WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology china nnsf-national

  1. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  2. Technology licensing in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Li-Ying, Jason; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms of the n......We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms...... of the number of licensed technologies; second, the geographical distribution of licensed technologies among the provinces has gradually reached a new quantitative balance; third, utility models are the most popular technologies to be licensed and the majority of technology licensing in China has been between...

  3. NEV Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to identify the main determinants of the development of the neighbourhood electric vehicle (NEV) industry in China, including influences from private stakeholders as well as the government, and domestic as well as foreign interest groups. Particular emphasis...... is driven by less formal decisions taken in the nexus between SOEs and relevant state agencies. Hence, although China suffers no lack of legislation at various levels (including laws, decrees, and guidelines) it is often difficult to identify the specific drivers for change. Practical implications...... – The findings are useful for understanding the development of the NEV industry in China. Originality/value – The current paper is the first application of the GIST (Governance of Innovation towards Sustainability Technology) framework to the case of the Chinese NEV industry....

  4. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  5. China’s Technology Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    player not only economically but also militarily.149 For example, China’s Huawei Shenzhen Technology Company has developed customer bases in 45...For the near future, the MLP will be the driving force behind not only China’s technological but also its economic growth . The MLP also puts China...S&T sectors, China’s international role, and a conclusion. In August 2007, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD

  6. China Report, Science & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-30

    Contracting System Examined (Wang Shengqiao; KEXUEXUE YU KEXUE JISHU GUANLI, No 1, Jan 87) 3 Wu Wushu Discusses New Scientific, Technical Legislation...research units and must not impose uniformity on them across the board. 12581 CSO: 4008/2074 10 NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS WU WUSHU DISCUSSES NEW...and Technical Legislation Research Work Conference, State Science and Technology Commission Secretary Wu Wushu [0702 2976 2885] made a request about

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-23

    Petrochemical Corp. Completes First Integrated Network [JISUANJI SHIJIE, 18 Sep 91] ............ 27 Shanghai To Build FTTH CATV Network [Xiao Qiang; JISUANJI...long-wave fiber optic communi- cations. Shanghai To Build FTTH CATV Network 92P60054D Beijing JISUANJI SHIJIE [CHINA First 60-km Unrepeatered Bundle...technology is now moving into Cable Operational"] the home ( FTTH , or fiber-to-the-home), with the upcoming construction in the Shanghai area’s Jiading [Summary

  8. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an initial examination of the evaluative conditioning (EC) of consumers’ attitudes toward food technologies in China, including how EC can affect consumer acceptance of new technology when participants possess different levels of social trust. In a study using the EC paradigm...... formation toward food technologies in China when consumers see affective images, but the strength of the effects varies at different levels of social trust. Participants with a high level of trust in the institutions that promote and regulate the technologies can be conditioned both positively...... and negatively, independent of food technology. Participants with a low level of trust can be conditioned too, but only when the technology is paired with negative unconditioned stimuli. If social trust is low, positive conditioning of food technologies is not demonstrated in this study....

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-08

    research in chaos, (7) fractal math- ematical theory, (8) the physical mechanism of fractals , and (9) infinite-dimension systems for formulaic...in modern geoscience, and is also a leading edge science in which geodesy, geophysics, geology , and astronomy overlap. The China mainland is an

  10. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an initial examination of the evaluative conditioning (EC) of consumers’ attitudes toward food technologies in China, including how EC can affect consumer acceptance of new technology when participants possess different levels of social trust. In a study using the EC paradigm...... and a combination of between-subjects control groups and within-subjects control conditions, participants considered three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic), paired with affectively positive, neutral, and negative images. Subsequent evaluative measurements revealed that EC can explain attitude...... formation toward food technologies in China when consumers see affective images, but the strength of the effects varies at different levels of social trust. Participants with a high level of trust in the institutions that promote and regulate the technologies can be conditioned both positively...

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-29

    Waste Sites Planned for Zhejiang, Northwest [Seth Faison; SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST, 20 Feb 89] 78 Briefs Antarctic Facility Beefed Up 80 Gobi ...forests and grasslands, soil and water loss, soil salinization and desertification , and if we do not reverse the rapid loss of rare and endangered...Uygur autonomous region in the far northwest, an area mainly made up of uninhabited desert and mountains. The northwest’s Gobi Desert has been

  12. China's nuclear technology for economy growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yanxiao

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of nuclear technology to practical applications in energy, agriculture, food, industries and others has made important contributions to the prosperity of the national economy and the improvement of living standard of Chinese people in the past 40 years. Facing the great challenges in upcoming years, sustained efforts are needed to promote industrialization, commercialization and internationalization of nuclear technology. Rapid economic growth is providing the golden opportunities for the development of nuclear technology in China. With the trends to globalization of economic development, civilian applications of nuclear technology will have to be involved in international co-operation and competitive world markets to narrow the gap between China and other developed countries in the world in the next century. (author)

  13. Development of isotope hydrology technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhangsu

    1988-01-01

    The development of isotope hydrology technology in China is described. The isotope technology provides an independent approach for solving hydrological problems. Isotope hydrology is applied in three ways: the use of change in environmental isotopic composition of water (especially used in water resources exploitation), the use of artificial radioactive tracers and the use of redioisotope instruments. Many important achievements have been obtained in application of isotopic hydrology technology. For the sake of promoting rapid development of isotope hydrology the topics on management, technology and others are commented

  14. Technology Business Incubators in China and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Mingfeng; Baskaran, Angathevar; Pancholi, Jatin

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative case study of Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) in two major emerging economies in Asia - China and India. We employ an integrative analytical framework that combines three broad categories of indicators (originally developed by developed by Mian, 1997): Management po...

  15. China nuclear science and technology reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    114 abstracts of nuclear science and technology reports, which were published in 1986-1987 in China, are collected. The subjects inclucled are: nuclear physics, nuclear medicine, radiochemistry, isotopes and their applications, reactors and nuclear power plants, radioactive protection, nuclear instruments etc... They are arranged in accordance with the INIS subject categories, and a report number index is annexed

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-30

    deposits. Jinan’s well 1 and Lunnan’s well 46 also found in the sandrock in the Silurian system new strata bearing oil and gas. All these indicate that...RIBAO, 26 Jan 92] 3 Coal Firm Spells Out Export Goals [Chang Weimin; CHINA DAILY, 3 Mar 92] 5 Big Progress Made in Substituting Coal for Oil ...GANSU RIBAO, 11 Jan 92] 6 NEW TECHNOLOGY Remote Sensing Technology Successful in Locating Underground Oil and Gas Deposits [Chen Xiechuan

  17. Ethanol production in China: Potential and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shi-Zhong; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Rising oil demand in China has resulted in surging oil imports and mounting environmental pollution. It is projected that by 2030 the demand for fossil fuel oil will be 250 million tons. Ethanol seems to be an attractive renewable alternative to fossil fuel. This study assesses China's ethanol supply potential by examining potential non-food crops as feedstock; emerging conversion technologies; and cost competitiveness. Results of this study show that sweet sorghum among all the non-food feedstocks has the greatest potential. It grows well on the available marginal lands and the ASSF technology when commercialized will shorten the fermentation time which will lower the costs. Other emerging technologies such as improved saccharification and fermentation; and cellulosic technologies will make China more competitive in ethanol production in the future. Based on the estimated available marginal lands for energy crop production and conversion yields of the potential feedstocks, the most likely and optimistic production levels are 19 and 50 million tons of ethanol by 2020. In order to achieve those levels, the roadmap for China is to: select the non-food feedstock most suitable to grow on the available marginal land; provide funding to support the high priority conversion technologies identified by the scientists; provide monetary incentives to new and poor farmers to grow the feedstocks to revitalize rural economy; less market regulation and gradual reduction of subsidies to producers for industry efficiency; and educate consumers on the impact of fossil fuel on the environment to reduce consumption. Since the share of ethanol in the overall fuel demand is small, the impact of ethanol on lowering pollution and enhancing fuel security will be minimal. (author)

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology: China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-31

    colonies being selected. The transformed bacteria strain was inoculated into 5 ml of YPD medium (2 percent glucose, 1 percent yeast extract, and 2...developed into technological development centers for specific industries or localities, oriented toward medium and small-size enterprises or small-town...the large academies and institutes, advanced schools and large and medium -sized enterprises on the front line of the coastal economy and have them

  19. China nuclear science and technology report. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1993 (Report Numbers CNIC-00675∼CNIC-00800) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  20. 77 FR 5865 - American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda Faucet Works, Inc., Greater China Media... concerning the securities of China Wind Energy, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  1. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Cha, H. K.; Rhee, Y. J.

