernar; Bos, Christian F.M.; Stokka, Sigmund

    1997-12-31

    This report relates to the CENET (Cost Efficiency in a New Era with new Technology) project the oil and gas in Europe. Key objectives of the CENET project are to determine the role of RTD (Research and Technology Development) in European oil and gas industry towards improved value and cost reduction with a particular focus on the means of developing offshore European marginal fields commercially, to identify RTD areas with the largest potential for improved value and cost reduction and technological developments and advances which are likely to increase European competitiveness internationally, and to provide guidance to European governments when deciding RTD priorities. A new era with new technology concerns increased oil and gas potential during the next century, a new era with clean, safe and cost efficient energy production, a new era with a new business structure, and globalization of the industry. 44 tabs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Low Cost Technology for Screening Early Cancerous Lesions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    at a later, more advanced stage.[5] However ... treatment than is necessary for advanced lesions.[7] Visual ... cost technology (Magnivisualizer) for the early detection any lesions of .... leukoplakia and related lesions: An aid to studies on oral.

  1. Pipeline cost reduction through effective project management and applied technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A. [TransCanada Pipeline Ltd., Alberta (Canada); Babuk, T. [Empress International Inc., Westwood, NJ (United States); Mohitpour, M. [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Murray, M.A. [National Energy Board of Canada (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Pipelines are regarded by many as passive structures with the technology involved in their construction and operation being viewed as relatively simple and stable. If such is the case how can there be much room for cost improvement? In reality, there have been many technological and regulatory innovations required within the pipeline industry to meet the challenges posed by ever increasing consumer demand for hydrocarbons, the effects of aging infrastructure and a need to control operating and maintenance expenditures. The importance of technology management, as a subset of overall project management, is a key element of life cycle cost control. Assurance of public safety and the integrity of the system are other key elements in ensuring a successful pipeline project. The essentials of best practise project management from an owner/ operator's perspective are set out in the paper. Particular attention is paid to the appropriate introduction of new technology, strategic procurement practice and material selection, indicating that capital cost savings of up to 15% are achievable without harming life cycle cost. The value of partnering leading to technical innovation, cost savings and improved profitability for all the participants is described. Partnering also helps avoid duplicated effort through the use of common tools for design, planning schedule tracking and reporting. Investing in appropriate technology development has been a major source of cost reduction in recent years and the impact of a number of these recently introduced technologies in the areas of materials, construction processes and operation and maintenance are discussed in the paper. (author)

  2. An analysis of the cost of incomplete abortion to the public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abortions.....1 In this analysis we estimate the cost of treatment for all incomplete ... include all 'hotel' functions of care, administrative overheads, rent ..... with existing medical technology.13 The costs reported in this analysis represent ...

  3. Project cost analysis under risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica LUBAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated approach based on Monte Carlo simulation and Six Sigma methodology is used to analyze the risk associated with a project's total cost. Monte Carlo simulation is applied to understand the variability in total cost caused by the probabilistic cost items. By Six Sigma methodology the range of variation of the project cost can be reduced by operating on the input factors with the greatest impact on total cost to cover the variation of 6 between the limits that were established in the design phase of Six Sigma.

  4. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for

  5. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future.......The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future....

  6. Preliminary Cost Estimates of Pollution Control Technologies for Geothermal Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, R.; Houser, G.; Richard, G.; Cotter, J.; Weller, P.; Pulaski, E.

    1979-10-01

    This is the first report from the EPA estimating the cost of technology for mitigating pollution that might arise from geothermal power systems. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken an initial step towards the establishment of regulatory standards for the geothermal industry by preparing a document entitled Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development. This report supports that document by providing pollution control cost information. The objective of this report is to provide preliminary cost estimates for air and water pollution treatment and disposal technologies applicable for geothermal energy conversion systems. Cost estimates include both annualized capital investment and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for various levels of environmental requirements. [DJE-2005

  7. RECTIFIED ETHANOL PRODUCTION COST ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola J Budimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of the most important factors of the total production costs in bioethanol production. The most influential factors are: total investment costs, price of raw materials (price of biomass, enzymes, yeast, and energy costs. Taking into account these factors, a procedure for estimation total production costs was establish. In order to gain insight into the relationship of production and selling price of bioethanol, price of bioethanol for some countries of the European Union and the United States are given.

  8. Technology and the issue of cost/benefit in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Cosimo; Mohn, Angelika; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2009-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease in childhood and adolescence. Type 1 diabetes accounts for over 90% of diabetes in children. During the past decades, epidemiological studies have clearly shown a worldwide increase in the incidence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in many countries. The worldwide incidence of diabetes and especially the diabetes-related complications highlight the relevant economic burden of this disease. In fact, its costs affect health services, national productivity as well as individuals and families. Hospital in-patient costs for the treatment of complications are the largest single contributor to direct healthcare costs. Anyway, many of these complications and, therefore, their costs, as well as most of the indirect costs, are partially or completely preventable. In fact, intensive therapy, directed at controlling blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, has been shown to be cost effective in that, although initial costs are high, longer term costs decrease as a result of delayed or prevented complications. From this point of view, technological advances have provided new therapeutic options to achieve metabolic control as close to normal as possible in children and adolescents with diabetes. In fact, the relevant technological devices that have been adopted till now, if adequately utilized, should allow patients to achieve intensive management with improved metabolic control, quality of life as well as reduced mortality and morbidity. However, new technologies are not a panacea, and the benefit they provide can be completely achieved only if adequately and especially individually determined. Furthermore, it is inevitable that new modalities of treatment for people with diabetes will be considered critically by healthcare planners and providers in the prevailing global environment of increasing costs of medical care and pressure for rational allocation of resources. Therefore, new technologically derived devices

  9. Final Report: Hydrogen Production Pathways Cost Analysis (2013 – 2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel Allan [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report summarizes work conducted under a three year Department of Energy (DOE) funded project to Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) to analyze multiple hydrogen (H2) production technologies and project their corresponding levelized production cost of H2. The analysis was conducted using the H2A Hydrogen Analysis Tool developed by the DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The project was led by SA but conducted in close collaboration with the NREL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In-depth techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five different H2 production methods was conducted. These TEAs developed projections for capital costs, fuel/feedstock usage, energy usage, indirect capital costs, land usage, labor requirements, and other parameters, for each H2 production pathway, and use the resulting cost and system parameters as inputs into the H2A discounted cash flow model to project the production cost of H2 ($/kgH2). Five technologies were analyzed as part of the project and are summarized in this report: Proton Exchange Membrane technology (PEM), High temperature solid oxide electrolysis cell technology (SOEC), Dark fermentation of biomass for H2 production, H2 production via Monolithic Piston-Type Reactors with rapid swing reforming and regeneration reactions, and Reformer-Electrolyzer-Purifier (REP) technology developed by Fuel Cell Energy, Inc. (FCE).

  10. Staff Draft Report. Comparative Cost of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, Magdy; Benjamin, Richard

    2003-02-11

    This Energy Commission staff draft report presents preliminary levelized cost estimates for several generic central-station electricity generation technologies. California has traditionally adopted energy policies that balance the goals of supporting economic development, improving environmental quality and promoting resource diversity. In order to be effective, such policies must be based on comprehensive and timely gathering of information. With this goal in mind, the purpose of the report is to provide comparative levelized cost estimates for a set of renewable (e.g., solar) and nonrenewable (e.g., natural gas-fired) central-station electricity generation resources, based on each technology's operation and capital cost. Decision-makers and others can use this information to compare the generic cost to build specific technology. These costs are not site specific. If a developer builds a specific power plant at a specific location, the cost of siting that plant at that specific location must be considered. The Energy Commission staff also identifies the type of fuel used by each technology and a description of the manner in which the technology operates in the generation system. The target audiences of this report are both policy-makers and anyone wishing to understand some of the fundamental attributes that are generally considered when evaluating the cost of building and operating different electricity generation technology resources. These costs do not reflect the total cost to consumers of adding these technologies to a resources portfolio. These technology characterizations do not capture all of the system, environmental or other relevant attributes that would typically be needed by a portfolio manager to conduct a comprehensive ''comparative value analysis''. A portfolio analysis will vary depending on the particular criteria and measurement goals of each study. For example, some form of firm capacity is typically needed with wind

  11. Cost escalation in health-care technology - possible solutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    technology could play a fundamental role in supporting the provision of adequate ... and resource allocation. The computer and networking technology necessary ... sary software for analysis exists, and communication networks (SAP01\\,TET ...

  12. Achieving cost reductions in EOSDIS operations through technology evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Penny; Moe, Karen; Harberts, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The earth observing system (EOS) data information system (EOSDIS) mission includes the cost-effective management and distribution of large amounts of data to the earth science community. The effect of the introduction of new information system technologies on the evolution of EOSDIS is considered. One of the steps taken by NASA to enable the introduction of new information system technologies into the EOSDIS is the funding of technology development through prototyping. Recent and ongoing prototyping efforts and their potential impact on the performance and cost-effectiveness of the EOSDIS are discussed. The technology evolution process as it related to the effective operation of EOSDIS is described, and methods are identified for the support of the transfer of relevant technology to EOSDIS components.

  13. Ethics and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn

    The purpose of this research report is threefold. Firstly, the author traces the origins and justification of cost-benefit analysis in moral and political philosophy. Secondly, he explain some of the basic features of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool in a step-bystep presentation. Thirdly......, he presents and discusses some of the main ethical difficulties related to the use of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool....

  14. Algolcam: Low Cost Sky Scanning with Modern Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Bolton, Dempsey; Doktor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    , it offers great potential for analysis and discovery. The use of low cost cutting edge technology makes Algolcam particularly interesting for enhancing the advanced undergraduate learning experience in astronomy.

  15. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A. (U.S. Department of Energy); Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  16. Technology commercialization cost model and component case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Fuel cells seem poised to emerge as a clean, efficient, and cost competitive source of fossil fuel based electric power and thermal energy. Sponsors of fuel cell technology development need to determine the validity and the attractiveness of a technology to the market in terms of meeting requirements and providing value which exceeds the total cost of ownership. Sponsors of fuel cell development have addressed this issue by requiring the developers to prepare projections of the future production cost of their fuel cells in commercial quantities. These projected costs, together with performance and life projections, provide a preliminary measure of the total value and cost of the product to the customer. Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. and Michael A. Cobb & Company have been retained in several assignments over the years to audit these cost projections. The audits have gone well beyond a simple review of the numbers. They have probed the underlying technical and financial assumptions, the sources of data on material and equipment costs, and explored issues such as the realistic manufacturing yields which can be expected in various processes. Based on the experience gained from these audits, DOE gave Booz-Allen and Michael A. Cobb & company the task to develop a criteria to be used in the execution of future fuel cell manufacturing cost studies. It was thought that such a criteria would make it easier to execute such studies in the future as well as to cause such studies to be more understandable and comparable.

  17. Manufacturing cost analysis of integrated photonic packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirk, Charles W.; Liu, Qin; Ball, Matthew V.

    1999-04-01

    This paper analyzes the manufacturing cost of photonic system using software that combines several methods for accurate cost accounting. Activity based costing assigns al capital equipment, material and labor costs directly to the product rather than to overheads. Cost of ownership models determine the cost of using machines under different financial and utilization scenarios. Libraries of standard machines, process steps, and process sequences facilitate rapid model building and modification. Using libraries for semiconductor and photonics fabrication, along with packaging and optomechanical assembly, we construct cost models for 2D VCSEL array communication modules. The result of the analysis is that the model cost is driven mainly by the epitaxial material cost, and laser yield limits VCSEL arrays to small scale integration.

  18. Technology for low-cost PIR security sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2008-03-01

    Current passive infrared (PIR) security sensors employing pyroelectric detectors are simple, cheap and reliable, but have several deficiencies. These sensors, developed two decades ago, are essentially short-range moving-target hotspot detectors. They cannot detect slow temperature changes, and thus are unable to respond to radiation stimuli indicating potential danger such as overheating electrical appliances and developing fires. They have a poor optical resolution and limited ability to recognize detected targets. Modern uncooled thermal infrared technology has vastly superior performance but as yet is too costly to challenge the PIR security sensor market. In this paper microbolometer technology will be discussed which can provide enhanced performance at acceptable cost. In addition to security sensing the technology has numerous applications in the military, industrial and domestic markets where target range is short and low cost is paramount.

  19. Low-cost hydrogen sensors: Technology maturation progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Rogers, J.E.; Lauf, R.J.; Egert, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Haberman, D.P. [DCH Technology, Inc., Sherman Oaks, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors are developing a low-cost, solid-state hydrogen sensor to support the long-term goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program to encourage acceptance and commercialization of renewable energy-based technologies. Development of efficient production, storage, and utilization technologies brings with it the need to detect and pinpoint hydrogen leaks to protect people and equipment. The solid-state hydrogen sensor, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is potentially well-suited to meet cost and performance objectives for many of these applications. Under a cooperative research and development Agreement and license agreement, they are teaming with a private company, DCH Technology, Inc., to develop the sensor for specific market applications related to the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. This report describes the current efforts to optimize materials and sensor performance to reach the goals of low-cost fabrication and suitability for relevant application areas.

  20. Chapter 17. Engineering cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbee, Charles V.

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1970s, life cycle costing (LCC) was adopted by the federal government. LCC is a method of evaluating all the costs associated with acquisition, construction and operation of a project. LCC was designed to minimize costs of major projects, not only in consideration of acquisition and construction, but especially to emphasize the reduction of operation and maintenance costs during the project life. Authors of engineering economics texts have been very reluctant and painfully slow to explain and deal with LCC. Many authors devote less than one page to the subject. The reason for this is that LCC has several major drawbacks. The first of these is that costs over the life of the project must be estimated based on some forecast, and forecasts have proven to be highly variable and frequently inaccurate. The second problem with LCC is that some life span must be selected over which to evaluate the project, and many projects, especially renewable energy projects, are expected to have an unlimited life (they are expected to live for ever). The longer the life cycle, the more inaccurate annual costs become because of the inability to forecast accurately.

  1. Social costs of innovative electricity generation technologies in the present and in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preiss, Philipp; Friedrich, Rainer; Blesl, Markus; Wissel, Steffen; Mayer-Spohn, Oliver; Klotz, Volker [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    2008-07-01

    Social costs (costs seen from the perspective of the society) differ from private costs and thus influence the ranking of electricity generating technologies. The resulting social costs data provide a basis for the recommendation to use the potential of nuclear, wind and hydropower as far as possible, however the potential of these technologies is limited. The analysis shows, that the remaining electricity demand in the future still should be met by using lignite and coal. Depending on the stringency of the climate change aims these plants would be equipped with CCS (carbon capture and storage) or not. Only with ambitious climate change aims and if CCS turns out to be less economically or technically feasible, than the import of electricity generated by a solar through systems in Mediterranean countries would become an option. The environmental advantages of PV are too small to compensate the very high investment costs in Germany. The detailed analysis of different contributions to the social costs per kWh shows that the costs of natural gas technologies are dominated by private costs of fuel supply. If we assume 50% higher prices than in the basic assumption this increases social costs up to 30%. (orig.)

  2. Geowall: Investigations into Low-Cost Stereo Display Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Davis, Brian; Weeks, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the combination of new projection technology, fast, low-cost graphics cards, and Linux-powered personal computers has made it possible to provide a stereoprojection and stereoviewing system that is much more affordable than previous commercial solutions. These Geowall systems are low-cost visualization systems built with commodity off-the-shelf components, run on open-source (and other) operating systems, and using open-source applications software. In short, they are ?Beowulf-class? visualization systems that provide a cost-effective way for the U. S. Geological Survey to broaden participation in the visualization community and view stereoimagery and three-dimensional models2.

  3. Cost savings deliverables and criteria for the OST technology decision process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, A.

    1997-04-01

    This document has been prepared to assist focus area (FA) technical and management teams in understanding the cost savings deliverables associated with a technology system during its research and development (R and D) phases. It discusses the usefulness of cost analysis in the decision-making process, and asserts that the level of confidence and data quality of a cost analysis is proportional to the maturity of the technology system`s development life cycle. Suggestions of specific investment criteria or cost savings metrics that a FA might levy on individual research projects are made but the final form of these elements should be stipulated by the FA management based on their rationale for a successful technology development project. Also, cost savings deliverables for a single FA will be more detailed than those for management of the Office of Science and Technology (OST). For example, OST management may want an analysis of the overall return on investment for each FA, while the FA program manager may want this analysis and the return on investment metrics for each technology research activity the FA supports.

  4. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; de Kok, Inge M C M; Bulten, Johan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Vedder, Judith E M; Arbyn, Marc; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; Siebers, Albertus G; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2012-08-01

    Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiveness threshold analyses to investigate under what circumstances manually screened ThinPrep LBC is cost-effective for screening. The MISCAN-Cervix microsimulation model and data from the Dutch NETHCON trial (including 89,784 women) were used to estimate the costs and (quality-adjusted) life years ((QA)LYs) gained for EU screening schedules, varying cost-effectiveness threshold values. Screening strategies were primary cytological screening with LBC or CP, and triage with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Threshold analyses showed that screening with LBC as a primary test can be cost-effective if LBC is less than 3.2 more costly per test than CP, if the sensitivity of LBC is at least 3-5 % points higher than CP, if the quality of life for women in triage follow-up is only 0.39, or if the rate of inadequate CP smears is at least 16.2 %. Regarding test characteristics and costs of LBC and CP, only under certain conditions will a change from CP to manually screened ThinPrep LBC be cost-effective. If none of these conditions are met, implementation of manually screened ThinPrep LBC seems warranted only if there are advantages other than cost-effectiveness. Further research is needed to establish whether other LBC systems will be more favorable with regard to cost-effectiveness.

  5. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate & Treat (E&T), and Pump & Treat (P&T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios.

  6. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker-Grob, E.W. de; Kok, I.M. de; Bulten, J.; Rosmalen, J. van; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Siebers, A.G.; Ballegooijen, M. van

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiven

  7. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker-Grob, E.W. de; Kok, I.M. de; Bulten, J.; Rosmalen, J. van; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Siebers, A.G.; Ballegooijen, M. van

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiven

  8. Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    pass, depend- ing on skiway condition. Total construction time will take approximately 27–30 hours, or 4 working days. Surface maintenance ...ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the...cargo loads. To explore further skiway improvement and cost saving techniques, this report reviews alternative maintenance and construction options

  9. The Structure of Adjustment Costs in Information Technology Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunbae Chun; Sung-Bae Mun

    2005-01-01

    We examine the pattern of information technology (IT) capital adjustment using data from U.S. industries. Using the gap between actual and desired IT capital stocks, we estimate the shape of the adjustment cost function in IT investment. Both ordinary least squares and nonparametric regression estimates support irreversibility in IT investment.

  10. The Costs of Information Technology and the Electronic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbetts, Diane R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the impact of information technology requirements on the costs of electronic libraries. Addresses key questions concerning hardware, software and network installation and upgrades and provides strategies for dealing with the needs for continuous funding and long-term financing that are essential for keeping up with the requirements of…

  11. Transforming Learning through Technology: Educating More, Costing Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Face-to-face instruction has been held as the gold standard of a quality academic program. But using information technology to redesign traditional courses can actually improve the quality of teaching, cut costs, and improve access and success. A strong redesign often involves active learning opportunities; individualized, on-demand assistance; a…

  12. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  13. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  14. Implementation Costs for Educational Technology Systems. Issue Trak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Glenn E.; Fisher, Ricki; Loveless, Warren

    Personnel involved in planning or developing schools lack the costing tools that will enable them to determine educational technology costs. This report presents an overview of the technology costing process and the general costs used in estimating educational technology systems on a macro-budget basis, along with simple cost estimates for…

  15. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents in the removal of Cr(VI) ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Generally, the result showed an increase in adsorption by Cr(VI) with increase in mass ...

  16. Transaction costs, externalities and information technology in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B; Keen, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the economic issues which underpin the rationale for investment in information and communications technologies (ICTs). Information imperfections lead to significant transaction costs (search, negotiating and monitoring) which in turn confer a negative externality on parties involved in exchange. This divergence in private and social costs leads to a degree of resource misallocation (efficiency loss) which, uncorrected, results in a sub-optimal outcome. Traditional solutions to this problem are to rely upon direct government action to reduce the costs of transacting between market agents, or to employ tax/subsidy measures and other legislative action to achieve the desired market outcome. Three key policy questions are raised in the context of the NHS purchaser/provider relationship. Firstly, what is the optimum level of transaction costs; secondly, can ICTs assist in lowering the level of transaction costs to the optimum level; thirdly, who should bear the investment cost in reducing the level of transaction costs? The issue of property rights in different information systems is discussed and raises interesting policy questions about how much investment should be undertaken centrally rather than devolved to a more local level. In some ways this economic framework offers a post hoc justification of why different ICT systems have been introduced at various levels of the NHS. Essentially this reduces to the problem of externalities: providing good information confers a positive externality: not providing relevant, timely and accurate information confers a negative externality, by increasing further the level of transaction costs. The crucial role which ICT systems can play lies in attempting to reduce the level of transaction costs and driving the market towards what Dahlman has described as the transaction-cost-constrained equilibrium.

  17. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  18. Cost benefit analysis for climate change adaption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.J.H.; Bruin, de K.; Rietveld, P.; Bockarjova, M.; Hofkes, M.; Brouwer, R.; Dekker, T.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this programme was on the development of decision making tools based on cost benefit analysis under uncertainty, for analysing adaptation and mitigation options related to spatial planning in the Netherlands. The full programme focused on the methodological issues for cost benefit analy

  19. Practical aspects of photovoltaic technology, applications and cost (revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide the reader with the background, understanding, and computational tools needed to master the practical aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology, application, and cost. The focus is on stand-alone, silicon solar cell, flat-plate systems in the range of 1 to 25 kWh/day output. Technology topics covered include operation and performance of each of the major system components (e.g., modules, array, battery, regulators, controls, and instrumentation), safety, installation, operation and maintenance, and electrical loads. Application experience and trends are presented. Indices of electrical service performance - reliability, availability, and voltage control - are discussed, and the known service performance of central station electric grid, diesel-generator, and PV stand-alone systems are compared. PV system sizing methods are reviewed and compared, and a procedure for rapid sizing is described and illustrated by the use of several sample cases. The rapid sizing procedure yields an array and battery size that corresponds to a minimum cost system for a given load requirement, insulation condition, and desired level of service performance. PV system capital cost and levelized energy cost are derived as functions of service performance and insulation. Estimates of future trends in PV system costs are made.

  20. Cost analysis of whole genome sequencing in German clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöthner, Marika; Frank, Martin; von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias Graf

    2017-06-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is an emerging tool in clinical diagnostics. However, little has been said about its procedure costs, owing to a dearth of related cost studies. This study helps fill this research gap by analyzing the execution costs of WGS within the setting of German clinical practice. First, to estimate costs, a sequencing process related to clinical practice was undertaken. Once relevant resources were identified, a quantification and monetary evaluation was conducted using data and information from expert interviews with clinical geneticists, and personnel at private enterprises and hospitals. This study focuses on identifying the costs associated with the standard sequencing process, and the procedure costs for a single WGS were analyzed on the basis of two sequencing platforms-namely, HiSeq 2500 and HiSeq Xten, both by Illumina, Inc. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of various uses of sequencing platforms and various coverage values on a fixed-cost degression. In the base case scenario-which features 80 % utilization and 30-times coverage-the cost of a single WGS analysis with the HiSeq 2500 was estimated at €3858.06. The cost of sequencing materials was estimated at €2848.08; related personnel costs of €396.94 and acquisition/maintenance costs (€607.39) were also found. In comparison, the cost of sequencing that uses the latest technology (i.e., HiSeq Xten) was approximately 63 % cheaper, at €1411.20. The estimated costs of WGS currently exceed the prediction of a 'US$1000 per genome', by more than a factor of 3.8. In particular, the material costs in themselves exceed this predicted cost.

  1. Battery life-cycle cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Humphreys, K.K.

    1988-07-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) estimates have been prepared for 17 combinations of battery or fuel-cell technologies and load-levelling, stand-alone power system, or electric vehicle applications. In addition, LCCs for gas-fired turbine, compressed-air energy storage, pumped hydro energy storage, and internal combustion engine technologies were estimated for comparative purposes. The objectives in preparing the estimates were to determine the relative economics among alternative battery systems and to compare battery systems economics with competing energy technologies.

  2. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y; Adelman, S

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  3. Green Infrastructure Siting and Cost Effectiveness Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Parcel scale green infrastructure siting and cost effectiveness analysis. You can find more details at the project's website.

  4. Cost analysis of youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Adam L; Prosser, Lisa A; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71,784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation.

  5. CO{sub 2} mitigation costs of large-scale bioenergy technologies in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, L. [Mid-Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden). Dept. of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Ecotechnology; Madlener, R. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). CEPE

    2003-11-01

    In this study, we compare and contrast the impact of recent technological developments in large biomass-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration and condensing plants in terms of CO{sub 2} mitigation costs and under the conditions of a competitive electricity market. The CO{sub 2} mitigation cost indicates the minimum economic incentive required (e.g. in the form of a carbon tax) to equal the cost of a less carbon extensive system with the cost of a reference system. The results show that CO{sub 2} mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems than for natural gas systems with decarbonization. However, in liberalized energy markets and given the sociopolitical will to implement carbon extensive energy systems, market-based policy measures are still required to make biomass and decarbonization options competitive and thus help them to penetrate the market. This cost of cogeneration plants, however, depends on the evaluation method used. If we account for the limitation of heat sinks by expanding the reference entity to include both heat and power, as is typically recommended in life-cycle analysis, then the biomass-based gasification combined cycle (BIG/CC) technology turns out to be less expensive and to exhibit lower CO{sub 2} mitigation costs than biomass-fired steam turbine plants. However, a heat credit granted to cogeneration systems that is based on avoided cost of separate heat production, puts the steam turbine technology despite its lower system efficiency at an advantage. In contrast, when a crediting method based on avoided electricity production in natural gas fired condensing plants is employed, the BIG/CC technology turns out to be more cost competitive than the steam turbine technology for carbon tax levels beyond about $150/t C. Furthermore, steam turbine plants are able to compete with natural gas fired cogeneration plants at carbon tax levels higher than about $90/tC. (author)

  6. Computer technology in oil refining: cost or benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, B. (KBC Process Technology (GB))

    1990-04-01

    There is undoubtedly a commitment in the oil refining industry to computerise wherever possible, and to develop advanced mathematical modelling techniques to improved profitability. However, many oil refiners are now asking themselves whether computer solutions are a cost, or are truly a benefit to their organisation. Problems have been caused by distributed computing running out of control in many organisations. This has been partly brought to reign recently, by advanced networking of PCs along with mainframe facilities, and development of management information systems with common data bases for all users to build their applications on. Implementation of information technology strategies helped many refiners to plan the way ahead for the future. The use of computers across the refining sector in the current marketplace is reviewed. The conclusion drawn is that although computer technology is a cost it can also be ranked as a significant benefit and success in the refining industry at present. (author).

  7. Cost calculation: a necessary step towards widespread adoption of advanced radiotherapy technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Yolande; Borras, Jose Maria; Grau, Cai

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy costs are an often underestimated component of the economic assessment of new radiotherapy treatments and technologies. That the radiotherapy budget only consumes a finite part of the total cancer and healthcare budget does not relieve us from our responsibility to balance the extra costs to the additional benefits of new, more advanced, but typically also more expensive treatments we want to deliver. Yet, in contrast to what is the case for oncology drugs, literature evidence remains limited, as well for economic evaluations comparing new radiotherapy interventions as for cost calculation studies. Even more cumbersome, the available costing studies in the field of radiotherapy fail to accurately capture the real costs of our treatments due to the large variation in cost inputs, in scope of the analysis, in costing methodology. And this is not trivial. Accurate resource cost accounting lays the basis for the further steps in health technology assessment leading to radiotherapy investments and reimbursement, at the local, the national and the worldwide level. In the current paper we review some evidence from the existing costing literature and discuss how such data can be used to support reimbursement setting and investment cases for new radiotherapy equipment and infrastructure.

  8. How Technology Can Improve the Efficiency of Excavator-Based Cable Harvesting for Potential Biomass Extraction—A Woody Productivity Resource and Cost Analysis for Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ger Devlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two cable logging systems were reviewed to compare the efficiency of potential biomass extraction from remote forest sites in Ireland based on productive machine hour (PMH and unit cost of operation (€/m3. Three operational scenarios (SC were analysed where SC I was a three man crew operation (choker setter, the carriage operator and unhooking chokers. SC II was a variation of this with a two man crew operation. SC III was operating radio controlled chokers there was a two man crew (choker setter and carriage operator. The study aims to assess how operations in Ireland perform against previous known cable studies to determine whether the cost of timber extraction on remote forest sites inaccessible for mechanised felling, has a future given the increased demand for wood fibre in Ireland, both from the sawmilling industries and the wood for energy sector. The volume per PMH was recorded at 17.97 for SC I, 15.09 for SC II and 20.58 m3 for SC III. The difference in productivity versus SC III remote controlled chokers is 5.49 m3/PMH for SC II crew and 2.61 m3/PMH for SC I. The decrease in total volume extracted from SCs I and II versus SC III was recorded at 15.69 m3 (15% and 32.97 m3 (36% product respectively. In value terms, the unit cost (€/m3 varied from 6.29 (SC I to 6.43 (SC II to 4.57 (SC III. When looking at the production unit costs of normal wood energy supply chains in Ireland, the figures are similar ranging from 3.17 €/m3 to 8.01 €/m3. The value of the end product of course will always determine which market the eventually goes to but given that cable log wood fibre has been unthinned and unmaintained then the biomass sector may be an ever increasing demand point in the search for increased woody biomass given that the unit costs can be competitive with other wood energy supply chains.

  9. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  10. Equivalent Mass versus Life Cycle Cost for Life Support Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The decision to develop a particular life support technology or to select it for flight usually depends on the cost to develop and fly it. Other criteria such as performance, safety, reliability, crew time, and technical and schedule risk are considered, but cost is always an important factor. Because launch cost would account for much of the cost of a future planetary mission, and because launch cost is directly proportional to the mass launched, equivalent mass has been used instead of cost to select advanced life support technology. The equivalent mass of a life support system includes the estimated mass of the hardware and of the spacecraft pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system that the hardware requires. The equivalent mass of a system is defined as the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support the system. An extension of equivalent mass, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), has been established for use in the Advanced Life Support project. ESM adds a mass-equivalent of crew time and possibly other cost factors to equivalent mass. Traditional equivalent mass is strictly based on flown mass and reflects only the launch cost. ESM includes other important cost factors, but it complicates the simple flown mass definition of equivalent mass by adding a non-physical mass penalty for crew time that may exceed the actual flown mass. Equivalent mass is used only in life support analysis. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is much more commonly used. LCC includes DDT&E, launch, and operations costs. For Earth orbit rather than planetary missions, the launch cost is less than the cost of Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDTBE). LCC is a more inclusive cost estimator than equivalent mass. The relative costs of development, launch, and operations vary depending on the mission destination and duration. Since DDTBE or operations may cost more than launch, LCC gives a more accurate relative cost ranking than equivalent mass. To select the lowest cost

  11. Methodological considerations in the analysis of cost effectiveness in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antczak-Bouckoms, A A; Tulloch, J F; White, B A; Capilouto, E I

    1989-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is a technique applied with increasing frequency to help make rational decisions in health care resource allocation. This article reviews the ten general principles of cost-effectiveness analysis outlined by the Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress and describes a model for such analyses used widely in medicine, but only recently applied in dentistry. The imperative for the formulation of the best current information on both the effectiveness of dental practices and their costs is made more urgent because of the now universally recognized belief that resources available to meet the demands for health care are limited. Today's environment requires critical allocation decisions within categorical health problems, across diseases, or relative to other health problems. If important health benefits or cost savings are to be realized, then these analytic approaches must become widely understood, accepted, and appropriately applied by key decision makers in the dental health sector.

