WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology copying techniques

  1. ACTA Technology Presents EPA with Patent Copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA SBIR awardee, ACTA Technology, presented James H. Johnson, Director of the US EPA National Center for Environmental Research, and April Richards, Program Manager of the US EPA's SBIR Program, with a copy of their Red Ribbon patent.

  2. Laser thermographic technologies for hard copy recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessmel'tsev, Viktor P.; Baev, Sergej G.

    1995-04-01

    Methods of hard copies recording based on thermal interaction of the beam from CO2 or YAG lasers with various kinds of films on any substrates have been developed. The recording processes are single-step and require no additional development. Among them are: (1) Laser thermodestruction of thin mask layers or of a material surface on any kinds of substrates. (2) Laser thermochemical reactions of thermal decomposition of metal salts in solid state phase on a surface of various hygroscopic substrates. The laser recording devices using the methods, described above have been developed and are manufactured now; they allow one to record hard copies with a size of up to 27 X 31 inches, a resolution of 4000 dpi.

  3. A Survey of Partition-Based Techniques for Copy-Move Forgery Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandji Nanda Nathalie Diane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A copy-move forged image results from a specific type of image tampering procedure carried out by copying a part of an image and pasting it on one or more parts of the same image generally to maliciously hide unwanted objects/regions or clone an object. Therefore, detecting such forgeries mainly consists in devising ways of exposing identical or relatively similar areas in images. This survey attempts to cover existing partition-based copy-move forgery detection techniques.

  4. Copy-Move Forgery Detection Technique for Forensic Analysis in Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the powerful image editing tools images are open to several manipulations; therefore, their authenticity is becoming questionable especially when images have influential power, for example, in a court of law, news reports, and insurance claims. Image forensic techniques determine the integrity of images by applying various high-tech mechanisms developed in the literature. In this paper, the images are analyzed for a particular type of forgery where a region of an image is copied and pasted onto the same image to create a duplication or to conceal some existing objects. To detect the copy-move forgery attack, images are first divided into overlapping square blocks and DCT components are adopted as the block representations. Due to the high dimensional nature of the feature space, Gaussian RBF kernel PCA is applied to achieve the reduced dimensional feature vector representation that also improved the efficiency during the feature matching. Extensive experiments are performed to evaluate the proposed method in comparison to state of the art. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique precisely determines the copy-move forgery even when the images are contaminated with blurring, noise, and compression and can effectively detect multiple copy-move forgeries. Hence, the proposed technique provides a computationally efficient and reliable way of copy-move forgery detection that increases the credibility of images in evidence centered applications.

  5. A novel technique for measuring variations in DNA copy-number: competitive genomic polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawara Akira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Changes in genomic copy number occur in many human diseases including cancer. Characterization of these changes is important for both basic understanding and diagnosis of these diseases. Microarrays have recently become the standard technique and are commercially available. However, it is useful to have an affordable technique to complement them. Results We describe a novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique, termed competitive genomic PCR (CGP. The main characteristic of CGP is that different adaptors are added to the sample and control genomic DNAs after appropriate restriction enzyme digestion. These adaptor-supplemented DNAs are subjected to competitive PCR using an adaptor-primer and a locus-specific primer. The amplified products are then separated according to size differences between the adaptors. CGP eliminates the tedious steps inherent in quantitative PCR and achieves moderate throughput. Assays with different X chromosome numbers showed that it can provide accurate quantification. High-resolution analysis of neuroblastoma cell lines around the MYCN locus revealed novel junctions for amplification, which were not detected by a commercial array. Conclusion CGP is a moderate throughput technique for analyzing changes in genomic copy numbers. Because CGP can measure any genomic locus using PCR primers, it is especially useful for detailed analysis of a genomic region of interest.

  6. OCLC as a source for copy cataloguing in the Central Technological Library?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Petek

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Central Technological Library (CTK, we tried to find out whether cataloguing of monographs could be economized by using outside cataloguing source.A short survey of the availability of a catalog copy on OCLC was conducted. A sample of 50 items of cataloging records, created by the CTK for COBISS was searched for matching records in OCLC, and a catalog copy was found in 74% of the cases. The records were compared and only slight differences were assessed,in spite of different cataloging rules and different machine readable formats used.The downloading of the records from OCLC into COBISS from the perspective of time efficiency should be tested as well.

  7. Submarine afforestration technique based on copying nature; Shizen moho no kaichu ryokuka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Y.; Hasegawa, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Terawaki, T.

    1994-09-15

    This paper introduces a technique, submarine afforestation technique based on copying nature, to prepare reeves in the sandy area so that communities for eisenia or other aquatic organisms can be formed. This technique provides artificial basements in the sandy area with instable farming condition. Lightweight and wave-resistant linkage blocks are used for the farming basement, and each block is provided protrusions that are effective for marine algae farming. The possible farming place can be selected using the information regarding sea bed landform, geological feature distribution of sea bed, marine algae distribution investigated by side scan sonars and sonic survey machine. The appearance range of eisenia fry was surveyed and, as a result, the area within 100 m from the reef area were identified as suitable farming area. Four tons were selected as a weight of basement material based on the experiment of wave power, cost and other parameters. At least 120 cm were determined as a height considering the growing condition of eisenia or other aquatic organisms and sand surface fluctuation width. Sixteen pieces a square meter were selected as an attachment density of protrusions with reference to growing density. The basement was examined 2 years after installation. Communities of eisenia were found on the basements installed underwater 4 m in depth, and communities of ecklonia were found on the basements installed underwater 11 m in depth. Protrusions were also proved to be effective. 8 figs.

  8. Scaling up Copy Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian; Dong, Xin Luna; Lyons, Kenneth B.; Meng, Weiyi; Srivastava, Divesh

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that copying is prevalent for Deep-Web data and considering copying can significantly improve truth finding from conflicting values. However, existing copy detection techniques do not scale for large sizes and numbers of data sources, so truth finding can be slowed down by one to two orders of magnitude compared with the corresponding techniques that do not consider copying. In this paper, we study {\\em how to improve scalability of copy detection on structured data}. Ou...

  9. Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Technique for Copy Number Analysis on Small Amounts of DNA Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina; Andersen, Paal; Larsen, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique is a sensitive technique for relative quantification of up to 50 different nucleic acid sequences in a single reaction, and the technique is routinely used for copy number analysis in various syndromes and diseases. The aim...... of the study was to exploit the potential of MLPA when the DNA material is limited. The DNA concentration required in standard MLPA analysis is not attainable from dried blood spot samples (DBSS) often used in neonatal screening programs. A novel design of MLPA probes has been developed to permit for MLPA...... analysis on small amounts of DNA. Six patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were used in this study. DNA was extracted from both whole blood and DBSS and subjected to MLPA analysis using normal and modified probes. Results were analyzed using GeneMarker and manual Excel analysis. A total...

  10. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Scott R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Efird, Marty [VeloxFlow, LLC

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  11. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  12. Imitation as faithful copying of a novel technique in marmoset monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Voelkl

    Full Text Available Imitative learning has received great attention due to its supposed role in the development of culture and the cognitive demands it poses on the individual. Evidence for imitation in non-human primate species, therefore, could shed light on the early origins of proto-cultural traits in the primate order. Imitation has been defined as the learning of an act by seeing it done or, more specifically, as the copying of a novel or otherwise improbable act. But despite a century of research and the detection of mirror neurons the empirical basis for this most advanced form of observational learning is weak. Few, if any, studies have shown that the observer has learned the response topography, i.e., the specific action by which the response is made. In an experimental set-up we confronted marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus with a conspecific model that was previously trained to open a plastic box in a peculiar way. Employing detailed motion analyses we show that the observers precisely copied the movement patterns of the novel action demonstrated by the model. A discriminant analysis classified 13 out of 14 observer movements (92.86% as model movements and only one as non-observer movement. This evidence of imitation in non-human primates questions the dominant opinion that imitation is a human-specific ability. Furthermore, the high matching degree suggests that marmosets possess the neuronal mechanism to code the actions of others and to map them onto their own motor repertoire, rather than priming existing motor-templates.

  13. Report on Disclosure Issues Related to the Use of Copy Control and Digital Rights Management Technologies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 115

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report analyses the disclosure issues raised by technically-imposed restrictions on the use of digital content. It focuses on the application of copy control and digital rights management technologies in three areas: copy-protected CDs; online music, and DVD regional coding. In each of these areas, the report examines the kinds of…

  14. Copy number variations genotyping technology%拷贝数变异的分型检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朋祥; 晁天柱; 肖君华

    2012-01-01

    CNV ( copy number variant) is an important form of genetic variation in the genome.Studies have shown that CNVs are associated with many human complex diseases.CNVs play a significant role in the studies of individual phenotypic differences and genome evolution.In this article,we reviewed the principle,advances,advantages and disadvantages,significance of technologies of detecting CNVs.%拷贝数变异(copy number variants,CNVs)是生物基因组中一种重要的遗传变异形式.研究发现CNVs与许多人类复杂疾病相关,在研究个体表型差异和基因组进化上具有重要意义.现就各CNVs检测技术的原理、发展现状、优缺点及意义作一综述.

  15. Granulation techniques and technologies: recent progresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Granulation, the process of particle enlargement by agglomeration technique, is one of the most significant unit operations in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms, mostly tablets and capsules. Granulation process transforms fine powders into free-flowing, dust-free granules that are easy to compress. Nevertheless, granulation poses numerous challenges due to high quality requirement of the formed granules in terms of content uniformity and physicochemical properties such as granule size, bulk density, porosity, hardness, moisture, compressibility, etc. together with physical and chemical stability of the drug. Granulation process can be divided into two types: wet granulation that utilize a liquid in the process and dry granulation that requires no liquid. The type of process selection requires thorough knowledge of physicochemical properties of the drug, excipients, required flow and release properties, to name a few. Among currently available technologies, spray drying, roller compaction, high shear mixing, and fluid bed granulation are worth of note. Like any other scientific field, pharmaceutical granulation technology also continues to change, and arrival of novel and innovative technologies are inevitable. This review focuses on the recent progress in the granulation techniques and technologies such as pneumatic dry granulation, reverse wet granulation, steam granulation, moisture-activated dry granulation, thermal adhesion granulation, freeze granulation, and foamed binder or foam granulation. This review gives an overview of these with a short description about each development along with its significance and limitations.

  16. Detection of single copy sequences using BAC-FISH and C-PRINS techniques in sunflower chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, Paola; Greizerstein, Eduardo J; Hopp, H Esteban; Paniego, Norma; Poggio, Lidia; Heinz, Ruth A

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome-fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) and cycling-primed in situ labeling (C-PRINS) techniques were evaluated for integration of physical and genetic maps of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Single-site SSR markers were selected from three linkage groups of a high-density sunflower genetic map. This selection was based on previously identified QTL associated to S. sclerotiorum. These markers were used to select BACs contaning single copy sequences for BAC-FISH aplication. Blocking of highly dispersed repetitive sunflower sequences reduced unspecific hybridization, and allowed the detection of specific signals for BACs containing SSR markers HA4222 and HA2600, anchored to LG 16 and LG 10, respectively. Single-site FISH signal detection was optimized by adjusting the relative quantity and quality of unlabelled repetitive sequences present in the blocking DNA. The SSR marker ORS1247 anchored to the LG 17 was detected by C-PRINS, which yielded fluorescence signals that were specific and intense. This progress in localizing single-copy sequences using BAC-FISH and indirect C-PRINS strategies in sunflower will facilitate the integration of genetic and physical maps, allowing the identification of chromosomes containing key genes and/or QTL associated to agronomic important traits in sunflower.

  17. The Technology to Train Techniques in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E. Afonshin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The training session of technical techniques is proposed to conduct on the playing ground where computer-controlled light emitters create allowed and unallowed light dynamic zones. Each athlete is to be placed in one of the allowed zones and to execute with an implement some techniques directed with his breast on the light guide mark created outside the allowed zone. The athlete holding an implement is not allowed to go out of the permitted area. In the course of the training session unpredictably for an athlete the position, the shape and the area of the permitted and unallowed zones is changed. The athlete’s going into the unallowed zone or performing techniques in the position not-oriented on the guide mark is considered to be an error. If the errors are none, the allowed zone area is reduced and the intensity of the session is increased until the athlete commits an error. By the minimum square of the allowed zone, the maximum speed of its movement that the athlete performing the exercise does not commit any errors, they evaluate the athlete’s technical skill. The proposed technology facilitates in faster mastering the play technique, unlocking the individual technical features and enhancing them at any stage of the professional career. The technology can be used for the technical training of athletes of different professional profiles specializing in football, hockey, handball, basketball and other sports that require implement handling.

  18. [Plagiarism techniques in practice journal Johannes Franc (1649–1725) and copying practice illustrated by urology texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, R; Winckelmann, H J

    2012-01-01

    In the seventeenth century it was customary in medicine to copy texts from other authors without citing the source. This practice is illustrated by the diary of Johannes Franc (1649–1725), a physician in the city of Ulm, who handwrote a practice journal in Latin and German Gothic script entering text passages plagiarized as follows: he reproduced them almost word for word in order to pass them off as his own experiences, used them as a model for his prescriptions and as a template for his case histories, and integrated them into his work to support his argumentation. In addition, he summarized texts from various sources, refined them by omitting portions, and incorporated his own experiences for embellishment. These plagiarism techniques and the purpose they served are analyzed and compared to some passages taken from the original texts.

  19. A novel study of Copy Number Variations in Hirschsprung disease using the Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antiñolo Guillermo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hirschsprung disease (HSCR is a congenital malformation of the hindgut produced by a disruption in neural crest cell migration during embryonic development. HSCR has a complex genetic etiology and mutations in several genes, mainly the RET proto-oncogene, have been related to the disease. There is a clear predominance of missense/nonsense mutations in these genes whereas copy number variations (CNVs have been seldom described, probably due to the limitations of conventional techniques usually employed for mutational analysis. Methods In this study we have aimed to analyze the presence of CNVs in some HSCR genes (RET, EDN3, GDNF and ZFHX1B using the Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA approach. Results Two alterations in the MLPA profiles of RET and EDN3 were detected, but a detailed inspection showed that the decrease in the corresponding dosages were due to point mutations affecting the hybridization probes regions. Conclusion Our results indicate that CNVs of the gene coding regions analyzed here are not a common molecular cause of Hirschsprung disease. However, further studies are required to determine the presence of CNVs affecting non-coding regulatory regions, as well as other candidate genes.

  20. 浅析复制拼接图像检验技术%Analysis of Copy Mosaic Image Inspection Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦强宝

    2016-01-01

    基于图像拍摄设备和数字图像自动化编辑软件的普及型,在使用Photoshop对照片进行复制拼接后,使得图像表达出的客观信息不完全真实,给社会带来严重信任危机。如何分析判断图像的真实性是当今信息化发展的难题,因此具有重大的研究意义。本文对数字图像复制拼接进行实验并检验其真实性。%Based on image device and digital image editing software for affordable automation,after using Photoshop to copy Mosaic pictures,makes the image expresses the objective information is not completely true,and to the society brings serious crisis of confidence. How to analyse and judge the authenticity of the image is difficult problem of the development of information technology today,so it is of great research significance. In this paper,the digital copy Mosaic experiment and testing its authenticity.

  1. A comprehensive zero-copy architecture for high performance distributed Data Acquisition over advanced network technologies for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian Czeslaw; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J. A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Nunez-Barranco, C; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stoeckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines a software architecture where zero-copy operations are used comprehensively at every processing point from the Application layer to the Physical layer. The proposed architecture is being used during feasibility studies on advanced networking technologies for the CMS experiment at CERN. The design relies on a homogeneous peer-to-peer message passing system, which is built around memory pool caches allowing efficient and deterministic latency handling of messages of any size through the different software layers. In this scheme portable distributed applications can be programmed to process input to output operations by mere pointer arithmetic and DMA operations only. The approach combined with the open fabric protocol stack (OFED) allows one to attain near wire-speed message transfer at application level. The architecture supports full portability of user applications by encapsulating the protocol details and network into modular peer transport services whereas a transparent replacement of t...

  2. Track etching technique in membrane technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, P. E-mail: apel@lnr.jinr.ru

    2001-06-01

    Track membrane (TM) technology is an example of industrial application of track etching technique. Track-etch membranes offer distinct advantages over conventional membranes due to their precisely determined structure. Their pore size, shape and density can be varied in a controllable manner so that a membrane with the required transport and retention characteristics can be produced. The use of heavy ion accelerators made it possible to vary LET of track-forming particles, angle distribution of pore channels and pore lengths. So far the track formation and etching process has been studied in much detail for several polymeric materials. Today we understand determining factors and have numerous empirical data enabling us to manufacture any particular product based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polycarbonate (PC) films. Pore shape can be made cylindrical, conical, funnel-like, or cigar-like at will. A number of modification methods has been developed for creating TMs with special properties and functions. Applications of 'conventional' track membranes can be categorized into three groups: process filtration, cell culture, and laboratory filtration. The use in biology stands out among other areas. Nuclear track pores find diverse applications as model systems and as templates for the synthesis of micro- and nanostructures.

  3. [Michigan Technological University Pre-Service Teacher Enhancement Program]. [Includes a copy of the Student Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.S.; Yarroch, W.L.

    1993-04-27

    The Michigan Technological University Teacher Education Program received funding from the US Department of Energy for the purpose of providing capable and suitably inclined, MTU Engineering and Science students a chance to explore high school level science and mathematics teaching as a career option. Ten undergraduate students were selected from nominations and were paired with mentor teachers for the study. This report covers the experience of the first ten nominees and their participation in the program.

  4. Immediate Restoration of Immediate Implants in the Esthetic Zone of the Maxilla Via the Copy-Abutment Technique: 5-Year Follow-Up of Pink Esthetic Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürhauser, Rudolf; Mailath-Pokorny, Georg; Haas, Robert; Busenlechner, Dieter; Watzek, Georg; Pommer, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    Implant esthetics may benefit from individualized zirconia abutments copying the emergence profile of the natural tooth and delivered within days after immediate implant insertion. To investigate the esthetic outcome of the Copy-Abutment technique using the Pink Esthetic Score (PES). A total of 77 patients with single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla restored at the day of immediate implant placement using Copy-Abutments and provisional crowns were followed-up after 1 week, 1 month, 4 months, 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years to assess implant esthetics. PES ranged between 7 and 14 (median: 13) and improved significantly between the 6 month and 1 year follow-up (p process deficiency deteriorated (p = .016). Mean mucosal recession was 0.26 ± 0.86 mm (range: 0-1.6) after 5 years and not related to gingival biotype. Copy-Abutments for immediate restoration of implants in the esthetic zone show satisfactory long-term esthetic outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Original Copies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2013-01-01

    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  6. Techniques to Pass on: Technology and Euthanasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Proponents and opponents of euthanasia have argued passionately about whether it should be legalized. In Australia in the mid-1990s, following the world's first legal euthanasia deaths, Dr. Philip Nitschke initiated a different approach: a search for do-it-yourself technological means of dying with dignity. The Australian government has opposed…

  7. Techniques to Pass on: Technology and Euthanasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Proponents and opponents of euthanasia have argued passionately about whether it should be legalized. In Australia in the mid-1990s, following the world's first legal euthanasia deaths, Dr. Philip Nitschke initiated a different approach: a search for do-it-yourself technological means of dying with dignity. The Australian government has opposed…

  8. Techniques and technologies to maximize mucosal exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, L.M.; Gralnek, I.M.; Siersema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Performing high-quality colonoscopy is one of the important goals of gastroenterology practices and requires achieving a high level of bowel cleansing, performing good and safe polypectomy, and detecting all polyps present in the colon. This article summarizes currently available techniques and tech

  9. Granulation techniques and technologies: recent progresses

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Granulation, the process of particle enlargement by agglomeration technique, is one of the most significant unit operations in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms, mostly tablets and capsules. Granulation process transforms fine powders into free-flowing, dust-free granules that are easy to compress. Nevertheless, granulation poses numerous challenges due to high quality requirement of the formed granules in terms of content uniformity and physicochemical proper...

  10. Innovation in surgical technology and techniques: Challenges and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, James D; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2015-06-01

    The pace of medical innovation continues to increase. The deployment of new technologies in surgery creates many ethical challenges including how to determine safety of the technology, what is the timing and process for deployment of a new technology, how are patients informed before undergoing a new technology or technique, how are the outcomes of a new technology evaluated and how are the responsibilities of individual patients and society at large balanced. Ethical considerations relevant to the implementation of ECMO and robotic surgery are explored to further discussion of how we can optimize the delicate balance between innovation and regulation.

  11. Marginal adaptation and CAD-CAM technology: A systematic review of restorative material and fabrication techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadiochou, Sofia; Pissiotis, Argirios L

    2017-09-27

    The comparative assessment of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and other fabrication techniques pertaining to marginal adaptation should be documented. Limited evidence exists on the effect of restorative material on the performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate whether the marginal adaptation of CAD-CAM single crowns, fixed dental prostheses, and implant-retained fixed dental prostheses or their infrastructures differs from that obtained by other fabrication techniques using a similar restorative material and whether it depends on the type of restorative material. An electronic search of English-language literature published between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2016, was conducted of the Medline/PubMed database. Of the 55 included comparative studies, 28 compared CAD-CAM technology with conventional fabrication techniques, 12 contrasted CAD-CAM technology and copy milling, 4 compared CAD-CAM milling with direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and 22 investigated the performance of a CAD-CAM system regarding marginal adaptation in restorations/infrastructures produced with different restorative materials. Most of the CAD-CAM restorations/infrastructures were within the clinically acceptable marginal discrepancy (MD) range. The performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation is influenced by the restorative material. Compared with CAD-CAM, most of the heat-pressed lithium disilicate crowns displayed equal or smaller MD values. Slip-casting crowns exhibited similar or better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with CAD-CAM. Cobalt-chromium and titanium implant infrastructures produced using a CAD-CAM system elicited smaller MD values than zirconia. The majority of cobalt-chromium restorations/infrastructures produced by DMLS displayed better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with the casting technique. Compared with copy

  12. Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Networks (CHRON): Enabling Technologies and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Zibar, Darko; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil;

    2011-01-01

    We present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We introduce and discuss in particular the technologies and techniques that will enable a cognitive optical ne...

  13. Application of Data Collection Techniques by Human Performance Technology Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Minjing

    2011-01-01

    By content-analyzing 22 published cases from a variety of professional and academic books and journals, this study examines the status quo of human performance technology (HPT) practitioners' application of five major data collection techniques in their everyday work: questionnaire, interview, focus group, observation, and document collection. The…

  14. Arts and technology - Mosaic new techniques and procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiu, G. A.; Suciu, N.

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between art and technique has been along the time one that is inseparable and systematic, artists appealing to various technologies, tools and practices that help them stimulate their imagination. Today there is a new category of artists, coming from a technical or scientific field, that are being 'trapped’ in this ‘game of art”. The mosaic, even if it is an old technique, responded to the social requirements and it evolved over time, being constantly related to aesthetic and artistic thinking, discoveries of science, assimilating permanent new techniques and technologies, diversifying its artistic forms of expression and methods of transposition. Not being bound any more to a religious institution, which was its birth place, today, she migrated to all public spaces. Works of art in public space have become today an active factor in reshaping the urban aesthetic landscape.

  15. 印制电路板的防抄板技术及实现方法%Anti-copy board technology and implementation of printed circuit boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松; 张亚

    2015-01-01

    嵌入式系统的快速发展要求设计者必须将印制电路板做到高精度、高密度和高可靠性,这对设计者是一个很大的挑战。与此同时,黑客技术的迅速发展与芯片解剖技术的逐渐成熟,使得嵌入式系统所面临的各种攻击也越来越多,随之而生的印制电路板抄板技术也很快的引起了广大电路板设计者的重视。文章提出的印制电路板硬件的防抄板措施以及其核心芯片加密的实现方法,可以非常有效的应对各类抄板问题。%The rapid development of embedded systems requires the designer must be printed circuit board to do high precision, high density and high reliability,this is a big chall-enge to designers.At the same time,the development of hacking and anatomy of the chip technology,allows embedded systems are facing more and more attacks.With raw copy board technology has also caused the attention of the product designers.The artic-le puts forward the prevent printed circuit board hardware copy plate measures and the realization method of the core chip encryption,can be very effective to deal with all kinds of copy board problem.

  16. Watermark copy attack

    OpenAIRE

    Kutter, Martin; Voloshynovskyy, Svyatoslav; Herrigel, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Research in digital watermarking has progressed along two paths. While new watermarking technologies are being developed, some researchers are also investigating di erent ways of attacking digital watermarks. Common attacks to watermarks usually aim to destroy theembedded watermark or to impair its detection. In this paper we propose a conceptually new attack for digitally watermarked images. The proposed attack doesnot destroy anembedded watermark, but copies it from one image to a di erent ...

  17. NEEMO 21: Tools, Techniques, Technologies & Training for Science Exploration EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    The 21st mission of the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) was a highly integrated operational test and evaluation of tools, techniques, technologies, and training for science driven exploration during Extravehicular Activity (EVA).The 16-day mission was conducted from the Aquarius habitat, an underwater laboratory, off the coast of Key Largo, FL. The unique facility, authentic science objectives, and diverse skill-sets of the crew/team facilitate the planning and design for future space exploration.

  18. Spray drying technique: II. Current applications in pharmaceutical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollohub, Krzysztof; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    This review presents current applications of spray drying in pharmaceutical technology. The topics discussed include the obtention of excipients and cospray dried composites, methods for increasing the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of active substances, and modified release profiles from spray-dried particles. This review also describes the use of the spray drying technique in the context of biological therapies, such as the spray drying of proteins, inhalable powders, and viable organisms, and the modification of the physical properties of dry plant extracts.

  19. Advanced computer modeling techniques expand belt conveyor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alspaugh, M.

    1998-07-01

    Increased mining production is continuing to challenge engineers and manufacturers to keep up. The pressure to produce larger and more versatile equipment is increasing. This paper will show some recent major projects in the belt conveyor industry that have pushed the limits of design and engineering technology. Also, it will discuss the systems engineering discipline and advanced computer modeling tools that have helped make these achievements possible. Several examples of technologically advanced designs will be reviewed. However, new technology can sometimes produce increased problems with equipment availability and reliability if not carefully developed. Computer modeling techniques that help one design larger equipment can also compound operational headaches if engineering processes and algorithms are not carefully analyzed every step of the way.

  20. A Curriculum for Teaching Information Technology Investigative Techniques for Auditors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover S. Kearns

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent prosecutions of highly publicized white-collar crimes combined with public outrage have resulted in heightened regulation of financial reporting and greater emphasis on systems of internal control. Because both white-collar and cybercrimes are usually perpetrated through computers, internal and external auditors’ knowledge of information technology (IT is now more vital than ever. However, preserving digital evidence and investigative techniques, which can be essential to fraud examinations, are not skills frequently taught in accounting programs and instruction in the use of computer assisted auditing tools and techniques – applications that might uncover fraudulent activity – is limited. Only a few university-level accounting classes provide instruction in IT investigative techniques. This paper explains why such a course would be beneficial to the program, the college, and the student. Additionally, it presents a proposed curriculum and suggests useful resources for the instructor and student.

  1. Solar system exploration - Some thoughts on techniques and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Some techniques and technologies for proposed interplanetary missions are described. Methods for reducing the effect of zero gravity on humans during missions to Mars and the moon, and the need for launch vehicles with increased lift capability are discussed. The use of nuclear power, liquid oxygen from the moon, and helium 3 as propellants for spacecraft is examined. The development and capabilities of the Shuttle Z vehicle are considered. Attention is given to the Space Station Freedom and Energia. A launch vehicle concept which utilizes the Shuttle Z for a mission to Mars is presented.

  2. Landmine Detection Technologies to TraceExplosive Vapour Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Kapoor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Large quantity of explosive is manufactured worldwide for use in various types of ammunition,arms, and mines, and used in armed conflicts. During manufacturing and usage of the explosiveequipment, some of the explosive residues are released into the environment in the form ofcontaminated effluents, unburnt explosives fumes and vapours. Limited but uncontrolledcontinuous release of trace vapours also takes place when explosive-laden landmines are deployedin the field. One of the major technological challenges in post-war scenario worldwide is thedetection of landmines using these trace vapour signatures and neutralising them safely.  Differenttypes of explosives are utilised as the main charge in antipersonnel and antitank landmines. Inthis paper, an effort has been made to review the techniques so far available based on explosivevapour detection especially to detect the landmines. A comprehensive compilation of relevantinformation on the techniques is presented, and their maturity levels, shortcomings, and difficultiesfaced are highlighted.

  3. Technology development of fabrication techniques for advanced solar dynamic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the advanced concentrator program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived space solar dynamic concentrators. The advanced concentrator program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. Fabrication techniques include methods of fabricating the substrates and coating substrate surfaces to produce high quality optical surfaces, acceptable for further coating with vapor deposited optical films. The selected materials to obtain a high quality optical surface include microsheet glass and Eccocoat EP-3 epoxy, with DC-93-500 selected as a candidate silicone adhesive and levelizing layer. The following procedures are defined: cutting, cleaning, forming, and bonding microsheet glass. Procedures are also defined for surface cleaning, and EP-3 epoxy application. The results and analyses from atomic oxygen and thermal cycling tests are used to determine the effects of orbital conditions in a space environment.

  4. Performance of Personal Identification System Technique Using Iris Biometrics Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iris identification as one of the significant techniques of biometric identification systems s and iris recognition algorithm is described. Biometric technology advances intellectual properties are wanted by many unauthorized personnel. As a result many researchers have being searching ways for more secure authentication methods for the user access. Iris recognition uses iris patterns for personnel identification. The system steps are capturing iris patterns; determining the location of iris boundaries; converting the iris boundary to the stretched polar coordinate system; extracting iris code based on texture analysis. The system has been implemented and tested using dataset of number of samples of iris data with different contrast quality. The developed algorithm performs satisfactorily on the images, provides 93% accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an encouraging performance.

  5. NEEMO 21: Tools, Techniques, Technologies and Training for Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, T.; Young, K.; Coan, D.; Merselis, D.; Bellantuono, A.; Dougan, K.; Rodriguez-Lanetty, M.; Nedimyer, K.; Chappell, S.; Beaton, K.; Naids, A.; Hood, A.; Reagan, M.; Rampe, E.; Todd, W.; Poffenberger, J.; Garrison, D.

    2017-01-01

    The 21st mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) was a highly integrated operational field test and evaluation of tools, techniques, technologies, and training for science driven exploration during extravehicular activity (EVA). The mission was conducted in July 2016 from the Aquarius habitat, an underwater laboratory, off the coast of Key Largo in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. An international crew of eight (comprised of NASA and ESA astronauts, engineers, medical personnel, and habitat technicians) lived and worked in and around Aquarius and its surrounding reef environment for 16 days. The integrated testing (both interior and exterior objectives) conducted from this unique facility continues to support current and future human space exploration endeavors. Expanding on the scientific and operational evaluations conducted during NEEMO 20, the 21st NEEMO mission further incorporated a diverse Science Team comprised of planetary geoscientists from the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES/XI) Division from the Johnson Space Center, marine scientists from the Department of Biological Sciences at Florida International University (FIU) Integrative Marine Genomics and Symbiosis (IMaGeS) Lab, and conservationists from the Coral Restoration Foundation. The Science Team worked in close coordination with the long-standing EVA operations, planning, engineering, and research components of NEEMO in all aspects of mission planning, development, and execution.

  6. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa' alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O' Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander, E-mail: luke.alphey@zoo.ox.ac.u [Oxitec Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  7. Analytical techniques for thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1988-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 27: Analytical Techniques for Thin Films covers a set of analytical techniques developed for thin films and interfaces, all based on scattering and excitation phenomena and theories. The book discusses photon beam and X-ray techniques; electron beam techniques; and ion beam techniques. Materials scientists, materials engineers, chemical engineers, and physicists will find the book invaluable.

  8. Advanced manufacturing techniques for next generation power FET technology

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The development and incorporation of an evaporated airbridge technology into an established power pHEMT device is described. Advantages of this technology over a conventional plated technology are discussed. Use of this technology has resulted in improvements to the process flow in terms of reduced complexity and cycle time. Improvements in uniformity and reduced feature size have enabled the use of an automated visual inspection capability to reliably differentiate good and bad die.

  9. Quantum copying: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hillery

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum information is stored in two-level quantum systems known as qubits. The no-cloning theorem states that the state of an unknown qubit cannot be copied. This is in contrast to classical information which can be copied. If one drops the requirement that the copies be perfect it is possible to design quantum copiers. This paper presents a short review of the theory of quantum copying.

  10. Technology Assessment of Dust Suppression Techniques Applied During Structural Demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, J.F.; Ebadian, M.A.; Williams, P.T.; Dua, S.K.

    1998-10-20

    Hanford, Fernald, Savannah River, and other sites are currently reviewing technologies that can be implemented to demolish buildings in a cost-effective manner. In order to demolish a structure properly and, at the same time, minimize the amount of dust generated from a given technology, an evaluation must be conducted to choose the most appropriate dust suppression technology given site-specific conditions. Thus, the purpose of this research, which was carried out at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University, was to conduct an experimental study of dust aerosol abatement (dust suppression) methods as applied to nuclear D and D. This experimental study targeted the problem of dust suppression during the demolition of nuclear facilities. The resulting data were employed to assist in the development of mathematical correlations that can be applied to predict dust generation during structural demolition.

  11. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  12. Passive RF component technology materials, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on novel materials and techniques, this pioneering volume provides you with a solid understanding of the design and fabrication of smart RF passive components. You find comprehensive details on LCP, metal materials, ferrite materials, nano materials, high aspect ratio enabled materials, green materials for RFID, and silicon micromachining techniques. Moreover, this practical book offers expert guidance on how to apply these materials and techniques to design a wide range of cutting-edge RF passive components, from MEMS switch based tunable passives and 3D passives, to metamaterial-bas

  13. The Art of Copying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses copies within the field of art museums by way of mapping strategies for copy practices. This mapping leans heavily towards parts of the writings of Jacques Derrida (1930–2004). Against the backdrop of this theoretical premise, the article distinguishes five main strategies....... An informational copy is just as unique as an original object of art, and at the same time, it defines the original and is itself defined by this opposition. Lastly, the strategy for the imagined relation between original and copy follows. This strategy is dependent upon several of the previous approaches, and...

  14. Selective Chemical-Lithographic Reaction Techniques Using Radiation Technology for Biological Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwan Woo; Kim, Keo Su; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hee Suk; Lee, Mi Jin [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    This report, titled 'selective Chemical-Lithographic Reaction Techniques Using Radiation Technology for Biological Application' contains a research summary, 1) development of selective reaction technology using irradiation of electron beams, 2) preparation of functional surfaces using selective radiation technology on carbon-based nanomaterials, and 3) development of bio-applicable biochips using combinatorial surface modification

  15. Detection of Exogenous Gene Copies in Transgenic Soybean by Taqman Quantitative PCR Technique%Taqman定量PCR技术检测转基因大豆中外源基因拷贝数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇有文; 张明辉; 高学军; 曲波; 敖金霞; 袁育寒; 刘营; 霍楠

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Taqman Quantitative PCR technique was adopted to detect the copies of exogenous nos terminator in transgenic hybrid soybean. [ Method] Wrth soybean Lectin as the endogenous reference gene, and gene complex DNA in non-GMO soybeans as the endogenous reference standard, the method of gradient dilution was used for separately calculate Ct value of endogenous reference gene and plasmid DNA and correlation standard curve equation of logarithm of copies, and then to calculate the copies of samples through substituting thus-obtained Ct into the standard curve equation. [ Result] The standard curve equation of endogenous reference gene is y = -3.422×+35.201, R2 = 0.998;and the standard curve equation of exogenous gene is y = -3.348x +34.890, R2 =0.999. Nos terminator and its lower boundary sequences in transgenic soybean is of single copy. [ Conclusion] The study has provided a theoretical basis for determining exogenous gene copies in transgenic soybean.%[目的]采用Taqman定量PCR技术检测转基因杂交大豆中外源nos终止子基因的拷贝数.[方法]以大豆凝集素基因为内参照基因,以非转基因大豆基因组DNA为内参照基因标准品,通过梯度稀释法分别求取了内参照基因和质粒DNA的Ct值与拷贝数对数值的相关性标准曲线方程,并通过将得到的Ct值代入标准曲线方程求取了样品的拷贝数.[结果]内参照基因标准曲线方程为y=-3.422x+35.201,R(2)=0.998;外源基因标准曲线方程为y=-3.348x+34.890,R(2)=0.999.nos终止子基因及其下游边界序列在转基因杂交大豆中为单拷贝.[结论]该研究为确定转基因大豆外源基因拷贝数提供厂理论依据.

  16. Detection of Foreign Gene Copies in Transgenic Soybean by Taqman Quantitative PCR Technique%Taqman定量PCR技术检测转基因大豆中外源基因拷贝数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇有文; 张明辉; 高学军; 曲波; 敖金霞; 袁肖寒; 刘营; 霍楠

    2011-01-01

    [目的[采用Taqman定量PCR技术检测转基因杂交大豆中外源nos终止子基因的拷贝数.[方法]以大豆凝集素基因为内参照基因,以非转基因大豆基因组DNA为内参照基因标准品,通过梯度稀释法分别求取了内参照基因和质粒DNA的Ct值与拷贝数对数值的相关性标准曲线方程,并通过将得到的Ct值代入标准曲线方程求取了样品的拷贝数.[结果]内参照基因标准曲线方程为y=-3.422x+35.201,R2=0.998;外源基因标准曲线方程为y=-3.348x+34.890,R2=0.999.nos终止子基因及其下游边界序列在转基因杂交大豆中为单拷贝.[结论]为确定转基因大豆外源基因拷贝数提供了理论依据.%[ Objective ] It is to adopt Taqman quantitative PCR technique to detect the copies of foreign nos terminator in transgenic hybrid soybean. [ Method ] With endogenous reference gene of soybean lectin, and endogenous reference standard of gene complex DNA in non-GMO soybeans, the method of gradient dilution was used to separately calculate Ct value of endogenous reference gene and plasmid DNA and relevance standard curve equation of logarithm of copies, and then to calculate the copies of samples through substituting thus-obtained Ct into standard curve equation. [ Result ] The standard curve equation of endogenous reference gene isy = - 3.422x + 35. 201 , R2 = 0. 998; and the standard curve equation of foreign gene is y = - 3. 348x + 34. 890, R2 = 0.999. Nos terminator and its lower boundary sequences in transgenic soybean is of single copy. [ Conclusion] The study has provided a theoretical basis for determining foreign gene copies in transgenic soybean.

  17. Training Manual on Food Irradiation Technology and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    This training manual consists of two parts. The first covers general information and outlines various applications of food irradiation technology. The second section details laboratory exercises used to demonstrate the principles of radiation processing and the effects of radiation treatment on certain types of food. The chapters outline…

  18. Novel microstructures and technologies applied in chemical analysis techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiering, Vincent L.; Spiering, V.L.; van der Moolen, Johannes N.; Burger, Gert-Jan; Burger, G.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    1997-01-01

    Novel glass and silicon microstructures and their application in chemical analysis are presented. The micro technologies comprise (deep) dry etching, thin layer growth and anodic bonding. With this combination it is possible to create high resolution electrically isolating silicon dioxide structures

  19. New Product Development: Can Technique Substitute for Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Barbara E.

    1984-01-01

    Overview of research techniques involved in gathering information on current products that can provide input into new product development highlights consumer purchase and use patterns. Comparison of mail questionnaires, telephone surveys, focus group sessions, and in-person interviews notes type of data, timing, relative costs, and advantages and…

  20. New technology - demonstration of a vector velocity technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Hansen, Peter; Pedersen, Mads M; Hansen, Kristoffer L;

    2011-01-01

    With conventional Doppler ultrasound it is not possible to estimate direction and velocity of blood flow, when the angle of insonation exceeds 60-70°. Transverse oscillation is an angle independent vector velocity technique which is now implemented on a conventional ultrasound scanner. In this pa...

  1. Analog/RF Circuit Design Techniques for Nanometerscale IC Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram; Annema, Anne-Johan

    2005-01-01

    CMOS evolution introduces several problems in analog design. Gate-leakage mismatch exceeds conventional matching tolerances requiring active cancellation techniques or alternative architectures. One strategy to deal with the use of lower supply voltages is to operate critical parts at higher supply

  2. New Product Development: Can Technique Substitute for Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Barbara E.

    1984-01-01

    Overview of research techniques involved in gathering information on current products that can provide input into new product development highlights consumer purchase and use patterns. Comparison of mail questionnaires, telephone surveys, focus group sessions, and in-person interviews notes type of data, timing, relative costs, and advantages and…

  3. Analysis of Copy Number Variations in Patients with Autism Using Cytogenetic and MLPA Techniques: Report of 16p13.1p13.3 and 10q26.3 Duplications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Firouzabadi, Saghar; Vameghi, Roshanak; Kariminejad, Roxana; Darvish, Hossein; Banihashemi, Susan; Firouzkouhi Moghaddam, Mahboubeh; Jamali, Peyman; Farbod Mofidi Tehrani, Hassan; Dehghani, Hossein; Raeisoon, Mohammad Reza; Narooie-Nejad, Mehrnaz; Jamshidi, Javad; Tafakhori, Abbas; Sadabadi, Saeid; Behjati, Farkhondeh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a common neuropsychiatric disorder affecting 1 in 68 children. Copy number variations (CNVs) are known to be major contributors of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are different whole genome or targeted techniques to identify CNVs in the patients including karyotyping, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and array CGH. In this study, we used karyotyping and MLPA to detect CNVs in 50 Iranian patients with autism. GTG banding and 4 different MLPA kits (2 subtelomeric and 2 autism kits) were utilized. To elevate our detection rate, we selected the sporadic patients who had additional clinical features including intellectual disability, seizure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and abnormal head circumference. Two out of 50 patients (4%) showed microscopic chromosome abnormalities and 5 out of 50 (10%) demonstrated copy number gains or losses using MLPA kits. Including one overlapping result between karyotype and MLPA techniques, our overall detection rate was 6 out of 50 (12%). Three out of 6 CNVs were de novo and three others were paternally inherited. Two of CNVs detected by karyotyping and MLPA tests were 16p13.1q13.3 and 10q26.3 duplications, respectively. For these two CNVs genotype and phenotype of the patients were compared with other studies. Although the pathogenicity of cytogenetic results was certain, most of MLPA results needed to be better refined using other more accurate techniques such as array CGH. Our findings suggest that it might be possible to obtain some useful information using MLPA technique but it cannot be used as a single diagnostic tool for the autism. PMID:28357200

  4. An Overview of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Technology and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    using optico -electric filters. In practice, the choice of preprocessing techniques must necessarily be related to the recognition method. For example...inter- face), Recognition Unit and Operator Communication device. A brief description of each major system component including the Input Sensor follows...accomplish several types of mark- sensor recognition. Together, they are ’ capable of recognizing machine and handprinted data intermixed on the same line. .3

  5. Technology assessment of applied techniques for exploitation of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    Studies were made to elucidate the effects of technological development of natural steam and hot water on the general social and industrial environments. These were followed by studies of enhanced methods for the forecasting of these impacts. The studies included assessments of actual conditions and the preparation of regional models, ranging from rural to urban-fringe situations. The economic implications of geothermal development in various regional situations are discussed, and the models developed provide for the integration of new data and their extrapolation to as yet uncertain situations.

  6. Application of 4G Network Technology to Optimize the Process of Medical Record Copy%利用4G网络技术优化病案复印申请流程的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗元妹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the application effect of 4G network technology to optimize the application process of medical record copy. Methods When patients agent for copying medical record and unable to provide patients with authorized book and patient identity conifrmation, the staff used the following network communication means for authentication and authorization to confirm the relationship; 1.QQ; 2. Micro channel; 3. Mail; 4. MMS; 5. it was necessary to even voice and video calls. Patients were entrusted to the book and identity certiifcates and materials, authorization power of attorney shot, through more than a tool for network communication was transmitted to the medical record room, staff conifrmed can directly apply for the formalities related to the copy, then the transmitted picture was saved pictures in the hard disk, enlarged letter of authorization and the proof of identity materials to clearly visible, print on the medical records.Results It improved the social service level of medical record management, and promoted the role of technology progress in medical institutions, promoted the development of medical record copy and copy the further information of this subject.Conclusion The implementation of the medical record copy process optimization technology, can solve practical problems for the affected side, greatly improve their work speed, a copy of the patient's medical records to bring a better new technology experience effect.%目的:探讨利用4G网络技术优化病历复印申请流程中的应用效果。方法当患者代理人申请复印病历资料而又无法提供患者授权委托书及患者身份确认证明时,工作人员采用以下网络通信手段进行身份确认及委托关系确认;1.QQ;2.微信;3.邮箱;4.彩信;5.有必要时甚至可以视频语音通话。患者将委托书与身份证明、关系材料、授权委托书拍摄好,通过以上网络通信工具传输至病案室,工作人员确认无误

  7. IR Drop Analysis and Its Reduction Techniques in Deep Submicron Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanpreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed conceptual analysis of IR Drop effect in deep submicron technologies and its reduction techniques. The IR Drop effect in power/ground network increases rapidly with technology scaling. This affects the timing of the design and hence the desired speed. It is shown that in present day designs, using well known reduction techniques such as wire sizing and decoupling capacitor insertion, may not be sufficient to limit the voltage fluctuations and hence, two more important methods such as selective glitch reduction technique and IR Drop reduction through combinational circuit partitioning are discussed and the issues related to all the techniques are revised.

  8. Internationalizing undergraduate psychology education: Trends, techniques, and technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold; Gielen, Uwe P; Plous, Scott; Rich, Grant J; Velayo, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    How can we best internationalize undergraduate psychology education in the United States and elsewhere? This question is more timely than ever, for at least 2 reasons: Within the United States, educators and students seek greater contact with psychology programs abroad, and outside the United States, psychology is growing apace, with educators and students in other nations often looking to U.S. curricula and practices as models. In this article, we outline international developments in undergraduate psychology education both in the United States and abroad, and analyze the dramatic rise of online courses and Internet-based technologies from an instructional and international point of view. Building on the recommendations of the 2005 APA Working Group on Internationalizing the Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum, we then advance 14 recommendations on internationalizing undergraduate psychology education--for students, faculty, and institutions.