    2007-04-01

    The main objectives of this project are to develop cooperative channel by personnel exchanges between industrial, educational and research partners of Korea and China on the fields of optical technologies which are the basis of optical industry and being spot-lighted as new industry of 21th century, and to raise the class of Korean optical technology up to world class by utilization of Chinese large facilities through the cooperative research between the optical technology institutions of both sides. To attain the goals mentioned above, we carried out the cooperative researches between the Korean and Chinese optical technology institutions in the following 7 fields; ? research cooperation between KAERI-SITP for the quantum structured far-IR sensor technology - research cooperation for the generation of femtosecond nuclear fusion induced neutrons - research cooperation between KAERI-AIOFM for laser environment analysis and remote sensing technology - research cooperation between KAERI-SIOM for advanced diode-pumped laser technology - cooperative research related on linear and nonlinear magneto-optical properties of advanced magnetic quantum structures - design of pico-second PW high power laser system and its simulation and - cooperative research related on the femto-second laser-plasma interaction physics

  2. Understanding China's renewable energy technology exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jialu; Goldstein, Don

    2013-01-01

    China became a major player in renewable energy (RE) technology during the 2000s. Chinese solar PV cell and module makers quickly dominated global sales in that industry, while the country's wind turbine producers became poised for significant exports after capturing their rapidly growing home market. In countries like the US, Chinese RE technology strength has been met with claims of excessive governmental support of exports. This study examines to what extent Chinese firms' solar PV and wind technology successes have been enabled by policy supports, and whether those policies appear to have been driven by broader goals versus RE export promotion per se. The evidence suggests that governmental policy toward both wind and solar originated in a push for export-competitive Chinese companies. But the specifics differed substantially due to the particular requirements of building technological capabilities in each: export readiness necessitated substantial support for domestic installation of wind but not solar PV power. The findings also suggest that as the decade of the 2000s progressed, environmental goals played an increasing role alongside export promotion in motivating and shaping Chinese RE technology policies. - Highlights: ► Export policy in the rise of Chinese renewable energy technologies is studied. ► Policy supported wind turbine firms' capabilities via domestic uptake, not exports. ► Pre-2009 solar module exports enjoyed, but did not depend on, export subsidies. ► Renewables development also fit wider technology and environmental policy goals.

  3. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Cha, H. K.; Rhee, Y. J. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The main objectives of this project are to develop cooperative channel by personnel exchanges between industrial, educational and research partners of Korea and China on the fields of optical technologies which are the basis of optical industry and being spot-lighted as new industry of 21th century, and to raise the class of Korean optical technology up to world class by utilization of Chinese large facilities through the cooperative research between the optical technology institutions of both sides. To attain the goals mentioned above, we carried out the cooperative researches between the Korean and Chinese optical technology institutions in the following 7 fields; ? research cooperation between KAERI-SITP for the quantum structured far-IR sensor technology - research cooperation for the generation of femtosecond nuclear fusion induced neutrons - research cooperation between KAERI-AIOFM for laser environment analysis and remote sensing technology - research cooperation between KAERI-SIOM for advanced diode-pumped laser technology - cooperative research related on linear and nonlinear magneto-optical properties of advanced magnetic quantum structures - design of pico-second PW high power laser system and its simulation and - cooperative research related on the femto-second laser-plasma interaction physics.

  4. Programmes of Educational Technology in China: Looking Backward, Thinking Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuyin, Xu; Jianli, Jiao

    2010-01-01

    There is a history of programmes in educational technology in colleges and universities in China going back about 70 years. This paper briefly reviews the developmental history of the educational technology programme in China, elaborates the status-quo of the programme and looks ahead into the future trends of educational technology development in…

  5. Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation. In April 2009, China issued a new round of health sector reform policies aimed at providing a blueprint for universal basic healthcare coverage for all by 2020. The China Health Economics Institute (CHEI) within the Chinese Ministry of Health is responsible for ...

  6. Assessing the Role of Technology Adoption in China's Growth Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Nadja

    China has experienced a period of tremendous economic growth in recent years. In an attempt to explain this development, several existing growth-accounting studies reveal that impressively high rates of productivity growth have been at the heart of China's performance. This study investigates...... to what extent these productivity increases can be explained by technology-adoption theory. In less developed countries, the key element behind technological progress is technology adoption, the process of copying technological knowledge invented throughout the world. To uncover a measure of China......'s technological advances, the paper constructs a hybrid of some prominent technology-adoption models and calibrates it to reasonable parameter values. The calibrated version of the model is then combined with Chinese economic data. For the period 1978-2005, the analysis finds that the Chinese performance can...

  7. Technology transfer? The rise of China and India in green technology sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Lema, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    International technology transfer is central to the debate about how to curb the carbon emissions from rapid economic growth in China and India. But given China and India's great progress in building innovation capabilities and green industries, how relevant is technology transfer...... transfer in these sectors in China and India. We argue that the emphasis should shift from transfer of mitigation technology to international collaboration and local innovation...

  8. 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Yun; Xu, Min; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Yujie

    2017-01-01

    This book includes a selection of reviewed papers presented at the 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology, held on November 25-27, 2016 in Xi’an, China. The conference was jointly organized by China Academy of Printing Technology, Xi’an University of Technology and Stuttgart Media University of Germany. The proceedings cover the recent outcomes on color science and technology, image processing technology, digital media technology, digital process management technology in packaging and packaging etc. They will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in graphic communications, packaging, color science, image science, material science, computer science, digital media and network technology fields.

  9. Global Welfare Impact of China: Trade Integration and Technology Change

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the global welfare impact of China's trade integration and technological change in a multi-country quantitative Ricardian-Heckscher-Ohlin model. We simulate two alternative growth scenarios: a balanced one in which China's productivity grows at the same rate in each sector, and an unbalanced one in which China's comparative disadvantage sectors catch up disproportionately faster to the world productivity frontier. Contrary to a well-known conjecture (Samuelson 2004), the ...

  10. A Decade of Reform: Science and Technology Policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 1995, and at the request of the Chinese government, Canada's International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) assembled a team of experts to assess the reforms to China's S&T sector — reforms that began in 1985 as an initiative of the State Science and Technology Commission (SSTC) of China. A Decade of ...

  11. Development and application of titanium alloy casting technology in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Hai

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The development and research of casting titanium alloy and its casting technology, especially its application in aeronautical industry in China are presented. The technology of moulding, melting and casting of titanium alloy, casting quality control are introduced. The existing problem and development trend in titanium alloy casting technology are also discussed.