  12. RE-COST: Cost and Business Comparisons of Renewable vs. Non-renewable Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostajo Veiga, Mercedes; Farina Alvarez, Pablo; Fernandez-Montes Moraleda, Manuel; Kleinsorge, Anne

    2012-07-15

    Based on real plant data, the RE-COST project concludes that in many OECD energy markets, new renewable energy technologies (RET) are close to be competitive with non-RET electricity plants. RET costs are decreasing rapidly, while conventional power plants are affected by lower utilisation rates, volatile coal and gas prices, CO2 pricing, and lower electricity demand than expected. If energy prices would account for air pollution and climate change, renewables would already be the most beneficial for society and business.

  13. Technology Estimating: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Reeves, John D.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Greenberg, Marc; Comstock, Doug; Olds, John R.; Wallace, Jon; DePasquale, Dominic; Schaffer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA is investing in new technologies that include 14 primary technology roadmap areas, and aeronautics. Understanding the cost for research and development of these technologies and the time it takes to increase the maturity of the technology is important to the support of the ongoing and future NASA missions. Overall, technology estimating may help provide guidance to technology investment strategies to help improve evaluation of technology affordability, and aid in decision support. The research provides a summary of the framework development of a Technology Estimating process where four technology roadmap areas were selected to be studied. The framework includes definition of terms, discussion for narrowing the focus from 14 NASA Technology Roadmap areas to four, and further refinement to include technologies, TRL range of 2 to 6. Included in this paper is a discussion to address the evaluation of 20 unique technology parameters that were initially identified, evaluated and then subsequently reduced for use in characterizing these technologies. A discussion of data acquisition effort and criteria established for data quality are provided. The findings obtained during the research included gaps identified, and a description of a spreadsheet-based estimating tool initiated as a part of the Technology Estimating process.

  14. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Phase II and phase III.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilke, John F.; Parks, Raymond C.; Funkhouser, Donald Ray; Tebo, Michael A.; Murphy, Martin D.; Hightower, Marion Michael; Gallagher, Linda K.; Craft, Richard Layne, II; Garcia, Rudy John

    2004-04-01

    In Phase I of this project, reported in SAND97-1922, Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. The effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements and an economic analysis model for development of care pathway costs for two conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Phases II and III of this project, which are presented in this report, were directed at detailing the parameters of telemedicine that influence care delivery costs and quality. These results were used to identify and field test the communication, interoperability, and security capabilities needed for cost-effective, secure, and reliable health care via telemedicine.

  15. A Cost Analysis of Food Waste Composting in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration (EPA has enacted a food waste recycling policy since 2003 as an alternative of landfill and incineration for the final disposal of municipal solid waste. Recycled food waste is currently seen as a valuable material, especially when appropriate technology is developed. This paper conducts a cost/benefit analysis based on six cases of food waste composting plants in Taiwan, finding that (1 the composting of food waste may yield the most net benefit compared to other applications of today; (2 the production cost of compost ranges from NT$ 2897–23,117/tonne; (3 the adoption of more automatic technology may reduce operation costs and, thus, a closed composting system with mechanical aeration may be more cost effective; (4 the output is a determinant of affecting production costs and private firms are more competitive in production costs than government-affiliated composting units; (5 all of the government-affiliated composting units face a negative profit and thus they are required to make use of the market value of the produced compost to achieve economic viability; and (6 a subsidy to the compost producer is needed to expand the market demand as the food waste recycled can save the disposal cost of municipal solid waste (MSW incineration.

  16. Cost-efficient emission abatement of energy and transportation technologies: mitigation costs and policy impacts for Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Ellen; Van Passel, Steven; Lizin, Sebastien; Wouter M. J. Achten; Van Acker, Karel

    2014-01-01

    In the light of global warming, this paper develops a framework to compare energy and transportation technologies in terms of cost-efficient GHG emission reduction. We conduct a simultaneous assessment of economic and environmental performances through life cycle costing and life cycle assessment. To calculate the GHG mitigation cost, we create reference systems within the base scenario. Further, we extend the concept of the mitigation cost, allowing (i) comparision of technologies given a li...

  17. Cost-efficient emission abatement of energy and transportation technologies: Mitigation costs and policy impacts for Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen De Schepper; Steven Van Passel; Sebastien Lizin; Wouter Achten; Karel Van Acker

    2014-01-01

    In the light of global warming, this paper develops a framework to compare energy and transportation technologies in terms of cost-efficient GHG emission reduction. We conduct a simultaneous assessment of economic and environmental performances through life cycle costing and life cycle assessment. To calculate the GHG mitigation cost, we create reference systems within the base scenario. Further, we extend the concept of the mitigation cost, allowing (i) comparision of technologies given a li...

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  19. Value analysis for advanced technology products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulliere, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Technology by itself can be wondrous, but buyers of technology factor in the price they have to pay along with performance in their decisions. As a result, the ``best'' technology may not always win in the marketplace when ``good enough'' can be had at a lower price. Technology vendors often set pricing by ``cost plus margin,'' or by competitors' offerings. What if the product is new (or has yet to be invented)? Value pricing is a methodology to price products based on the value generated (e.g. money saved) by using one product vs. the next best technical alternative. Value analysis can often clarify what product attributes generate the most value. It can also assist in identifying market forces outside of the control of the technology vendor that also influence pricing. These principles are illustrated with examples.

  20. Airlift deployment analysis system life cycle cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Das, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Worthington, J.C. (Sybase, Inc. (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) is an automated system that will provide Headquarters, Military Airlift Command (HQ MAC) with planning, scheduling, and analysis tools for peacetime and contingency airlift operations. This Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis identifies cost factors impacting ADANS during its life cycle. This analysis lists exact costs when known and reasonable estimates of other costs. This report states costs in fiscal year (FY) dollars for costs already expended (FY86--FY89) and in FY90 dollars for projected costs. Factors that could have a substantial impact on the ADANS life cycle development and maintenance costs are noted. The development effort will conclude in FY92. This LCC analysis covers a 15-year period from FY86--FY00. The total costs of ADANS is projected to be approximately $60 million. Of this total, about 20% is for development of functional capability, about 9% for development of the cross-cutting subsystems, and about 71% for program and system support. The total Oak Ridge National Laboratory development cost for FY86--FY92 is about $27.5 million; the total cost for HQ MAC is about 32.5 million. 32 tabs.

  1. Advanced Technology for Lighter and More Cost Effective Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, are working with industry partners to develop a new generation of more cost-efficient space vehicles. Lightweight fuel tanks and components under development will be the critical elements in tomorrow's reusable launch vehicles and will tremendously curb the costs of getting to space. In this photo, Tom DeLay, a materials processes engineer for MSFC, uses a new graphite epoxy technology to create lightweight cryogenic fuel lines for futuristic reusable launch vehicles. He is wrapping a water-soluble mandrel, or mold, with a graphite fabric coated with an epoxy resin. Once wrapped, the pipe will be vacuum-bagged and autoclave-cured. The disposable mold will be removed to reveal a thin-walled fuel line. In addition to being much lighter and stronger than metal, this material won't expand or contract as much in the extreme temperatures encountered by launch vehicles.

  2. Information Technology: A Tool to Cut Health Care Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Maly, K. J.; Overstreet, C. M.; Foudriat, E. C.

    1996-01-01

    Old Dominion University embarked on a project to see how current computer technology could be applied to reduce the cost and or to improve the efficiency of health care services. We designed and built a prototype for an integrated medical record system (MRS). The MRS is written in Tool control language/Tool kit (Tcl/Tk). While the initial version of the prototype had patient information hard coded into the system, later versions used an INGRES database for storing patient information. Currently, we have proposed an object-oriented model for implementing MRS. These projects involve developing information systems for physicians and medical researchers to enhance their ability for improved treatment at reduced costs. The move to computerized patient records is well underway, several standards exist for laboratory records, and several groups are working on standards for other portions of the patient record.

  3. Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Life-Cycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization Cost Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    intangible knowledge assets . Capturing the value embedded in an organization’s core processes, employees, and IT enables calculation of the actual cost...can quantify costs and measure value derived from investments in human capital and IT assets . A higher ROK signifies better utilization of assets . If...telecommunications, information technology, value-based business process reengineering, and knowledge value measurement in profit and nonprofit

  4. Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan Torres Edejer, Tessa

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI PART ONE: METHODS COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR GENERALIZED ANALYSIS 1. 2. What is Generalized Cost-Effectiveness Analysis? . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Undertaking...

  5. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Carmen; Rahman, Shamim

    2010-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is commonly characterized as one of two types: production testing for certification and acceptance of engine hardware, and developmental testing for prototype evaluation or research and development (R&D) purposes. For programmatic reasons there is a continuing need to assess and evaluate the test costs for the various types of test campaigns that involve liquid rocket propellant test articles. Presently, in fact, there is a critical need to provide guidance on what represents a best value for testing and provide some key economic insights for decision-makers within NASA and the test customers outside the Agency. Hence, selected rocket propulsion test databases and references have been evaluated and analyzed with the intent to discover correlations of technical information and test costs that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost projections in the future. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test cost information presented some unique obstacles which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future cost information gathering and analysis. In summary, this historical account and evaluation of rocket propulsion test cost information will enhance understanding of the various kinds of project cost information; identify certain trends of interest to the aerospace testing community.

  6. Cost analysis of flood-proofing levees

    OpenAIRE

    Šuklje, Matija Jože

    2013-01-01

    In the thesis I analyzed some prices of construction works from 1950s and did a cost analysis of building a super levee. Earth and concrete dams, percolation through the core of the embankment and foundation seepage beneath the dykes are presented in details. Much attention is given to the construction and use of new types of dams such as super-levees. Furthermore, the analysis of changing prices of some construction works are presented as the costs are important in the building of levees. Th...

  7. Evaluation of Costs in Asparagus Production in Relation to Different Technological Processes in Conditions of Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with analysis structure of cost on the production of asparagus in relation to three different technological processes in conditions of Slovak Republic. Obtained results can be used as a template to prepare budgets and make production decisions to estimate potential returns and to analyze investment and financial analysis decisions in the asparagus cultivation. Production practices used in the budget are based on typical practices for asparagus in this country. From the analysis of the cost structure of assessed variants different technological procedures follows that the largest share of the costs fall to purchased material and labor.

  8. Life cycle cost analysis for the Plasma Arc Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes-Smith, P.

    1994-03-01

    This document is a draft version. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program requested that the Systems Analysis Group investigate the cost effectiveness of using the Plasma Arc Furnace (PAF) module in place of specified thermal and final forms treatment equipment in the baseline Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) study as performed by Bechtel Corporation, September 1992. The attached estimates are based on the process equipment and facilities cost data contained in the Bechtel study. The PAF process equipment and facilities cost data were developed using independent cost estimates for the equipment list provided by SAIC, Waste Management and Technology Division, in cooperation with the Pollution Prevention and Systems Analysis Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Division. In order to develop the total life cycle cost estimate comparison for this study, it was necessary to use a common base for comparison. Although it was felt that the Bechtel MWTP study did not fully reflect the optimum size for the thermal and final forms treatment equipment, it was the best available data at the time.

  9. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  10. 24 CFR 965.402 - Benefit/cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that the cost of debt service (interest and amortization) of the estimated installation costs plus the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefit/cost analysis. 965.402...-Owned Projects § 965.402 Benefit/cost analysis. (a) A benefit/cost analysis shall be made to determine...

  11. LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF SOLAR PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZTÜRK

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar ponds are the systems which collect solar energy and store it for long periods of time. For effective and efficient use of these systems in the country, concepts relating economy of solar ponds which generated hot water from the sun must be known besides their physical properties. Life cycle cost analysis is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes. In order to quantify the costs, resource consumption, and energy use, material and energy balances are performed in a cradle-to-grave manner on the operations required to transform raw materials into useful products. In this study; life cycle cost analysis of reflecting covered and non covered solar ponds are calculated for a volume of 3.5x3.5x2 cubic meters and presented. Also the energies extractable for these solar ponds in Goller Region climatic conditions are given.

  12. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  13. Designing Human and Kitchen Waste Based Biogas & Solar Plant for PabnaUniversity of Science & Technology (PUSTCampus and Cost Benefit Analysis after Renewable Energy Interconnection on PUST Campus’s Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is facing serious energy crisis which is a great barrier for development and poverty alleviation. Shortage of electric power generation causes a significant amount of load shedding and which causes a great loss, discomfort and inconvenience in Domestic life. Students suffer most as it hampers their studies, examination and regular activities. Important University activities remain halted during load shedding, which have a severe effect in overall national development. Some of the Universities in Bangladesh use Gas or Diesel generators to alleviate this irritate situation and expense a lot of money, whereas most of the Universities all works come to a halt during load shedding hours. But there is a huge opportunity to backup load shedding using renewable energy sources (Solar energy, human and kitchen waste to generate biogas energy. This paper presents a design and analysis of solar plant and human and kitchen waste based biogas plant for load shedding backup at PabnaUniversity of Science and Technology (PUST, Bangladesh. And the cost analysis focus that the system is economically feasible for not only a University campus but also whole Country

  14. Cost Effectiveness Analysis, A DTIC Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Model for Estimating * 0 6 DUGAS. DORIS J. Software Life Cycle Costs (ModelGuidelines for Attracting Private *4Concept). Volume 1.Capital to Corp$ of...of Category It Test Program A0-A023 442 An Econometric Analysis of aitonance Data. VOlunteer Enlistments of service AD-AO21 258 HUMPHREYS . THOMAS H

  15. Cost-utility analysis of thrombolytic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Simoons (Maarten); J. Vos (Jeroen); L.L. Martens (Leonardus Lambertus)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractAn analysis of the cost-effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy was performed, based on 3- to 5-year follow-up data, from 533 patients randomized to receive conventional therapy or intracoronary streptokinase. At the 3-year follow-up, mortality was 22% in the former group and 14% after thr

  16. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOOD, ALEXANDER M.; POWERS, RICHARD

    DIFFICULTIES ARE ENCOUNTERED WHEN COST-BENEFIT ANALYSES ARE APPLIED TO EDUCATION. THERE ARE PROBLEMS IN THE ATTEMPT TO DEFINE AN EDUCATIONAL GOAL AND IN THE ANALYSIS OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS NOW ENGAGED IN A MULTITUDE OF PROJECTS DESIGNED TO COORDINATE RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENT. THIS ENTAILS CONTINUED…

  17. Review of PV Inverter Technology Cost and Performance Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2006-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a major responsibility in the implementation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has a major role in supporting inverter development, characterization, standards, certifications, and verifications. The Solar Energy Technologies Program recently published a Multiyear Technical Plan, which establishes a goal of reducing the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) for photovoltaic (PV) systems to $0.06/kWh by 2020. The Multiyear Technical Plan estimates that, in order to meet the PV system goal, PV inverter prices will need to decline to $0.25-0.30 Wp by 2020. DOE determined the need to conduct a rigorous review of the PV Program's technical and economic targets, including the target set for PV inverters. NREL requested that Navigant Consulting Inc.(NCI) conduct a review of historical and projected cost and performance improvements for PV inverters, including identification of critical barriers identified and the approaches government might use to address them.

  18. Costs Analysis of Iron Casts Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of costs analysis of iron casts manufacturing using automated foundry lines. Particular attention was paid to departmental costs, conversion costs and costs of in-plant transport. After the Pareto analysis had been carried out, it was possible to set the model area of the process and focus on improving activities related to finishing of a chosen group of casts. In order to eliminate losses, the activities realised in this domain were divided into activities with added value, activities with partially added value and activities without added value. To streamline the production flow, it was proposed to change the location of workstations related to grinding, control and machining of casts. Within the process of constant improvement of manufacturing processes, the aspect of work ergonomics at a workstation was taken into account. As a result of the undertaken actions, some activities without added value were eliminated, efficiency was increased and prime costs of manufacturing casts with regard to finishing treatment were lowered.

  19. Low-cost space platforms for detection and tracking technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Robert M.

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and applications of inexpensive satellite platforms capable of carrying dedicated sensor packages into low earth orbit on primary or shared launch services. These satellites permit achievement of rapid operational status by employing standard buses with fixed options for orbit and power. The satellites may be configured for experimental or operational missions with lifetimes up to several years. Low cost satellites can satisfy a range of mission requirements in the areas of surveillance, drug interdiction, environmental and geophysical observations, immigration control, fisheries law enforcement, remote sensing, real-time communications, store-and-forward communications, and technology testing. These satellites may be equipped for location determination missions with ID and homing transponders and tagged objects or persons. The satellites' size, power, and weight budgets are appropriately rated for the types of dedicated mission scenarios noted above. For applications requiring continuous visibility or high availability, constellations of satellites may be both appropriate and cost-effective. Orbital parameters are determined by the launch vehicle and the requirements of the primary payload. Geographical service areas are determined by the orbital footprint, the parameters of which are determined by the mission requirements and the selection of launch vehicle. The satellites' small size permits their launch on any of several launch vehicles in domestic or international inventory. Integral to each satellite is a communications and control package which, when coupled with companion low cost earth terminals, provides programmable mission scenarios under operator control. These satellites permit rapid implementation of operational systems within tight fiscal constraints.

  20. Cost Effective Technologies and Renewable Substrates for Biosurfactants’ Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Banat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diverse types of microbial surface-active amphiphilic molecules are produced by a range of microbial communities. The extraordinary properties of biosurfactant / bioemulsifier (BS/BE as surface active products allows them to have key roles in various field of applications such as bioremediation, biodegradation, enhanced oil recovery, pharmaceutics, food processing among many others. This leads to a vast number of potential applications of these BS/BE in different industrial sectors. Despite the huge number of reports and patents describing BS and BE applications and advantages, commercialization of these compounds remain difficult, costly and to a large extent irregular. This is mainly due to the usage of chemically synthesized media for growing producing microorganism and in turn the production of preferred quality products. It is important to note that although a number of developments have taken place in the field of biosurfactant industries, large scale production remains economically challenging for many types of these products. This is mainly due to the huge monetary difference between the investment and achievable productivity from the commercial point of view. This review discusses low cost, renewable raw substrates and fermentation technology in BS/BE production processes and their role in reducing the production cost.

  1. Cost effective technologies and renewable substrates for biosurfactants' production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banat, Ibrahim M; Satpute, Surekha K; Cameotra, Swaranjit S; Patil, Rajendra; Nyayanit, Narendra V

    2014-01-01

    Diverse types of microbial surface active amphiphilic molecules are produced by a range of microbial communities. The extraordinary properties of biosurfactant/bioemulsifier (BS/BE) as surface active products allows them to have key roles in various field of applications such as bioremediation, biodegradation, enhanced oil recovery, pharmaceutics, food processing among many others. This leads to a vast number of potential applications of these BS/BE in different industrial sectors. Despite the huge number of reports and patents describing BS and BE applications and advantages, commercialization of these compounds remain difficult, costly and to a large extent irregular. This is mainly due to the usage of chemically synthesized media for growing producing microorganism and in turn the production of preferred quality products. It is important to note that although a number of developments have taken place in the field of BS industries, large scale production remains economically challenging for many types of these products. This is mainly due to the huge monetary difference between the investment and achievable productivity from the commercial point of view. This review discusses low cost, renewable raw substrates, and fermentation technology in BS/BE production processes and their role in reducing the production cost.

  2. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sill, A.E.; Warren, S.; Dillinger, J.D.; Cloer, B.K.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. This study was conducted by implementing both top-down and bottom-up strategies. The top-down approach used prosperity gaming methodology to identify future health care delivery needs. This effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements. The bottom-up approach identified and ranked interventional therapies employed in existing care delivery systems for a host of health-related conditions. Economic analysis formed the basis for development of care pathway interaction models for two of the most pervasive, chronic disease/disability conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Societal cost-benefit relationships based on these analyses were used to evaluate the effect of emerging technology in these treatment areas. 17 figs., 48 tabs.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Water and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    changes in drinking and wastewater infrastructure need to incorporate a holistic view of the water service sustainability tradeoffs and potential benefits when considering shifts towards new treatment technology, decentralized systems, energy recovery and reuse of treated wastewater. The main goal of this study is to determine the influence of scale on the energy and cost performance of different transitional membrane bioreactors (MBR) in decentralized wastewater treatment (WWT) systems by performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis. LCA is a tool used to quantify sustainability-related metrics from a systems perspective. The study calculates the environmental and cost profiles of both aerobic MBRs (AeMBR) and anaerobic MBRs (AnMBR), which not only recover energy from waste, but also produce recycled water that can displace potable water for uses such as irrigation and toilet flushing. MBRs represent an intriguing technology to provide decentralized WWT services while maximizing resource recovery. A number of scenarios for these WWT technologies are investigated for different scale systems serving various population density and land area combinations to explore the ideal application potentials. MBR systems are examined from 0.05 million gallons per day (MGD) to 10 MGD and serve land use types from high density urban (100,000 people per square mile) to semi-rural single family (2,000 people per square mile). The LCA and cost model was built with ex

  4. Textile Technology Analysis Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textile Analysis Labis built for evaluating and characterizing the physical properties of an array of textile materials, but specifically those used in aircrew...

  5. How to Appropriately Extrapolate Costs and Utilities in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojke, Laura; Manca, Andrea; Asaria, Miqdad; Mahon, Ronan; Ren, Shijie; Palmer, Stephen

    2017-05-03

    Costs and utilities are key inputs into any cost-effectiveness analysis. Their estimates are typically derived from individual patient-level data collected as part of clinical studies the follow-up duration of which is often too short to allow a robust quantification of the likely costs and benefits a technology will yield over the patient's entire lifetime. In the absence of long-term data, some form of temporal extrapolation-to project short-term evidence over a longer time horizon-is required. Temporal extrapolation inevitably involves assumptions regarding the behaviour of the quantities of interest beyond the time horizon supported by the clinical evidence. Unfortunately, the implications for decisions made on the basis of evidence derived following this practice and the degree of uncertainty surrounding the validity of any assumptions made are often not fully appreciated. The issue is compounded by the absence of methodological guidance concerning the extrapolation of non-time-to-event outcomes such as costs and utilities. This paper considers current approaches to predict long-term costs and utilities, highlights some of the challenges with the existing methods, and provides recommendations for future applications. It finds that, typically, economic evaluation models employ a simplistic approach to temporal extrapolation of costs and utilities. For instance, their parameters (e.g. mean) are typically assumed to be homogeneous with respect to both time and patients' characteristics. Furthermore, costs and utilities have often been modelled to follow the dynamics of the associated time-to-event outcomes. However, cost and utility estimates may be more nuanced, and it is important to ensure extrapolation is carried out appropriately for these parameters.

  6. Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Address Health Equity Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard; Mirelman, Andrew J; Griffin, Susan; Asaria, Miqdad; Dawkins, Bryony; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Verguet, Stéphane; J Culyer, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    This articles serves as a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to address health equity concerns. We first introduce the "equity impact plane," a tool for considering trade-offs between improving total health-the objective underpinning conventional CEA-and equity objectives, such as reducing social inequality in health or prioritizing the severely ill. Improving total health may clash with reducing social inequality in health, for example, when effective delivery of services to disadvantaged communities requires additional costs. Who gains and who loses from a cost-increasing health program depends on differences among people in terms of health risks, uptake, quality, adherence, capacity to benefit, and-crucially-who bears the opportunity costs of diverting scarce resources from other uses. We describe two main ways of using CEA to address health equity concerns: 1) equity impact analysis, which quantifies the distribution of costs and effects by equity-relevant variables, such as socioeconomic status, location, ethnicity, sex, and severity of illness; and 2) equity trade-off analysis, which quantifies trade-offs between improving total health and other equity objectives. One way to analyze equity trade-offs is to count the cost of fairer but less cost-effective options in terms of health forgone. Another method is to explore how much concern for equity is required to choose fairer but less cost-effective options using equity weights or parameters. We hope this article will help the health technology assessment community navigate the practical options now available for conducting equity-informative CEA that gives policymakers a better understanding of equity impacts and trade-offs.

  7. Integrated analysis considered mitigation cost, damage cost and adaptation cost in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Kim, H. G.; Sung, S.; Jung, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Various studies show that raising the temperature as well as storms, cold snap, raining and drought caused by climate change. And variety disasters have had a damage to mankind. The world risk report(2012, The Nature Conservancy) and UNU-EHS (the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security) reported that more and more people are exposed to abnormal weather such as floods, drought, earthquakes, typhoons and hurricanes over the world. In particular, the case of Korea, we influenced by various pollutants which are occurred in Northeast Asian countries, China and Japan, due to geographical meteorological characteristics. These contaminants have had a significant impact on air quality with the pollutants generated in Korea. Recently, around the world continued their effort to reduce greenhouse gas and to improve air quality in conjunction with the national or regional development goals priority. China is also working on various efforts in accordance with the international flows to cope with climate change and air pollution. In the future, effect of climate change and air quality in Korea and Northeast Asia will be change greatly according to China's growth and mitigation policies. The purpose of this study is to minimize the damage caused by climate change on the Korean peninsula through an integrated approach taking into account the mitigation and adaptation plan. This study will suggest a climate change strategy at the national level by means of a comprehensive economic analysis of the impacts and mitigation of climate change. In order to quantify the impact and damage cost caused by climate change scenarios in a regional scale, it should be priority variables selected in accordance with impact assessment of climate change. The sectoral impact assessment was carried out on the basis of selected variables and through this, to derive the methodology how to estimate damage cost and adaptation cost. And then, the methodology was applied in Korea

  8. Cost efficient SAGD heave monitoring: new generation radar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granda, Johanna; Arnaud, Alain; Payas, Blanca; Katsuris, Dimitra; Cooksley, Geraint [Altamira Information (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Oil sands operations are subject to various regulations, one of them being the obligation to monitor heave monuments or other surfaces. Besides meeting the Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) requirements, heave monitoring is efficient in steam chamber monitoring and guaranteeing the safety of SAGD operations. Several techniques exist for heave monitoring, such as GPS-measurement and Interferometry for synthetic aperture readar (InSAR). This paper aimed at presenting the InSAR technology and the advances made with the new generation X-band satellite technology. Two studies were conducted: one in an SAGD steam injection area in Alberta, Canada, and the other in a CO2 storage site in In Salah, Algeria. The new generation X-band radar satellites showed some advantages over traditional techniques, with: redundancy of satellites, frequency of images, measurement precision, a higher resolution and a smaller size of corner reflectors. The InSAR technology presented herein is a cost efficient technique allowing heavy oil operators to comply with ERCB requirements.

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of wetland restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubgaard, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is to identify value for money solutions to government policies or projects. Environmental policy appraisal is typically complicated by the fact that thre are a number of feasible solutions to a decision problem - each yielding a different mix...... of environmental services. Costs typically depend on the level of ambitions regarding the magnitude and multitude of benefits. Decision makers are therefore confronted with the questions: how can generically different benefits be measured in comparable terms and how should different levels of project costs...... be weighed against benefits? Economic valuation methods and CBA simplify the decision problem by reducing the various effects to single-valued commensurate magnitudes, which - in principle at least - facilitates the identification of a socially optimal solution. The main objective of this article...

  10. Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation Cost Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    At space vehicle launch sites such as Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and Kennedy Space Center (KSC), toxic vapors and hazardous liquid wastes result from the handling of commodities (hypergolic fuels and oxidizers), most notably from transfer operations where fuel and oxidizer are transferred from bulk storage tanks or transfer tankers to space launch vehicles. During commodity transfer at CCAFS and KSC, wet chemical scrubbers (typically containing four scrubbing towers) are used to neutralize fuel saturated vapors from vent systems on tanks and tanker trailers. For fuel vapors, a citric acid solution is used to scrub out most of the hydrazine. Operation of both the hypergolic fuel and oxidizer vapor scrubbers generates waste scrubber liquor. Currently, scrubber liquor from the fuel vapor scrubber is considered non-hazardous. The scrubber liquor is defined as spent citric acid scrubber solution; the solution contains complexed hydrazine I methylhydrazine and is used to neutralize nonspecification hypergolic fuel generated by CCAFS and KSC. This project is a collaborative effort between Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Space and Missile Center (SMC), the CCAFS, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to evaluate microwave destruction technology for the treatment of non-specification hypergolic fuel generated at CCAFS and KSC. The project will capitalize on knowledge gained from microwave treatment work being accomplished by AFSPC and SMC at V AFB. This report focuses on the costs associated with the current non-specification hypergolic fuel neutralization process (Section 2.0) as well as the estimated costs of operating a mobile microwave unit to treat non-specification hypergolic fuel (Section 3.0), and compares the costs for each (Section 4.0).The purpose of this document is to assess the costs associated with waste hypergolic fuel. This document will report the costs associated with the current fuel

  11. Appraising the Cost Efficiency of Higher Technological and Vocational Education Institutions in Taiwan Using the Metafrontier Cost-Function Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Ku-Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at appraising the cost efficiency and technology of institutions of higher technological and vocational education. Differing from conventional literature, it considers the potential influence of inherent discrepancies in output quality and characteristics of school systems for institutes of technology (ITs) and universities of…

  12. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  13. Transaction costs and technological development: The case of the Danish fruit and vegetable industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that technological change can be understood in terms of attempts to reduce transaction costs as well as production costs. Two types of paths of technological development are identified: a production cost minimizing path, and a transac cost minimizing path. The creation of new technol...... in addition to the conventional production perspective. The theoretical points are continiuously illustrated by the case of technological development in the Danish fruit and vegetable industry....

  14. New technologies for DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinn, Steven; Bauer, David; Brefort, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The REvolutionary Approaches and Devices for Nucleic Acid analysis (READNA) project received funding from the European Commission for 4 1/2 years. The objectives of the project revolved around technological developments in nucleic acid analysis. The project partners have discovered, created and d...

  15. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-11-04

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  16. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  17. Plant stress analysis technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring vegetation is an active area of laser-induced fluorescence imaging (LIFI) research. The Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) is assisting in the transfer of the LIFI technology to the agricultural private sector through a market survey. The market survey will help identify the key eco-agricultural issues of the nations that could benefit from the use of sensor technologies developed by the Office of Science and Technology (OST). The principal region of interest is the Western Hemisphere, particularly, the rapidly growing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The analysis of needs will assure that the focus of present and future research will center on economically important issues facing both hemispheres. The application of the technology will be useful to the agriculture industry for airborne crop analysis as well as in the detection and characterization of contaminated sites by monitoring vegetation. LIFI airborne and close-proximity systems will be evaluated as stand-alone technologies and additions to existing sensor technologies that have been used to monitor crops in the field and in storage.

  18. Products from NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Applicable to Low-Cost Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Vento, Daniel; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Hahne, David; Munk, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Since September 2001 NASA s In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. Recently completed is the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. Two other cost saving technologies nearing completion are the NEXT ion thruster and the Aerocapture technology project. Also under development are several technologies for low cost sample return missions. These include a low cost Hall effect thruster (HIVHAC) which will be completed in 2011, light weight propellant tanks, and a Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV). This paper will discuss the status of the technology development, the cost savings or performance benefits, and applicability of these in-space propulsion technologies to NASA s future Discovery, and New Frontiers missions, as well as their relevance for sample return missions.

  19. Products from NASA's in-space propulsion technology program applicable to low-cost planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Vento, Daniel; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Hahne, David; Munk, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Since September 2001, NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. Recently completed is the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. Two other cost saving technologies nearing completion are the NEXT ion thruster and the Aerocapture technology project. Under development are several technologies for low-cost sample return missions. These include a low-cost Hall-effect thruster (HIVHAC) which will be completed in 2011, light-weight propellant tanks, and a Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV). This paper will discuss the status of the technology development, the cost savings or performance benefits, and applicability of these in-space propulsion technologies to NASA's future Discovery, and New Frontiers missions, as well as their relevance for sample return missions.

  20. Market diffusion, technological learning, and cost-benefit dynamics of condensing gas boilers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Dittmar, L.; Junginger, H.M.; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K.