  9. The Art of Copying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses copies within the field of art museums by way of mapping strategies for copy practices. This mapping leans heavily towards parts of the writings of Jacques Derrida (1930–2004). Against the backdrop of this theoretical premise, the article distinguishes five main strategies...... for the informational originalcopy will be discussed as it has a vital function in terms of talking about museum originals and copies. This is the strategy which grants the original artifacts their status as museum objects. An informational originalcopy is just as unique as an original object of art, and at the same...

  10. Human factors multi-technique approach to teenage engagement in digital technologies health research

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Alexandra R; Craven, Michael P; Atkinson, Sarah; Simons, Lucy; Cobb, Sue; Mazzola, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the use of multi-techniques for teenage HCI health research. Through four case studies we present information about adolescents as users of healthcare services and technologies, adolescent personal development and the human factors approaches through which teenagers have been involved in healthcare research projects. In each case study; comprising of the design or evaluation of a new digital technology for supporting health or well-being, the techniques used by researche...

  11. Sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques inherit deletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of the Y chromosome and the DAZ gene copy number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau Kai, C; Juul, A; McElreavey, K

    2008-01-01

    number, supplemented with haplogroup typing in deleted patients, were performed, in combination with clinical assessments in 264 fathers and their sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques (ART), and in 168 fertile men with normal sperm concentration. RESULTS: In the ART fathers group...

  12. An Operational Technology for Assimilating Lagrangian Data Based on Dynamical Systems Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    An Operational Technology for Assimilating Lagrangian Data Based on Dynamical Systems Techniques Christopher K. R. T. Jones Department of... technology for assimilating Lagrangian data. This new Lagrangian data assimilation platform is expected to be particularly effective in ocean regions where...COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Operational Technology for Assimilating Lagrangian Data Based on Dynamical Systems

  13. Groundwork for the Concept of Technique in Education: Herbert Marcuse and Technological Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This article articulates the groundwork for a new understanding of the concept of technique through a critical engagement with Herbert Marcuse's critical theory of technology. To this end, it identifies and engages three expressions of technique in Marcuse's work: mimesis, reified labor, and the happy consciousness. It is argued that this mapping…

  14. Groundwork for the Concept of Technique in Education: Herbert Marcuse and Technological Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This article articulates the groundwork for a new understanding of the concept of technique through a critical engagement with Herbert Marcuse's critical theory of technology. To this end, it identifies and engages three expressions of technique in Marcuse's work: mimesis, reified labor, and the happy consciousness. It is argued that this mapping…

  15. Advanced digital modulation: Communication techniques and monolithic GaAs technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. G.; Oliver, J. D., Jr.; Kot, R. C.; Richards, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Communications theory and practice are merged with state-of-the-art technology in IC fabrication, especially monolithic GaAs technology, to examine the general feasibility of a number of advanced technology digital transmission systems. Satellite-channel models with (1) superior throughput, perhaps 2 Gbps; (2) attractive weight and cost; and (3) high RF power and spectrum efficiency are discussed. Transmission techniques possessing reasonably simple architectures capable of monolithic fabrication at high speeds were surveyed. This included a review of amplitude/phase shift keying (APSK) techniques and the continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) methods, of which MSK represents the simplest case.

  16. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  17. Continuous renal replacement therapy. Keeping pace with changes in technology and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian

    2002-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature of new technologies and techniques in acute health care means it can be difficult keeping pace. Most facilities, large or small, are usually in continuous evaluation of a new technology. Published reviews and professional group guidelines can assist the process of change for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) technologies and techniques. The current techniques and technologies are a mixed application of old and new technologies providing a combination of convective and diffusive solute clearance methods. There are a variety of anticoagulation approaches. New, purpose-built CRRT machines offer many advantages over old technology but their costs can be prohibitive and users do not always meet them with rapid behavioral change. Reading journal publications and texts, scientific meetings, education and training, Internet web site review/participation, quality improvement activities and an accurate local data base are the keys to keeping pace with changes and identifying whether a benefit can be anticipated and demonstrated. Possible changes for the future of techniques and technologies may be in the areas of modified approaches to continuous therapy with tailored approaches for specific patient care settings. Improved membrane characteristics for wider indications and the bio-artificial kidney are emerging along with blood pump and circuit design improvements, with new machine/operator interfaces.

  18. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  19. The impact of information technology on productivity using structural equations technique in Iran Behnoush Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Beig

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology plays an important role on increasing productivity in many organizations. The primary objective of the present survey is to study the impact of information technology on productivity and find a positive and significant relationship between these two factors. Structural equations technique and LISREL software are used for analysis of the questionnaires distributed among managers and some employees of Iran Behnoush Company. Organizations try to improve their performance by investment in information technology. However, many of the previous studies indicate insignificance of the impact of information technology on productivity of the organizations. The present survey studies the impact of information technology on organizations' productivity through the collected data from the above company. Results confirm existence of a positive relationship between information technology and productivity.

  20. Technology and geomorphology: Are improvements in data collection techniques transforming geomorphic science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Heather

    2016-10-01

    In recent years technological developments have revolutionized our ability to collect data in geomorphology. Enhanced data collection not only enables us to provide deeper answers to a wider range of fundamental questions about the Earth's surface, but also encourages us to pose new questions. This paper considers in more detail the relationships between science, technology and the development of geomorphological tools and techniques, reviews the spectrum of tools and techniques now available to geomorphologists, and critically assesses what impact 'new technologies' are having on geomorphology. It focuses on the role of technology in biogeomorphology and weathering research, and how it is advancing theoretical, empirical and applied dimensions of these growing sub-fields of geomorphology. Five areas of important technological development are reviewed: remote sensing, dating, geophysical techniques, field and laboratory based analysis and sensing of physical and chemical characteristics, and field and laboratory based analysis of biological properties. There is good evidence that, taken together, technological developments are revolutionizing geomorphology through opening the doors to better cross-scalar investigations, blurring the boundaries between laboratory, field and computer model, and facilitating cross-disciplinary and democratized research.

  1. A New Technique to Backup and Restore DBMS using XML and .NET Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kadry, Seifedine; Kassem, Hussam; Hayek, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new technique for backing up and restoring different Database Management Systems (DBMS). The technique is enabling to backup and restore a part of or the whole database using a unified interface using ASP.NET and XML technologies. It presents a Web Solution allowing the administrators to do their jobs from everywhere, locally or remotely. To show the importance of our solution, we have taken two case studies, oracle 11g and SQL Server 2008.

  2. Applications of Modern Analysis Techniques in Searching back Ancient Art Ceramic Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang Liem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This report highlights the promising applications of modern analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microsopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and thermal expansion measurement in searching back the ancient art ceramics technologies.

  3. Just-in-Time Teaching Techniques through Web Technologies for Vocational Students' Reading and Writing Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantoem, Rewadee; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    This research compares the English language achievements of vocational students, their reading and writing abilities, and their attitudes towards learning English taught with just-in-time teaching techniques through web technologies and conventional methods. The experimental and control groups were formed, a randomized true control group…

  4. The Using of the Teaching Methods and Techniques by Science and Technology Teachers and Class Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohit Gunesa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine which teaching strategies, techniques and methods are used by teachers in science and technology classes and also to determine the shortcomings they have. A questionnaire was conducted to a total of 95 teachers, 45 of whom were science and technology teachers and 50 of whom were class teachers, and 33 teachers were interviewed. It was found out that the teachers did not have enough information about teaching strategies, methods and techniques and thus were not able to make a precise distinction between them. It was determined that although the teachers were aware that the most convenient teaching technique is experiment technique, they used direct instruction or question and answer technique more and they sometimes used methods and techniques such as laboratory, trip-observation and drama. It was stated that the teachers were not able to implement teaching methods and techniques in which the students could actively participate due to reasons such as insufficient time, intensive curriculum and overcrowded classes. It was also determined that the teachers who were not able to practice different teaching methods although they knew how useful they were needed in-service training.

  5. Technology and Technique Standards for Camera-Acquired Digital Dermatologic Images: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Elizabeth A; Tokay, Barbara A; Jewell, Sarah T; Marchetti, Michael A; Halpern, Allan C

    2015-08-01

    Photographs are invaluable dermatologic diagnostic, management, research, teaching, and documentation tools. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standards exist for many types of digital medical images, but there are no DICOM standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images to date. To identify and describe existing or proposed technology and technique standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images in the scientific literature. Systematic searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were performed in January 2013 using photography and digital imaging, standardization, and medical specialty and medical illustration search terms and augmented by a gray literature search of 14 websites using Google. Two reviewers independently screened titles of 7371 unique publications, followed by 3 sequential full-text reviews, leading to the selection of 49 publications with the most recent (1985-2013) or detailed description of technology or technique standards related to the acquisition or use of images of skin disease (or related conditions). No universally accepted existing technology or technique standards for camera-based digital images in dermatology were identified. Recommendations are summarized for technology imaging standards, including spatial resolution, color resolution, reproduction (magnification) ratios, postacquisition image processing, color calibration, compression, output, archiving and storage, and security during storage and transmission. Recommendations are also summarized for technique imaging standards, including environmental conditions (lighting, background, and camera position), patient pose and standard view sets, and patient consent, privacy, and confidentiality. Proposed standards for specific-use cases in total body photography, teledermatology, and dermoscopy are described. The literature is replete with descriptions of obtaining photographs of skin disease, but universal imaging standards have not been developed

  6. Application of BAC-probes to visualize copy number variants (CNVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Anja; Othman, Moneeb A K; Bhatt, Samarth; Löhmer, Sharon; Liehr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural variations of the human genome. These alterations result in variant copy numbers of certain stretches of DNA. In other words, some regions may be present in more or less copies than in a reference genome; however, these copy number changes do not have any impact on the phenotype. Also, CNVs may be extremely large and cytogenetically detectable or submicroscopic but still spanning several megabasepairs (Mb). In the recent years, array technology has identified especially the latter ones as so-called copy number variant (CNV) polymorphisms. These CNVs are detected in ~12 % of the human genome sequences and may comprise several hundred kilobasepairs. CNVs contribute significantly to the inter-individual differences in humans, and can range between 0.5 and 1.5 Mb amongst different genomes, well within the level of detection using cytogenetics techniques. Thus, they can be visualized by FISH using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) as probes. Here we describe a method that enables discrimination of individual homologous chromosomes at the single cell level based on CNVs in the genome, called parental origin determination fluorescence in situ hybridization (POD-FISH). Possible fields of applications of this single cell-directed approach are in analyses of the parental origin of single chromosomes in inherited and acquired chromosomal aberrations.

  7. Research on the development of green chemistry technology assessment techniques: a material reutilization case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Kim, Sungjune; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents a methodology that enables a quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. Methods The study carries out a quantitative evaluation of a particular case of material reutilization by calculating the level of “greenness” i.e., the level of compliance with the principles of green chemistry that was achieved by implementing a green chemistry technology. Results The results indicate that the greenness level was enhanced by 42% compared to the pre-improvement level, thus demonstrating the economic feasibility of green chemistry. Conclusions The assessment technique established in this study will serve as a useful reference for setting the direction of industry-level and government-level technological R&D and for evaluating newly developed technologies, which can greatly contribute toward gaining a competitive advantage in the global market. PMID:26206363

  8. Research on the development of green chemistry technology assessment techniques: a material reutilization case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Kim, Sungjune; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a methodology that enables a quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. The study carries out a quantitative evaluation of a particular case of material reutilization by calculating the level of "greenness" i.e., the level of compliance with the principles of green chemistry that was achieved by implementing a green chemistry technology. The results indicate that the greenness level was enhanced by 42% compared to the pre-improvement level, thus demonstrating the economic feasibility of green chemistry. The assessment technique established in this study will serve as a useful reference for setting the direction of industry-level and government-level technological R&D and for evaluating newly developed technologies, which can greatly contribute toward gaining a competitive advantage in the global market.

  9. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Marres, N.

    2000-01-01

    New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two organizati

  10. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Marres, N.

    2000-01-01

    New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two organizati

  11. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Marres, N.

    2000-01-01

    New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two

  12. Subject Matter: Meaningful Learning in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Ossi

    2006-01-01

    In Finland teaching of technology has traveled a long road during its 140-year history. It has gradually gone from the copying of the model series dating back to the 1860s to the building of computer controlled robots. Materials, techniques and technology have developed wildly but the pedagogic contents are restricted regrettably still often only…

  13. Robust Adaptable Video Copy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira; Kremer, Hardy

    2009-01-01

    Video copy detection should be capable of identifying video copies subject to alterations e.g. in video contrast or frame rates. We propose a video copy detection scheme that allows for adaptable detection of videos that are altered temporally (e.g. frame rate change) and/or visually (e.g. change...... in contrast). Our query processing combines filtering and indexing structures for efficient multistep computation of video copies under this model. We show that our model successfully identifies altered video copies and does so more reliably than existing models....

  14. Robust Adaptable Video Copy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira; Kremer, Hardy

    2009-01-01

    Video copy detection should be capable of identifying video copies subject to alterations e.g. in video contrast or frame rates. We propose a video copy detection scheme that allows for adaptable detection of videos that are altered temporally (e.g. frame rate change) and/or visually (e.g. change...... in contrast). Our query processing combines filtering and indexing structures for efficient multistep computation of video copies under this model. We show that our model successfully identifies altered video copies and does so more reliably than existing models....

  15. Impression technique for a complete-arch prosthesis with multiple implants using additive manufacturing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-León, Marta; Sánchez-Rubio, José Luis; Oteo-Calatayud, Jesús; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-06-01

    This article describes an impression technique for a complete-arch prosthesis supported by multiple implants where additive manufacturing technologies were used to fabricate a splinting framework and a custom tray. The technique presented uses a shim method to control the homogenous splinting acrylic resin and impression material during the procedure, thereby reducing laboratory and chairside time and the number of impression copings and laboratory analogs needed. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Cost Estimation Analysis of U.S. Navy Ship Fuel-Savings Techniques and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    coastal waters during the present conflict in Iraq have experienced excessive filter usage rates and premature RO membrane failures. New... microfiltration (MF) technology can provide a superior level of filtration in most waters and can be renewed by backflushing techniques developed under an...ONR program. MF can facilitate operation in coastal and littoral waters and will also allow operating the RO plant at higher membrane recoveries

  17. Application of New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DongXu

    2004-01-01

    With the application of new techniques, materials and technologies in West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline (WEGTP) project, the design concept of domestic pipeline industrial construction has been updated, speeding up the development and improvement of the strength as a whole in aspects of smelting industry, pipe fabrication, pipeline construction and equipment manufacture, making China's pipeline industry catch up with the trend of development of the world advanced level.

  18. The formation of students’ engineering thinking as a way to create new techniques, technologies, materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    Engineering thinking is regarded as the quality of the person, which is stimulating the human need for the creation of new techniques, technologies and materials. Applications in the study of competence approach allows us to consider a professional thinking as one of the core competencies required for successful engineer innovations in mechanical engineering. The author's definition of professional engineering thinking is presented. The ways of its formation at students of technical fields enrolled in university courses are illustrated

  19. Usage and applications of Semantic Web techniques and technologies to support chemistry research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkum, Mark I; Frey, Jeremy G

    2014-01-01

    The drug discovery process is now highly dependent on the management, curation and integration of large amounts of potentially useful data. Semantics are necessary in order to interpret the information and derive knowledge. Advances in recent years have mitigated concerns that the lack of robust, usable tools has inhibited the adoption of methodologies based on semantics. THIS PAPER PRESENTS THREE EXAMPLES OF HOW SEMANTIC WEB TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGIES CAN BE USED IN ORDER TO SUPPORT CHEMISTRY RESEARCH: a controlled vocabulary for quantities, units and symbols in physical chemistry; a controlled vocabulary for the classification and labelling of chemical substances and mixtures; and, a database of chemical identifiers. This paper also presents a Web-based service that uses the datasets in order to assist with the completion of risk assessment forms, along with a discussion of the legal implications and value-proposition for the use of such a service. We have introduced the Semantic Web concepts, technologies, and methodologies that can be used to support chemistry research, and have demonstrated the application of those techniques in three areas very relevant to modern chemistry research, generating three new datasets that we offer as exemplars of an extensible portfolio of advanced data integration facilities. We have thereby established the importance of Semantic Web techniques and technologies for meeting Wild's fourth "grand challenge".

  20. Improved hand hygiene technique and compliance in healthcare workers using gaming technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, A; Hannan, M M

    2013-05-01

    In 2009, the World Health Organization recommended the use of a 'multi-faceted, multi-modal hand hygiene strategy' (Five Moments for Hand Hygiene) to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers. As part of this initiative, a training programme was implemented using an automated gaming technology training and audit tool to educate staff on hand hygiene technique in an acute healthcare setting. To determine whether using this automated training programme and audit tool as part of a multi-modal strategy would improve hand hygiene compliance and technique in an acute healthcare setting. A time-series quasi-experimental design was chosen to measure compliance with the Five Moments for Hand Hygiene and handwashing technique. The study was performed from November 2009 to April 2012. An adenosine triphosphate monitoring system was used to measure handwashing technique, and SureWash (Glanta Ltd, Dublin, Ireland), an automated auditing and training unit, was used to provide assistance with staff training and education. Hand hygiene technique and compliance improved significantly over the study period (P hand hygiene programme can encourage staff participation in learning, and ultimately improve hand hygiene compliance and technique in the acute healthcare setting. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 78 FR 40156 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Copy Testing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Copy Testing of the Food and Drug Administration's General Market Youth Tobacco... allow 60 days for public comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on Copy... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Copy Testing of FDA's General Market Youth Tobacco...

  2. AN OVERVIEW OF POWER DISSIPATION AND CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN CMOS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. ROMLI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Total power dissipation in CMOS circuits has become a huge challenging in current semiconductor industry due to the leakage current and the leakage power. The exponential growth of both static and dynamic power dissipations in any CMOS process technology option has increased the cost and efficiency of the system. Technology options are used for the execution specifications and usually it depends on the optimisation and the performance constraints over the chip. This article reviews the relevant researches of the source or power dissipation, the mechanism to reduce the dynamic power dissipation as well as static power dissipation and an overview of various circuit techniques to control them. Important device parameters including voltage threshold and switching capacitance impact to the circuit performance in lowering both dynamic and static power dissipation are presented. The demand for the reduction of power dissipation in CMOS technology shall remain a challenging and active area of research for years to come. Thus, this review shall work as a guideline for the researchers who wish to work on power dissipation and control techniques.

  3. Advanced bioimaging technologies in assessment of the quality of bone and scaffold materials. Techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Ling; Leung, Kwok Sui (eds.) [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Traumatology; Genant, H.K. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States); Griffith, J.F. [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Radiology and Organ Imaging

    2007-07-01

    This book provides a perspective on the current status of bioimaging technologies developed to assess the quality of musculoskeletal tissue with an emphasis on bone and cartilage. It offers evaluations of scaffold biomaterials developed for enhancing the repair of musculoskeletal tissues. These bioimaging techniques include micro-CT, nano-CT, pQCT/QCT, MRI, and ultrasound, which provide not only 2-D and 3-D images of the related organs or tissues, but also quantifications of the relevant parameters. The advance bioimaging technologies developed for the above applications are also extended by incorporating imaging contrast-enhancement materials. Thus, this book will provide a unique platform for multidisciplinary collaborations in education and joint R and D among various professions, including biomedical engineering, biomaterials, and basic and clinical medicine. (orig.)

  4. Implementation of the geoethics principal to environmental technologies by Biogeosystem Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Kalinitchenko, Valery; Minkina, Tatiana; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Sushkova, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    The uncertainty and degradation of biosphere is a result of outdated industrial technologies. The incorrect principals of the nature resources use paradigm are to be radically changed corresponding to principals of Geoethics. Technological dead-end is linked to Philosophy of Technology. The organic protection and imitation of natural patterns are till now the theoretical base of technology. The technological and social determinism are proposed as the "inevitable" for humankind. One is forced to believe that the only way for humanity is to agree that the outdated way of technical development is the only possibility for humankind to survive. But rough imitation as a method of outdated technological platform is fruitless now. Survival under practice of industrial technology platform now has become extremely dangerous. The challenge for humanity is to overcome the chain of environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere, which awkwardly imitate the natural processes: plowing leads to degradation of soil and greenhouse gases emission; irrigation leads to excessive moistening and degradation of soil, landscape, greenhouse gases emission, loss of freshwater - the global deficit; waste utilization leads to greenhouse gases emission, loss of oxigen and other ecological hazards. The fundamentally new technologies are to be generates for development of biosphere, food and resources renewing. Aristotle told that technique can go beyond nature and implement "what nature can't bring to a finish." To overcome fundamental shortcomings of industrial technologies, incorrect land use we propose the Biogeosystem Technique (BGT*) for biosphere sustainability. The BGT* key point is transcendent approach (not imitating of the natural processes) - new technical solutions for biosphere - soil construction, the fluxes of energy, matter, and water control and biological productivity of terrestrial systems. Intra-soil milling which provides the

  5. 20th International Conference for Students and Young Scientists: Modern Techniques and Technologies (MTT'2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The active involvement of young researchers in scientific processes and the acquisition of scientific experience by gifted youth currently have a great value for the development of science. One of the research activities of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, aimed at the preparing and formation of the next generation of scientists, is the International Conference of Students and Young Scientists ''Modern Techniques and Technologies'', which was held in 2014 for the twentieth time. Great experience in the organization of scientific events has been acquired through years of carrying the conference. There are all the necessary resources for this: a team of organizers - employees of Tomsk Polytechnic University, premises provided with modern office equipment and equipment for demonstration, and leading scientists - professors of TPU, as well as the status of the university as a leading research university in Russia. This way the conference is able to attract world leading scientists for the collaboration. For the previous years the conference proved itself as a major scientific event at international level, which attracts more than 600 students and young scientists from Russia, CIS and other countries. The conference provides oral plenary and section reports. The conference is organized around lectures, where leading Russian and foreign scientists deliver plenary presentations to young audiences. An important indicator of this scientific event is the magnitude of the coverage of scientific fields: energy, heat and power, instrument making, engineering, systems and devices for medical purposes, electromechanics, material science, computer science and control in technical systems, nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, physical methods in science and technology, control and quality management, design and technology of artistic materials processing. The main issues considered by young researchers at the conference were related to the analysis of contemporary

  6. Some Recommended Protection Technologies for Cyber Crime Based on Social Engineering Techniques -- Phishing

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Phishing (password + fishing) is a form of cyber crime based on social engineering and site spoofing techniques. The name of 'phishing' is a conscious misspelling of the word 'fishing' and involves stealing confidential data from a user's computer and subsequently using the data to steal the user's money. In this paper, we study, discuss and propose the phishing attack stages and types, technologies for detection of phishing web pages, and conclude our paper with some important recommendations for preventing phishing for both consumer and company.

  7. Specimen processing during laparoscopic renal surgery: a review of techniques and technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Binsaleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic surgery has well-defined benefits for patients and has become accepted over time as a standard access strategy for the management of benign and malignant urologic diseases. Unlike in open surgery, the surgeon is often faced with the additional challenges of specimen retrieval and extraction at the end of laparoscopic extirpative procedures. This final step often requires significant laparoscopic skill to entrap and safely extract the laparoscopic specimens. Failure to apply safe exit steps at the end of a laparoscopic procedure may lead to significant morbidity. The aim of this review is to explore the different techniques and technologies available for laparoscopic kidney retrieval, entrapment and safe extraction.

  8. Technological review on endoscopic submucosal dissection: available equipment, recent developments and emerging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Georgios; Hochberger, Juergen; Deprez, Pierre; Shafazand, Morteza; Coumaros, Dimitri; Yamamoto, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely practiced in Japan and the Eastern World and is rapidly expanding in western countries for the management of early malignancies of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tube. In addition, novel therapeutic applications deriving from ESD have emerged including the treatment of achalasia, of submucosal tumors, of diverticula, of strictures and of reflux disease. An ESD procedure necessitates not only skills and specific training, but also familiarization with a vast spectrum of devices (endoscopes, high-frequency generators and their settings, endoknives, hoods, irrigation devices) and techniques (such as countertraction, artificial ulcer closure), that render the procedure faster, more efficient and safer. This technological article gives an overview on current and novel equipment for an ESD and associated techniques.

  9. Techniques and Technology to Revise Content Delivery and Model Critical Thinking in the Neuroscience Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illig, Kurt R

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate neuroscience courses typically involve highly interdisciplinary material, and it is often necessary to use class time to review how principles of chemistry, math and biology apply to neuroscience. Lecturing and Socratic discussion can work well to deliver information to students, but these techniques can lead students to feel more like spectators than participants in a class, and do not actively engage students in the critical analysis and application of experimental evidence. If one goal of undergraduate neuroscience education is to foster critical thinking skills, then the classroom should be a place where students and instructors can work together to develop them. Students learn how to think critically by directly engaging with course material, and by discussing evidence with their peers, but taking classroom time for these activities requires that an instructor find a way to provide course materials outside of class. Using technology as an on-demand provider of course materials can give instructors the freedom to restructure classroom time, allowing students to work together in small groups and to have discussions that foster critical thinking, and allowing the instructor to model these skills. In this paper, I provide a rationale for reducing the use of traditional lectures in favor of more student-centered activities, I present several methods that can be used to deliver course materials outside of class and discuss their use, and I provide a few examples of how these techniques and technologies can help improve learning outcomes.

  10. Science, technique, technology: passages between matter and knowledge in imperial Chinese agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Francesca

    2008-09-01

    Many historians today prefer to speak of knowledge and practice rather than science and technology. Here I argue for the value of reinstating the terms science, techniques and technology as tools for a more precise analysis of governmentality and the workings of power. My tactic is to use these three categories and their articulations to highlight flows between matter and ideas in the production and reproduction of knowledge. In any society, agriculture offers a wonderfully rich case of how ideas, material goods and social relations interweave. In China agronomy was a science of state, the basis of legitimate rule. I compare different genres of agronomic treatise to highlight what officials, landowners and peasants respectively contributed to, and expected from, this charged natural knowledge. I ask how new forms of textual and graphic inscription for encoding agronomic knowledge facilitated its dissemination and ask how successful this knowledge proved when rematerialized and tested as concrete artefacts or techniques. I highlight forms of innovation in response to crisis, and outline the overlapping interpretative frameworks within which the material applications of Chinese agricultural science confirmed and extended its truth across space and time.

  11. Managing the Classroom with Technology. On Progress Reports and Online Communications, and How To Manage the Two Different Communication Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Describes how one teacher bridged the communications gap among teachers, parents, and students through the use of technology in managing his classroom. Discusses progress reports and online communications and how to manage the two different communication techniques. (JOW)

  12. Challenges, Strategies and Techniques for International Training in Technology for Cultural Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, R.; Almagro Vidal, A.

    2013-07-01

    , Jordan, Argentina, United Arab Emirates, United States of America and around 20 other countries. These strategies deal with establishing methodologies and guiding principles for the selection of technologies, highlighting successful illustrated examples, levelling uneven educational bases and gaining access to expertise. The authors have developed these strategies and techniques to appeal, engage and succeed with such diverse groups - to encourage the participants to cooperate on a common goal and overcome specific challenges while embracing the technology and thinking critically about its appropriate application for the conservation of cultural heritage in their home countries. Other strategies include setting norms that respect the various cultures and differing levels of technology education, offering voluntary sessions for more advanced and ambitious participants, finding and then adopting natural leaders as co-instructors and offering a mix of sessions including standard lectures combined with field and laboratory exercises and distance learning. This methodology and strategies have proven to be successful as the participants have provided positive evaluations months and/or years after the courses, implemented their own courses using the materials and methods and have established a strong, sustainable network related to this topic.

  13. The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology -The development of digital monitoring technique-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jong Sun; Lee, Byung Sun; Han, Sang Joon; Shin, Yong Chul; Kim, Yung Baek; Kim, Dong Hoon; Oh, Yang Kyoon; Suh, Yung; Choi, Chan Duk; Kang, Byung Hun; Hong, Hyung Pyo; Shin, Jee Tae; Moon, Kwon Kee; Lee, Soon Sung; Kim, Sung Hoh; Koo, In Soo; Kim, Dong Wan; Huh, Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    A study has been performed for the advanced DSP technology for digital nuclear I and C systems and its prototype, and for the monitoring and diagnosing techniques for the highly-pressurized components in NSSS. In the DSP part, the DSP requirements for NPPs have been induced for the performance of the DSP systems and the functional analysis for Reactor Coolant System (RCS) has been performed as the embodied target system. Total quantities of the I and C signals, signal types, and signal functions were also investigated in Ulchin NPP units 3 and 4. From these basis, the prototype facility was configured for performance validation and algorithm implementation. In order to develop the methods of DSP techniques and algorithms, the current signal validation methods have been studied and analyzed. In the analysis for the communication networks in NPP, the basic technique for the configuration of communication networks and the important considerations for applying to NPPs have been reviewed. Test and experimental facilities have been set up in order to carry out the required tests during research activities on the monitoring techniques for abnormal conditions. Studies were concentrated on methods how to acquire vibration signals from the mechanical structures and equipment including rotating machinery and reactor, and analyses for the characteristics of the signals. Fuzzy logic was evaluated as a good technique to improve the reliability of the monitoring and diagnosing algorithm through the application of the theory such as the automatic pattern recognition algorithm of the vibration spectrum, the alarm detection and diagnosis for collisions of loose parts. 71 figs, 32 tabs, 64 refs. (Author).

  14. Transforming the Narrative of the History of Chinese Technology: East and West in Bertrand Gille’s Histoire des Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Dazhi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In his magisterial The History of Techniques, the French historian of technology Bertrand Gille (1920–1980 constructs a Western-centric world history of technology based on a technical systems approach. In doing so, he is forced to deal with the tension between Western-centric approaches and the conventional narrative of the history of Chinese technology. In order to avoid internal contradictions within his world history framework, Gille reconfigures the historical narrative about ancient China’s great inventions, arguing against unidirectional technology transfer and introducing the alternative notions of technological concomitant evolution and technological exchange. While Gille integrates ancient China into the general technological development of the world, he treats China as a blocked technical system and as “the other” in the West’s technological self-perception.

  15. Mate Choice Copying in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waynforth, D

    2007-09-01

    There is substantial evidence that in human mate choice, females directly select males based on male display of both physical and behavioral traits. In non-humans, there is additionally a growing literature on indirect mate choice, such as choice through observing and subsequently copying the mating preferences of conspecifics (mate choice copying). Given that humans are a social species with a high degree of sharing information, long-term pair bonds, and high parental care, it is likely that human females could avoid substantial costs associated with directly searching for information about potential males by mate choice copying. The present study was a test of whether women perceived men to be more attractive when men were presented with a female date or consort than when they were presented alone, and whether the physical attractiveness of the female consort affected women's copying decisions. The results suggested that women's mate choice decision rule is to copy only if a man's female consort is physically attractive. Further analyses implied that copying may be a conditional female mating tactic aimed at solving the problem of informational constraints on assessing male suitability for long-term sexual relationships, and that lack of mate choice experience, measured as reported lifetime number of sex partners, is also an important determinant of copying.

  16. Application of data fusion techniques and technologies for wearable health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rachel C; Villeneuve, Emma; White, Ruth J; Sherratt, R Simon; Holderbaum, William; Harwin, William S

    2017-02-22

    Technological advances in sensors and communications have enabled discrete integration into everyday objects, both in the home and about the person. Information gathered by monitoring physiological, behavioural, and social aspects of our lives, can be used to achieve a positive impact on quality of life, health, and well-being. Wearable sensors are at the cusp of becoming truly pervasive, and could be woven into the clothes and accessories that we wear such that they become ubiquitous and transparent. To interpret the complex multidimensional information provided by these sensors, data fusion techniques are employed to provide a meaningful representation of the sensor outputs. This paper is intended to provide a short overview of data fusion techniques and algorithms that can be used to interpret wearable sensor data in the context of health monitoring applications. The application of these techniques are then described in the context of healthcare including activity and ambulatory monitoring, gait analysis, fall detection, and biometric monitoring. A snap-shot of current commercially available sensors is also provided, focusing on their sensing capability, and a commentary on the gaps that need to be bridged to bring research to market.

  17. A Novel Power Reduction Technique for Dual-Threshold Domino Logic in Sub-65nm Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kr. Gupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique for dual- threshold is proposed and examined with inputs and clock signals combinationin 65nm dual- threshold footerless domino circuit for reduced leakage current. In this technique a p-typeand an n-type leakage controlled transistor (LCTsare introduced between the pull-up and pull-downnetwork and the gate of one is controlled by the source of the other. A high-threshold transistor is used inthe input for reducing gate oxide leakage current which becomes dominant in nanometer technology.Simulations based on 65nm BISM4 model for proposeddomino circuits shows that CLIL (clock low andinput low and CHIH (clock high and input high state is ineffective for lowering leakage current. TheCLIH (clock low input high state is only effective to suppress the leakage at low and high temperatures forwide fan-in domino circuits but for AND gate CHIL (clock high input low state is preferred to reducetheleakage current. The proposed circuit technique forAND2, OR2, OR4 and OR8 circuits reduces the activepower consumption by 39.6% to 57.9% and by 32.4% to40.3% at low and high die temperaturesrespectively when compared to the standard dual-threshold voltage domino logic circuits.

  18. A Novel Power Reduction Technique for Dual-Threshold Domino Logic in Sub-65nm Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kr. Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique for dual- threshold is proposed and examined with inputs and clock signals combinationin 65nm dual- threshold footerless domino circuit for reduced leakage current. In this technique a p-typeand an n-type leakage controlled transistor (LCTsare introduced between the pull-up and pull-downnetwork and the gate of one is controlled by the source of the other. A high-threshold transistor is used inthe input for reducing gate oxide leakage current which becomes dominant in nanometer technology.Simulations based on 65nm BISM4 model for proposeddomino circuits shows that CLIL (clock low andinput low and CHIH (clock high and input high state is ineffective for lowering leakage current. TheCLIH (clock low input high state is only effective to suppress the leakage at low and high temperatures forwide fan-in domino circuits but for AND gate CHIL (clock high input low state is preferred to reducetheleakage current. The proposed circuit technique forAND2, OR2, OR4 and OR8 circuits reduces the activepower consumption by 39.6% to 57.9% and by 32.4% to40.3% at low and high die temperaturesrespectively when compared to the standard dual-threshold voltage domino logic circuits.

  19. Molecular methods for genotyping complex copy number polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantsilieris, Stuart; Baird, Paul N; White, Stefan J

    2013-02-01

    Genome structural variation shows remarkable complexity with respect to copy number, sequence content and distribution. While the discovery of copy number polymorphisms (CNP) has increased exponentially in recent years, the transition from discovery to genotyping has proved challenging, particularly for CNPs embedded in complex regions of the genome. CNPs that are collectively common in the population and possess a dynamic range of copy numbers have proved the most difficult to genotype in association studies. This is in some part due to technical limitations of genotyping assays and the sequence properties of the genomic region being analyzed. Here we describe in detail the basis of a number of molecular techniques used to genotype complex CNPs, compare and contrast these approaches for determination of multi-allelic copy number, and discuss the potential application of these techniques in genetic studies.

  20. On the Use of MCDM Technique for Identifying Key Technology: A case of Auto Company

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aliakbar Mazlomi; osnah bt. Mohd. Yusuff

    2011-01-01

    .... Moreover, identifying strategic technology is main part of strategydevelopment. This article tries to apply MCDM methods in finding key strategic technologies from identified technologies from in order to provide appropriate technology strategy...

  1. COMPARISON OF INTERFACIAL SURFACE TENSION AND CAPILLARITY OF MAXILLARY COMPLETE DENTURES, FABRICATED BY CONVENTIONAL CUVETTE TECHNIQUE AND INJECTION MOLDING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Georgieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this in vivo study is to register the forces necessary to displace maxillary complete dentures fabricated by compression molding and injection molding techniques on one and the same patient and to compare the interfacial surface tension and capillarity which are achieved by both techniques. Material/Methods: Two maxillary complete dentures are made for each patient (total number of patients is 30 using both technologies. The magnitude of dislodging force is measured by a dynamometer. Results: Mean ± standard deviation for conventional cuvette technique is 17,53N ± 12,11N. Mean ± standard deviation for injection molding technique is 20,73N ± 13,89N. Analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in results achieved by conventional cuvette technique and injection molding technology. The results of injection technique were higher than those of compression molding technique (F=123,676, p< 0,001. Conclusions: Based on the results we suggest a standard for dislodging force of maxillary complete dentures fabricated by conventional cuvette technique- 13N, and by injection molding technology-15,5N. These values would guarantee good interfacial surface tension and capillarity. The injection molding technique was found to produce better fitting maxillary complete dentures when compared to compression molding technique. This would ensure better retention, less traumatic manifestations after insertion and higher patient’s comfort and satisfaction.

  2. Improving reliability of non-volatile memory technologies through circuit level techniques and error control coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengen; Emre, Yunus; Cao, Yu; Chakrabarti, Chaitali

    2012-12-01

    Non-volatile resistive memories, such as phase-change RAM (PRAM) and spin transfer torque RAM (STT-RAM), have emerged as promising candidates because of their fast read access, high storage density, and very low standby power. Unfortunately, in scaled technologies, high storage density comes at a price of lower reliability. In this article, we first study in detail the causes of errors for PRAM and STT-RAM. We see that while for multi-level cell (MLC) PRAM, the errors are due to resistance drift, in STT-RAM they are due to process variations and variations in the device geometry. We develop error models to capture these effects and propose techniques based on tuning of circuit level parameters to mitigate some of these errors. Unfortunately for reliable memory operation, only circuit-level techniques are not sufficient and so we propose error control coding (ECC) techniques that can be used on top of circuit-level techniques. We show that for STT-RAM, a combination of voltage boosting and write pulse width adjustment at the circuit-level followed by a BCH-based ECC scheme can reduce the block failure rate (BFR) to 10-8. For MLC-PRAM, a combination of threshold resistance tuning and BCH-based product code ECC scheme can achieve the same target BFR of 10-8. The product code scheme is flexible; it allows migration to a stronger code to guarantee the same target BFR when the raw bit error rate increases with increase in the number of programming cycles.

  3. Digital authentication with copy-detection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Justin

    2004-06-01

    Technologies for making high-quality copies of documents are getting more available, cheaper, and more efficient. As a result, the counterfeiting business engenders huge losses, ranging to 5% to 8% of worldwide sales of brand products, and endangers the reputation and value of the brands themselves. Moreover, the growth of the Internet drives the business of counterfeited documents (fake IDs, university diplomas, checks, and so on), which can be bought easily and anonymously from hundreds of companies on the Web. The incredible progress of digital imaging equipment has put in question the very possibility of verifying the authenticity of documents: how can we discern genuine documents from seemingly "perfect" copies? This paper proposes a solution based on creating digital images with specific properties, called a Copy-detection patterns (CDP), that is printed on arbitrary documents, packages, etc. CDPs make an optimal use of an "information loss principle": every time an imae is printed or scanned, some information is lost about the original digital image. That principle applies even for the highest quality scanning, digital imaging, printing or photocopying equipment today, and will likely remain true for tomorrow. By measuring the amount of information contained in a scanned CDP, the CDP detector can take a decision on the authenticity of the document.

  4. Brain surgery in the bush: adapting techniques and technology to fit the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Jan; Mayegga, Emanuel; Nuwas, Emmanuel; Ellegala, Dilantha B; Kucia, Elisa J; Nicholas, Joyce

    2013-11-01

    The critical shortage of surgical services in many areas of the world has profound effects on local communities. Approximately 11% of global disease burden can be attributed to causes that are surgically treatable. Efforts have been made to recruit professionals from developed nations to compensate for the lack of such expertise. However, this practice has created a cycle of dependency on foreign-trained physicians and the medical tools they bring. Recognition of this problem calls for adaptation of a novel problem-solving approach. This article describes techniques and technology available in east Africa that have been adapted to allow basic and emergency neurosurgery to be performed in the absence of complex medical infrastructure and equipment. Commonplace items found in the local environment can be used to emulate more sophisticated instruments, and community-specific engineering programs can be developed to provide locally produced appropriate technology that promotes independence from Western sources. The local economy benefits from much-needed stimulation when these tools are created locally, and this allows for readily available replacement and repair. More studies are under way to identify problems and implement interventions that are realistic and appropriate for these populations.

  5. Molecular technologies to improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Gerald; Robinson, Alan S

    2011-01-01

    The application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes continues to increase. However, programme efficiency can still be considerably enhanced when certain components of the technology are improved, such as the development of improved strains for mass rearing and release. These include strains that (1) produce only male insects for sterilization and release and (2) carry easily identifiable markers to identify released sterile insects in the field. Using both classical and modern biotechnology techniques, key insect pests are targeted, where SIT programmes are being implemented. The pests include mosquitoes, the Mexican fruit fly, the codling moth, the oriental fruit fly and the pink bollworm. This special issue summarizes the results of research efforts aimed at the development and evaluation of new strains to a level where a decision can be made as to their suitability for use in large scale SIT programmes. Major beneficiaries will be operational AW-IPM programmes that apply the SIT against major insect pests.

  6. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: is robotic technology more accurate than conventional technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Mustafa; Suero, Eduardo M; Citak, Musa; Dunbar, Nicholas J; Branch, Sharon H; Conditt, Michael A; Banks, Scott A; Pearle, Andrew D

    2013-08-01

    Robotic-assisted unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) with rigid bone fixation "can significantly improve implant placement and leg alignment. The aim of this cadaveric study was to determine whether the use of robotic systems with dynamic bone tracking would provide more accurate UKA implant positioning compared to the conventional manual technique. Three-dimensional CT-based preoperative plans were created to determine the desired position and orientation for the tibial and femoral components. For each pair of cadaver knees, UKA was performed using traditional instrumentation on the left side and using a haptic robotic system on the right side. Postoperative CT scans were obtained and 3D-to-3D iterative closest point registration was performed. Implant position and orientation were compared to the preoperative plan. Surgical RMS errors for femoral component placement were within 1.9 mm and 3.7° in all directions of the planned implant position for the robotic group, while RMS errors for the manual group were within 5.4mm and 10.2°. Average RMS errors for tibial component placement were within 1.4mm and 5.0° in all directions for the robotic group; while, for the manual group, RMS errors were within 5.7 mm and 19.2°. UKA was more precise using a semiactive robotic system with dynamic bone tracking technology compared to the manual technique. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicophore exploration as a screening technology for drug design and discovery: techniques, scope and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Negi, Arvind; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Chauhan, Monika; Kumar, Raj

    2016-08-01

    Toxicity is a common drawback of newly designed chemotherapeutic agents. With the exception of pharmacophore-induced toxicity (lack of selectivity at higher concentrations of a drug), the toxicity due to chemotherapeutic agents is based on the toxicophore moiety present in the drug. To date, methodologies implemented to determine toxicophores may be broadly classified into biological, bioanalytical and computational approaches. The biological approach involves analysis of bioactivated metabolites, whereas the computational approach involves a QSAR-based method, mapping techniques, an inverse docking technique and a few toxicophore identification/estimation tools. Being one of the major steps in drug discovery process, toxicophore identification has proven to be an essential screening step in drug design and development. The paper is first of its kind, attempting to cover and compare different methodologies employed in predicting and determining toxicophores with an emphasis on their scope and limitations. Such information may prove vital in the appropriate selection of methodology and can be used as screening technology by researchers to discover the toxicophoric potentials of their designed and synthesized moieties. Additionally, it can be utilized in the manipulation of molecules containing toxicophores in such a manner that their toxicities might be eliminated or removed.

  8. PREFACE: 21th International Conference for Students and Young Scientists: Modern Technique and Technologies (MTT'2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Involving young researchers in the scientific process, and allowing them to gain scientific experience, are important issues for scientific development. The International Conference for Students and Young Scientists ''Modern Technique and Technologies'' is one of a number of scientific events, held at National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University aimed at training and forming the scientific elite. During previous years the conference established itself as a serious scientific event at an international level, attracting members which annually number about 400 students and young scientists from Russia and near and far abroad. An important indicator of this scientific event is the large number of scientific areas covered, such as power engineering, heat power engineering, electronic devices for monitoring and diagnostics, instrumentation, materials and technologies of new generations, methods of research and diagnostics of materials, automatic control and system engineering, physical methods science and engineering, design and artistic aspects of engineering, social and humanitarian aspects of engineering. The main issues, which are discussed at the conference by young researchers, are connected with analysis of contemporary problems, application of new techniques and technologies, and consideration of their relationship. Over the years, the conference committee has gained a lot of experience in organizing scientific meetings. There are all the necessary conditions: the staff of organizers includes employees of Tomsk Polytechnic University; the auditoriums are equipped with modern demonstration and office equipment; leading scientists are TPU professors; the status of the Tomsk Polytechnic University as a leading research university in Russia also plays an important role. All this allows collaboration between leading scientists from all around the world, who are annually invited to give lectures at the conference. The editorial board expresses gratitude to the

  9. Education of hand rubbing technique to prospective medical staff, employing UV-based digital imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotsky, Ákos; Szilágyi, László; Demeter-Iclănzan, Annamária; Haidegger, Tamás; Wéber, György

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess the hand hygiene performance of medical students. Hand rubbing technique was evaluated by employing innovative UV-light-based imaging technology, identifying patterns and trends in missed areas after applying WHO's six-step protocol. This specially designed hand hygiene education and assessment program targeted 1,344 medical students at two distant sites in Central Europe. Students were introduced to a short video, presenting the basics of hand hygiene, and then received further demonstration from professional trainers, focusing on the correct execution of WHO's six-step technique. To verify the acquired skill, participants rubbed their hands with UV-marked alcohol-based solution. Digital images of the hands were recorded under UV light, followed by computer evaluation and assessment. Immediate objective visual feedback was given to the participants showing missed areas on their hands. The statistical analysis of missed spots was based on retrospective expert-driven manual evaluation. Significant difference in rubbing quality was found between female and male participants [35.3% (CI 95%: 33-38%) versus 29.0% (CI 95%: 27-31%), p hands [43.4% (CI 95%: 39-48%) versus 34.9% (CI 95%: 32-38%), p = 0.002], and various zones of the hands' dorsal side. Based on the participants' feedback and the evaluation of the infection control specialists, it can be stated that the identification of typically missed patterns and the instant visual feedback have a vital role in improving the hand hygiene technique of prospective medical staff.