  12. China's rise as a major contributor to science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Lai, Qing

    2014-07-01

    In the past three decades, China has become a major contributor to science and technology. China now employs an increasingly large labor force of scientists and engineers at relatively high earnings and produces more science and engineering degrees than the United States at all levels, particularly bachelor's. China's research and development expenditure has been rising. Research output in China has been sharply increasing since 2002, making China the second largest producer of scientific papers after the United States. The quality of research by Chinese scientists has also been improving steadily. However, China's rise in science also faces serious difficulties, partly attributable to its rigid, top-down administrative system, with allegations of scientific misconduct trending upward.

  13. Commercialization Development of Crop Straw Gasification Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop straw gasification technologies are the most promising biomass gasification technologies and have great potential to be further developed in China. However, the commercialization development of gasification technology in China is slow. In this paper, the technical reliability and practicability of crop straw gasification technologies, the economic feasibility of gas supply stations, the economic feasibility of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises and the social acceptability of crop straw gasification technologies are analyzed. The results show that presently both the atmospheric oxidation gasification technology and the carbonization pyrolysis gasification technology in China are mature and practical, and can provide fuel gas for households. However, there are still a series of problems associated with these technologies that need to be solved for the commercialization development, such as the high tar and CO content of the fuel gas. The economic feasibility of the gas supply stations is different in China. Parts of gas supply stations are unprofitable due to high initial investment, the low fuel gas price and the small numbers of consumers. In addition, the commercialization development of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises is hindered for the low market demand for gasification equipment which is related to the fund support from the government. The acceptance of the crop straw gasification technologies from both the government and the farmers in China may be a driving force of further commercialization development of the gasification technologies. Then, the crop straw gasification technologies in China have reached at the stage of pre-commercialization. At this stage, the gasification technologies are basically mature and have met many requirements of commercialization, however, some incentives are needed to encourage their further development.

  14. China Report, Science and Technology, No. 197.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-13

    the pre-Sinian rigid crystalline basement of the north China platform as well as a part of the north China downwarped area and the center of the... Paleozoic strata and is covered eastward by the NE-trending Mesozoic volcanic zone in Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong provinces. It is correlated with the...three parts: the west part--the Zhejiang-Fujian area--is marked by the Paleozoic metamorphic basement; the central part by the 20 [Continuation of

  15. Policy and innovation: Nanoenergy technology in the USA and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Na; Guan, JianCheng

    2016-01-01

    The USA is a leading country while China is an up-and-coming one in nanotechnology. We carried out a cross-country comparative study on policy and innovation of the two countries in subset nanoenergy field. They both created favorable policy environments for nanotechnology involving applications of nanotechnology in the energy sector. However, Chinese policy deployments for nanotechnology lack coordinated arrangements and effective assessment mechanisms. China performs better than the USA in technological quantity, but weaker in technological influence. The USA expresses an industry-oriented model in nanoenergy technological research and development, but China exhibits a university-and-institute-oriented model. Interorganizational collaboration relationships in the two countries are both still very rare and have huge development space. They both have a long way to go in converting their technological achievements into commercial products, especially China. Finally, we provide the policy implications of this study. In particular, the Chinese government should strengthen its efforts in policies by changing the national S&T evaluation system to set up the basic idea that quality is better than quantity in order to raise the original innovation motivations of innovators. - Highlights: •We compare development status of nanoenergy technologies between China and the USA. •We mainly focus on their policies, innovation performance and pattern in nanoenergy. •Differences are observed in nanoenergy technologies developed in these two countries. •We propose their endeavor directions in nanoenergy based on this study.

  16. Capability Building in Educational Technology for Teachers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Han; Zhuzhu, Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the project called Education Technology Capacity Building Plan for All Primary and Secondary Teachers now being implemented in China. Because information and communication technology skills training cannot match the demand of teachers' professional development, the Chinese Ministry of Education established…

  17. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China

    CERN Document Server

    Guan Xia Ling; Ding Da Zhao; Fang Jia Xun; Fang Shou Xian; Fu Shin Ian; Guo, Z Y; Jiang Wei; Li Jie Quan; Luo Zi Hua; Ouyang Hua Fu; Peng Chao Hua; Xu Tao Guang; Xu Wen Wu; Yu Qi; Zhang Zong Hua; Zhao Sheng Chu

    2001-01-01

    High Power Proton Accelerator (HPPA) is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. In China, a multi-purpose verification system as a first phase of Chinese ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton linac) and a swimming pool light water sub-critical reactor. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described

  18. Can CDM bring technology transfer to China?-An empirical study of technology transfer in China's CDM projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo

    2010-01-01

    China has undertaken the greatest number of projects and reported the largest emission reductions on the global clean development mechanism (CDM) market. As technology transfer (TT) was designed to play a key role for Annex II countries in achieving greenhouse gas emission reductions, this study examines various factors that have affected CDM and TT in China. The proportion of total income derived from the certified emissions reductions (CER) plays a key role in the project owners' decision to adopt foreign technology. Incompatibility of CDM procedures with Chinese domestic procedures, technology diffusion (TD) effects, Chinese government policy and the role of carbon traders and CDM project consultants all contribute to the different degrees and forms of TT. International carbon traders and CDM consultants could play a larger role in TT in China's CDM projects as investors and brokers in the future.

  19. Development of Ocean Energy Technologies: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Guodong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the energy shortage in China's coastal areas, which has exerted severe impact on economy development, a growing number of attentions have been paid to ocean energy utilization. In this paper, a review of related researches as well as development of ocean energy in China is given. The main part of this paper is the investigation into ocean energy distribution and technology status of tidal energy, wave energy, and thermal energy, especially that of the tidal energy and wave energy. Finally, some recommendations for the future development of ocean energy in China are also provided. For further research in this field and development of ocean energy utilization in China, this review can be taken as reference.

  20. Dental laboratory technology education in China: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liwei; Yue, Li; Zhou, Min; Yu, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Modern dentistry and dental education in China were first introduced from abroad by Dr. Lindsay in 1907. However, advancements in the field of dental laboratory technology did not occur to the same degree in specialties such as prosthodontics and orthodontics. Since the 1990s, orders from abroad demanding dental appliances surged as the image of China as the "world's factory" strengthened. The assembly line model, in which technicians work like simple procedure workers, was rapidly applied to denture production, while the traditional education system and apprenticeship systems demonstrated little progress in these years. The lack of advancement in dental laboratory technology education caused insufficient development in China's dental technology industry. In order to alter the situation, a four-year dental laboratory technology undergraduate educational program was established in 2005 by West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University (WCSS, SCU). This program was based on SCU's undergraduate education and WCSS's junior college education systems. The program introduced scientific methods in relevant subjects into laboratory technicians' training and made many improvements in the availability of trained faculty, textbooks, laboratory facilities, and curriculum.

  1. China nuclear science and technology report: Abstracts, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1992 (Report Numbers CNIC-00555 ∼ CNIC-00674) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  2. Abstracts: China Nuclear Science and Technology Report (1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Report published in 1989 (Report Numbers CNIC--00255∼CNIC--00354) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  3. Abstracts China nuclear science and technology reports (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1988 (Report Numbers CNIC -00115 ∼ CNIC-00254) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  4. Abstracts China nuclear science and technology report (1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1999 (Report Numbers CNIC-01331 -CNIC-01430) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  5. Abstracts: China Nuclear Science and Technology Report (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1990 (Report Numbers CNIC--00355 to CNIC-00454) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subjects categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  6. Abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Report (1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1998 (Report Numbers CNIC-01231-CNIC-01330) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  7. China nuclear science and technology report (1991). Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1991 (Report Numbers CNIC-00455 to CNIC-00554) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  8. Assisted reproductive technology in China: compliance and non-compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jie; Feng, Huai L

    2014-04-01

    According to the WHO, infertility and sterility will be the third-most serious disease worldwide in the 21st century, after cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In contrast to developed countries, assisted reproductive technology (ART) were not offered in China until the mid-1980s with the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) infant born in Taiwan in 1985, then Hong Kong in 1986, and mainland China in 1988, respectively. Since those inceptions, the practice of ART in China has evoked a variety of social, cultural, political and one-child policy responses that have resulted in restrictions on the number of IVF cycles performed annually. According to recent survey, an estimate 40-50 million women and 45 million men suffered from infertility, which is estimated that more than ten million Chinese infertile couples require ART treatment. However, it has limited access to ART facilities, many of them may not have a child are whirling to all types of fertility therapies. Exposure to radiation, pesticides and other environmental pollutants, work-related stress and unhealthy lifestyles are believed to contribute to the increasing incidence of infertility in China. The aim of this first report is to provide China nationwide ART data and government policy in compliance and 
non-compliance, particularly related to family plan policy in China.