    2009-01-01

    High costs often prevent the market diffusion of novel and efficient energy technologies. Monitoring cost and price decline for these technologies is thus important in order to establish effective energy policy. Here, we present experience curves and cost-benefit analyses for condensing gas boilers

  1. Advanced gasifier and water gas shift technologies for low cost coal conversion to high hydrogen syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Andrew Kramer [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and team members RTI International (RTI), Coanda Research and Development, and Nexant, are developing and maturing a portfolio of technologies to meet the United States Department of Energy (DOE) goals for lowering the cost of producing high hydrogen syngas from coal for use in carbon capture power and coal-to-liquids/chemicals. This project matured an advanced pilot-scale gasifier, with scalable and commercially traceable components, to readiness for use in a first-of-a-kind commercially-relevant demonstration plant on the scale of 500-1,000 tons per day (TPD). This was accomplished through cold flow simulation of the gasifier quench zone transition region at Coanda and through an extensive hotfire gasifier test program on highly reactive coal and high ash/high ash fusion temperature coals at GTI. RTI matured an advanced water gas shift process and catalyst to readiness for testing at pilot plant scale through catalyst development and testing, and development of a preliminary design basis for a pilot scale reactor demonstrating the catalyst. A techno-economic analysis was performed by Nexant to assess the potential benefits of the gasifier and catalyst technologies in the context of power production and methanol production. This analysis showed an 18%reduction in cost of power and a 19%reduction in cost of methanol relative to DOE reference baseline cases.

  2. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  3. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  4. Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge...

  5. The optimal suppression of a low-cost technology by a durable-good monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, Larry; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    1994-01-01

    If a durable-good monopoly can use either of two technologies whose properties are known to consumers, the monopoly uses only the technology with the lowest average cost at low levels of production. If consumers only know about technologies in use, the monopoly may use an inferior technology initially to increase its profits, keeping the new, efficient technology secret and switching later. Thus, in either case, an inferior technology may be used; however, switching between technologies occur...

  6. Transaction costs and technological development: The case of the Danish fruit and vegetable industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that technological change can be understood in terms of attempts to reduce transaction costs as well as production costs. Two types of paths of technological development are identified: a production cost minimizing path, and a transac cost minimizing path. The creation of new...... technological opportunites underlying the path of production-cost.minimizing depends on the emergence of problems of optimizing the performance of products and processing technology. The exploitation of su opportunities may easily be interpreted within a production perspective since the economic consequences...... would be reduced production costs. The creation of new technological opportunities within the transaction-costs-minimizing path depends on th continual emergence of problems related to the control of variablility in product quality or performance. The economic consequence from exploiting...

  7. System-of-Systems Technology-Portfolio-Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Daniel; Mankins, John; Feingold, Harvey; Johnson, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Technology Life-cycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a system-of-systems technology-portfolio-analysis software tool. ATLAS affords capabilities to (1) compare estimates of the mass and cost of an engineering system based on competing technological concepts; (2) estimate life-cycle costs of an outer-space-exploration architecture for a specified technology portfolio; (3) collect data on state-of-the-art and forecasted technology performance, and on operations and programs; and (4) calculate an index of the relative programmatic value of a technology portfolio. ATLAS facilitates analysis by providing a library of analytical spreadsheet models for a variety of systems. A single analyst can assemble a representation of a system of systems from the models and build a technology portfolio. Each system model estimates mass, and life-cycle costs are estimated by a common set of cost models. Other components of ATLAS include graphical-user-interface (GUI) software, algorithms for calculating the aforementioned index, a technology database, a report generator, and a form generator for creating the GUI for the system models. At the time of this reporting, ATLAS is a prototype, embodied in Microsoft Excel and several thousand lines of Visual Basic for Applications that run on both Windows and Macintosh computers.

  8. SOCIETAL PERSPECTIVE ON COST DRIVERS FOR HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN SINDH, PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Asif Raza; Mitton, Craig; Qureshi, Rahat; Bryan, Stirling; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cost-drivers and estimating societal costs are important challenges for economic evaluation of health technologies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study assessed community experiences of health resource usage and perceived cost-drivers from a societal perspective to inform the design of an economic model for the Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) trials. Qualitative research was undertaken alongside the CLIP trial in two districts of Sindh province, Pakistan. Nine focus groups were conducted with a wide range of stakeholders, including pregnant women, mothers-in-law, husbands, fathers-in-law, healthcare providers at community and health facility-levels, and health decision/policy makers at district-level. The societal perspective included out-of-pocket (OOP), health system, and program implementation costs related to CLIP. Thematic analysis was performed using NVivo software. Most pregnant women and male decision makers reported a large burden of OOP costs for in- and out-patient care, informal care from traditional healers, self-medication, childbirth, newborn care, transport to health facility, and missed wages by caretakers. Many healthcare providers identified health system costs associated with human resources for hypertension risk assessment, transport, and communication about patient referrals. Health decision/policy makers recognized program implementation costs (such as the mobile health infrastructure, staff training, and monitoring/supervision) as major investments for the health system. Our investigation of care-seeking practices revealed financial implications for families of pregnant women, and program implementation costs for the health system. The societal perspective provided comprehensive knowledge of cost drivers to guide an economic appraisal of the CLIP trial in Sindh, Pakistan.

  9. Heliostat production evaluation and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, J. F.; Shulte, C. W.; Davey, H. L.

    1979-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to provide a factory cost for the production of heliostats in terms of 1979 dollars. Factory cost is defined as the sum of all direct labor, direct material and burden expenses that are incurred in the manufacture of a heliostat, and its packaging for shipment. Transportation, installation, taxes other than plant real taxes, profit, selling expenses, and all other profit and loss items are not included. Two production volumes are considered, 25,000 heliostat units per year and 250,000 heliostat units per year. The study concluded that the factory cost to manufacture heliostats is $95.99/m/sup 2/ at 25,000 units per year and $67.95/m/sup 2/ at 250,000 units per year. The Policy Analysis Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute estimates that this implies an installed price of $122.12/m/sup 2/ at the 25,000 unit-per-year volume.

  10. Cost-benefit considerations in regulatory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Sailor, V.; Anandalingam, G.

    1995-10-01

    Justification for safety enhancements at nuclear facilities, e.g., a compulsory backfit to nuclear power plants, requires a value-impact analysis of the increase in overall public protection versus the cost of implementation. It has been customary to assess the benefits in terms of radiation dose to the public averted by the introduction of the safety enhancement. Comparison of such benefits with the costs of the enhancement then requires an estimate of the monetary value of averted dose (dollars/person rem). This report reviews available information on a variety of factors that affect this valuation and assesses the continuing validity of the figure of $1000/person-rem averted, which has been widely used as a guideline in performing value-impact analyses. Factors that bear on this valuation include the health risks of radiation doses, especially the higher risk estimates of the BEIR V committee, recent calculations of doses and offsite costs by consequence codes for hypothesized severe accidents at U.S. nuclear power plants under the NUREG-1150 program, and recent information on the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and estimates of risk avoidance based on the willingness-to-pay criterion. The report analyzes these factors and presents results on the dollars/person-rem ratio arising from different assumptions on the values of these factors.

  11. Cost Benefit Analysis of Boat Lifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    to avoid the potential of mishaps due to jumping across open water to reach both sides of the lift. With the life expectancy of a boat ramp...to jumping across open water to reach both sides of the lift. Cost Benefit Analysis of Boat Lifts 11 UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC | B. Fike...equipment from boats and craft that have been corrosion problems in the past. such as wire rope and non-stainless steel hardware. Corrosion is a function

  12. Lean Cost Management Analysis on Food Processing Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce Lean Cost Management (LCM that tries to create creating value for customers and performs whole cost management in enterprise’s entire life cycle under structure of target cost, cost sustaining and cost improvement guided by reverse thinking into food processing enterprise to construct LCM system from aspects of external value chain analysis as well as internal cost management. Dynamic pricing game model was used to provide cost improvement on food enterprise value chain so as to minimize whole cost. The target cost was divided into each part in design phase supported by cost programming, cost reduction and cost improving. Case study shows that such cost suppressing method can reduce cost of food processing enterprises and improve long-term competitiveness.

  13. Development of an Expanded, High Reliability Cost and Performance Database for In Situ Remediation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    large investment in groundwater remediation technologies more effective, end-users need quantitative, accurate, and reliable performance and cost ... technologies . The overall objective of this work was to develop a comprehensive remediation performance and cost database. N/A U U U UU 42 Travis...end-users need quantitative, accurate, and reliable performance and cost data for commonly used remediation technologies . While the data from an

  14. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  15. Technology Cost and Schedule Estimation (TCASE) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jon; Schaffer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    During the 2014-2015 project year, the focus of the TCASE project has shifted from collection of historical data from many sources to securing a data pipeline between TCASE and NASA's widely used TechPort system. TCASE v1.0 implements a data import solution that was achievable within the project scope, while still providing the basis for a long-term ability to keep TCASE in sync with TechPort. Conclusion: TCASE data quantity is adequate and the established data pipeline will enable future growth. Data quality is now highly dependent the quality of data in TechPort. Recommendation: Technology development organizations within NASA should continue to work closely with project/program data tracking and archiving efforts (e.g. TechPort) to ensure that the right data is being captured at the appropriate quality level. TCASE would greatly benefit, for example, if project cost/budget information was included in TechPort in the future.

  16. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  17. SPS and alternative technologies cost and performance evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsa, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Cost estimates for production of the electrical energy needed in the early twenty-first century are provided. Costs and performance of the Satellite Power System are compared with alternative methods of producing electrical energy.

  18. On information and communication technology and production cost in construction industry: evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, A.J; Vrolijk, M.H.; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between information and communication technology (ICT) and the competitiveness of construction firms is considered. More specifically, the question is whether firms that invest in information and communication technology have a production cost advantage. The economics literature

  19. Case studies of energy information systems and related technology: Operational practices, costs, and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Dewey, Jim

    2003-09-02

    Energy Information Systems (EIS), which can monitor and analyze building energy consumption and related data throughout the Internet, have been increasing in use over the last decade. Though EIS developers describe the capabilities, costs, and benefits of EIS, many of these descriptions are idealized and often insufficient for potential users to evaluate cost, benefit and operational usefulness. LBNL has conducted a series of case studies of existing EIS and related technology installations. This study explored the following questions: (1) How is the EIS used in day-to-day operation? (2) What are the costs and benefits of an EIS? (3) Where do the energy savings come from? This paper reviews the process of these technologies from installation through energy management practice. The study is based on interviews with operators and energy managers who use EIS. Analysis of energy data trended by EIS and utility bills was also conducted to measure the benefit. This paper explores common uses and findings to identify energy savings attributable to EIS, and discusses non-energy benefits as well. This paper also addresses technologies related to EIS that have been demonstrated and evaluated by LBNL.

  20. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II

    1993-05-01

    Several advanced power plant concepts are currently under development. These include the Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor and the Advanced Light Water Reactors. One measure of the attractiveness of a new concept is its cost. Invariably, the cost of a new type of power plant will be compared with other alternative forms of electrical generation. This report provides a common starting point, whereby the cost estimates for the various power plants to be considered are developed with common assumptions and ground rules. Comparisons can then be made on a consistent basis. This is the second update of these cost estimate guidelines. Changes have been made to make the guidelines more current (January 1, 1992) and in response to suggestions made as a result of the use of the previous report. The principal changes are that the reference site has been changed from a generic Northeast (Middletown) site to a more central site (EPRI`s East/West Central site) and that reference bulk commodity prices and labor productivity rates have been added. This report is designed to provide a framework for the preparation and reporting of costs. The cost estimates will consist of the overnight construction cost, the total plant capital cost, the operation and maintenance costs, the fuel costs, decommissioning costs and the power production or busbar generation cost.

  1. An improved set of standards for finding cost for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Paul G

    2009-07-01

    Guidelines have helped standardize methods of cost-effectiveness analysis, allowing different interventions to be compared and enhancing the generalizability of study findings. There is agreement that all relevant services be valued from the societal perspective using a long-term time horizon and that more exact methods be used to cost services most affected by the study intervention. Guidelines are not specific enough with respect to costing methods, however. The literature was reviewed to identify the problems associated with the 4 principal methods of cost determination. Microcosting requires direct measurement and is ordinarily reserved to cost novel interventions. Analysts should include nonwage labor cost, person-level and institutional overhead, and the cost of development, set-up activities, supplies, space, and screening. Activity-based cost systems have promise of finding accurate costs of all services provided, but are not widely adopted. Quality must be evaluated and the generalizability of cost estimates to other settings must be considered. Administrative cost estimates, chiefly cost-adjusted charges, are widely used, but the analyst must consider items excluded from the available system. Gross costing methods determine quantity of services used and employ a unit cost. If the intervention will affect the characteristics of a service, the method should not assume that the service is homogeneous. Questions are posed for future reviews of the quality of costing methods. The analyst must avoid inappropriate assumptions, especially those that bias the analysis by exclusion of costs that are affected by the intervention under study.

  2. Assessing the costs of municipal solid waste treatment technologies in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleluia, João; Ferrão, Paulo

    2017-09-06

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the main costs incurred by local authorities in developing countries. According to some estimates, these costs can account for up to 50% of city government budgets. It is therefore of importance that policymakers, urban planners and practitioners have an adequate understanding of what these costs consist of, from collection to final waste disposal. This article focuses on a specific stage of the MSW value chain, the treatment of waste, and it aims to identify cost patterns associated with the implementation and operation of waste treatment approaches in developing Asian countries. An analysis of the capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditures (OPEX) of a number of facilities located in countries of the region was conducted based on a database gathering nearly 100 projects and which served as basis for assessing four technology categories: composting, anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal treatment, and the production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Among these, it was found that the least costly to invest, asa function of the capacity to process waste, are composting facilities, with an average CAPEX per ton of 21,493 USD2015/ton. Conversely, at the upper end featured incineration plants, with an average CAPEX of 81,880 USD2015/ton, with this treatment approach ranking by and large as the most capital intensive of the four categories assessed. OPEX figures of the plants, normalized and analyzed in the form of OPEX/ton, were also found to be higher for incineration than for biological treatment methods, although on this component differences amongst the technology groups were less pronounced than those observed for CAPEX. While the results indicated the existence of distinct cost implications for available treatment approaches in the developing Asian context, the analysis also underscored the importance of understanding the local context asa means to properly identify the cost structure of each specific plant

  3. ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COST FOR FERTILIZER ENTERPRISE EMPLOYING SHELL COAL GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY%壳牌煤气化技术化肥企业生产成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭明华; 匡正扬

    2011-01-01

    介绍新建企业价格体系、消耗定额的建立方法,对采用壳牌煤气化技术的化肥企业各工段生产成本进行分析,指出该类企业控制生产成本的关键。%The establishing methods for the price system and consumption quota in a newly-setting up enterprise are introduced and the production cost of various sections of fertilizer enterprise employing Shell coal gasification technology is analyzed as well as the keys in the control of the production cost in such enterprise indicated.

  4. Analysis and modeling of rail maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Railroad maintenance engineering plays an important role on availability of roads and reducing the cost of railroad incidents. Rail is of the most important parts of railroad industry, which needs regular maintenance since it covers a significant part of total maintenance cost. Any attempt on optimizing total cost of maintenance could substantially reduce the cost of railroad system and it can reduce total cost of the industry. The paper presents a new method to estimate the cost of rail failure using different cost components such as cost of inspection and cost of risk associated with possible accidents. The proposed model of this paper is used for a real-world case study of railroad transportation of Tehran region and the results have been analyzed.

  5. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  6. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  7. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  8. Analysis of Laser Sintering Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The new, high-tech development and customization is one ofthe most important factors in promoting the country‘s economicgrowth indicators. The economic downturn in the industryrequires technology and equipment using a minimumof raw materials and providing maximum performance. Thisstatement perfectly describes the innovative, forward-looking,cost-effective laser powder sintering (SLS technology. Here,thanks to the latest engineering achievements, product surfacesare modified and improved, they gain new characteristics. SLSis viable in automobile, engineering, construction, aerospace,aircraft, printing, medical and other areas.In order to create a product which meets the standards andtechnical documentation it is necessary to use and ensure highquality of raw materials, high-end equipment, qualified personnel,the working environment with proper climatic conditions, ergonomics,etc. But all of these, the quality of the product becomesthe decisive indicators meaningless if know how to properly selectthe laser processing operation. Scanning speed, beam power,pulse frequency, protective gases, powder layer thickness – allof them are the physical and mechanical characteristics of thechange in a small range changes the quality of the product of thefuture, the field of application and performance characteristics.

  9. A Review of Factors Influencing the Cost Development of Electricity Generation Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Samadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on the past cost dynamics of various renewable, fossil fuel and nuclear electricity generation technologies. It identifies 10 different factors which have played key roles in influencing past cost developments according to the literature. These 10 factors are: deployment-induced learning, research, development and demonstration (RD&D-induced learning, knowledge spillovers from other technologies, upsizing, economies of manufacturing scale, economies of project scale, changes in material and labour costs, changes in fuel costs, regulatory changes, and limits to the availability of suitable sites. The article summarises the relevant literature findings for each of these 10 factors and provides an overview indicating which factors have impacted on which generation technologies. The article also discusses the insights gained from the review for a better understanding of possible future cost developments of electricity generation technologies. Finally, future research needs, which may support a better understanding of past and future cost developments, are identified.

  10. Cost Accounting and Analysis for University Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.; Cooper, Michael D.

    The approach to library planning studied in this report is the use of accounting models to measure library costs and implement program budgets. A cost-flow model for a university library is developed and listed with historical data from the Berkeley General Library. Various comparisons of an exploratory nature are made of the unit costs for…

  11. Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization Cost Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-30

    circumstances, increased management control and oversight of such work, modifications to the statement of work or changes to how services are performed...steps: 1. Qualitative management screening 2. Time-series and regression forecasting 3. Base case KVA and net present value analysis 4. Monte...Product Lifecycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization Cost Savings 30 January 2016 Dr. Tom J. Housel, Professor Dr. Johnathan Mun

  12. Standardized cost estimation for new technology (SCENT) - methodology and tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ereev, S.Y.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a methodology and tool (called SCENT) to prepare preliminary economic estimates of the total production costs related to manufacturing in the process industries. The methodology uses the factorial approach – cost objects are estimated using factors and

  13. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. Objectives The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs. Materials and Methods We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Results Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. Conclusion As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be

  14. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mohsen; Mahboub Ahari, Alireza; Badakhshan, Abbas; Gholipour, Mahin; Joulaei, Hassan

    2015-10-01

    Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs) have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC) as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs). We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC) was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be implemented in MRI centers. With the settlement of a reliable cost accounting system

  15. Coste de las técnicas de reproducción asistida en un hospital público Cost of assisted reproduction technology in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Navarro Espigares

    2006-10-01

    . Methods: Data from the Human Reproduction Unit of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital in Granada (Spain from 1998 and 2003 were analyzed. Since the total costs of the unit were known, the cost of the distinct ART procedures performed in the hospital was calculated by means of a methodology for cost distribution. Results: Between 1998 and 2003, the activity and costs of the Human Reproduction Unit analyzed evolved differently. Analysis of activity showed that some techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection, were consolidated while others, such as stimulation without assisted reproduction or intracervical insemination were abandoned. In all procedures, unit costs per cycle and per delivery decreased in the period analyzed. Conclusions: Important changes took place in the structure of costs of ART in the Human Reproduction Unit of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital between 1998 and 2003. Some techniques were discontinued, while others gained importance. Technological advances and structural innovations, together with a «learning effect», modified the structure of ART-related costs.

  16. Convoy Active Safety Technology - Environmental Understanding and Navigation With Use of Low Cost Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    program, which was created to design a low cost, optionally manned vehicle ( OMV ) solution for tactical wheeled vehicle (TWV) fleet. This paper will...Active Safety Technology (CAST) development program sought to develop a low cost, optionally manned vehicle ( OMV ) solution. An objective of the CAST...Active Safety Technology (CAST) program, which was created to design a low cost, optionally manned vehicle ( OMV ) solution for tactical wheeled vehicle (TWV

  17. Cost, Time, and Risk Assessment of Different Wave Energy Converter Technology Development Trajectories: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jochem W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laird, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture; Roberts, Jesse [Sandia National Laboratories; Bull, Diana [Sandia National Laboratories; Babarit, Aurelien [Ecole Centrale de Nantes; Nielsen, Kim [Ramboll; Ferreira, Claudio Bittencourt [DNV-GL; Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture

    2017-09-14

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of three fundamentally different wave energy converter technology development trajectories. The three technology development trajectories are expressed and visualised as a function of technology readiness levels and technology performance levels. The assessment shows that development trajectories that initially prioritize technology readiness over technology performance are likely to require twice the development time, consume a threefold of the development cost, and are prone to a risk of technical or commercial failure of one order of magnitude higher than those development trajectories that initially prioritize technology performance over technology readiness.

  18. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  19. MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION PROCESSES IN AN ORGANIZATION ON THE BASIS OF COST APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Dokukina, I.

    2014-01-01

    The process of innovation management within the intensive economic development includes a number in a sequence of scientific, technological, industrial, institutional and commercial work, leading to an increase in its profits by increasing the productivity of labor and equipment, reducing production costs and improving product quality. In turn, technological innovation is an innovation in technology, improvements in technology, the use of fundamentally new technologies in the production of ma...

  20. Relative value units and cost analysis, Part 3 of 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn P; Anderson, Jeffery R

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in relative value unit (RVU) cost analysis has been on the rise. Why all the excitement? RVU cost analysis places the knowledge, and therefore the power, in the hands of the administrator to negotiate revenues, analyze expenditures, and control costs. Cost analysis at the per (relative)-unit level allows for procedure profitability (or loss) analysis, setting internal fee schedules based on costs, contract negotiation based on RVU cost and utilization, equitable provider compensation packages based on productivity and overhead coverage, and tracking ancillary and referral utilization risks. In short, RVU cost accounting uses the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) instead of stopwatches and clipboards when measuring clinical costs and activity.

  1. The differential impact of low-carbon technologies on climate change mitigation cost under a range of socioeconomic and climate policy scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, Robert W.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper considers the effect of several key parameters of low carbon energy technologies on the cost of abatement. A methodology for determining the minimum level of performance required for a parameter to have a statistically significant impact on CO2 abatement cost is developed and used to evaluate the impact of eight key parameters of low carbon energy supply technologies on the cost of CO2 abatement. The capital cost of nuclear technology is found to have the greatest impact of the parameters studied. The cost of biomass and CCS technologies also have impacts, while their efficiencies have little, if any. Sensitivity analysis of the results with respect to population, GDP, and CO2 emission constraint show that the minimum performance level and impact of nuclear technologies is consistent across the socioeconomic scenarios studied, while the other technology parameters show different performance under higher population, lower GDP scenarios. Solar technology was found to have a small impact, and then only at very low costs. These results indicate that the cost of nuclear is the single most important driver of abatement cost, and that trading efficiency for cost may make biomass and CCS technologies more competitive.

  2. C-130 Advanced Technology Center wing box conceptual design/cost study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R. S.; Foreman, C. R.; Silva, K.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed by Northrop/LTV for an advanced C-130 Center Wing Box (CWB) which could meet the severe mission requirements of the SOF C-130 aircraft. The goals for the advanced technology CWB relative to the current C-130H CWB were: (1) the same acquisition cost; (2) lower operating support costs; (3) equal or lower weight; (4) a 30,000 hour service life for the SOF mission; and (5) minimum impact on the current maintenance concept. Initially, the structural arrangement, weight, external and internal loads, fatigue spectrum, flutter envelope and design criteria for the SOF C-130 aircraft CWB were developed. An advanced materials assessment was then conducted to determine the suitability of advanced materials for a 1994 production availability and detailed trade studies were performed on candidate CWB conceptual designs. Finally, a life-cycle cost analysis was performed on the advanced CWB. The study results showed that a hybrid composite/metallic CWB could meet the severe SOF design requirements, reduce the CWB weight by 14 pct., and was cost effective relative to an all metal beefed up C-130H CWB.

  3. Modelling Benefits-Oriented Costs for Technology Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of technology enhanced learning (TEL) methods changes the deployment of the most important resource in the education system: teachers' and learners' time. New technology promises greater personalization and greater productivity, but without careful modeling of the effects on the use of staff time, TEL methods can easily increase…

  4. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  5. [Cost analysis of patient blood management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerüschkamp, A G; Zacharowski, K; Ettwein, C; Müller, M M; Geisen, C; Weber, C F; Meybohm, P

    2016-06-01

    Patient blood management (PBM) is a multidisciplinary approach focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of preoperative anaemia, the minimisation of blood loss, and the optimisation of the patient-specific anaemia reserve to improve clinical outcomes. Economic aspects of PBM have not yet been sufficiently analysed. The aim of this study is to analyse the costs associated with the clinical principles of PBM and the project costs associated with the implementation of a PBM program from an institutional perspective. Patient-related costs of materials and services were analysed at the University Hospital Frankfurt for 2013. Personnel costs of all major processes were quantified based on the time required to perform each step. Furthermore, general project costs of the implementation phase were determined. Direct costs of transfusing a single unit of red blood cells can be calculated to a minimum of €147.43. PBM-associated costs varied depending on individual patient requirements. The following costs per patient were calculated: diagnosis of preoperative anaemia €48.69-123.88; treatment of preoperative anaemia (including iron-deficiency anaemia and megaloblastic anaemia) €12.61-127.99; minimising perioperative blood loss (including point-of-care diagnostics, coagulation management and cell salvage) €3.39-1,901.81; and costs associated with the optimisation of the tolerance to anaemia (including patient monitoring and volume therapy) €28.62. General project costs associated with the implementation of PBM were €24,998.24. PBM combines various alternatives to the transfusion of red blood cells and improves clinical outcome. Costs of PBM vary from institution to institution and depend on the extent to which different aspects of PBM have been implemented. The quantification of costs associated with PBM is essential in order to assess the economic impact of PBM, and thereby, to efficiently re-allocate health care resources. Costs were determined at a single

  6. A Patent Analysis for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyeog Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to

  7. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bogomolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.Research priorities is the development of food therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, innovative methods of complex processing of raw materials with maximum preservation of the original chemical composition and on the basis of a new product release in generation functionality. This article explores the many reasons for the lag of the Patriotic-owned enterprises in terms of technological development, analyzes the features of innovation in the bakery production of Russia, proposed the current directions for the innovative development of grain-processing industry. The observation revealed that during the years of market transformations in the bakeries have been significant changes, especially in the volume of products sold. Based on the results of statistical studies, it was found that at least 75% of the population consume daily baked goods and this makes them appropriate nutrient enrichment. The current state and bakeries, bakeries and revealed a high degree of wear of the process equipment. Over the past 14 years, marked by a decline in production, which led to a decline in production output and profitability constraints. It was found that in bakeries and bakeries deterioration index technique is approximately 67%. With respect to raw materials for bread production, noted that the creation of a civilized grain market in Russia requires the solution of a number of key issues. It is established that is currently happening aggression from industrialized countries to seize the Russian food market, leading to a narrowing of the domestic demand for domestic products, and this causes the drop in the economic growth of the food industry. The analysis revealed that there is considerable potential for the development of the industry.

  8. Economic analysis of the cost of Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazetas D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cost of Intensive Care Units has the greatest impact on overall medical costs and the overall cost for the health of a country and an increasing number of studies from around the world presenting the quantification of these costs. Aim: Review of the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Method: Search was made in the SCOPUS, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the key-words “Intensive Care Units (ICU”, “Cost”, “Cost Analysis”, “Health Care Costs”, “Health Resources”, “ICU resources”. The study was based on articles published in English from 2000 to 2011 investigating the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Results: The cost of ICU is a significant percentage of gross domestic product in developed countries. Most cost analysis studies that relate to plans that include the study of staff costs, duration of stay in the ICU, the clinical situations of hospitalized patients, engineering support, medications and diagnostic tests costing scales and in relation to the diagnostic criteria. Conclusions: most studies conclude that the remuneration of staff, particularly nurses, in the ICU is the largest cost of ICU, while for the duration of stay in the ICU results are conflicting. The analysis on the cost-effectiveness of ICU can help to better apply these findings to the therapeutic context of ICU.

  9. Cost and Performance Report Low Impact Technologies to Reduce Pollution from Storm Water Runoff SI-200405

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    and will likely require earthwork to remove the lids over the media bed. 44 5.2 Cost Analysis The economic analysis performed on the NRRC dual...pump system. Given these two scenarios, the economic evaluation was constructed and compared. 5.3.2 Cost Drivers The cost of the implementing a...report 7374 National Defense Center for Enviromental Exellence, 1999, Environmental Cost Analysis Methodology (CECAM) handbook, March 29, 1999

  10. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric E Ginestet

    Full Text Available A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i differences in weighted costs and (ii differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  11. Cost of energy from some renewable and conventional technologies. Progress report, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    Up-to-date, consistent, and transparent estimates of the cost of delivered energy from a selected number of solar and renewable technologies were developed and these were compared with the costs of conventional alternatives meeting the energy needs in comparable applications. Technology characterizations and cost assessments of representative systems relating to 23 solar and renewable resource technology/application pairs were performed. For each pair, identical assessments were also made for representative conventional (e.g., fossil fuel) competing systems. Section 2 summarizes the standardized methodology developed to do the technology characterizations and cost assessments. Assessments of technology/application pairs relating to distributed applications are presented in Section 3. Central system assessments are presented in Section 4. (MCW)

  12. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  13. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  14. Social cost benefit analysis and energy policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nooij, M.

    2012-01-01

    Most research into the reliability of electricity supply focuses on the suppliers. Reductions in the number of power interruptions will often be possible, but also very costly. These costs will eventually be borne by the electricity users. This paper studies the value of supply security in order to

  15. Cost Differential Analysis--Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wystrom, Dennis C.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The cost system designed as a sub-system of the Management Information System, to record and report cost data for occupational courses funded by the Illinois Division of Vocational and Technical Education, can stand alone if necessary, providing the flexibility essential to the success of the total system. (Flow chart included.) (Author/SA)

  16. Fundamental Cost Analysis of Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, O.

    2014-01-01

    The cost structure of the cold spray (CS) process is analyzed using a generic cost model applicable to all present types of CS systems ("high pressure," "low pressure," KM™, "kinetic spraying," etc.) and kinds of application (coating, restoration, additive manufacturing, near-net forming). The cost model has originally been developed at SIEMENS and is easy to use, while being sufficiently accurate to support decisions. The dependence of the process costs on the gas stagnation properties is discussed. It is shown (i) that high pressure is generally favorable, (ii) that He-N2 blends possess economic potential, and (iii) that He recovery saves costs in high volume production, even when He-N2 blends are used. The cost model allows for the determination of the cost-optimal He concentration of the propellant gas for a given application. CS is, among others, suited to spray bond coatings on gas turbine blades and offers cost-saving potential, as shown in a case study.

  17. Department of the Army Cost Analysis Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    SECTION I - AUTOMATED COST ESTIMATING INTEGRATED TOOLS ( ACEIT ) ................................................................179 SECTION II - AUTOMATED...Management & Comptroller) endorsed the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) model and since it is widely used to prepare POEs, CCAs and...CRB IPT (in ACEIT ) will be the basis for information contained in the CAB. Any remaining unresolved issues from the IPT process will be raised at the

  18. Low cost production of disposable microfluidics by blister packaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disch, A; Mueller, C; Reinecke, H

    2007-01-01

    Large scale production of disposable microfluidics mostly is accomplished by injection moulding techniques today. A cost effective alternative to injection moulding might be vacuum thermoforming of polymer films. Vacuum thermoforming is the basis for medical and pharmaceutical packaging such as pharmaceutical blister packs. It allows for cheap and reliable forming of polymer films and thus seems suitable for the fabrication of disposables. Our goal is to investigate and demonstrate the potential of vacuum thermoforming for the fabrication of microtechnology components. For this purpose we have developed a simple low cost process allowing for the fabrication of disposable microfluidics by vacuum thermoforming.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF THE TRANSPORTATION COSTS IN R&D TECHNOLOGY SECTOR ON THE ENDOGENOUS GRWOTH

    OpenAIRE

    Youngwan Goo

    2011-01-01

    The paper centers on investigating theoretically how the transportation costs of R&D technology, none of the transportation costs in final goods and intermediate inputs, affect the long-run endogenous economic growth. The basic ideas adopted in this paper are different from well-known models in the sense that the prices of R&D technology are influenced by the transportation cost in R&D technology sector and the accumulated profit of the intermediate inputs over time is equal to the price of R...