  10. Human copy number variation and complex genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girirajan, Santhosh; Campbell, Catarina D; Eichler, Evan E

    2011-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) play an important role in human disease and population diversity. Advancements in technology have allowed for the analysis of CNVs in thousands of individuals with disease in addition to thousands of controls. These studies have identified rare CNVs associated with neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism, schizophrenia, and intellectual disability. In addition, copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) are present at higher frequencies in the population, show high diversity in copy number, sequence, and structure, and have been associated with multiple phenotypes, primarily related to immune or environmental response. However, the landscape of copy number variation still remains largely unexplored, especially for smaller CNVs and those embedded within complex regions of the human genome. An integrated approach including characterization of single nucleotide variants and CNVs in a large number of individuals with disease and normal genomes holds the promise of thoroughly elucidating the genetic basis of human disease and diversity.

  11. Zero-Copy Objects System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  12. SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE Nouvelles Technologies en Tuyauteries Multicouches - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    Mardi 28 mai, mercredi 29 mai 28 mai, 9:30 - 12:00 - Training Centre Auditorium, Room 11, bldg. 593 28 mai, 14:00 - 17:00; 29 mai, 9:00 - 12:00 - Training Centre Rooms 13 and 15, bldg. 593 Nouvelles Technologies en Tuyauteries Multicouches Jacques Dougoud / GEBERIT SA, Lausanne, Suisse Mario Bettini / GEORG FISCHER PFCI S.r.l., Peschiera del Garda, Brescia, Italie Christian Tacco / VALSIR S.P.A., Vestone, Brescia, Italie Depuis quelques années l'apparition de tubes multicouches a changé radicalement la conception des tuyauteries, tant pour les applications industrielles que domestiques. Les utilisations au CERN concernent pratiquement tous les fluides, c'est-à-dire eau sanitaire, eau déminéralisée, air comprimé, fluorocarbones liquides ou gazeux, et tous les gaz, depuis l'hélium jusqu'au xénon. Ce séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique est adressé à toute personne concern&eac...

  13. Quadruplex MAPH: improvement of throughput in high-resolution copy number screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Susan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variation (CNV in the human genome is recognised as a widespread and important source of human genetic variation. Now the challenge is to screen for these CNVs at high resolution in a reliable, accurate and cost-effective way. Results Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH is a sensitive, high-resolution technology appropriate for screening for CNVs in a defined region, for a targeted population. We have developed MAPH to a highly multiplexed format ("QuadMAPH" that allows the user a four-fold increase in the number of loci tested simultaneously. We have used this method to analyse a genomic region of 210 kb, including the MSH2 gene and 120 kb of flanking DNA. We show that the QuadMAPH probes report copy number with equivalent accuracy to simplex MAPH, reliably demonstrating diploid copy number in control samples and accurately detecting deletions in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC samples. Conclusion QuadMAPH is an accurate, high-resolution method that allows targeted screening of large numbers of subjects without the expense of genome-wide approaches. Whilst we have applied this technique to a region of the human genome, it is equally applicable to the genomes of other organisms.

  14. Technology utilization in a non-urban region: Further impact and technique of the Technology Use Studies Center, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, H. C. (Editor); Moore, A. M.; Dodd, B.; Dittmar, V.

    1971-01-01

    The clientele served by the Technology Use Studies Center (TUSC) is updated. Manufacturing leads the list of client firms. The standard industrial classification (SIC) range of these firms is broad. Substantial numbers of college and university faculties are using TUSC services. Field operations inherent in the functions of dissemination and assistance are reviewed. Increasing emphasis among clientele is on environmental concerns and management. A record is provided of the institutions contacted and the extent of TUSC involvement with them, as well as TUSC's cooperation with agencies and organizations. The impact of TUSC and the NASA-sponsored Technology Utilization Program on other public agencies is discussed.

  15. European Union. European Commission: Private Copying Recommendations Following Stakeholder Mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Quintais

    2013-01-01

    Private copying levies are a constant topic of debate in EU copyright law and policy. They have been on the harmonization agenda since the 1988 Green Paper on Copyright and the Challenge of Technology and, following stakeholder consultations (in 2006 and 2008) and the 2011 IPR Strategy, remain an on

  16. Determining the most important factors for sustainable energy technology selection in Africa: application of the Delphi technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barry, M-L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available into account when identifying the most sustainable technological systems in the African context. The study utilised the Delphi technique. The questionnaire of the first round was based on factors identified during a focus group exercise with energy experts...

  17. Techniques Use by Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) Teachers for Controlling Undesirable Classroom Behaviours in Anambra State Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinelo, Okigbo Ebele; Nwanneka, Okoli Josephine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the techniques used by secondary school Science Technology and Mathematics (STM) teachers in controlling undesirable behaviours in their classrooms. It adopted descriptive survey design in which 178 Anambra State teachers teaching STM subjects in senior secondary were involved in the research. Two sections of questionnaire…

  18. Advanced decision support techniques in combination with smart card and local operating network technologies for intelligent energy management in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolokotsa, D.; Kalaitzakis, K.; Stavrakakis, G.; Sutherland, G.; Santamouris, M.; Soultanidis, S.; Moumtzis, P.; Brunet, J.; Guillaumin, P.; Pelegrini, L.; Romiti, G.; Bakker, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to present recent developments of integrated building energy manaeement system combining intelligent decision making systems and smart card technology using Local Operating Network (LON) techniques applying mainly to existing buildings and to new buildings with

  19. Comparative Study of Ddigital Image Copy Paste Tamper Forensics Technology%数字图像复制粘贴篡改取证技术比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩敏; 孙晋国

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了目前几种对数字图像复制粘贴篡改取证的算法,比较了各种算法的性能和特点,分析和讨论复制粘贴篡改的检测原理,并展望了该技术未来的发展方向。%This article describes several algorithms aiming at a common copy-paste forgery in the research field of digital image forensics,compared?the performance of?various methods.Different of kinds of tamper detection methods have been analyzed and discussed.It also prospects the lustre of copy-paste forgery in the research field of digital image forensics.

  20. Forecast of technological development in ore mining branches on basis of modernization of technique and technology of mining practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pro forma data for exploration of mineral raw material base of some territories Ural regions are given. Perspective trajectories of development of mineral raw complex of federal subjects Russia’s are characterized. On this basis are highlighted groups of region — saving, reducing, raising the level of raw specialization or diversifying own economy. Peculiarities of forecasting technological development in ore mining branches in the period of planned economy of the USSR are illustrated. Indexes of successfully working iron-ore open casts are given. Theraise of internal Russian demand on raw is grounded, for which satisfaction are needed:corresponding tax policy for innovative production, corporate innovative policy, creating fund of supporting ore mining, commercialization of scientific products and working out rules in the sphere of scientific and technical progress. Peculiarities of technological development of ore mining branches of industry are emphasized: necessity of modernization of enterprises and exploration of deposits in regions with not enough developed infrastructure and opportunity of using new system approach by forecasting. Thestages ofeffectiveexploration of deposits and the parameters of developing ore mining enterprises arefound out. Components of forecast of technological development are analyzed. World tendencies of developing ore mining industry and basic directions of forecast of developing ore mining branches are given. New effective technologies being used in the ore mining are analyzed in detail.

  1. Technology utilization in a non-urban region: Further impact and technique of the Technology Use Studies Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Updated information is given pertaining to Technology Use Studies Center (TUSC) clients who are those that receive/use information as disseminated by the center. The client information is presented as a continuation of client data as set forth in the center's previous annual report.

  2. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Techniques and Technologies for Active Satellite Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Hernando, Guillermo; Erb, Sven; Cropp, Alexander; Voirin, Thomas; Dubois-Matra, Olivier; Rinalducci, Antonio; Visentin, Gianfranco; Innocenti, Luisa; Raposo, Ana

    2013-09-01

    This paper shows an internal feasibility analysis to de- orbit a non-functional satellite of big dimensions by the Technical Directorate of the European Space Agency ESA. The paper focuses specifically on the design of the techniques and technologies for the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system of the spacecraft mission that will capture the satellite and ultimately will de-orbit it on a controlled re-entry.The paper explains the guidance strategies to launch, rendezvous, close-approach, and capture the target satellite. The guidance strategy uses chaser manoeuvres, hold points, and collision avoidance trajectories to ensure a safe capture. It also details the guidance profile to de-orbit it in a controlled re-entry.The paper continues with an analysis of the required sensing suite and the navigation algorithms to allow the homing, fly-around, and capture of the target satellite. The emphasis is placed around the design of a system to allow the rendezvous with an un-cooperative target, including the autonomous acquisition of both the orbital elements and the attitude of the target satellite.Analysing the capture phase, the paper provides a trade- off between two selected capture systems: the net and the tentacles. Both are studied from the point of view of the GNC system.The paper analyses as well the advanced algorithms proposed to control the final compound after the capture that will allow the controlled de-orbiting of the assembly in a safe place in the Earth.The paper ends proposing the continuation of this work with the extension to the analysis of the destruction process of the compound in consecutive segments starting from the entry gate to the rupture and break up.

  3. Getting DNA copy numbers without control samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz-Estevez Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of the reference to scale the data in a copy number analysis has paramount importance to achieve accurate estimates. Usually this reference is generated using control samples included in the study. However, these control samples are not always available and in these cases, an artificial reference must be created. A proper generation of this signal is crucial in terms of both noise and bias. We propose NSA (Normality Search Algorithm, a scaling method that works with and without control samples. It is based on the assumption that genomic regions enriched in SNPs with identical copy numbers in both alleles are likely to be normal. These normal regions are predicted for each sample individually and used to calculate the final reference signal. NSA can be applied to any CN data regardless the microarray technology and preprocessing method. It also finds an optimal weighting of the samples minimizing possible batch effects. Results Five human datasets (a subset of HapMap samples, Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM, Ovarian, Prostate and Lung Cancer experiments have been analyzed. It is shown that using only tumoral samples, NSA is able to remove the bias in the copy number estimation, to reduce the noise and therefore, to increase the ability to detect copy number aberrations (CNAs. These improvements allow NSA to also detect recurrent aberrations more accurately than other state of the art methods. Conclusions NSA provides a robust and accurate reference for scaling probe signals data to CN values without the need of control samples. It minimizes the problems of bias, noise and batch effects in the estimation of CNs. Therefore, NSA scaling approach helps to better detect recurrent CNAs than current methods. The automatic selection of references makes it useful to perform bulk analysis of many GEO or ArrayExpress experiments without the need of developing a parser to find the normal samples or possible batches within the

  4. Some bounds for quantum copying

    CERN Document Server

    Rastegin, A E

    2001-01-01

    We derive lower bounds on the absolute error and the relative error of an abstract copying of two-state set. We do not specify a copying transformation and a dimension of state space. Only the unitarity of quantum mechanical transformations is used. Our approach is based on the notion of angle between two states. We first prove several useful statements, simply expressed in terms of angles. We then examine a lower bound on the absolute error, that was first considered by Hillery and Buzek. Our reasonings supplement and reinforce the results, obtained by them. So, we derive more strong bounds on the absolute error, and we also consider a tradeoff between size of error and corresponding probability distributions. After that we examine a lower bound on the relative error.

  5. Technology transfer opportunities: patent license: electrochemical technique for introducing and redistributing ionic species into the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinz, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey have expanded applications of the Chim electrode, technology used to perform partial geochemical extractions from soils. Recent applications of the the improved electrode technology show that geochemical extraction efficiencies can be improved by 2 orders of magnitude or better to about 30%.

  6. Short Cuts and Extended Techniques: Rethinking Relations between Technology and Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumlert, Kurt; de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Building upon a recent call to renew actor-network theory (ANT) for educational research, this article reconsiders relations between technology and educational theory. Taking cues from actor-network theorists, this discussion considers the technologically-mediated networks in which learning actors are situated, acted upon, and acting, and traces…

  7. Enhancing Students' Interest in Science and Technology through Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration and Active Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Donna M.; Malloy, Alisha D.; Hollowell, Gail P.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-nine rising high school 12th grade students participated in a 4-week summer program designed to increase their interest in science and technology. The program was a blend of hands-on biology, chemistry, and technology modules that addressed the global issue of obesity. Student groups developed websites to address obesity in one of five…

  8. Genetically complex epilepsies, copy number variants and syndrome constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefford, Heather C; Mulley, John C

    2010-10-05

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, with a prevalence of 1% and lifetime incidence of 3%. There are numerous epilepsy syndromes, most of which are considered to be genetic epilepsies. Despite the discovery of more than 20 genes for epilepsy to date, much of the genetic contribution to epilepsy is not yet known. Copy number variants have been established as an important source of mutation in other complex brain disorders, including intellectual disability, autism and schizophrenia. Recent advances in technology now facilitate genome-wide searches for copy number variants and are beginning to be applied to epilepsy. Here, we discuss what is currently known about the contribution of copy number variants to epilepsy, and how that knowledge is redefining classification of clinical and genetic syndromes.

  9. In vitro comparison of a novel facilitated ultrasound targeting technology vs standard technique for percutaneous renal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menhadji, Ashleigh; Nguyen, Vien; Cho, Jane; Chu, Ringo; Osann, Kathyrn; Bucur, Philip; Patel, Puja; Lusch, Achim; McDougall, Elspeth; Landman, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    To improve the understanding of the epidemiology of renal cortical neoplasms through pretreatment biopsy, we evaluated a facilitated ultrasound targeting (FUT) technology. The technology allows a needle to be passed through the transducer probe and guided along a virtual dotted line on the monitor. We compared the FUT with standard percutaneous biopsy (PB) technique. Forty-eight participants with various levels of training were recruited. Participants performed ultrasound-guided biopsies on phantom models using FUT and the standard biopsy technique in a randomized sequence. The phantom models consisted of pimento olives embedded in an opaque mold of Metamucil and Knox gelatin. Patients were given up to 10 attempts to achieve 3 complete specimens from the olives. Patients rated each biopsy technique. Results were stratified by level of experience. The mean time to obtain 3 complete biopsy specimens was significantly faster for FUT compared with the standard technique (140 seconds vs 246 seconds, P = .0001). The mean number of attempts needed to obtain 3 specimens was significantly less with FUT compared with the standard technique (4.3 vs 5.6 attempts, P = .0007). Patients reported that FUT was significantly easier to use compared with the standard technique (P = .0005). No significant order effect was observed. In this in vitro comparison, FUT increased the efficiency and efficacy of PB for users of all experience levels. FUT may allow urologists with limited PB experience to perform the procedure reliably and easily. Clinical evaluation of this technology is actively in progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

  11. Research Update: Large-area deposition, coating, printing, and processing techniques for the upscaling of perovskite solar cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Stefano; Castro-Hermosa, Sergio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brown, Thomas M.

    2016-09-01

    To bring perovskite solar cells to the industrial world, performance must be maintained at the photovoltaic module scale. Here we present large-area manufacturing and processing options applicable to large-area cells and modules. Printing and coating techniques, such as blade coating, slot-die coating, spray coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, and gravure printing (as alternatives to spin coating), as well as vacuum or vapor based deposition and laser patterning techniques are being developed for an effective scale-up of the technology. The latter also enables the manufacture of solar modules on flexible substrates, an option beneficial for many applications and for roll-to-roll production.

  12. Copy number variations exploration of multiple genes in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rong-Hua; Shao, Xiao-Qing; Li, Ling; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Jin-An

    2017-01-01

    Few previous published papers reported copy number variations of genes could affect the predisposition of Graves' disease (GD). Herein, the aim of this study was to explore the association between copy number variations (CNV) profile and GD. The preliminary copy number microarray used to screen copy number variant genes was performed in 6 GD patients. Five CNV candidate genes (CFH, CFHR1, KIAA0125, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17) were then validated in an independent set of samples (50 GD patients and 50 matched healthy ones) by the Accucopy assay method. The CNV of the other 2 genes TRY6 and CCL3L1 was investigated in 144 GD patients and 144 healthy volunteers by the definitive genotyping technique using the Taqman quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (Taqman qPCR). TRY6 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs13230029, was genotyped by the PCR-ligase detection reaction (LDR) in 675 GD patients and 898 healthy controls. There were no correlation of the gene copy number (GCN) of CFH, CFHR1, KIAA0125, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17 with GD. In comparison with that of controls, the GCN distribution of TRY6 and CCL3L1 in GD patients did not show significantly differ (P > 0.05). Furthermore, TRY6-related polymorphism (rs13230029) showed no difference between GD patients and controls. No correlation was found between CNV or SNP genotype and clinical phenotypes. Generally, there were no link of the copy numbers of several genes, including CFH, CFHR1, KIAA0125, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, TRY6, and CCL3L1 to GD. Our results clearly indicated that the copy number variations of multiple genes, namely CFH, CFHR1, KIAA0125, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, TRY6, and CCL3L1, were not associated with the development of GD.

  13. Techniques et technologies de localisation avancées pour terminaux mobiles dans les environnements indoor

    OpenAIRE

    Evennou, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Knowing where a device or a person is in the environment becomes of major importance for applications providing services based on the position. The evolution of the technology and the advent of the GPS, lead to have a good estimate of the position of a mobile outside buildings. Even if GPS is dominating outdoor positioning, no technology flooded the indoor positioning market yet. Many WiFi networks are deployed inside buildings. Signal strength (RSS) information are present for the roaming in...

  14. Double-copy constructions and unitarity cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Zvi; Davies, Scott; Nohle, Josh

    2016-05-01

    The duality between color and kinematics enables the construction of multiloop gravity integrands directly from corresponding gauge-theory integrands. This has led to new nontrivial insights into the structure of gravity theories, including the discovery of enhanced ultraviolet cancellations. To continue to gain deeper understandings and probe these new properties, it is crucial to further improve techniques for constructing multiloop gravity integrands. In this paper, we show by example how one can alleviate difficulties encountered at the multiloop level by relaxing the color-kinematics duality conditions to hold manifestly only on unitarity cuts instead of globally on loop integrands. As an example, we use a minimal Ansatz to construct an integrand for the two-loop four-point nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitude in D dimensions that is compatible with these relaxed color-kinematics duality constraints. We then immediately obtain a corresponding gravity integrand through the double-copy procedure. Comments on ultraviolet divergences are also included.

  15. Double-Copy Constructions and Unitarity Cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Zvi; Nohle, Josh

    2016-01-01

    The duality between color and kinematics enables the construction of multiloop gravity integrands directly from corresponding gauge-theory integrands. This has led to new nontrivial insights into the structure of gravity theories, including the discovery of enhanced ultraviolet cancellations. To continue to gain deeper understandings and probe these new properties, it is crucial to further improve techniques for constructing multiloop gravity integrands. In this paper, we show by example how one can alleviate difficulties encountered at the multiloop level by relaxing the color-kinematics duality conditions to hold manifestly only on unitarity cuts instead of globally on loop integrands. As an example, we use a minimal ansatz to construct an integrand for the two-loop four-point nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitude in $D$ dimensions that is compatible with these relaxed color-kinematics duality constraints. We then immediately obtain a corresponding gravity integrand through the double-copy procedure. ...

  16. A model undergraduate research institute for study of emerging non-contact measurement technologies and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvonch, Curt; Smith, Christopher; Bourne, Stefanie; Blandino, Joseph R.; Miles, Jonathan J.

    2006-04-01

    The Infrared Development and Thermal Structures Laboratory (IDTSL) is an undergraduate research laboratory in the College of Integrated Science and Technology (CISAT) at James Madison University (JMU) in Harrisonburg, Virginia. During the 1997-98 academic year, Dr. Jonathan Miles established the IDTSL at JMU with the support of a collaborative research grant from the NASA Langley Research Center and with additional support from the College of Integrated Science and Technology at JMU. The IDTSL supports research and development efforts that feature non-contact thermal and mechanical measurements and advance the state of the art. These efforts all entail undergraduate participation intended to significantly enrich their technical education. The IDTSL is funded by major government organizations and the private sector and provides a unique opportunity to undergraduates who wish to participate in projects that push the boundaries of non-contact measurement technologies, and provides a model for effective hands-on, project oriented, student-centered learning that reinforces concepts and skills introduced within the Integrated Science and Technology (ISAT) curriculum. The lab also provides access to advanced topics and emerging measurement technologies; fosters development of teaming and communication skills in an interdisciplinary environment; and avails undergraduates of professional activities including writing papers, presentation at conferences, and participation in summer internships. This paper provides an overview of the Infrared Development and Thermal Structures Laboratory, its functionality, its record of achievements, and the important contribution it has made to the field of non-contact measurement and undergraduate education.

  17. W-Band Technology and Techniques for Analog Millimeter-Wave Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-19

    encoded onto various different properties of light in order to increase the capacity of long-haul fiber-optic cables. Reviews of the various...frequency division multiplexing ( FDM ). Orthogonal FDM (OFDM) is a technique where an information stream is subdivided into lower rate sub-channels [16...Both FDM and OFDM require precise control of the optical channels. A technique similar to OFDM but implemented in the time domain is time division

  18. Alternative decision modelling techniques for the evaluation of health care technologies: Markov processes versus discrete event simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnon, Jonathan

    2003-10-01

    Markov models have traditionally been used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of competing health care technologies that require the description of patient pathways over extended time horizons. Discrete event simulation (DES) is a more flexible, but more complicated decision modelling technique, that can also be used to model extended time horizons. Through the application of a Markov process and a DES model to an economic evaluation comparing alternative adjuvant therapies for early breast cancer, this paper compares the respective processes and outputs of these alternative modelling techniques. DES displays increased flexibility in two broad areas, though the outputs from the two modelling techniques were similar. These results indicate that the use of DES may be beneficial only when the available data demonstrates particular characteristics.

  19. Advancing extraction techniques : new technologies vie for a piece of the growing in situ pie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, P.

    2010-09-15

    This article described 3 technologies that rely on heat to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. According to the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, in situ extraction is projected to soon surpass mining as the primary source of bitumen production in the region. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS), to a lesser extent, are set to lead the industry. Interest is also growing in other technologies, including toe-to-heel air injection (THAI), combustion overhead gravity drainage (COGD) and enhanced solvent extraction. These processes were all developed by Calgary-based organizations and claim to offer economic, environmental or operational improvements over traditional in situ extraction technologies. This article described the different methods they use to heat the reservoirs and the amount of heat required to recover the bitumen. The THAI technology uses combustion initiated from vertical air injection wells to heat the reservoir, and gravity to collect the oil in the horizontal production wells to recover heavy oil and bitumen. The COGD technology uses a set of vertical air injector ignition wells above a horizontal production well that is located at the base of the bitumen pay zone. A multi-step pre-ignition heating cycle that uses steam prepares the cold bitumen in the reservoir for ignition and makes it more mobile. The enhanced solvent method builds upon the SAGD technology whereby heated propane vapour is injected at moderate pressures into the gravity drainage chamber. The vapour flows from the injection well to the colder perimeter of the chamber where it condenses, delivering heat and fresh solvent directly to the bitumen extraction interface. 2 figs.

  20. Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

    Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

  1. Creating pure nanostructures from electron-beam-induced deposition using purification techniques: a technology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; Mulders, J.J.L.; Hagen, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    The creation of functional nanostructures by electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is becoming more widespread. The benefits of the technology include fast ‘point-and-shoot’ creation of three-dimensional nanostructures at predefined locations directly within a scanning electron microscope. One sig

  2. Power amplifiers in CMOS technology : a contribution to power amplifier theory and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the demands from the market on cheaper, miniaturized mobile communications devices realization of RF power amplifiers(PAs) in the mainstream CMOS technology is essential. In general, CMOS PAs require high supply-voltage to decrease the matching network losses and for high output pow

  3. A Review and study of the design technique of Microstrip Patch Antenna Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Kumar shukla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,study and survey of microstrip antenna elements is presented, with emphasis on theoretical and practical design techniques and material used, as previous study have been proved that material used play significant role in the performance such as gain ,directivity ,frequency of radiation Available substrate materials are reviewed along with the relation between dielectric constant tolerance and resonant frequency of microstrip patches. Several theoretical analysis techniques are summarized. Practical procedures are given for both standard rectangular and circular patches. The quality, bandwidth, and efficiency factors of typical patch designs are discussed.

  4. Patterns, correlates, and reduction of homework copying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, David J.; Lee, Young-Jin; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

    2010-06-01

    Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days prior to the deadline, whereas repetitive copiers (those who copied >30% of their submitted problems) exerted little effort early. Importantly, copying homework problems that require an analytic answer correlates with a 2(σ) decline over the semester in relative score for similar problems on exams but does not significantly correlate with the amount of conceptual learning as measured by pretesting and post-testing. An anonymous survey containing questions used in many previous studies of self-reported academic dishonesty showed ˜1/3 less copying than actually was detected. The observed patterns of copying, free response questions on the survey, and interview data suggest that time pressure on students who do not start their homework in a timely fashion is the proximate cause of copying. Several measures of initial ability in math or physics correlated with copying weakly or not at all. Changes in course format and instructional practices that previous self-reported academic dishonesty surveys and/or the observed copying patterns suggested would reduce copying have been accompanied by more than a factor of 4 reduction of copying from ˜11% of all electronic problems to less than 3%. As expected (since repetitive copiers have approximately three times the chance of failing), this was accompanied by a reduction in the overall course failure rate. Survey results indicate that students copy almost twice as much written homework as online homework and show that students nationally admit to more academic dishonesty than MIT students.

  5. Patterns, correlates, and reduction of homework copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Palazzo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days prior to the deadline, whereas repetitive copiers (those who copied >30% of their submitted problems exerted little effort early. Importantly, copying homework problems that require an analytic answer correlates with a 2(σ decline over the semester in relative score for similar problems on exams but does not significantly correlate with the amount of conceptual learning as measured by pretesting and post-testing. An anonymous survey containing questions used in many previous studies of self-reported academic dishonesty showed ∼1/3 less copying than actually was detected. The observed patterns of copying, free response questions on the survey, and interview data suggest that time pressure on students who do not start their homework in a timely fashion is the proximate cause of copying. Several measures of initial ability in math or physics correlated with copying weakly or not at all. Changes in course format and instructional practices that previous self-reported academic dishonesty surveys and/or the observed copying patterns suggested would reduce copying have been accompanied by more than a factor of 4 reduction of copying from ∼11% of all electronic problems to less than 3%. As expected (since repetitive copiers have approximately three times the chance of failing, this was accompanied by a reduction in the overall course failure rate. Survey results indicate that students copy almost twice as much written homework as online homework and show that students nationally admit to more academic dishonesty than MIT students.

  6. Building Hot Snapshot Copy Based on Windows File System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lina; GUO Chi; WANG Dejun; ZHU Qin

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method for building hot snapshot copy based on windows-file system (HSCF). The architecture and running mechanism of HSCF are discussed after giving a comparison with other on-line backup technology. HSCF, based on a file system filter driver, protects computer data and ensures their integrity and consistency with following three steps:access to open files, synchronization and copy-on-write. Its strategies for improving system performance are analyzed including priority setting, incremental snapshot and load balance. HSCF is a new kind of snapshot technology to solve the data integrity and consistency problem in online backup, which is different from other storage-level snapshot and Open File Solution.

  7. Advances in the Techniques and Technology of the Application of Nonlinear Filters and Kalman Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    June 1981. 61 Madan , Y., and bar-Xtahack, I. Y., "Error and Sensitivity Analysis Scheme of a Now Data Compression Technique in Estimation," TAE...other radio transmicsawis cloe Ai. fre- .quency to the radar’s.I A illitary. tartwt, Pa.s, nxample. might transmit signals ta cofuse the ra44r. These

  8. COMPARISON OF CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES IN P-ON-N HgCdTe LWIR PHOTODIODES TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper standard techniques for characterization of HgCdTe liquid phase epitaxial layers (LPE) were presented. The performance of long wavelength p-on-n HgCdTe photodiodes fabricated by arsenic diffusion was described. The correlation between LPE HgCdTe material parameters and properties of the infrared photodiodes was demonstrated.

  9. Towards Online Delivery of Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Techniques in Information Technology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Jarrod; Myers, Trina

    2013-01-01

    Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) is a technique used to teach in large lectures and tutorials. It invokes interaction, team building, learning and interest through highly structured group work. Currently, POGIL has only been implemented in traditional classroom settings where all participants are physically present. However,…

  10. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Metrology. Module 27-7, Statistical Techniques in Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This seventh in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology focuses on descriptive and inferential statistical techniques in metrology. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6) materials…

  11. Application of droplet digital PCR to determine copy number of endogenous genes and transgenes in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Joyce, Priya Aiyar

    2017-08-28

    Droplet digital PCR combined with the low copy ACT allele as endogenous reference gene, makes accurate and rapid estimation of gene copy number in Q208 (A) and Q240 (A) attainable. Sugarcane is an important cultivated crop with both high polyploidy and aneuploidy in its 10 Gb genome. Without a known copy number reference gene, it is difficult to accurately estimate the copy number of any gene of interest by PCR-based methods in sugarcane. Recently, a new technology, known as droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has been developed which can measure the absolute amount of the target DNA in a given sample. In this study, we deduced the true copy number of three endogenous genes, actin depolymerizing factor (ADF), adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and actin (ACT) in three Australian sugarcane varieties, using ddPCR by comparing the absolute amounts of the above genes with a transgene of known copy number. A single copy of the ACT allele was detected in Q208 (A) , two copies in Q240 (A) , but was absent in Q117. Copy number variation was also observed for both APRT and ADF, and ranged from 9 to 11 in the three tested varieties. Using this newly developed ddPCR method, transgene copy number was successfully determined in 19 transgenic Q208 (A) and Q240 (A) events using ACT as the reference endogenous gene. Our study demonstrates that ddPCR can be used for high-throughput genetic analysis and is a quick, accurate and reliable alternative method for gene copy number determination in sugarcane. This discovered ACT allele would be a suitable endogenous reference gene for future gene copy number variation and dosage studies of functional genes in Q208 (A) and Q240 (A) .

  12. The effectiveness of technology-enhanced relaxation techniques for military medical warriors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetz, Melba C; Kaloi-Chen, Janalle Y; Turner, David D; Bouchard, Stéphane; Riva, Giuseppe; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2011-09-01

    Combat zones can be very stressful for those in the area. Even in the battlefield, military medical personnel are expected to save others, while also staying alive. In this study, half of a sample of deployed military medical warriors (total n = 60) participated in technology-assisted relaxation training. Learning relaxation skills with a video clip of virtual reality relaxing scenes showed a statistically significant impact on the anxiety levels of the Experimental Group.

  13. Electrical hand tools and techniques: A compilation. [utilization of space technology for tools and adapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Space technology utilization for developing tools, adapters, and fixtures and procedures for assembling, installing, and servicing electrical components and equipment are discussed. Some of the items considered are: (1) pivotal screwdriver, (2) termination locator tool for shielded cables, (3) solder application tools, (4) insulation and shield removing tool, and (5) torque wrench adapter for cable connector engaging ring. Diagrams of the various tools and devices are provided.

  14. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L.; Sheen, David M.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.

  15. Double Wall Framing Technique An Example of High Performance, Sustainable Building Envelope Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Dr. Jan [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston; Asiz, Andi [Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Nitin, Shukla [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston

    2015-01-01

    Double wall technologies utilizing wood framing have been well-known and used in North American buildings for decades. Most of double wall designs use only natural materials such as wood products, gypsum, and cellulose fiber insulation, being one of few building envelope technologies achieving high thermal performance without use of plastic foams or fiberglass. Today, after several material and structural design modifications, these technologies are considered as highly thermally efficient, sustainable option for new constructions and sometimes, for retrofit projects. Following earlier analysis performed for U.S. Department of Energy by Fraunhofer CSE, this paper discusses different ways to build double walls and to optimize their thermal performance to minimize the space conditioning energy consumption. Description of structural configuration alternatives and thermal performance analysis are presented as well. Laboratory tests to evaluate thermal properties of used insulation and whole wall system thermal performance are also discussed in this paper. Finally, the thermal loads generated in field conditions by double walls are discussed utilizing results from a joined project performed by Zero Energy Building Research Alliance and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which made possible evaluation of the market viability of low-energy homes built in the Tennessee Valley. Experimental data recorded in two of the test houses built during this field study is presented in this work.

  16. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  17. Implementation of numerical simulation techniques in analysis of the accidents in complex technological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klishin, G.S.; Seleznev, V.E.; Aleoshin, V.V. [RFNC-VNIIEF (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Gas industry enterprises such as main pipelines, compressor gas transfer stations, gas extracting complexes belong to the energy intensive industry. Accidents there can result into the catastrophes and great social, environmental and economic losses. Annually, according to the official data several dozens of large accidents take place at the pipes in the USA and Russia. That is why prevention of the accidents, analysis of the mechanisms of their development and prediction of their possible consequences are acute and important tasks nowadays. The accidents reasons are usually of a complicated character and can be presented as a complex combination of natural, technical and human factors. Mathematical and computer simulations are safe, rather effective and comparatively inexpensive methods of the accident analysis. It makes it possible to analyze different mechanisms of a failure occurrence and development, to assess its consequences and give recommendations to prevent it. Besides investigation of the failure cases, numerical simulation techniques play an important role in the treatment of the diagnostics results of the objects and in further construction of mathematical prognostic simulations of the object behavior in the period of time between two inspections. While solving diagnostics tasks and in the analysis of the failure cases, the techniques of theoretical mechanics, of qualitative theory of different equations, of mechanics of a continuous medium, of chemical macro-kinetics and optimizing techniques are implemented in the Conversion Design Bureau {number_sign}5 (DB{number_sign}5). Both universal and special numerical techniques and software (SW) are being developed in DB{number_sign}5 for solution of such tasks. Almost all of them are calibrated on the calculations of the simulated and full-scale experiments performed at the VNIIEF and MINATOM testing sites. It is worth noting that in the long years of work there has been established a fruitful and effective

  18. State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Spain: Invasive and Non-Invasive Techniques for Monitoring Respiratory Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Domingo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest in measuring physiological parameters (especially arterial blood gases has grown progressively in parallel to the development of new technologies. Physiological parameters were first measured invasively and at discrete time points; however, it was clearly desirable to measure them continuously and non-invasively. The development of intensive care units promoted the use of ventilators via oral intubation ventilators via oral intubation and mechanical respiratory variables were progressively studied. Later, the knowledge gained in the hospital was applied to out-of-hospital management. In the present paper we review the invasive and non-invasive techniques for monitoring respiratory variables.

  19. Development of a real-time aeroperformance analysis technique for the X-29A advanced technology demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. J.; Hicks, J. W.; Alexander, R. I.

    1988-01-01

    The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator has shown the practicality and advantages of the capability to compute and display, in real time, aeroperformance flight results. This capability includes the calculation of the in-flight measured drag polar, lift curve, and aircraft specific excess power. From these elements many other types of aeroperformance measurements can be computed and analyzed. The technique can be used to give an immediate postmaneuver assessment of data quality and maneuver technique, thus increasing the productivity of a flight program. A key element of this new method was the concurrent development of a real-time in-flight net thrust algorithm, based on the simplified gross thrust method. This net thrust algorithm allows for the direct calculation of total aircraft drag.

  20. Research Update: Large-area deposition, coating, printing, and processing techniques for the upscaling of perovskite solar cell technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Razza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To bring perovskite solar cells to the industrial world, performance must be maintained at the photovoltaic module scale. Here we present large-area manufacturing and processing options applicable to large-area cells and modules. Printing and coating techniques, such as blade coating, slot-die coating, spray coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, and gravure printing (as alternatives to spin coating, as well as vacuum or vapor based deposition and laser patterning techniques are being developed for an effective scale-up of the technology. The latter also enables the manufacture of solar modules on flexible substrates, an option beneficial for many applications and for roll-to-roll production.

  1. Breaking the COPI monopoly on Golgi recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie, B; Pepperkok, R; Nilsson, T

    2000-09-01

    The unexpected discovery of a transport pathway from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) independent of COPI coat proteins sheds light on how Golgi resident enzymes and protein toxins gain access to the ER from as far as the trans Golgi network. This new pathway provides an explanation for how membrane is recycled to allow for an apparent concentration of anterograde cargo at distinct stages of the secretory pathway. As signal-mediated COPI-dependent recycling also involves the concentration of resident proteins into retrograde COPI vesicles, the main bulk of lipids must be recycled, possibly through a COPI-independent pathway.

  2. Why Can We Copy Classical Information?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yao; HAO Liang; LONG Gui-Lu

    2011-01-01

    It is pointed out that the noncloning theorem in quantum mechanics also holds for unknown state in linear classical physics. The apparent capability of copying of a classical state is essentially the capability of perfect measurement in classical physics. The difference in copying between quantum and classical physics is the difference in measurement between the two theories. A classical copying process is the combined action of measurement of an unknown state and the preparation of this state onto another system. Hence perfect measurability in classical physics enables the copying of a classical state.

  3. VLSI circuit techniques and technologies for ultrahigh speed data conversion interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, Bruce A.

    1991-04-01

    The performance of digital VLSI signal processing and communications systems is often limited by the data conversion interfaces between digital system-level components and the analog environment in which those components are embedded. The focus of this program has been research into the fundamental nature of such interfaces in systems that digitally process high-bandwidth signals for purposes such as radar imaging, high-resolution graphics, high-definition video, mobile and fiber-optic communications, and broadband instrumentation. Effort has been devoted to the study of both generic circuit functions, such as sampling and comparison, and architectural alternatives relevant to the implementation of high-speed data converters in present and emerging VLSI technologies. Specific results of the research include the design and realization of novel low-power CMOS and BiCMOS sampled-data comparators operating at rates as high as 200 MHz, the exploration of various design approaches to the implementation of high-speed sample-and-hold circuits in CMOS and BiCMOS technologies, and the design of a subranging CMOS analog-to-digital converter that provides 12-bit resolution at a conversion rate of 10 MHz.

  4. Various power quality challenges and solution techniques using FACTS technology for power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, J. Sandeep; Jangalwa, N. K.; Gupta, R.; Palwalia, D. K.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review on the various power quality problems and various solution techniques using FACTS in Power system. The term "Power Quality" is a broad concept and its meaning is taken different by different peoples. It is associated with electrical transmission, distribution and utilization systems those are having experience of any Voltage, current or frequency divergence from normal operation. Due to power quality problems industries have to invest large amount for mitigation of Voltage sags, distortions, harmonics and short term interruptions/disturbances etc. In paper authors tried to cover various possible sources and compensation methods of reactive power in power system.

  5. Survey of technology for decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 8. Remote handling and cutting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-03-01

    In nuclear fuel cycle facility decommissioning and refurbishment, the remote handling techniques such as dismantling, waste handling and decontamination are needed to reduce personnel radiation exposure. The survey research for the status of R and D activities on remote handling tools suitable for nuclear facilities in the world and domestic existing commercial cutting tools applicable to decommissioning of the facilities was conducted. In addition, the drive mechanism, sensing element and control system applicable to the remote handling devices were also surveyed. This report presents brief surveyed summaries. (H. Itami)

  6. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes: manufacturing techniques and properties of customized nanocomponents for molecular-level technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Sohaib; Taimoor, Aqeel A

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) since their discovery have been the focus of research on account of exceptional chemical, mechanical and electrical properties. However, manipulation and processing of CNTs have been limited by their compatibility with other materials. Considerable efforts have therefore been devoted to the surface modification of CNTs to pave the way to many useful applications and to realize the potential applications in successful products, especially composite manufacturing. The chemical modification, dispersion and solubilization of CNTs represent an emerging area in the research on nanotubes-based materials. Several research groups have reported successful and doable functionalization techniques for single-walled (SWCNT) and multi-wall (MWCNT) carbon nanotubes. This paper presents an overview of the functionalization of the carbon nanotubes covering both covalent and non-covalent techniques at tips and walls of SWCNTs and MWCNTs, and summarizes recent patents possessing significant commercial value and large-scale practicality. The principal aim is to review main approaches to chemical functionalization of CNTs and to account for the advances that have been made so far.

  7. A new circuit technique for reduced leakage current in Deep Submicron CMOS technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmitz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern CMOS processes in the Deep Submicron regime are restricted to supply voltages below 2 volts and further to account for the transistors' field strength limitations and to reduce the power per logic gate. To maintain the high switching performance, the threshold voltage must be scaled according with the supply voltage. However, this leads to an increased subthreshold current of the transistors in standby mode (VGS=0. Another source of leakage is gate current, which becomes significant for gate oxides of 3nm and below. We propose a Self-Biasing Virtual Rails (SBVR - CMOS technique which acts like an adaptive local supply voltage in case of standby mode. Most important sources of leakage currents are reduced by this technique. Moreover, SBVR-CMOS is capable of conserving stored information in sleep mode, which is vital for memory circuits. Memories are exposed to radiation causing soft errors. This well-known problem becomes even worse in standby mode of typical SRAMs, that have low driving performance to withstand alpha particle hits. In this paper, a 16-transistor SRAM cell is proposed, which combines the advantage of extremely low leakage currents with a very high soft error stability.

  8. New application technology for 'in situ' pipeline protection using pigging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretorius, Louis Charles [Corrocoat SA (PTY) Ltd., Durban (South Africa)

    2005-07-01

    Pigging of long pipelines is a technique for in situ (field) coating, creating seamless internal structural linings. Originally developed for cleaning pipes, the system was adapted to apply internal anti-corrosion protection to pipes using a thin epoxy layer, which had some problems in weld coverage, stress cracking, poor cold weather curing and the inability to fill pitting corrosion metal loss. New coating materials, revised application methods and modified pigging equipment have made it possible to apply in situ liquid film coatings up to 1 mm thick, as an internal corrosion barrier to pipes, in a single application (similar to continuous screeding) resulting in a bonded 'GRP pipe within a steel pipe'. The method can be used for new projects on fully welded pipe lines avoiding coating problems associated with flange joints and/or couplings, or for refurbishment of old pipelines, varying from 150-900 mm diameter, up to 12 km long. Pipes can be buried, submerged, continuously welded or flanged. Many different pipes, such as oil platform to shore based pipelines, can all be treated using this method. Thick film polymer pigging techniques create new possibilities for Engineers to extend the life of pipeline systems, with significant cost savings compared to replacement pipe. (author)

  9. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  10. Accounting for Technological Change in Regulatory Impact Analyses: The Learning Curve Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Regulatory impact assessment is formally required by the U.S. and many other nations in order to help governments weigh the costs and benefits of proposed regulations, particularly as they compare to those of alternative actions and other government priorities. 1 One of the “best practices” of regulatory impact assessments, as established by the OECD, is to use estimates of costs that are grounded in economic theory. Economic theory indicates that changes in compliance costs should be expected over time as a result of factors related to technological innovation. But many U.S. regulatory impact assessments have traditionally employed a practice that is in conflict with this expectation: they take current estimates of the costs of complying with a proposed regulation and project that those costs will remain unchanged over the full time period that the regulation would be in effect.

  11. Novel Technique and Technologies for Active Optical Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    The societal benefits of understanding climate change through identification of global carbon dioxide sources and sinks led to the desired NASA's active sensing of carbon dioxide emissions over nights, days, and seasons (ASCENDS) space-based missions of global carbon dioxide measurements. For more than 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have developed several carbon dioxide active remote sensors using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique operating at the two-micron wavelength. Currently, an airborne two-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is under development. This IPDA lidar measures carbon dioxide as well as water vapor, the dominant interfering molecule on carbon dioxide remote sensing. Advancement of this triple-pulse IPDA lidar development is presented.

  12. Security Transition Program Office (STPO), technology transfer of the STPO process, tools, and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, J.T.; Forslund, C.R.J.; Underwood, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    In 1990, with the transition from a defense mission to environmental restoration, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site began a significant effort to diagnose, redesign, and implement new safeguards and security (SAS) processes. In 1992 the Security Transition Program Office (STPO) was formed to address the sweeping changes that were being identified. Comprised of SAS and other contractor staff with extensive experience and supported by staff experienced in organizational analysis and work process redesign, STPO undertook a series of tasks designed to make fundamental changes to SAS processes throughout the Hanford Site. The goal of STPO is to align the SAS work and organization with the new Site mission. This report describes the key strategy, tools, methods, and techniques used by STPO to change SAS processes at Hanford. A particular focus of this review is transferring STPO`s experience to other DOE sites and federal agency efforts: that is, to extract, analyze, and provide a critical review of the approach, tools, and techniques used by STPO that will be useful to other DOE sites and national laboratories in transitioning from a defense production mode to environmental restoration and other missions. In particular, what lessons does STPO provide as a pilot study or model for implementing change in other transition activities throughout the DOE complex? More broadly, what theoretical and practical contributions do DOE transition efforts, such as STPO, provide to federal agency streamlining efforts and attempts to {open_quotes}reinvent{close_quotes} government enterprises in the public sector? The approach used by STPO should provide valuable information to those examining their own processes in light of new mission requirements.