  9. HTGR technology and its industrial applications in INET, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingzhong; Wang Dazhong; Zhong Daxin; Gao Zuying; Qing Zenya

    1988-01-01

    Several design HTGR studies have been performed in the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (China). In the first phase a 100 MWt HTGR thorium thermal breeder and a HTGR core with thorium pebble-bed was designed. In the second phase a project on application of HTGR's for nuclear process steam production for heavy oil recovery and chemical industry has been initiated. The selected HTGR design for this project is the modular type pebble-bed reactor with the power of 200-500 MWt. The experiment and developmental work carried out in China on HTGR's since 1973 are summarized in this report. 7 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.7--pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about nuclear electronics, nuclear detecting technology, pulse power technology, nuclear fusion and plasma

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-18

    Doumeingts, assistant director at the Grai laboratory of Bordeaux 1 University, which took part in the integration of the production control...long been under develop- ment in France—being from the Gironde region I cannot but mention the fermentation of grape juice, i.e., wine production...Technologies for Europe) has only been running since 1985, and yet it has already been successful in creating a climate of close cooperation in industrial

  12. Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D. This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage.

  13. Accounting for sources of FDI technology spillovers: evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowen Tian

    2007-01-01

    Using a set of panel data of 11,324 firms in China from 1996 to 1999, the paper finds that positive technology spillovers from FIEs to domestic firms occur through tangible assets rather than intangible assets, through domestically consumed products rather than exported products, through ‘traditional’ products rather than new products, and through FIEs employing unskilled workers rather than FIEs employing skilled workers. FIEs are found to generate negative spillovers through exports and thr...

  14. China nuclear science and technology report. Abstracts 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1994 (Report Numbers CNIC-00801∼CNIC-00920) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  15. China nuclear science and technology report 1995. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1995 (Report Numbers CNIC-00921∼CNIC-01020) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  16. China nuclear science and technology report abstracts 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1996 (Report Numbers CNIC-01021∼CNIC-01130) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  17. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Rhee, Y. J.; Jung, D. Y. and others

    2004-06-01

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the international collaboration basis of optical technologies between Korea and China. The combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korean industrialization and commercialization infrastructures is realized, by ways of exchanging scientists and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to those of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both countries, providing technical advice and suggestions to the optical industries in the two countries is an another goal of this project. The state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defence technology, medical technology, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and up to one of the most advanced in the world. Thus it is thought to be necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued in order to enhance the levels of Korean technologies in these fields

  18. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Rhee, Y. J.; Jung, D. Y. and others

    2004-06-15

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the international collaboration basis of optical technologies between Korea and China. The combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korean industrialization and commercialization infrastructures is realized, by ways of exchanging scientists and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to those of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both countries, providing technical advice and suggestions to the optical industries in the two countries is an another goal of this project. The state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defence technology, medical technology, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and up to one of the most advanced in the world. Thus it is thought to be necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued in order to enhance the levels of Korean technologies in these fields.

  19. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    2000-01-01

    Considering the future clean energy supply in China, a rather consistent opinion is to develop nuclear power step by step with the contribution from a supplementary one up to an important one. The large scale utilization of nuclear energy obviously determines the interest in fast breeders; China right now already has about 300 GWe total electricity capacity using conventional energy resources. As the first step for fast reactor technology development in the country, the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) project is still under detail design stage, which is a sodium cooled pool type fast reactor with 65 MW thermal power matched with a turbine-generator of 25 MW. The ordering of the components is continuing. The site is ready and the steel works for the 3 m x 69 m x 82.5 m foundation base of reactor building are being arranged layer by layer. The review to the PSAR by the China National Nuclear Safety Administration (CNNSA) is going to the final stage, if everything goes smoothly. The first pouring of the concrete for the reactor building will be in the middle of the year 2000. The brief introduction of the CEFR design, safety characteristics, the main results of the safety analysis and design test demonstration are given in the paper. (author)

  20. Review of research on sonar imaging technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haitao; Li, Renping; Xu, Feng; Liu, Liyuan

    2013-11-01

    Over the past 20 years, sonar imaging technology particularly for the high-technology sector has been a focus of research, in which many developed countries, especially those with coast lines, have been competing with each other. It has seen a rapid development with increasing widespread applications that has played an important and irreplaceable role in underwater exploration with great prospects for social, economic, scientific, and military benefits. The fundamental techniques underlying sonar imaging, including multi-beamforming, synthetic-aperture and inverse synthetic-aperture sonar, acoustic lensing, and acoustical holography, are described in this paper. This is followed by a comprehensive and systematic review on the advantages and disadvantages of these imaging techniques, applicability conditions, development trends, new ideas, new methods, and improvements in old methods over recent years with an emphasis on the situation in China, along with a bold and constructive prediction to some development characteristics of sonar imaging technology in the near future in China. The perspectives presented in this paper are offered with the idea of providing some degree of guidance and promotion of research on sonar imaging technology.

  1. Gender, technology change and globalization: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Zhao, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of women workers in China while the country's economy is changing into a globalized, technologically advanced one. New computer-based technology is increasingly acknowledged as a powerful and pervasive force that can shape or, at least in many ways, affect employment. It is hailed for opening up fresh employment opportunities and reducing the physical stress involved in work. However, the possibilities of redundancies or intensification of workload also exist. By focusing on changes in women's work, the article reveals the contradictions inherent in following a development path based on ever-higher levels of technology in the context of an intensive mode of production, to which productivity is the core value. The economy is bolstered and some workers gain employment in expanding industries. However, workers, who lack access to training and who are reliant on the dwindling state support for their reproductive responsibilities, are marginalized and seek employment in the growing informal economy.

  2. Recent development of ductile cast iron production technology in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Qizhou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in the production and technology of ductile cast iron castings in China is reviewed. The manufacture and process control of as-cast ductile iron are discussed. The microstructure, properties and application of partial austenitization normalizing ductile iron and austempered ductile iron (ADI are briefl y depicted. The new development of ductile iron production techniques, such as cored-wire injection (wire-feeding nodularization process, tundish cover ladle nodularizing process, horizontal continuous casting, and EPC process (lost foam for ductile iron castings, etc., are summarized.

  3. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.