  20. New antiepileptic drugs, cost-efficacy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Vlasov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to optimize pharmacotherapy in patients with epilepsy and to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of its therapy with the new antiepileptic drugs (AED: levetiracetam, lamotrigine, topiramate, and oxcarbazepine.Patients and methods. The study enrolled 134 patients (women, 69.03%; men, 30.97% with different types of seizures, who had previously received antiepileptic therapy. The patients visited their physician at least twice; after correcting therapy by an epileptologist, the mono- or polytherapy regimen included new AEDs. The patients' mean age was 29.8±8.7 years; disease duration was 13.01±6.7 years; mean age at onset was 16.8±8.5 years. In the groups of working and nonworking patients with different types of seizures, the authors calculated the cost of epilepsy therapy, by taking into account the use of new AEDs and the pharmacoeconomic index "cost-benefit" before and after therapy optimization.Results. When the new AEDs were incorporated into the therapy, the low incidence rate of seizures following a year averaged 75 to 92%. The index cost-effectiveness was decreased by 2—3 times in all types of seizures when the new AEDs were used despite the increased direct cost of treatment. Also, there was a significant reduction in the cost of epilepsy treatment in practically all the groups under study. The findings suggest that the index cost-efficacy directly depends on the rational choice of an AED in an adequate dose. Rational therapy with the new AEDs makes it possible to reduce not only the total cost of epilepsy treatment, but also to lower the index cost-efficacy.

  1. Educational Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Problem of Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Gordon A.

    Benefit-cost analysis consists of establishing ratios of benefits to costs for a set of project variants. The decision rule is to select that project variant where the ratio is a maximum. This paper argues that specification and estimation errors can contribute to findings for large-scale systems of benefit-cost ratios approximating zero. The…

  2. Analysis of some potential social effects of four coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.

    1980-09-01

    This is an analysis of the potential social impacts of four coal technologies: conventional combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, liquifaction, and gasification. Because of their flexibility, and the abundance and relatively low costs of coal, the potential benefits of these technologies would seem to outweigh their potential social costs, both in the intermediate and long term. Nevertheless, the social costs of a coal industry are far more obscure and hard to quantify than the benefits. In general, however, it maybe expected that those technologies that can be deployed most quickly, that provide fuels that can substitute most easily for oil and natural gas, that are the cheapest, and that are the most thermally efficient will minimize social costs most in the intermediate term, while technologies that can guide energy infrastructure changes to become the most compatable with the fuels that will be most easily derived from inexhaustible sources (electricity and hydrogen) will minimize social costs most in the long run. An industry structured to favor eastern over western coal and plant sites in moderate sized communities, which could easily adapt to inexhaustible energy technologies (nuclear or solar) in the future, would be favored in either time period.

  3. Cloud Computing and Information Technology Resource Cost Management for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Adanu, Kwame; Olesen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the decision-making problem confronting SMEs considering the adoption of cloud computing as an alternative to in-house computing services provision. The economics of choosing between in-house computing and a cloud alternative is analyzed by comparing the total economic costs o...

  4. Cloud Computing and Information Technology Resource Cost Management for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Adanu, Kwame; Olesen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    of the two options assuming the quality of service is identical across the options. The decision-making process was found to require substantial information gathering to identify explicit and implicit costs to inform the final decision. Careful considerations of decision time horizons also matter...

  5. Cost-benefit Analysis of Chestnut Production in Xingtai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji; JIN

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of market demand survey of chestnut,this article carries out cost-benefit analysis of the chestnut production in Xingtai County,to understand the profitability and payback period of local chestnut production.It points out that chestnut production has a high rate of return on investment,and chestnut can be promoted on a large scale in Xingtai County.However,there are still some problems in the production and marketing of chestnut in Xingtai County,such as low level of technology,extensive management,low level of organization,market imperfections and weak brand consciousness.Based on these problems,corresponding recommendations are put forth.

  6. Association of antipsychotic polypharmacy with health service cost: a register-based cost analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Lublin, Henrik Kai Francis; Nordentoft, Merete

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of antipsychotic polypharmacy in schizophrenia with cost of primary and secondary health service use. METHOD: Comparative analysis of health service cost for patients prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy versus antipsychotic monotherapy. Resource......, disease duration, psychiatric inpatient admissions, and treatment site as covariates. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 736 outpatients with a diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was associated with significantly higher total health service costs compared with monotherapy...... (2007: 25% higher costs; 2008: 17% higher costs) when adjusting for potential confounders and risk factors. A subgroup analysis suggested that the excessive costs associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy were partly accounted for by the functional level of the patients. CONCLUSION: The results...

  7. Cost Analysis in Shoulder Arthroplasty Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Teusink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost in shoulder surgery has taken on a new focus with passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. As part of this law, there is a provision for Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs and the bundled payment initiative. In this model, one entity would receive a single payment for an episode of care and distribute funds to all other parties involved. Given its reproducible nature, shoulder arthroplasty is ideally situated to become a model for an episode of care. Currently, there is little research into cost in shoulder arthroplasty surgery. The current analyses do not provide surgeons with a method for determining the cost and outcomes of their interventions, which is necessary to the success of bundled payment. Surgeons are ideally positioned to become leaders in ACOs, but in order for them to do so a methodology must be developed where accurate costs and outcomes can be determined for the episode of care.

  8. A Cost Analysis of Space Available Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-14

    baggage conveyors . Therefore, the researcher has opted to not include these costs in the overall cost assessment as they would be difficult to... currently collecting the $10 fee. AMC (formerly MAC) disagreed with this fee and requested that the issue be considered by the Joint Chiefs of Staff...fee and Federal Inspection Service fee. The current charges per Space-A passenger are shown below: Table 4: Space-A Head Tax and Federal Inspection

  9. Analysis of Logistics Costs of the Ukrainian Semiconductor Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Popova Viktoriya D.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article is analysis of logistics costs in production of semiconductor materials using example of two Ukrainian enterprises. The article studies influence of logistics management and logistics costs upon formation of the final cost value (price) of a commodity (service). It gives an assessment of logistics costs of Ukrainian semiconductor enterprises and establishes its structure by types of main expenditure items: material, transport, production and storehouse. It establishes ...

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  11. Health care cost consequences of using robot technology for hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hyldgård, Vibe Bolvig; Jensen, Pernille Tine

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the costs attributable to robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy from a broad healthcare sector perspective in a register-based longitudinal study. The population in this study were 7670 consecutive women undergoing hysterectomy between January 2006...... and August 2013 in public hospitals in Denmark. The interventions in the study were total and radical hysterectomy performed robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH), total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH), or open abdominal hysterectomy (OAH). Service use in the healthcare sector was evaluated 1...... year before to 1 year after the surgery. Tariffs of the activity-based remuneration system and the diagnosis-related grouping case-mix system were used for valuation of primary and secondary care, respectively. Costs attributable to RALH were estimated using a difference-in-difference analytical...

  12. Design, cost, and advanced technology applications for a military trainer aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. C.; Harper, M.

    1975-01-01

    The potential impact is examined of advanced aerodynamic and propulsive technologies in terms of operating and acquisition costs on conceptual mission and performance requirements for a future undergraduate jet pilot trainer aircraft.

  13. Innovative technology for a cost-effective land rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehra, S.; Bryce, T.

    1996-05-01

    Sedco Forex has recently completed a new land drilling rig, currently deployed in Gabon, that integrates well construction activities with multiskilling to create cost savings across the board in drilling operations. Historically, operators have produced a comprehensive tender package specifying strictly the type and size of individual rig components and the number of personnel required to drill. In this case, the drilling contractor provides a fit-for-purpose rig, consistent with field location, well profile, operator`s priorities, and local constraints.

  14. ECONOMIC AND ENERGETICAL ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED WASTE UTILIZATION PLASMA TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei VAMBOL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy and economic evaluation of the improved plasma waste utilization technological process, as well as an expediency substantiation of the use of improved plasma technology by comparing its energy consumption with other thermal methods of utilization. Methodology. Analysis of existing modern and advanced methods of waste management and its impact on environmental safety. Considering of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies. Results. Studies have shown regular gasification ensure greater heating value due to differences, a significant amount of nitrogen than for plasma gasification. From the point of view of minimizing energy and monetary costs and environmental safety more promising is to offer advanced technology for plasma waste. To carry out the energy assessment of the appropriateness of the considered technologies-comparative calculation was carried out at the standard conditions. This is because in the processing of waste produced useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas (94% methane and a fuel gas for heating, suitable for sale that provides cost-effectiveness of this technology. Originality. Shown and evaluated ecological and economic efficiency of proposed improved plasma waste utilization technology compared with other thermal techniques. Practical value. Considered and grounded of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies, namely ordinary gasification and using plasma generators. Proposed plasma waste utilization technology allows to obtain useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas and a fuel gas for heating, which are suitable for sale. Plant for improved plasma waste utilization technological process allows to compensate the daily and seasonal electricity and heat consumption fluctuations by allowing the storage of obtained fuel products.

  15. Life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles. The purpose of the work is to support the Division in making sound economic comparisons between conventional and fuel cell/battery powered buses, passenger vans, and cars for strategic analysis of programmatic R&D goals. The LCC analysis can indicate whether paying a relatively high initial capital cost for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying a lower initial cost for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it does not always result in technology penetration in the marketplace. The LCC analysis model developed under this contract facilitates consideration of all perspectives. Over 100 studies have been acquired and analyzed for their applicability. Drawing on prior work by JPL and Los Alamos National Laboratory as primary sources, specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to fuel cell/battery and intemal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles were selected for development of an LCC analysis model. The completed LCC model is structured around twelve integrated modules. Comparative analysis is made between conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles and fuel cell/battery vehicles using either phosphoric acid fuel cells or proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In all, seven base vehicle configuration cases with a total of 21 vehicle class/powertrain/fuel combinations are analyzed. The LCC model represents a significant advance in comparative economic analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered vehicle technologies embodying several unique features which were not included in prior models.

  16. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  17. High Cost/High Risk Components to Chalcogenide Molded Lens Model: Molding Preforms and Mold Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-10-05

    This brief report contains a critique of two key components of FiveFocal's cost model for glass compression molding of chalcogenide lenses for infrared applications. Molding preforms and mold technology have the greatest influence on the ultimate cost of the product and help determine the volumes needed to select glass molding over conventional single-point diamond turning or grinding and polishing. This brief report highlights key areas of both technologies with recommendations for further study.

  18. Utilization of UV Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce the Manufacturing Cost of LIB Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Gary [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States); Arnold, John [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Previously identified novel binders and associated UV curing technology have been shown to reduce the time required to apply and finish electrode coatings from tens of minutes to less than one second. This revolutionary approach can result in dramatic increases in process speeds, significantly reduced capital (a factor of 10 to 20) and operating costs, reduced energy requirements, and reduced environmental concerns and costs due to the virtual elimination of harmful volatile organic solvents and associated solvent dryers and recovery systems. The accumulated advantages of higher speed, lower capital and operating costs, reduced footprint, lack of VOC recovery, and reduced energy cost is a reduction of 90% in the manufacturing cost of cathodes. When commercialized, the resulting cost reduction in Lithium batteries will allow storage device manufacturers to expand their sales in the market and thereby accrue the energy savings of broader utilization of HEVs, PHEVs and EVs in the U.S., and a broad technology export market is also envisioned.

  19. Cost of bariatric surgery and factors associated with increased cost: an analysis of national inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorgami, Zhamak; Aminian, Ali; Shoar, Saeed; Andalib, Amin; Saber, Alan A; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Sclabas, Guido M

    2017-08-01

    In the current healthcare environment, bariatric surgery centers need to be cost-effective while maintaining quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate national cost of bariatric surgery to identify the factors associated with a higher cost. A retrospective analysis of 2012-2013 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project - Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). We included all patients with a diagnosis of morbid obesity (ICD9 278.01) and a Diagnosis Related Group code related to procedures for obesity, who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or adjustable gastric banding (AGB) as their primary procedure. We converted "hospital charges" to "cost," using hospital specific cost-to-charge ratio. Inflation was adjusted using the annual consumer price index. Increased cost was defined as the top 20th percentile of the expenditure and its associated factors were analyzed using the logistic regression multivariate analysis. A total of 45,219 patients (20,966 RYGBs, 22,380 SGs, and 1,873 AGBs) were included. The median (interquartile range) calculated costs for RYGB, SG, and AGB were $12,543 ($9,970-$15,857), $10,531 ($8,248-$13,527), and $9,219 ($7,545-$12,106), respectively (P<.001). Robotic-assisted procedures had the highest impact on the cost (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 3.2-4). Hospital cost of RYGB and SG increased linearly with the length of hospital stay and almost doubled after 7 days. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that certain co-morbidities and concurrent procedures were associated with an increased cost. Factors contributing to the cost variation of bariatric procedures include co-morbidities, robotic platform, complexity of surgery, and hospital length of stay. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Lucas Miyake; Riveros, Bruno Salgado; Gomes-da-Silva, Monica Maria; Veroneze, Izelandia

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardship programs and had 30-day mortality as main outcome. Selected costs included: workload, cost of defined daily doses, length of stay, laboratory and imaging resources used to diagnose infections. Data were analyzed by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess model's robustness, tornado diagram and Cost-Effectiveness Acceptability Curve. Bundled Strategy was more expensive (Cost difference US$ 2119.70), however, it was more efficient (US$ 27,549.15 vs 29,011.46). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that critical variables did not alter final Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio. Bundled Strategy had higher probabilities of being cost-effective, which was endorsed by cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. As health systems claim for efficient technologies, this study conclude that Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program was more cost-effective, which means that stewardship strategies with such characteristics would be of special interest in a societal and clinical perspective.

  1. Counting the Costs of Acquisitions: Using Cost-Benefit Analysis in a Seminary and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Getahun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how cost-benefit analysis may be used in a small to mid-sized library to identify cost-savings in the acquisitions of monographs. The essay highlights parallel studies conducted at Luther Seminary Library and Bethel University Library which compared prices, discounts, and time costs across a range of vendor types to identify whether searching for the best price per item is cost-effective, and how much this strategy could save yearly in acquisitions. Both libraries found that substantial potential savings were identified through this study.

  2. Cost and Training Effectiveness Analysis Performance Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-23

    value is treated as a reduction in the cost of the alternative for wnioh the use of the assets is intended. The fair market value may be determined...imputed value of the facility should be used. These costs can be based on fair market value, scrap value, or alternative use. In any event, discuss this...1 MM 1 i l 1 1 SOFTIS 1X1 X XI 1 1 ’ 1 1 I Ml 1 1 1 i M 3SOFTA 1 1X 1 IX X i 1 1

  3. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the second in a series of three documents, which together contain 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies are presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, or to get the best value existing…

  4. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the third in a series of three documents, which together contain 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies have been presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, and to get the best value from…

  5. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the first in a series of three documents, which together contains 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies have been presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, or how to get the best value from…

  6. Mirror Fusion Test Facility: Superconducting magnet system cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    At the request of Victor Karpenko, Project manager for LLL`s Mirror Fusion Test Facility, EG&G has prepared this independent cost analysis for the proposed MFTF Superconducting Magnet System. The analysis has attempted to show sufficient detail to provide adequate definition for a basis of estimating costs.

  7. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., market prices and similar indicia, together with discounts. Cost analysis is the review and evaluation of... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE,...

  8. Cost Benefit Analysis of Consumer Product Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Betty F.; Dardis, Rachel

    1977-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of cost-benefit analysis in evaluating consumer product safety standards and applys such analysis to an evaluation of flammability standards for children's sleepwear. (Editor)

  9. Cost analysis of continuous flight auger piles construction in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam E. Hosny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Flight Auger (CFA piling is widely used in the Egyptian construction industry. There is a dramatic fluctuation in pricing of executing this work package within short periods as a result of unsteady changes in supply-demand equilibrium. Consequently, there is an urgent need for the use of a scientific approach in estimating construction costs. Accordingly, it is crucial to consider the different cost elements of CFA piling construction as a step to reach an accurate and realistic cost estimate to be used by contractors in tendering. This research aims to study these cost elements based on an expert judgment, site observations and statistical analysis in order to develop an effective tool to estimate the total construction cost of the CFA piles in any future project. Expert survey was performed to draw detailed information to construct a cost breakdown structure (CBS that was used as a basis for developing the proposed cost model. The developed cost model is then validated through the application on fifty two projects. Such projects were carefully selected in different sizes, purposes and locations. Then the collected data were exposed to statistical analysis techniques. An average percentage error of 4.1% was observed upon comparing the estimated costs with the actual costs of these projects. A sensitivity analysis was then performed to recognize the most effective cost factors. The developed recommended model was used by some experienced contractors in the Egyptian market who expressed their satisfaction with the model.

  10. Vehicle Lightweighting: Mass Reduction Spectrum Analysis and Process Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarin, Anthony [IBIS Associates, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Hannibal, Ted [IBIS Associates, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Raghunathan, Anand [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Ivanic, Ziga [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Clark, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, Materials area commissioned a study to model and assess manufacturing economics of alternative design and production strategies for a series of lightweight vehicle concepts. In the first two phases of this effort examined combinations of strategies aimed at achieving strategic targets of 40% and a 45% mass reduction relative to a standard North American midsize passenger sedan at an effective cost of $3.42 per pound (lb) saved. These results have been reported in the Idaho National Laboratory report INL/EXT-14-33863 entitled Vehicle Lightweighting: 40% and 45% Weight Savings Analysis: Technical Cost Modeling for Vehicle Lightweighting published in March 2015. The data for these strategies were drawn from many sources, including Lotus Engineering Limited and FEV, Inc. lightweighting studies, U.S. Department of Energy-funded Vehma International of America, Inc./Ford Motor Company Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Demonstration Project, the Aluminum Association Transportation Group, many United States Council for Automotive Research’s/United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC lightweight materials programs, and IBIS Associates, Inc.’s decades of experience in automotive lightweighting and materials substitution analyses.

  11. Low-cost technology for screening uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashari, A; Singh, V; Sehgal, A; Satyanarayana, L; Sodhani, P; Gupta, M M

    2000-01-01

    We report on an illuminated, low-cost (Rs 1500 (US$ 36)) magnifying device (Magnivisualizer) for detecting precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. A total of 403 women attending a maternal and child health care clinic who had abnormal vaginal discharge and related symptoms were referred for detailed pelvic examination and visual inspection by means of the device after the application of 5% (v/v) acetic acid. Pap smears were obtained at the same time. The results were compared with those obtained using colposcopy and/or histology. The Magnivisualizer improved the detection rate of early cancerous lesions from 60%, for unaided visual inspection, to 95%. It also permitted detection of 58% of cases of low-grade dysplasia and 83% of cases of high-grade dysplasia; none of these cases were detectable by unaided visual inspection. For low-grade dysplasia the sensitivity of detection by means of the Magnivisualizer was 57.5%, in contrast with 75.3% for cytological examination. However, the two methodologies had similar sensitivities for higher grades of lesions. The specificity of screening with the Magnivisualizer was 94.3%, while that of cytology was 99%. The cost per screening was approximately US$ 0.55 for the Magnivisualizer and US$ 1.10 for cytology.

  12. Development of a Cost Estimation Process for Human Systems Integration Practitioners During the Analysis of Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Canadian Defense Technology Center (DTC) (2006); Brooks, Greenley , Dyck, Salwaycott, Scipione and Shaw (2008); and Liu (2009) provide guidance for...effective operations ( Greenley & Associates, 2008). However, these costs were not used in a total cost-benefit analysis because of their multi...December 6, 2010, from http://www.hfidtc.com/ Brooks, J., Greenley , M., Salwaycott, A., & Scipione, A. (2008). The development and validation of a

  13. Acceptance of health technology assessment submissions with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios above the cost-effectiveness threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths EA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Griffiths, Janek K Hendrich, Samuel DR Stoddart, Sean CM Walsh HERON™ Commercialization, PAREXEL International, London, UK Objectives: In health technology assessment (HTA agencies where cost-effectiveness plays a role in decision-making, an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER threshold is often used to inform reimbursement decisions. The acceptance of submissions with ICERs higher than the threshold was assessed across different agencies and across indications, in order to inform future reimbursement submissions. Methods: All HTA appraisals from May 2000 to May 2014 from National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE, Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC, Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC, and Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH were assessed. Multiple technology appraisals, resubmissions, vaccination programs, and requests for advice were excluded. Submissions not reporting an ICER, or for which an ICER could not be determined were also excluded. The remaining appraisals were reviewed, and the submitted ICER, recommendation, and reasoning behind the recommendation were extracted. Results: NICE recommended the highest proportion of submissions with ICERs higher than the threshold (34% accepted without restrictions; 20% with restrictions, followed by PBAC (16% accepted without restrictions; 4% with restrictions, SMC (11% accepted without restrictions; 14% accepted with restrictions, and CADTH (0% accepted without restrictions; 26% with restrictions. Overall, the majority of higher-than-threshold ICER submissions were classified into the "malignant disease and immunosuppression" therapeutic category; however, there was no notable variation in acceptance rates by disease area. Reasons for accepting submissions reporting ICERs above the threshold included high clinical benefit over the standard of care, and addressing an unmet therapeutic need. Conclusion: Acceptance of submissions

  14. COMPARATIVE COST AND STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF CEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... ment materials which is aimed at reducing the cost of concrete production. Tests were performed ... crease shrinkage in concrete. The result of a ..... of Palm Kernel Husk Ash PKHA and Free Lime (CaO) as an admix-ture in ...

  15. The Incremental Cost Analysis of Green Building Technology of a Residential Area%某住宅小区绿色建筑技术增量成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静; 郭朝辉

    2015-01-01

    Through the cost savings analysis of green building project of a residential area, this paper analyzes the reasonableness and economical efficiency of the implementation of green building project, and takes its economic benefits as the key elements for the technical and economic evaluation of green building project, to provide scientific reference for investment decision-makers for the program selection.%本文通过对某住宅小区绿色建筑项目的造价、成本节约的分析,分析绿色建筑项目实施的合理性和经济性,并将其所带来的经济效益作为绿色建筑项目技术经济评价的关键内容,为投资决策者在方案选择上提供科学的参考依据。

  16. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  17. Technology alternatives towards low-cost and high-speed interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Kniknie, B.; Lankhorst, A.M.; Winands, G.; Poodt, P.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bressers, P.M.M.C.; Oosterhuis, G.; Mueller, M.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In this work we will review our recent work on novel alternative and disruptive technology concepts with industrial potential for cost-effective and high-speed interconnect manufacturing, in particular on the creation (drilling and filling) of advanced interconnects like TSVs. These technologies are

  18. Technology alternatives towards low-cost and high-speed interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Kniknie, B.; Lankhorst, A.M.; Winands, G.; Poodt, P.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bressers, P.M.M.C.; Oosterhuis, G.; Mueller, M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we will review our recent work on novel alternative and disruptive technology concepts with industrial potential for cost-effective and high-speed interconnect manufacturing, in particular on the creation (drilling and filling) of advanced interconnects like TSVs. These technologies are

  19. Cost of organic waste technologies: A case study for New Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Hochman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the benefits of converting food waste and manure to biogas and/or fertilizer, while focusing on four available waste treatment technologies: direct combustion, landfilling, composting, and anaerobic digestion. These four alternative technologies were simulated using municipal-level data on food waste and manure in New Jersey. The criteria used to assess the four technologies include technological productivity, economic benefits, and impact on land scarcity. Anaerobic digestion with gas collection has the highest technological productivity; using anaerobic digesters would supply electricity to nearly ten thousand families in New Jersey. In terms of economic benefits, the landfill to gas method is the least costly method of treating waste. In comparison, direct combustion is by far the most costly method of all four waste-to-energy technologies.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Old and New Technologies for Aneuploidy Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkey, Rachel G; Odibo, Anthony O

    2016-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses allow assessment of whether marginal gains from new technology are worth increased costs. Several studies have examined cost-effectiveness of Down syndrome (DS) screening and found it to be cost-effective. Noninvasive prenatal screening also appears to be cost-effective among high-risk women with respect to DS screening, but not for the general population. Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is a genetic sequencing method superior to but more expensive than karyotype. In light of CMAs greater ability to detect genetic abnormalities, it is cost-effective when used for prenatal diagnosis of an anomalous fetus. This article covers methodology and salient issues of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acquisition cost analysis for the near term military application of laser versus millimeter wave for satellite crosslink communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, S. W.

    1983-12-01

    Two alternative satellite communication technologies have evolved independently of each other and now seem to be in direct competition for limited R&D dollars. In an attempt to identify which technology is best, this study concentrates on one aspect of satellite communications - intersatellite crosslinks which are capable of processing one to ten megabits of data per second. The analysis effort is further limited to comparisons of procurement costs and factors which influence these costs. The RCA PRICE Model is used to estimate costs of crosslink subsystems. Extensive review of the literature, as well as design estimates from experts, is necessary to provide the PRICE Model with sufficient details to produce a credible cost figure. A modified Delphi method is used to aggregate the estimates of the experts. From the cost comparison of laser versus millimeter wave crosslink systems, it seems that millimeter wave with its more mature technology has the cost advantage. However, as laser technology reaches a level of maturity close to that of millimeter wave, the difference in procurement costs should become minimal. There are eleven technical, operational, and cost factors which must be analyzed to adequately determine which technology is best. Procurement cost analysis by itself does not determine which technology should be continued or stopped.

  2. Process Design and Costing of Bioethanol Technology: A Tool for Determining the Status and Direction of Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley; Ruth; Glassner; Sheehan

    1999-10-01

    Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the U.S. Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. We use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help us understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on our latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Our analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

  3. Cost savings associated with improving appropriate and reducing inappropriate preventive care: cost-consequences analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskerville Neill

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outreach facilitation has been proven successful in improving the adoption of clinical preventive care guidelines in primary care practice. The net costs and savings of delivering such an intensive intervention need to be understood. We wanted to estimate the proportion of a facilitation intervention cost that is offset and the potential for savings by reducing inappropriate screening tests and increasing appropriate screening tests in 22 intervention primary care practices affecting a population of 90,283 patients. Methods A cost-consequences analysis of one successful outreach facilitation intervention was done, taking into account the estimated cost savings to the health system of reducing five inappropriate tests and increasing seven appropriate tests. Multiple data sources were used to calculate costs and cost savings to the government. The cost of the intervention and costs of performing appropriate testing were calculated. Costs averted were calculated by multiplying the number of tests not performed as a result of the intervention. Further downstream cost savings were determined by calculating the direct costs associated with the number of false positive test follow-ups avoided. Treatment costs averted as a result of increasing appropriate testing were similarly calculated. Results The total cost of the intervention over 12 months was $238,388 and the cost of increasing the delivery of appropriate care was $192,912 for a total cost of $431,300. The savings from reduction in inappropriate testing were $148,568 and from avoiding treatment costs as a result of appropriate testing were $455,464 for a total savings of $604,032. On a yearly basis the net cost saving to the government is $191,733 per year (2003 $Can equating to $3,687 per physician or $63,911 per facilitator, an estimated return on intervention investment and delivery of appropriate preventive care of 40%. Conclusion Outreach facilitation is more expensive

  4. Constellation Program Life-cycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Andy; Rose, Heidi; Wood, James

    2008-01-01

    The Constellation Program (CxP) is NASA's effort to replace the Space Shuttle, return humans to the moon, and prepare for a human mission to Mars. The major elements of the Constellation Lunar sortie design reference mission architecture are shown. Unlike the Apollo Program of the 1960's, affordability is a major concern of United States policy makers and NASA management. To measure Constellation affordability, a total ownership cost life-cycle parametric cost estimating capability is required. This capability is being developed by the Constellation Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Directorate, and is called the Lifecycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM). The requirements for LCAM are based on the need to have a parametric estimating capability in order to do top-level program analysis, evaluate design alternatives, and explore options for future systems. By estimating the total cost of ownership within the context of the planned Constellation budget, LCAM can provide Program and NASA management with the cost data necessary to identify the most affordable alternatives. LCAM is also a key component of the Integrated Program Model (IPM), an SE&I developed capability that combines parametric sizing tools with cost, schedule, and risk models to perform program analysis. LCAM is used in the generation of cost estimates for system level trades and analyses. It draws upon the legacy of previous architecture level cost models, such as the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Architecture Cost Model (ARCOM) developed for Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), and ATLAS. LCAM is used to support requirements and design trade studies by calculating changes in cost relative to a baseline option cost. Estimated costs are generally low fidelity to accommodate available input data and available cost estimating relationships (CERs). LCAM is capable of interfacing with the Integrated Program Model to provide the cost estimating capability for that suite of tools.

  5. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica; Lin, Guanjing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-11-26

    Energy information systems are the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. They often include analysis methods such as baselining, benchmarking, load profiling, and energy anomaly detection. This report documents a large-scale assessment of energy information system (EIS) uses, costs, and energy benefits, based on a series of focused case study investigations that are synthesized into generalizable findings. The overall objective is to provide organizational decision makers with the information they need to make informed choices as to whether or not to invest in an EIS--a promising technology that can enable up to 20 percent site energy savings, quick payback, and persistent low-energy performance when implemented as part of best-practice energy management programs.

  6. Meetings with Costly Participation: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Matthew; Weninger, Quinn

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Mid-Atlantic surf clam and ocean quahog fishery, we find that firms with a preference for extreme, rather than moderate, policies are much more likely to participate in public meetings where regulation is determined. We also find that participation rates are higher for larger, closer, and more influential firms. These results; (1) improve our understanding of a very common institution for resource allocation, 'meetings with costly participation', (2) they refine our intuit...

  7. Cost-effective technology advancement directions for electric propulsion transportation systems in earth-orbital missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regetz, J. D., Jr.; Terwilliger, C. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to determine the directions that electric propulsion technology should take to meet the primary propulsion requirements for earth-orbital missions of the next three decades in the most cost-effective manner. Discussed are the mission set requirements, state-of-the-art electric propulsion technology and the baseline system characterized by it, adequacy of the baseline system to meet the mission set requirements, cost-optimum electric propulsion system characteristics for the mission set, and sensitivities of mission costs and design points to system-level electric propulsion parameters. It is found that the efficiency-specific impulse characteristic generally has a more significant impact on overall costs than specific masses or costs of propulsion and power systems.

  8. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  9. Cost Driver Analysis for Tray Pack Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    throughput rates are to achieve the desired goal of 20 cans per minute (CPM), then many of these new technologies should be pushed forward. This report does...improvements in manufauring tecnologies (equipment and processes) for the Preparation process. A +3 indicates moat important while a -3 indicates

  10. Polycrystalline silicon study: Low-cost silicon refining technology prospects and semiconductor-grade polycrystalline silicon availability through 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Ferber, R.; Lutwack, R.; Lorenz, J. H.; Pellin, R.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays that convert solar energy into electrical energy can become a cost effective bulk energy generation alternative, provided that an adequate supply of low cost materials is available. One of the key requirements for economic photovoltaic cells is reasonably priced silicon. At present, the photovoltaic industry is dependent upon polycrystalline silicon refined by the Siemens process primarily for integrated circuits, power devices, and discrete semiconductor devices. This dependency is expected to continue until the DOE sponsored low cost silicon refining technology developments have matured to the point where they are in commercial use. The photovoltaic industry can then develop its own source of supply. Silicon material availability and market pricing projections through 1988 are updated based on data collected early in 1984. The silicon refining industry plans to meet the increasing demands of the semiconductor device and photovoltaic product industries are overviewed. In addition, the DOE sponsored technology research for producing low cost polycrystalline silicon, probabilistic cost analysis for the two most promising production processes for achieving the DOE cost goals, and the impacts of the DOE photovoltaics program silicon refining research upon the commercial polycrystalline silicon refining industry are addressed.

  11. Terminal patients in Belgian nursing homes: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients.

  12. Improving productivity and reducing operating costs with fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoying, T. [Cellex Power Products Inc., Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This short corporate white paper addresses the advantages to fleet lift truck operators of converting to fuel cells from conventional electric battery technology. Conventional batteries are heavy for the energy they store. In addition, large operations require special equipment to change batteries, something that occurs at frequent intervals (4-8 hours). Some of the disadvantages of batteries include requirements such as an eye wash safety program, floor drainage for battery acid containment, and ventilation. The paper asserts that the larger the operation, the greater the problem of overall battery management. It cites the higher energy density of fuel cells as their prime advantage; fueling time is shorter than the time needed to change a battery, and times between refueling/changing is one and a half to two time greater for the fuel cell. In addition to the economic benefits of fuel cells, they do not produce harmful emissions.