  13. Measurement of Walking Ground Reactions in Real-Life Environments: A Systematic Review of Techniques and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, Erfan; Pavic, Aleksandar

    2017-09-12

    Monitoring natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications, including quantification of disease progression, monitoring the effects of treatment, and monitoring alteration of performance biomarkers in professional sports. Nevertheless, developing reliable and practical techniques and technologies necessary for continuous real-life monitoring of gait is still an open challenge. A systematic review of English-language articles from scientific databases including Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, IEEE Xplore, EBSCO and MEDLINE were carried out to analyse the 'accuracy' and 'practicality' of the current techniques and technologies for quantitative measurement of the tri-axial walking ground reactions outside the laboratory environment, and to highlight their strengths and shortcomings. In total, 679 relevant abstracts were identified, 54 full-text papers were included in the paper and the quantitative results of 17 papers were used for meta-analysis and comparison. Three classes of methods were reviewed: (1) methods based on measured kinematic data; (2) methods based on measured plantar pressure; and (3) methods based on direct measurement of ground reactions. It was found that all three classes of methods have competitive accuracy levels with methods based on direct measurement of the ground reactions showing highest accuracy while being least practical for long-term real-life measurement. On the other hand, methods that estimate ground reactions using measured body kinematics show highest practicality of the three classes of methods reviewed. Among the most prominent technical and technological challenges are: (1) reducing the size and price of tri-axial load-cells; (2) improving the accuracy of orientation measurement using IMUs; (3) minimizing the number and optimizing the location of required IMUs for kinematic measurement; (4) increasing the durability of pressure insole sensors, and (5) enhancing the robustness and versatility of the

  14. Measurement of Walking Ground Reactions in Real-Life Environments: A Systematic Review of Techniques and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Shahabpoor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications, including quantification of disease progression, monitoring the effects of treatment, and monitoring alteration of performance biomarkers in professional sports. Nevertheless, developing reliable and practical techniques and technologies necessary for continuous real-life monitoring of gait is still an open challenge. A systematic review of English-language articles from scientific databases including Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, IEEE Xplore, EBSCO and MEDLINE were carried out to analyse the ‘accuracy’ and ‘practicality’ of the current techniques and technologies for quantitative measurement of the tri-axial walking ground reactions outside the laboratory environment, and to highlight their strengths and shortcomings. In total, 679 relevant abstracts were identified, 54 full-text papers were included in the paper and the quantitative results of 17 papers were used for meta-analysis and comparison. Three classes of methods were reviewed: (1 methods based on measured kinematic data; (2 methods based on measured plantar pressure; and (3 methods based on direct measurement of ground reactions. It was found that all three classes of methods have competitive accuracy levels with methods based on direct measurement of the ground reactions showing highest accuracy while being least practical for long-term real-life measurement. On the other hand, methods that estimate ground reactions using measured body kinematics show highest practicality of the three classes of methods reviewed. Among the most prominent technical and technological challenges are: (1 reducing the size and price of tri-axial load-cells; (2 improving the accuracy of orientation measurement using IMUs; (3 minimizing the number and optimizing the location of required IMUs for kinematic measurement; (4 increasing the durability of pressure insole sensors, and (5 enhancing the robustness and

  15. Private Copying and Downloading from Unlawful Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintais, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Private copying is one of the most contested areas of EU copyright law. This paper surveys that nebulous area and examines the issue of copies made from unlawful sources in light of the ECJ’s ACI Adam decision. After describing the legal background of copyright levies and the facts of the

  16. Private Copying and Downloading from Unlawful Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Quintais

    2015-01-01

    Private copying is one of the most contested areas of EU copyright law. This paper surveys that nebulous area and examines the issue of copies made from unlawful sources in light of the ECJ’s ACI Adam decision. After describing the legal background of copyright levies and the facts of the litigation

  17. Hacking DNA copy number for circuit engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feilun; You, Lingchong

    2017-07-27

    DNA copy number represents an essential parameter in the dynamics of synthetic gene circuits but typically is not explicitly considered. A new study demonstrates how dynamic control of DNA copy number can serve as an effective strategy to program robust oscillations in gene expression circuits.

  18. 14 CFR 249.4 - Photographic copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Photographic copies. 249.4 Section 249.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS PRESERVATION OF AIR CARRIER RECORDS General Instructions § 249.4 Photographic copies. (a)...

  19. Dynamic rain fade compensation techniques for the advanced communications technology satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic and composite nature of propagation impairments that are incurred on earth-space communications links at frequencies in and above the 30/20 GHz Ka band necessitate the use of dynamic statistical identification and prediction processing of the fading signal in order to optimally estimate and predict the levels of each of the deleterious attenuation components. Such requirements are being met in NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) project by the implementation of optimal processing schemes derived through the use of the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model and nonlinear Markov filtering theory. The ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model discerns climatological variations on the order of 0.5 deg in latitude and longitude in the continental U.S. The time-dependent portion of the model gives precise availability predictions for the 'spot beam' links of ACTS. However, the structure of the dynamic portion of the model, which yields performance parameters such as fade duration probabilities, is isomorphic to the state-variable approach of stochastic control theory and is amenable to the design of such statistical fade processing schemes which can be made specific to the particular climatological location at which they are employed.

  20. Visualizing genome and systems biology: technologies, tools, implementation techniques and trends, past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Malliarakis, Dimitris; Papanikolaou, Nikolas; Theodosiou, Theodosis; Enright, Anton J; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    "Α picture is worth a thousand words." This widely used adage sums up in a few words the notion that a successful visual representation of a concept should enable easy and rapid absorption of large amounts of information. Although, in general, the notion of capturing complex ideas using images is very appealing, would 1000 words be enough to describe the unknown in a research field such as the life sciences? Life sciences is one of the biggest generators of enormous datasets, mainly as a result of recent and rapid technological advances; their complexity can make these datasets incomprehensible without effective visualization methods. Here we discuss the past, present and future of genomic and systems biology visualization. We briefly comment on many visualization and analysis tools and the purposes that they serve. We focus on the latest libraries and programming languages that enable more effective, efficient and faster approaches for visualizing biological concepts, and also comment on the future human-computer interaction trends that would enable for enhancing visualization further.

  1. [Study on wavelength locking technology in trace gases detection system based on laser techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-ming; Zhang, Yu-jun; He, Ying; You, Kun; Liu, Jian-guo; Liu, Wen-qing

    2012-04-01

    In the trace gases detection system with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology, the measurement of trace gases concentration was influenced by the laser wavelength drift resulting from the change in ambient temperature and noise of laser control electronics. With open-path TDLAS ammonia concentration detection system as an example, in the present paper the scanning law of laser center wavelength with current was analyzed, and the adaptive locking method of scanning laser center wavelength was presented based on controlling laser current. The aligning algorithm of measurement spectroscopy with calibration reference spectroscopy was studied. The open-path ammonia concentration was achieved in real time. Experiment results show that the precision and the stability of retrieving the concentration of trace gases were improved satisfactorily by wavelength locking. The variation of ammonia concentration has an obvious diurnal periodicity, which increased in rush hour time and got to the maximum at noon, then decreased at night. The system detection limit is about 3.8 mg x m(-3) x m.

  2. Bayesian signal processing techniques for the detection of highly localised gravity anomalies using quantum interferometry technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gareth; Ridley, Kevin; Rodgers, Anthony; de Villiers, Geoffrey

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of quantum technology offer the exciting possibility of gravimeters and gravity gradiometers capable of performing rapid surveys with unprecedented precision and accuracy. Measurements with sub nano-g (a billionth of the acceleration due to gravity) precision should enable the resolution of underground structures on metre length scales. However, deducing the exact dimensions of the structure producing the measured gravity anomaly is known to be an ill-posed inversion problem. Furthermore, the measurement process will be affected by multiple sources of uncertainty that increase the range of plausible solutions that fit the measured data. Bayesian inference is the natural framework for accommodating these uncertainties and providing a fully probabilistic assessment of possible structures producing inhomogeneities in the gravitational field. Previous work introduced the probability of excavation map as a means to convert the high-dimensional space belonging to the posterior distribution to an easily interpretable map. We now report on the development of the inference model to account for spatial correlations in the gravitational field induced by variations in soil density.

  3. A computationally assisted spectroscopic technique to measure secondary electron emission coefficients in technological rf plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Birk; Schulze, Julian; Daksha, Manaswi; Schuengel, Edmund; Koepke, Mark; Korolov, Ihor; Derzsi, Aranka; Donko, Zoltan

    2016-09-01

    A Computationally Assisted Spectroscopic Technique to measure secondary electron emission coefficients (y-CAST) in capacitive rf plasmas is proposed. This non-intrusive, sensitive diagnostic is based on a combination of Phase Resolved Optical Emission Spectroscopy and PIC simulations. Under most conditions in electropositive plasmas the spatio-temporally resolved electron-impact excitation rate features two distinct maxima adjacent to each electrode at different times within one rf period. One maximum is the consequence of an energy gain of the electrons due to sheath expansion. The second maximum is produced by electrons accelerated towards the plasma bulk by the sheath electric field at the time of maximum voltage drop across the sheath. Due to the different excitation mechanisms the ratio of the intensities of these maxima is very sensitive to y, which allows for its determination via comparing the experimentally measured excitation profiles with corresponding simulation data obtained with various y-coefficients. This diagnostic is tested here in a geometrically symmetric reactor, for stainless steel electrodes and argon gas. An effective secondary electron emission coefficient of y = 0.067+-0.010 is obtained, which is in excellent agreement with previous experimental results.

  4. Machine Learning Techniques Applied to Sensor Data Correction in Building Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Castello, Charles C [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Since commercial and residential buildings account for nearly half of the United States' energy consumption, making them more energy-efficient is a vital part of the nation's overall energy strategy. Sensors play an important role in this research by collecting data needed to analyze performance of components, systems, and whole-buildings. Given this reliance on sensors, ensuring that sensor data are valid is a crucial problem. Solutions being researched are machine learning techniques, namely: artificial neural networks and Bayesian Networks. Types of data investigated in this study are: (1) temperature; (2) humidity; (3) refrigerator energy consumption; (4) heat pump liquid pressure; and (5) water flow. These data are taken from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) ZEBRAlliance research project which is composed of four single-family homes in Oak Ridge, TN. Results show that for the temperature, humidity, pressure, and flow sensors, data can mostly be predicted with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of less than 10% of the respective sensor's mean value. Results for the energy sensor are not as good; RMSE are centered about 100% of the mean value and are often well above 200%. Bayesian networks have RSME of less than 5% of the respective sensor's mean value, but took substantially longer to train.

  5. Rotator cuff repair: a review of surgical techniques, animal models, and new technologies under development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprés-Tremblay, Gabrielle; Chevrier, Anik; Snow, Martyn; Hurtig, Mark B; Rodeo, Scott; Buschmann, Michael D

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff tears are the most common musculoskeletal injury occurring in the shoulder. Current surgical repair fails to heal in 20% to 95% of patients, depending on age, size of the tear, smoking, time of repair, tendon quality, muscle quality, healing response, and surgical treatments. These problems are worsened by the limited healing potential of injured tendons attributed to the presence of degenerative changes and relatively poor vascularity of the cuff tendons. Development of new techniques to treat rotator cuff tears requires testing in animal models to assess safety and efficacy before clinical testing. Hence, it is important to evaluate appropriate animal models for rotator cuff research with degeneration of tendons, muscular atrophy, and fatty infiltration similar to humans. This report reviews current clinical treatments and preclinical approaches for rotator cuff tear repair. The review will focus on current clinical surgical treatments, new repair strategies under clinical and preclinical development, and will also describe different animal models available for rotator cuff research. These findings and future directions for rotator cuff tear repair will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

    2014-05-01

    Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and

  7. Making sense of geoscientific concepts using active pedagogy techniques, a technology aided experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, C.; Noè, L. F.; Pearse, J.; Gómez Pérez, M.; Valencia Lopez, D.; Jimenez Heredia, A.; Patiño Avedaño, M.

    2016-12-01

    This work is the result of a teaching innovation project funded by the Conecta-TE unit at Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia and results from the collaborative work of a team of geoscience professors and pedagogic and technical support experts. The need for this innovation stems from the constraints of teaching an applied science subject to a large cohort of approximately 500 students per semester in five sections which makes it impossible to include laboratories or scientific outings. These factors are compounded by the fact this is an introductory core course for Geoscience but also a service course that can be taken by any student on campus whether they have a scientific background or not. Therefore our aim was double: making the basic concepts more understandable for a broad audience, while at the same time maintaining a sufficiently high level to challenge and form a sound basis for students from the Geosciences program. Additionally we wanted to incorporate more active and practical aspects to the subject in order to enhance student learning. This in itself was challenging with groups of over 90 students. Data on student understanding and satisfaction were collected both in classes where the innovation was implemented and others in which it was not. Generally our innovation was positively rated, however the students perceived that it involved more work than the traditional lecture-based classes, but they preferred the continual assessment to traditional homework. The methodology was improved and implemented fully for the second round of teaching by introducing the methodology and objectives more clearly. In the future we expect to reduce the number of activities per class (the ´less-is-more' approach) whilst at the same time increasing the amount of classes which include active learning techniques. The ultimate goal is to extend the experience from the two current sections to all five sections of the course.

  8. Physicochemical and Microstructural Characterization of Corn Starch Edible Films Obtained by a Combination of Extrusion Technology and Casting Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch-Vargas, Perla Rosa; Aguilar-Palazuelos, Ernesto; de Jesús Zazueta-Morales, José; Vega-García, Misael Odín; Valdez-Morales, Jesús Enrique; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando; Jacobo-Valenzuela, Noelia

    2016-09-01

    Starch edible films (EFs) have been widely studied due to their potential in food preservation; however, their application is limited because of their poor mechanical and barrier properties. Because of that, the aim of this work was to use the extrusion technology (Ex T) as a pretreatment of casting technique to change the starch structure in order to obtain EFs with improved physicochemical properties. To this, corn starch and a mixture of plasticizers (sorbitol and glycerol, in different ratios) were processed in a twin screw extruder to generate the starch modification and subsequently casting technique was used for EFs formation. The best conditions of the Ex T and plasticizers concentration were obtained using response surface methodology. All the response variables evaluated, were affected significatively by the Plasticizers Ratio (Sorbitol:Glycerol) (PR (S:G)) and Extrusion Temperature (ET), while the Screw Speed (SS) did not show significant effect on any of these variables. The optimization study showed that the appropriate conditions to obtain EFs with the best mechanical and barrier properties were ET = 89 °C, SS = 66 rpm and PR (S:G) = 79.7:20.3. Once the best conditions were obtained, the optimal treatment was characterized according to its microstructural properties (X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy) to determine the damage caused in the starch during Ex T and casting technique. In conclusion, with the combination of Ex T and casting technique were obtained EFs with greater breaking strength and deformation, as well as lower water vapor permeability than those reported in the literature. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. A technique for measurement of earth station antenna G/T by radio stars and Applications Technology Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    A new technique has been developed to accurately measure the G/T of a small aperture antenna using geostationary satellites and the well established radio star method. A large aperture antenna having the capability of accurately measuring its G/T by using a radio star of known power density is used to obtain an accurate G/T to use as a reference. The CNR of both the large and small aperture antennas are then measured using an Applications Technology Satellite (ATS). After normalizing the two C/N ratios to the large antenna system noise temperature the G/T or the gain G of the small aperture antenna can then be determined.

  10. Low power analog front-end electronics in deep submicrometer CMOS technology based on gain enhancement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Galán, J.A., E-mail: jgalan@uhu.es [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Sánchez-Rodríguez, T.; Sánchez-Raya, M.; Martel, I. [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); López-Martín, A. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad Pública de Navarra (Spain); Carvajal, R.G. [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Ramírez-Angulo, J. [Klipsch School of Electrical Engineering, New Mexico State University (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This paper evaluates the design of front-end electronics in modern technologies to be used in a new generation of heavy ion detectors—HYDE (FAIR, Germany)—proposing novel architectures to achieve high gain in a low voltage environment. As conventional topologies of operational amplifiers in modern CMOS processes show limitations in terms of gain, novel approaches must be raised. The work addresses the design using transistors with channel length of no more than double the feature size and a supply voltage as low as 1.2 V. A front-end system has been fabricated in a 90 nm process including gain boosting techniques based on regulated cascode circuits. The analog channel has been optimized to match a detector capacitance of 5 pF and exhibits a good performance in terms of gain, speed, linearity and power consumption.

  11. COPY – MOVE IMAGE FORGERY DETECTION IN A PARALLEL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sridevi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Image forgery is the manipulation of digital images to conceal meaningful information or objects in the image. Among different image forgery techniques, copy – move forgery is one of the frequently used passive image forgery approach. The existing methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT & Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are time consuming. Hence it is not suited for digital forensic science, surveillance system applications which uses image, video or multimedia security. This paper proposes a parallel algorithm for the copy – move image forgery detection to decrease execution time of the algorithm. The method uses overlapping blocks and lexicographical sorting in a parallel manner. The simulation results show that the proposed parallel version detects the forged region faster, so that it is best suited for real time applications.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cells declines with age and is associated with general health among elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Thinggaard, Mikael; Dalgård, Christine

    2014-01-01

    compared to nuclear DNA, i.e. the mitochondrial DNA copy number, was measured by PCR technology and used as a proxy for the content of mitochondria copies. In 1,067 Danish twins and singletons (18-93 years of age), with the majority being elderly individuals, the estimated mean mitochondrial DNA copy...... an individual was more than twice as steep as observed in the cross-sectional analysis [decline of mtDNA content: -1.27; 95 % CI (-1.71; -0.82)]. Subjects with low mitochondrial DNA copy number had poorer outcomes in terms of cognitive performance, physical strength, self-rated health, and higher all......-cause mortality than subjects with high mitochondrial DNA copy number, also when age was controlled for. The copy number mortality association can contribute to the smaller decline in a cross-sectional sample of the population compared to the individual, longitudinal decline. This study suggests that high...

  13. American College of Medical Genetics standards and guidelines for interpretation and reporting of postnatal constitutional copy number variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Hutton M; Thorland, Erik C; Brown, Kerry K; Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; South, Sarah T

    2011-07-01

    Genomic microarrays used to assess DNA copy number are now recommended as first-tier tests for the postnatal evaluation of individuals with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, and/or multiple congenital anomalies. Application of this technology has resulted in the discovery of widespread copy number variation in the human genome, both polymorphic variation in healthy individuals and novel pathogenic copy number imbalances. To assist clinical laboratories in the evaluation of copy number variants and to promote consistency in interpretation and reporting of genomic microarray results, the American College of Medical Genetics has developed the following professional guidelines for the interpretation and reporting of copy number variation. These guidelines apply primarily to evaluation of constitutional copy number variants detected in the postnatal setting.

  14. Embryo transfer techniques: an American Society for Reproductive Medicine survey of current Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Thomas L; Lee, Malinda S; Bendikson, Kristin A; Reindollar, Richard H

    2017-04-01

    To better understand practice patterns and opportunities for standardization of ET. Cross-sectional survey. Not applicable. Not applicable. An anonymous 82-question survey was emailed to the medical directors of 286 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member IVF practices. A follow-up survey composed of three questions specific to ET technique was emailed to the same medical directors. Descriptive statistics of the results were compiled. The survey assessed policies, protocols, restrictions, and specifics pertinent to the technique of ET. There were 117 (41%) responses; 32% practice in academic settings and 68% in private practice. Responders were experienced clinicians, half of whom had performed transfer followed immediately with ET (40%); [2] afterload transfer (30%); and [3] direct transfer without prior trial or afterload (27%). Embryos are discharged in the upper (66%) and middle thirds (29%) of the endometrial cavity and not closer than 1-1.5 cm from fundus (87%). Details of each step were reported and allowed the development of a "common" practice ET procedure. ET training and practices vary widely. Improved training and standardization based on outcomes data and best practices are warranted. A common practice procedure is suggested for validation by a systematic literature review. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of supercritical fluid technology as preparative technique of benzocaine-cyclodextrin complexes--comparison with conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marzouqi, Ali H; Jobe, Baboucarr; Dowaidar, Ali; Maestrelli, Francesca; Mura, Paola

    2007-01-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the preparation method on the physico-chemical properties of complexes prepared between beta-cyclodextrin (beta-Cyd) and benzocaine (BZC). In particular, the effectiveness of a new technique based on supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO(2)) for preparing solid drug-cyclodextrin complexes was investigated and compared to other more conventional methods such as kneading (KN), co-evaporation (COE), co-grinding (GR) and sealed-heating (S.H.). Effects of temperature, pressure and exposure time on the properties of complexes prepared by SC CO(2) technology were also studied. The different systems were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and dissolution test according to the dispersed amount method. The co-grinding (GR) method resulted in amorphous products while other methods led to crystalline or partially amorphous products depending on both the method and its experimental conditions. SC CO(2) method revealed to be an effective technique for preparing solid systems between beta-cyclodextrin and benzocaine, avoiding the use of organic solvents (and problems of their complete removal) and allowing an easy scale-up of the process. As for the influence of the experimental conditions in promoting the solid-state drug-carrier interaction when using the SC CO(2) method, temperature seemed to play the major role, whereas pressure and exposure times had more limited effects. Dissolution tests confirmed a limited but favourable effect in increasing the exposure time, while indicated a possible interaction effect between temperature and pressure in influencing the dissolution performance of the final product. The best product obtained by the SC CO(2) method showed dissolution properties similar to those of the co-ground product and only slightly lower than the system obtained by sealed-heating, which was the most

  16. Use of Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for Determining Copy Numbers of Transgenes in Lesquerella fendleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Q. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In transgenic plants, the number of transgene copies could greatly influence the level of expression and genetic stability of the target gene, thus it is important to develop an efficient method for accurate estimation of transgene copies. The quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR technique is becoming more efficient nowadays to determine copy numbers of transgenes in transgenic plants, being used here, for the first time in quantifying copy numbers of transgenes in Lesquerella fendleri. Approach: The system utilized a known one copy gene, LfKCS4/5, from L. fendleri as an endogenous calibrator and the threshold Crossing point (Ct measured by Applied Biosystem 7500 system to calculate the copy numbers of transgenes in primary transgenic lines (T0 generation. Results: The qPCR condition was optimized and each primer set had a PCR efficiency of 0.99 or 1.01. Our data demonstrated unambiguous 2-fold discrimination of the copy number of β-glucuronidase gene (gusA and hygromycine phosphotransferase II (hptII genes in 12 T0 lines. Most of the lines contained one or two copies of each gene. Eight out of 12 samples (66.7% showed more copies of gusA gene than that of hptII gene, suggesting rearrangements of the Transferred (T-DNA. Possible modifications of the T-DNA cassette in L. fendleri are discussed based on main models of T-DNA integration in the plant genome. Conclusion: The qPCR described in this study is an efficient method and it is particularly useful in identification and selection of transgenic plants with desirable copy numbers at early stage.

  17. High-resolution copy number arrays in cancer and the problem of normal genome copy number variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

    2008-11-01

    High-resolution techniques for analysis of genome copy number (CN) enable the analysis of complex cancer somatic genetics. However, the analysis of these data is difficult, and failure to consider a number of issues in depth may result in false leads or unnecessary rejection of true positives. First, segmental duplications may falsely generate CN breakpoints in aneuploid samples. Second, even when tumor data were each normalized to matching lymphocyte DNA, we still observed copy number polymorphisms masquerading as somatic alterations due to allelic imbalance. We investigated a number of different solutions and determined that evaluating matching normal DNA, or at least using locally derived normal baseline data, were preferable to relying on current online databases because of poor cross-platform compatibility and the likelihood of excluding genuine small somatic alterations.

  18. Copy number variation across European populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanting Chen

    Full Text Available Genome analysis provides a powerful approach to test for evidence of genetic variation within and between geographical regions and local populations. Copy number variants which comprise insertions, deletions and duplications of genomic sequence provide one such convenient and informative source. Here, we investigate copy number variants from genome wide scans of single nucleotide polymorphisms in three European population isolates, the island of Vis in Croatia, the islands of Orkney in Scotland and the South Tyrol in Italy. We show that whereas the overall copy number variant frequencies are similar between populations, their distribution is highly specific to the population of origin, a finding which is supported by evidence for increased kinship correlation for specific copy number variants within populations.

  19. Line copy presentation slides with Kodalith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushar, M F; Bailey, B A

    1978-08-01

    Line copy presentation slides with white letters on a blue background can be produced with a two-step process. The slides are more permanent than diazo slides, and the process is faster and less expensive.

  20. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... files in a digital repository and outputting the copies on film, which is preserved in a traditional storage facility. The issues are put into perspective by a case study completed at the Royal Library, where endangered nitrate negatives of unique national value have been digitized. The paper starts...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...

  1. Copy number ratios determined by two digital polymerase chain reaction systems in genetically modified grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Urquiza, M.; Acatzi Silva, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    Three certified reference materials produced from powdered seeds to measure the copy number ratio sequences of p35S/hmgA in maize containing MON 810 event, p35S/Le1 in soybeans containing GTS 40-3-2 event and DREB1A/acc1 in wheat were produced according to the ISO Guides 34 and 35. In this paper, we report digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) protocols, performance parameters and results of copy number ratio content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in these materials using two new dPCR systems to detect and quantify molecular deoxyribonucleic acid: the BioMark® (Fluidigm) and the OpenArray® (Life Technologies) systems. These technologies were implemented at the National Institute of Metrology in Mexico (CENAM) and in the Reference Center for GMO Detection from the Ministry of Agriculture (CNRDOGM), respectively. The main advantage of this technique against the more-used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is that it generates an absolute number of target molecules in the sample, without reference to standards or an endogenous control, which is very useful when not much information is available for new developments or there are no standard reference materials in the market as in the wheat case presented, or when it was not possible to test the purity of seeds as in the maize case presented here. Both systems reported enhanced productivity, increased reliability and reduced instrument footprint. In this paper, the performance parameters and uncertainty of measurement obtained with both systems are presented and compared.

  2. Local Reasoning about a Copying Garbage Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Smith, Noah; Birkedal, Lars; Reynolds, John C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a programming language, model, and logic appropriate for implementing and reasoning about a memory management system. We state semantically what is meant by correctness of a copying garbage collector, and employ a variant of the novel separation logics to formally specify partial...... correctness of Cheney’s copying garbage collector in our program logic. Finally, we prove that our implementation of Cheney’s algorithm meets its specification using the logic we have given and auxiliary variables. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  3. An efficient method for measuring copy number variation applied to improvement of nematode resistance in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tong Geon; Diers, Brian W; Hudson, Matthew E

    2016-10-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is implicated in important traits in multiple crop plants, but can be challenging to genotype using conventional methods. The Rhg1 locus of soybean, which confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN), is a CNV of multiple 31.2-kb genomic units each containing four genes. Reliable, high-throughput methods to quantify Rhg1 and other CNVs for selective breeding were developed. The CNV genotyping assay described here uses a homeologous gene copy within the paleopolyploid soybean genome to provide the internal control for a single-tube TaqMan copy number assay. Using this assay, CNV in breeding populations can be tracked with high precision. We also show that extensive CNV exists within Fayette, a released, inbred SCN-resistant soybean cultivar with a high copy number at Rhg1 derived from a single donor parent. Copy number at Rhg1 is therefore unstable within a released variety over a relatively small number of generations. Using this assay to select for individuals with altered copy number, plants were obtained with both increased copy number and increased SCN resistance relative to control plants. Thus, CNV genotyping technologies can be used as a new type of marker-assisted selection to select for desirable traits in breeding populations, and to control for undesirable variation within cultivars. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. COPI is required for enterovirus 71 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wang

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11, is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies.

  5. Interactive Data Integration through Smart Copy & Paste

    CERN Document Server

    Ives, Zachary; Minton, Steve; Jacob, Marie; Talukdar, Partha; Tuchinda, Rattapoom; Ambite, Jose Luis; Muslea, Maria; Gazen, Cenk

    2009-01-01

    In many scenarios, such as emergency response or ad hoc collaboration, it is critical to reduce the overhead in integrating data. Ideally, one could perform the entire process interactively under one unified interface: defining extractors and wrappers for sources, creating a mediated schema, and adding schema mappings ? while seeing how these impact the integrated view of the data, and refining the design accordingly. We propose a novel smart copy and paste (SCP) model and architecture for seamlessly combining the design-time and run-time aspects of data integration, and we describe an initial prototype, the CopyCat system. In CopyCat, the user does not need special tools for the different stages of integration: instead, the system watches as the user copies data from applications (including the Web browser) and pastes them into CopyCat?s spreadsheet-like workspace. CopyCat generalizes these actions and presents proposed auto-completions, each with an explanation in the form of provenance. The user provides f...

  6. Significance of genome-wide analysis of copy number alterations and UPD in myelodysplastic syndromes using combined CGH - SNP arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ausaf; Iqbal, M Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Genetic information is an extremely valuable data source in characterizing the personal nature of cancer. Chromosome instability is a hallmark of most cancer cells. Chromosomal abnormalities are correlated with poor prognosis, disease classification, risk stratification, and treatment selection. Copy number alterations (CNAs) are an important molecular signature in cancer initiation, development, and progression. Recent application of whole-genome tools to characterize normal and cancer genomes provides the powerful molecular cytogenetic means to enumerate the multiple somatic, genetic and epigenetic alterations that occur in cancer. Combined array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array is a useful technique allowing detection of CNAs and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or uni-parental disomy (UPD) together in a single experiment. It also provides allelic information on deletions, duplications, and amplifications. UPD can result in an abnormal phenotype when the chromosomes involved are imprinted. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are the most common clonal stem cell hematologic malignancy characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, which leads to rapid progression into acute myeloid leukemia. UPD that occurs without concurrent changes in the gene copy number is a common chromosomal defect in hematologic malignancies, especially in MDS. Approximately 40-50% of MDS patients do not have karyotypic abnormalities that are detectable using classical metaphase cytogenetic techniques (MC) because of inherent limitations of MC, low resolution and the requirement of having dividing cells. In this review, we highlight advances in the clinical application of microarray technology in MDS and discuss the clinical potential of microarray.

  7. Efficiency Enhancement of Pico-cell Base Station Power Amplifier MMIC in Gallium Nitride HFET Technology Using the Doherty technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sashieka

    With the growth of smart phones, the demand for more broadband, data centric technologies are being driven higher. As mobile operators worldwide plan and deploy 4th generation (4G) networks such as LTE to support the relentless growth in mobile data demand, the need for strategically positioned pico-sized cellular base stations known as 'pico-cells' are gaining traction. In addition to having to design a transceiver in a much compact footprint, pico-cells must still face the technical challenges presented by the new 4G systems, such as reduced power consumptions and linear amplification of the signals. The RF power amplifier (PA) that amplifies the output signals of 4G pico-cell systems face challenges to minimize size, achieve high average efficiencies and broader bandwidths while maintaining linearity and operating at higher frequencies. 4G standards as LTE use non-constant envelope modulation techniques with high peak to average ratios. Power amplifiers implemented in such applications are forced to operate at a backed off region from saturation. Therefore, in order to reduce power consumption, a design of a high efficiency PA that can maintain the efficiency for a wider range of radio frequency signals is required. The primary focus of this thesis is to enhance the efficiency of a compact RF amplifier suitable for a 4G pico-cell base station. For this aim, an integrated two way Doherty amplifier design in a compact 10mm x 11.5mm2 monolithic microwave integrated circuit using GaN device technology is presented. Using non-linear GaN HFETs models, the design achieves high effi-ciencies of over 50% at both back-off and peak power regions without compromising on the stringent linearity requirements of 4G LTE standards. This demonstrates a 17% increase in power added efficiency at 6 dB back off from peak power compared to conventional Class AB amplifier performance. Performance optimization techniques to select between high efficiency and high linearity operation are

  8. Identifying single copy orthologs in Metazoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Creevey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of single copy (1-to-1 orthologs in any group of organisms is important for functional classification and phylogenetic studies. The Metazoa are no exception, but only recently has there been a wide-enough distribution of taxa with sufficiently high quality sequenced genomes to gain confidence in the wide-spread single copy status of a gene.Here, we present a phylogenetic approach for identifying overlooked single copy orthologs from multigene families and apply it to the Metazoa. Using 18 sequenced metazoan genomes of high quality we identified a robust set of 1,126 orthologous groups that have been retained in single copy since the last common ancestor of Metazoa. We found that the use of the phylogenetic procedure increased the number of single copy orthologs found by over a third more than standard taxon-count approaches. The orthologs represented a wide range of functional categories, expression profiles and levels of divergence.To demonstrate the value of our set of single copy orthologs, we used them to assess the completeness of 24 currently published metazoan genomes and 62 EST datasets. We found that the annotated genes in published genomes vary in coverage from 79% (Ciona intestinalis to 99.8% (human with an average of 92%, suggesting a value for the underlying error rate in genome annotation, and a strategy for identifying single copy orthologs in larger datasets. In contrast, the vast majority of EST datasets with no corresponding genome sequence available are largely under-sampled and probably do not accurately represent the actual genomic complement of the organisms from which they are derived.

  9. A multilevel model to address batch effects in copy number estimation using SNP arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharpf, Robert B; Ruczinski, Ingo; Carvalho, Benilton; Doan, Betty; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Irizarry, Rafael A

    2011-01-01

    Submicroscopic changes in chromosomal DNA copy number dosage are common and have been implicated in many heritable diseases and cancers. Recent high-throughput technologies have a resolution that permits the detection of segmental changes in DNA copy number that span thousands of base pairs in the genome. Genomewide association studies (GWAS) may simultaneously screen for copy number phenotype and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) phenotype associations as part of the analytic strategy. However, genomewide array analyses are particularly susceptible to batch effects as the logistics of preparing DNA and processing thousands of arrays often involves multiple laboratories and technicians, or changes over calendar time to the reagents and laboratory equipment. Failure to adjust for batch effects can lead to incorrect inference and requires inefficient post hoc quality control procedures to exclude regions that are associated with batch. Our work extends previous model-based approaches for copy number estimation by explicitly modeling batch and using shrinkage to improve locus-specific estimates of copy number uncertainty. Key features of this approach include the use of biallelic genotype calls from experimental data to estimate batch-specific and locus-specific parameters of background and signal without the requirement of training data. We illustrate these ideas using a study of bipolar disease and a study of chromosome 21 trisomy. The former has batch effects that dominate much of the observed variation in the quantile-normalized intensities, while the latter illustrates the robustness of our approach to a data set in which approximately 27% of the samples have altered copy number. Locus-specific estimates of copy number can be plotted on the copy number scale to investigate mosaicism and guide the choice of appropriate downstream approaches for smoothing the copy number as a function of physical position. The software is open source and implemented in the R

  10. Changing teaching techniques and adapting new technologies to improve student learning in an introductory meteorology and climate course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrim, E. M.; Rudge, D.; Kits, K.; Mitchell, J.; Nogueira, R.

    2006-06-01

    Responding to the call for reform in science education, changes were made in an introductory meteorology and climate course offered at a large public university. These changes were a part of a larger project aimed at deepening and extending a program of science content courses that model effective teaching strategies for prospective middle school science teachers. Therefore, revisions were made to address misconceptions about meteorological phenomena, foster deeper understanding of key concepts, encourage engagement with the text, and promote inquiry-based learning. Techniques introduced include: use of a flash cards, student reflection questionnaires, writing assignments, and interactive discussions on weather and forecast data using computer technology such as Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). The revision process is described in a case study format. Preliminary results (self-reflection by the instructor, surveys of student opinion, and measurements of student achievement), suggest student learning has been positively influenced. This study is supported by three grants: NSF grant No. 0202923, the Unidata Equipment Award, and the Lucia Harrison Endowment Fund.

  11. Changing teaching techniques and adapting new technologies to improve student learning in an introductory meteorology and climate course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Cutrim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Responding to the call for reform in science education, changes were made in an introductory meteorology and climate course offered at a large public university. These changes were a part of a larger project aimed at deepening and extending a program of science content courses that model effective teaching strategies for prospective middle school science teachers. Therefore, revisions were made to address misconceptions about meteorological phenomena, foster deeper understanding of key concepts, encourage engagement with the text, and promote inquiry-based learning. Techniques introduced include: use of a flash cards, student reflection questionnaires, writing assignments, and interactive discussions on weather and forecast data using computer technology such as Integrated Data Viewer (IDV. The revision process is described in a case study format. Preliminary results (self-reflection by the instructor, surveys of student opinion, and measurements of student achievement, suggest student learning has been positively influenced. This study is supported by three grants: NSF grant No. 0202923, the Unidata Equipment Award, and the Lucia Harrison Endowment Fund.

  12. Elimination of Parallel Copies using Code Motion on Data Dependence Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandner, Florian; Colombet, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Register allocation regained much interest in recent years due to the development of decoupled strategies that split the problem into separate phases: spilling, register assignment, and copy elimination. Traditional approaches to copy elimination during register allocation are based on interference...... graphs and register coalescing. Variables are represented as nodes in a graph, which are coalesced, if they can be assigned the same register. However, decoupled approaches strive to avoid interference graphs and thus often resort to local recoloring. A common assumption of existing coalescing......, while at the same time a valid register assignment is preserved. Our results show that even after traditional register allocation with coalescing our technique is able to eliminate an additional 3% (up to 9%) of the remaining copies and reduce the weighted costs of register copies by up to 25...

  13. Decomposition of Parallel Copies with Duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Purohit

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available SSA form is becoming more popular in the context of JIT compilation since it allows the compiler to perform important optimizations like common sub-expression elimination or constant propagation without the drawbacks of keeping huge data structures in memory or requiring a lot of computing power. The recent approach of SSA-based register allocation performs SSA elimination after register allocation. F. Bouchez et al. proposed parallel copy motion to prevent the splitting of edges when going out of colored SSA by moving the code that should be assigned to the edges to a more convenient place. Duplications in parallel copies pose some problems when moving them. In this paper an approach has been developed to decompose parallel copies so that duplications can be handled separately and parallel copies can be easily moved away without duplication. A simple and elegant application is moving duplicated copies out of critical edges. This is often beneficial compared to the alternative splitting the edge.

  14. A scale-space method for detecting recurrent DNA copy number changes with analytical false discovery rate control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dyk, E.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Wessels, L.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor formation is partially driven by DNA copy number changes, which are typically measured using array comparative genomic hybridization, SNP arrays and DNA sequencing platforms. Many techniques are available for detecting recurring aberrations across multiple tumor samples, including CMAR, STAC,

  15. Deteksi Pemalsuan Citra dengan Teknik Copy-Move Menggunakan Metode Ordinal Measure dari Koefisien Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a new method for the detection of forgery images generated by copy-move technique. Copy-move technique is one of image forgery techniques which taking a particular object from its original image and add it on that image for the purpose of increasing the number of or changing the same object in the original image. This study aims to detect the forged image generated by the copy-move techniques and copy-move forged image that has been modified by the rotation operation and histogram equalization. Detection feature used is Ordinal Measure of Discrete Cosine Transform coefficient (OM-DCT. Detection starts with division of the image into a block size of BXB (B = 16x16, 32x32 and 64x64 and two-dimensional DCT was performed to each of blocks. The feature distance from the original to the fake image, was calculated by the Euclidian distance and each feature has a distance of less than or equal to the threshold value (T according to the observations will be marked as a forged part. The results show that there are blocks detected on the copy-move image, whether on the unmodified copy-move forge image or those which modified by the rotation operation and histogram equalization. The number of blocks that are found in the copy-move object varies according to the size of the detection block used.

  16. The Energy of COPI for Budding Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Abdou Rachid; Pincet, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    As a major actor of cellular trafficking, COPI coat proteins assemble on membranes and locally bend them to bud 60 nm-size coated particles. Budding requires the energy of the coat assembly to overcome the one necessary to deform the membrane which primarily depends on the bending modulus and surface tension, γ. Using a COPI-induced oil nanodroplet formation approach, we modulated the budding of nanodroplets using various amounts and types of surfactant. We found a Heaviside-like dependence between the budding efficiency and γ: budding was only dependent on γ and occurred beneath 1.3 mN/m. With the sole contribution of γ to the membrane deformation energy, we assessed that COPI supplies ~1500 kBT for budding particles from membranes, which is consistent with common membrane deformation energies. Our results highlight how a simple remodeling of the composition of membranes could mechanically modulate budding in cells. PMID:26218078

  17. Black holes and the double copy

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, Ricardo; White, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a perturbative duality between gauge and gravity theories (the double copy) has been discovered, that is believed to hold to all loop orders. In this paper, we examine the relationship between classical solutions of non-Abelian gauge theory and gravity. We propose a general class of gauge theory solutions that double copy to gravity, namely those involving stationary Kerr-Schild metrics. The Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes (plus their higher-dimensional equivalents) emerge as special cases. We also discuss plane wave solutions. Furthermore, a recently examined double copy between the self-dual sectors of Yang-Mills theory and gravity can be reinterpreted using a momentum-space generalisation of the Kerr-Schild framework.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNIQUE OF DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC BENEFIT OF ACTIVITY OF A CONGLOMERATE «THE INNOVATIVE-TECHNOLOGICAL CENTER OF DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF UKRAINE»

    OpenAIRE

    Tolstova, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the clause the basic advantages of creation of an innovative conglomerate «The is innovative-technological center of development of transport system of Ukraine» are considered, the technique of determination of economic benefit of its activity is developed.

  19. Effect of Computer Animation Technique on Students' Comprehension of the "Solar System and Beyond" Unit in the Science and Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of computer animation technique on academic achievement of students in the "Solar System and Beyond" unit lecture as part of the Science and Technology course of the seventh grade in primary education. The sample of the study consists of 60 students attending to the 7th grade of primary school…

  20. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed.

  1. Utilization of Innovations and Techniques of Educational Technology in Delivering of Educational Practicum and Its Impact on Increasing Academic Achievement among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hatim G.

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the utilization of innovations and techniques of educational technology in teaching of educational practicum and its impact on increasing academic achievement among pre-service teachers. The study sample consisted of (60) pre-service teachers (student teachers) randomly selected from public middle and secondary…

  2. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  3. High-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies foster new cutting-edge computing techniques in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mary Qu; Athey, Brian D; Arabnia, Hamid R; Sung, Andrew H; Liu, Qingzhong; Yang, Jack Y; Mao, Jinghe; Deng, Youping

    2009-07-07

    The advent of high-throughput next generation sequencing technologies have fostered enormous potential applications of supercomputing techniques in genome sequencing, epi-genetics, metagenomics, personalized medicine, discovery of non-coding RNAs and protein-binding sites. To this end, the 2008 International Conference on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (Biocomp) - 2008 World Congress on Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Applied Computing (Worldcomp) was designed to promote synergistic inter/multidisciplinary research and education in response to the current research trends and advances. The conference attracted more than two thousand scientists, medical doctors, engineers, professors and students gathered at Las Vegas, Nevada, USA during July 14-17 and received great success. Supported by International Society of Intelligent Biological Medicine (ISIBM), International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design (IJCBDD), International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalized Medicine (IJFIPM) and the leading research laboratories from Harvard, M.I.T., Purdue, UIUC, UCLA, Georgia Tech, UT Austin, U. of Minnesota, U. of Iowa etc, the conference received thousands of research papers. Each submitted paper was reviewed by at least three reviewers and accepted papers were required to satisfy reviewers' comments. Finally, the review board and the committee decided to select only 19 high-quality research papers for inclusion in this supplement to BMC Genomics based on the peer reviews only. The conference committee was very grateful for the Plenary Keynote Lectures given by: Dr. Brian D. Athey (University of Michigan Medical School), Dr. Vladimir N. Uversky (Indiana University School of Medicine), Dr. David A. Patterson (Member of United States National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering, University of California at Berkeley) and Anousheh Ansari (Prodea Systems, Space Ambassador). The theme of the conference to promote

  4. An integrated Bayesian analysis of LOH and copy number data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutter Marcus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer and other disorders are due to genomic lesions. SNP-microarrays are able to measure simultaneously both genotype and copy number (CN at several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs along the genome. CN is defined as the number of DNA copies, and the normal is two, since we have two copies of each chromosome. The genotype of a SNP is the status given by the nucleotides (alleles which are present on the two copies of DNA. It is defined homozygous or heterozygous if the two alleles are the same or if they differ, respectively. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH is the loss of the heterozygous status due to genomic events. Combining CN and LOH data, it is possible to better identify different types of genomic aberrations. For example, a long sequence of homozygous SNPs might be caused by either the physical loss of one copy or a uniparental disomy event (UPD, i.e. each SNP has two identical nucleotides both derived from only one parent. In this situation, the knowledge of the CN can help in distinguishing between these two events. Results To better identify genomic aberrations, we propose a method (called gBPCR which infers the type of aberration occurred, taking into account all the possible influence in the microarray detection of the homozygosity status of the SNPs, resulting from an altered CN level. Namely, we model the distributions of the detected genotype, given a specific genomic alteration and we estimate the parameters involved on public reference datasets. The estimation is performed similarly to the modified Bayesian Piecewise Constant Regression, but with improved estimators for the detection of the breakpoints. Using artificial and real data, we evaluate the quality of the estimation of gBPCR and we also show that it outperforms other well-known methods for LOH estimation. Conclusions We propose a method (gBPCR for the estimation of both LOH and CN aberrations, improving their estimation by integrating both types

  5. DESIGNING A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE MODEL WITH TECHNOLOGY ORIENTED APPROACH USING FAHP TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY IN COIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLHAMID S. GHADIKOLAEI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinctive attributes of today’s successful companies is having at least one competitive advantage in one known area. Technological competency is an important advantage which helps improve the firm’s competitiveness. In fact, suitable use of new technologies can dramatically influence the innovation speed, decrease the time of product development cycle and also increase the rate of new product introduction. Firm-specific technological competencies help explain why a firm is different, how it changes over time, and whether it is capable of remaining competitive. In this study, technological competency factors (technology management, process technology, product technology are prioritized according to the competitive advantage levels(customer satisfaction, brand reputation, new product introduction, market share and competitive priorities (cost, price, quality, flexibility, time using fuzzy Analytic hierarchy process (FAHP with the aim of maximizing the nonfinancial performance at coil manufacture industry. The results indicate that within Iran coil industry, process technology is of greater importance than technology management and product technology.

  6. Kinematic Analysis on the Serve Technique of Elite Tennis Player GrigorDimitrov Based on 3D Virtual Reality Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chuan Jia Du; Ji He Zhou; Shuai Wang

    2016-01-01

      By using three-dimensional video analysis, we made a kinematic analysis on Grigor Dimitrov's Serve technique, aiming at finding the kinematic characteristics of his serve technique during various stages...

  7. Teaching Ad Copy--I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Ward; Vanden Bergh, Bruce G.

    1981-01-01

    Ward Welty notes that the standard advertising course could be improved by including a unit of study in rhetoric, especially Aristotelian rhetoric. Bruce Vanden Bergh reports on research on the differences in creating advertising copy for radio versus the visual media of magazines, newspapers, and television. (RL)

  8. 48 CFR 1401.105-3 - Copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 1401.105-3 Section... of the Interior, 1849 C Street (MS 2607-MIB), NW., Washington, DC 20240. Additional information on DOI may be obtained on the Internet at http://www.doi.gov/pam....