    2002-01-01

    China, as a developing country with a great number of population and relatively less energy resources, reasonably emphasizes the nuclear energy utilization development. For the long term sustainable energy supply, as for nuclear application the basic strategy of PWR-FBR-Fusion has been settled and envisaged. Due to the economy and experience reasons the nuclear power and technology development with a moderate style are kept in China up to now. In China mainland apart from two NPPs with the total capacity of 2.1 GWe in operation, four NPPs are under construction and two NPPs are planned for the Tenth Five Year Plan (2001-2005). Also another one or two NPPs are still in discussion. It could be foreseen that the total nuclear power capacity will reach 8.5GWe before the year 2005 and 14-15 GWe before 2010 respectively. As the first step for the Chinese fast reactor engineering development the 65MWt China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is under construction. The main components of primary, secondary and tertiary circuits and of fuel handling system have been ordered. The reactor building under construction has reached 16.8m above the ground. Forty seven components and shielding doors have been installed. It is planned that the construction of reactor building with about 40,000m2 floor surface will be completed in the end of the year 2002 and envisaged that the first criticality of the CEFR will be in the end of 2005. The second step of the Chinese fast reactor engineering development is a 300MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor which is only under consideration up to now. Some important technical selections have been settled, but its design has not yet started. (author)

  4. Statistical Interpretation of Natural and Technological Hazards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, Alistair, ,, Prof.; Ni, Jinren, ,, Prof.

    2010-05-01

    University on the production of zonation maps of certain natural hazards in China. Data at city and county level have been interpreted using a hierarchical system of indices, which are then ranked according to severity. Zonation maps will be presented for debris flows, landslide and rockfall hazards, flood risk in mainland China, and for soil erosion processes in the Yellow River basin. The worst debris flow hazards are to be found in southwest China as the land begins to become mountainous. Just over 20% of the land area is at high or very high risk of landslide and rockfall hazards, especially Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu and Shannxi provinces. Flood risk is concentrated towards the eastern part of China, where the major rivers meet the sea. The paper will also consider data on technological disasters in China from 1900 to 2010, using data supplied by CRED. In terms of fatalities, industrial accidents appear to be dominated by explosion events. However, gas leaks have affected the largest number of people. Transport accidents are ranked in terms of fatalities as follows: water - road - rail - air. Fire is a major cause of loss of life, whereas chemical spills and poisoning seem to lead to fewer deaths.

  5. China reports on progress in coal water technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-18

    Progress in coal-water mixture (CWM) technology in China, as described by Zhao Changfeng at the Pacific Coal Flow Conference held on 2-3 March in Japan, is summarized. Pricing policies favouring oil over coal remain an obstacle to commercial application but CWM can ease railroad transport loads, improve efficiency and reduce air pollution. A CWM technical and economic complex in Beijing oversees five CWM-related production centres and has an annual output of 250,000 tons. The CWM is used in six industrial boilers. The complex is researching CWM preparation, pipeline transportation and combustion testing. CWM is used in a paper mill and in demonstration projects at the Guilin and Laiwu Steel Plants. Developments of a spray nozzle and in preparation technologies are outlined. More R D on these and other aspects is needed to make CWM more economic and popular. Oil consumption is to be reduced in China by 10 million tons under a five year plan and coal transport by pipeline is targeted at 30 million tons by the year 2000. Other CWM-related targets are mentioned.

  6. Technology innovation and entrepreneurial state: the development of China's high-speed rail industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Z.

    2015-01-01

    China proactively promotes indigenous technology innovation towards developing an innovation-based economy. This contradicts the developmental state literature that puts emphasis on technology imitation. Drawn from the strategic entrepreneurship perspective, this article explores the role of the

  7. A sunny future: expert elicitation of China's solar photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long T.; Branstetter, Lee; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2018-03-01

    China has emerged as the global manufacturing center for solar photovoltaic (PV) products. Chinese firms have entered all stages of the supply chain, producing most of the installed solar modules around the world. Meanwhile, production costs are at record lows. The decisions that Chinese solar producers make today will influence the path for the solar industry and its role towards de-carbonization of global energy systems in the years to come. However, to date, there have been no assessments of the future costs and efficiency of solar PV systems produced by the Chinese PV industry. We perform an expert elicitation to assess the technological and non-technological factors that led to the success of China’s silicon PV industry as well as likely future costs and performance. Experts evaluated key metrics such as efficiency, costs, and commercial viability of 17 silicon and non-silicon solar PV technologies by 2030. Silicon-based technologies will continue to be the mainstream product for large-scale electricity generation application in the near future, with module efficiency reaching as high as 23% and production cost as low as 0.24/W. The levelized cost of electricity for solar will be around 34/MWh, allowing solar PV to be competitive with traditional energy resources like coal. The industry’s future developments may be affected by overinvestment, overcapacity, and singular short-term focus.

  8. Lightning Wires: The Telegraph and China's Technological Modernization 1860-1890

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    This book examines the transfer of telegraph technology to China in the late nineteenth century. It shows how the initial Chinese rejection of the telegraph as an "inconvenient technology" contributed to violent conflicts between foreigners and the......This book examines the transfer of telegraph technology to China in the late nineteenth century. It shows how the initial Chinese rejection of the telegraph as an "inconvenient technology" contributed to violent conflicts between foreigners and the...

  9. Dr Liu Yanhua, Deputy Minister of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, People's Republic of China

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    China and CERN renew co-operation agreement for a further five years. During a visit to CERN on 17 February, Liu Yanhua, the vice-minister of science and technology of the People's Republic of China, signed a new co-operation agreement with the laboratory.

  10. Innovation and technology transfer through global value chains: Evidence from China's PV industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fang; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2016-01-01

    China's success as a rapid innovation follower in the infant Photovoltaic (PV) industry surprised many observers. This paper explores how China inserted itself into global clean energy innovation systems by examining the case of the solar PV industry. The paper decomposes the global PV industrial value chain, and determines the main factors shaping PV technology transfer and diffusion. Chinese firms first entered PV module manufacturing through technology acquisition, and then gradually built their global competitiveness by utilizing a vertical integration strategy within segments of the industry as well as the broader PV value chain. The main drivers for PV technology transfer from the global innovation system to China are global market formation policy, international mobilization of talent, the flexibility of manufacturing in China, and belated policy incentives from China's government. The development trajectory of the PV industry in China indicates that innovation in cleaner energy technologies can occur through both global and national innovation processes, and knowledge exchange along the global PV value chain. - Highlights: •The value chain analytical approach is synergized with the theories of technology transfer and innovation systems. •A detailed review of how China integrated itself into the global solar PV innovation system is provided. •Four main factors shape PV technology transfer to China across various value chain segments. •Innovation in cleaner energy technologies is a combination of global and national innovation processes.

  11. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Zhifu [Dept. of Isotope, China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1998-10-01

    The research and application of the technology of isotopes and radiation have been reviewed. Since the setup of the China`s first nuclear reactor at China Institute of Nuclear Energy in 1958, the technology of isotopes and radiation has been developed significantly. A research and application system has formed a considerable state. The technology of isotopes and radiation has been taken into the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and scientific research. The main achievements are on radiopharmaceuticals, radiation source, radiation process, and radioactive tracers. (author)

  12. Interactions of energy technology development and new energy exploitation with water technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Interactions of energy policies with water technology development in China are investigated using a hybrid input-output model and scenario analysis. The implementation of energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. Water saving potential of energy technology development is much larger than that of new energy exploitation. From the viewpoint of proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. From the viewpoint of proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water technology development, water sector benefits the most. Moreover, economic sectors are classified into four categories concerning co-benefits on water saving, energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in categories 1 and 2 have big direct co-benefits. Thus, they can take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. If China implements life cycle materials management, sectors in category 3 can also take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in category 4 have few co-benefits from both direct and accumulative perspectives. Thus, putting additional responsibility on sectors in category 4 might produce pressure for their economic development. -- Highlights: ► Energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. ► For proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. ► For proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water policy, water sector benefits the most. ► China’s economic sectors are classified into four categories for policy implementation at sector scale.