  13. Evaluation of Cost Models and Needs & Gaps Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2014-01-01

    his report ’D3.1—Evaluation of Cost Models and Needs & Gaps Analysis’ provides an analysis of existing research related to the economics of digital curation and cost & benefit modelling. It reports upon the investigation of how well current models and tools meet stakeholders’ needs for calculating...... andcomparing financial information. Based on this evaluation, it aims to point out gaps that need to be bridged in order to increase the uptake of cost & benefit modelling and good practices that will enable costing and comparison of the costs of alternative scenarios—which in turn provides a starting point...... for amore efficient use of resources for digital curation. To facilitate and clarify the model evaluation the report first outlines a basic terminology and a generaldescription of the characteristics of cost and benefit models.The report then describes how the ten current and emerging cost and benefit...

  14. Concentrated photovoltaics system costs and learning curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haysom, Joan E.; Jafarieh, Omid; Anis, Hanan; Hinzer, Karin

    2013-09-01

    An extensive set of costs in /W for the installed costs of CPV systems has been amassed from a range of public sources, including both individual company prices and market reports. Cost reductions over time are very evident, with current prices for 2012 in the range of 3.0 ± 0.7 /W and a predicted cost of 1.5 /W for 2020. Cost data is combined with deployment volumes in a learning curve analysis, providing a fitted learning rate of either 18.5% or 22.3% depending on the methodology. This learning rate is compared to that of PV modules and PV installed systems, and the influence of soft costs is discussed. Finally, if an annual growth rate of 39% is assumed for deployed volumes, then, using the learning rate of 20%, this would predict the achievement of a cost point of 1.5 /W by 2016.

  15. IAEA Safeguards: Cost/benefit analysis of commercial satellite imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [SSC Satellitbild AB, Kiruna (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    A major milestone in the efforts to strengthen the Safeguards System was reached in May 1997 when the Board of Governors approved a `Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements`. The Protocol provides the legal basis necessary to enhance the Agency`s ability to detect undeclared nuclear material and activities by using information available from open sources to complement the declarations made by Member States. Commercially available high-resolution satellite data has emerged as one potential complementary open information source to support the traditional and extended Safeguard activities of IAEA. This document constitutes a first report from SSC Satellitbild giving the Agency tentative and initial estimates of the potential cost and time-savings possible with the new proposed technology. The initial cost/benefit simulation will be further finalised in the following `Implementation Blueprint` study. The general foundation and starting point for the cost/benefit calculation is to simulate a new efficient and relatively small `imagery unit` within the IAEA, capable of performing advanced image processing as a tool for various safeguards tasks. The image processing capacity is suggested to be task- and interpretation-oriented. The study was performed over a period of 1,5 weeks in late 1998, and is based upon interviews of IAEA staff, reviews of existing IAEA documentation as well as from SSC Satellitbild`s long-standing experience of satellite imagery and field missions. The cost/benefit analysis is based on a spreadsheet simulation of five potential applications of commercial satellite imagery: Reference information; Confirmation of Agency acquired and Member State supplied data; Change detection and on-going monitoring; Assessing open source information available to the Agency; Detecting undeclared activities and undeclared sites. The study confirms that the proposed concept of a relatively small `imagery unit` using high-resolution data will be a sound and

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of computer-based assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Loewenberger

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for more cost-effective and pedagogically acceptable combinations of teaching and learning methods to sustain increasing student numbers means that the use of innovative methods, using technology, is accelerating. There is an expectation that economies of scale might provide greater cost-effectiveness whilst also enhancing student learning. The difficulties and complexities of these expectations are considered in this paper, which explores the challenges faced by those wishing to evaluate the costeffectiveness of computer-based assessment (CBA. The paper outlines the outcomes of a survey which attempted to gather information about the costs and benefits of CBA.

  17. Modelling diffusion feedbacks between technology performance, cost and consumer behaviour for future energy-transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Martino; Brand, Christian; Banister, David

    2014-04-01

    Emerging technologies will have important impacts on sustainability objectives. Yet little is known about the explicit feedbacks between consumer behaviour and technological change, and the potential impact on mass market penetration. We use the UK as a case-study to explore the dynamic interactions between technology supply, performance, cost, and heterogeneous consumer behaviour and the resulting influence on long term market diffusion. Simulations of competing vehicle technologies indicate that petrol hybrids (HEVs) dominate the market over the long-term because they benefit from improved performance and are able to reach the steep part of the diffusion curve by 2025 while competing technologies remain in the early stages of growth and are easier to displace in the market. This is due to the cumulative build-up of stock and slow fleet turnover creating inertia in the technological system. Consequently, it will be difficult to displace incumbent technologies because of system inertia, cumulative growth in stock, long operational life, and consumer risk aversion to new unproven technologies. However, when accounting for both technological and behavioural change, simulations indicate that if investment can reach 30-40% per annum growth in supply, combined with steady technology improvements, and more sophisticated agent decision making such as accounting for full technology lifecycle cost and performance, full battery electric vehicles could displace the incumbent system by 2050.

  18. Cost-Benefit Analysis Methodology: Install Commercially Compliant Engines on National Security Exempted Vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    technologies follow: 1. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) 2. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) – electrically regenerated active (ERADPF...insurmountable obstacles such as vessel range, engine room space, SLM, additional electric power, etc. Recommendations are developed on the basis of both...Cost-Benefit Analysis Methodology: Install Commercially Compliant Engines on National Security Exempted Vessels? Jonathan DeHart 1 (M

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sandhill crane habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Andrew C.; Merchant, James W.; Shultz, Steven D.; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species often threaten native wildlife populations and strain the budgets of agencies charged with wildlife management. We demonstrate the potential of cost-effectiveness analysis to improve the efficiency and value of efforts to enhance sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) roosting habitat. We focus on the central Platte River in Nebraska (USA), a region of international ecological importance for migrating avian species including sandhill cranes. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a valuation process designed to compare alternative actions based on the cost of achieving a pre-determined objective. We estimated costs for removal of invasive vegetation using geographic information system simulations and calculated benefits as the increase in area of sandhill crane roosting habitat. We generated cost effectiveness values for removing invasive vegetation on 7 land parcels and for the entire central Platte River to compare the cost-effectiveness of management at specific sites and for the central Platte River landscape. Median cost effectiveness values for the 7 land parcels evaluated suggest that costs for creating 1 additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat totaled US $1,595. By contrast, we found that creating an additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat could cost as much as US $12,010 for some areas in the central Platte River, indicating substantial cost savings can be achieved by using a cost effectiveness analysis to target specific land parcels for management. Cost-effectiveness analysis, used in conjunction with geographic information systems, can provide decision-makers with a new tool for identifying the most economically efficient allocation of resources to achieve habitat management goals.

  20. Cost Analysis for Dual Source Weapon Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    34,- art seems to be regrettably trueý (1981: p. 52] Current uudersta~iinq of the compatitive r~pro- curement process is meagar. it would for ixam- ple be...the- art will be organized by section, according to the following major topics: ’I. Production Rates 2. Second-Source Start-Up Cost 3. Second-Source...when capaci- , ty utilization is Low. The returns earned by contractors on DOD business are measurably lower than the returns on com- marcial business

  1. Development of hospital data warehouse for cost analysis of DPC based on medical costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaga, F; Kumamoto, I; Uto, Y

    2007-01-01

    To develop a data warehouse system for cost analysis, based on the categories of the diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) system, in which medical costs were estimated by DPC category and factors influencing the balance between costs and fees. We developed a data warehouse system for cost analysis using data from the hospital central data warehouse system. The balance data of patients who were discharged from Kagoshima University Hospital from April 2003 to March 2005 were determined in terms of medical procedure, cost per day and patient admission in order to conduct a drill-down analysis. To evaluate this system, we analyzed cash flow by DPC category of patients who were categorized as having malignant tumors and whose DPC category was reevaluated in 2004. The percentages of medical expenses were highest in patients with acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and particularly in patients with malignant tumors of the liver and intrahepatic bile duct. Imaging tests degraded the percentages of medical expenses in Kagoshima University Hospital. These results suggested that cost analysis by patient is important for hospital administration in the inclusive evaluation system using a case-mix index such as DPC.

  2. Combined multi-criteria and cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld

    1996-01-01

    of the application of utility-based Multi-Criteria Analyses methods as an extension and refinement of the traditional Cost-Benefit Analysis are provided. The theory presented in this paper is closely related the methods used in the WARP software (Leleur & Jensen, 1989). The presentation is however wider in scope......The paper is an introduction to both theory and application of combined Cost-Benefit and Multi-Criteria Analysis. The first section is devoted to basic utility theory and its practical application in Cost-Benefit Analysis. Based on some of the problems encountered, arguments in favour...

  3. Ethical analysis to improve decision-making on health technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarni, Samuli I; Hofmann, Bjørn; Lampe, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    beyond effectiveness and costs to also considering the social, organizational and ethical implications of technologies. However, a commonly accepted method for analysing the ethical aspects of health technologies is lacking. This paper describes a model for ethical analysis of health technology......Health technology assessment (HTA) is the multidisciplinary study of the implications of the development, diffusion and use of health technologies. It supports health-policy decisions by providing a joint knowledge base for decision-makers. To increase its policy relevance, HTA tries to extend...... that is easy and flexible to use in different organizational settings and cultures. The model is part of the EUnetHTA project, which focuses on the transferability of HTAs between countries. The EUnetHTA ethics model is based on the insight that the whole HTA process is value laden. It is not sufficient...

  4. Evaluation of Cost Models and Needs & Gaps Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2014-01-01

    his report ’D3.1—Evaluation of Cost Models and Needs & Gaps Analysis’ provides an analysis of existing research related to the economics of digital curation and cost & benefit modelling. It reports upon the investigation of how well current models and tools meet stakeholders’ needs for calculating...... for amore efficient use of resources for digital curation. To facilitate and clarify the model evaluation the report first outlines a basic terminology and a generaldescription of the characteristics of cost and benefit models.The report then describes how the ten current and emerging cost and benefit...... they breakdown costs. This is followed by an in depth analysis of stakeholders’ needs for financial information derived from the 4C project stakeholder consultation.The stakeholders’ needs analysis indicated that models should:• support accounting, but more importantly they should enable budgeting• be able...

  5. Cost Benefit Analysis: Cost Benefit Analysis for Human Effectiveness Research: Bioacoustic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    APPENDIX A. ACRONYMS ACCES Attenuating Custom Communication Earpiece System ACEIT Automated Cost estimating Integrated Tools AFSC Air Force...documented in the ACEIT cost estimating tool developed by Tecolote, Inc. The factor used was 14 percent of PMP. 1.3 System Engineering/ Program...The data source is the ASC Aeronautical Engineering Products Cost Factor Handbook which is documented in the ACEIT cost estimating tool developed

  6. Identifying airline cost economies: An econometric analysis of the factors affecting aircraft opeerating costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Zuidberg

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides the results of an econometric analysis of the influences of airline characteristics on the average operating costs per aircraft movement. The analysis combines a comprehensive selection of airline-output variables, airline-fleet variables, and airline-market variables. The result

  7. Identifying airline cost economies: An econometric analysis of the factors affecting aircraft opeerating costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides the results of an econometric analysis of the influences of airline characteristics on the average operating costs per aircraft movement. The analysis combines a comprehensive selection of airline-output variables, airline-fleet variables, and airline-market variables. The

  8. Updated hydrogen production costs and parities for conventional and renewable technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Ricardo Guerrero [Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada (Programa Focus-Abengoa), Jorge Juan, 46, 28001 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Martinez Duart, Jose Manuel [Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada (Programa Focus-Abengoa), Jorge Juan, 46, 28001 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolas Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, modulo C-XVI, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    This paper provides first a review of the production costs of hydrogen from conventional, nuclear and renewable sources, reported in the literature during the last eight years. In order to analyze the costs on a unified basis, they are updated to a common year (2009), taking into account the yearly inflation rates. The study also considers whether the hydrogen has been produced in centralized or distributed facilities. From these data, the expected future costs for conventional production of hydrogen are calculated considering several scenarios on carbon emission taxations. Based on these estimations, together with the predicted future costs (2019-2020 and 2030) for hydrogen from alternative sources, several hydrogen cost-parity analyses are exposed for renewable and nuclear energies. From the comparison between these alternative technologies for hydrogen production and the conventional ones (steam methane reforming and coal gasification), several predictions on the time-periods to reach cost parities are elaborated. (author)

  9. Infrastructures and Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Design and maintenance of infrastructures using Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis is discussed in this paper with special emphasis on users costs. This is for several infrastructures such as bridges, highways etc. of great importance. Repair or/and failure of infrastructures will usually result in...

  10. Learning Together; part 2: training costs and health gain - a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Katherine; Riches, Wendy; Macaulay, Chloe; Spicer, John

    2017-01-01

    Learning Together is a complex educational intervention aimed at improving health outcomes for children and young people. There is an additional cost as two doctors are seeing patients together for a longer appointment than a standard general practice (GP) appointment. Our approach combines the impact of the training clinics on activity in South London in 2014-15 with health gain, using NICE guidance and standards to allow comparison of training options. Activity data was collected from Training Practices hosting Learning Together. A computer based model was developed to analyse the costs of the Learning Together intervention compared to usual training in a partial economic evaluation. The results of the model were used to value the health gain required to make the intervention cost effective. Data were returned for 363 patients booked into 61 clinics across 16 Training Practices. Learning Together clinics resulted in an increase in costs of £37 per clinic. Threshold analysis illustrated one child with a common illness like constipation needs to be well for two weeks, in one Practice hosting four training clinics for the clinics to be considered cost effective. Learning Together is of minimal training cost. Our threshold analysis produced a rubric that can be used locally to test cost effectiveness at a Practice or Programme level.

  11. Reduced cost alternatives to premise wiring using ATM and microcellular technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejji, Raghvendra R.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of premises wiring keeps increasing due to personnel moves, new equipment, capacity upgrades etc. It would be desirable to have a wireless interface from the workstations to the fixed network, so as to minimize the wiring changes needed. New technologies such as microcellular personal communication systems are promising to bring down the cost of wireless communication. Another promising technology is Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), which could dramatically increase the bandwidth available for wireless connections. In addition, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology is emerging as a technique for integrated management of voice, data, and video traffic on a single network. The focus of this investigation will be to assess the future utility of these new technologies for reducing the premise wiring cost at KSC. One of the issues to be studied is the cost comparison of 'old' versus 'new,' especially as time and technology progress. An additional issue for closer study is a feasible time-line for progress in technological capability.

  12. External costs of silicon carbide fusion power plants compared to other advanced generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y. E-mail: yolanda.lechon@ciemat.es; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Hallberg, B.; Aquilonius, K.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R

    2003-09-01

    This study was performed in the framework of the Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3), which is jointly conducted by Euratom and the fusion associations. Assessments of monetarized external impacts of the fusion fuel-cycle were previously performed (SERF1 and SERF2). Three different power plant designs were studied, with the main difference being the structural materials and cooling system used. In this third phase of the SERF project the external costs of three additional fusion power plant models using silicon carbide as structural material have been analysed. A comparison with other advanced generation technologies expected to be in use around 2050, when the first fusion power plant would be operative, has also been performed. These technologies include advanced fossil technologies, such as Natural Gas Combined Cycle, Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle with carbon sequestration technologies; fuel cells and renewable technologies including geothermal energy, wind energy and photovoltaic systems with energy storage devices. Fusion power plants using silicon carbide as structural material have higher efficiencies than plants using steel and this fact has a very positive effect on the external costs per kW h. These external costs are in the lowest range of the external costs of advanced generation technologies indicating the outstanding environmental performance of fusion power.

  13. Cost and Systems Analysis of Innovative Fuel Resources Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Erich [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Nuclear and Radiation Engineering Program; Byers, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Nuclear and Radiation Engineering Program

    2017-05-04

    Economically recovered uranium from seawater can have a transformative effect on the way policy makers view the long-term viability of uranium based fuel cycles. Seawater uranium, even when estimated to cost more than terrestrially mined uranium, is integral in establishing an economic backstop, thus reducing uncertainty in future nuclear power costs. While a passive recovery scheme relying on a field of polymer adsorbents prepared via radiation induced grafting has long been considered the leading technology for full scale deployment, non-trivial cost and logistical barriers persist. Consequently, university partners of the nation-wide consortium for seawater uranium recovery have developed variants of this technology, each aiming to address a substantial weakness. The focus of this NEUP project is the economic impacts of the proposed variant technologies. The team at University of Alabama has pursued an adsorbent synthesis method that replaces the synthetic fiber backbone with a natural waste product. Chitin fibers suitable for ligand grafting have been prepared from shrimp shell waste. These environmental benefits could be realized at a comparable cost to the reference fiber so long as the uptake can be increased or the chemical consumption cost decreased.

  14. Cost analysis model for catalytic conversion of syngas in to light hydrocarbon gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Deng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-gasification is a new technology and considered as a more efficient way to utilize bio-energy. The economic feasibility becomes one of the greatest issues when we apply this new technology. Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs better understanding of its production unit cost under different capacities and different working shift modes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of biofuel products (Liquid HCs, Light HCs and Oxygenates CxHyOz under different capacities using a modeling method. The cost analysis model was developed using Visual Basic Microsoft 2008, computer programming language and mathematical equations. The modeling results showed that the unit costs of biofuel product from bio-gasification facility were significantly affected by production capacities of facilities. As the facility capacity increased from 65 to 10,000 N m3 h−1, the biofuel production unit cost of gas (Light HCs, oil (Liquid HCs, and aqueous (Oxygenates CxHyOz decreased from $38.92 per MMBTU, $30.89 per gallon and $25.74 per gallon to $2.01 per MMBTU, $1.59 per gallon, and $1.33 per gallon, respectively. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that feedstock cost was the most sensitive cost factor on unit costs for all biofuel products at high capacity. The cost analysis model developed in this study could be used to optimize production unit costs of bio-fuel products from bio-gasification facility.

  15. Yield and Cost Analysis or 3D Stacked ICs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taouil, M.

    2014-01-01

    3D stacking is an emerging technology promising many benefits such as low latency between stacked dies, reduced power consumption, high bandwidth communication, improved form factor and package volume density, heterogeneous integration, and low-cost manufacturing. However, it requires modification o

  16. comparative cost and strength analysis of cement and aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH) ... groundnut husk ash, palm oil fuel ash, bone powder ash, acha husk ash and bambara groundnut ... study suggests that; the cost of construction and concrete production can be reduced if cement .... coarse aggregate for light trafficked roads and 10% as par-.

  17. Environmental standards need cost/benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeltman, E.W.

    1978-02-01

    To illustrate the basic advantages of employing cost/benefit analyses in the determination of emission limits for various sources of pollution, General Electric Co. discusses the activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency in the development of new source performance standards for combustion turbines. A review of specific decisions and their consequences regarding the emission of SO/sub 2/, CO, and NO/sub x/ from gas and oil turbines shows that to ensure good regulation, regulators must consider all sides of the issue; industry, in turn, must present its case in the most technically accurate manner possible to avoid the decrease in reliability, safety, and availability of equipment that can result from too restrictive emission limits.

  18. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, T D

    1985-04-01

    A model for cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis (CBA-CEA) of pharmaceutical intervention is presented, and CBA-CEA research methods reported in the literature are reviewed. The cost versus benefit and the cost effectiveness of drug therapy can be analyzed in societal as well as private terms. Since CBA measures costs and outcomes in monetary terms, it can be used to compare net benefits of all types of interventions. CEA, however, can be used only in comparing alternative interventions that can produce a similar health outcome. Research activities needed for identification of treatment protocols, alternative therapies and their respective outcomes, and resource use are described. Quantification of benefits and costs is discussed and inherent strengths and weaknesses of CBA-CEA are summarized. For the wide variety of research activities involved in CBA-CEA, the expertise of economists, physicians, clinical pharmacists and pharmacologists, epidemiologists, sociologists, and psychologists is needed. Inherent in CBA-CEA for drug therapy are judgments, either by analysts or by policy decision makers, about how to value life, pain, anxiety, and happiness and how to distribute health-care resources. When results of CBA-CEA are presented and interpreted with care, this analysis can be an important tool for policy decision makers.

  19. A MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING APPROACH OF CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS Ildiko Reka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years many organizations realized that market orientation is essential to their success. Satisfying the needs of customers, offering them products and services which meet their desires and demands, customer loyalty can increase profitability for long term. After analyzing the existing journal literature in this field we would like to emphasize that managerial accounting, cost calculation methods and techniques, the analysis of costs provides relevant information when analyzing the customer’s profitability. We pay special attention on cost systems. An activity based costing approach takes customer profitability to new levels of accuracy and usefulness, provides the basis for creating, communicating and delivering value to the customers.

  20. Shared Consumption : A Technological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Weymark

    2004-01-01

    James Buchanan (Economica, [1966]) has argued that Alfred Marshall's theory of jointly-supplied goods can be extended to analyze the allocation of impure public goods. This article introduces a way of modelling sharing technologies for jointly-supplied goods that captures the essential features of Buchanan's proposal. Public and private goods are special cases of shared goods obtained by appropriately specifying the sharing technology. Necessary conditions for an allocation in a shared goods ...

  1. Cost and effectiveness analysis on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) use at border security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Bahadır.

    2013-06-01

    Drones and Remotely Piloted Vehicles are types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. UAVs began to be used with the war of Vietnam, they had a great interest when Israel used them in Bekaa Valley Operations of 1982. UAVs have been used by different countries with different aims with the help of emerging technology and investments. In this article, in the context of areas of UAV usage in national security, benefits and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward. Particularly, it has been evaluated on the basis of cost-effectiveness by focusing the use of UAV in the border security. UAVs have been studied by taking cost analysis, procurement and operational costs into consideration. Analysis of effectiveness has been done with illegal passages of people and drugs from flight times of UAVs. Although the procurement cost of the medium-level UAVs is low, its operational costs are high. For this reason, the idea of less costly alternative systems have been revealed for the border security. As the costs are reduced to acceptable level involving national security and border security in future with high-technology products in their structure, it will continue to be used in an increasing proportion.

  2. Cost Analysis of Medications Used in Upper Respiratory Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost Analysis of Medications Used in Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Prescribing Patterns in University Sans ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... The study was done in the clinics under University Sains Malaysia. A total ...

  3. Cost-benefit analysis in decision making for diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Hilberg, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    This paper reviews certain current concepts and methods relating to benefit-risk analysis, in terms of economic costs and raidation risks to health, in relation to the benefits from diagnostic radiology in clinical medicine.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Mectizan treatment Programmes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of Mectizan treatment Programmes for Onchocerciasis Control: Operational Experiences in two districts of Southwestern Nigeria. ... Vol 8, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Uncertainty Assessment in Life Cycle Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    of this report) Unclassified 15. DECL ASSI FICATION/ DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 1S. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for public release...data base oriented. 7. Risk Analysis and Decision Models in the Planning of Housing Projects, by Jorge A. Machado , Report No. R72-44, Structures...1979). Lewis, L., "Range Estimating -- Managing Uncertainty," AACE Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 6, Nov/Dec 1977. Machado , J. A., "Risk Analysis and Decision

  6. Technology Needs for Reduced Design and Manufacturing Cost of Commercial Transport Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Douglas A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the needs in the design and manufacturing processes and identify areas where technology could impact in cost and cycle-time reduction. At the highest level, the team first identified the goals that were in line with long-range needs of the aeropropulsion industry, and to which technology and process improvements would be required to contribute. These goals are to reduce the time and costs in the development cycle of aircraft engines by a factor of two, reduce production cycle time by a factor of four, and to reduce production costs by 25%. Also, it was the intent of the team to identify the highest impact technologies that could be developed and demonstrated in five years.

  7. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  8. Sliver Solar Cells: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer than 5% of the wafer starts per MW of factory output. This paper deals with two distinct challenges related to Sliver cell and Sliver module production: providing a mature and robust Sliver cell fabrication method which produces a high yield of highly efficient Sliver cells, and which is suitable for transfer to industry; and, handling, electrically interconnecting, and encapsulating billions of sliver cells at low cost. Sliver cells with efficiencies of 20% have been fabricated at ANU using a reliable, optimised processing sequence, while low-cost encapsulation methods have been demonstrated using a submodule technique.

  9. Innovative manufacturing technologies for low-cost, high efficiency PERC-based PV modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelundur, Vijay [Suniva Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    The goal this project was to accelerate the deployment of innovative solar cell and module technologies that reduce the cost of PERC-based modules to best-in-class. New module integration technology was to be used to reduce the cost and reliance on conventional silver bus bar pastes and enhance cell efficiency. On the cell manufacturing front, the cost of PERC solar cells was to be reduced by introducing advanced metallization approaches to increase cell efficiency. These advancements will be combined with process optimization to target cell efficiencies in the range of 21 to 21.5%. This project will also explore the viability of a bifacial PERC solar cell design to enable cost savings through the use of thin silicon wafers. This project was terminated on 4/30/17 after four months of activity due financial challenges facing the recipient.

  10. Production cost analysis of Euphorbia lathyris. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, D.A.

    1979-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate costs of production for Euphorbia lathyris (hereafter referred to as Euphorbia) in commercial-scale quantities. Selection of five US locations for analysis was based on assumed climatic and cultivation requirements. The five areas are: nonirrigated areas (Southeast Kansas and Central Oklahoma, Northeast Louisiana and Central Mississippi, Southern Illinois), and irrigated areas: (San Joaquin Valley and the Imperial Valley, California and Yuma, Arizona). Cost estimates are tailored to reflect each region's requirements and capabilities. Variable costs for inputs such as cultivation, planting, fertilization, pesticide application, and harvesting include material costs, equipment ownership, operating costs, and labor. Fixed costs include land, management, and transportation of the plant material to a conversion facility. Euphorbia crop production costs, on the average, range between $215 per acre in nonirrigated areas to $500 per acre in irrigated areas. Extraction costs for conversion of Euphorbia plant material to oil are estimated at $33.76 per barrel of oil, assuming a plant capacity of 3000 dry ST/D. Estimated Euphorbia crop production costs are competitive with those of corn. Alfalfa production costs per acre are less than those of Euphorbia in the Kansas/Oklahoma and Southern Illinois site, but greater in the irrigated regions. This disparity is accounted for largely by differences in productivity and irrigation requirements.

  11. Analysis of costs structure of the industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Kovtunenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Costs are an important factor that affects the economic activities of an industrial enterprise, because they affect the profits of the enterprise on production efficiency and competitiveness. The article aims to summarize approaches of the definition of “costs”, classification costs of the enterprise according to different characteristics and cost structure of industrial enterprises. Each scientist has his own opinion on the choice of the structure and classification of costs, which is based on his own experience and experience of other scientists. Economically justified classification of costs is an important factor for analysis and costs accounting. This paper examines the concept of “costs” in the interpretation of various authors based on research of scientists that highlight the main features of the classification of costs, give the cost structure of industrial enterprises. Based on the study it can be concluded that the standard classification of costs is not for all companies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a classification of costs according to the main features of the company.

  12. Space system operations and support cost analysis using Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.; Moore, Arlene A.; Fairbairn, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of Markov chain process in probabilistic life cycle cost analysis and suggests further uses of the process as a design aid tool. A methodology is developed for estimating operations and support cost and expected life for reusable space transportation systems. Application of the methodology is demonstrated for the case of a hypothetical space transportation vehicle. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to explore the effects of uncertainty in key model inputs.

  13. A cost minimisation analysis in teledermatology: model-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eminović Nina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although store-and-forward teledermatology is increasingly becoming popular, evidence on its effects on efficiency and costs is lacking. The aim of this study, performed in addition to a clustered randomised trial, was to investigate to what extent and under which conditions store-and-forward teledermatology can reduce costs from a societal perspective. Methods A cost minimisation study design (a model based approach was applied to compare teledermatology and conventional process costs per dermatology patient care episode. Regarding the societal perspective, total mean costs of investment, general practitioner, dermatologists, out-of-pocket expenses and employer costs were calculated. Uncertainty analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation with 31 distributions in the used cost model. Scenario analysis was performed using one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses with the following variables: the patient travel distance to physician and dermatologist, the duration of teleconsultation activities, and the proportion of preventable consultations. Results Total mean costs of teledermatology process were €387 (95%CI, 281 to 502.5, while the total mean costs of conventional process costs were €354.0 (95%CI, 228.0 to 484.0. The total mean difference between the processes was €32.5 (95%CI, -29.0 to 74.7. Savings by teledermatology can be achieved if the distance to a dermatologist is larger (> = 75 km or when more consultations (> = 37% can be prevented due to teledermatology. Conclusions Teledermatology, when applied to all dermatology referrals, has a probability of 0.11 of being cost saving to society. In order to achieve cost savings by teledermatology, teledermatology should be applied in only those cases with a reasonable probability that a live consultation can be prevented. Trail Registration This study is performed partially based on PERFECT D Trial (Current Controlled Trials No.ISRCTN57478950.

  14. State-of-the-Art Review of Low-Cost Collector Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    1I SERI Heliostat redirect the sun’s energy to a receiver mounted in a central area. In the receiver, the energy is absorbed into a circulating ( heat ...Mobility Low-Cost Parabolic Trough Survivability Light-Weight Thin-Film Reliability Heliostats Polymers Military 20. ABSTRACT (Contine an revers. deo It... heliostats and parabolic dish collectors. In addition several criteria were evaluated with respect to low-cost collector technologies These included

  15. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    their primary heating source with secondary heating e.g. a woodstove. This choice results in increased indoor air pollution with fine particles causing health effects. We integrate health cost due to use of woodstoves into household optimisation of heating expenditures. The results show that due...... for private consumers decrease by 66% when all have the option to shift to the technology with lowest variable costs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights reserved...

  16. Iodine Propulsion Advantages for Low Cost Mission Applications and the Iodine Satellite (ISAT) Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Science and Technology Office is continuously exploring technology options to increase performance or reduce cost and risk to future NASA missions including science and exploration. Electric propulsion is a prevalent technology known to reduce mission costs by reduction in launch costs and spacecraft mass through increased post launch propulsion performance. The exploration of alternative propellants for electric propulsion continues to be of interest to the community. Iodine testing has demonstrated comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density resulting in higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's unique properties also allow for unpressurized storage yet sublimation with minimal power requirements to produce required gas flow rates. These characteristics make iodine an ideal propellant for secondary spacecraft. A range of mission have been evaluated with a focus on low-cost applications. Results highlight the potential for significant cost reduction over state of the art. Based on the potential, NASA has been developing the iodine Satellite for a near-term iodine Hall propulsion technology demonstration. Mission applications and progress of the iodine Satellite project are presented.

  17. Demand Response Advanced Controls Framework and Assessment of Enabling Technology Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Jennifer; Cappers, Peter

    2017-08-28

    The Demand Response Advanced Controls Framework and Assessment of Enabling Technology Costs research describe a variety of DR opportunities and the various bulk power system services they can provide. The bulk power system services are mapped to a generalized taxonomy of DR “service types”, which allows us to discuss DR opportunities and bulk power system services in fewer yet broader categories that share similar technological requirements which mainly drive DR enablement costs. The research presents a framework for the costs to automate DR and provides descriptions of the various elements that drive enablement costs. The report introduces the various DR enabling technologies and end-uses, identifies the various services that each can provide to the grid and provides the cost assessment for each enabling technology. In addition to a report, this research includes a Demand Response Advanced Controls Database and User Manual. They are intended to provide users with the data that underlies this research and instructions for how to use that database more effectively and efficiently.