  9. 48 CFR 2901.105-3 - Copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information on DOL may be obtained on the Internet at www.dol.gov. Other DOL procurement policy documents... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 2901.105-3 Section 2901.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. Teaching Ad Copy--I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Ward; Vanden Bergh, Bruce G.

    1981-01-01

    Ward Welty notes that the standard advertising course could be improved by including a unit of study in rhetoric, especially Aristotelian rhetoric. Bruce Vanden Bergh reports on research on the differences in creating advertising copy for radio versus the visual media of magazines, newspapers, and television. (RL)

  11. Adaptive copy number evolution in malaria parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Nair

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Copy number polymorphism (CNP is ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes, but the degree to which this reflects the action of positive selection is poorly understood. The first gene in the Plasmodium folate biosynthesis pathway, GTP-cyclohydrolase I (gch1, shows extensive CNP. We provide compelling evidence that gch1 CNP is an adaptive consequence of selection by antifolate drugs, which target enzymes downstream in this pathway. (1 We compared gch1 CNP in parasites from Thailand (strong historical antifolate selection with those from neighboring Laos (weak antifolate selection. Two percent of chromosomes had amplified copy number in Laos, while 72% carried multiple (2-11 copies in Thailand, and differentiation exceeded that observed at 73 synonymous SNPs. (2 We found five amplicon types containing one to greater than six genes and spanning 1 to >11 kb, consistent with parallel evolution and strong selection for this gene amplification. gch1 was the only gene occurring in all amplicons suggesting that this locus is the target of selection. (3 We observed reduced microsatellite variation and increased linkage disequilibrium (LD in a 900-kb region flanking gch1 in parasites from Thailand, consistent with rapid recent spread of chromosomes carrying multiple copies of gch1. (4 We found that parasites bearing dhfr-164L, which causes high-level resistance to antifolate drugs, carry significantly (p = 0.00003 higher copy numbers of gch1 than parasites bearing 164I, indicating functional association between genes located on different chromosomes but linked in the same biochemical pathway. These results demonstrate that CNP at gch1 is adaptive and the associations with dhfr-164L strongly suggest a compensatory function. More generally, these data demonstrate how selection affects multiple enzymes in a single biochemical pathway, and suggest that investigation of structural variation may provide a fast-track to locating genes underlying adaptation.

  12. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  13. Technologies and techniques for analysis and use of genome information, 1997; Genome joho kaidoku riyo gijutsu no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper clarified the whole image of cell functions by elucidating the function and manifestation control mechanism of genes existing in genomes, and the network of their interactions, and surveyed applicability of the useful functions obtained of cells and proteins to the industrial field. The survey was made from a viewpoint of the fields of both biology and information science. Especially, based on the function-known DNA base sequence database, the following technologies were surveyed: technology to predict the function of the function-unknown DNA base sequence, search/separation technology to acquire the genes to be functionally elucidated in a state of being suitable for manifestation, technology to get perfect proteins by effectively manifesting the genes to be functionally elucidated, and technology to analyze the function of the proteins obtained by manifestation of genes. Further, the International Symposium was held which is titled `Genome Research Opens a New World to Bioindustry (New Developments in Genome Informatics Technologies). With the future progress of technology to decipher and use genome information, the construction of much newer genome industry is anticipated. 165 refs., 44 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Subtelomeric Rearrangements and Copy Number Variations in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofolini, D. M.; De Paula Ramos, M. A.; Kulikowski, L. D.; Da Silva Bellucco, F. T.; Belangero, S. I. N.; Brunoni, D.; Melaragno, M. I.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The most prevalent type of structural variation in the human genome is represented by copy number variations that can affect transcription levels, sequence, structure and function of genes. Method: In the present study, we used the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique and quantitative PCR for the detection…

  15. Hard Copy to Digital Transfer: 3D Models that Match 2D Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    This research describes technical drawing techniques applied in a project involving digitizing of existing hard copy subsurface mapping for the preparation of three dimensional graphic and mathematical models. The intent of this research was to identify work flows that would support the project, ensure the accuracy of the digital data obtained,…

  16. Hard Copy to Digital Transfer: 3D Models that Match 2D Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    This research describes technical drawing techniques applied in a project involving digitizing of existing hard copy subsurface mapping for the preparation of three dimensional graphic and mathematical models. The intent of this research was to identify work flows that would support the project, ensure the accuracy of the digital data obtained,…

  17. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M.; Whiten, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups...... of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High......-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given...

  18. [Create or copy... Which is the difference?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López P, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Creating and copying are two different processes; we must not confuse creativity with plagiarism. However, this distinction is problematic, because there is no possibility of creating from scratch, this implies that any creative act necessarily arises from accumulative experience, inevitably producing a continuity between old and new. Even so it is necessary to establish clearly the difference between creating and copying. It is not desirable that a matter of such importance remains in the nebula or that the relationship between creativity and ethics is kept unaware. There are many cases of plagiarism, but this cannot be a consolation. There is no gain when the existence of a plagiarism is ignored or concealed and less when it is unjustified.

  19. Watermarking scar as an ultimate copy protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braci, Sofiane; Miraoui, Abdelkader; Delpha, Claude; Boyer, Remy, E-mail: sofiane.braci@lss.supelec.f, E-mail: Abdelkader.Miraoui@lss.supelec.f, E-mail: claude.delpha@lss.supelec.f, E-mail: remy.boyer@lss.supelec.f [University Paris-Sud 11, Laboratory of Signals and Systems, Supelec, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2010-02-01

    Strong and powerful attacks are able to make the watermark extraction impossible even if there is some watermarking. In this work, we call this residual information the scar and we use it to prove the existence of an attacked watermark. We evaluate the Scar by the mutual information between the embedded watermark and the attacked copies. It is well known that the mutual information between two random variables gives an evaluation of the shared information between the two variables. Thus, the attack can compromise the correct decoding by removing partially the watermarking information. However, it is possible to make the watermarking existence proof possible when the mutual information between the embedded message and the attacked copies is above a certain threshold. We propose a practical way to use the scar by measuring the correlation between the attacked watermark and the original one.

  20. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-4, Operation of Magnetic Particle Test Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fourth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the specific technique variables and options which are available to the test technician, provides instructions for selecting and operating the appropriate test equipment, describes physical criteria for detectable discontinuities,…

  1. Colour hard-copy from workstation screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, C. A.

    It is possible to produce a colour print on the DEC LJ250 inkjet printer of either the entire screen or a portion of the screen from VAXstations, DECstations, SUN workstations and the IKON image display. This document describes how to achieve this with each of the above workstations. The IKONPAINT software which is used to produce colour hard-copy from the IKON screen on the inkjet printer is fully documented in SUN/71 and is not described here.

  2. Preferences for engagement in health technology assessment decision-making: a nominal group technique with members of the public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortley, Sally; Tong, Allison; Howard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    To identify characteristics (factors) about health technology assessment (HTA) decisions that are important to the public in determining whether public engagement should be undertaken and the reasons for these choices...

  3. Optimization Digital Image Watermarking Technique for Patent Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Elnajjar, Mahmoud; Zaidan, B B; Sharif, Mohamed Elhadi M; Alanazi, Hamdan O

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of multimedia and internet allows for wide distribution of digital media data. It becomes much easier to edit, modify and duplicate digital information besides that, digital documents are also easy to copy and distribute, therefore it will be faced by many threats. It is a big security and privacy issue. Another problem with digital document and video is that undetectable modifications can be made with very simple and widely available equipment, which put the digital material for evidential purposes under question With the large flood of information and the development of the digital format, it become necessary to find appropriate protection because of the significance, accuracy and sensitivity of the information, therefore multimedia technology and popularity of internet communications they have great interest in using digital watermarks for the purpose of copy protection and content authentication. Digital watermarking is a technique used to embed a known piece of digital data within a...

  4. Reliable transgene-independent method for determining Sleeping Beauty transposon copy numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolacsek Orsolya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transposon-based gene delivery technique is emerging as a method of choice for gene therapy. The Sleeping Beauty (SB system has become one of the most favored methods, because of its efficiency and its random integration profile. Copy-number determination of the delivered transgene is a crucial task, but a universal method for measuring this is lacking. In this paper, we show that a real-time quantitative PCR-based, transgene-independent (qPCR-TI method is able to determine SB transposon copy numbers regardless of the genetic cargo. Results We designed a specific PCR assay to amplify the left inverted repeat-direct repeat region of SB, and used it together with the single-copy control gene RPPH1 and a reference genomic DNA of known copy number. The qPCR-TI method allowed rapid and accurate determination of SB transposon copy numbers in various cell types, including human embryonic stem cells. We also found that this sensitive, rapid, highly reproducible and non-radioactive method is just as accurate and reliable as the widely used blotting techniques or the transposon display method. Because the assay is specific for the inverted repeat region of the transposon, it could be used in any system where the SB transposon is the genetic vehicle. Conclusions We have developed a transgene-independent method to determine copy numbers of transgenes delivered by the SB transposon system. The technique is based on a quantitative real-time PCR detection method, offering a sensitive, non-radioactive, rapid and accurate approach, which has a potential to be used for gene therapy.

  5. 42 CFR 456.612 - Copies of reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Institutions for Mental Diseases § 456.612 Copies of reports. The agency must send a copy of each inspection... function, including, if inspection reports concern IMD's, the appropriate State mental health authorities....

  6. 19 CFR 133.42 - Infringing copies or phonorecords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Referral to the U.S. Attorney. In the event that phonorecords or copies of motion pictures arrive in the U... trafficking in counterfeit labels for phonorecords or copies of motion pictures or other audiovisual works...

  7. Statistical tools for transgene copy number estimation based on real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Joshua S; Burris, Jason; Stewart, Nathan R; Mentewab, Ayalew; Stewart, C Neal

    2007-11-01

    As compared with traditional transgene copy number detection technologies such as Southern blot analysis, real-time PCR provides a fast, inexpensive and high-throughput alternative. However, the real-time PCR based transgene copy number estimation tends to be ambiguous and subjective stemming from the lack of proper statistical analysis and data quality control to render a reliable estimation of copy number with a prediction value. Despite the recent progresses in statistical analysis of real-time PCR, few publications have integrated these advancements in real-time PCR based transgene copy number determination. Three experimental designs and four data quality control integrated statistical models are presented. For the first method, external calibration curves are established for the transgene based on serially-diluted templates. The Ct number from a control transgenic event and putative transgenic event are compared to derive the transgene copy number or zygosity estimation. Simple linear regression and two group T-test procedures were combined to model the data from this design. For the second experimental design, standard curves were generated for both an internal reference gene and the transgene, and the copy number of transgene was compared with that of internal reference gene. Multiple regression models and ANOVA models can be employed to analyze the data and perform quality control for this approach. In the third experimental design, transgene copy number is compared with reference gene without a standard curve, but rather, is based directly on fluorescence data. Two different multiple regression models were proposed to analyze the data based on two different approaches of amplification efficiency integration. Our results highlight the importance of proper statistical treatment and quality control integration in real-time PCR-based transgene copy number determination. These statistical methods allow the real-time PCR-based transgene copy number estimation

  8. Conditionally amplifiable BACs: switching from single-copy to high-copy vectors and genomic clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Jadwiga; Hradecna, Zdenka; Szybalski, Waclaw

    2002-09-01

    The widely used, very-low-copy BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) vectors are the mainstay of present genomic research. The principal advantage of BACs is the high stability of inserted clones, but an important disadvantage is the low yield of DNA, both for vectors alone and when carrying genomic inserts. We describe here a novel class of single-copy/high-copy (SC/HC) pBAC/oriV vectors that retain all the advantages of low-copy BAC vectors, but are endowed with a conditional and tightly controlled oriV/TrfA amplification system that allows: (1) a yield of ~100 copies of the vector per host cell when conditionally induced with L-arabinose, and (2) analogous DNA amplification (only upon induction and with copy number depending on the insert size) of pBAC/oriV clones carrying >100-kb inserts. Amplifiable clones and libraries facilitate high-throughput DNA sequencing and other applications requiring HC plasmid DNA. To turn on DNA amplification, which is driven by the oriV origin of replication, we used copy-up mutations in the gene trfA whose expression was very tightly controlled by the araC-P(araBAD) promoter/regulator system. This system is inducible by L-arabinose, and could be further regulated by glucose and fucose. Amplification of DNA upon induction with L-arabinose and its modulation by glucose are robust and reliable. Furthermore, we discovered that addition of 0.2% D-glucose to the growth medium helped toward the objective of obtaining a real SC state for all BAC systems, thus enhancing the stability of their maintenance, which became equivalent to cloning into the host chromosome

  9. 33 CFR 88.05 - Copy of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copy of rules. 88.05 Section 88... RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.05 Copy of rules. The operator of each self-propelled vessel 12 meters or more in length shall carry on board and maintain for ready reference a copy of the Inland...

  10. 27 CFR 478.95 - Certified copy of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified copy of license... Conduct of Business § 478.95 Certified copy of license. The license furnished to each person licensed... the licensee desires an additional copy of the license for certification (instead of making a...

  11. 47 CFR 95.673 - Copy of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copy of rules. 95.673 Section 95.673... SERVICES Technical Regulations Additional Certification Requirements for Cb Transmitters § 95.673 Copy of rules. A copy of part 95, subpart D, of the FCC Rules, current at the time of packing of the transmitter...

  12. 40 CFR 374.5 - Copy of complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copy of complaint. 374.5 Section 374.5... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.5 Copy of complaint. At the time of filing an action under this Act, the plaintiff must provide a copy of the complaint to the Attorney...

  13. Optimal copying of entangled two-qubit states

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, J; Jex, I

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the problem of copying pure two-qubit states of a given degree of entanglement in an optimal way. Completely positive covariant quantum operations are constructed which maximize the fidelity of the output states with respect to two separable copies. These optimal copying processes hint at the intricate relationship between fundamental laws of quantum theory and entanglement.

  14. 27 CFR 22.165 - Photographic copies of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 22.165 Section 22.165 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Transactions § 22.165 Photographic copies of records. (a) General. Permittees may record, copy, or...

  15. 27 CFR 19.725 - Photographic copies of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 19.725 Section 19.725 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Photographic copies of records. (a) Application. Proprietors who desire to record, copy or reproduce...

  16. 27 CFR 31.192 - Photographic copies of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 31.192 Section 31.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Records and Files § 31.192 Photographic copies of records. (a) General. Dealers may record, copy,...

  17. 27 CFR 18.64 - Photographic copies of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 18.64 Section 18.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Reports § 18.64 Photographic copies of records. Proprietors may record, copy, or reproduce...

  18. 27 CFR 20.268 - Photographic copies of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 20.268 Section 20.268 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Reports § 20.268 Photographic copies of records. (a) General. Permittees may record, copy, or...

  19. Computer Simulation Techniques for Molecular Structure of Coal for Advanced Coal Conversion Technology; Sekitan kodo henkan no tameno bunshikozo shimyureshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanohashi, Toshimasa [Energy Resources Dept., Tokyo (Japan). Fundamental Research Div.; Nakamura, Kazuo [Osaka Gas Corp., Osaka (Japan). Fundamental Research Laboratories; Iino, Masashi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan), Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1999-02-25

    Coal has complex chemical structure consisting of various bond types and the details are still not well understood. Recently, in addition to improvements of analytical techniques, molecular modeling and simulation techniques by using powerful computers and software have greatly developed and it has become possible to apply them to complex structure such as coal. Knowledge of coal's molecular structure is important for the understanding of various coal properties and reactivities under several conditions. In this paper, a new tool, i.e., molecular modeling technique of coal's macromolecular structure and dynamic simulation of coal properties, is introduced and the future applications of this technique will be outlined. (author)

  20. Medieval and Renaissance anatomists: the printing and unauthorized copying of illustrations, and the dissemination of ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J; Lanska, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vanguard that began to question Galenic anatomical dogma originated in northern Italy in the latter half of the thirteenth century, and not coincidentally this was where human dissection was introduced, which in turn eventually fostered the origins of realistic anatomical illustration in the late fifteenth century. With the advent of the printing press and moveable type at this time, printed books began to supersede hand-copied medieval manuscripts, and labor-intensive techniques were soon developed to integrate text and illustrations on the printed page. The same technology was used to pirate the illustrations of prior authors with varying fidelity. Specific medieval and Renaissance anatomical illustrations can often be traced from their inceptions through different stages of development to the final printed images, and then through subsequent pirated versions in various abridgements or other compendia. The most important milestone in the development of anatomy and anatomical illustration was the publication in 1543 by Andreas Vesalii of De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body), commonly referred to simply as the Fabrica. With this work, Vesalii succeeded in coordinating a publication production team (author, artists, block cutters, publisher, and typesetters) to achieve an unprecedented integration of scientific discourse, medical illustration, and typography. However, despite Vesalii's valiant efforts to prevent unauthorized duplication, the illustrations from the Fabrica were extensively plagiarized. Although Vesalii found such piracy frustrating and annoying, the long-term effect was to make Vesalii's ideas known to a wider readership and to help solidify his own revolutionary contributions to anatomy.

  1. Copy Protection in Jet Set Willy: developing methodology for retrogame archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Aycock

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Video games, and more generally computer games, are unquestionably technological artefacts that have cultural significance. Old computer games in particular had to function under technical constraints that would be alien to many modern programmers, while at the same time providing something novel and at first foreign to consumers. How did their creators accomplish their technical feats, and what impact did that have for the player-consumer? The study of 'retro' computer games' implementation is one topic within the nascent area of archaeogaming. Digital rights management (DRM continues to be a major issue in the protection and distribution of content in electronic form. In this article, we study an early example of the implementation of copy protection in the 1984 game Jet Set Willy, something that comprises both physical and digital artefacts. It acts as a vehicle to illustrate a number of methods that we used to understand game implementation, culminating in a full reconstruction of the technique. The methods we cover include: 'traditional' research, along with its limitations in this context; code and data analysis; hypothesis testing; reconstruction. Through this positivist experimental approach, our results are both independently verifiable and repeatable. We also approach the complex context of early DRM, its hacks and workarounds by the player community, and what precipitated the design choices made for this particular game.

  2. Study on a New Technique of On-line Monitoring of Oil Contamination Level Using Computer Vision Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Qun-zhang; ZUO Hong-fu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,a new technique of capturing the images of debris in lubrication or hydraulic oil using micro-imaging and computer vision techniques is introduced.By way of image processing,the size and distribution of debris are obtained,and then the oil contamination level is also obtained.Because the information of oil contamination is obtained directly from the images of debris by this method,the monitoring result is more intuitive and reliable.

  3. Selection of suitable endogenous reference genes for relative copy number detection in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bantong; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Fu, Zhiwei; Wu, Luguang; Xu, Liping

    2014-05-19

    Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM) crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential "single copy" genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3--high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1--medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2--low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane.

  4. An Efficient Method for Detection of Copy-Move Forgery Using Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Saiqa Khan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Copy-Move forgery is a specific type of image forgery, in which a part of digital image is copied and pasted to another part in the same image. This paper describes blind forensics approach for detecting Copy-Move forgery. Our technique works by first applying DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform to the input image to yield a reduced dimension representation [1]. Then the compressed image is divided into overlapping blocks. These blocks are then sorted and duplicated blocks are identified using Phase Correlation as similarity criterion. Due to DWT usage, detection is first carried out on lowest level image representation. This approach drastically reduces the time needed for the detection process.

  5. Development and application of genotyping technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the completion of Human Genome Project,International HapMap Project and the publication of copy number variation in human genome,a great number of accurate,rapid,and cost-effective technologies for SNP analysis have been developed,promoting the research of the complex diseases.This article presents a review of widely used genotyping techniques,and the progress and prospect in the study of complex diseases in terms of the projects and achievements of Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai(CHGCs).

  6. Development and application of genotyping technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI JinXiu; WANG Ying; HUANG Wei

    2009-01-01

    With the completion of Human Genome Project, International HapMap Project and the publication of copy number variation in human genome, a great number of accurate, rapid, and cost-effective tech-nologies for SNP analysis have been developed, promoting the research of the complex diseases. This article presents a review of widely used genotyping techniques, and the progress and prospect in the study of complex diseases in terms of the projects and achievements of Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai (CHGCs).

  7. Genome-wide copy number profiling on high-density bacterial artificial chromosomes, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and oligonucleotide microarrays: a platform comparison based on statistical power analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Egmont-Peterson, M.; Janssen, I.M.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Veltman, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, comparative genomic hybridization onto bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays (array-based comparative genomic hybridization) has proved to be successful for the detection of submicroscopic DNA copy-number variations in health and disease. Technological improvements to achieve a

  8. Repenser la définition des aides techniques en éducation / Rethinking the definition of assistive technology in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajer Chalghoumi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En éducation, un nombre croissant d’élèves avec incapacités ont recours aux aides techniques. Parallèlement, une littérature récente mais de plus en plus abondante étudie ce concept. En dépit de cet intérêt grandissant tant au niveau de la recherche que de la pratique liée à ces technologies, plusieurs indices soulignent la difficulté de distinguer entre ce concept et celui de technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC notamment en éducation. Les aides techniques sont-elles un concept distinct ou une variante des TIC? Quelles sont les conséquences d’une telle confusion conceptuelle ? Comment peut-on différencier ces deux concepts ? L’objectif du présent article est d’apporter des éléments de réponse à ces questions. In education, an increasing number of students with disabilities make use of assistive technologies (AT. Meanwhile, a recent but growing literature studies this concept. Despite this interest both in research and practice related to these technologies, several clues point to the difficulty of distinguishing it from and the information and communication technology (ICT, particularly in education. Are AT a distinct concept or a variation of ICT? What are the consequences of such a confusion? How can we differentiate these two concepts? The purpose of this article is to provide some answers to these questions.

  9. Stolen and lost copies of Vesalius's Fabrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeno, Omer; Biesbrouck, Maurits

    2012-01-01

    Thefts and losses of precious books are not rare. Here we report several incidents concerning vesalius's Fabrica: the fire of the University Library of Leuven in Belgium, the fate of the collection of the Leopoldina Library of Halle in Germany, the thefts from the Crerar Library in Chicago and in Christ Church College in Oxford, the disappearance of an exceptionally beautiful 'royal' copy from the Castle of Argenteuil (Belgium), and other Fabrica's missing at the Franeker Library in the Netherlands and at the Library of oradea in West Romania. Finally the means of protecting precious book collections are discussed in short as well as the importance of book identification.

  10. Ribosomal DNA copy number loss and sequence variation in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baoshan; Li, Hua; Perry, John M; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Unruh, Jay; Yu, Zulin; Zakari, Musinu; McDowell, William; Li, Linheng; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-06-01

    Ribosomal DNA is one of the most variable regions in the human genome with respect to copy number. Despite the importance of rDNA for cellular function, we know virtually nothing about what governs its copy number, stability, and sequence in the mammalian genome due to challenges associated with mapping and analysis. We applied computational and droplet digital PCR approaches to measure rDNA copy number in normal and cancer states in human and mouse genomes. We find that copy number and sequence can change in cancer genomes. Counterintuitively, human cancer genomes show a loss of copies, accompanied by global copy number co-variation. The sequence can also be more variable in the cancer genome. Cancer genomes with lower copies have mutational evidence of mTOR hyperactivity. The PTEN phosphatase is a tumor suppressor that is critical for genome stability and a negative regulator of the mTOR kinase pathway. Surprisingly, but consistent with the human cancer genomes, hematopoietic cancer stem cells from a Pten-/- mouse model for leukemia have lower rDNA copy number than normal tissue, despite increased proliferation, rRNA production, and protein synthesis. Loss of copies occurs early and is associated with hypersensitivity to DNA damage. Therefore, copy loss is a recurrent feature in cancers associated with mTOR activation. Ribosomal DNA copy number may be a simple and useful indicator of whether a cancer will be sensitive to DNA damaging treatments.

  11. Planar chips technology for miniaturization and integration of separation techniques into monitoring systems. Capillary electrophoresis on a chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manz, A.; Harrison, D.J.; Verpoorte, E.M.J.; Fettinger, J.C.; Paulus, A.; Ludi, H.; Widmer, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    Miniaturization of already existing techniques in on-line analytical chemistry is an alternative to compound-selective chemical sensors. Theory on separation science predicts higher efficiency, faster analysis time and lower reagent consumption for microsystems. Micromachining, a well known photolit

  12. Application of indirect stress measurement techniques (non strain gauge based technology) to quantify stress environments in mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stacey, TR

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliable values of in situ stress are essential for the valid modelling of mine layouts. Available non-strain gauge methods are reviewed as potential practical techniques for South African mines. From this review it is concluded that the most...

  13. VOCs elimination and health risk reduction in e-waste dismantling workshop using integrated techniques of electrostatic precipitation with advanced oxidation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Hu, Yunkun; Li, Yunlu

    2016-01-25

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during the electronic waste dismantling process (EWDP) were treated at a pilot scale, using integrated electrostatic precipitation (EP)-advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs, subsequent photocatalysis (PC) and ozonation). Although no obvious alteration was seen in VOC concentration and composition, EP technology removed 47.2% of total suspended particles, greatly reducing the negative effect of particles on subsequent AOTs. After the AOT treatment, average removal efficiencies of 95.7%, 95.4%, 87.4%, and 97.5% were achieved for aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, as well as nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, respectively, over 60-day treatment period. Furthermore, high elimination capacities were also seen using hybrid technique of PC with ozonation; this was due to the PC unit's high loading rates and excellent pre-treatment abilities, and the ozonation unit's high elimination capacity. In addition, the non-cancer and cancer risks, as well as the occupational exposure cancer risk, for workers exposed to emitted VOCs in workshop were reduced dramatically after the integrated technique treatment. Results demonstrated that the integrated technique led to highly efficient and stable VOC removal from EWDP emissions at a pilot scale. This study points to an efficient approach for atmospheric purification and improving human health in e-waste recycling regions.

  14. Study on gob-side entry retaining technique with roadside packing in longwall top-coal caving technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Xin-zhu(华心祝)

    2004-01-01

    Pointed out some technical difficulties of gob-side entry retaining with roadside packing in longwall top-coal caving technology (LTCT), and analyzed the function mechanism of roadside filling body. Theory analysis shows the mechanical properties of high water material fit for the feature of deformation of gob-side entry retaining in LTCT, and gob-side entry retaining in LTCT face is one of effective ways to increase the recovery ratio of mining district.

  15. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, R.

    2012-03-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

  16. Quantum Copy-Protection and Quantum Money

    CERN Document Server

    Aaronson, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Forty years ago, Wiesner proposed using quantum states to create money that is physically impossible to counterfeit, something that cannot be done in the classical world. However, Wiesner's scheme required a central bank to verify the money, and the question of whether there can be unclonable quantum money that anyone can verify has remained open since. One can also ask a related question, which seems to be new: can quantum states be used as copy-protected programs, which let the user evaluate some function f, but not create more programs for f? This paper tackles both questions using the arsenal of modern computational complexity. Our main result is that there exist quantum oracles relative to which publicly-verifiable quantum money is possible, and any family of functions that cannot be efficiently learned from its input-output behavior can be quantumly copy-protected. This provides the first formal evidence that these tasks are achievable. The technical core of our result is a "Complexity-Theoretic No-Clon...

  17. MEMS Technology Sensors as a More Advantageous Technique for Measuring Foot Plantar Pressure and Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Sanz Morère

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor activities are part and parcel of daily human life. During walking or running, feet are subjected to high plantar pressure, leading sometimes to limb problems, pain, or foot ulceration. A current objective in foot plantar pressure measurements is developing sensors that are small in size, lightweight, and energy efficient, while enabling high mobility, particularly for wearable applications. Moreover, improvements in spatial resolution, accuracy, and sensitivity are of interest. Sensors with improved sensing techniques can be applied to a variety of research problems: diagnosing limb problems, footwear design, or injury prevention. This paper reviews commercially available sensors used in foot plantar pressure measurements and proposes the utilization of pressure sensors based on the MEMS (microelectromechanical systems technique. Pressure sensors based on this technique have the capacity to measure pressure with high accuracy and linearity up to high pressure levels. Moreover, being small in size, they are highly suitable for this type of measurement. We present two MEMS sensor models and study their suitability for the intended purpose by performing several experiments. Preliminary results indicate that the sensors are indeed suitable for measuring foot plantar pressure. Importantly, by measuring pressure continuously, they can also be utilized for body balance measurements.

  18. Intelligent techniques in signal processing for multimedia security

    CERN Document Server

    Santhi, V

    2017-01-01

    This book proposes new algorithms to ensure secured communications and prevent unauthorized data exchange in secured multimedia systems. Focusing on numerous applications’ algorithms and scenarios, it offers an in-depth analysis of data hiding technologies including watermarking, cryptography, encryption, copy control, and authentication. The authors present a framework for visual data hiding technologies that resolves emerging problems of modern multimedia applications in several contexts including the medical, healthcare, education, and wireless communication networking domains. Further, it introduces several intelligent security techniques with real-time implementation. As part of its comprehensive coverage, the book discusses contemporary multimedia authentication and fingerprinting techniques, while also proposing personal authentication/recognition systems based on hand images, surveillance system security using gait recognition, face recognition under restricted constraints such as dry/wet face condi...

  19. The Research of Treatment Technology and Technique of Landfill Leachate%垃圾渗滤液处理技术及工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭军; 王振; 胡瑜

    2012-01-01

    文章阐述了垃圾渗滤液的污染现状及水质特点,并对目前国内部分垃圾渗滤液处理工艺及技术进行了综述,为我国垃圾渗滤液的处理提供借鉴。%The paper expounded the present status of environmental contamination and the water quality characteristics of landfill leachate,and summarized the landfill leachate treatment technology and technique.The study conclusion provided important information for treatmenting landfill leachate.

  20. Micro-computerized tomography assessment of fluorescence aided caries excavation (FACE) technology: comparison with three other caries removal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Tu, R; Yin, W; Zhou, X; Li, X; Hu, D

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the caries removal effectiveness (CRE) and minimal invasiveness potential (MIP) of four dentine caries removal methods. After carious molars were scanned using micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT), dentine caries were removed by fluorescence aided caries excavation (FACE) technology, laser induced fluorescence (LIF), chemomechanical excavation (CME), and conventional excavation (CE). Micro-CT was then repeated. CRE was determined based on the volume of residual caries/initial caries (RC/IC) and the mean mineral density (MD) at the cavity floor. MIP was determined by measuring the volume of the prepared cavity/initial cavity (PC/IC). Among the four groups, the LIF group had the smallest RC/IC (0.08), the highest mean MD at the cavity floor (1.32 g/cm(3) ) and the highest MIP (4.47). The CME group had the highest RC/IC (0.24), the lowest mean MD (1.01 g/cm(3) ) and the lowest MIP (2.23). The CE group exhibited a more acceptable CRE (RC/IC = 0.13, mean MD = 1.21 g/cm(3) ) but had a higher MIP (3.95). Both the CRE and MIP parameters of FACE technology were the second most acceptable (RC/IC = 0.12, mean MD = 1.13 g/cm(3) , MIP = 3.20) and did not differ significantly from the most acceptable. FACE is an effective caries removal technology for removing infected dentine without significantly increasing cavity size. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  1. A state of the art on electrochemical noise technique. Assessment of corrosion characteristics and development of remedial technology in nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lim, Yun Soo; Yi, Yong Sun; Chung, Man Kyo

    2003-02-01

    The studies for the application of electrochemical noise technique were reviewed in terms of principle, analysing method and application examples of this technique. Because 4% of the economic damage of industry is caused by metallic corrosion, it is important to find and protect corrosive materials and location. By corrosion monitoring of industrial facilities such as nuclear power plant using Electrochemical Noise Measurement(ENM), corrosion attack can be detected and furthermore it can be indicated whether the attacked materials is replaced by new one or not. According to development of control and electronic technology, it was easy to apply ENM to the industry and the interest in ENM also increased. As corrosion is produced on a metal under corrosive environment, local anode(oxidation) and cathode(reduction) are formed. Hence, there is potential difference and current flow between the anode and cathode. ENM is monitoring the potential difference and the current flow with time by high impedance load voltmeter and Zero Resistance Ammeter(ZRA), respectively. The potential difference and current flow generated spontaneously without any application of current and potential between electrodes are monitored by electrochemical noise technique, Thereby ENM can be regarded as the most ideal corrosion monitoring method for the industrial facility and nuclear power plant having corrosion damage and difficulty in access of human body. Moreover, it is possible to obtain the spontaneous and reliable results from the metals damaged by ununiform and localized corrosion such as pitting and SCC using ENM while it is difficult to obtain the reliable result using traditional linear polarization and ac-impedance measurement. In many countries, there are extensive works concerned with application of electrochemical noise technique to corrosion monitoring of nuclear power plant and other industrial facilities, whereas there is little work on this field in Korea. Systematic study for

  2. USE OF GAC TECHNOLOGY AND TWO STAGE ION EXCHANGE TECHNIQUE FOR RECYCLING OF WASTEWATER IN TEXTILE WET PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROF. MAHESH B. CHOUGULE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential natural resource for sustaining life and environment, which is always thought to be available in abundance and free gift of nature. Textile industries are one of the major consumers of water and disposing large volumes of effluent to the environment. The textile industry utilizes abundant water in dyeing and finishing processes. There is need to adopt economical practices for the use of water in textile industries. It has been estimated that 3.5 % of the total cost of running the industry is required for water utilization in textile industry. In India textile units are developed all over the country in the form of small industrial estates. Textiles are manufactured to perform a multitude of functions. They are produced to a range of specifications using avariety of fibers, resulting in a complex waste or effluent. Textile waste occurs in a variety of forms throughout production process. The surface water sources are limited and availability of water from them vary from year to year depending upon monsoon conditions. The underground water resources are also getting depleted with theincreasing amount of water drawn from them every year without adequate replenishments. Therefore, the cost of water is rising steeply and the textile mills, which need a large quantity of water, have started taking measures to conserve and recycling. This paper focuses on recycling of wastewater in textile wet processing with experimental analysis of GAC technology and two-stage ion exchange technology.

  3. AN EFFICIENT CONTENT AND SEGMENTATION BASED VIDEO COPY DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalaiselvi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The field of multimedia technology has become easier to store, creation and access large amount of video data. This technology has editing and duplication of video data that will cause to violation of digital rights. So in this project we implemented an efficient content and segmentation based video copy detection concept to detect the illegal manipulation of video. In this Work or proposed system, Instead of SIFT matching algorithms, used combination of SIFT and SURF matching algorithms to detect the matching features in images. Because, SIFT is slow and not good at illumination changes, while it is invariant to rotation, scale changes and affine transformations and then SURF is fast and has good performance, but it is also have some issues that it is not stable to rotation and affine transformations. So combined the above two algorithms SIFT and SURF to extract the image features. Auto dual Threshold method is used to segment the video into segments and extract key frames from each segment and it also eliminate the redundant frame. SIFT and SURF features based on SVD is used to compare the two frames features sets points, where the SIFT and SURF features are extracted from the key frames of the segments. Graph-based video sequence matching method is used to match the sequence of query video and train video. It skillfully converts the video sequence matching result to a matching result graph.

  4. Extraterrestrial Hemorrhage Control: Terrestrial Developments in Technique, Technology, and Philosophy with Applicability to Traumatic Hemorrhage in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew; Dawson, David; Campbell, Mark; Jones, Jeff; Ball, Chad G.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott; McBeth, Paul; Holcomb, John

    2004-01-01

    Managing injury and illness during long duration space flight limits efforts to explore beyond low earths orbit. Traumatic injury may be expected to occur in space and is a frequent cause of preventable deaths, often related to uncontrolled or ongoing hemorrhage (H). Such bleeding causes 40% of terrestrial injury mortality. Current guidelines emphasize early control of H compared to intravenous infusions. Recent advances in surgical and critical care may be applicable to trauma care in space, with appropriate considerations of the extreme logistical and personnel limitations. Methods: Recent developments in technique, resuscitation fluids, hemoglobin (Hb) substitutes, hemostatic agents, interventional angiography, damage control principles, and concepts related to suspended animation were reviewed. Results: H associated with instability frequently requires definitive intervention. Direct pressure should be applied to all compressible bleeding, but novel approaches are required for intracavitary noncompressible bleeding. Intravenous hemostatic agents such as recombinant Factor VII may facilitate hemostasis especially when combined with a controlled hypotension approach. Both open and laparoscopic techniques could be used in weightlessness, but require technical expertise not likely to be available. Specific rehearsed invasive techniques such as laparotomy with packing, or arterial catherterization with with robotic intravascular embolization might be considered . Hemodynamic support, thermal manipulation, or pharmacologic induction of a state of metabolic down regulation for whole body preservation may be appropriate. Hypertonic saline, with or without dextran, may temporize vascular support and decrease reperfusion injury, with less mass than other solutions. Hb substitutes have other theoretical advantages. Conclusions: Terrestrial developments suggest potential novel strategies to control H in space, but will required a coordinated program of evaluation and

  5. Range estimation techniques in single-station thunderstorm warning sensors based upon gated, wideband, magnetic direction finder technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Alburt E.; Hiscox, William L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Neumann, William T.

    1991-01-01

    Gated, wideband, magnetic direction finders (DFs) were originally designed to measure the bearing of cloud-to-ground lightning relative to the sensor. A recent addition to this device uses proprietary waveform discrimination logic to select return stroke signatures and certain range dependent features in the waveform to provide an estimate of range of flashes within 50 kms. The enhanced ranging techniques are discussed which were designed and developed for use in single station thunderstorm warning sensor. Included are the results of on-going evaluations being conducted under a variety of meteorological and geographic conditions.

  6. Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bantong Xue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane.

  7. A Technique to Measure Focal Length of a Lens with no Bulk Motion using Tunable Optics and Optical MEMS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Reza, Syed Azer

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a motion-free technique for characterizing the focal length of any spherical convex or concave lens. The measurement system uses a Gaussian Beam from a Laser Source (LS), an Electronically Controlled Variable Focus Lens (ECVFL), a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) and a Photo-Detector (PD). As the proposed method does not involve any motion-stages or other moving components, the focal length is measured without requiring any mechanical motion of bulk components. The method requires measuring the spot size of the Gaussian Beam at the DMD plane for various settings of the ECVFL focal length. These beam spot size measurements, are used to estimate the focal length of a lens sample by employing standard polynomial-fitting techniques. Due to the inherent motion-free nature of the proposed setup, the measurements are fast, repeatable, reliable and ideal for use in industrial lens production, manufacturing of imaging systems and sensitive laboratory experiments. Using a DMD and an ECVFL also allow...

  8. Kinematic Analysis on the Serve Technique of Elite Tennis Player Grigor•Dimitrov Based on 3D Virtual Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Chuan Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using three-dimensional video analysis, we made a kinematic analysis on Grigor Dimitrov’s Serve technique, aiming at finding the kinematic characteristics of his serve technique during various stages. The results showed that: (1 During the stage of tossing the ball and lifting the racket, the tossing height of the ball was at minimum appropriately, while the elbow extension of the tossing arm was stright, and the angle of his left knee was 95.4°, which is beneficial to making greater kicking power; (2 At the back-swing stage, Dimitrov’s both feet made a great range of pedal and stretch quickly, and the “scratch-back” posture is obvious, and momentum caused by the kicking and coxae-turning was rather large; (3 When hitting the ball, the contact point was accurate and the speed of the racket head was high, which passed a relatively large initial momentum to the ball; (4 Dimitrov’s entire service action was integral and coordinate, smooth and powerful, which was in accordance relatedly with kinematic characteristics

  9. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik;

    2010-01-01

    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...

  10. The Double Copy Structure of Soft Gravitons

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, Agustin Sabio

    2014-01-01

    The subleading corrections to factorization theorems for soft bremsstrahlung in nonabelian gauge theories and gravity are investigated. Building on recent results, we write the action of the angular momentum operators on scattering amplitudes as derivatives with respect to the Mandelstam invariants to uncover a double copy structure in the contribution of the soft graviton to the amplitude, both in the leading term and the first correction. Using our approach, we study Gribov's theorem as extended to nonabelian gauge theories and gravity by Lipatov, and find that subleading corrections can be obtained from those to Low's theorem by dropping the terms with derivatives with respect to the center-of-mass energy, which are suppressed at high energies. In this case, the emitted gravitons are not necessarily soft.

  11. Comparing Android Applications to Find Copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Melling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Android smartphone operating system includes a Java mobile development platform that provides for rapid development and deployment of a wide variety of applications. The open nature of the platform means that reverse engineering of applications is relatively easy, and many developers are concerned as applications similar to their own show up in the Android marketplace and want to know if these applications are pirated. Fortunately, the same characteristics that make an Android application easy to reverse engineer and copy also provide opportunities for Android developers to compare downloaded applications to their own. This paper describes the process for comparing a developer’s application with a downloaded application and defines an identifiability metric to quantify the degree to which an application can be identified by its bytecode.

  12. Techniques of low technology sampling of air pollution by metals: a comparison of concentrations and map patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O L; Gailey, F A

    1987-07-01

    During a 17 month survey of air pollution in the town of Armadale, central Scotland, the concentrations of some metals (iron, manganese, zinc, lead, copper, chrome, nickel, cadmium, and cobalt) were measured in seven types of low technology sampler--four indigenous and three transplanted--at 47 sites. The geographical patterns of the concentrations in the samplers were compared on two types of map. For most metals, sites with high concentrations were present close to the foundry and also in the north of the town. The differences between the patterns of pollution shown by the various types of sampler probably reflected differing mechanisms for collection and different affinities for various sizes and types of metal particle.

  13. Copy-move forgery detection in digital image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamro, Loai; Yusoff, Nooraini

    2016-08-01

    Copy-move is considered as one of the most popular kind of digital image tempering, in which one or more parts of a digital image are copied and pasted into different locations. Geometric transformation is among the major challenges in detecting copy-move forgery of a digital image. In such forgery, the copied and moved parts of a forged image are either rotated or/and re-scaled. Hence, in this study we propose a combination of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) to detect a copy-move activity. The experiments results prove that the proposed method is superior with overall accuracy 95%. The copy-move attacks in digital image has been successfully detected and the method is also can detect the fraud parts exposed to rotation and scaling issue.

  14. The standardised copy of pentagons test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzoglou Vassiliki A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'double-diamond copy' task is a simple paper and pencil test part of the Bender-Gestalt Test and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Although it is a widely used test, its method of scoring is crude and its psychometric properties are not adequately known. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitive and reliable method of administration and scoring. Methods The study sample included 93 normal control subjects (53 women and 40 men aged 35.87 ± 12.62 and 127 patients suffering from schizophrenia (54 women and 73 men aged 34.07 ± 9.83. Results The scoring method was based on the frequencies of responses of healthy controls and proved to be relatively reliable with Cronbach's α equal to 0.61, test-retest correlation coefficient equal to 0.41 and inter-rater reliability equal to 0.52. The factor analysis produced two indices and six subscales of the Standardised Copy of Pentagons Test (SCPT. The total score as well as most of the individual items and subscales distinguished between controls and patients. The discriminant function correctly classified 63.44% of controls and 75.59% of patients. Discussion The SCPT seems to be a satisfactory, reliable and valid instrument, which is easy to administer, suitable for use in non-organic psychiatric patients and demands minimal time. Further research is necessary to test its psychometric properties and its usefulness and applications as a neuropsychological test.

  15. 38 CFR 1.526 - Copies of records and papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... papers. 1.526 Section 1.526 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Copies of records and papers. (a) Any person desiring a copy of any record or document in the custody of... plain one-sided paper copies of a standard size (81/2″ × 11″; 81/2″ × 14″; 11″ × 14″) $0.15 per...

  16. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  17. Test technique development in interference free testing, flow visualization, and remote control model technology at Langley's Unitary Plan wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    A metric half-span model is considered as a means of mechanical support for a wind-tunnel model which allows measurement of aerodynamic forces and moments without support interference or model distortion. This technique can be applied to interference-free propulsion models. The vapor screen method of flow visualization at supersonic Mach numbers is discussed. The use of smoke instead of water vapor as a medium to produce the screen is outlined. Vapor screen data are being used in the development of analytical vortex tracking programs. Test results for a remote control model system are evaluated. Detailed control effectiveness and cross-coupling data were obtained with a single run. For the afterbody tail configuration, tested control boundaries at several roll orientations were established utilizing the facility's on-line capability to 'fly' the model in the wind tunnel.

  18. Sealed Orifice Laparoscopic or Endoscopic (SOLE) Surgery: technology and technique convergence for next-step colorectal surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-01

    The new avenue of minimally invasive surgery, referred to as single-incision\\/access laparoscopy, is often presented as an alternative to standard multiport approaches, whereas in fact it is more usefully perceived as a complementary modality. The emergence of the technique can be of greater use both to patients and to the colorectal specialty if its principles can be merged into next-stage evolution by synergy with more conventional practice. In particular, rather than device specificity, what is needed is convergence of capability that can be applied by the same surgeon in differing scenarios depending on the individualized patient and disease characteristics. We detail here the global applicability of a simple access device construct that allows the provision of simple and complex single-port laparoscopy as well as contributing to multiport laparoscopic and transanal resections in a manner that is reliable, reproducible, ergonomical and economical.

  19. A comprehensive Software Copy Protection and Digital Rights Management platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohammad Bahaa-Eldin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a Powerful and Flexible System for Software Copy Protection (SCP and Digital Rights Management (DRM based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI standards. Software protection is achieved through a multi-phase methodology with both static and dynamic processing of the executable file. The system defeats most of the attacks and cracking techniques and makes sure that the protected software is never in a flat form, with a suitable portion of it always being encrypted during execution. A novel performance-tuning algorithm is proposed to lower the overhead of the protection process to its minimum depending on the software dynamic execution behavior. All system calls to access resources and objects such as files, and input/output devices are intercepted and encapsulated with secure rights management code to enforce the required license model. The system can be integrated with hardware authentication techniques (like dongles, and to Internet based activation and DRM servers over the cloud. The system is flexible to apply any model of licensing including state-based license such as expiration dates and number of trials. The usage of a standard markup language (XrML to describe the license makes it easier to apply new licensing operations like re-sale and content rental.