  13. China's coke industry: Recent policies, technology shift, and implication for energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Hong; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Lijian; He, Kebin

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest coke producer in the world, accounting for over 60% of the world coke production, which makes the coke industry in China a significant coal consumer and air pollutant emitter. Recently, China has taken a series of measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from the coke industry, including eliminating old and low energy-efficiency coking technologies, promoting advanced technologies, and strengthening energy and environmental requirements on coking processes. As a consequence, China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift, which was characterized by the elimination of old, inefficient, and polluting indigenous ovens and small machinery ones within 10 years. This study examines the policies and the prompt technology shift in China's coke industry, as well as the associated energy and environmental effects, and discusses the implications with respect to the development of the coke industry in China towards a more efficient and clean future. As China sets stricter requirements on energy efficiency and the ambient environment, a more significant change focusing on technologies of energy saving and emission reduction is urgently needed at present. Those mature technologies, including coke dry quenching, coke oven gas recycle, fine particle removal, etc., should be enforced in the near future. - Highlights: ► With 60% of world coke output, China's coke making has big energy/pollution issues. ► Actions were taken to improve energy and environmental performance of coke plants. ► China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift. ► Another shift, focusing on technologies of energy and emission saving, is needed. ► More measurement studies on coking emissions are needed given the importance.

  14. Transferring the Soft-Skills Technology of Workplace Learning and Performance to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jenny; Rothwell, William J.; Webster, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Discusses international business and workplace learning and performance (WLP), and describes a long-term strategic alliance between Motorola University China, Penn State University, Beijing University, and Nankai University. Highlights include a needs assessment of multinational corporations in China; transferring the soft-skills technology of WLP…

  15. The Development of Educational Technology Policies (1996-2012): Lessons from China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamin, Alnuaman A.; Shaoqing, Guo; Le, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the development of educational technology macro policies in China and USA based on the historical juxtaposition approach. It shows that, despite the fact that two countries have major differences, with China officially being a socialist country, while the USA is a capitalist country; the development of educational technology…

  16. Research on Technology Innovation of China's NEV Industry Based on Patent Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance: The development of Chinas new energy vehicle(NEV) industry is concerned by both the government and enterprises. Method/Process: Based on the patent data, this paper conducts a deep analysis on the technology innovation of Chinas NEV industry from three perspectives- the year...

  17. 77 FR 5865 - China Agro-Technology Holdings Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Suspension of Trading February 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a... trading in the securities of China Agro-Technology Holdings Ltd. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of China Agro...

  18. The R/D of high power proton accelerator technology in China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In China, a multipurpose verification system as a first phase of our ADS program con- sists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton LINAC) and a swimming pool light water subcritical reactor. In this paper the activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR ...

  19. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1998-01-01

    The paper will outline the main activities on fast reactor technology in China. In the year 1996, with the increasing of about 15 GWe installed electricity capacity, the total national electricity generation capacity has reached 225 GWe in the Country. Two nuclear power plants, Qinshan Phase 1 and Daya Bay have their rather good operation. The load factor of Qinshan Phase 1 was 84.7%. 76.1% and 64.1% for Daya Bay Unit 1 and Unit 2 respectively. During the Ninth 5-year (from 1996 to 2000) four NPPs Consisting of eight units of installed 6620MWe will be constructed. Under the framework of the High Technology Programme the Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) with the power 65MWth matched with 25MWe turbine-generator is still under preliminary design stage, which is sodium cooled pool type, (Pu,U)O 2 as fuel, in-core primary Went fuel storage, two mechanical pumps and four intermediate heat exchangers for primary circuit two loops for secondary circuits two independent immersed heat exchangers and air coolers with high stacks for passive residual heat removal system. Some design changes are presented in the paper. Concerning the R and D for the CEFR, besides the facilities already prepared, for demonstration of thermohydraulic characteristics of natural convection, a water simulation reactor pool facility in about one third scale is planned, in order to prepare the reactor physics experiments for its start-up, the zero power fast neutron facility with 50kg U-235 has been restored, for endurance testing of core subassemblies and getting some sodium loop operation experiences, Italian ESPRESSO and CEDI are under reconstruction in our lab. As for the engineering preparation of the project CEFR, the Feasibility Study Report was approved by Authorities on November last year. The site preparation and the design of incorporated to grid are just started. Finally, the activities of the international cooperation are presented in the paper. (author)

  20. Practice and prospect of advanced fuel management and fuel technology application in PWR in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Min; Zhang Hong; Ma Cang; Bai Chengfei; Zhou Zhou; Wang Lei; Xiao Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Since Daya Bay nuclear power plant implemented 18-month refueling strategy in 2001, China has completed a series of innovative fuel management and fuel technology projects, including the Ling Ao Advanced Fuel Management (AFM) project (high-burnup quarter core refueling) and the Ningde 18-month refueling project with gadolinium-bearing fuel in initial core. First, this paper gives brief introduction to China's advanced fuel management and fuel technology experience. Second, it introduces practices of the advanced fuel management in China in detail, which mainly focuses on the implementation and progress of the Ningde 18-month refueling project with gadolinium-bearing fuel in initial core. Finally, the paper introduces the practices of advanced fuel technology in China and gives the outlook of the future advanced fuel management and fuel technology in this field. (author)

  1. Agricultural Technology Extension and Adoption in China: A Case from Kaizuo Township, Guizhou Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan Juanwen,; Niehof, Anke

    2011-01-01

    This article describes agricultural technology extension, access to channels of information and adoption of agricultural technology in rural Guizhou, China. It addresses the questions of whether the agricultural technology extension process matches the needs of the villagers and whether in using

  2. Military technology and absorptive capacity in China and India: implications for modernization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the reforms that have taken place with regard to technology policies in China and India since the 1980s, and their effects on the possibilities for development of melitary capacity in the two countries.......This paper examines the reforms that have taken place with regard to technology policies in China and India since the 1980s, and their effects on the possibilities for development of melitary capacity in the two countries....

  3. Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In April 2009, China issued a new round of health sector reform policies aimed at providing a blueprint for universal basic healthcare coverage for all by 2020. The China Health Economics Institute (CHEI) within the Chinese Ministry of Health is responsible for research and evaluation in support of the new policies through ...

  4. Technology roadmap study on carbon capture, utilization and storage in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xian; Fan, Jing-Li; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology will likely become an important approach to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and optimize the structure of energy consumption in China in the future. In order to provide guidance and recommendations for CCUS Research, Development and Demonstration in China, a high level stakeholder workshop was held in Chongqing in June 2011 to develop a technology roadmap for the development of CCUS technology. This roadmap outlines the overall vision to provide technically viable and economically affordable technological options to combat climate change and facilitate socio-economic development in China. Based on this vision, milestone goals from 2010 to 2030 are set out in accordance with the technology development environment and current status in China. This study identifies the critical technologies in capture, transport, utilization and storage of CO 2 and proposes technical priorities in the different stages of each technical aspect by evaluating indices such as the objective contribution rate and technical maturity, and gives recommendations on deployment of full-chain CCUS demonstration projects. Policies which would support CCUS are also suggested in this study. - Highlights: • A technology roadmap for CCUS development in China from 2010 to 2030 is presented. • Sound data and analysis in combination with expert workshops are used. • Critical technologies in CCUS are identified. • Priority actions of all stages are identified and proposed. • Guidance and recommendations for CCUS RD and D are provided

  5. UK-China review of opportunities for landfill gas (LFG) technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to identify opportunities to transfer UK skills with regard to landfill gas (LFG) technologies to China and other countries looking to develop LFG as a commercially viable clean energy source. The aim of the project was to develop all aspects of LFG extraction and utilisation techniques. The project involved: examining current Chinese waste disposal practices; identifying key technologies and methods for maximising LFG recovery; considering end use options and methods to optimise gas use; assessing the environmental benefits; and identifying potential opportunities for UK industry. The report consider: barriers to the development of LFG; waste disposal and landfill design in China; China's experience of LFG use; UN Development Programme (UNDP) and Global Environmental Forum (GEF) LFG demonstration projects in China; environmental regulation and controls in China; LFG technology in the UK; support for renewable energy in China and the UK; design and operational needs in China from a UK perspective; technology needs, barriers and opportunities; and recommendations for action and future work.