  18. Treatment Cost Analysis Tool (TCAT) for estimating costs of outpatient treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Patrick M; Broome, Kirk M; Beaston-Blaakman, Aaron; Knight, Danica K; Horgan, Constance M; Shepard, Donald S

    2009-02-01

    A Microsoft Excel-based workbook designed for research analysts to use in a national study was retooled for treatment program directors and financial officers to allocate, analyze, and estimate outpatient treatment costs in the U.S. This instrument can also be used as a planning and management tool to optimize resources and forecast the impact of future changes in staffing, client flow, program design, and other resources. The Treatment Cost Analysis Tool (TCAT) automatically provides feedback and generates summaries and charts using comparative data from a national sample of non-methadone outpatient providers. TCAT is being used by program staff to capture and allocate both economic and accounting costs, and outpatient service costs are reported for a sample of 70 programs. Costs for an episode of treatment in regular, intensive, and mixed types of outpatient treatment were $882, $1310, and $1381 respectively (based on 20% trimmed means and 2006 dollars). An hour of counseling cost $64 in regular, $85 intensive, and $86 mixed. Group counseling hourly costs per client were $8, $11, and $10 respectively for regular, intensive, and mixed. Future directions include use of a web-based interview version, much like some of the commercially available tax preparation software tools, and extensions for use in other modalities of treatment.

  19. Evaluation of Composite Structures Technologies for Application to NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (CoSTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Ravi; Wang, Donny; Bohlen, Jim; Fukuda, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    A trade study was conducted to determine the suitability of composite structures for weight and life cycle cost savings in primary and secondary structural systems for crew exploration vehicles, crew and cargo launch vehicles, landers, rovers, and habitats. The results of the trade study were used to identify and rank order composite material technologies that can have a near-term impact on a broad range of exploration mission applications. This report recommends technologies that should be developed to enable usage of composites on Vision for Space Exploration vehicles towards mass and life-cycle cost savings.

  20. Cost comparison modeling between current solder sphere attachment technology and solder jetting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R.N.

    1996-10-01

    By predicting the total life-cycle cost of owning and operating production equipment, it becomes possible for processors to make accurate and intelligent decisions regarding major capitol equipment investments as well as determining the most cost effective manufacturing processes and environments. Cost of Ownership (COO) is a decision making technique based on inputting the total costs of acquiring, operating and maintaining production equipment. All quantitative economic and production data can be modeled and processed using COO software programs such as the Cost of Ownership Luminator program TWO COOL{trademark}. This report investigated the Cost of Ownership differences between the current state-of-the-art solder ball attachment process and a prototype solder jetting process developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The prototype jetting process is a novel and unique approach to address the anticipated high rate ball grid array (BGA) production requirements currently forecasted for the next decade. The jetting process, which is both economically and environmentally attractive eliminates the solder sphere fabrication step, the solder flux application step as well as the furnace reflow and post cleaning operations.

  1. Managing Technology Efficiently in California K-12 Schools: Policies & Practices for Minimizing the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, Kyra; Kusserow, Tim; Lavin, Jake; Movassaghi, Maziar

    The total cost of ownership (TCO) of computer technology in California's K-12 public schools is assessed via a study of two high schools, one elementary school, and one school district that have implemented successful technology programs. The research covers four fundamental problems in technology ownership that add costs to schools and create…

  2. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12

    This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by

  3. Cost of Illness and Cost Containment Analysis Using Empirical Antibiotic Therapy in Sepsis Patients in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rano K. Sinuraya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze cost of illness (COI and cost containment analysis using empirical antibiotic therapy in sepsis patients with respiratory infection in a hospital in Bandung. A cross sectional method was conducted retrospectively. Data were collected from medical record of inpatients sepsis patients with respiratory infections with empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin or cefotaxime-erythromycin. Direct and indirect cost were calculated and analyzed in this study. The result showed that the average COI for patients with combination ceftazidime-levofloxaxin was 13,369,055 IDR whereas combination of cefotaxime-erythromycin was 22,250,495 IDR. In summary, the COI empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin was lower than cefotaxime-erythromycin. Cost containment using empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin which without reducing the service quality was 8,881,440 IDR.

  4. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the

  5. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleichrodt, H; Quiggin, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper studies life-cycle preferences over consumption and health status. We show that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis if the lifetime utility function is additive over time, multiplicative in the utility of consumption and the utility of health status, and if the utility of consumption is constant over time. We derive the conditions under which the lifetime utility function takes this form, both under expected utility theory and under rank-dependent utility theory, which is currently the most important nonexpected utility theory. If cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis, it is possible to derive tractable expressions for the willingness to pay for quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The willingness to pay for QALYs depends on wealth, remaining life expectancy, health status, and the possibilities for intertemporal substitution of consumption.

  6. Cost analysis of composite fan blade manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelson, T. S.; Barth, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The relative manufacturing costs were estimated for large high technology fan blades prepared by advanced composite fabrication methods using seven candidate materials/process systems. These systems were identified as laminated resin matrix composite, filament wound resin matrix composite, superhybrid solid laminate, superhybrid spar/shell, metal matrix composite, metal matrix composite with a spar and shell, and hollow titanium. The costs were calculated utilizing analytical process models and all cost data are presented as normalized relative values where 100 was the cost of a conventionally forged solid titanium fan blade whose geometry corresponded to a size typical of 42 blades per disc. Four costs were calculated for each of the seven candidate systems to relate the variation of cost on blade size. Geometries typical of blade designs at 24, 30, 36 and 42 blades per disc were used. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  7. Accidents at work and costs analysis: a field study in a large Italian company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Massimo; Frey, Marco; Passetti, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents at work are still a heavy burden in social and economic terms, and action to improve health and safety standards at work offers great potential gains not only to employers, but also to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives. The field study, carried out in a large Italian company, illustrates technical and organisational aspects associated with the implementation of an accident costs analysis tool. The results indicate that the implementation (and the use) of the tool requires a considerable commitment by the company, that accident costs analysis should serve to reinforce the importance of health and safety prevention and that the economic dimension of accidents is substantial. The study also suggests practical ways to facilitate the implementation and the moral acceptance of the accounting technology.

  8. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  9. Assessment of Vehicle Sizing, Energy Consumption and Cost Through Large Scale Simulation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moawad, Ayman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, Namdoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shidore, Neeraj [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, Aymeric [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) has been developing more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum. The long-term aim is to develop "leapfrog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment. This report reviews the results of the DOE VTO. It gives an assessment of the fuel and light-duty vehicle technologies that are most likely to be established, developed, and eventually commercialized during the next 30 years (up to 2045). Because of the rapid evolution of component technologies, this study is performed every two years to continuously update the results based on the latest state-of-the-art technologies.

  10. [Health Technology Dependency: A Concept Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao-Yi; Chen, Ting-Yu; Kao, Chi-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Health technology dependence is a widely recognized concept that refers to the utilization of technology, including drugs, equipment, instruments, and related devices, to compensate for a physical disability or to prevent the progression of a disability. Although technology may significantly prolong the life of a patient, technology may also increase the psychological pressure of these patients and the burdens of their caregivers. There is a current dearth of related research and discussions related to the concept of "health technology dependency". Therefore, the present paper uses the strategies of concept analysis described by Walker & Avant (2010) to analyze this concept. The characteristic definition of health technology dependence addresses individuals who: (1) currently live with health technology, (2) may perceive physical or psychological burdens due to health technology, and (3) feel physical and psychological well-being when coping positively with their health technology dependency and, further, regard health technology as a part of their body. Further, the present paper uses case examples to help analyze the general concept. It is hoped that nurses may better understand the concept of "health technology dependency", consider the concerns of health-technology-dependent patients and their families, and develop relevant interventions to promote the well-being of these patients and their families.

  11. Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program (The Program). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC, in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE).

  12. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  13. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  14. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  15. NASA Langley Systems Analysis & Concepts Directorate Technology Assessment/Portfolio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Stephen; Chytka, Trina; Arcara, Phil; Jones, Sharon; Stanley, Doug; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2006-01-01

    Systems analysis develops and documents candidate mission and architectures, associated system concepts, enabling capabilities and investment strategies to achieve NASA s strategic objectives. The technology assessment process connects the mission and architectures to the investment strategies. In order to successfully implement a technology assessment, there is a need to collect, manipulate, analyze, document, and disseminate technology-related information. Information must be collected and organized on the wide variety of potentially applicable technologies, including: previous research results, key technical parameters and characteristics, technology readiness levels, relationships to other technologies, costs, and potential barriers and risks. This information must be manipulated to facilitate planning and documentation. An assessment is included of the programmatic and technical risks associated with each technology task as well as potential risk mitigation plans. Risks are assessed and tracked in terms of likelihood of the risk occurring and consequences of the risk if it does occur. The risk assessments take into account cost, schedule, and technical risk dimensions. Assessment data must be simplified for presentation to decision makers. The Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) at NASA Langley Research Center has a wealth of experience in performing Technology Assessment and Portfolio Analysis as this has been a business line since 1978.

  16. Statistical analysis of regional capital and operating costs for electric power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, L.R.; Myers, M.G.; Herrman, J.A.; Provanizano, A.J.

    1977-10-01

    This report presents the results of a three and one-half-month study conducted for Brookhaven National Lab. to develop capital and operating cost relationships for seven electric power generating technologies: oil-, coal-, gas-, and nuclear-fired steam-electric plants, hydroelectric plants, and gas-turbine plants. The methodology is based primarily on statistical analysis of Federal Power Commission data for plant construction and annual operating costs. The development of cost-output relationships for electric power generation is emphasized, considering the effects of scale, technology, and location on each of the generating processes investigated. The regional effects on cost are measured at the Census Region level to be consistent with the Brookhaven Multi-Regional Energy and Interindustry Regional Model of the United States. Preliminary cost relationships for system-wide costs - transmission, distribution, and general expenses - were also derived. These preliminary results cover the demand for transmission and distribution capacity and operating and maintenance costs in terms of system-service characteristics. 15 references, 6 figures, 23 tables.

  17. Power and sample size in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, E M; Meisner, M; Siegel, C

    1999-01-01

    For resource allocation under a constrained budget, optimal decision rules for mutually exclusive programs require that the treatment with the highest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) below a willingness-to-pay (WTP) criterion be funded. This is equivalent to determining the treatment with the smallest net health cost. The designer of a cost-effectiveness study needs to select a sample size so that the power to reject the null hypothesis, the equality of the net health costs of two treatments, is high. A recently published formula derived under normal distribution theory overstates sample-size requirements. Using net health costs, the authors present simple methods for power analysis based on conventional normal and on nonparametric statistical theory.

  18. Cost benefit study of advanced materials technology for aircraft turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillery, R. V.; Johnston, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The cost/benefits of eight advanced materials technologies were evaluated for two aircraft missions. The overall study was based on a time frame of commercial engine use of the advanced material technologies by 1985. The material technologies evaluated were eutectic turbine blades, titanium aluminide components, ceramic vanes, shrouds and combustor liners, tungsten composite FeCrAly blades, gamma prime oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy blades, and no coat ODS alloy combustor liners. They were evaluated in two conventional takeoff and landing missions, one transcontinental and one intercontinental.

  19. Ship Compliance in Emission Control Areas: Technology Costs and Policy Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward W; Corbett, James J

    2015-08-18

    This paper explores whether a Panama Canal Authority pollution tax could be an effective economic instrument to achieve Emission Control Area (ECA)-like reductions in emissions from ships transiting the Panama Canal. This tariff-based policy action, whereby vessels in compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) ECA standards pay a lower transit tariff than noncompliant vessels, could be a feasible alternative to petitioning for a Panamanian ECA through the IMO. A $4.06/container fuel tax could incentivize ECA-compliant emissions reductions for nearly two-thirds of Panama Canal container vessels, mainly through fuel switching; if the vessel(s) also operate in IMO-defined ECAs, exhaust-gas treatment technologies may be cost-effective. The RATES model presented here compares current abatement technologies based on hours of operation within an ECA, computing costs for a container vessel to comply with ECA standards in addition to computing the Canal tax that would reduce emissions in Panama. Retrofitted open-loop scrubbers are cost-effective only for vessels operating within an ECA for more than 4500 h annually. Fuel switching is the least-cost option to industry for vessels that operate mostly outside of ECA regions, whereas vessels operating entirely within an ECA region could reduce compliance cost with exhaust-gas treatment technology (scrubbers).

  20. Advanced Mico-Gn&C Technology for Low-Cost Planetary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, E.; Chiang, R.; Waddell, P.; Litty, E.; Chang, D.; Bartman, R.; Udomkesmalee, S.

    1994-01-01

    The new NASA paradigm calls for more frequent, low-cost, small spacecraft missions capable of returning high-value planetary science. This challenge also extends to the rapid insertion of advanced technologies across all spacecraft subsystems as an enabling tool for building these highly capable miniaturized science platforms in the spirit of.

  1. Evaluation of cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address total trihalomethane (TTHM) compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  2. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  3. Evaluation of cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address total trihalomethane (TTHM) compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  4. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  5. Improving the Quality and Cost of Healthcare Delivery: The Potential of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilamovska, Anna-Marie

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated whether an upcoming class of health information technology (HIT) can be used to address currently outstanding issues in the quality and cost of healthcare delivery. Expert interviews and a literature review were used to describe the 2009 universe of in- and outpatient healthcare RFID applications and to identify those…

  6. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  7. Improving the Quality and Cost of Healthcare Delivery: The Potential of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilamovska, Anna-Marie

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated whether an upcoming class of health information technology (HIT) can be used to address currently outstanding issues in the quality and cost of healthcare delivery. Expert interviews and a literature review were used to describe the 2009 universe of in- and outpatient healthcare RFID applications and to identify those…

  8. The Relationship between Return on Profitability and Costs of Outsourcing Information Technology Technical Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Segun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to examine the relationship between costs of operation and total return on profitability of outsourcing information technology technical support in a two-year period of outsourcing operations. United States of America list of Fortune 1000 companies' chief information officers…

  9. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiNunzio, Camillo A. [Framatome ANP DE& S, Marlborough, MA (United States); Gupta, Abhinav [Univ. of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC (United States); Golay, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Luk, Vincent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turk, Rich [Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems, Windsor, CT (United States); Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jin, Geum-Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  10. The Relationship between Return on Profitability and Costs of Outsourcing Information Technology Technical Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Segun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to examine the relationship between costs of operation and total return on profitability of outsourcing information technology technical support in a two-year period of outsourcing operations. United States of America list of Fortune 1000 companies' chief information officers…

  11. Challenges in Assessing the Cost-Effectiveness of cardiovascular disease technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Burgers (Laura)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractSince healthcare expenditures are expected to rise in the future due to aging and the development of new medical technologies, it is necessary to spend the healthcare budget wisely. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) can feed into making choices in allocating limited health care resou

  12. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  13. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6585 Cost and price analysis... quantities to the general public, or on prices set by law or regulation. (2) Price analysis. In all...

  14. Analysis and compare of location technologies supporting LBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Hai-bing; XIA Ying; GE Jun-wei; BAE Hae-young

    2004-01-01

    Location technology is the key part of location based service. Different technologies have different accuracy, modifying to network and cost of operating. Also these technologies have limitation to network. This paper compares existing popular location technologies and gives some suggestions about choosing of location technologies in GSM and CDMA systems.

  15. Marginal pricing of transmission services: An analysis of cost recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Arriaga, I.J.; Rubio, F.J. [Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Puerta, J.F.; Arceluz, J.; Marin, J. [IBERDROLA, Bilbao (Spain). Unidad de Planificacion Estrategica

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis of network revenues computed with marginal pricing, and in particular it investigates the reasons why marginal prices fail to recover the total incurred network costs in actual power systems. The basic theoretical results are presented and the major causes of the mismatch between network costs and marginal revenues are identified and illustrated with numerical examples, some tutorial and others of realistic size. The regulatory implications of marginal network pricing in the context of competitive electricity markets are analyzed, and suggestions are provided for the meaningful allocation of the costs of the network among its users.

  16. Life-cycle cost analysis of advanced design mixer pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-23

    This analysis provides cost justification for the Advanced Design Mixer Pump program based on the cost benefit to the Hanford Site of 4 mixer pump systems defined in terms of the life-cycle cost.A computer model is used to estimate the total number of service hours necessary for each mixer pump to operate over the 20-year retrieval sequence period for single-shell tank waste. This study also considered the double-shell tank waste retrieved prior to the single-shell tank waste which is considered the initial retrieval.

  17. Marginal pricing of transmission services. An analysis of cost recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Arriaga, I.J.., Rubio, F.J. [Instituto de Investigacion Technologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Puerta, J.F.; Arceluz, J.; Marin, J. [Unidad de Planificacion Estrategica, Iberdrola, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    The authors present an in-depth analysis of network revenues that are computed with marginal pricing, and investigate the reasons why marginal prices in actual power systems fail to recover total incurred network costs. The major causes of the failure are identified and illustrated with numerical examples. The paper analyzes the regulatory implications of marginal network pricing in the context of competitive electricity markets and provides suggestions for the meaningful allocation of network costs among users. 5 figs., 9 tabs., 8 refs.

  18. Cost comparison of radiofrequency catheter ablation versus cryoablation for atrial fibrillation in hospitals using both technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Tina D; Palli, Swetha R; Rizzo, John A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cost of radiofrequency (RF) ablation vs cryoablation (Cryo) for atrial fibrillation (AF). This retrospective cohort study used 2013-2014 records from the Premier Healthcare Database for adults with AF catheter ablation. Exclusions included non-AF ablation, surgical ablation, valve replacement or repair, or cardiac implant. Hospitals were required to perform ≥20 procedures using each technology, with the technology identifiable in at least 90% of cases. The primary endpoint was total variable visit cost, modeled separately for inpatient and outpatient visits, and adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. Technology was categorized as RF or Cryo, with dual-technology procedures classified as Cryo. The Cryo cohort was further divided into Cryo only and Cryo with RF for sensitivity analyses. A composite adverse event endpoint was also compared. A total of 1261 RF procedures and 1276 Cryo procedures, of which 500 also used RF, met study criteria. RF patients were slightly older and sicker, and had more cardiovascular disease and additional arrhythmias. Adjusted inpatient costs were $2803 (30.0%) higher for Cryo, and adjusted outpatient costs were $2215 (19.5%) higher. Sensitivity models showed higher costs in both Cryo sub-groups compared with RF. Procedural complication rates were not significantly different between cohorts (p-values: 0.4888 inpatient, 0.5072 outpatient). AF ablation using RF results in significantly lower costs compared with Cryo, despite an RF population with more cardiovascular disease. This saving cannot be attributed to a difference in complication rates.

  19. Integrating sequencing technologies in personal genomics: optimal low cost reconstruction of structural variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Du

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of human genome re-sequencing is obtaining an accurate assembly of an individual's genome. Recently, there has been great excitement in the development of many technologies for this (e.g. medium and short read sequencing from companies such as 454 and SOLiD, and high-density oligo-arrays from Affymetrix and NimbelGen, with even more expected to appear. The costs and sensitivities of these technologies differ considerably from each other. As an important goal of personal genomics is to reduce the cost of re-sequencing to an affordable point, it is worthwhile to consider optimally integrating technologies. Here, we build a simulation toolbox that will help us optimally combine different technologies for genome re-sequencing, especially in reconstructing large structural variants (SVs. SV reconstruction is considered the most challenging step in human genome re-sequencing. (It is sometimes even harder than de novo assembly of small genomes because of the duplications and repetitive sequences in the human genome. To this end, we formulate canonical problems that are representative of issues in reconstruction and are of small enough scale to be computationally tractable and simulatable. Using semi-realistic simulations, we show how we can combine different technologies to optimally solve the assembly at low cost. With mapability maps, our simulations efficiently handle the inhomogeneous repeat-containing structure of the human genome and the computational complexity of practical assembly algorithms. They quantitatively show how combining different read lengths is more cost-effective than using one length, how an optimal mixed sequencing strategy for reconstructing large novel SVs usually also gives accurate detection of SNPs/indels, how paired-end reads can improve reconstruction efficiency, and how adding in arrays is more efficient than just sequencing for disentangling some complex SVs. Our strategy should facilitate the sequencing of

  20. Potential Offshore Wind Energy Areas in California: An Assessment of Locations, Technology, and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report summarizes a study of possible offshore wind energy locations, technologies, and levelized cost of energy in the state of California between 2015 and 2030. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), the federal agency responsible for regulating renewable energy development on the Outer Continental Shelf. It is based on reference wind energy areas where representative technology and performance characteristics were evaluated. These reference areas were identified as sites that were suitable to represent offshore wind cost and technology based on physical site conditions, wind resource quality, known existing site use, and proximity to necessary infrastructure. The purpose of this study is to assist energy policy decision-making by state utilities, independent system operators, state government officials and policymakers, BOEM, and its key stakeholders. The report is not intended to serve as a prescreening exercise for possible future offshore wind development.

  1. Cost effectiveness analysis of hemiarthroplasty and total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C; Watters, Tyler S; Orlando, Lori A; Bolognesi, Michael P; Moorman, Claude T

    2010-04-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA) are two viable surgical treatment options for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Recent systematic reviews and randomized trials suggest that TSA, while more costly initially, may have superior outcomes with regard to pain, function and quality of life with lower revision rates. This study compared the cost-effectiveness of TSA with HA. A Markov decision model was constructed for a cost-utility analysis of TSA compared to HA in a cohort of 64-year-old patients. Outcome probabilities and effectiveness were derived from the literature. Costs were estimated from the societal perspective using the national average Medicare reimbursement for the procedures in 2008 US dollars. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Principal outcome measures were average incremental costs, incremental effectiveness, incremental QALYs, and net health benefits. In the base case, HA resulted in a lower number of average QALYs gained at a higher average cost to society and was, therefore, dominated by the TSA strategy for the treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis. The cost effectiveness ratio for TSA and HA were $957/QALY and $1,194/QALY respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that if the utility of TSA is equal to, or revision rate lower than HA, TSA continues to be a dominant strategy. Total shoulder arthroplasty with a cemented glenoid is a cost-effective procedure, resulting in greater utility for the patient at a lower overall cost to the payer. These findings suggest that TSA is the preferred treatment for certain populations from both a patient and payer perspective. 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The sensitivity of wind technology utilization to cost and market parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, H.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hock, S.M.; Thresher, R.W. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1990-11-01

    This study explores the sensitivity of future wind energy market penetration to available wind resources, wind system costs, and competing energy system fuel costs for several possible energy market evolution scenarios. The methodology for the modeling is described in general terms. Cost curves for wind technology evolution are presented and used in conjunction with wind resource estimates and energy market projections to estimate wind penetration into the market. Results are presented that show the sensitivity of the growth of wind energy use to key cost parameters and to some of the underlying modeling assumptions. In interpreting the results, the authors place particular emphasis on the relative influence of the parameters studied. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cost Benefit Analysis of the Power Storage System Considering Outage Cost in the Deregulated Power Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Hirokazu; Fujii, Yasumasa

    In this paper, the authors propose the mathematical model which derives the optimal operation strategies of an on-site power storage system through the use of stochastic dynamic programming technique. The model takes account of the variations and uncertainties of electricity market prices as well as the outage costs of power grid failures. The market price fluctuation is modeled with stochastic differential equation. The stochastic state transitions between normal and failed systems are modeled with exponential density functions. The derived optimal operation indicates that the economic value of the storage system may be increased substantially, if the avoided outage costs are explicitly taken into account. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the most influential parameters are the magnitude of outage cost and the mean time to failure of power grid.

  4. Cost analysis of the Spanish renal replacement therapy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; Fernández-Ortiz, Lucía; Cuervo, Jesús; Rebollo, Pablo; Otero, Alfonso; Arrieta, Javier

    2011-11-01

    A cost analysis of the Spanish Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) programme in the year 2010, for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, was performed from the perspective of the Public Administration. The costs associated with each RRT modality [hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and kidney transplantation (Tx)] were analysed. The Spanish ESRD incidence and prevalence figures in the year 2010 were forecasted in order to enable the calculation of an aggregate cost for each modality. Costs were mainly computed based on a review of the existing literature and of the Official Bulletins of the Spanish Autonomous Communities. Data from Oblikue Consulting eSalud health care costs database and from several Spanish public sources were also employed. In the year 2010, the forecasted incidence figures for HD, PD and Tx were 5409, 822 and 2317 patients, respectively. The forecasted prevalence figures were 22,582, 2420 and 24,761 patients, respectively. The average annual per-patient costs (incidence and prevalence) were €2651 and €37,968 (HD), €1808 and €25,826 (PD) and €38,313 and €6283 (Tx). Indirect costs amounted to €8929 (HD), €7429 (PD) and €5483 (Tx). The economic impact of the Spanish RRT programme on the Public Administration budget was estimated at ~€1829 million (indirect costs included): €1327 (HD), €109 (PD) and €393 (Tx) million. HD accounted for >70% of the aggregate costs of the Spanish RRT programme in 2010. From a costs minimization perspective, it would be preferable if the number of incident and prevalent patients in PD were increased.

  5. Cost Analysis of Ceramic Heads in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Keith J; Odum, Susan M; Troyer, Jennifer L; Fehring, Thomas K

    2016-11-02

    The advent of adverse local tissue reactions seen in metal-on-metal bearings, and the recent recognition of trunnionosis, have led many surgeons to recommend ceramic-on-polyethylene articulations for primary total hip arthroplasty. However, to our knowledge, there has been little research that has considered whether the increased cost of ceramic provides enough benefit over cobalt-chromium to justify its use. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of ceramic-on-polyethylene implants and metal-on-polyethylene implants in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Markov decision modeling was used to determine the ceramic-on-polyethylene implant revision rate necessary to be cost-effective compared with the revision rate of metal-on-polyethylene implants across a range of patient ages and implant costs. A different set of Markov models was used to estimate the national cost burden of choosing ceramic-on-polyethylene implants over metal-on-polyethylene implants for primary total hip arthroplasties. The Premier Research Database was used to identify 20,398 patients who in 2012 were ≥45 years of age and underwent a total hip arthroplasty with either a ceramic-on-polyethylene implant or a metal-on-polyethylene implant. The cost-effectiveness of ceramic heads is highly dependent on the cost differential between ceramic and metal femoral heads and the age of the patient. At a cost differential of $325, ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings are cost-effective for patients price premium for ceramic and the age of the patient. A wholesale switch to ceramic bearings regardless of age or cost differential may result in an economic burden to the health system. Economic and decision analysis, Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  6. Combined multi-criteria and cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld

    1996-01-01

    The paper is an introduction to both theory and application of combined Cost-Benefit and Multi-Criteria Analysis. The first section is devoted to basic utility theory and its practical application in Cost-Benefit Analysis. Based on some of the problems encountered, arguments in favour...... of the application of utility-based Multi-Criteria Analyses methods as an extension and refinement of the traditional Cost-Benefit Analysis are provided. The theory presented in this paper is closely related the methods used in the WARP software (Leleur & Jensen, 1989). The presentation is however wider in scope...... sensitivity. Since pair-wise comparisons contains information on the trade-off’s acceptable to the decision maker, it is possible to calculate the shadow price of the effect compared to a given price base. The final section discusses two different approaches for the building of weight profiles...

  7. The Need for Technology Maturity of Any Advanced Capability to Achieve Better Life Cycle Cost (LCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Programs such as space transportation systems are developed and deployed only rarely, and they have long development schedules and large development and life cycle costs (LCC). They have not historically had their LCC predicted well and have only had an effort to control the DDT&E phase of the programs. One of the factors driving the predictability, and thus control, of the LCC of a program is the maturity of the technologies incorporated in the program. If the technologies incorporated are less mature (as measured by their Technology Readiness Level - TRL), then the LCC not only increases but the degree of increase is difficult to predict. Consequently, new programs avoid incorporating technologies unless they are quite mature, generally TRL greater than or equal to 7 (system prototype demonstrated in a space environment) to allow better predictability of the DDT&E phase costs unless there is no alternative. On the other hand, technology development programs rarely develop technologies beyond TRL 6 (system/subsystem model or prototype demonstrated in a relevant environment). Currently the lack of development funds beyond TRL 6 and the major funding required for full scale development leave little or no funding available to prototype TRL 6 concepts so that hardware would be in the ready mode for safe, reliable and cost effective incorporation. The net effect is that each new program either incorporates little new technology or has longer development schedules and costs, and higher LCC, than planned. This paper presents methods to ensure that advanced technologies are incorporated into future programs while providing a greater accuracy of predicting their LCC. One method is having a dedicated organization to develop X-series vehicles or separate prototypes carried on other vehicles. The question of whether such an organization should be independent of NASA and/or have an independent funding source is discussed. Other methods are also discussed. How to make the

  8. Economics of online structural health monitoring of wind turbines: Cost benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Operations and maintenance (O&M) costs have an average share over the lifetime of the turbine of approximately 20%-25% of the total levelized cost per kWh of electricity produced. Online structural health monitoring (OSHM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) of wind turbine blades has the potential to reduce O&M costs and hence reduce the overall cost of wind energy. OSHM and CBM offer the potential to improve turbine blade life cycle management, limit the number of physical inspections, and reduce the potential for missed significant defects. An OSHM system would reduce the need for physical inspections, and have inspections occur only after problem detection takes place. In the economics of wind energy, failures and unplanned outages can cause significant downtime, particularly while waiting for the manufacturing and shipping of major parts. This paper will report a review and assessment of SHM technologies and a cost benefit analysis, which will examine whether the added costs associated with an OSHM system will give an adequate return on the investment. One method in which OSHM reduces costs is, in part, by converting corrective maintenance to preventative maintenance. This paper shows that under both best and worse conditions implementing an OSHM system is cost effective in more than 50% of the trials, which have been performed. Opportunities appear to exist to improve the economic justification for implementing OSHM.

  9. Technology and Cost of the Model Year (MY) 2007 Toyota Camry HEV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-09-30

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides research and development (R&D) support to the Department of Energy on issues related to the cost and performance of hybrid vehicles. ORNL frequently benchmarks its own research against commercially available hybrid components currently used in the market. In 2005 we completed a detailed review of the cost of the second generation Prius hybrid. This study examines the new 2007 Camry hybrid model for changes in technology and cost relative to the Prius. The work effort involved a detailed review of the Camry hybrid and the system control strategy to identify the hybrid components used in the drive train. Section 2 provides this review while Section 3 presents our detailed evaluation of the specific drive train components and their cost estimates. Section 3 also provides a summary of the total electrical drive train cost for the Camry hybrid vehicle and contrasts these estimates to the costs for the second generation Prius that we estimated in 2005. Most of the information on cost and performance were derived from meetings with the technical staff of Toyota, Nissan, and some key Tier I suppliers like Hitachi and Panasonic Electric Vehicle Energy (PEVE) and we thank these companies for their kind cooperation.

  10. Technology and Cost of the MY 2007 toyota Camry HEV -- A Subcontract Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides research and development (R&D) support to the Department of Energy on issues related to the cost and performance of hybrid vehicles. ORNL frequently benchmarks its own research against commercially available hybrid components currently used in the market. In 2005 we completed a detailed review of the cost of the second generation Prius hybrid. This study examines the new 2007 Camry hybrid model for changes in technology and cost relative to the Prius. The work effort involved a detailed review of the Camry hybrid and the system control strategy to identify the hybrid components used in the drive train. Section 2 provides this review while Section 3 presents our detailed evaluation of the specific drive train components and their cost estimates. Section 3 also provides a summary of the total electrical drive train cost for the Camry hybrid vehicle and contrasts these estimates to the costs for the second generation Prius that we estimated in 2005. Most of the information on cost and performance were derived from meetings with the technical staff of Toyota, Nissan, and some key Tier I suppliers like Hitachi and Panasonic Electric Vehicle Energy (PEVE) and we thank these companies for their kind cooperation.

  11. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric M.; Edlich, Alexander; Santmire, Tara S.; Wingrove, Earl R.., III

    1999-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. Therefore, NASA is developing the ability to evaluate the potential impact of various advanced technologies. By thoroughly understanding the economic impact of advanced aviation technologies and by evaluating how the new technologies will be used in the integrated aviation system, NASA aims to balance its aeronautical research program and help speed the introduction of high-leverage technologies. To meet these objectives, NASA is building the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). NASA envisions ASAC primarily as a process for understanding and evaluating the impact of advanced aviation technologies on the U.S. economy. ASAC consists of a diverse collection of models and databases used by analysts and other individuals from the public and private sectors brought together to work on issues of common interest to organizations in the aviation community. ASAC also will be a resource available to the aviation community to analyze; inform; and assist scientists, engineers, analysts, and program managers in their daily work. The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. Commercial air carriers, in particular, are an important stakeholder in this community. Therefore, to fully evaluate the implications of advanced aviation technologies, ASAC requires a flexible financial analysis tool that credibly links the technology of flight with the financial performance of commercial air carriers. By linking technical and financial information, NASA ensures that its technology programs will continue to benefit the user community. In addition, the analysis tool must be capable of being incorporated into the

  12. A study of the cost-effective markets for new technology agricultural aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.; Clyne, F.