  20. Quantum Copying Beyond the No-Cloning Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Buzek, V; Buzek, Vladimir; Hillery, Mark

    1996-01-01

    We analyze to what extent it is possible to copy arbitrary states of a two-level quantum system. We show that there exists a "universal quantum copying machine", which approximately copies quantum mechanical states in such a way that the quality of its output does not depend on the input. We also examine a machine which combines a unitary transformation with a selective measurement to produce good copies of states in a neighborhood of a particular state. We discuss the problem of measurement of the output states.

  1. rSW-seq: Algorithm for detection of copy number alterations in deep sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Tae-Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in sequencing technologies have enabled generation of large-scale genome sequencing data. These data can be used to characterize a variety of genomic features, including the DNA copy number profile of a cancer genome. A robust and reliable method for screening chromosomal alterations would allow a detailed characterization of the cancer genome with unprecedented accuracy. Results We develop a method for identification of copy number alterations in a tumor genome compared to its matched control, based on application of Smith-Waterman algorithm to single-end sequencing data. In a performance test with simulated data, our algorithm shows >90% sensitivity and >90% precision in detecting a single copy number change that contains approximately 500 reads for the normal sample. With 100-bp reads, this corresponds to a ~50 kb region for 1X genome coverage of the human genome. We further refine the algorithm to develop rSW-seq, (recursive Smith-Waterman-seq to identify alterations in a complex configuration, which are commonly observed in the human cancer genome. To validate our approach, we compare our algorithm with an existing algorithm using simulated and publicly available datasets. We also compare the sequencing-based profiles to microarray-based results. Conclusion We propose rSW-seq as an efficient method for detecting copy number changes in the tumor genome.

  2. Identification of multiple serine to asparagine sequence variation sites in an intended copy product of LUCENTIS® by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaud, François; Winter, Andrej; Denefeld, Blandine; Lang, Manuel; Hensinger, Héloïse; Straube, Frank; Sackewitz, Mirko; Berg, Matthias

    2017-08-28

    Patent expiration of first-generation biological and the high cost of innovative biological are 2 drivers for the development of biosimilar products. There are, however, technical challenges to the production of exact copies of such large molecules. In this study, we performed a head-to-head comparison between the originator anti-VEGF-A Fab product LUCENTIS® (ranibizumab) and an intended copy product using an integrated analytical approach. While no differences could be observed using size-exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate and potency assays, different acidic peaks were identified with cation ion exchange chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis. Further investigation of the intact Fab, subunits and primary sequence with mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of a modified light chain variant in the intended copy product batches. This variant was characterized with a mass increase of 27.01 Da compared with the originator sequence and its abundance was estimated in the range of 6-9% of the intended copy product light chain. MS/MS spectra interrogation confirmed that this modification relates to a serine to asparagine sequence variant found in the intended copy product light chain. We demonstrated that the integration of high-resolution and sensitive orthogonal technologies was beneficial to assess the similarity of an originator and an intended copy product.

  3. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation.

  4. Research Techniques Made Simple: Noninvasive Imaging Technologies for the Delineation of Basal Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Syril Keena T

    2016-04-01

    In this article we discuss the development of noninvasive imaging modalities to help delineate tumor margins of basal cell carcinomas in the setting of Mohs micrographic surgery. A review of the available literature reveals that dermoscopy can help delineate basal cell carcinomas before surgical removal but that it has no benefit over clinical inspection in reducing the number of Mohs stages. In contrast, fluorescence confocal microscopy has a sensitivity of 88-96% and specificity of 89-99% for the detection of basal cell carcinomas and can potentially serve as a rapid means for tumor evaluation on ex vivo specimens. Optical coherence tomography has shown some success in the presurgical evaluation of tumor margins in vivo, before surgical excision. With ongoing developments in device portability, speed of image retrieval, and image resolution, these technologies are likely to gain traction in cutaneous oncology research and practice. It is therefore important for dermatology clinicians and researchers to understand the mechanisms, principal uses, advantages, and limitations of each device.

  5. Development of a versatile and conventional technique for gene disruption in filamentous fungi based on CRISPR-Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Mei; Lin, Fu-Long; Gao, Hao; Zou, Gen; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Gao-Qian; Chen, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Hu, Dan

    2017-08-23

    Filamentous fungi represent an invaluable source of pharmaceutically active compounds. The development of versatile methods to genetically manipulate filamentous fungi is of great value for improving the low yields of bioactive metabolites and expanding chemical diversity. The CRISPR-Cas9-based system has become a common platform for genome editing in a variety of organisms. However, recent application of this technology in filamentous fungi is limited to model strains, a versatile method for efficient gene disruption in different fungi is lacking. Here, we investigated the utility of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in a less-studied fungus Nodulisporium sp. (No. 65-12-7-1), and we have developed an efficient CRISPR-Cas9-based gene disruption strategy by simultaneous transformation of in vitro transcriptional gRNA and the linear maker gene cassette into the Cas9-expressing fungi. We found that the linear marker gene cassette could not only allow for selection of transformants, but also significantly enhance the gene disruption efficiency by inserting itself into the Cas9 cut site. Moreover, the above approach also demonstrated its efficiency in two other phylogenetically distinct strains Aspergillus oryzae NSAR1 and Sporormiella minima (No. 40-1-4-1) from two different classes of Ascomycota. These results suggested that a versatile CRISPR-Cas9-based gene disruption method in filamentous fungi was established.

  6. Genome-wide copy number analysis using copy number inferring tool (CNIT) and DNA pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-hsing; Huang, Mei-chu; Li, Ling-hui; Wu, Jer-yuarn; Chen, Yuan-tsong; Fann, Cathy S J

    2008-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) has become an important genomic structure element in the human population, and some CNVs are related to specific traits and diseases. Moreover, analysis of human genomes has been potentiated by the use of high-resolution microarrays that assess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Although many programs have been designed to analyze data from Affymetrix SNP microarrays, they all have high false-positive rates (FPRs) in copy number (CN) analyses. Copy number analysis tool (CNAT) 4.0 is a recently developed program that offers improved CN estimation, but small amplifications and deletions are lost when using the smoothing procedure. Here, we propose a copy number inferring tool (CNIT) algorithm for the 100K SNP microarray to investigate CNVs at 29.6-kb resolution. CNIT estimated SNP allelic and total CN with reliable P values based on intensity data. In addition, the hidden Markov model (HMM) method was applied to predict regions having altered CN by considering contiguous SNPs. Based on a CN analysis of 23 unrelated Taiwanese and 30 HapMap Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) trios, CNIT showed higher accuracy and power than other programs. The FPRs and false-negative rates (FNRs) of CNIT were 0.1% and 0.16%, respectively. CNIT also showed better sensitivity for detecting small amplifications and deletions. Furthermore, DNA pooling of 10 and 30 normal unrelated individuals were applied to the 100K SNP microarray, respectively, and 12 common CN-variable regions were identified, suggesting that DNA pooling can be applied to discover common CNVs.

  7. Reflection of an In-service Education Course Programme for Science and Technology Teachers about Alternative Measurement and Assessment Techniques: Trabzon Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Er Nas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of an in-service education course program including alternative measurement and assessment techniques on participant teachers skills and perspectives. Case study was used in this study. The sample of the study consisted of six voluntary science and technology teachers working in Trabzon. Researchers diary, document analysis and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Qualitative data analysis was used in this study. Holistic rubric prepared by researcher was used for document analysis. Matris forms including codes were used for interviews analysis. At the end of the study, it was concluded that in-service education course program had positive effects on teachers skills and their perspectives of using alternative assessment techniques in their lessons. In addition, teachers had difficulty in preparing analytic rubrics during the in-service education course period. Recommendations were presented on the arrangement of in-service education course program which include lots of activities and may contribute teachers skills using alternative assessment techniques.

  8. Investigation of Copy Number Variation in Children with Conotruncal Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marques Rondon Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart defects (CHD are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Objectives: Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV in children with conotruncal heart defect. Methods: Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Results: Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients.

  9. Investigation of Copy Number Variation in Children with Conotruncal Heart Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Carla Marques Rondon, E-mail: carlamcampos@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT (Brazil); Zanardo, Evelin Aline; Dutra, Roberta Lelis [Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kim, Chong Ae [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV) in children with conotruncal heart defect. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients.

  10. Quantification of Fewer than Ten Copies of a DNA Biomarker without Amplification or Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youngkyu; Lee, Donggyu; Roy, Dhruvajyoti; Park, Joon Won

    2016-06-08

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive diagnosis technique for detection of nucleic acids and for monitoring residual disease; however, PCR can be unreliable for samples containing very few target molecules. Here, we describe a quantification method, using force-distance (FD) curve based atomic force microscopy (AFM) to detect a target DNA bound to small (1.4-1.9 μm diameter) probe DNA spots, allowing mapping of entire spots to nanometer resolution. Using a synthetic BCR-ABL fusion gene sequence target, we examined samples containing between one and 10 target copies. A high degree of correlation (r(2) = 0.994) between numbers of target copies and detected probe clusters was observed, and the approach could detect the BCR-ABL biomarker when only a single copy was present, although multiple screens were required. Our results clearly demonstrate that FD curve-based imaging is suitable for quantitative analysis of fewer than 10 copies of DNA biomarkers without amplification, modification, or labeling.

  11. Esthetic Rehabilitation of Anterior Teeth with Copy-Milled Restorations: A Report of Two Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Chandan; Mutneja, Parul; Verma, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    Digitalization has become part and parcel of contemporary prosthodontics with the probability of most of the procedures being based on the digital techniques in the near future. This digital revolution started in the latter half of the 20th century by converting analog objects/signals into digital bits and bytes. Recent developments in all-ceramic materials and systems of computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), copy milling, and so forth offer excellent esthetics and superb biocompatibility. Copy milling system for ceramics enables milling of the zirconia cores of all-ceramic restorations precisely and also if this system is properly used the procedure for fabricating all-ceramic restorations can be substantially simplified. This case report presents fabrication of all-ceramic Maryland Bridge and post-core with a copy milling system for esthetics and preservation of integrity of tooth. For both of the patients, the use of biologic, all-ceramic, copy-milled restorations resulted in clinical success and recovered function and esthetics. PMID:28326203

  12. Accuracy estimation of foamy virus genome copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rethwilm Axel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foamy viruses (FVs are the most genetically stable viruses of the retrovirus family. This is in contrast to the in vitro error rate found for recombinant FV reverse transcriptase (RT. To investigate the accuracy of FV genome copying in vivo we analyzed the occurrence of mutations in HEK 293T cell culture after a single round of reverse transcription using a replication-deficient vector system. Furthermore, the frequency of FV recombination by template switching (TS and the cross-packaging ability of different FV strains were analyzed. Results We initially sequenced 90,000 nucleotides and detected 39 mutations, corresponding to an in vivo error rate of approximately 4 × 10-4 per site per replication cycle. Surprisingly, all mutations were transitions from G to A, suggesting that APOBEC3 activity is the driving force for the majority of mutations detected in our experimental system. In line with this, we detected a late but significant APOBEC3G and 3F mRNA by quantitative PCR in the cells. We then analyzed 170,000 additional nucleotides from experiments in which we co-transfected the APOBEC3-interfering foamy viral bet gene and observed a significant 50% drop in G to A mutations, indicating that APOBEC activity indeed contributes substantially to the foamy viral replication error rate in vivo. However, even in the presence of Bet, 35 out of 37 substitutions were G to A, suggesting that residual APOBEC activity accounted for most of the observed mutations. If we subtract these APOBEC-like mutations from the total number of mutations, we calculate a maximal intrinsic in vivo error rate of 1.1 × 10-5 per site per replication. In addition to the point mutations, we detected one 49 bp deletion within the analyzed 260000 nucleotides. Analysis of the recombination frequency of FV vector genomes revealed a 27% probability for a template switching (TS event within a 1 kilobase (kb region. This corresponds to a 98% probability that FVs

  13. Safe Practices for Copy and Paste in the EHR. Systematic Review, Recommendations, and Novel Model for Health IT Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Amy Y; Lehmann, Christoph U; Michel, Jeremy; Solomon, Ronni; Possanza, Lorraine; Gandhi, Tejal

    2017-01-11

    Copy and paste functionality can support efficiency during clinical documentation, but may promote inaccurate documentation with risks for patient safety. The Partnership for Health IT Patient Safety was formed to gather data, conduct analysis, educate, and disseminate safe practices for safer care using health information technology (IT). To characterize copy and paste events in clinical care, identify safety risks, describe existing evidence, and develop implementable practice recommendations for safe reuse of information via copy and paste. The Partnership 1) reviewed 12 reported safety events, 2) solicited expert input, and 3) performed a systematic literature review (2010 to January 2015) to identify publications addressing frequency, perceptions/attitudes, patient safety risks, existing guidance, and potential interventions and mitigation practices. The literature review identified 51 publications that were included. Overall, 66% to 90% of clinicians routinely use copy and paste. One study of diagnostic errors found that copy and paste led to 2.6% of errors in which a missed diagnosis required patients to seek additional unplanned care. Copy and paste can promote note bloat, internal inconsistencies, error propagation, and documentation in the wrong patient chart. Existing guidance identified specific responsibilities for authors, organizations, and electronic health record (EHR) developers. Analysis of 12 reported copy and paste safety events was congruent with problems identified from the literature review. Despite regular copy and paste use, evidence regarding direct risk to patient safety remains sparse, with significant study limitations. Drawing on existing evidence, the Partnership developed four safe practice recommendations: 1) Provide a mechanism to make copy and paste material easily identifiable; 2) Ensure the provenance of copy and paste material is readily available; 3) Ensure adequate staff training and education; 4) Ensure copy and paste

  14. 45 CFR 1703.404 - Copying and transcription charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copying and transcription charges. 1703.404... Copying and transcription charges. (a) The Commission will charge fees for furnishing records at the rate of ten cents per page for photocopies and at the actual cost of transcription. When the...

  15. Cover-Copy-Compare and Spelling: One versus Three Repetitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erion, Joel; Davenport, Cindy; Rodax, Nicole; Scholl, Bethany; Hardy, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Cover, copy, compare (CCC) has been used with success to improve spelling skills. This study adds to existing research by completing an analysis of the rewriting component of the intervention. The impact of varying the number of times a subject copied a word following an error was examined with four elementary age students. An adaptive alternating…

  16. Perceiving the Impossible: How Individuals with Autism Copy Paradoxical Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Elizabeth; Ropar, Danielle; Mitchell, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mottron and colleagues found that individuals with autism were less affected by geometric impossibility than comparison participants on a copying task. The current experiment sought to determine whether a local perceptual style could account for this. Participants with and without autism copied possible and impossible geometric figures. Geometric…

  17. 48 CFR 6302.25 - Copies of papers (Rule 25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of papers (Rule 25). 6302.25 Section 6302.25 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.25 Copies of papers (Rule 25). When books, records, papers,...

  18. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  19. Re-thinking copyright through the copy in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2013-01-01

    How one copy of a film or a single is made illegal, while its identical twin is treated as legitimate? By drawing from the material collected in Russia on the illegal copying and distribution of video and musical contents, this paper moves beyond the definition of media piracy in legal terms, and

  20. 7 CFR 3701.2 - Public inspection, copying, and indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public inspection, copying, and indexing. 3701.2 Section 3701.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PUBLIC INFORMATION § 3701.2 Public inspection, copying, and indexing....

  1. 7 CFR 3801.2 - Public inspection, copying, and indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public inspection, copying, and indexing. 3801.2 Section 3801.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) WORLD AGRICULTURAL... inspection, copying, and indexing. 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) requires that certain materials be made available...

  2. 7 CFR 3404.2 - Public inspection, copying, and indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public inspection, copying, and indexing. 3404.2 Section 3404.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE... inspection, copying, and indexing. 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) requires that certain materials be made available...

  3. 7 CFR 510.2 - Public inspection, copying, and indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public inspection, copying, and indexing. 510.2 Section 510.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PUBLIC INFORMATION § 510.2 Public inspection, copying, and indexing....

  4. 27 CFR 25.301 - Photographic copies of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 25.301 Section 25.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.301 Photographic copies...

  5. Re-thinking copyright through the copy in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2013-01-01

    How one copy of a film or a single is made illegal, while its identical twin is treated as legitimate? By drawing from the material collected in Russia on the illegal copying and distribution of video and musical contents, this paper moves beyond the definition of media piracy in legal terms, and in

  6. 40 CFR 716.30 - Submission of copies of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of copies of studies. 716.30 Section 716.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.30 Submission of copies of...

  7. Cache-based memory copy hardware accelerator for multicore systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, F.; Wong, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new architecture of the cache-based memory copy hardware accelerator in a multicore system supporting message passing. The accelerator is able to accelerate memory data movements, in particular memory copies. We perform an analytical analysis based on open-queuing theory

  8. Schizophrenia copy number variants and associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, N E; Pocklington, A J; Scholz, B; Rees, E; Walters, J T R; Kirov, G; O'Donovan, M C; Owen, M J; Wilkinson, L S; Thomas, K L; Hall, J

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale genomic studies have made major progress in identifying genetic risk variants for schizophrenia. A key finding from these studies is that there is an increased burden of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) in schizophrenia cases compared with controls. The mechanism through which these CNVs confer risk for the symptoms of schizophrenia, however, remains unclear. One possibility is that schizophrenia risk CNVs impact basic associative learning processes, abnormalities of which have long been associated with the disorder. To investigate whether genes in schizophrenia CNVs impact on specific phases of associative learning we combined human genetics with experimental gene expression studies in animals. In a sample of 11 917 schizophrenia cases and 16 416 controls, we investigated whether CNVs from patients with schizophrenia are enriched for genes expressed during the consolidation, retrieval or extinction of associative memories. We show that CNVs from cases are enriched for genes expressed during fear extinction in the hippocampus, but not genes expressed following consolidation or retrieval. These results suggest that CNVs act to impair inhibitory learning in schizophrenia, potentially contributing to the development of core symptoms of the disorder. PMID:27956746

  9. Incorporating active-learning techniques into the photonics-related teaching in the Erasmus Mundus Master in "Color in Informatics and Media Technology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Rubiño, Manuel; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Nieves, Juan L.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we present a teaching methodology using active-learning techniques in the course "Devices and Instrumentation" of the Erasmus Mundus Master's Degree in "Color in Informatics and Media Technology" (CIMET). A part of the course "Devices and Instrumentation" of this Master's is dedicated to the study of image sensors and methods to evaluate their image quality. The teaching methodology that we present consists of incorporating practical activities during the traditional lectures. One of the innovative aspects of this teaching methodology is that students apply the concepts and methods studied in class to real devices. For this, students use their own digital cameras, webcams, or cellphone cameras in class. These activities provide students a better understanding of the theoretical subject given in class and encourage the active participation of students.

  10. Expression of COPI components during development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Nicole C; Kloter, Urs; Gehring, Walter J

    2005-12-01

    In a P{lArB} enhancer detector collection, a line was found that showed upregulated expression within centrally to posteriorly located germarial cysts. It was inserted in the gammaCOP locus on chromosome 3R. GammaCOP is a component of the COPI coatomer involved in membrane traffic. Most of the other known components of the COPI coatomer also showed higher expression in the posterior half of the germarium. Not only meiotic germline cysts but also migrating follicle cells upregulate the COPI subunits. During embryonic and larval development, the COPI subunits are expressed ubiquitously as expected for genes required for cell viability. In addition, they are strongly expressed in the salivary glands and the proventriculus. Whether tissue-specific transcriptional upregulation of COPI subunits is required for the reorganization of membranous compartments that are needed for the developmental processes that confer cyst polarity and follicle maturation will have to be addressed in a genetic study.

  11. Protocols for Copying and Proofreading in Template-Assisted Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Sartori, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    We discuss how information encoded in a template polymer can be stochastically copied into a copy polymer. We consider four different stochastic copy protocols of increasing complexity, inspired by building blocks of the mRNA translation pathway. In the first protocol, monomer incorporation occurs in a single stochastic transition. We then move to a more elaborate protocol in which an intermediate step can be used for error correction. Finally, we discuss the operating regimes of two kinetic proofreading protocols: one in which proofreading acts from the final copying step, and one in which it acts from an intermediate step. We review known results for these models and, in some cases, extend them to analyze all possible combinations of energetic and kinetic discrimination. We show that, in each of these protocols, only a limited number of these combinations leads to an improvement of the overall copying accuracy.

  12. The double copy: Bremsstrahlung and accelerating black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, Andres; Nicholson, Isobel; O'Connell, Donal; White, Chris D

    2016-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of perturbation theory suggest the existence of a correspondence between classical general relativity and Yang-Mills theory. A concrete example of this correspondence, which is known as the double copy, was recently introduced for the case of stationary Kerr-Schild spacetimes. Building on this foundation, we examine the simple time-dependent case of an accelerating, radiating point source. The gravitational solution, which generalises the Schwarzschild solution, includes a non-trivial stress-energy tensor. This stress-energy tensor corresponds to a gauge theoretic current in the double copy. We interpret both of these sources as representing the radiative part of the field. Furthermore, in the simple example of Bremsstrahlung, we determine a scattering amplitude describing the radiation, maintaining the double copy throughout. Our results provide the strongest evidence yet that the classical double copy is directly related to the BCJ double copy for scattering amplitudes.

  13. A Single-Array-Based Method for Detecting Copy Number Variants Using Affymetrix High Density SNP Arrays and its Application to Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wen, Yalu; Fu, Wenjiang

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative evidence has shown that structural variations, due to insertions, deletions, and inversions of DNA, may contribute considerably to the development of complex human diseases, such as breast cancer. High-throughput genotyping technologies, such as Affymetrix high density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, have produced large amounts of genetic data for genome-wide SNP genotype calling and copy number estimation. Meanwhile, there is a great need for accurate and efficient statistical methods to detect copy number variants. In this article, we introduce a hidden-Markov-model (HMM)-based method, referred to as the PICR-CNV, for copy number inference. The proposed method first estimates copy number abundance for each single SNP on a single array based on the raw fluorescence values, and then standardizes the estimated copy number abundance to achieve equal footing among multiple arrays. This method requires no between-array normalization, and thus, maintains data integrity and independence of samples among individual subjects. In addition to our efforts to apply new statistical technology to raw fluorescence values, the HMM has been applied to the standardized copy number abundance in order to reduce experimental noise. Through simulations, we show our refined method is able to infer copy number variants accurately. Application of the proposed method to a breast cancer dataset helps to identify genomic regions significantly associated with the disease.

  14. CNARA: reliability assessment for genomic copy number profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Ni; Cai, Haoyang; Solovan, Caius; Baudis, Michael

    2016-10-12

    DNA copy number profiles from microarray and sequencing experiments sometimes contain wave artefacts which may be introduced during sample preparation and cannot be removed completely by existing preprocessing methods. Besides, large derivative log ratio spread (DLRS) of the probes correlating with poor DNA quality is sometimes observed in genome screening experiments and may lead to unreliable copy number profiles. Depending on the extent of these artefacts and the resulting misidentification of copy number alterations/variations (CNA/CNV), it may be desirable to exclude such samples from analyses or to adapt the downstream data analysis strategy accordingly. Here, we propose a method to distinguish reliable genomic copy number profiles from those containing heavy wave artefacts and/or large DLRS. We define four features that adequately summarize the copy number profiles for reliability assessment, and train a classifier on a dataset of 1522 copy number profiles from various microarray platforms. The method can be applied to predict the reliability of copy number profiles irrespective of the underlying microarray platform and may be adapted for those sequencing platforms from which copy number estimates could be computed as a piecewise constant signal. Further details can be found at https://github.com/baudisgroup/CNARA . We have developed a method for the assessment of genomic copy number profiling data, and suggest to apply the method in addition to and after other state-of-the-art noise correction and quality control procedures. CNARA could be instrumental in improving the assessment of data used for genomic data mining experiments and support the reliable functional attribution of copy number aberrations especially in cancer research.

  15. The Differential Effects of Two Self-Managed Math Instruction Procedures: Cover, Copy, and Compare versus Copy, Cover, and Compare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafman, Joel M.; Cates, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the fluency and error rates produced when using the Cover, Copy, and Compare (CCC) and a modified CCC procedure (MCCC) called Copy, Cover, and Compare to complete subtraction math problems. Two second-grade classrooms consisting of 47 total students participated in the study. The following items were administered to…

  16. Eclipse period of R1 plasmids during downshift from elevated copy number: Nonrandom selection of copies for replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jan A; Berg, Otto; Nordström, Kurt; Dasgupta, Santanu

    2012-03-01

    The classical Meselson-Stahl density-shift method was used to study replication of pOU71, a runaway-replication derivative of plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli. The miniplasmid maintained the normal low copy number of R1 during steady growth at 30°C, but as growth temperatures were raised above 34°C, the copy number of the plasmid increased to higher levels, and at 42°C, it replicated without control in a runaway replication mode with lethal consequences for the host. The eclipse periods (minimum time between successive replication of the same DNA) of the plasmid shortened with rising copy numbers at increasing growth temperatures (Olsson et al., 2003). In this work, eclipse periods were measured during downshifts in copy number of pOU71 after it had replicated at 39 and 42°C, resulting in 7- and 50-fold higher than normal plasmid copy number per cell, respectively. Eclipse periods for plasmid replication, measured during copy number downshift, suggested that plasmid R1, normally selected randomly for replication, showed a bias such that a newly replicated DNA had a higher probability of replication compared to the bulk of the R1 population. However, even the unexpected nonrandom replication followed the copy number kinetics such that every generation, the plasmids underwent the normal inherited number of replication, n, independent of the actual number of plasmid copies in a newborn cell.

  17. SMN1 and SMN2 copy numbers in cell lines derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy as measured by array digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabley, Deborah L; Harris, Ashlee W; Holbrook, Jennifer; Chubbs, Nicholas J; Lozo, Kevin W; Crawford, Thomas O; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Funanage, Vicky L; Wang, Wenlan; Mackenzie, William; Scavina, Mena; Sol-Church, Katia; Butchbach, Matthew E R

    2015-07-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an early-onset motor neuron disease characterized by loss of α-motor neurons and associated muscle atrophy. SMA is caused by deletion or other disabling mutation of survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1). In the human genome, a large duplication of the SMN-containing region gives rise to a second copy of this gene (SMN2) that is distinguishable by a single nucleotide change in exon 7. Within the SMA population, there is substantial variation in SMN2 copy number; in general, those individuals with SMA who have a high SMN2 copy number have a milder disease. Because SMN2 functions as a disease modifier, its accurate copy number determination may have clinical relevance. In this study, we describe the development of an assay to assess SMN1 and SMN2 copy numbers in DNA samples using an array-based digital PCR (dPCR) system. This dPCR assay can accurately and reliably measure the number of SMN1 and SMN2 copies in DNA samples. In a cohort of SMA patient-derived cell lines, the assay confirmed a strong inverse correlation between SMN2 copy number and disease severity. Array dPCR is a practical technique to determine, accurately and reliably, SMN1 and SMN2 copy numbers from SMA samples.

  18. Copy number analysis of the low-copy repeats at the primate NPHP1 locus by array comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Liu, Pengfei; Rogers, Jeffrey; Lupski, James R

    2016-06-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has been widely used to detect copy number variants (CNVs) in both research and clinical settings. A customizable aCGH platform may greatly facilitate copy number analyses in genomic regions with higher-order complexity, such as low-copy repeats (LCRs). Here we present the aCGH analyses focusing on the 45 kb LCRs [1] at the NPHP1 region with diverse copy numbers in humans. Also, the interspecies aCGH analysis comparing human and nonhuman primates revealed dynamic copy number transitions of the human 45 kb LCR orthologues during primate evolution and therefore shed light on the origin of complexity at this locus. The original aCGH data are available at GEO under GSE73962.

  19. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  20. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G; Lear, Teri L; Adelson, David L; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-10-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  1. Demonstration of digital radiographs by means of ink jet-printed paper copies: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhorn, T; Kehler, M; Nilsson, J; Lyttkens, K; Andersson, B; Holmer, N G

    1992-11-01

    Different digital medical images have been printed on paper with a continuous ink jet printer, and the quality has been evaluated. The emphasis has been on digital chest radiographs from a computed radiography system. The ink jet printing technique is described as well as the handling of the image data from image source to printer. Different versions of paper prints and viewing conditions were compared to find the optimum alternative. The evaluation has been performed to maximize the quality of the paper images to make them conform with the corresponding film prints and monitor images as much as possible. The continuous ink jet technique offers high-quality prints on paper at a considerably lower cost per copy compared with the cost of a film print. With a future switch-over from diagnosing of digital images on film to diagnosing them on monitors, hard copies for demonstration purposes will occasionally be needed. This need can be filled by ink jet-printed paper copies.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood and melanoma risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood has been suggested as risk modifier in various types of cancer. However, its influence on melanoma risk is unclear. We evaluated the association between mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood and melanoma risk in 500 melanoma cases and 500 healthy controls from an ongoing melanoma study. The mtDNA copy number was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Overall, mean mtDNA copy number was significantly higher in cases than in controls (1.15 vs 0.99, P<0.001. Increased mtDNA copy number was associated with a 1.45-fold increased risk of melanoma (95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.97. Significant joint effects between mtDNA copy number and variables related to pigmentation and history of sunlight exposure were observed. This study supports an association between increased mtDNA copy number and melanoma risk that is independent on the known melanoma risk factors (pigmentation and history of sunlight exposure.

  3. A Novel Digital Watermarking Technique for Video Copyright Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulami Ghosh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of internet and technology, protecting digital data is becoming very urgent. In this paper a novel watermarking technique is proposed where both visible and invisible watermarks are embedded in a video. Digital data can be copied easily without any degradation in quality, so the protection of the data is necessary. Digital watermarking is a technology to embed additional information into the host signal to ensure security and protection of multimedia data. The video frames contain both the watermarks, so it is more robust to attacks. The watermarking scheme described here deals with embedding and extraction of the watermarks. Discrete Wavelet transform (DWT is used to embed the invisible watermark and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR is calculated to measure efficiency of this method.

  4. 49 CFR 1104.3 - Copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use Microsoft Access 97 and databases submitted should be in either this format or another ODBC... submitted as functioning electronic spreadsheets in Lotus 1-2-3 Release 9 or Microsoft Excel 97, or... Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) standard. ODBC is a Windows technology that allows a...

  5. Properly coloured copies and rainbow copies of large graphs with small maximum degree

    CERN Document Server

    Böttcher, Julia; Procacci, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n vertices with maximum degree D. We use the Lov\\'asz local lemma to show the following two results about colourings c of the edges of the complete graph K_n. If for each vertex v of K_n the colouring c assigns each colour to at most (n-2)/22.4D^2 edges emanating from v, then there is a copy of G in K_n which is properly edge-coloured by c. This improves on a result of Alon, Jiang, Miller, and Pritikin [Random Struct. Algorithms 23(4), 409-433, 2003]. On the other hand, if c assigns each colour to at most n/51D^2 edges of K_n, then there is a copy of G in K_n such that each edge of G receives a different colour from c. This proves a conjecture of Frieze and Krivelevich [Electron. J. Comb. 15(1), R59, 2008]. Our proofs rely on a framework developed by Lu and Sz\\'ekely [Electron. J. Comb. 14(1), R63, 2007] for applying the local lemma to random injections. In order to improve the constants in our results we use a version of the local lemma due to Bissacot, Fern\\'andez, Procacci, and Scoppola...

  6. Extremely Robust and Patternable Electrodes for Copy-Paper-Based Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaeho; Seo, Ji-Won; Lee, Tae-Ik; Kwon, Donguk; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-07-27

    We propose a fabrication process for extremely robust and easily patternable silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes on paper. Using an auxiliary donor layer and a simple laminating process, AgNWs can be easily transferred to copy paper as well as various other substrates using a dry process. Intercalating a polymeric binder between the AgNWs and the substrate through a simple printing technique enhances adhesion, not only guaranteeing high foldability of the electrodes, but also facilitating selective patterning of the AgNWs. Using the proposed process, extremely crease-tolerant electronics based on copy paper can be fabricated, such as a printed circuit board for a 7-segment display, portable heater, and capacitive touch sensor, demonstrating the applicability of the AgNWs-based electrodes to paper electronics.

  7. Memory Copy Optimization for Streaming Gateway Transco ding:Mo dels and Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingzhe; WANG Jinlin; CHEN Xiao; YE Xiaozhou

    2016-01-01

    Repeated memory copy during proto-col translation inhibits capacity of a streaming media gateway. Unlike existing optimization techniques that rely on platform-specific features, this paper investigates algorithm-level platform-independent strategies. A math-ematical concept of the buf-string is proposed to model the protocol transcoding process. Based on this model three payload extraction algorithms that can reduce mem-ory copy are presented. The streaming gateway used in the Next-generation broadcasting (NGB) and the Next-generation on-demand (NGOD) system is taken as an ex-ample to demonstrate and evaluate our strategies. Experi-mental results from an x86 host and an embedded system prove that our strategies can reduce CPU overhead by 15%to 45%, and optimize the linear space complexity to a con-stant one.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cells declines with age and is associated with general health among elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Thinggaard, Mikael; Dalgård, Christine; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2014-09-01

    The role of the mitochondria in disease, general health and aging has drawn much attention over the years. Several attempts have been made to describe how the numbers of mitochondria correlate with age, although with inconclusive results. In this study, the relative quantity of mitochondrial DNA compared to nuclear DNA, i.e. the mitochondrial DNA copy number, was measured by PCR technology and used as a proxy for the content of mitochondria copies. In 1,067 Danish twins and singletons (18-93 years of age), with the majority being elderly individuals, the estimated mean mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cells was similar for those 18-48 years of age [mean relative mtDNA content: 61.0; 95 % CI (52.1; 69.9)], but declined by -0.54 mtDNA 95 % CI (-0.63; -0.45) every year for those older than approximately 50 years of age. However, the longitudinal, yearly decline within an individual was more than twice as steep as observed in the cross-sectional analysis [decline of mtDNA content: -1.27; 95 % CI (-1.71; -0.82)]. Subjects with low mitochondrial DNA copy number had poorer outcomes in terms of cognitive performance, physical strength, self-rated health, and higher all-cause mortality than subjects with high mitochondrial DNA copy number, also when age was controlled for. The copy number mortality association can contribute to the smaller decline in a cross-sectional sample of the population compared to the individual, longitudinal decline. This study suggests that high mitochondrial DNA copy number in blood is associated with better health and survival among elderly.

  9. The classical double copy for Taub-NUT spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, A; O'Connell, D; White, C D

    2015-01-01

    The double copy is a much-studied relationship between gauge theory and gravity amplitudes. Recently, this was generalised to an infinite family of classical solutions to Einstein's equations, namely stationary Kerr-Schild geometries. In this paper, we extend this to the Taub-NUT solution in gravity, which has a double Kerr-Schild form. The single copy of this solution is a dyon, whose electric and magnetic charges are related to the mass and NUT charge in the gravity theory. Finally, we find hints that the classical double copy extends to curved background geometries.

  10. The classical double copy for Taub-NUT spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Andrés; Monteiro, Ricardo; O'Connell, Donal; White, Chris D.

    2015-11-01

    The double copy is a much-studied relationship between gauge theory and gravity amplitudes. Recently, this was generalised to an infinite family of classical solutions to Einstein's equations, namely stationary Kerr-Schild geometries. In this paper, we extend this to the Taub-NUT solution in gravity, which has a double Kerr-Schild form. The single copy of this solution is a dyon, whose electric and magnetic charges are related to the mass and NUT charge in the gravity theory. Finally, we find hints that the classical double copy extends to curved background geometries.

  11. Electrochemical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  12. Copy number gain of VCX, X-linked multi-copy gene, leads to cell proliferation and apoptosis during spermatogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Juan; Qin, Yufeng; Wang, Rong; Huang, Zhenyao; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Ran; Song, Ling; Ling, Xiufeng; Hu, Zhibin; Miao, Dengshun; Shen, Hongbing; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru; Lu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Male factor infertility affects one-sixth of couples worldwide, and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the most severe forms. In recent years there has been increasing evidence to implicate the participation of X chromosome in the process of spermatogenesis. To uncover the roles of X-linked multi-copy genes in spermatogenesis, we performed systematic analysis of X-linked gene copy number variations (CNVs) and Y chromosome haplogrouping in 447 idiopathic NOA patients and 485 healthy controls. Interestingly, the frequency of individuals with abnormal level copy of Variable charge, X-linked (VCX) was significantly different between cases and controls after multiple test correction (p = 5.10 × 10−5). To discriminate the effect of gain/loss copies in these genes, we analyzed the frequency of X-linked multi-copy genes in subjects among subdivided groups. Our results demonstrated that individuals with increased copy numbers of Nuclear RNA export factor 2 (NXF2) (p = 9.21 × 10−8) and VCX (p = 1.97 × 10−4) conferred the risk of NOA. In vitro analysis demonstrated that increasing copy number of VCX could upregulate the gene expression and regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Our study establishes a robust association between the VCX CNVs and NOA risk. PMID:27705943

  13. Copy number gain of VCX, X-linked multi-copy gene, leads to cell proliferation and apoptosis during spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Juan; Qin, Yufeng; Wang, Rong; Huang, Zhenyao; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Ran; Song, Ling; Ling, Xiufeng; Hu, Zhibin; Miao, Dengshun; Shen, Hongbing; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru; Lu, Chuncheng

    2016-11-29

    Male factor infertility affects one-sixth of couples worldwide, and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the most severe forms. In recent years there has been increasing evidence to implicate the participation of X chromosome in the process of spermatogenesis. To uncover the roles of X-linked multi-copy genes in spermatogenesis, we performed systematic analysis of X-linked gene copy number variations (CNVs) and Y chromosome haplogrouping in 447 idiopathic NOA patients and 485 healthy controls. Interestingly, the frequency of individuals with abnormal level copy of Variable charge, X-linked (VCX) was significantly different between cases and controls after multiple test correction (p = 5.10 × 10-5). To discriminate the effect of gain/loss copies in these genes, we analyzed the frequency of X-linked multi-copy genes in subjects among subdivided groups. Our results demonstrated that individuals with increased copy numbers of Nuclear RNA export factor 2 (NXF2) (p = 9.21 × 10-8) and VCX (p = 1.97 × 10-4) conferred the risk of NOA. In vitro analysis demonstrated that increasing copy number of VCX could upregulate the gene expression and regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Our study establishes a robust association between the VCX CNVs and NOA risk.

  14. Selective regain of egfr gene copies in CD44+/CD24-/low breast cancer cellular model MDA-MB-468

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Antje

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased transcription of oncogenes like the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is frequently caused by amplification of the whole gene or at least of regulatory sequences. Aim of this study was to pinpoint mechanistic parameters occurring during egfr copy number gains leading to a stable EGFR overexpression and high sensitivity to extracellular signalling. A deeper understanding of those marker events might improve early diagnosis of cancer in suspect lesions, early detection of cancer progression and the prediction of egfr targeted therapies. Methods The basal-like/stemness type breast cancer cell line subpopulation MDA-MB-468 CD44high/CD24-/low, carrying high egfr amplifications, was chosen as a model system in this study. Subclones of the heterogeneous cell line expressing low and high EGF receptor densities were isolated by cell sorting. Genomic profiling was carried out for these by means of SNP array profiling, qPCR and FISH. Cell cycle analysis was performed using the BrdU quenching technique. Results Low and high EGFR expressing MDA-MB-468 CD44+/CD24-/low subpopulations separated by cell sorting showed intermediate and high copy numbers of egfr, respectively. However, during cell culture an increase solely for egfr gene copy numbers in the intermediate subpopulation occurred. This shift was based on the formation of new cells which regained egfr gene copies. By two parametric cell cycle analysis clonal effects mediated through growth advantage of cells bearing higher egfr gene copy numbers could most likely be excluded for being the driving force. Subsequently, the detection of a fragile site distal to the egfr gene, sustaining uncapped telomere-less chromosomal ends, the ladder-like structure of the intrachromosomal egfr amplification and a broader range of egfr copy numbers support the assumption that dynamic chromosomal rearrangements, like breakage-fusion-bridge-cycles other than proliferation drive the gain

  15. Evolution vs the number of gene copies per primitive cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A L

    1984-01-01

    Computer simulations are presented of the rate at which an advantageous mutant would displace the prototype in a replicating system without an accurate segregation mechanism. If the number of gene copies in the system is indefinitely large, Darwinian evolution is essentially stopped because there is no coupling of phenotype with genotype, i.e., there is no growth advantage to the advantageous gene relative to the prototype and therefore no "survival of the fittest." The inhibition of evolution due to a number of gene copies less than 100 would have been not insurmountable. Although the presence of multiple copies would have allowed replacement by an advantageous mutant, it provided a way for the primitive cell to conserve less immediately useful genes that could evolve into different or more effective genes. This possibility was lost as accurate segregation mechanisms evolved and cells with few copies of each gene, such as modern procaryotes, arose.

  16. 7 CFR 46.42 - Copies of records; how obtained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Copies...

  17. Intron analyses reveal multiple calmodulin copies in Littorina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R J; Wilding, C S; Grahame, J

    2005-04-01

    Intron 3 and the flanking exons of the calmodulin gene have been amplified, cloned, and sequenced from 18 members of the gastropod genus Littorina. From the 48 sequences, at least five different gene copies have been identified and their functionality characterized using a strategy based upon the potential protein product predicted from flanking exon data. The functionality analyses suggest that four of the genes code for functional copies of calmodulin. All five copies have been identified across a wide range of littorinid species although not ubiquitously. Using this novel approach based on intron sequences, we have identified an unprecedented number of potential calmodulin copies in Littorina, exceeding that reported for any other invertebrate. This suggests a higher number of, and more ancient, gene duplications than previously detected in a single genus.

  18. Using DMA for copying performance counter data to memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-12-31

    A device for copying performance counter data includes hardware path that connects a direct memory access (DMA) unit to a plurality of hardware performance counters and a memory device. Software prepares an injection packet for the DMA unit to perform copying, while the software can perform other tasks. In one aspect, the software that prepares the injection packet runs on a processing core other than the core that gathers the hardware performance data.

  19. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-09-15

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen the yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  20. Quantum copying and simplification of the quantum Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chi-Sheng

    Theoretical studies of quantum computation and quantum information theory are presented in this thesis. Three topics are considered: simplification of the quantum Fourier transform in Shor's algorithm, optimal eavesdropping in the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol, and quantum copying of one qubit. The quantum Fourier transform preceding the final measurement in Shor's algorithm is simplified by replacing a network of quantum gates with one that has fewer and simpler gates controlled by classical signals. This simplification results from an analysis of the network using the consistent history approach to quantum mechanics. The optimal amount of information which an eavesdropper can gain, for a given level of noise in the communication channel, is worked out for the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. The optimal eavesdropping strategy is expressed in terms of various quantum networks. A consistent history analysis of these networks using two conjugate quantum bases shows how the information gain in one basis influences the noise level in the conjugate basis. The no-cloning property of quantum systems, which is the physics behind quantum cryptography, is studied by considering copying machines that generate two imperfect copies of one qubit. The best qualities these copies can have are worked out with the help of the Bloch sphere representation for one qubit, and a quantum network is worked out for an optimal copying machine. If the copying machine does not have additional ancillary qubits, the copying process can be viewed using a 2-dimensional subspace in a product space of two qubits. A special representation of such a two-dimensional subspace makes possible a complete characterization of this type of copying. This characterization in turn leads to simplified eavesdropping strategies in the BB84 and the B92 quantum cryptographic protocols.

  1. Establishment of TaqMan Real-time Quantitative PCR Assay for Foreign Gene Copy Numbers in Transgenic Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu You-wen; Gao Xue-jun; Qi Bang-ruo; Li Lu; Zhen Zhen

    2012-01-01

    TaqMan quantitative PCR technique was used to detect the copies of exogenous CaMV35S flanks sequence in transgenic soybean. With soybean lectin as the endogenous reference gene, and gene complex DNA in non-GMO soybeans as the endogenous reference standard, the gradient dilution method was used to separately calculate Ct value of endogenous reference gene and plasmid DNA and correlation standard curve equation of logarithm of copies, and then to calculate the copies of samples through substituting thus-obtained Ct into the standard curve equation. The standard curve equation of endogenous reference gene was y =–3.422x+35.201, R2=0.998; the standard curve equation of exogenous gene was y =–3.495x+35.303, R2=0.999. The sample copies was got by putting Ct value into the standard curve equation, and it was the ratio of exogenous gene and reference gene. We found that CaMV35S gene in transgenic soy was single copy.

  2. Genetic variations related to maternal whole blood mitochondrial DNA copy number: a genome-wide and candidate gene study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Hevner, Karin; Gelaye, Bizu; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-10-01

    We conducted genome-wide (GWAS) and candidate gene association studies of maternal mitochondrial DNA copy number. Maternal peripheral blood was collected during labor and delivery admission from 471 participants of a placental abruption case-control study conducted in Lima, Peru. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-Metabo Chip. Whole blood mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was measured using qRT-PCR techniques. We evaluated 119,629 SNPs in the GWAS and 161 SNPs (in 29 mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation genes) in the candidate association study. Top hits from GWAS and the candidate gene study were selected to compute weighted genetic risk scores (wGRS). Linear regression models were used to calculate effect size estimates and related nominal p values. The top hit in our GWAS was chr19:51063065 in FOXA3 (empirical p values = 2.20e - 6). A total of 134 SNPs had p values copy number (p values copy number was significantly associated with wGRS based on top GWAS hits (β = 0.49, 95% CI:0.38-0.60, p copy number.