  6. Prospects for the medium- and long-term development of China`s electric power industry and analysis of the potential market for superconductivity technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Bob Lawrence and Associates, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    First of all, overall economic growth objectives in China are concisely and succinctly specified in this report. Secondly, this report presents a forecast of energy supply and demand for China`s economic growth for 2000--2050. In comparison with the capability of energy construction in China in the future, a gap between supply and demand is one of the important factors hindering the sustainable development of Chain`s economy. The electric power industry is one of China`s most important industries. To adopt energy efficiency through high technology and utilizing energy adequately is an important technological policy for the development of China`s electric power industry in the future. After briefly describing the achievements of China`s electric power industry, this report defines the target areas and policies for the development of hydroelectricity and nuclear electricity in the 2000s in China, presents the strategic position of China`s electric power industry as well as objectives and relevant plans of development for 2000--2050. This report finds that with the discovery of superconducting electricity, the discovery of new high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, and progress in materials techniques, the 21st century will be an era of superconductivity. Applications of superconductivity in the energy field, such as superconducting storage, superconducting transmission, superconducting transformers, superconducting motors, its application in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD), as well as in nuclear fusion, has unique advantages. Its market prospects are quite promising. 12 figs.

  7. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.8--isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation study, radiation technology, isotope and nuclear agriculture

  8. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: a case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiliang; Liu Wenqiang; Gu Shuhua; Gan Lin

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the spread of small household wind generators and the development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyzes the patterns of wind technology dissemination within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It also discusses international investment and technology transfer relating to wind energy technology. The economics of windfarm development are examined and the role of alternative policy instruments analyzed. Major constraints to wind technology development are identified and relevant policy recommendations suggested. (author)

  9. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: a case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiliang Zhang; Shuhua Gu; Wenqiang Liu; Lin Gan

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the spread of small household wind generators and the development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyses the patterns of wind technology dissemination within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It also discusses international investment and technology transfer relating to wind energy technology. The economics of windfarm development are examined and the role of alternative policy instruments analysed. Major constraints to wind technology development are identified and relevant policy recommendations suggested. (Author)

  10. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2007-01-01

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  11. Analysis of the market penetration of clean coal technologies and its impacts in China's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Nakata, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for promoting the market penetration of clean coal technologies (CCTs) into China's electricity sector and the evaluation of corresponding effects. Based on the reality that coal will remain the predominant fuel to generate electricity and conventional pulverized coal boiler power plants have serious impacts on environment degradation, development of clean coal technologies could be one alternative to meet China's fast growing demand of electricity as well as protect the already fragile environment. A multi-period market equilibrium model is applied and an electricity model of China is established to forecast changes in the electricity system up to 2030s. Three policy instruments: SO 2 emission charge, CO 2 emission charge and implementing subsidies are considered in this research. The results show that all instruments cause a significant shift in China's electricity structure, promote CCTs' competitiveness and lead China to gain great benefit in both resource saving and environment improvement. Since resource security and environment degradation are becoming primary concerns in China, policies that could help to gain generations' market share of advanced coal-based technologies such as CCTs' is suitable for the current situation of China's electricity sector. (author)

  12. China's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) research environment: A snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xueying; Appelbaum, Richard P

    2018-01-01

    In keeping with China's President Xi Jinping's "Chinese Dream," China has set a goal of becoming a world-class innovator by 2050. China's higher education Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) research environment will play a pivotal role in influencing whether China is successful in transitioning from a manufacturing-based economy to an innovation-driven, knowledge-based economy. Past studies on China's research environment have been primarily qualitative in nature or based on anecdotal evidence. In this study, we surveyed STEM faculty from China's top 25 universities to get a clearer understanding of how faculty members view China's overall research environment. We received 731 completed survey responses, 17% of which were from individuals who received terminal degrees from abroad and 83% of which were from individuals who received terminal degrees from domestic institutions of higher education. We present results on why returnees decided to study abroad, returnees' decisions to return to China, and differences in perceptions between returnees and domestic degree holders on the advantages of having a foreign degree. The top five challenges to China's research environment identified by survey respondents were: a promotion of short-term thinking and instant success (37% of all respondents); research funding (33%); too much bureaucratic or governmental intervention (31%); the evaluation system (27%); and a reliance on human relations (26%). Results indicated that while China has clearly made strides in its higher education system, there are numerous challenges that must be overcome before China can hope to effectively produce the kinds of innovative thinkers that are required if it is to achieve its ambitious goals. We also raise questions about the current direction of education and inquiry in China, particularly indications that government policy is turning inward, away from openness that is central to innovative thinking.

  13. Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-like stone technology of the Bose basin, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamei, H; Potts, R; Baoyin, Y; Zhengtang, G; Deino, A; Wei, W; Clark, J; Guangmao, X; Weiwen, H

    2000-03-03

    Stone artifacts from the Bose basin, South China, are associated with tektites dated to 803,000 +/- 3000 years ago and represent the oldest known large cutting tools (LCTs) in East Asia. Bose toolmaking is compatible with Mode 2 (Acheulean) technologies in Africa in its targeted manufacture and biased spatial distribution of LCTs, large-scale flaking, and high flake scar counts. Acheulean-like tools in the mid-Pleistocene of South China imply that Mode 2 technical advances were manifested in East Asia contemporaneously with handaxe technology in Africa and western Eurasia. Bose lithic technology is associated with a tektite airfall and forest burning.

  14. Technology transfer of nuclear power development in developing countries: Case study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiachen; Shen Wenquan; Zhang Luqing

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the specific experiences in the technology transfer of nuclear power in China, a country that both imported and developed indigenous nuclear technology. Based on this experience some recommendations are presented that should be considered particularly by the developing countries. (author)

  15. 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China collects selected papers from the 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China held in Nanjing on October 16-19, 2012. The book features state-of-the-art studies on spacecraft TT&C in China with the theme of “Shared and Flexible TT&C Systems”. The selected works can help  promote development of spacecraft TT&C technology towards interconnectivity, resource sharing, flexibility and high efficiency. Researchers and engineers in the field of aerospace engineering and communication engineering can benefit from the book. Rongjun Shen is the Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering; Weiping Qian is the Director General of Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunications Technology.

  16. Scientific and Technological Information Activity in China (White Paper on Science and Technology : No.1, 1986.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Translated By Joho Kanri Editorial Committee

    This is a translation of Chapter 4 : Information Systems of Volume 5 : Environment and Resources in the first number of White Paper on Science and Technology edited in May 1986 by State Scientific and Technological Commission (SSTC). Scientific and technological information activity in China has progressed by keeping close cooperation among the Institute for Scientific and Technological Information in China (ISTIC) as a core organization, 33 information institutes under the control of each ministrial commission of The State Council and 35 information institutes of the local governments and cities. As a result of having promoted the information activities along with the guiding principle decided by the 5th National Conference on Scientific and Technological Information in July 1980, information business could be made a great contribution to political decision, national projects and economy stressing plan, technology introduction, etc. The Scientific and Technological Information Bureau of SSTC as a coordinating body proposed the following subjects as an important item for promoting future information business in China: standardization of abstract journals, bringing up of investigators and researchers, production of data bases and consolidation of international online retrieval services, step by step introduction of a charging system for information service, etc.