    1979-01-01

    A previously developed data base was used to estimate the regional and total U.S. cost-effective markets for a new technology agricultural aircraft as incorporating features which could result from NASA-sponsored aerial applications research. The results show that the long-term market penetration of a new technology aircraft would be near 3,000 aircraft. This market penetration would be attained in approximately 20 years. Annual sales would be about 200 aircraft after 5 to 6 years of introduction. The net present value of cost savings benefit which this aircraft would yield (measured on an infinite horizon basis) would be about $35 million counted at a 10 percent discount rate and $120 million at a 5 percent discount rate. At both discount rates the present value of cost savings exceeds the present value of research and development (R&D) costs estimated for the development of the technology base needed for the proposed aircraft. These results are quite conservative as they have been derived neglecting future growth in the agricultural aviation industry, which has been averaging about 12 percent per year over the past several years.

  13. (Correcting misdiagnoses of asthma: a cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandemheen Katherine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of physician-diagnosed-asthma has risen over the past three decades and misdiagnosis of asthma is potentially common. Objective: to determine whether a secondary-screening-program to establish a correct diagnosis of asthma in those who report a physician diagnosis of asthma is cost effective. Method Randomly selected physician-diagnosed-asthmatic subjects from 8 Canadian cities were studied with an extensive diagnostic algorithm to rule-in, or rule-out, a correct diagnosis of asthma. Subjects in whom the diagnosis of asthma was excluded were followed up for 6-months and data on asthma medications and heath care utilization was obtained. Economic analysis was performed to estimate the incremental lifetime costs associated with secondary screening of previously diagnosed asthmatic subjects. Analysis was from the perspective of the Canadian healthcare system and is reported in Canadian dollars. Results Of 540 randomly selected patients with physician diagnosed asthma 150 (28%; 95%CI 19-37% did not have asthma when objectively studied. 71% of these misdiagnosed patients were on some asthma medications. Incorporating the incremental cost of secondary-screening for the diagnosis of asthma, we found that the average cost savings per 100 individuals screened was $35,141 (95%CI $4,588-$69,278. Conclusion Cost savings primarily resulted from lifetime costs of medication use averted in those who had been misdiagnosed.

  14. Optimal Cost-Analysis and Design of Circular Footings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir K. Basudhar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study pertains to the optimal cost-analysis and design of a circular footing subjected to generalized loadings using sequential unconstrained minimization technique (SUMT in conjunction with Powell’s conjugate direction method for multidimensional search and quadratic interpolation method for one dimensional minimization. The cost of the footing is minimized satisfying all the structural and geotechnical engineering design considerations. As extended penalty function method has been used to convert the constrained problem into an unconstrained one, the developed technique is capable of handling both feasible and infeasible initial design vector. The net saving in cost starting from the best possible manual design ranges from 10 to 20 %. For all practical purposes, the optimum cost is independent of the initial design point. It was observed that for better convergence, the transition parameter  should be chosen at least 100 times the initial penalty parameter kr .

  15. Cost Analysis of Poor Quality Using a Software Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Fabianová

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The issues of quality, cost of poor quality and factors affecting quality are crucial to maintaining a competitiveness regarding to business activities. Use of software applications and computer simulation enables more effective quality management. Simulation tools offer incorporating the variability of more variables in experiments and evaluating their common impact on the final output. The article presents a case study focused on the possibility of using computer simulation Monte Carlo in the field of quality management. Two approaches for determining the cost of poor quality are introduced here. One from retrospective scope of view, where the cost of poor quality and production process are calculated based on historical data. The second approach uses the probabilistic characteristics of the input variables by means of simulation, and reflects as a perspective view of the costs of poor quality. Simulation output in the form of a tornado and sensitivity charts complement the risk analysis.

  16. The ACTS Flight System - Cost-Effective Advanced Communications Technology. [Advanced Communication Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, W. M., Jr.; Beck, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The multibeam communications package (MCP) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be STS-launched by NASA in 1988 for experimental demonstration of satellite-switched TDMA (at 220 Mbit/sec) and baseband-processor signal routing (at 110 or 27.5 Mbit/sec) is characterized. The developmental history of the ACTS, the program definition, and the spacecraft-bus and MCP parameters are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, block diagrams, and maps of the coverage plan. Advanced features of the MPC include 4.5-dB-noise-figure 30-GHz FET amplifiers and 20-GHz TWTA transmitters which provide either 40-W or 8-W RF output, depending on rain conditions. The technologies being tested in ACTS can give frequency-reuse factors as high as 20, thus greatly expanding the orbit/spectrum resources available for U.S. communications use.

  17. Cost effective flip chip assembly and interconnection technologies for large area pixel sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, T., E-mail: thomas.fritzsch@izm.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IZM, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, Berlin 13355 (Germany); Jordan, R.; Oppermann, H. [Fraunhofer IZM, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, Berlin 13355 (Germany); Ehrmann, O. [Berlin Institute of Technology (TUB), Berlin 10623 (Germany); Toepper, M.; Baumgartner, T.; Lang, K.-D. [Fraunhofer IZM, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, Berlin 13355 (Germany)

    2011-09-11

    Much of the cost of manufacturing pixel detectors is due to bumping and flip chip assembly of the readout chips onto sensor tiles, even if it is done on wafer level. To address this issue, Fraunhofer IZM investigated two new technological approaches, namely screen printing using dry film resist and chip-to-wafer assembly. In the first approach, solder bumps with diameters of 80 and 25 {mu}m in pitches of 110 and 60 {mu}m, respectively, were produced by screen-printing solder paste using a photo-structured dry film resist. Results indicated that the technology is a viable high yield and low cost bumping process. The second approach was developed to decrease the number of manual handling steps in pixel module manufacturing, which is critical for reducing processing time and cost. Here, chip designs on 200 mm readout chip (ROC) wafers and 150 mm sensor wafers were especially adapted for chip-to-wafer assembly and to ensure that the interconnection yield and reliability could be tested. After bumping and dicing of the readout chip wafer and UBM plating on the sensor wafer, individual dice were flip chip mounted on the pre-diced sensor wafer. This paper describes the technological steps, key processing parameters and first results for both technologies.

  18. [Costs analysis system; its location within a program for food, nutrition and metabolic intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Hernández, Ileana Sonia; Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Every medical surgical action implies costs. Costs of medical provisions should be translated into tangible, and thus, measurable, benefits for the health status of the patient. Nutritional support therapies might increase the costs of medical provisions, but it is expected their implementation to result in lower morbidity and mortality rates as well as shortening of hospital stay, all of them leading to important savings. It is then required the assimilation of tools for costs analysis for a better management of nutritional support therapies. A proposal for the design of a hospital system (regarded anywhere in this text as SHACOST) for the analysis of the costs of interventions conducted in a patient in accordance with the guidelines included in the Metabolic, Nutrient and Food Intervention Program (referred everywhere for its Spanish acronym PRINUMA) is presented in this article. Hence, strategies are described to estimate the costs of a specified intervention. In addition, a primer on cost-effectiveness (ACE) and incremental cost-effectiveness (ACEI) analyses is shown relying on examples taken from the authors's experience in the provision of nutritional care to patients electively operated for a colorectal cancer. Finally, costs of surgical treatment of a mandibular tumor are described, followed by a discussion on how a better impact of the adopted surgical action could be achieved without considerable increases in total costs should a perioperatory nutritional support program be included. Implementation of SHACOST can provide the medical care teams with accounting tools required to assess the effectiveness of hospital nutritional support schemes, decide whether to acquire and introduce new technologies, and measure the impact of the performance of hospital forms for provision of nutritional care upon health management and perceived quality of life of the patient and their relatives.

  19. Cost-benefit and cost-efficiency analysis of the water footprint in Spain; Analisis coste-beneficio y coste-eficiencia de la Huella Hidrica en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo Navalpotro, J. A.; Sotelo Perez, M.; Garcia Quiroca, F.

    2011-07-01

    We are increasingly needing ways to secure patterns of development that be sustainable, that is, environmentally, socially and economically appropriate for us and for future generations. Sustainability indicators are a promising tool that would allow us to land the concept, supporting the way in which decisions are made. In Spain there are few experiences on the subject. This paper presents the work carried out to develop sustainability indicators. Throughout the present study shows the importance of analysis of cost-benefit and cost efficiency in the assessment of the water footprint of Spain. (Author)

  20. Cost-effective FITL technologies for small business and residential customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Niels E.; Woolnough, Peter; Seidenberg, Juergen; Ferreira, Mario F. S.

    1995-02-01

    FIRST is a RACE project where 5 main European telecoms operators, 4 equipment manufacturers and one university have joined up to define and test in a field trial in Portugal a cost effective Optical Access Network. The main design target has been a system which gives cost effective provision of wideband services for small and medium business customers. The system however, incorporates provision of telephone, ISDN and analog and digital video for residential customers as well. Technologies have been chosen with the objective of providing a simple, robust and flexible system where initial deployment costs are low and closely related to the service take up. The paper describes the main technical features of the system and network applications which shows how the system may be introduced in network planning. The system is based on Passive Optical Network technology where video is distributed in the 1550 nm window and telecoms services transmitted at 1300 nm in full duplex mode. The telecoms system provides high capacity, flexibility in loop length and robustness towards outside plant performance. The Subcarrier Multiple Access (SCMA) method is used for upstream transmission of bi-directional telecoms services. SCMA has advantages compared to the Time Division Multiple Access technology used in other systems. Bandwidth/cost tradeoff is better and the lower requirements to the outside plant increases the overall cost benefit. Optical beat noise due to overlapping of laser spectra which may be a problem for this technology has been addressed with success through the use of a suitable modulation and control technique. This technology is further validated in the field trial. The video system provides cost effective long distance transmission on standard fiber with externally modulated lasers and cascaded amplifiers. Coexistence of analog and digital video on one fiber with different modulation schemes i.e. BPSK, QPSK and 64 QAM have been validated. Total life cycle cost

  1. Conceptual capital-cost estimate and facility design of the Mirror-Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This report contains contributions by Bechtel Group, Inc. to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the final report on the conceptual design of the Mirror Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF). Included in this report are the following contributions: (1) conceptual capital cost estimate, (2) structural design, and (3) plot plan and plant arrangement drawings. The conceptual capital cost estimate is prepared in a format suitable for inclusion as a section in the TDF final report. The structural design and drawings are prepared as partial inputs to the TDF final report section on facilities design, which is being prepared by the FEDC.

  2. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  3. Internal Logistics System Selection with Total Cost of Ownership Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Inês; Pimentel, Carina; Godina, Radu; Matias, João C. O.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a methodology was followed in order to support the decision-making of one industrial unit regarding its internal logistics system. The addressed factory was facing issues with their internal logistics approach. Some alternatives were pointed out and a proper total cost of ownership (TCO) analysis was developed. This analysis was taken in order to demonstrate the more cost-effective solution for the internal logistics system. This tool is more and more valued by the companies, due to their willing to reduce the costs that are associated with the way of doing business. Despite the proposal of the best choice for the internal logistics system of the enterprise, this study also intends to present some conclusions about the match between the nature of the industrial unit and the logistics systems that best fit the requirements of those.

  4. Bayesian cost-effectiveness analysis with the R package BCEA

    CERN Document Server

    Baio, Gianluca; Heath, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a description of the process of health economic evaluation and modelling for cost-effectiveness analysis, particularly from the perspective of a Bayesian statistical approach. Some relevant theory and introductory concepts are presented using practical examples and two running case studies. The book also describes in detail how to perform health economic evaluations using the R package BCEA (Bayesian Cost-Effectiveness Analysis). BCEA can be used to post-process the results of a Bayesian cost-effectiveness model and perform advanced analyses producing standardised and highly customisable outputs. It presents all the features of the package, including its many functions and their practical application, as well as its user-friendly web interface. The book is a valuable resource for statisticians and practitioners working in the field of health economics wanting to simplify and standardise their workflow, for example in the preparation of dossiers in support of marketing authorisation, or acade...

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urueña, Analía; Pippo, Tomás; Betelu, María Sol; Virgilio, Federico; Hernández, Laura; Giglio, Norberto; Gentile, Ángela; Diosque, Máximo; Vizzotti, Carla

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5. In Argentina, the most affected regions are the Northeast and Northwest, where hospitalizations and deaths are more frequent. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of adding either of the two licensed rotavirus vaccines to the routine immunization schedule. The integrated TRIVAC vaccine cost-effectiveness model from the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative (Version 2.0) was used to assess health benefits, costs savings, life-years gained (LYGs), DALYs averted, and cost/DALY averted of vaccinating 10 successive cohorts, from the health care system and societal perspectives. Two doses of monovalent (RV1) rotavirus vaccine and three doses of pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccine were each compared to a scenario assuming no vaccination. The price/dose was US$ 7.50 and US$ 5.15 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. We ran both a national and sub-national analysis, discounting all costs and benefits 3% annually. Our base case results were compared to a range of alternative univariate and multivariate scenarios. The number of LYGs was 5962 and 6440 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. The cost/DALY averted when compared to no vaccination from the health care system and societal perspective was: US$ 3870 and US$ 1802 for RV1, and US$ 2414 and US$ 358 for RV5, respectively. Equivalent figures for the Northeast were US$ 1470 and US$ 636 for RV1, and US$ 913 and US$ 80 for RV5. Therefore, rotavirus vaccination was more cost-effective in the Northeast compared to the whole country; and, in the Northwest, health service's costs saved outweighed the cost of introducing the vaccine. Vaccination with either vaccine compared to no vaccination was highly cost-effective based on WHO guidelines and Argentina's 2011 per capita GDP of US$ 9090. Key variables influencing results were vaccine efficacy, annual loss of efficacy, relative coverage of deaths, vaccine price, and discount rate. Compared to no

  6. Coverage Range and Cost Comparison of Remote Antenna Unit Designs for Inbuilding Radio over Fiber Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Ngah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Future communication needs to be ubiquitous, broadband, convergent, and seamless. Radio over fiber (RoF technology is one of the most important enabler in access network for the technologies. Adoption of RoF faces bottleneck in optoelectronics, that they are still expensive, high power consumption, and limited in bandwidth. To solve the problem, transceiver in remote antenna unit (RAU is developed, i.e. electroabsorption transceiver (EAT and asymmetric FabryPerot modulator (AFPM. This paper compares their coverage range and cost in providing WCDMA and WLAN services. Needed gain of RF amplifier for supporting picocell is also discussed.

  7. Cost effectiveness of a pharmacist-led information technology intervention for reducing rates of clinically important errors in medicines management in general practices (PINCER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Rachel A; Putman, Koen D; Franklin, Matthew; Annemans, Lieven; Verhaeghe, Nick; Eden, Martin; Hayre, Jasdeep; Rodgers, Sarah; Sheikh, Aziz; Avery, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    We recently showed that a pharmacist-led information technology-based intervention (PINCER) was significantly more effective in reducing medication errors in general practices than providing simple feedback on errors, with cost per error avoided at £79 (US$131). We aimed to estimate cost effectiveness of the PINCER intervention by combining effectiveness in error reduction and intervention costs with the effect of the individual errors on patient outcomes and healthcare costs, to estimate the effect on costs and QALYs. We developed Markov models for each of six medication errors targeted by PINCER. Clinical event probability, treatment pathway, resource use and costs were extracted from literature and costing tariffs. A composite probabilistic model combined patient-level error models with practice-level error rates and intervention costs from the trial. Cost per extra QALY and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were generated from the perspective of NHS England, with a 5-year time horizon. The PINCER intervention generated £2,679 less cost and 0.81 more QALYs per practice [incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER): -£3,037 per QALY] in the deterministic analysis. In the probabilistic analysis, PINCER generated 0.001 extra QALYs per practice compared with simple feedback, at £4.20 less per practice. Despite this extremely small set of differences in costs and outcomes, PINCER dominated simple feedback with a mean ICER of -£3,936 (standard error £2,970). At a ceiling 'willingness-to-pay' of £20,000/QALY, PINCER reaches 59 % probability of being cost effective. PINCER produced marginal health gain at slightly reduced overall cost. Results are uncertain due to the poor quality of data to inform the effect of avoiding errors.

  8. Beban Biaya Telekomunikasi yang Dikeluarkan Masyarakat Pengaruh dari Adopsi Teknologi [Telecommunication Costs Incurred Expenses Society Effect of Technology Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ariyanti

    2016-07-01

    that will be charged to the customer. Therefore, this paper studied how much the cost for data users after adopt new technology. This study aimed to know whether social cost is appropriate to Indonesia Broadband Plan. This research used a quantitative approach with econometrics analysis. The result showed that based on data of Household Expenditure with Budget for Telecommunications and ARPU, the cost charged to the customer has been complied with Indonesia Broadband Plan is less than 5 %.

  9. SCGE modelling in cost-benefit analysis: the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial computable general equilibrium (SCGE) models offer opportunities for computing wider economic effects in cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in a theoretically satisfactory way. This is important for the correct estimation of additional economic benefits and international relocation impacts. In the

  10. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT...

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of road safety measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Traffic and transport budgets, national ones as well as regional ones, should be spent as optimally as possible. It is therefore essential to be able to make a good assessment of a variety of measures and compare them with each other. This is possible when a cost-benefit analysis is used. This

  12. 40 CFR 1502.23 - Cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost-benefit analysis. 1502.23 Section 1502.23 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT... be when there are important qualitative considerations. In any event, an environmental...

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of replacing maize with rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-benefit analysis of replacing maize with rice husk supplemented with grindazyme, nutrsea ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Rice husk was added at the expense of maize in the control diet and each experimental ...

  14. Evaluating Training: Return on Investment and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Maria D.; Munoz, Marco A.

    Training interventions can be evaluated by calculating return on investment (ROI) and cost-benefit analysis. The four-level model proposed by Kirkpatrick is the dominant evaluation model used. Calculating ROI has been a critical issue for trainers and executives, but only a few organizations have implemented the process that is considered as…

  15. A Cost Analysis of Kidney Replacement Therapy Options in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Younis Ph.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in Palestine. It informs evidence-based resource allocation decisions for government-funded kidney disease services where transplant donors are limited, and some of the common modalities, i.e., peritoneal dialysis (PD and home hemodialysis (HD, are not widely available due to shortages of qualified staff, specialists, and centers to follow the patient cases, provide training, make home visits, or provide educational programs for patients. The average cost of kidney transplant was US$16 277 for the first year; the estimated cost of HD per patient averaged US$16 085 per year—nearly as much as a transplant. Consistent with prior literature and experience, while live, related kidney donors are scarce, we found that kidney transplant was more adequate and less expensive than HD. These results have direct resource allocation implications for government-funded kidney disease services under Palestinian Ministry of Health. Our findings strongly suggest that investing in sufficient qualified staff, equipment, and clinical infrastructure to replace HD services with transplantation whenever medically indicated and suitable kidney donors are available, as well as deploying PD programs and Home HD programs, will result in major overall cost savings. Our results provide a better understanding of the costs of kidney disease and will help to inform Ministry of Health and related policy makers as they develop short- and long-term strategies for the population, in terms of both cost savings and enhanced quality of life.

  16. THE COST CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF THE STANDARD COST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA MONICAŢEGLEDI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Originally known as the Estimated Cost System, it has evolved, nowadays being called Standard Cost Accounting. Standard cost calculation method is based on scheduled cost, pre-calculated, set before the start of the manufacturing process itself. This method allows the determination of the elements that influence the amount of costs and their deviations from the predetermined costs.

  17. Decision analysis for the selection of tank waste retrieval technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVIS,FREDDIE J.; DEWEESE,GREGORY C.; PICKETT,WILLIAM W.

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this report is to supplement the C-104 Alternatives Generation and Analysis (AGA) by providing a decision analysis for the alternative technologies described therein. The decision analysis used the Multi-Attribute Utility Analysis (MUA) technique. To the extent possible information will come from the AGA. Where data are not available, elicitation of expert opinion or engineering judgment is used and reviewed by the authors of the AGA. A key element of this particular analysis is the consideration of varying perspectives of parties interested in or affected by the decision. The six alternatives discussed are: sluicing; sluicing with vehicle mounted transfer pump; borehole mining; vehicle with attached sluicing nozzle and pump; articulated arm with attached sluicing nozzle; and mechanical dry retrieval. These are evaluated using four attributes, namely: schedule, cost, environmental impact, and safety.

  18. Development of ultrasensitive spectroscopic analysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, K. S.; Kim, D. H.; Yang, K. H.; Jung, E. C.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yi, Y. J.; Lee, S. M.; Hong, K. H.; Han, J. M.; Yoo, B. D.; Rho, S. P.; Yi, J. H.; Park, H. M.; Cha, B. H.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, J. M.

    1997-09-01

    For the development of the laser initiated high resolution, ultra sensitive analysis technology following field of researches have been performed. (1) Laser resonance ionization technology, (2) Laser-induced rare isotope detection technology, (3) Laser-induced plasma analysis technology, (4) Microparticle analysis technology by using ion trap, (5) Laser induced remote sensing technique. As a result a monitoring system for photoionized product is developed and the test of system is performed with Sm sample. The rare isotope detection system is designed and a few key elements of the system are developed. In addition a laser-induced plasma analysis system is developed and samples such as Zircaloy, Zinc-base alloy, rock samples are reasonably analyzed. The detection sensitivity is identified as good as a few ppm order. An ion trap is developed and microparticles such as SiC are trapped inside the trap by ac and dc fields. The fluorescence signals from the organic dyes as well as rare earth element which are absorbed on the microparticles are detected. Several calibration curves are also obtained. In the field of laser remote sensing a mobile Lidar system is designed and several key elements are developed. In addition the developed system is used for the detection of Ozone, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, etc. (author). 57 refs., 42 figs.

  19. Process cost and facility considerations in the selection of primary cell culture clarification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felo, Michael; Christensen, Brandon; Higgins, John

    2013-01-01

    The bioreactor volume delineating the selection of primary clarification technology is not always easily defined. Development of a commercial scale process for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins requires scale-up from a few liters to thousands of liters. While the separation techniques used for protein purification are largely conserved across scales, the separation techniques for primary cell culture clarification vary with scale. Process models were developed to compare monoclonal antibody production costs using two cell culture clarification technologies. One process model was created for cell culture clarification by disc stack centrifugation with depth filtration. A second process model was created for clarification by multi-stage depth filtration. Analyses were performed to examine the influence of bioreactor volume, product titer, depth filter capacity, and facility utilization on overall operating costs. At bioreactor volumes cost savings compared to clarification using centrifugation. For bioreactor volumes >5,000 L, clarification using centrifugation followed by depth filtration offers significant cost savings. For bioreactor volumes of ∼ 2,000 L, clarification costs are similar between depth filtration and centrifugation. At this scale, factors including facility utilization, available capital, ease of process development, implementation timelines, and process performance characterization play an important role in clarification technology selection. In the case study presented, a multi-product facility selected multi-stage depth filtration for cell culture clarification at the 500 and 2,000 L scales of operation. Facility implementation timelines, process development activities, equipment commissioning and validation, scale-up effects, and process robustness are examined. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater by reed bed technology: A low cost treatment approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bansari M. Ribadiya; Mehali J. Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Reed bed system for wastewater treatment has been proven to be effective and sustainable alternative for conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Use of macrophytes to treat wastewater is also categorized in this method. This new approach is based on natural processes for the removal of different aquatic macrophytes such as floating, submerged and emergent. Macrophytes are assumed to be the main biological components of wetlands. These techniques are reported to be cost eff...

  1. COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT: INNOVATIVE ACOUSTIC SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR LEAK DETECTION IN CHALLENGING PIPE TYPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    Technologies for Leak Detection in Challenging Pipe Types (Cost and Performance Report) Gary Anguiano Edwin Chiang Martha Araujo Stuart Strum Dr. Victor...N3943013C1256 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gary Anguiano; Edwin Chiang; Martha Araujo; and Stuart Strum (NAVFAC EXWC...Principal Investigator Scott Waisner U.S. Army Engineer R&D Center 3909 Halls Ferry Rd. Vicksburg, MS 39180 (601) 634-2286 (601) 634

  2. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Optimal Malaria Control Strategies in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Otieno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among the children under five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is preventable and controllable provided current recommended interventions are properly implemented. Better utilization of malaria intervention strategies will ensure the gain for the value for money and producing health improvements in the most cost effective way. The purpose of the value for money drive is to develop a better understanding (and better articulation of costs and results so that more informed, evidence-based choices could be made. Cost effectiveness analysis is carried out to inform decision makers on how to determine where to allocate resources for malaria interventions. This study carries out cost effective analysis of one or all possible combinations of the optimal malaria control strategies (Insecticide Treated Bednets—ITNs, Treatment, Indoor Residual Spray—IRS and Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Pregnant Women—IPTp for the four different transmission settings in order to assess the extent to which the intervention strategies are beneficial and cost effective. For the four different transmission settings in Kenya the optimal solution for the 15 strategies and their associated effectiveness are computed. Cost-effective analysis using Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER was done after ranking the strategies in order of the increasing effectiveness (total infections averted. The findings shows that for the endemic regions the combination of ITNs, IRS, and IPTp was the most cost-effective of all the combined strategies developed in this study for malaria disease control and prevention; for the epidemic prone areas is the combination of the treatment and IRS; for seasonal areas is the use of ITNs plus treatment; and for the low risk areas is the use of treatment only. Malaria transmission in Kenya can be minimized through tailor-made intervention strategies for malaria control

  3. Using Top-down and Bottom-up Costing Approaches in LMICs: The Case for Using Both to Assess the Incremental Costs of New Technologies at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnama, Lucy; Sinanovic, Edina; Ramma, Lebogang; Foster, Nicola; Berrie, Leigh; Stevens, Wendy; Molapo, Sebaka; Marokane, Puleng; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Churchyard, Gavin; Vassall, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the incremental costs of scaling-up novel technologies in low-income and middle-income countries is a methodologically challenging and substantial empirical undertaking, in the absence of routine cost data collection. We demonstrate a best practice pragmatic approach to estimate the incremental costs of new technologies in low-income and middle-income countries, using the example of costing the scale-up of Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to riframpicin (RIF) in South Africa. We estimate costs, by applying two distinct approaches of bottom-up and top-down costing, together with an assessment of processes and capacity. The unit costs measured using the different methods of bottom-up and top-down costing, respectively, are $US16.9 and $US33.5 for Xpert MTB/RIF, and $US6.3 and $US8.5 for microscopy. The incremental cost of Xpert MTB/RIF is estimated to be between $US14.7 and $US17.7. While the average cost of Xpert MTB/RIF was higher than previous studies using standard methods, the incremental cost of Xpert MTB/RIF was found to be lower. Costs estimates are highly dependent on the method used, so an approach, which clearly identifies resource-use data collected from a bottom-up or top-down perspective, together with capacity measurement, is recommended as a pragmatic approach to capture true incremental cost where routine cost data are scarce. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Using Top‐down and Bottom‐up Costing Approaches in LMICs: The Case for Using Both to Assess the Incremental Costs of New Technologies at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanovic, Edina; Ramma, Lebogang; Foster, Nicola; Berrie, Leigh; Stevens, Wendy; Molapo, Sebaka; Marokane, Puleng; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Churchyard, Gavin; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Estimating the incremental costs of scaling‐up novel technologies in low‐income and middle‐income countries is a methodologically challenging and substantial empirical undertaking, in the absence of routine cost data collection. We demonstrate a best practice pragmatic approach to estimate the incremental costs of new technologies in low‐income and middle‐income countries, using the example of costing the scale‐up of Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to riframpicin (RIF) in South Africa. Materials and methods We estimate costs, by applying two distinct approaches of bottom‐up and top‐down costing, together with an assessment of processes and capacity. Results The unit costs measured using the different methods of bottom‐up and top‐down costing, respectively, are $US16.9 and $US33.5 for Xpert MTB/RIF, and $US6.3 and $US8.5 for microscopy. The incremental cost of Xpert MTB/RIF is estimated to be between $US14.7 and $US17.7. While the average cost of Xpert MTB/RIF was higher than previous studies using standard methods, the incremental cost of Xpert MTB/RIF was found to be lower. Conclusion Costs estimates are highly dependent on the method used, so an approach, which clearly identifies resource‐use data collected from a bottom‐up or top‐down perspective, together with capacity measurement, is recommended as a pragmatic approach to capture true incremental cost where routine cost data are scarce. PMID:26763594

  5. Open Latarjet versus arthroscopic Latarjet: clinical results and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, P; Fossati, C; Stoppani, C; Evola, F R; De Girolamo, L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results between open and arthroscopic Latarjet and perform a cost analysis of the two techniques. A systematic review of articles present in PubMed and MEDLINE was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies concerning post-operative outcomes following Latarjet procedures for chronic anterior shoulder instability were selected for analysis. The clinical and radiographic results as well as the costs of the open and arthroscopic techniques were evaluated. Twenty-three articles, describing a total of 1317 shoulders, met the inclusion criteria: 17 studies were related to open Latarjet, and 6 to the arthroscopic technique. Despite the heterogeneity of the evaluation scales, the clinical results seemed very satisfactory for both techniques. We detected a statistically significant difference in the percentage of bone graft healing in favour of the open technique (88.6 vs 77.6 %). Recurrent dislocation was more frequent following open surgery (3.3 % after open surgery vs 0.3 % after arthroscopy), but this finding was biased by the large difference in follow-up duration between the two techniques. The direct costs of the arthroscopic procedure were double in comparison to open surgery (€2335 vs €1040). A lack of data prevented evaluation of indirect costs and, therefore, a cost-effectiveness analysis. The open and arthroscopic Latarjet techniques showed excellent and comparable clinical results. However, the much higher direct costs of the arthroscopic procedure do not seem, at present, to be justified by a benefit to the patient. III.

  6. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  7. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-12-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between October 1st and December 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  8. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  9. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  10. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  11. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  12. Overview - Flat-plate technology. [review of Low Cost Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Progress and continuing plans for the joint NASA/DoE program at the JPL to develop the technologies and industrial processes necessary for mass production of low-cost solar arrays (LSA) which produce electricity from solar cells at a cost of less than $0.70/W are reviewed. Attention is given to plans for a demonstration Si refinement plant capable of yielding 1000 MT/yr, and to a CVD process with chlorosilane, which will yield material at a cost of $21/kg. Ingot and shaped-sheet technologies, using either Czochralski growth and film fed growth methods have yielded AM1 15% efficient cells in an automated process. Encapsulation procedures have been lowered to $14/sq m, and robotics have permitted assembled cell production at a rate of 10 sec/cell. Standards are being defined for module safety features. It is noted that construction of a pilot Si purification plant is essential to achieving the 1986 $0.70/W cost goals.

  13. Report on the planning workshop on cost-effective ceramic machining. Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.

    1991-11-01

    A workshop on ``Cost Effective Ceramic Machining`` (CECM) was held at Oak Ridge Associated Universities Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, May 1991. The purpose of this workshop was to present a preliminary project plan for industry critique and to identify specific components and cost-reduction targets for a new project on Cost Effective Ceramic Machining. The CECM project is an extension of the work on the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Program sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Materials. The workshop consisted of fifteen invited papers, discussions, a survey of the attendee`s opinions, and a tour of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory at ORNL. The total number of registrants was sixty-seven, including thirty-three from industry or private sector organizations, seven from universities, three from industry groups, fourteen from DOE laboratories (including ORNL, Y-12, and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory), three from trade associations, and three from other government organizations. Forty- one survey forms, which critiqued the proposed project plan, were completed by attendees, and the results are presented in this report. Valves, cam roller followers, water pump seals, and diesel engine head plates were rated highest fro application of ceramic machining concepts to reduce cost. Coarse grinding, abrasives and wheel technology, and fine grinding were most highly rated as regards their impact on cost reduction. Specific cost-reduction targets for given parts varied greatly in the survey results and were not felt to be useful for the purposes for the CECM plan development. A range of individual comments were obtained and are listed in an appendix. As a result of the workshop and subsequent discussions, a modified project plan, different in certain aspects from the original CECM plan, has been developed.