  3. Copy number variations in three children with sudden infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toruner, G A; Kurvathi, R; Sugalski, R; Shulman, L; Twersky, S; Pearson, P G; Tozzi, R; Schwalb, M N; Wallerstein, R

    2009-07-01

    Sudden death of an infant is a devastating event that needs an explanation. When an explanation cannot be found, the case is labeled as sudden infant death syndrome or unclassified sudden infant death. The influence of genetic factors has been recognized for sudden infant death, but copy number variations (CNVs) as potential risk factors have not been evaluated yet. Twenty-seven families were enrolled in this study. The tissue specimens from deceased children were obtained and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) experiments were performed on the genomic DNA isolated from these specimens using Agilent Technologies Custom 4 x 44K arrays. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction experiments were performed to confirm the overlapping duplication and deletion region in two different cases. A de novo CNV is detected in 3 of 27 cases (11%). In case 1, an approximately 3-Mb (chr 8: 143,211,215-qter) duplication on 8q24.3-qter and a 4.4-Mb deletion on the 22q13.3-qter (chr 22: 45,047,068-qter) were detected. Subtelomeric chromosome analysis of the father and the surviving sibling of case 1 showed a balanced reciprocal translocation, 46,XY,t(8;22)(q24.3;q13.3). A 240-kb (chr 6: 26,139,810-26,380,787) duplication and a 1.9-Mb deletion (chr 6: 26,085,971-27,966,150) at chromosome 6p22 were found in cases 2 and 3, respectively. Array-CGH and conventional cytogenetic studies did not reveal the observed CNVs in the parents and the siblings of cases 2 and 3. The detected CNVs in cases 2 and 3 encompassed several genes including the major histone cluster genes. Array-CGH analysis may be beneficial during the investigations after sudden infant death.

  4. Potential Value of Genomic Copy Number Variations in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjun Zhuo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1% of the global population, and the disease has imposed a considerable burden on families and society. Although, the exact cause of schizophrenia remains unknown, several lines of scientific evidence have revealed that genetic variants are strongly correlated with the development and early onset of the disease. In fact, the heritability among patients suffering from schizophrenia is as high as 80%. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs are one of the main forms of genomic variations, ubiquitously occurring in the human genome. An increasing number of studies have shown that CNVs account for population diversity and genetically related diseases, including schizophrenia. The last decade has witnessed rapid advances in the development of novel genomic technologies, which have led to the identification of schizophrenia-associated CNVs, insight into the roles of the affected genes in their intervals in schizophrenia, and successful manipulation of the target CNVs. In this review, we focus on the recent discoveries of important CNVs that are associated with schizophrenia and outline the potential values that the study of CNVs will bring to the areas of schizophrenia research, diagnosis, and therapy. Furthermore, with the help of the novel genetic tool known as the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9 system, the pathogenic CNVs as genomic defects could be corrected. In conclusion, the recent novel findings of schizophrenia-associated CNVs offer an exciting opportunity for schizophrenia research to decipher the pathological mechanisms underlying the onset and development of schizophrenia as well as to provide potential clinical applications in genetic counseling, diagnosis, and therapy for this complex mental disease.

  5. COPI complex is a regulator of lipid homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Beller

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid droplets are ubiquitous triglyceride and sterol ester storage organelles required for energy storage homeostasis and biosynthesis. Although little is known about lipid droplet formation and regulation, it is clear that members of the PAT (perilipin, adipocyte differentiation related protein, tail interacting protein of 47 kDa protein family coat the droplet surface and mediate interactions with lipases that remobilize the stored lipids. We identified key Drosophila candidate genes for lipid droplet regulation by RNA interference (RNAi screening with an image segmentation-based optical read-out system, and show that these regulatory functions are conserved in the mouse. Those include the vesicle-mediated Coat Protein Complex I (COPI transport complex, which is required for limiting lipid storage. We found that COPI components regulate the PAT protein composition at the lipid droplet surface, and promote the association of adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL with the lipid droplet surface to mediate lipolysis. Two compounds known to inhibit COPI function, Exo1 and Brefeldin A, phenocopy COPI knockdowns. Furthermore, RNAi inhibition of ATGL and simultaneous drug treatment indicate that COPI and ATGL function in the same pathway. These data indicate that the COPI complex is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of lipid homeostasis, and highlight an interaction between vesicle transport systems and lipid droplets.

  6. Performance Enhancement of Patch-based Descriptors for Image Copy Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Baber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Images have become main sources for the informa-tion, learning, and entertainment, but due to the advancement and progress in multimedia technologies, millions of images are shared on Internet daily which can be easily duplicated and redistributed. Distribution of these duplicated and transformed images cause a lot of problems and challenges such as piracy, redundancy, and content-based image indexing and retrieval. To address these problems, copy detection system based on local features are widely used. Initially, keypoints are detected and represented by some robust descriptors. The descriptors are computed over the affine patches around the keypoints, these patches should be repeatable under photometric and geometric transformations. However, there exist two main challenges with patch based descriptors, (1 the affine patch over the keypoint can produce similar descriptors under entirely different scene or the context which causes “ambiguity”, and (2 the descriptors are not enough “distinctive” under image noise. Due to these limitations, the copy detection systems suffer in performance. We present a framework that makes descriptor more distinguishable and robust by influencing them with the texture and gradients in vicinity. The experimental evaluation on keypoints matching and image copy detection under severe transformations shows the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  7. Digital Watermarking Technology with Practical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norishige Morimoto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking technology has been actively studied and developed by a number of institutions and companies since mid ‘90s. This area draws more and more attention as one of the key technology elements for content management, copyright protection and copy control of digital contents. This article discusses several different types of digital watermark application, particularly the application of digital watermarks for DVD copy control. This would be the first digital watermark application requiring worldwide standardization.

  8. The technological analysis of earthen architectural remains: the variability of building techniques and the characterization of burned or cemented daub in polished section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Peinetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Earthen architectural fragments (burned or cemented are often collected during the excavation in Italian prehistoric and protohistoric sites. The technological characterization of these remains is relevant to recognize the existence of local or regional building traditions and to understand the exploitation of raw materials and, more in general, the ancient production strategies. In addition to the current macroscopic analysis (morphology of fragments and classification of pastes and before the realization of archaeometric analysis, it’s possible to complete the analytical protocol of daub with some observations in polished section. To realize a polished section, the daub sample is cut and the resulting section is polished with sandpaper. The realization of this kind of section allows a better description of the arrangement of the constituents, to identify the processes of transformation and deformation of raw materials during the building activity. The aim of these mesoscopic analysis is to characterize the behavioral chain referred to the processing of raw materials and their installation, linking the observed characteristics to specific actions. It’s possible to obtain some functional data about the original function of the earthen structures or the dynamics of entrance in the archaeological record a well. This paper presents some case-studies and some preliminary keys to understand the features observed in polished section. The use of this analytical technique gives some encouraging results, especially in comparing the number of relevant data to the low cost of production of a polished section.

  9. Assessment and remediation of a historical pipeline release : tools, techniques and technologies applied to in-situ/ex-situ soil and groundwater remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, N. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kohlsmith, B. [Kinder Morgan Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Tools, techniques, and technologies applied to in-situ/ex-situ soil and groundwater remediation were presented as part of an assessment and remediation of a historical pipeline release. The presentation discussed the initial assessment, as well as a discussion of remediation of hydrophobic soils, re-assessment, site specific criteria, a remediation trial involving bioventing and chemical oxidation, and a full scale remediation. The pipeline release occurred in the summer of 1977. The event was followed by a complete surface remediation with a significant amount of topsoil being removed and replaced. In 2004, a landowner complained of poor crop growth in four patches near the area of the historical spill. An initial assessment was undertaken and several photographs were presented. It was concluded that a comprehensive assessment set the base for a careful staged approach to the remediation of the site including the establishment of site specific criteria. The process was made possible with a high level of communication between all stakeholders. In addition, the most appropriate solution for the site was realized. figs.

  10. Translation, copying and variation in two Castilian copies of the Epistola de cura rei familiaris by Pseudo Bernardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Miguel Franco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we attempt to analyse the differences between two copies, a printed exemplar (Burgos, Fadrique de Basilea c. 1495-1499 and a manuscript one (Madrid, BNE, 10445 of a Castilian translation of the Epistola de cura rei familiaris, a pseudo Bernardine tractate that belongs to the genre of the Oeconomica. Firstly, we will compare these two translations to a Latin copy of the Epistola printed by the same editor at around the same time. Secondly, we will compare the Castilian texts with one another in order to describe their main features. Last, on the basis of that description, we will try to distinguish between translation and copying mistakes, so that we are able to determine whether one of the Castilian texts may be a direct translation from Latin or whether both exemplars are copies of a former translation.

  11. Microarray MAPH: accurate array-based detection of relative copy number in genomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Alan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methods for measurement of copy number do not combine all the desirable qualities of convenience, throughput, economy, accuracy and resolution. In this study, to improve the throughput associated with Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH we aimed to develop a modification based on the 3-Dimensional, Flow-Through Microarray Platform from PamGene International. In this new method, electrophoretic analysis of amplified products is replaced with photometric analysis of a probed oligonucleotide array. Copy number analysis of hybridised probes is based on a dual-label approach by comparing the intensity of Cy3-labelled MAPH probes amplified from test samples co-hybridised with similarly amplified Cy5-labelled reference MAPH probes. The key feature of using a hybridisation-based end point with MAPH is that discrimination of amplified probes is based on sequence and not fragment length. Results In this study we showed that microarray MAPH measurement of PMP22 gene dosage correlates well with PMP22 gene dosage determined by capillary MAPH and that copy number was accurately reported in analyses of DNA from 38 individuals, 12 of which were known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A. Conclusion Measurement of microarray-based endpoints for MAPH appears to be of comparable accuracy to electrophoretic methods, and holds the prospect of fully exploiting the potential multiplicity of MAPH. The technology has the potential to simplify copy number assays for genes with a large number of exons, or of expanded sets of probes from dispersed genomic locations.

  12. A robust penalized method for the analysis of noisy DNA copy number data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletions and amplifications of the human genomic DNA copy number are the causes of numerous diseases, such as, various forms of cancer. Therefore, the detection of DNA copy number variations (CNV is important in understanding the genetic basis of many diseases. Various techniques and platforms have been developed for genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number, such as, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and high-resolution mapping with high-density tiling oligonucleotide arrays. Since complicated biological and experimental processes are often associated with these platforms, data can be potentially contaminated by outliers. Results We propose a penalized LAD regression model with the adaptive fused lasso penalty for detecting CNV. This method contains robust properties and incorporates both the spatial dependence and sparsity of CNV into the analysis. Our simulation studies and real data analysis indicate that the proposed method can correctly detect the numbers and locations of the true breakpoints while appropriately controlling the false positives. Conclusions The proposed method has three advantages for detecting CNV change points: it contains robustness properties; incorporates both spatial dependence and sparsity; and estimates the true values at each marker accurately.

  13. Use of the MLPA assay in the molecular diagnosis of gene copy number alterations in human genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuppia, Liborio; Antonucci, Ivana; Palka, Giandomenico; Gatta, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) assay is a recently developed technique able to evidence variations in the copy number of several human genes. Due to this ability, MLPA can be used in the molecular diagnosis of several genetic diseases whose pathogenesis is related to the presence of deletions or duplications of specific genes. Moreover, MLPA assay can also be used in the molecular diagnosis of genetic diseases characterized by the presence of abnormal DNA methylation. Due to the large number of genes that can be analyzed by a single technique, MLPA assay represents the gold standard for molecular analysis of all pathologies derived from the presence of gene copy number variation. In this review, the main applications of the MLPA technique for the molecular diagnosis of human diseases are described.

  14. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assessment of chromosome copy number in sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, M.; Sigman, M.; Mark, H.F.L. [Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 15% of all recognized pregnancies end in spontaneous abortions. The overall frequency of chromosome abnormalities in spontaneous abortions is approximately 50%. Thus aneuploidy is a significant cause of fetal wastage. In addition, structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes can also lead to birth defects, developmental delay, mental retardation and infertility. Conventional cytogenetic analysis via GTG- and other banding techniques is a powerful tool in the elucidation of the nature of chromosomal abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) enables detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities, especially trisomies, in intact cells. Using FISH and commercially available biotin-labeled probes, we have initiated a prospective study to assess specific chromosome copy number of preparations of unstained smears from men referred for a male infertility evaluation as well as smears from normal control males chosen randomly from the sample of sperm donors. A total of approximately 19,000 sperm nuclei have been examined thus far. Of those suitable for analysis, 7382 (38.75%) were normal possessing one copy of chromosome 8, 155 (0.81%) were disomic, and 15 (0.079%) had more than two copies of chromosome 8. Comparisons with data available in the literature will be discussed. Work is ongoing to increase the efficiency of hybridization using both reported and previously untried pretreatment and fixation protocols. We have also initiated studies using multicolor FISH with various chromosome enumeration probes. The assay described here is a potentially powerful tool for detecting rare events such as spontaneous germ cell aneuploidy, aneuploidy detected in semen from men with carcinoma in situ of the testis and aneuploidy induced by potential environmental genotoxicants. It can also be utilized for segregation analysis and for correlating chromosome copy number with germ cell morphology.

  15. High-Performance, Multi-Node File Copies and Checksums for Clustered File Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Paul Z.; Ciotti, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Modern parallel file systems achieve high performance using a variety of techniques, such as striping files across multiple disks to increase aggregate I/O bandwidth and spreading disks across multiple servers to increase aggregate interconnect bandwidth. To achieve peak performance from such systems, it is typically necessary to utilize multiple concurrent readers/writers from multiple systems to overcome various singlesystem limitations, such as number of processors and network bandwidth. The standard cp and md5sum tools of GNU coreutils found on every modern Unix/Linux system, however, utilize a single execution thread on a single CPU core of a single system, and hence cannot take full advantage of the increased performance of clustered file systems. Mcp and msum are drop-in replacements for the standard cp and md5sum programs that utilize multiple types of parallelism and other optimizations to achieve maximum copy and checksum performance on clustered file systems. Multi-threading is used to ensure that nodes are kept as busy as possible. Read/write parallelism allows individual operations of a single copy to be overlapped using asynchronous I/O. Multinode cooperation allows different nodes to take part in the same copy/checksum. Split-file processing allows multiple threads to operate concurrently on the same file. Finally, hash trees allow inherently serial checksums to be performed in parallel. Mcp and msum provide significant performance improvements over standard cp and md5sum using multiple types of parallelism and other optimizations. The total speed-ups from all improvements are significant. Mcp improves cp performance over 27x, msum improves md5sum performance almost 19x, and the combination of mcp and msum improves verified copies via cp and md5sum by almost 22x. These improvements come in the form of drop-in replacements for cp and md5sum, so are easily used and are available for download as open source software at http://mutil.sourceforge.net.

  16. Single-image hard-copy display of the spine utilizing digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Dorothy S.; Janchar, Timothy; Milzman, David; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-04-01

    Regions of the entire spine contain a wide latitude of tissue densities within the imaged field of view presenting a problem for adequate radiological evaluation. With screen/film technology, the optimal technique for one area of the radiograph is sub-optimal for another area. Computed radiography (CR) with its inherent wide dynamic range, has been shown to be better than screen/film for lateral cervical spine imaging, but limitations are still present with standard image processing. By utilizing a dynamic range control (DRC) algorithm based on unsharp masking and signal transformation prior to gradation and frequency processing within the CR system, more vertebral bodies can be seen on a single hard copy display of the lateral cervical, thoracic, and thoracolumbar examinations. Examinations of the trauma cross-table lateral cervical spine, lateral thoracic spine, and lateral thoracolumbar spine were collected on live patient using photostimulable storage phosphor plates, the Fuji FCR 9000 reader, and the Fuji AC-3 computed radiography reader. Two images were produced from a single exposure; one with standard image processing and the second image with the standard process and the additional DRC algorithm. Both sets were printed from a Fuji LP 414 laser printer. Two different DRC algorithms were applied depending on which portion of the spine was not well visualized. One algorithm increased optical density and the second algorithm decreased optical density. The resultant image pairs were then reviewed by a panel of radiologists. Images produced with the additional DRC algorithm demonstrated improved visualization of previously 'under exposed' and 'over exposed' regions within the same image. Where lung field had previously obscured bony detail of the lateral thoracolumbar spine due to 'over exposure,' the image with the DRC applied to decrease the optical density allowed for easy visualization of the entire area of interest. For areas of the lateral cervical spine

  17. Food preference and copying behaviour in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Lauren M; Morgan, Kate V; Hall, Zachary J; Bailey, Ida E; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    As a social species zebra finches might be expected to copy the food choices of more experienced conspecifics. This prediction has been tested previously by presenting observers with two demonstrator birds that differ in some way (e.g., sex, familiarity), each feeding on a different colour food source. However, if the observer subsequently exhibits a preference, it is unclear whether it has copied the choice of one demonstrator or avoided the choice of the other. Furthermore, this choice may actually be influenced by pre-existing preferences, a potential bias that is rarely tested. Here we examine whether apparent copying or avoidance can be explained by pre-existing preferences. In Experiment 1, observers had the opportunity to watch a conspecific forage from one of the two differently coloured food hoppers. In Experiment 2, the observers did not have this opportunity. In both experiments observers were subsequently tested for their food hopper preference and all but one preferred one colour over the other. In Experiment 1 some observers showed evidence for copying, while others seemed to avoid the colour preferred by the demonstrator. In Experiment 2 females generally preferred the white hopper. Pre-existing colour preferences could, therefore, explain the apparent copying/avoidance we observed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Endogenous RNA interference is driven by copy number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristina; Houseley, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of non-protein coding RNAs are produced throughout eukaryotic genomes, many of which are transcribed antisense to protein-coding genes and could potentially instigate RNA interference (RNAi) responses. Here we have used a synthetic RNAi system to show that gene copy number is a key factor controlling RNAi for transcripts from endogenous loci, since transcripts from multi-copy loci form double stranded RNA more efficiently than transcripts from equivalently expressed single-copy loci. Selectivity towards transcripts from high-copy DNA is therefore an emergent property of a minimal RNAi system. The ability of RNAi to selectively degrade transcripts from high-copy loci would allow suppression of newly emerging transposable elements, but such a surveillance system requires transcription. We show that low-level genome-wide pervasive transcription is sufficient to instigate RNAi, and propose that pervasive transcription is part of a defense mechanism capable of directing a sequence-independent RNAi response against transposable elements amplifying within the genome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01581.001 PMID:24520161

  19. Major copy proportion analysis of tumor samples using SNP arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most common genetic variations in the human genome and are useful as genomic markers. Oligonucleotide SNP microarrays have been developed for high-throughput genotyping of up to 900,000 human SNPs and have been used widely in linkage and cancer genomics studies. We have previously used Hidden Markov Models (HMM to analyze SNP array data for inferring copy numbers and loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH from paired normal and tumor samples and unpaired tumor samples. Results We proposed and implemented major copy proportion (MCP analysis of oligonucleotide SNP array data. A HMM was constructed to infer unobserved MCP states from observed allele-specific signals through emission and transition distributions. We used 10 K, 100 K and 250 K SNP array datasets to compare MCP analysis with LOH and copy number analysis, and showed that MCP performs better than LOH analysis for allelic-imbalanced chromosome regions and normal contaminated samples. The major and minor copy alleles can also be inferred from allelic-imbalanced regions by MCP analysis. Conclusion MCP extends tumor LOH analysis to allelic imbalance analysis and supplies complementary information to total copy numbers. MCP analysis of mixing normal and tumor samples suggests the utility of MCP analysis of normal-contaminated tumor samples. The described analysis and visualization methods are readily available in the user-friendly dChip software.

  20. Endogenous RNA interference is driven by copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristina; Houseley, Jonathan

    2014-02-11

    A plethora of non-protein coding RNAs are produced throughout eukaryotic genomes, many of which are transcribed antisense to protein-coding genes and could potentially instigate RNA interference (RNAi) responses. Here we have used a synthetic RNAi system to show that gene copy number is a key factor controlling RNAi for transcripts from endogenous loci, since transcripts from multi-copy loci form double stranded RNA more efficiently than transcripts from equivalently expressed single-copy loci. Selectivity towards transcripts from high-copy DNA is therefore an emergent property of a minimal RNAi system. The ability of RNAi to selectively degrade transcripts from high-copy loci would allow suppression of newly emerging transposable elements, but such a surveillance system requires transcription. We show that low-level genome-wide pervasive transcription is sufficient to instigate RNAi, and propose that pervasive transcription is part of a defense mechanism capable of directing a sequence-independent RNAi response against transposable elements amplifying within the genome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01581.001.

  1. Low copy number DNA profiling from isolated sperm using the aureka®-micromanipulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C; Müller, U; Kilper, R; Siebertz, B

    2012-07-01

    A new cell isolation technique linked to the aureka® micromanipulation system (aureka®) was used to pick sperm from mixed samples containing sperm and epithelial cells. Both cell types were stained using the HY-LITER™ high-resolution, fluorescent staining kit. To isolate a single sperm of interest under a fluorescent microscope, a specific microsphere picking technique was used. This sensitive and reliable cell identification and isolation technique enables low-copy-number (LCN) DNA profiling, as few as 20 sperm are sufficient for obtaining a full short tandem repeat (STR) profile without any allelic drop out. The presented protocol covers the whole workflow, from sample staining and cell pick up to STR analysis.

  2. Step-by-step surgical technique for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flap: application of digital technology in virtual surgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, G; Berrone, M; Battiston, B; Tos, P; Goia, F; Appendino, P; Crosetti, E

    2015-06-01

    At present, mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is the gold standard for functional and esthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. The purpose of this study was to describe the computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction procedure adopting the customized solution Synthes ProPlan CMF. The study reports five consecutive patients with benign or malignant disease requiring mandibular reconstruction using a microvascular fibular free flap, pre-operative virtual planning, construction of cutting guides and customized laser pre-bent titanium plates. The surgical technique is discussed in a step-by-step fashion. The average post-operative hospital stay was 18 ± 3 days. Ischemia time was recorded in all five cases, with an average of 75 ± 8 min. No problems were encountered in any surgical step and there were no major complications. Excellent precision of cutting guides and a good fit of pre-bent plates were found on both the mandible and fibula. There was excellent precision in bone to bone contact and position between mandible and fibula graft. Measurement data from the pre-operative and post-operative CT scans were compared. The average difference (Δ) between programed segment lengths and CT control segment lengths was 0.098 ± 0.077 cm. Microsurgical mandibular reconstruction using a virtual surgical planning yields significantly shorter ischemia times and allows more precise osteotomies. The technology is becoming increasingly recognized for its ability to optimize surgical outcomes and minimize operating time. Considering that the extent of resection can be wider than predicted, this results in safer modeling of the fibula only after frozen sections have demonstrated the radicality of resection.

  3. Photographic and drafting techniques simplify method of producing engineering drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provisor, H.

    1968-01-01

    Combination of photographic and drafting techniques has been developed to simplify the preparation of three dimensional and dimetric engineering drawings. Conventional photographs can be converted to line drawings by making copy negatives on high contrast film.

  4. Secure Copier Which Allows Reuse Copied Documents with Sorting Capability in Accordance with Document Types

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai

    2013-01-01

    Secure copy machine which allows reuse copied documents with sorting capability in accordance with the document types. Through experiments with a variety of document types, it is found that copied documents can be shared and stored in database in accordance with automatically classified document types securely. The copied documents are protected by data hiding based on wavelet Multi Resolution Analysis: MRA.

  5. Secure Copier Which Allows Reuse Copied Documents with Sorting Capability in Accordance with Document Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Secure copy machine which allows reuse copied documents with sorting capability in accordance with the document types. Through experiments with a variety of document types, it is found that copied documents can be shared and stored in database in accordance with automatically classified document types securely. The copied documents are protected by data hiding based on wavelet Multi Resolution Analysis: MRA.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins....... SETTING: Academic clinical research center. PARTICIPANTS: 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). DESIGN: Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (sleeping...... twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data...

  7. Candidate gene copy number analysis by PCR and multicapillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szantai, Eszter; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Guttman, András; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria

    2009-04-01

    Genetic polymorphisms are often considered as risk factors of complex diseases serving as valuable and easily detectable biomarkers, also stable during the whole lifespan. A novel type of genetic polymorphism has been identified just recently, referred to as gene copy number variation (CNV) or copy number polymorphism. CNV of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta and its adjacent gene, Nr1i2 (pregnane X receptor isoform), has been reported to associate with bipolar depression. In our study we introduced multicapillary electrophoresis for gene copy number analysis as an affordable alternative to real-time PCR quantification with TaqMan gene probes. Our results show the reliability of the developed method based on conventional PCR followed by separation of products by multicapillary electrophoresis with quantitative evaluation. This method can be readily implemented for the analysis of candidate gene CNVs in high throughput clinical laboratories and also in personalized medicine care of depression-related risk factors.

  8. Gribov horizon and Gribov copies effect in lattice Coulomb gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Burgio, Giuseppe; Reinhardt, Hugo; Vogt, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    Following a recent proposal by Cooper and Zwanziger we investigate via lattice simulations the effect on the Coulomb gauge propagators and on the Gribov-Zwanziger confinement mechanism of selecting the Gribov copy with the smallest non-trivial eigenvalue of the Faddeev-Popov operator, i.e. the one closest to the Gribov horizon. Although such choice of gauge drives the ghost propagator towards the prediction of continuum calculations, we find that it actually overshoots the goal. With increasing computer time, we observe that Gribov copies with arbitrarily small eigenvalues can be found. For such a method to work one would therefore need further restrictions on the gauge condition to isolate the physically relevant copies, since e.g. the Coulomb potential $V_C$ defined through the Faddeev-Popov operator becomes otherwise physically meaningless. Interestingly, the Coulomb potential alternatively defined through temporal link correlators is only marginally affected by the smallness of the eigenvalues.

  9. Number matters: control of mammalian mitochondrial DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay Montier, Laura L; Deng, Janice J; Bai, Yidong

    2009-03-01

    Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for proper cellular functioning. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and the resulting mitochondrial malfunction have been implicated in cancer, neurodegeneration, diabetes, aging, and many other human diseases. Although it is known that the dynamics of the mammalian mitochondrial genome are not linked with that of the nuclear genome, very little is known about the mechanism of mtDNA propagation. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mode of mtDNA replication has advanced in recent years, though not without some controversies. This review summarizes our current knowledge of mtDNA copy number control in mammalian cells, while focusing on both mtDNA replication and turnover. Although mtDNA copy number is seemingly in excess, we reason that mtDNA copy number control is an important aspect of mitochondrial genetics and biogenesis and is essential for normal cellular function.

  10. Genome wide copy number analysis of single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslan, Timour; Kendall, Jude; Rodgers, Linda; Cox, Hilary; Riggs, Mike; Stepansky, Asya; Troge, Jennifer; Ravi, Kandasamy; Esposito, Diane; Lakshmi, B.; Wigler, Michael; Navin, Nicholas; Hicks, James

    2016-01-01

    Summary Copy number variation (CNV) is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to phenotypic variation in health and disease. Most methods for determining CNV rely on admixtures of cells, where information regarding genetic heterogeneity is lost. Here, we present a protocol that allows for the genome wide copy number analysis of single nuclei isolated from mixed populations of cells. Single nucleus sequencing (SNS), combines flow sorting of single nuclei based on DNA content, whole genome amplification (WGA), followed by next generation sequencing to quantize genomic intervals in a genome wide manner. Multiplexing of single cells is discussed. Additionally, we outline informatic approaches that correct for biases inherent in the WGA procedure and allow for accurate determination of copy number profiles. All together, the protocol takes ~3 days from flow cytometry to sequence-ready DNA libraries. PMID:22555242

  11. Histotype-specific copy-number alterations in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ruby YunJu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial ovarian cancer is characterized by multiple genomic alterations; most are passenger alterations which do not confer tumor growth. Like many cancers, it is a heterogeneous disease and can be broadly categorized into 4 main histotypes of clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, and serous. To date, histotype-specific copy number alterations have been difficult to elucidate. The difficulty lies in having sufficient sample size in each histotype for statistical analyses. Methods To dissect the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer and identify histotype-specific alterations, we used an in silico hypothesis-driven approach on multiple datasets of epithelial ovarian cancer. Results In concordance with previous studies on global copy number alterations landscape, the study showed similar alterations. However, when the landscape was de-convoluted into histotypes, distinct alterations were observed. We report here significant histotype-specific copy number alterations in ovarian cancer and showed that there is genomic diversity amongst the histotypes. 76 cancer genes were found to be significantly altered with several as potential copy number drivers, including ERBB2 in mucinous, and TPM3 in endometrioid histotypes. ERBB2 was found to have preferential alterations, where it was amplified in mucinous (28.6% but deleted in serous tumors (15.1%. Validation of ERBB2 expression showed significant correlation with microarray data (p=0.007. There also appeared to be reciprocal relationship between KRAS mutation and copy number alterations. In mucinous tumors where KRAS mutation is common, the gene was not significantly altered. However, KRAS was significantly amplified in serous tumors where mutations are rare in high grade tumors. Conclusions The study demonstrates that the copy number landscape is specific to the histotypes and identification of these alterations can pave the way for targeted drug therapy specific to the histotypes.

  12. EGFR expression and copy number changes in low T-stage oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössle, Matthias; Weber, Claudia S; Züllig, Lena; Graf, Nicole; Jochum, Wolfram; Stöckli, Sandro J; Moch, Holger; Huber, Gerhard F

    2013-08-01

    EGFR-directed therapies are used to treat patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). As it is still unclear whether or not EGFR amplification represents an early or late event in head and neck SCC progression, we aimed to determine the frequency of abnormalities of EGFR protein and gene copy numbers in early oral SCC. A tissue microarray of cancer tissue from 120 patients with pT1/2 oral SCC was constructed. We investigated EGFR protein expression by immunohistochemistry. EGFR gene copy enumeration was performed using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and the novel automated silver in-situ hybridization (SISH) technology. Of early oral SCC, 19.3% showed high, 57.1% moderate and 23.6% low EGFR expression. EGFR amplification/polysomy was identified in 8% and 9% of cases by FISH and SISH, respectively. EGFR-SISH had a high concordance with EGFR-FISH (kappa value = 1.0), and both methods showed high conformity with EGFR immunohistochemistry (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). No correlation was found of EGFR protein expression or gene amplification status with pT or pN stage. Only a small subgroup of early oral SCC is characterized by EGFR amplification, which can be identified reliably using EGFR-SISH technology. This finding suggests that EGFR gene amplification mostly occurs in advanced stages of oral SCC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Chromosome Conformation Capture Carbon Copy (5C) in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Jon-Matthew; Dekker, Job

    2015-06-01

    Chromosome conformation capture carbon copy (5C) is a high-throughput method for detecting ligation products of interest in a chromosome conformation capture (3C) library. 5C uses ligation-mediated amplification (LMA) to generate carbon copies of 3C ligation product junctions using single-stranded oligonucleotide probes. This procedure produces a 5C library of short DNA molecules which represent the interactions between the corresponding restriction fragments. The 5C library can be amplified using universal primers containing the Illumina paired-end adaptor sequences for subsequent high-throughput sequencing.

  14. A quantum-copying machine for equatorial qubits

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Heng; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Matsumoto, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    Bu\\v{z}ek and Hillery proposed a universal quantum-copying machine (UQCM) (i.e., transformation) to analyze the possibility of cloning arbitrary states. The UQCM copies quantum-mechanical states with the quality of its output does not depend on the input. We propose a slightly different transformation to analyze a restricted set of input states. We impose the conditions (I) the density matrices of the two output states are the same, and that (II) the distance between input density operator an...

  15. Copy-number variants in neurodevelopmental disorders: promises and challenges.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Merikangas, Alison K

    2012-02-01

    Copy-number variation (CNV) is the most prevalent type of structural variation in the human genome. There is emerging evidence that copy-number variants (CNVs) provide a new vista on understanding susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Some challenges in the interpretation of current CNV studies include the use of overlapping samples, differing phenotypic definitions, an absence of population norms for CNVs and a lack of consensus in methods for CNV detection and analysis. Here, we review current CNV association study methods and results in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia, and provide suggestions for design approaches to future studies that might maximize the translation of this work to etiological understanding.

  16. An Enhanced Approach to Detect Copy Move Forgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchita Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the enhancement in the availability and quality of image manipulation tools, it is easy for a forger to forge any image without living any traces of modification. Digital Image tampering is now-a-days very common. Most obvious practice for doing forgery is Copy Move Forgery. In this research, a novel approach to detect Copy Move forgery is proposed. In this approach block based method and feature based method is employed to extract features from the image and extracted features are than matched to detect forgery and also perform the localization of the Forged Regions in the Digital Image

  17. Quantum state discrimination using the minimum average number of copies

    CERN Document Server

    Slussarenko, Sergei; Li, Jun-Gang; Campbell, Nicholas; Wiseman, Howard M; Pryde, Geoff J

    2016-01-01

    In the task of discriminating between nonorthogonal quantum states from multiple copies, the key parameters are the error probability and the resources (number of copies) used. Previous studies have considered the task of minimizing the average error probability for fixed resources. Here we consider minimizing the average resources for a fixed admissible error probability. We derive a detection scheme optimized for the latter task, and experimentally test it, along with schemes previously considered for the former task. We show that, for our new task, our new scheme outperforms all previously considered schemes.

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DA CAPACIDADE DE CÓPIA DE MATERIAIS DE MOLDAGEM ELASTOMÉRICOS DE DIFERENTES SISTEMAS POR MEIO DE UMA TÉCNICA APLICÁVEL CLINICAMENTE EVALUATION OF THE COPYING ABILITY OF DIFFERENT ELASTOMERIC IMPRESSION MATERIALS USING A CLINICALLY APPLICABLE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Pereira de Almeida ANTUNES

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um estudo comparativo entre diferentes sistemas de materiais de moldagem, tais como o polissulfeto, a silicona de condensação e a silicona de adição, através de uma nova técnica de avaliação não destrutiva e, conseqüentemente, aplicável clinicamente. A partir da confecção de próteses fixas de três elementos, fundidas em liga de níquel-cromo, obtiveram-se réplicas tridimensionais do espaço entre a restauração e o preparo cavitário, utilizando-se uma silicona de condensação. Essas réplicas foram avaliadas microscopicamente. Os resultados indicaram que, embora alguns materiais tenham apresentado comportamento superior, como o Permlastic e o Extrude, os outros materiais estudados tiveram comportamento clinicamente aceitável, desde que seus moldes sejam convenientemente manipulados, principalmente em relação ao tempo de vazamento do gessoThe purpose of this research was to make a comparative study between different systems of impression materials, such as polysulfide, condensation and addition-curing silicones, using a new non-destructive technique of evaluation, and consequently clinically applicable. After obtaining three element nickel-chromium prosthesis, three-dimensional replicas of the space between the restoration and the prepared tooth were made, using a condensation curing silicone. These replicas were microscopically evaluated. The results showed that, although some materials presented a superior behavior, as Permlastic and Extrude, other tested materials had an acceptable clinical behavior provided that their molds had been properly manipulated, specially regarding the time of cast pouring

  19. Fusion of Built in Test (BIT) Technologies with Embeddable Fault Tolerant Techniques for Power System and Drives in Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies has proposed development of an effective prognostic and fault accommodation system for critical DC power systems including PV systems. Overall...

  20. Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai-Shuai; Shu, Qi; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Qing Lan Project in Jiangsu Province, China, and a Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  1. Gene-based comparative analysis of tools for estimating copy number alterations using whole-exome sequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Yong; Choi, Jin-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Kong, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate detection of copy number alterations (CNAs) using next-generation sequencing technology is essential for the development and application of more precise medical treatments for human cancer. Here, we evaluated seven CNA estimation tools (ExomeCNV, CoNIFER, VarScan2, CODEX, ngCGH, saasCNV, and falcon) using whole-exome sequencing data from 419 breast cancer tumor-normal sample pairs from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Estimations generated using each tool were converted into gene-based copy numbers; concordance for gains and losses and the sensitivity and specificity of each tool were compared to validated copy numbers from a single nucleotide polymorphism reference array. The concordance and sensitivity of the tumor-normal pair methods for estimating CNAs (saasCNV, ExomeCNV, and VarScan2) were better than those of the tumor batch methods (CoNIFER and CODEX). SaasCNV had the highest gain and loss concordances (65.0%), sensitivity (69.4%), and specificity (89.1%) for estimating copy number gains or losses. These findings indicate that improved CNA detection algorithms are needed to more accurately interpret whole-exome sequencing results in human cancer. PMID:28460482

  2. Part I.2: Perspectives on Technological Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The article defines the technology concept as knowledge, organisation, technique and product, and describes the processes for technology analysis.......The article defines the technology concept as knowledge, organisation, technique and product, and describes the processes for technology analysis....

  3. Passive forensics for copy-move image forgery using a method based on DCT and SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Guo, Jichang

    2013-12-10

    As powerful image editing tools are widely used, the demand for identifying the authenticity of an image is much increased. Copy-move forgery is one of the tampering techniques which are frequently used. Most existing techniques to expose this forgery need to improve the robustness for common post-processing operations and fail to precisely locate the tampering region especially when there are large similar or flat regions in the image. In this paper, a robust method based on DCT and SVD is proposed to detect this specific artifact. Firstly, the suspicious image is divided into fixed-size overlapping blocks and 2D-DCT is applied to each block, then the DCT coefficients are quantized by a quantization matrix to obtain a more robust representation of each block. Secondly, each quantized block is divided non-overlapping sub-blocks and SVD is applied to each sub-block, then features are extracted to reduce the dimension of each block using its largest singular value. Finally, the feature vectors are lexicographically sorted, and duplicated image blocks will be matched by predefined shift frequency threshold. Experiment results demonstrate that our proposed method can effectively detect multiple copy-move forgery and precisely locate the duplicated regions, even when an image was distorted by Gaussian blurring, AWGN, JPEG compression and their mixed operations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomic Copy Number Variation in Disorders of Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight recent discoveries in the area of genomic copy number variation in neuropsychiatric disorders including intellectual disability, autism, and schizophrenia. To emphasize new principles emerging from this area, involving the genetic architecture of disease, pathophysiology, and diagnosis. Method: Review of studies published…

  5. 75 FR 4031 - Streamlining Hard-Copy Postage Statement Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Streamlining Hard-Copy Postage Statement Processing AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service\\TM\\ is proposing to revise Mailing Standards of the United States...

  6. Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M Wayne; Hopkins, Christopher E;

    2008-01-01

    At present, transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans are generated by injecting DNA into the germline. The DNA assembles into a semistable extrachromosomal array composed of many copies of injected DNA. These transgenes are typically overexpressed in somatic cells and silenced in the germline. We have...

  7. The blessing effect of an extra copy of chromosome 21

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2014-02-25

    Feb 25, 2014 ... The protective effect of the extra copy of chromosome against the ... genesis by decreasing the vascular endothelial growth factor. C (VEGF-C) levels in .... [8] Sun Y, Wang J, Liu Y, Song X, Zhang Y, Li K, et al. Results of.

  8. IKONPAINT -- Ikon and GWM window to Inkjet Hard-copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Clive G.; Mellor, G. R.

    IKONPAINT provides ``push-button'' colour hard-copy from the Ikon screen or from a GWM window to an inkjet printer. The DEC Companion Colour Printer (LJ250/LJ252) and the Hewlett-Packard Paintjet are both supported. These printers normally take 8 by 11 inch fan-fold paper but single transparency sheets can be hand-fed.

  9. Copy number variations in affective disorders and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Djurovic, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    In two recent studies 10 copy number variants (CNV) were found to be overrepresented either among patients suffering from affective disorders in an Amish family or in the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium study. Here, we investigate if these variants are associated with affective disorders...

  10. Content-based video copy detection benchmarking at TRECVID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, G.; Over, P.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the video copy detection benchmarkwhichwas run over a period of 4 years (2008-2011) as part of the TREC Video Retrieval (TRECVID) workshop series. The main contributions of the article include i) an examination of the evolving design of the evaluation framework

  11. Using Copy Change with Trade Books to Teach Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.; Wright, Pam; Sheffer, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Developing and implementing relevant, challenging, integrative, and exploratory curriculum is critical at all levels of schooling. This article describes one attempt to develop and implement an instance of interdisciplinary curriculum by using copy change with trade books to teach earth science. Specifically, it introduces trade books as a way to…

  12. Advertising Copy: Short Route to the Argumentative Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen G.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how generating effective advertising copy affords students practice in aspects of persuasive writing, such as developing a thesis, refuting counter-arguments, and writing in a comparison-contrast mode. Notes that this approach helps students negotiate the problematic shift from expressive to persuasive discourse without losing their…

  13. From Copy-and-Paste to Trace-and-Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ida

    2009-01-01

    of them even use the term ‹copy-and-paste› to illustrate this, suggesting that their perception is closely linked to their use of the internet. This generally one-dimensional perception calls for immediate repair work in the teaching of English academic writing in International Study Programmes...

  14. Evidence for nonconscious behavior-copying in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, J.E. van; Baaren, R.B. van; Bekkering, H.; Hunnius, S.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral mimicry is the nonconscious copying of an interaction partner’s behavior and is affected by social dynamics. Whereas it has been studied extensively in adults, little is known about the development of mimicry. The aims of this study were twofold, first to identify whether young children

  15. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a 'copying dominants' bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity.

  16. Using Copy Change with Trade Books to Teach Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.; Wright, Pam; Sheffer, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Developing and implementing relevant, challenging, integrative, and exploratory curriculum is critical at all levels of schooling. This article describes one attempt to develop and implement an instance of interdisciplinary curriculum by using copy change with trade books to teach earth science. Specifically, it introduces trade books as a way to…

  17. 7 CFR 3601.2 - Public inspection, copying, and indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public inspection, copying, and indexing. 3601.2 Section 3601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL... indexing. 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) requires that certain materials be made available for public inspection...

  18. Bovine copy number variation and its implication in animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently it has become apparent that previously unappreciated genomic structural variation, including copy number variations (CNV), contributes significantly to individual health and disease in humans and rodents. As a complement to the bovine HapMap project, we initiated a systematic study of the C...

  19. From Copy-and-Paste to Trace-and-Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ida

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of both Danish and international second-semester BA-students' perceptions of the problem of plagiarism. Surprisingly, the investigation proves that the students unanimously perceive plagiarism as directly copying other people's texts or entire works. Some...

  20. 36 CFR 1290.6 - Originals and copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1290.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK... ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.6 Originals and copies. (a) For purposes of.... Kennedy Assassination Records Collection (JFK Assassination Records Collection) established under the...

  1. Copy Number Variation at the APOL1 Locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupam Ruchi

    Full Text Available Two coding variants in the APOL1 gene (G1 and G2 explain most of the high rate of kidney disease in African Americans. APOL1-associated kidney disease risk inheritance follows an autosomal recessive pattern: The relative risk of kidney disease associated with inheritance of two high-risk variants is 7-30 fold, depending on the specific kidney phenotype. We wished to determine if the variability in phenotype might in part reflect structural differences in APOL1 gene. We analyzed sequence coverage from 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 samples as well as exome sequencing data from African American kidney disease cases for copy number variation. 8 samples sequenced in the 1000 Genomes Project showed increased coverage over a ~100kb region that includes APOL2, APOL1 and part of MYH9, suggesting the presence of APOL1 copy number greater than 2. We reasoned that such duplications should be enriched in apparent G1 heterozygotes with kidney disease. Using a PCR-based assay, we observed the presence of this duplication in additional samples from apparent G0G1 or G0G2 individuals. The frequency of this APOL1 duplication was compared among cases (n = 123 and controls (n = 255 with apparent G0G1 heterozygosity. The presence of APOL1 duplication was observed in 4.06% of cases and 0.78% controls, preliminary evidence that this APOL1 duplication may alter susceptibility to kidney disease (p = 0.03. Taqman-based copy number assays confirmed the presence of 3 APOL1 copies in individuals positive for this specific duplication by PCR assay, but also identified a small number of individuals with additional APOL1 copies of presumably different structure. These observations motivate further studies to better assess the contribution of APOL1 copy number on kidney disease risk and on APOL1 function. Investigators and clinicians genotyping APOL1 should also consider whether the particular genotyping platform used is subject to technical errors when more than two copies of

  2. Copy-number and gene dependency analysis reveals partial copy loss of wild-type SF3B1 as a novel cancer vulnerability. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer, and results in widespread somatic copy number alterations. We used a genome-scale shRNA viability screen in human cancer cell lines to systematically identify genes that are essential in the context of particular copy-number alterations (copy-number associated gene dependencies). The most enriched class of copy-number associated gene dependencies was CYCLOPS (Copy-number alterations Yielding Cancer Liabilities Owing to Partial losS) genes, and spliceosome components were the most prevalent.

  3. The Penefits of Primary and Secondary Schools to Copy Painting Teaching%谈谈中小学绘画教学中临摹的好处

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛广萍

    2014-01-01

    美术教学中的绘画课是中小学学生最喜欢上的课,一张张优秀的儿童画作品成了孩子情感的宣泄,是学生心灵的写照及生活的感悟,学画过程中少走些弯路。法国著名画家德拉克洛瓦也说:“临摹可以是有才能的人轻易获得成功。”%The paintings in the art teaching class is a primary and secondary school students favorite class,every good the work became children emotional feelings of anger,is the picture of students mind and feeling of life,how to teach students to draw? In addition to the sketch, creation method,copy is students like most,the most easy to accept the painting method.Someone well said:"copy is a kind of thinking,copying is a kind of comparison,copying is a kind of memory students by copying,can increase interest in painting,can also grasp the others as soon as possible in practice to summarize experience of painting and basic techniques of painting go less detours in the process.French famous painter Draco ROM tile also said:“the copy can be talented people easily succeed.”

  4. Genome-wide copy number profiling on high-density bacterial artificial chromosomes, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and oligonucleotide microarrays: a platform comparison based on statistical power analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Egmont-Peterson, M.; Janssen, I.M.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Veltman, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, comparative genomic hybridization onto bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays (array-based comparative genomic hybridization) has proved to be successful for the detection of submicroscopic DNA copy-number variations in health and disease. Technological improvements to achieve a high

  5. A digital calibration technique for an ultra high-speed wide-bandwidth folding and interpolating analog-to-digital converter in 0.18-μm CMOS technology*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jinshan; Zhang Ruitao; Zhang Zhengping; Wang Yonglu; Zhu Can; Zhang Lei; Yu Zhou; Han Yong

    2011-01-01

    A digital calibration technique for an ultra high-speed folding and interpolating analog-to-digital converter in 0.18-μm CMOS technology is presented. The similar digital calibration techniques are taken for high 3-bit flash converter and low 5-bit folding and interpolating converter, which are based on well-designed calibration reference, calibration DAC and comparators. The spice simulation and the measured results show the ADC produces 5.9 ENOB with calibration disabled and 7.2 ENOB with calibration enabled for high-frequency wide-bandwidth analog input.