  14. Analysis of Fuel Cell Markets in Japan and the US: Experience Curve Development and Cost Reduction Disaggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Fuel cells are both a longstanding and emerging technology for stationary and transportation applications, and their future use will likely be critical for the deep decarbonization of global energy systems. As we look into future applications, a key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters who seek to track and/or accelerate their market adoption is the ability to forecast market costs of the fuel cells as technology innovations are incorporated into market products. Specifically, there is a need to estimate technology learning rates, which are rates of cost reduction versus production volume. Unfortunately, no literature exists for forecasting future learning rates for fuel cells. In this paper, we look retrospectively to estimate learning rates for two fuel cell deployment programs: (1) the micro-combined heat and power (CHP) program in Japan, and (2) the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in California. These two examples have a relatively broad set of historical market data and thus provide an informative and international comparison of distinct fuel cell technologies and government deployment programs. We develop a generalized procedure for disaggregating experience-curve cost-reductions in order to disaggregate the Japanese fuel cell micro-CHP market into its constituent components, and we derive and present a range of learning rates that may explain observed market trends. Finally, we explore the differences in the technology development ecosystem and market conditions that may have contributed to the observed differences in cost reduction and draw policy observations for the market adoption of future fuel cell technologies. The scientific and policy contributions of this paper are the first comparative experience curve analysis of past fuel cell technologies in two distinct markets, and the first quantitative comparison of a detailed cost model of fuel cell systems with actual market data. The resulting approach is applicable to

  15. DoD Cost Analysis Guidance and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Itemis 3-9 ’TABLE’S TAB P!E TIFlF IIAGF 2-1 Cost Analysis -improvemnent Group (CAIG) Tim etab Ic 2-11 De’i’en:sc Acquisition Prolgraw Life’-Cycle Cost...relationship to other systems. 1.1.3 System- Configuration. This section identifies the cquipmenleit (hardwvare and software ) work breakdown structure (W135) for...furnished commercial off-ti,: ~ (COTS) software should be addressed in thle discussion. Where Goverrnlent-fu, .’ ’.cd equipment or inron~ertx’ is

  16. Strengthening Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Louise B; Sinha, Anushua

    2016-05-01

    Although the U.S. spends more on medical care than any country in the world, Americans live shorter lives than the citizens of other high-income countries. Many important opportunities to improve this record lie outside the health sector and involve improving the conditions in which Americans live and work: safe design and maintenance of roads, bridges, train tracks, and airports; control of environmental pollutants; occupational safety; healthy buildings; a safe and healthy food supply; safe manufacture of consumer products; a healthy social environment; and others. Faced with the overwhelming array of possibilities, U.S. decision makers need help identifying those that can contribute the most to health. Cost-effectiveness analysis is designed to serve that purpose, but has mainly been used to assess interventions within the health sector. This paper briefly reviews the objective of cost-effectiveness analysis and its methodologic evolution and discusses the issues that arise when it is used to evaluate interventions that fall outside the health sector under three headings: structuring the analysis, quantifying/measuring benefits and costs, and valuing benefits and costs.

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of telehealth in pre-hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, James R; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffany; Alqusairi, Diaa; Kim, Junghyun; Jackson, Adria; Persse, David; Gonzalez, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Objective There has been very little use of telehealth in pre-hospital emergency medical services (EMS), yet the potential exists for this technology to transform the current delivery model. In this study, we explore the costs and benefits of one large telehealth EMS initiative. Methods Using a case-control study design and both micro- and gross-costing data from the Houston Fire Department EMS electronic patient care record system, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) comparing costs with potential savings associated with patients treated through a telehealth-enabled intervention. The intervention consisted of telehealth-based consultation between the 911 patient and an EMS physician, to evaluate and triage the necessity for patient transport to a hospital emergency department (ED). Patients with non-urgent, primary care-related conditions were then scheduled and transported by alternative means to an affiliated primary care clinic. We measured CBA as both total cost savings and cost per ED visit averted, in US Dollars ($USD). Results In total, 5570 patients were treated over the first full 12 months with a telehealth-enabled care model. We found a 6.7% absolute reduction in potentially medically unnecessary ED visits, and a 44-minute reduction in total ambulance back-in-service times. The average cost for a telehealth patient was $167, which was a statistically significantly $103 less than the control group ( p cost savings from the societal perspective, or $2468 cost savings per ED visit averted (benefit). Conclusion Patient care enabled by telehealth in a pre-hospital environment, is a more cost effective alternative compared to the traditional EMS 'treat and transport to ED' model.

  18. Development of safety analysis technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kwon, Y. M.; Suk, S. D. [and others

    2002-05-01

    In the present study, the KALIMER safety analysis has been made for the transients considered in the design concept, hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), and containment performance with the establishment of the design basis. Such analyses have not been possible without the computer code improvement, and the experience attained during this research period must have greatly contributed to the achievement of the self reliance in the domestic technology establishment on the safety analysis areas of the conceptual design. The safety analysis codes have been improved to extend their applicable ranges for detailed conceptual design, and a basic computer code system has been established for HCDA analysis. A code-to-code comparison analysis has been performed as a part of code verification attempt, and the leading edge technology of JNC also has been brought for the technology upgrade. In addition, the research and development on the area of the database establishment has been made for the efficient and systematic project implementation of the conceptual design, through performances on the development of a project scheduling management, integration of the individually developed technology, establishment of the product database, and so on, taking into account coupling of the activities conducted in each specific area.

  19. [Clinical cost analysis of balloon kyphoplasty--is there a possibility of cost-covering treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielnicki, M; McDougall, A M; Prokop, A

    2014-06-01

    Financial pressure on hospitals has been a major issue in the health care system of the past years and the financial situation is often what decides about the future of the hospitals. Therefore today the economic feasibility of patient treatment in hospitals is more important than ever before. After the degradation of the case-based lump sum of I09D to I09F on a one and two level kyphoplasty we took that as motivation to do a cost analysis on 10 randomised cases. The average age of the patients was 75 years (m : f = 2 : 8), the average stay in hospital was 8 days (3-12 d). The analysis was done by a searching of documents in cooperation with the firm GFG-Beratungsgesellschaft mbH (Mönchengladbach, Germany). We found that the average overall cost which includes the cost of hospital stay and the expenditure on material was 7512.53 € and the average earnings of the cases was 7610,97 €, the difference and in that way the proceeds was 98.44 €. On that result performance of a one-level kyphoplasty especially after the degradation of the case-based lump sum in 2013 is possible in a cost-covering way, an increase in profit may be possible by a decrement of hospital stay. In 2014 one- and two-stage kyphoplasty once underwent a reduction of G-DRG from I09F to I09E. At the same time the cost weight of lump compensation I09E was increased by 0.071 with the result that in 2014, with an increased federal base value of 3156.82 € (in 2013 the federal base rate value was 3068.37 €), additional proceeds of 404,92 € can be realised in the field of one- and two-stage kyphoplasty compared to in 2013. On that result a one-level kyphoplasty especially after the degradation of the case-based lump sum in 2013 and in 2014 is possible in a cost-covering manner, an increase in profit may be possible by a decrement of hospital stay.

  20. Is it really possible to build a bridge between cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Paul; Edlin, Richard

    2002-09-01

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a recognised as the economic evaluation technique that accords most with the underlying principles of standard welfare economic theory. However, due to problems associated with the technique, economists evaluating resources allocation decisions in health care have most often used cost-effective analysis (CEA), in which health benefits are expressed in non-monetary units. As a result, attempts have been made to build a welfare economic bridge between cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). In this paper, we develops these attempts and finds that, while assumptions can be made to facilitate a constant willingness-to-pay per unit of health outcome, these restrictions are highly unrealistic. We develop an impossibility theorem that shows it is not possible to link CBA and CEA if: (i) the axioms of expected utility theory hold; (ii) the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) model is valid in a welfare economic sense; and (iii) illness affects the ability to enjoy consumption. We conclude that, within a welfare economic framework, it would be unwise to rely on a link between CBA and CEA in economic evaluations.

  1. Kinetic Gait Analysis Using a Low-Cost Insole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Adam M; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Hayes, Heather A; Foreman, K Bo; Bamberg, Stacy J Morris

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal gait caused by stroke or other pathological reasons can greatly impact the life of an individual. Being able to measure and analyze that gait is often critical for rehabilitation. Motion analysis labs and many current methods of gait analysis are expensive and inaccessible to most individuals. The low-cost, wearable, and wireless insole-based gait analysis system in this study provides kinetic measurements of gait by using low-cost force sensitive resistors. This paper describes the design and fabrication of the insole and its evaluation in six control subjects and four hemiplegic stroke subjects. Subject-specific linear regression models were used to determine ground reaction force plus moments corresponding to ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion, knee flexion/extension, and knee abduction/adduction. Comparison with data simultaneously collected from a clinical motion analysis laboratory demonstrated that the insole results for ground reaction force and ankle moment were highly correlated (all >0.95) for all subjects, while the two knee moments were less strongly correlated (generally >0.80). This provides a means of cost-effective and efficient healthcare delivery of mobile gait analysis that can be used anywhere from large clinics to an individual's home.

  2. Cost analysis of DAWT innovative wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, K. M.

    The results of a diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) preliminary design study of three constructional material approaches and cost analysis of DAWT electrical energy generation are presented. Costs are estimated assuming a limited production run (100 to 500 units) of factory-built subassemblies and on-site final assembly and erection within 200 miles of regional production centers. It is concluded that with the DAWT the (busbar) cost of electricity (COE) can range between 2.0 and 3.5 cents/kW-hr for farm and REA cooperative end users, for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credit incentives are included in these figures. For commercial end users of the same units and site characteristics, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kW-hr.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis in Chagas' disease vectors control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Oliveira Filho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available After a large scale field trial performed in central Brazil envisaging the control of Chagas' disease vectors in an endemic area colonized by Triatoma infestans and T. sordida the cost-effectiveness analysis for each insecticide/formulation was performed. It considered the operational costs and the prices of insecticides and formulations, related to the activity and persistence of each one. The end point was considered to be less than 90% of domicilliary unitis (house + annexes free of infestation. The results showed good cost-effectiveness for a slow-release emulsifiable suspension (SRES based on PVA and containing malathion as active ingredient, as well as for the pyrethroids tested in this assay-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin.

  4. Above Bonneville Passage and Propagation Cost Effectiveness Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, C.M.; Hyman, J.B.; Wernstedt, K.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed several models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies to mitigate hydrosystem impacts on salmon and steelhead, and applied these models to areas of the Columbia River Basin. Our latest application evaluates the cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies that target mainstem survival (e.g., predator control, increases in water velocity) and subbasin propagation (e.g., habitat improvements, screening, hatchery production increases) for chinook salmon and steelhead stocks, in the portion of the Columbia Basin bounded by Bonneville, Chief Joseph, Dworshak, and Hells Canyon darns. At its core the analysis primarily considers financial cost and biological effectiveness, but we have included other attributes which may be of concern to the region.

  5. Costs of genetic testing: Supporting Brazilian Public Policies for the incorporating of molecular diagnostic technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Paixão Schlatter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies and describes the operating costs associated with the molecular diagnosis of diseases, such as hereditary cancer. To approximate the costs associated with these tests, data informed by Standard Operating Procedures for various techniques was collected from hospital software and a survey of market prices. Costs were established for four scenarios of capacity utilization to represent the possibility of suboptimal use in research laboratories. Cost description was based on a single site. The results show that only one technique was not impacted by rising costs due to underutilized capacity. Several common techniques were considerably more expensive at 30% capacity, including polymerase chain reaction (180%, microsatellite instability analysis (181%, gene rearrangement analysis by multiplex ligation probe amplification (412%, non-labeled sequencing (173%, and quantitation of nucleic acids (169%. These findings should be relevant for the definition of public policies and suggest that investment of public funds in the establishment of centralized diagnostic research centers would reduce costs to the Public Health System.

  6. The effects of health information technology on the costs and quality of medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Leila

    2014-03-01

    Information technology has been linked to productivity growth in a wide variety of sectors, and health information technology (HIT) is a leading example of an innovation with the potential to transform industry-wide productivity. This paper analyzes the impact of health information technology (HIT) on the quality and intensity of medical care. Using Medicare claims data from 1998 to 2005, I estimate the effects of early investment in HIT by exploiting variation in hospitals' adoption statuses over time, analyzing 2.5 million inpatient admissions across 3900 hospitals. HIT is associated with a 1.3% increase in billed charges (p-value: 5.6%), and there is no evidence of cost savings even five years after adoption. Additionally, HIT adoption appears to have little impact on the quality of care, measured by patient mortality, adverse drug events, and readmission rates.

  7. Low cost, biocompatible elastic and conformable electronic technologies using MID in stretchable polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, F; Brosteaux, D; De Leersnyder, E; Bossuyt, F; Gonzalez, M; De Smet, N; Schacht, E; Rymarczyk-Machal, M; Vanfleteren, J

    2007-01-01

    For user comfort reasons, electronic circuits for implantation in the human body or for use as smart clothes should ideally be soft, stretchable and elastic. In this contribution the results of an MID (Molded Interconnect Device) technology will be presented, showing the feasibility of functional stretchable electronic circuits. In the developed technology rigid or flexible standard components are interconnected by meander shaped metallic wires and embedded by molding in a stretchable substrate polymer. Several technologies have been developed to this purpose, which combine low cost and good reliability under mechanical strain. In this way reliable stretchability of the circuits above 100% has been demonstrated. Enhanced reliability has been reached using an additional conductive polymer layer.

  8. A MERGE model with endogenous technological change and the cost of carbon stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, Socrates [Laboratory of Energy Systems Analysis, The Energy Departments, Energy Economics Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2007-11-15

    Two stylized backstop systems with endogenous technological learning (ETL) are introduced in the ''model for evaluating regional and global effects'' (MERGE): one for the electric and the other for the non-electric markets. Then the model is applied to analyze the impacts of ETL on carbon-mitigation policy, contrasting the resulting impacts with the situation without ETL. We model research and development (R and D) spending and learning subsidies for the demonstration and deployment stage as control variables, and we investigate the ability of this extra spending to create path-dependent experience and knowledge to aid in the implementation of carbon-free technologies. Based on model estimations and sensitivity analyses, we conclude that increased commitments for the development of new technologies to advance along their learning curves has a potential for substantial reductions in the cost of mitigating climate change and thereby helping to reach safe concentrations of carbon in the atmosphere. (author)

  9. Performance Evaluation Management and Meta-norm Execution Cost of Major Science and Technology Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianghua; HU

    2013-01-01

    Major science and technology project generally got high social expectations as a result of harge investment.To ensure that the science and technology teams follow the norms of S&T research and make full use of the investment,the effective norms maintenance mechanism must be established which includes punishment for violators and burnout of teams of supervisors,namely setting up the meta-norm execution mechanism.It is very important to establish the effective major science and technology project evaluation system to reduce the norm and metanorm execution cost.In this paper,the principles,methods and implementation system guarantee of evaluation system building are studied as well.

  10. A proposed framework for establishing integrated cost and performance criteria for environmental technologies: A summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This document presents a summary of results of a joint EPA/DOE project aimed at establishing a suite of standard cost and performance criteria for evaluating environmental cleanup technologies for DOE sites. Project findings include: (1) decisionmakers have quite different perspectives with interests and information needs varying among decisionmaker groups, (2) previous criteria development efforts may be too narrowly focused to apply to all decisionmakers, (3) criteria must include social/political/economic interests of decisionmakers as well as site-specific variations, and (4) there are 5 core questions that all decisionmakers are likely to ask when considering a technology for use at a site. The resource developed in the project offers decisionmakers a first-time comprehensive assessment of major technology evaluation issues.

  11. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

    2004-08-15

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are

  12. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: an integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  13. Cost Analysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stacks for Mass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francesco Sgroi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells are very promising technologies for efficient electrical energy generation. The development of enhanced system components and new engineering solutions is fundamental for the large-scale deployment of these devices. Besides automotive and stationary applications, fuel cells can be widely used as auxiliary power units (APUs. The concept of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC is based on the direct feed of a methanol solution to the fuel cell anode, thus simplifying safety, delivery, and fuel distribution issues typical of conventional hydrogen-fed polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs. In order to evaluate the feasibility of concrete application of DMFC devices, a cost analysis study was carried out in the present work. A 200 W-prototype developed in the framework of a European Project (DURAMET was selected as the model system. The DMFC stack had a modular structure allowing for a detailed evaluation of cost characteristics related to the specific components. A scale-down approach, focusing on the model device and projected to a mass production, was used. The data used in this analysis were obtained both from research laboratories and industry suppliers specialising in the manufacturing/production of specific stack components. This study demonstrates that mass production can give a concrete perspective for the large-scale diffusion of DMFCs as APUs. The results show that the cost derived for the DMFC stack is relatively close to that of competing technologies and that the introduction of innovative approaches can result in further cost savings.

  14. Are Green Vehicles Worth the Extra Cost? The Case of Diesel-Electric Hybrid Technology for Urban Delivery Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilla, Kerry; Graham, John D.

    2012-01-01

    A central question for environmental policy is whether the long-term benefits of energy-saving technologies are sufficient to justify their short-term costs, and if so, whether financial incentives are needed to stimulate adoption. The fiscal effects of incentivizing new technologies, and the revenue effects of using the technology, are also…

  15. Are Green Vehicles Worth the Extra Cost? The Case of Diesel-Electric Hybrid Technology for Urban Delivery Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilla, Kerry; Graham, John D.

    2012-01-01

    A central question for environmental policy is whether the long-term benefits of energy-saving technologies are sufficient to justify their short-term costs, and if so, whether financial incentives are needed to stimulate adoption. The fiscal effects of incentivizing new technologies, and the revenue effects of using the technology, are also…

  16. Strategic cost-benefit analysis of energy policies: overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davitian, H; Groncki, P J; Kleeman, P; Lukachinski, J; Goettle, IV, R J; Hudson, E A

    1979-10-01

    This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first, no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third promotes increased domestic supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. The results indicate that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, involves substantial environmental costs and slows the rate of economic growth. These relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation are less than anticipated, or if the costs of synthetic fuels can be significantly lowered. Given these uncertainties, both conservation and RD and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy. However, between these policy alternatives, conservation appears to be the preferred strategy. The results of this study are presented in three reports (see also BNL--51127 and BNL--51128).

  17. Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVeigh, J.; Cohen, J.; Vorum, M.; Porro, G.; Nix, G.

    2007-03-01

    This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program ('the Program'). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC (PERI), in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE). This requires both computational development (i.e., creating a spreadsheet-based analysis tool) and a synthesis of judgments by a panel of researchers and experts of the expected results of the Program's R&D.

  18. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liao, W. -P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Byers, Maggie Flicker [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  19. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  20. Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel to desalt the sea or brackish water. Based on an experimental prototype AD plant, the life-cycle cost analysis of AD plants of assorted water production capacities has been simulated and these predictions are translated into unit cost of water production. Our results show that the specific energy consumption of the AD cycle is 1.38 kWh/m3 which is the lowest ever reported. For a plant capacity of 1000 m3/d, the AD cycle offers a unit cost of $0.457/m3 as compared to more than $0.9 for the average RO plants. Besides being cost-effective, the AD cycle is also environment-friendly as it emits less CO2 emission per m3 generated, typically 85% less, by comparison to an RO process. © 2010 Desalination Publications.

  1. Cost Behavior: Mapping and Systemic Analysis of International Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richartz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has as objective mapping of scientific researches into costs behavior to identify its current scenario. The research on database provided a selection of relevant bibliographic portfolio, which had as a result 29 articles according to the research criteria defined in the study. From those, the articles from Anderson, Banker e Janakiraman (2003 were highlighted. Furthermore, Banker is considered to be the main author about costs behavior, its importance is noticed not only in the portfolio itself, but also, in its references. The most important periodic, either for its impact, or related to its number of articles publicized, is The Accounting Review. Finally, from the relationship between the most important articles about bibliometric analysis, featuring systemic analysis, the conclusion is that an important article about cost behavior has a quantitative approach (with the use of robust regression, recognize the existence of Sticky Costs (no matter which approach is in use, makes use of a variety of explanations (internal & external and add some variable or information for scientific evolution of the subject.

  2. Cost-benefit analysis for design of environmentally conscious manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matysiak, L.M.

    1993-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused on reducing the environmental impacts of products and manufacturing processes. Concerned about rising compliance costs and stringent regulatory requirements, companies are carefully evaluating the environmental impacts of their products. In response, designers, engineers, and managers are beginning to use life-cycle analysis, design for environment techniques, and environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) as tools to help them to not only do what is best for the environment, but also to do what is best for their company. These tools are also a useful aid in evaluating the trade-offs that may exist between different product and process alternatives. However, how does one choose the optimal solution from these various product and process alternatives? Cost versus benefit analysis is an effective tool that can be used to evaluate various manufacturing alternatives and to choose a solution that is both cost effective and environmentally compatible. Many companies are beginning to use cost benefit analyses as a means to justify product or process modifications that result in a benefit to the environment.

  3. [Comparision of costs of secondary prevention and treatment of stroke--cost-effectiveness analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceronja, Ivana; Sosić, Zvonko

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a serious complication of untreated arterial hypertension. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost of secondary prevention and treatment of CVA caused by untreated arterial hypertension. Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnosis and therapy of arterial hypertension in comparison with CVA treatment. The cost of secondary prevention of CVA per patient per year in 2006. was 1.589,19 kunas, which comes to 15.107,75 kunas in thirty years of treatment (discount factor included), whereas a single CVA treatment was 17.207,54 kunas on average. In every 850 treatments of hypertension (NNT) comes a prevented CVA which is 1.350.811,5 kunas, and is therefore more expensive than a single CVA treatment. Secondary prevention has a long-term protective effect improving the patients' quality of life, inhibiting the potential post-CVA handicap and pre-retirement. Thus, the main advantage of both primary and secondary prevention is in their greater benefit for patients.

  4. A cost-benefit analysis of The National Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, David L.; Theissen, Kevin; Bernknopf, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The Geography Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted this cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of The National Map. This analysis is an evaluation of the proposed Geography Discipline initiative to provide the Nation with a mechanism to access current and consistent digital geospatial data. This CBA is a supporting document to accompany the Exhibit 300 Capital Asset Plan and Business Case of The National Map Reengineering Program. The framework for estimating the benefits is based on expected improvements in processing information to perform any of the possible applications of spatial data. This analysis does not attempt to determine the benefits and costs of performing geospatial-data applications. Rather, it estimates the change in the differences between those benefits and costs with The National Map and the current situation without it. The estimates of total costs and benefits of The National Map were based on the projected implementation time, development and maintenance costs, rates of data inclusion and integration, expected usage levels over time, and a benefits estimation model. The National Map provides data that are current, integrated, consistent, complete, and more accessible in order to decrease the cost of implementing spatial-data applications and (or) improve the outcome of those applications. The efficiency gains in per-application improvements are greater than the cost to develop and maintain The National Map, meaning that the program would bring a positive net benefit to the Nation. The average improvement in the net benefit of performing a spatial data application was multiplied by a simulated number of application implementations across the country. The numbers of users, existing applications, and rates of application implementation increase over time as The National Map is developed and accessed by spatial data users around the country. Results from the 'most likely' estimates of model parameters and data inputs indicate that

  5. Cost accounting of radiological examinations. Cost analysis of radiological examinations of intermediate referral hospitals and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääperi, A L

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the cost structure of radiological procedures in the intermediary referral hospitals and general practice and to develop a cost accounting system for radiological examinations that takes into consideration all relevant cost factors and is suitable for management of radiology departments and regional planning of radiological resources. The material comprised 174,560 basic radiological examinations performed in 1991 at 5 intermediate referral hospitals and 13 public health centres in the Pirkanmaa Hospital District in Finland. All radiological departments in the hospitals were managed by a specialist in radiology. The radiology departments at the public health care centres operated on a self-referral basis by general practitioners. The data were extracted from examination lists, inventories and balance sheets; parts of the data were estimated or calculated. The radiological examinations were compiled according to the type of examination and equipment used: conventional, contrast medium, ultrasound, mammography and roentgen examinations with mobile equipment. The majority of the examinations (87%) comprised conventional radiography. For cost analysis the cost items were grouped into 5 cost factors: personnel, equipment, material, real estate and administration costs. The depreciation time used was 10 years for roentgen equipment, 5 years for ultrasound equipment and 5 to 10 years for other capital goods. An annual interest rate of 10% was applied. Standard average values based on a sample at 2 hospitals were used for the examination-specific radiologist time, radiographer time and material costs. Four cost accounting versions with varying allocation of the major cost items were designed. Two-way analysis of variance of the effect of different allocation methods on the costs and cost structure of the examination groups was performed. On the basis of the cost analysis a cost accounting program containing both monetary and

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Heat and Moisture Exchangers in Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Goncalves; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Nunes, Altacilio Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    Background Moisturizing, heating and filtering gases inspired via the mechanical ventilation (MV) circuits help to reduce the adverse effects of MV. However, there is still no consensus regarding whether these measures improve patient prognosis, shorten MV duration, decrease airway secretion and lower the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) and other complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to study the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with the use of heat and moisture exchangers (HME) filter to prevent VAP compared with the heated humidifiers (HH) presently adopted by intensive care unit (ICU) services within the Brazilian Healthcare Unified System. Patients and Methods This study was a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) comparing HME and HH in preventing VAP (outcome) in mechanically ventilated adult patients admitted to an ICU of a public university hospital. Results The analysis considered a period of 12 months; MV duration of 11 and 12 days for patients in HH and HME groups, respectively and a daily cost of R$ 16.46 and R$ 13.42 for HH and HME, respectively. HME was more attractive; costs ranged from R$ 21,000.00 to R$ 22,000.00 and effectiveness was close to 0.71, compared with a cost of R$ 30,000.00 and effectiveness between 0.69 and 0.70 for HH. HME and HH differed significantly for incremental effectiveness. Even after an effectiveness gain of 1.5% in favor of HH, and despite the wide variation in the VAP rate, the HME effectiveness remained stable. The mean HME cost-effectiveness was lower than the mean HH cost-effectiveness, being the HME value close to R$ 44,000.00. Conclusions Our findings revealed that HH and HME differ very little regarding effectiveness, which makes interpretation of the results in the context of clinical practice difficult. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that HME is advantageous. This technology incurs lower direct cost. PMID:27843770

  7. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and

  8. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and

  9. An Analysis Of Activity Based Costing Between Benefit And Cost For Its Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadan Soekardan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses how the importance of adopting activity-based costing for the company in order to carry out its business strategy. One objective is to implement activity based costing cost efficiency by cutting costs incurred for non-value added activity. But the phenomenon shows that there are still many companies organizations are not interested in adopting the activity based costing. This article also outlines the advantages and limitations in adopting activity based costing for the company.

  10. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  11. Evaluating water quality investments using cost utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan; Spencer, Rachel; Higgins, Andrew; Marinoni, Oswald

    2008-09-01

    This study borrows concepts from healthcare economics and uses cost utility analysis (CUA) to select an optimum portfolio of water quality enhancement projects in Perth, Western Australia. In CUA, costs are handled via standard discounted cash flow analysis, but the benefits, being intangible, are measured with a utility score. Our novel methodology combines CUA with a binary combinatorial optimisation solver, known as a 'knapsack algorithm', to identify the optimum portfolio of projects. We show how water quality projects can be selected to maximise an aggregate utility score while not exceeding a budget constraint. Our CUA model applies compromise programming (CP) to measure utility over multiple attributes in different units. CUA is shown to provide a transparent and analytically robust method to maximise benefits from water quality remediation investments under a constrained budget.

  12. Bayesian Variable Selection in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Negrín

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Linear regression models are often used to represent the cost and effectiveness of medical treatment. The covariates used may include sociodemographic variables, such as age, gender or race; clinical variables, such as initial health status, years of treatment or the existence of concomitant illnesses; and a binary variable indicating the treatment received. However, most studies estimate only one model, which usually includes all the covariates. This procedure ignores the question of uncertainty in model selection. In this paper, we examine four alternative Bayesian variable selection methods that have been proposed. In this analysis, we estimate the inclusion probability of each covariate in the real model conditional on the data. Variable selection can be useful for estimating incremental effectiveness and incremental cost, through Bayesian model averaging, as well as for subgroup analysis.

  13. A Predictive Model of Technology Transfer Using Patent Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaehyun Choi; Dongsik Jang; Sunghae Jun; Sangsung Park

    2015-01-01

    The rapid pace of technological advances creates many difficulties for R&D practitioners in analyzing emerging technologies. Patent information analysis is an effective tool in this situation. Conventional patent information analysis has focused on the extraction of vacant, promising, or core technologies and the monitoring of technological trends. From a technology management perspective, the ultimate purpose of R&D is technology commercialization. The core of technology commercializ...

  14. APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Patrick Gonzalez; Brad Kreps; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2003-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  15. THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2002-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  16. Analysis of cost regression and post-accident absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciech, Drozd

    2017-07-01

    The article presents issues related with costs of work safety. It proves the thesis that economic aspects cannot be overlooked in effective management of occupational health and safety and that adequate expenditures on safety can bring tangible benefits to the company. Reliable analysis of this problem is essential for the description the problem of safety the work. In the article attempts to carry it out using the procedures of mathematical statistics [1, 2, 3].

  17. Estimation of Social Benefits in Cost-benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Beáta Fodor

    2012-01-01

    While examining the cost-benefit analysis related to public policy decisions in the Hungarian and international literature, this paper is looking for the answer to the question of what the methodological principles are according to which the benefit impacts can be determined. The processed Hungarian and English-language studies indicate that the theoretical-methodological questions of the determination of benefit impacts are not clear cut. The author has constructed a model that contains the ...

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF INFORMATICS SECURITY COSTS IN CITIZEN ORIENTED APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos Palaghita; Bogdan Vintila

    2010-01-01

    The paper highlights the analysis of informatics security costs for the citizen oriented applications. The citizen oriented informatics applications are defined. The differences brought by these when compared with the traditional applications are described. Structures of citizen oriented informatics applications are presented. A few common citizen oriented applications are discussed. The special security requirements of the citizen oriented applications are discussed. Ways of increasing the s...

  19. Using functional analysis diagrams to improve product reliability and cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Michalakoudis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Failure mode and effects analysis and value engineering are well-established methods in the manufacturing industry, commonly applied to optimize product reliability and cost, respectively. Both processes, however, require cross-functional teams to identify and evaluate the product/process functions and are resource-intensive, hence their application is mostly limited to large organizations. In this article, we present a methodology involving the concurrent execution of failure mode and effects analysis and value engineering, assisted by a set of hierarchical functional analysis diagram models, along with the outcomes of a pilot application in a UK-based manufacturing small and medium enterprise. Analysis of the results indicates that this new approach could significantly enhance the resource efficiency and effectiveness of both failure mode and effects analysis and value engineering processes.

  20. A low-cost approach to the exploration of Mars through a robotic technology demonstrator mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Alex; Richter, Lutz; Parnell, John; Baker, Adam

    2003-11-01

    We present a proposed robotic mission to Mars - Vanguard - for the Aurora Arrow programme which combines an extensive technology demonstrator with a high scientific return. The novel aspect of this technology demonstrator is the demonstration of "water mining" capabilities for in-situ resource utilisation in conjunction with high-value astrobiological investigation within a low mass lander package of 70 kg. The basic architecture comprises a small lander, a micro-rover and a number of ground-penetrating moles. This basic architecture offers the possibility of testing a wide variety of generic technologies associated with space systems and planetary exploration. The architecture provides for the demonstration of specific technologies associated with planetary surface exploration, and with the Aurora programme specifically. Technology demonstration of in-situ resource utilisation will be a necessary precursor to any future human mission to Mars. Furthermore, its modest mass overhead allows the reuse of the already built Mars Express bus, making it a very low cost option.