  6. Improved DCT-based detection of copy-move forgery in images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Lu, Wei; Sun, Wei; Long, Dongyang

    2011-03-20

    Techniques for digital image tampering are becoming more and more sophisticated and widespread. Copy-move forgery is one of the tampering techniques that are frequently used. In this paper, an improved DCT-based method is developed to detect this specific artifact. Firstly, the image is divided into fixed-size overlapping blocks and, DCT is applied to each block to represent its features. Truncating is employed to reduce the dimension of the features. Then the feature vectors are lexicographically sorted and, duplicated image blocks will be neighboring in the sorted list. Thus duplicated image blocks will be compared in the matching step. To make the method more robust, a scheme to judge whether two feature vectors are similar is imported. Experiment results demonstrated that the proposed method can detect the duplicated regions even when an image was distorted by JPEG compression, blurring or additive white Gaussian noise.

  7. Assessing the Role of Technology Adoption in China's Growth Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Nadja

    to what extent these productivity increases can be explained by technology-adoption theory. In less developed countries, the key element behind technological progress is technology adoption, the process of copying technological knowledge invented throughout the world. To uncover a measure of China...

  8. Newnes communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff

    1994-01-01

    Newnes Communications Technology Handbook provides a discussion on different topics relevant to communications technology. The book is comprised of 39 chapters that tackle a wide variety of concern in communications technology. The coverage of the text includes technologies, such as analog digital communications systems, radio frequency receiver, and satellite systems. The book also discusses some methods and techniques used in communications technology, including mixer signal processing, modulation and demodulation, and spread spectrum techniques. The text will be of great use to engineers, t

  9. Identification of Genetic Alterations, as Causative Genetic Defects in Long QT Syndrome, Using Next Generation Sequencing Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Campuzano

    Full Text Available Long QT Syndrome is an inherited channelopathy leading to sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmias. Despite that several genes have been associated with the disease, nearly 20% of cases remain without an identified genetic cause. Other genetic alterations such as copy number variations have been recently related to Long QT Syndrome. Our aim was to take advantage of current genetic technologies in a family affected by Long QT Syndrome in order to identify the cause of the disease.Complete clinical evaluation was performed in all family members. In the index case, a Next Generation Sequencing custom-built panel, including 55 sudden cardiac death-related genes, was used both for detection of sequence and copy number variants. Next Generation Sequencing variants were confirmed by Sanger method. Copy number variations variants were confirmed by Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification method and at the mRNA level. Confirmed variants and copy number variations identified in the index case were also analyzed in relatives.In the index case, Next Generation Sequencing revealed a novel variant in TTN and a large deletion in KCNQ1, involving exons 7 and 8. Both variants were confirmed by alternative techniques. The mother and the brother of the index case were also affected by Long QT Syndrome, and family cosegregation was observed for the KCNQ1 deletion, but not for the TTN variant.Next Generation Sequencing technology allows a comprehensive genetic analysis of arrhythmogenic diseases. We report a copy number variation identified using Next Generation Sequencing analysis in Long QT Syndrome. Clinical and familiar correlation is crucial to elucidate the role of genetic variants identified to distinguish the pathogenic ones from genetic noise.

  10. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-13

    The major objectives of the project are to: (1) demonstrate the performance of three combustion NO{sub x} control technologies; (2) determine the short-term NO{sub x} emission trends for each of the operating configurations; (3) determine the dynamic long-term NO{sub x} emission characteristics for each of the operating configurations using sophisticated statistical techniques; (4) evaluate progressive cost-effectiveness (i.e., dollars per ton of NO{sub x} removed) of the low NO{sub x} combustion technologies tested; and (5) determine the effects on other combustion parameters (e.g., CO production, carbon carry-over, particulate characteristics) of applying the low NO{sub x} combustion technologies. (VC)

  11. Second harmonic super-resolution microscopy for quantification of mRNA at single copy sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Cho, Il-Hoon; Cui, Yi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-12-23

    Cell-specific information on the quantity and localization of key mRNAs at single copy sensitivity in single cells is critical for evaluating basic cellular process, disease risk, and efficacy of therapy. Quantification of overexpressed mRNAs beyond the diffraction limit is constrained by the optical property of the probes and microscopy techniques. In this report, nanosized barium titanium oxide (BaTiO3, BTO) crystals were utilized as probes for mRNA quantification by a second harmonic super-resolution microscopy (SHaSM). The SHaSM was able to detect a single copy of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) mRNA at a resolution of 55.6 nm with the ability to resolve multiple mRNA copies in a diffraction-limited spot. Her2 mRNA per cell was counted in SK-BR-3, MCF-7, and HeLa cell lines as 595±79.1, 38.9±8.26, and 1.5±2.8, respectively. Our single-cell quantification results were validated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization studies and quantitative PCR, showing better specificity and selectivity over current single-molecule approaches for transcript detection. The SHaSM is expected to have an upper limit of resolving ∼10(4) transcripts in a single cell with the ability to monitor intracellular transcriptional dynamics at video rate. The developed approach has strong potential in clinical research and in the early diagnosis of life-threatening diseases such as cancer.

  12. iGC-an integrated analysis package of gene expression and copy number alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Pin; Wang, Liang-Bo; Wang, Wei-An; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Lu, Tzu-Pin; Chuang, Eric Y

    2017-01-14

    With the advancement in high-throughput technologies, researchers can simultaneously investigate gene expression and copy number alteration (CNA) data from individual patients at a lower cost. Traditional analysis methods analyze each type of data individually and integrate their results using Venn diagrams. Challenges arise, however, when the results are irreproducible and inconsistent across multiple platforms. To address these issues, one possible approach is to concurrently analyze both gene expression profiling and CNAs in the same individual. We have developed an open-source R/Bioconductor package (iGC). Multiple input formats are supported and users can define their own criteria for identifying differentially expressed genes driven by CNAs. The analysis of two real microarray datasets demonstrated that the CNA-driven genes identified by the iGC package showed significantly higher Pearson correlation coefficients with their gene expression levels and copy numbers than those genes located in a genomic region with CNA. Compared with the Venn diagram approach, the iGC package showed better performance. The iGC package is effective and useful for identifying CNA-driven genes. By simultaneously considering both comparative genomic and transcriptomic data, it can provide better understanding of biological and medical questions. The iGC package's source code and manual are freely available at https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/iGC.html .

  13. Comparison of medical students' learning approaches between electronic and hard copy team-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Fawzy; Alnohair, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    To compare the students' perception of team-based learning (TBL): The paper (hard copy) compared with the e-copy (electronic copy) in the family medicine course of the fifth year medical students, Qassim University College of Medicine. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the family medicine course in 2015-2016 to compare the hard copy and the e-copy TBL sessions. We used Google drive to distribute, collect and analyze the questionnaire. The results of the e-copy TBL are shown and displayed directly with each session to the students, which was not the same as practiced with hard copy. We used also SPSS (version 17 for Windows) for more statistical analysis. The total number of respondents of students in each was 96; a phase of TBL phase 1 (hard copy) and phase 2 (e-copy). Male were 64 (66.7%) and females 32 (33.3%). The first three knowledge questions showed no difference between the mean score between paper and e-copy TBL, but of the perception questions showed a significant difference between the paper and e-copy TBL. The results of the survey showed that the students prefer e-copy TBL as a course format, as it was an attraction for most of the students and making them even more successful in the key exam and e-copy TBL develop the skills needed to work productively in task-groups.

  14. Cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .

  15. What does motor efference copy represent? Evidence from speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niziolek, Caroline A; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Houde, John F

    2013-10-09

    How precisely does the brain predict the sensory consequences of our actions? Efference copy is thought to reflect the predicted sensation of self-produced motor acts, such as the auditory feedback heard while speaking. Here, we use magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEG-I) in human speakers to demonstrate that efference copy prediction does not track movement variability across repetitions of the same motor task. Specifically, spoken vowels were less accurately predicted when they were less similar to a speaker's median production, even though the prediction is thought to be based on the very motor commands that generate each vowel. Auditory cortical responses to less prototypical speech productions were less suppressed, resembling responses to speech errors, and were correlated with later corrective movement, suggesting that the suppression may be functionally significant for error correction. The failure of the motor system to accurately predict less prototypical speech productions suggests that the efferent-driven suppression does not reflect a sensory prediction, but a sensory goal.

  16. Electromagnetic fields, size, and copy of a single photon

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    We propose the expressions of electromagnetic fields of a single photon which properly describe the known characteristics of a photon, derive the relations between the photon size and wavelength on basis of the expressions, reveal the differences between a photon and its copy, and give the specific expressions of annihilation and creation operators of a photon. The results show that a photon has length of half the wavelength, and its radius is proportional to square root of the wavelength; a photon and its copy have the phase difference of {\\pi} and constitute a phase-entangled state; the N-photon phase-entangled state, which is formed by the sequential stimulated emission and corresponds to the wave train in optics, is not a coherent state, but it is the eigenstate of the number operator of photons.

  17. Research on copying system of dynamic multiplex holographic stereograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaiping; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Tong

    2003-05-01

    The most important advantage of holographic stereograms over conventional hologram is that they can produce 3D images at any desired scale with movement, holographers in many countries involved in the studies towards it. We began our works in the early 80's and accomplished two research projects automatic system for making synthetic holograms and multiplex synthetic rainbow holograms, Based on these works, a large scale holographic stereogram of an animated goldfish was made by us for practical advertisement. In order to meet the needs of the market, a copying system for making multiplex holographic stereograms, and a special kind of silver halide holographic film developed by us recently. The characteristic of the copying system and the property of the special silver-halide emulsion are introduced in this paper.

  18. Perceiving the impossible: how individuals with autism copy paradoxical figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Elizabeth; Ropar, Danielle; Mitchell, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Mottron and colleagues found that individuals with autism were less affected by geometric impossibility than comparison participants on a copying task. The current experiment sought to determine whether a local perceptual style could account for this. Participants with and without autism copied possible and impossible geometric figures. Geometric impossibility had a larger effect on drawing time for comparison participants than for those with autism. However, participants with autism did not use more localized drawing strategies. Strength of impossibility effect was associated with a global strategy amongst comparison participants but this relationship was not found amongst participants with autism. The findings suggest that differences in high-level conceptual processing may account for group differences in effects of impossibility.

  19. The copying power of one-state tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Skyum, Sven

    1982-01-01

    One-state deterministic top-down tree transducers (or, tree homomorphisms) cannot handle “prime copying,” i.e., their class of output (string) languages is not closed under the operation L → {$(w$)f(n) short parallel w ε L, f(n) greater-or-equal, slanted 1}, where f is any integer function whose...... range contains numbers with arbitrarily large prime factors (such as a polynomial). The exact amount of nonclosure under these copying operations is established for several classes of input (tree) languages. These results are relevant to the extended definable (or, restricted parallel level) languages......, to the syntax-directed translation of context-free languages, and to the tree transducer hierarchy....

  20. Analysis of the Multi-Phase Copying Garbage Collection Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The multi-phase copying garbage collection was designed to avoid the need for large amount of reserved memory usually required for the copying types of garbage collection algorithms. The collection is performed in multiple phases using the available free memory. This paper proves that the number of phases depends on the size of the reserved memory and the ratio of the garbage and accessible objects. The performance of the implemented algorithm is tested in a fine-grained parallel Prolog system. We find that reserving only 10% of memory for garbage collection is sufficient for good performance in practice. Additionally, an improvement of the generic algorithm specifically for the tested parallel Prolog system is described.

  1. Survey of Cataract Surgical Techniques in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF SABE NWOSU

    Objective: To determine the techniques of cataract surgery as currently being ... include phacoemulsification, manual small incision sutureless. 3 cataract surgery (SICS) ... technology automated small incision phacoemulsification technique.5.

  2. Efficiency increasing of training process on basic technique of wrestler's motor actions in free style at the initial stage with using of computer technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tupeev Y.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of use of computer technologies in a system of preparation of fighters on a pioneering stage are exhibited. 10 competent sportsmen, 20 trainers of the maximum grade participated in experiment, 10 fighters of a freestyle of the first grade level. Directions of raise of a learning efficiency base the mechanic of impellent operations of juvenile fighters designated. The frame of the designed informational - methodical program "Champion" is presented. Productivity of information technologies in training base the mechanic of impellent operations in training process of juvenile fighters is defined.

  3. Genome Architecture and Its Roles in Human Copy Number Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides single-nucleotide variants in the human genome, large-scale genomic variants, such as copy number variations (CNVs, are being increasingly discovered as a genetic source of human diversity and the pathogenic factors of diseases. Recent experimental findings have shed light on the links between different genome architectures and CNV mutagenesis. In this review, we summarize various genomic features and discuss their contributions to CNV formation. Genomic repeats, including both low-copy and high-copy repeats, play important roles in CNV instability, which was initially known as DNA recombination events. Furthermore, it has been found that human genomic repeats can also induce DNA replication errors and consequently result in CNV mutations. Some recent studies showed that DNA replication timing, which reflects the high-order information of genomic organization, is involved in human CNV mutations. Our review highlights that genome architecture, from DNA sequence to high-order genomic organization, is an important molecular factor in CNV mutagenesis and human genomic instability.

  4. Mate-choice copying as Bayesian decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Takashi; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki; Iwasa, Yo

    2005-03-01

    Mate-choice copying by females has been reported in fishes (e.g., guppies) and lekking birds. Presumably, females assess males' quality using both information from direct observation of males and information acquired by observing other females' choices. Here, we study mathematically the conditions under which mate-choice copying is advantageous on the basis of Bayesian decision theory. A female may observe the mate choice of another female, called the model female, who has performed an optimal choice based on her own judgment. The conditions required for the focal female to choose the same mate as that chosen by the model female should depend on the male's appearance to her, the reliability of her own judgment of male quality, and the reliability of the model females. When three or more females are involved, the optimal mate choice critically depends on whether multiple model females make decisions independently or they themselves copy the choices of others. If two equally reliable females choose different males, the choice of the second female, made knowing the choice of the first, should have a stronger effect on the choice of the third (focal) female. This "last-choice precedence" should be tested experimentally.

  5. Copy number variation of KIR genes influences HIV-1 control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelak, Kimberly; Need, Anna C; Fellay, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide screen for large structural variants showed that a copy number variant (CNV) in the region encoding killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) associates with HIV-1 control as measured by plasma viral load at set point in individuals of European ancestry. This CNV encompasses...... the KIR3DL1-KIR3DS1 locus, encoding receptors that interact with specific HLA-Bw4 molecules to regulate the activation of lymphocyte subsets including natural killer (NK) cells. We quantified the number of copies of KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1 in a large HIV-1 positive cohort, and showed that an increase in KIR3...... individuals with multiple copies of KIR3DL1, in the presence of KIR3DS1 and the appropriate ligands, inhibit HIV-1 replication more robustly, and associated with a significant expansion in the frequency of KIR3DS1+, but not KIR3DL1+, NK cells in their peripheral blood. Our results suggest that the relative...

  6. Large multi-allelic copy number variations in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsaker, Robert E.; Van Doren, Vanessa; Berman, Jennifer R.; Genovese, Giulio; Kashin, Seva; Boettger, Linda M.; McCarroll, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of genome segments appear to be present in widely varying copy number in different human genomes. We developed ways to use increasingly abundant whole genome sequence data to identify the copy numbers, alleles and haplotypes present at most large, multi-allelic CNVs (mCNVs). We analyzed 849 genomes sequenced by the 1000 Genomes Project to identify most large (>5 kb) mCNVs, including 3,878 duplications, of which 1,356 appear to have three or more segregating alleles. We find that mCNVs give rise to most human gene-dosage variation – exceeding sevenfold the contribution of deletions and biallelic duplications – and that this variation in gene dosage generates abundant variation in gene expression. We describe “runaway duplication haplotypes” in which genes, including HPR and ORM1, have mutated to high copy number on specific haplotypes. We describe partially successful initial strategies for analyzing mCNVs via imputation and provide an initial data resource to support such analyses. PMID:25621458

  7. A Method for Calling Copy Number Polymorphism Using Haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun Ho eJang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and copy number variation (CNV are both widespread characteristic of the human genome, but are often called separately on common genotyping platforms. To capture integrated SNP and CNV information, methods have been developed for calling allelic specific copy numbers or so called copy number polymorphism (CNP, using limited inter-marker correlation. In this paper, we proposed a haplotype-based maximum likelihood method to call CNP, which takes advantage of the valuable multi-locus linkage disequilibrium (LD information in the population. We also developed a computationally efficient EM algorithm to estimate haplotype frequencies and optimize individual CNP calls simultaneously, even at presence of missing data. Through simulations, we demonstrated our model is more sensitive and accurate in detecting various CNV regions, compared with commonly-used CNV calling methods including PennCNV, another hidden Markov model using CNP, a scan statistic, segCNV, and cnvHap. Our method often performs better in the regions with higher LD, in longer CNV regions, and in common CNV than the opposite. We implemented our method on the genotypes of 90 HapMap CEU samples and 23 patients with acute lung injury (ALI. For each ALI patient the genotyping was performed twice. The CNPs from our method show good consistency and accuracy comparable to others.

  8. Germline DNA copy number aberrations identified as potential prognostic factors for breast cancer recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Sapkota

    Full Text Available Breast cancer recurrence (BCR is a common treatment outcome despite curative-intent primary treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer. Currently used prognostic and predictive factors utilize tumor-based markers, and are not optimal determinants of risk of BCR. Germline-based copy number aberrations (CNAs have not been evaluated as determinants of predisposition to experience BCR. In this study, we accessed germline DNA from 369 female breast cancer subjects who received curative-intent primary treatment following diagnosis. Of these, 155 experienced BCR and 214 did not, after a median duration of follow up after breast cancer diagnosis of 6.35 years (range = 0.60-21.78 and 8.60 years (range = 3.08-13.57, respectively. Whole genome CNA genotyping was performed on the Affymetrix SNP array 6.0 platform. CNAs were identified using the SNP-Fast Adaptive States Segmentation Technique 2 algorithm implemented in Nexus Copy Number 6.0. Six samples were removed due to poor quality scores, leaving 363 samples for further analysis. We identified 18,561 CNAs with ≥1 kb as a predefined cut-off for observed aberrations. Univariate survival analyses (log-rank tests identified seven CNAs (two copy number gains and five copy neutral-loss of heterozygosities, CN-LOHs showing significant differences (P<2.01×10(-5 in recurrence-free survival (RFS probabilities with and without CNAs.We also observed three additional but distinct CN-LOHs showing significant differences in RFS probabilities (P<2.86×10(-5 when analyses were restricted to stratified cases (luminal A, n = 208 only. After adjusting for tumor stage and grade in multivariate analyses (Cox proportional hazards models, all the CNAs remained strongly associated with the phenotype of BCR. Of these, we confirmed three CNAs at 17q11.2, 11q13.1 and 6q24.1 in representative samples using independent genotyping platforms. Our results suggest further investigations on the potential use of germline DNA

  9. Cyanobacteria Maintain Constant Protein Concentration despite Genome Copy-Number Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Yu; O'Shea, Erin K

    2017-04-18

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has multiple copies of its single chromosome, and the copy number varies in individual cells, providing an ideal system to study the effect of genome copy-number variation on cell size and gene expression. Using single-cell fluorescence imaging, we found that protein concentration remained constant across individual cells regardless of genome copy number. Cell volume and the total protein amount from a single gene were both positively, linearly correlated with genome copy number, suggesting that changes in cell volume play an important role in buffering genome copy-number variance. This study provides a quantitative examination of gene expression regulation in cells with variable genome copies and sheds light on the compensation mechanisms for variance in genome copy number. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Delphi Technique in Identifying Learning Objectives for the Development of Science, Technology and Society Modules for Palestinian Ninth Grade Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualrob, Marwan M. A.; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines how learning objectives based upon science, technology and society (STS) elements for Palestinian ninth grade science textbooks were identified, which was part of a bigger study to establish an STS foundation in the ninth grade science curriculum in Palestine. First, an initial list of STS elements was determined. Second,…

  11. Cancer gene prioritization by integrative analysis of mRNA expression and DNA copy number data: a comparative review

    CERN Document Server

    Lahti, Leo; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Bicciato, Silvio; Dugas, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A variety of genome-wide profiling techniques are available to probe complementary aspects of genome structure and function. Integrative analysis of heterogeneous data sources can reveal higher-level interactions that cannot be detected based on individual observations. A standard integration task in cancer studies is to identify altered genomic regions that induce changes in the expression of the associated genes based on joint analysis of genome-wide gene expression and copy number profiling measurements. In this review, we provide a comparison among various modeling procedures for integrating genome-wide profiling data of gene copy number and transcriptional alterations and highlight common approaches to genomic data integration. A transparent benchmarking procedure is introduced to quantitatively compare the cancer gene prioritization performance of the alternative methods. The benchmarking algorithms and data sets are available at http://intcomp.r-forge.r-project.org

  12. Customization of Project Management Techniques for the Construction of IT - Information Technology Systems with the Development Methodologies Known as Agile Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altino José Mentzingen de Moraes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge [1], edited and maintained by PMI - Project Management Institute, which deals with the issues of how to administrate a Project efficiently and planned, is already widely known and recognized by the world professional community as a strong orientation of best practices and effective working tool in this field. The PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge directs the Phases and the Disciplines that must be addressed in leading a Project, whether it be, both to meet the construction of projects in Engineering Area or to meet the System Development Projects in the Area of IT - Information Technology. In the latter Area, namely the area of IT - Information Technology, the theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge is already intensively applied for some decades. However, the System Development Methodologies in IT - Information Technology area is being reviewed by the emergence of new technical resources and new visions of interpretation of the business by the Organizations. In that way, this study intends to evaluate the current impact of these revisions (in System Development Methodologies in IT - Information Technology area may result in new versions of the PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge, which, also implemented revisions and at this moment is in its 5th.Edition. In conclusion, after some simulations in a practical environment, it is verified the usefulness of this paper (and its "Table of Definition of Specific Features of Project", which try to support the decision about what is the best System Development Methodology in IT - Information Technology area to be applied to a specific Project as an effective management and planning tool in corporate real world.

  13. 17 CFR 232.104 - Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unofficial PDF copies included... Filing Requirements § 232.104 Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission. (a) An... (§ 249.101 of this chapter) or a Form D (§ 239.500 of this chapter), may include one unofficial PDF copy...

  14. 36 CFR 703.19 - Requests for authenticated copies of Library documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copies of Library documents. 703.19 Section 703.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF... Documents in Certain Legal Proceedings Where the Library Is Not a Party § 703.19 Requests for authenticated copies of Library documents. Requests for authenticated copies of Library documents for purposes...

  15. Integrated analysis of DNA copy number and gene expression microarray data using gene sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.X. de Menezes (Renee); M. Boetzer (Marten); M. Sieswerda (Melle); G.J.B. van Ommen; J.M. Boer (Judith)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Genes that play an important role in tumorigenesis are expected to show association between DNA copy number and RNA expression. Optimal power to find such associations can only be achieved if analysing copy number and gene expression jointly. Furthermore, some copy number

  16. Does Visual Attention Span Relate to Eye Movements during Reading and Copying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Kandel, Sonia; Prado, Chloé; Valdois, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated whether text reading and copying involve visual attention-processing skills. Children in grades 3 and 5 read and copied the same text. We measured eye movements while reading and the number of gaze lifts (GL) during copying. The children were also administered letter report tasks that constitute an estimation of the…

  17. Technologies. [space power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Energy technologies to meet the power requirements of future space missions are reviewed. Photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and solar thermal technologies are discussed along with techniques for energy storage and power management and distribution.

  18. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low...

  19. Copy-number and gene dependency analysis reveals partial copy loss of wild-type SF3B1 as a novel cancer vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolella, Brenton R; Gibson, William J; Urbanski, Laura M; Alberta, John A; Zack, Travis I; Bandopadhayay, Pratiti; Nichols, Caitlin A; Agarwalla, Pankaj K; Brown, Meredith S; Lamothe, Rebecca; Yu, Yong; Choi, Peter S; Obeng, Esther A; Heckl, Dirk; Wei, Guo; Wang, Belinda; Tsherniak, Aviad; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A; Root, David E; Cowley, Glenn S; Buhrlage, Sara J; Stiles, Charles D; Ebert, Benjamin L; Hahn, William C; Reed, Robin; Beroukhim, Rameen

    2017-02-08

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer, and results in widespread somatic copy number alterations. We used a genome-scale shRNA viability screen in human cancer cell lines to systematically identify genes that are essential in the context of particular copy-number alterations (copy-number associated gene dependencies). The most enriched class of copy-number associated gene dependencies was CYCLOPS (Copy-number alterations Yielding Cancer Liabilities Owing to Partial losS) genes, and spliceosome components were the most prevalent. One of these, the pre-mRNA splicing factor SF3B1, is also frequently mutated in cancer. We validated SF3B1 as a CYCLOPS gene and found that human cancer cells harboring partial SF3B1 copy-loss lack a reservoir of SF3b complex that protects cells with normal SF3B1 copy number from cell death upon partial SF3B1 suppression. These data provide a catalog of copy-number associated gene dependencies and identify partial copy-loss of wild-type SF3B1 as a novel, non-driver cancer gene dependency.

  20. Precision Rolled-Ink Nano-Technology; Development of a Direct Write Technique for the Fabrication of Thin Films and Conductive Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    feature sizes on substrates with complex topographies like textiles , textured surfaces, and woven fiber composites. It is possible that some of the...deposition on to flat, uniform planes, and also for traversing of transitions on complex surfaces like textiles , fiber reinforced polymer composites...Today 2004, 7/8, 32–39. 5. Robinson, C.J.; Stucker, B.; et. al. Integration of Direct-Write (DW) and Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) Technologies to

  1. Teledermatology: from historical perspective to emerging techniques of the modern era: part II: Emerging technologies in teledermatology, limitations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Sarah J; Kvedar, Joseph; Granstein, Richard D

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine is the use of telecommunications technology to support health care at a distance. Dermatology relies on visual cues that are easily captured by imaging technologies, making it ideally suited for this care model. Advances in telecommunications technology have made it possible to deliver high-quality skin care when patient and provider are separated by both time and space. Most recently, mobile devices that connect users through cellular data networks have enabled teledermatologists to instantly communicate with primary care providers throughout the world. The availability of teledermoscopy provides an additional layer of visual information to enhance the quality of teleconsultations. Teledermatopathology has become increasingly feasible because of advances in digitization of entire microscopic slides and robot-assisted microscopy. Barriers to additional expansion of these services include underdeveloped infrastructure in remote regions, fragmented electronic medical records, and varying degrees of reimbursement. Teleconsultants also confront special legal and ethical challenges as they work toward building a global network of practicing physicians.

  2. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  3. Molecular genetics of Psoriasis (Principles, technology, gene location, genetic polymorphism and gene expression).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Robaee, Ahmad A

    2010-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with an etiology bases on both environmental and genetic factors. As is the case of many autoimmune diseases its real cause remains poorly defined. However, it is known that genetic factors contribute to disease susceptibility. The linkage analysis has been used to identify multiple loci and alleles that confer risk of the disease. Some other studies have focused upon single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for mapping of probable causal variants. Other studies, using genome-wide analytical techniques, tried to link the disease to copy number variants (CNVs) that are segments of DNA ranging in size from kilobases to megabases that vary in copy number. CNVs represent an important element of genomic polymorphism in humans and harboring dosage-sensitive genes may cause or predispose to a variety of human genetic diseases. The mechanisms giving rise to SNPs and CNVs can be considered as fundamental processes underlying gene duplications, deletions, insertions, inversions and complex combinations of rearrangements. The duplicated genes being the results of 'successful' copies are fixed and maintained in the population. Conversely, many 'unsuccessful' duplicates remain in the genome as pseudogenes. There is another form of genetic variations termed copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH) with less information about their potential impact on complex diseases. Additional studies would include associated gene expression variations with either SNPs or CNVs. Now many genetic techniques such as PCR, real time PCR, microarray and restriction fragment length analysis are available for detecting genetic polymorphisms, gene mapping and estimation of gene expression. Recently, the scientists have used these tools to define genetic signatures of disease, to understand genetic causes of disease and to characterize the effects of certain drugs on gene expression. This review highlights the principles, technology and applications on

  4. A Novel Graph-based Algorithm to Infer Recurrent Copy Number Variations in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chen; Ajwad, Rasif; Kuang, Qin; Hu, Pingzhao

    2016-01-01

    Many cancers have been linked to copy number variations (CNVs) in the genomic DNA. Although there are existing methods to analyze CNVs from individual samples, cancer-causing genes are more frequently discovered in regions where CNVs are common among tumor samples, also known as recurrent CNVs. Integrating multiple samples and locating recurrent CNV regions remain a challenge, both computationally and conceptually. We propose a new graph-based algorithm for identifying recurrent CNVs using the maximal clique detection technique. The algorithm has an optimal solution, which means all maximal cliques can be identified, and guarantees that the identified CNV regions are the most frequent and that the minimal regions have been delineated among tumor samples. The algorithm has successfully been applied to analyze a large cohort of breast cancer samples and identified some breast cancer-associated genes and pathways.

  5. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  6. Copy-move forgery detection through stationary wavelets and local binary pattern variance for forensic analysis in digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Toqeer; Irtaza, Aun; Mehmood, Zahid; Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    The most common image tampering often for malicious purposes is to copy a region of the same image and paste to hide some other region. As both regions usually have same texture properties, therefore, this artifact is invisible for the viewers, and credibility of the image becomes questionable in proof centered applications. Hence, means are required to validate the integrity of the image and identify the tampered regions. Therefore, this study presents an efficient way of copy-move forgery detection (CMFD) through local binary pattern variance (LBPV) over the low approximation components of the stationary wavelets. CMFD technique presented in this paper is applied over the circular regions to address the possible post processing operations in a better way. The proposed technique is evaluated on CoMoFoD and Kodak lossless true color image (KLTCI) datasets in the presence of translation, flipping, blurring, rotation, scaling, color reduction, brightness change and multiple forged regions in an image. The evaluation reveals the prominence of the proposed technique compared to state of the arts. Consequently, the proposed technique can reliably be applied to detect the modified regions and the benefits can be obtained in journalism, law enforcement, judiciary, and other proof critical domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental change drives accelerated adaptation through stimulated copy number variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ryan M.; Cruz, Cristina; Jack, Carmen V.

    2017-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is rife in eukaryotic genomes and has been implicated in many human disorders, particularly cancer, in which CNV promotes both tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistance. CNVs are considered random mutations but often arise through replication defects; transcription can interfere with replication fork progression and stability, leading to increased mutation rates at highly transcribed loci. Here we investigate whether inducible promoters can stimulate CNV to yield reproducible, environment-specific genetic changes. We propose a general mechanism for environmentally-stimulated CNV and validate this mechanism for the emergence of copper resistance in budding yeast. By analysing a large cohort of individual cells, we directly demonstrate that CNV of the copper-resistance gene CUP1 is stimulated by environmental copper. CNV stimulation accelerates the formation of novel alleles conferring enhanced copper resistance, such that copper exposure actively drives adaptation to copper-rich environments. Furthermore, quantification of CNV in individual cells reveals remarkable allele selectivity in the rate at which specific environments stimulate CNV. We define the key mechanistic elements underlying this selectivity, demonstrating that CNV is regulated by both promoter activity and acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56ac) and that H3K56ac is required for CUP1 CNV and efficient copper adaptation. Stimulated CNV is not limited to high-copy CUP1 repeat arrays, as we find that H3K56ac also regulates CNV in 3 copy arrays of CUP1 or SFA1 genes. The impact of transcription on DNA damage is well understood, but our research reveals that this apparently problematic association forms a pathway by which mutations can be directed to particular loci in particular environments and furthermore that this mutagenic process can be regulated through histone acetylation. Stimulated CNV therefore represents an unanticipated and remarkably controllable pathway

  8. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  9. Bias of selection on human copy-number variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Although large-scale copy-number variation is an important contributor to conspecific genomic diversity, whether these variants frequently contribute to human phenotype differences remains unknown. If they have few functional consequences, then copy-number variants (CNVs might be expected both to be distributed uniformly throughout the human genome and to encode genes that are characteristic of the genome as a whole. We find that human CNVs are significantly overrepresented close to telomeres and centromeres and in simple tandem repeat sequences. Additionally, human CNVs were observed to be unusually enriched in those protein-coding genes that have experienced significantly elevated synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution rates, estimated between single human and mouse orthologues. CNV genes encode disproportionately large numbers of secreted, olfactory, and immunity proteins, although they contain fewer than expected genes associated with Mendelian disease. Despite mouse CNVs also exhibiting a significant elevation in synonymous substitution rates, in most other respects they do not differ significantly from the genomic background. Nevertheless, they encode proteins that are depleted in olfactory function, and they exhibit significantly decreased amino acid sequence divergence. Natural selection appears to have acted discriminately among human CNV genes. The significant overabundance, within human CNVs, of genes associated with olfaction, immunity, protein secretion, and elevated coding sequence divergence, indicates that a subset may have been retained in the human population due to the adaptive benefit of increased gene dosage. By contrast, the functional characteristics of mouse CNVs either suggest that advantageous gene copies have been depleted during recent selective breeding of laboratory mouse strains or suggest that they were preferentially fixed as a consequence of the larger effective population size of wild mice. It

  10. Fundamental Costs in the Production and Destruction of Persistent Polymer Copies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Rein ten Wolde, Pieter

    2017-04-01

    Producing a polymer copy of a polymer template is central to biology, and effective copies must persist after template separation. We show that this separation has three fundamental thermodynamic effects. First, polymer-template interactions do not contribute to overall reaction thermodynamics and hence cannot drive the process. Second, the equilibrium state of the copied polymer is template independent and so additional work is required to provide specificity. Finally, the mixing of copies from distinct templates makes correlations between template and copy sequences unexploitable, combining with copying inaccuracy to reduce the free energy stored in a polymer ensemble. These basic principles set limits on the underlying costs and resource requirements, and suggest design principles, for autonomous copying and replication in biological and synthetic systems.

  11. Algorithms to model single gene, single chromosome, and whole genome copy number changes jointly in tumor phylogenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Akhter Chowdhury

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present methods to construct phylogenetic models of tumor progression at the cellular level that include copy number changes at the scale of single genes, entire chromosomes, and the whole genome. The methods are designed for data collected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, an experimental technique especially well suited to characterizing intratumor heterogeneity using counts of probes to genetic regions frequently gained or lost in tumor development. Here, we develop new provably optimal methods for computing an edit distance between the copy number states of two cells given evolution by copy number changes of single probes, all probes on a chromosome, or all probes in the genome. We then apply this theory to develop a practical heuristic algorithm, implemented in publicly available software, for inferring tumor phylogenies on data from potentially hundreds of single cells by this evolutionary model. We demonstrate and validate the methods on simulated data and published FISH data from cervical cancers and breast cancers. Our computational experiments show that the new model and algorithm lead to more parsimonious trees than prior methods for single-tumor phylogenetics and to improved performance on various classification tasks, such as distinguishing primary tumors from metastases obtained from the same patient population.

  12. Algorithms to model single gene, single chromosome, and whole genome copy number changes jointly in tumor phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Salim Akhter; Shackney, Stanley E; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin; Ried, Thomas; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Schwartz, Russell

    2014-07-01

    We present methods to construct phylogenetic models of tumor progression at the cellular level that include copy number changes at the scale of single genes, entire chromosomes, and the whole genome. The methods are designed for data collected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), an experimental technique especially well suited to characterizing intratumor heterogeneity using counts of probes to genetic regions frequently gained or lost in tumor development. Here, we develop new provably optimal methods for computing an edit distance between the copy number states of two cells given evolution by copy number changes of single probes, all probes on a chromosome, or all probes in the genome. We then apply this theory to develop a practical heuristic algorithm, implemented in publicly available software, for inferring tumor phylogenies on data from potentially hundreds of single cells by this evolutionary model. We demonstrate and validate the methods on simulated data and published FISH data from cervical cancers and breast cancers. Our computational experiments show that the new model and algorithm lead to more parsimonious trees than prior methods for single-tumor phylogenetics and to improved performance on various classification tasks, such as distinguishing primary tumors from metastases obtained from the same patient population.

  13. Random DNA fragmentation allows detection of single-copy, single-exon alterations of copy number by oligonucleotide array CGH in clinical FFPE samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Galen; Kim, Su Young; Savage, Stephanie; Gooden, Gerald C; Barrett, Michael; Zhang, Jian; Alla, Lalitamba; Watanabe, April; Einspahr, Janine; Prasad, Anil; Nickoloff, Brian J; Carpten, John; Trent, Jeffrey; Alberts, David; Bittner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Genomic technologies, such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), increasingly offer definitive gene dosage profiles in clinical samples. Historically, copy number profiling was limited to large fresh-frozen tumors where intact DNA could be readily extracted. Genomic analyses of pre-neoplastic tumors and diagnostic biopsies are often limited to DNA processed by formalin-fixation and paraffin-embedding (FFPE). We present specialized protocols for DNA extraction and processing from FFPE tissues utilizing DNase processing to generate randomly fragmented DNA. The protocols are applied to FFPE clinical samples of varied tumor types, from multiple institutions and of varied block age. Direct comparative analyses with regression coefficient were calculated on split-sample (portion fresh/portion FFPE) of colorectal tumor samples. We show equal detection of a homozygous loss of SMAD4 at the exon-level in the SW480 cell line and gene-specific alterations in the split tumor samples. aCGH application to a set of archival FFPE samples of skin squamous cell carcinomas detected a novel hemizygous deletion in INPP5A on 10q26.3. Finally we present data on derivative of log ratio, a particular sensitive detector of measurement variance, for 216 sequential hybridizations to assess protocol reliability over a wide range of FFPE samples.

  14. CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Technological and social stakes in France; Captage et stockage du CO{sub 2}. Enjeux techniques et sociaux en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ha-Duong; Naceur, Chaabane [CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Industrial technology already tested in Norway, North America and Algeria, the CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) consists in collecting carbon dioxide and to inject it into deep geological traps. This solution, which contributes to the fight against climatic change, arouses a growing up interest in France as a consequence of the Grenelle Environnement meetings. At a time when big research and demonstration programs are launched everywhere in Europe, this book proposes for the first time a status of the knowledge gathered so far by the specialists of the IPG (World Physics Institute), of the BRGM (Bureau of Geologic and Mining Researches), of the IFP (French Petroleum Institute), and of the CNRS (National Center of Scientific Research). It takes stock of the stakes of this new technology in France. Beyond the technical discussions between experts, the book deals with the external communication stakes and the open public debates. The point of views of the different intervening parties (research organizations, environmental non-governmental organizations, European lobby (Zero Emission Platform), citizens, journalists and companies are compared. A large part of the book aims at shading light on the social acceptability question of this technology. In addition to a synthesis of the available literature, it presents and analyses two participation instruments: a dialogue workshop and a geographical information web site. Content: 1 - scientific stakes of CO{sub 2} geologic sequestration; 2 - technical stakes; 3 - economical stakes; 4 - risks and public opinion; 5 - social acceptability and territorial planning, the wind energy experience; 6 - the point of view of Action-Climat-France network (RAC-F); 7 - citizens' recommendations; 8 - the comeback of coal on the international energy scene; 9 - some consensus from a 'dialogue workshop': the social acceptability of CCS; 10 - bibliographic synthesis about the social acceptability of CCS; 11 - METSTOR

  15. DIGITAL WATERMARKING SCHEMES FOR AUTHORIZATION AGAINST COPYING OR PIRACY OF COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheerendra S Tomar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents digital watermarking methods for authorization against copying or piracy of color images. Watermarking is a very important field for copyrights of various electronic documents and media. With images widely available on the Internet, it may sometimes be desirable to use watermarks. Digital watermarking is the processing of combined information into a digital signal. A watermark is a secondary image, which is overlaid on the host image, and provides a means of protecting the image. This paper presents the survey on digital watermark features, its classifications and applications. Various watermarking techniques have been studied in detail in mainly three domains: spatial, frequency and statistical domain. In spatial domain, Least-Significant Bit (LSB, SSM-Modulation-Based Technique has been developed. For DCT domain, block based approach and for wavelet domain, multi-level wavelet transformation technique and CDMA based approaches has been developed.The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT is currently used in a wide variety of signal processing applications. This paper also presents the various error matrices for analyses the robustness of watermarking method.

  16. Confirmed rare copy number variants implicate novel genes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gloria W C; van de Lagemaat, Louie N; Redon, Richard; Strathdee, Karen E; Croning, Mike D R; Malloy, Mary P; Muir, Walter J; Pickard, Ben S; Deary, Ian J; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Carter, Nigel P; Grant, Seth G N

    2010-04-01

    Understanding how cognitive processes including learning, memory, decision making and ideation are encoded by the genome is a key question in biology. Identification of sets of genes underlying human mental disorders is a path towards this objective. Schizophrenia is a common disease with cognitive symptoms, high heritability and complex genetics. We have identified genes involved with schizophrenia by measuring differences in DNA copy number across the entire genome in 91 schizophrenia cases and 92 controls in the Scottish population. Our data reproduce rare and common variants observed in public domain data from >3000 schizophrenia cases, confirming known disease loci as well as identifying novel loci. We found copy number variants in PDE10A (phosphodiesterase 10A), CYFIP1 [cytoplasmic FMR1 (Fragile X mental retardation 1)-interacting protein 1], K(+) channel genes KCNE1 and KCNE2, the Down's syndrome critical region 1 gene RCAN1 (regulator of calcineurin 1), cell-recognition protein CHL1 (cell adhesion molecule with homology with L1CAM), the transcription factor SP4 (specificity protein 4) and histone deacetylase HDAC9, among others (see http://www.genes2cognition.org/SCZ-CNV). Integrating the function of these many genes into a coherent model of schizophrenia and cognition is a major unanswered challenge.

  17. Copy number variation of KIR genes influences HIV-1 control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelak, Kimberly; Need, Anna C; Fellay, Jacques;

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide screen for large structural variants showed that a copy number variant (CNV) in the region encoding killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) associates with HIV-1 control as measured by plasma viral load at set point in individuals of European ancestry. This CNV encompasses...... the KIR3DL1-KIR3DS1 locus, encoding receptors that interact with specific HLA-Bw4 molecules to regulate the activation of lymphocyte subsets including natural killer (NK) cells. We quantified the number of copies of KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1 in a large HIV-1 positive cohort, and showed that an increase in KIR3......DS1 count associates with a lower viral set point if its putative ligand is present (p = 0.00028), as does an increase in KIR3DL1 count in the presence of KIR3DS1 and appropriate ligands for both receptors (p = 0.0015). We further provide functional data that demonstrate that NK cells from...

  18. Copy Number Alterations and Methylation in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona S. Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy affecting children and young adults. The prognosis is especially poor in metastatic or relapsed disease. The cell of origin remains elusive, but the EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein is present in the majority of cases. The understanding of the molecular basis of Ewing's sarcoma continues to progress slowly. EWS-FLI1 affects gene expression, but other factors must also be at work such as mutations, gene copy number alterations, and promoter methylation. This paper explores in depth two molecular aspects of Ewing's sarcoma: copy number alterations (CNAs and methylation. While CNAs consistently have been reported in Ewing's sarcoma, their clinical significance has been variable, most likely due to small sample size and tumor heterogeneity. Methylation is thought to be important in oncogenesis and balanced karyotype cancers such as Ewing's, yet it has received only minimal attention in prior studies. Future CNA and methylation studies will help to understand the molecular basis of this disease.

  19. Flip-invariant SIFT for copy and object detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wan-Lei; Ngo, Chong-Wah

    2013-03-01

    Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) feature has been widely accepted as an effective local keypoint descriptor for its invariance to rotation, scale, and lighting changes in images. However, it is also well known that SIFT, which is derived from directionally sensitive gradient fields, is not flip invariant. In real-world applications, flip or flip-like transformations are commonly observed in images due to artificial flipping, opposite capturing viewpoint, or symmetric patterns of objects. This paper proposes a new descriptor, named flip-invariant SIFT (or F-SIFT), that preserves the original properties of SIFT while being tolerant to flips. F-SIFT starts by estimating the dominant curl of a local patch and then geometrically normalizes the patch by flipping before the computation of SIFT. We demonstrate the power of F-SIFT on three tasks: large-scale video copy detection, object recognition, and detection. In copy detection, a framework, which smartly indices the flip properties of F-SIFT for rapid filtering and weak geometric checking, is proposed. F-SIFT not only significantly improves the detection accuracy of SIFT, but also leads to a more than 50% savings in computational cost. In object recognition, we demonstrate the superiority of F-SIFT in dealing with flip transformation by comparing it to seven other descriptors. In object detection, we further show the ability of F-SIFT in describing symmetric objects. Consistent improvement across different kinds of keypoint detectors is observed for F-SIFT over the original SIFT.

  20. Plasmid copy number noise in monoclonal populations of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Ng, Jérôme; Chatenay, Didier; Robert, Jérôme; Poirier, Michael Guy

    2010-01-01

    Plasmids are extra chromosomal DNA that can confer to their hosts’ supplementary characteristics such as antibiotic resistance. Plasmids code for their copy number through their own replication frequency. Even though the biochemical networks underlying the plasmid copy number (PCN) regulation processes have been studied and modeled, no measurement of the heterogeneity in PCN within a whole population has been done. We have developed a fluorescent-based measurement system, which enables determination of the mean and noise in PCN within a monoclonal population of bacteria. Two different fluorescent protein reporters were inserted: one on the chromosome and the other on the plasmid. The fluorescence of these bacteria was measured with a microfluidic flow cytometry device. We show that our measurements are consistent with known plasmid characteristics. We find that the partitioning system lowers the PCN mean and standard deviation. Finally, bacterial populations were allowed to grow without selective pressure. In this case, we were able to determine the plasmid loss rate and growth inhibition effect.