  17. Impact of energy technology patents in China: Evidence from a panel cointegration and error correction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing energy technology innovation performance, which is widely measured by energy technology patents through energy technology research and development (R&D) activities, is a fundamental way to implement energy conservation and emission abatement. This study analyzes the effects of R&D investment activities, economic growth, and energy price on energy technology patents in 30 provinces of China over the period 1999–2013. Several unit root tests indicate that all the above variables are generated by panel unit root processes, and a panel cointegration model is confirmed among the variables. In order to ensure the consistency of the estimators, the Fully-Modified OLS (FMOLS) method is adopted, and the results indicate that R&D investment activities and economic growth have positive effects on energy technology patents while energy price has a negative effect. However, the panel error correction models indicate that the cointegration relationship helps to promote economic growth, but it reduces R&D investment and energy price in the short term. Therefore, market-oriented measures including financial support and technical transformation policies for the development of low-carbon energy technologies, an effective energy price mechanism, especially the targeted fossil-fuel subsidies and their die away mode are vital in promoting China's energy technology innovation. - Highlights: • Energy technology patents in China are analyzed. • Relationship between energy patents and funds for R&D activities are analyzed. • China's energy price system hinders energy technology innovation. • Some important implications for China's energy technology policy are discussed. • A panel cointegration model with FMOLS estimator is used.

  18. The R/D of high power proton accelerator technology in China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In China, a multipurpose verification system as a first phase of our ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton LINAC) and a swimming pool light water subcritical reactor. In this paper the activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the ...

  19. Electricity generation costs of concentrated solar power technologies in China based on operational plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhao; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Recent years witnessed a sharp increase of CSP (concentrated solar power) plants around the world. CSP is currently at its early stage in China, with several demonstration and utility-scale plants underway. China's rising electricity demand, the severe environmental pollution from coal-fired power...... CSP experts. On this basis, this study analyzes and benchmarks the costs of parabolic trough CSP, tower CSP, and dish CSP technologies in China by applying an LCOE (levelized cost of electricity) model. The current LCOE for the different CSP plants falls in a range of 1.2-2.7 RMB/kWh (0.19-0.43 US...

  20. Technology transfer by CDM projects: A comparison of Brazil, China, India and Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Glachant, Matthieu; Meniere, Yann

    2009-01-01

    In a companion paper [Dechezlepretre, A., Glachant, M., Meniere, Y., 2008. The Clean Development Mechanism and the international diffusion of technologies: An empirical study, Energy Policy 36, 1273-1283], we gave a general description of technology transfers by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and we analyzed their drivers. In this paper, we use the same data and similar econometric models to explain inter-country differences. We focus on 4 countries gathering about 75% of the CDM projects: Brazil, China, India and Mexico. Sixty eight percent of Mexican projects include an international transfer of technology. The rates are, respectively, 12%, 40% and 59% for India, Brazil and China. Our results show that transfers to Mexico and Brazil are mainly related to the strong involvement of foreign partners and good technological capabilities. Besides a relative advantage with respect to these factors, the higher rate of international transfers in Mexico seems to be due to a sector-composition effect. The involvement of foreign partners is less frequent in India and China, where investment opportunities generated by fast growing economies seem to play a more important role in facilitating international technology transfers through the CDM. International transfers are also related to strong technology capabilities in China. In contrast, the lower rate of international transfer (12%) in India may be due to a better capability to diffuse domestic technologies

  1. Technology Roadmaps: China Wind Energy Development Roadmap 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The report shows how China, already the world's largest wind market, could reach 1 000 GW of wind power by the middle of the century, an achievement that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1.5 gigatonnes per year, or roughly equivalent to the combined CO2 emissions of Germany, France and Italy in 2009. The China Wind Energy Roadmap is the first national roadmap that has been developed by a country with IEA support, drawing from its global roadmap series.

  2. International technology transfer for climate change mitigation and the cases of Russia and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, E.; Sinton, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental agenda for mitigating climate change through international transfers of technology is linked with a diverse literature, reviewed here within a framework that combines technological, agent/agenda, and market/transaction perspectives. Literature that bears on international technology transfer for climate change mitigation is similar in many ways for Russia and China: opportunities for energy efficiency and renewable energy, economic reform and restructuring, the difficulties enterprises face in responding to market conditions, international assistance policies, international joint ventures, market intermediation, and capacity building for market development. In both countries, capacity building means enhancing market-oriented capabilities in addition to technological capabilities. For Russia, institutional development is critical, such as new commercial legal codes and housing-sector changes beyond privatization. For China, technology policies and modernization programs significantly influence technology transfers. 234 refs., 3 tabs

  3. The Learning Process and Technological Change in Wind Power: Evidence from China's CDM Wind Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Tang; David Popp

    2014-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a project-based carbon trade mechanism that subsidizes the users of climate-friendly technologies and encourages technology transfer. The CDM has provided financial support for a large share of Chinese wind projects since 2002. Using pooled cross-sectional data of 486 registered CDM wind projects in China from 2002 to 2009, we examine the determinants of technological change in wind power from a learning perspective. We estimate the effects of differen...

  4. High Technology Products Exports by India and China: A Constant Market Share Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Rittwik; Chattopadhyay, Srobonti

    2013-01-01

    With more and more globalization, international trade has expanded to a large extent. This is also observable for trades in high technology products. India and China have emerged as two major exporters of high technology products in the world today. This paper makes an attempt to understand the various dimensions of high technology products exports from these two countries through constant market share (CMS) analysis and also the policy implications by looking at the various components of exp...

  5. Developments in lithium-ion battery technology in the Peoples Republic of China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory prepared this report, under the sponsorship of the Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, for the Vehicles Technologies Team. The information in the report is based on the author's visit to Beijing; Tianjin; and Shanghai, China, to meet with representatives from several organizations (listed in Appendix A) developing and manufacturing lithium-ion battery technology for cell phones and electronics, electric bikes, and electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of lithium-ion battery technology in China and to determine if lithium-ion batteries produced in China are available for benchmarking in the United States. With benchmarking, DOE and the U.S. battery development industry would be able to understand the status of the battery technology, which would enable the industry to formulate a long-term research and development program. This report also describes the state of lithium-ion battery technology in the United States, provides information on joint ventures, and includes information on government incentives and policies in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).

  6. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 18 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

  7. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.10--nuclear technology economy and management modernization sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 18 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the tenth one, the content is about nuclear technology economy and management modernization sub-volume

  8. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.7--Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology

  9. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.8--radiation research and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation study, radiation technology, isotope and nuclear agriculture

  10. Roles Prioritization of Hydrogen Production Technologies for Promoting Hydrogen Economy in the Current State of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Gao, Suzhao; Tan, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production technologies play an important role in the hydrogen economy of China. However, the roles of different technologies played in promoting the development of hydrogen economy are different. The role prioritization of various hydrogen production technologies is of vital importance...... for the stakeholders/decision-makers to plan the development of hydrogen economy in China and to allocate the finite R&D budget reasonably. In this study, DPSIR framework was firstly used to identify the key factors concerning the priorities of various hydrogen production technologies; then, a fuzzy group decision...... information. The prioritization results by using the proposed method demonstrated that the technologies of coal gasification with CO2 capture and storage and hydropower-based water electrolysis were regarded as the two most important hydrogen production pathways for promoting the development of hydrogen...

  11. Potential of South African road technology for application in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex T. Visser

    2017-04-01

    The paper first deals with the South African pavement design procedure and contrast this with the Chinese pavement design method. The inherent weaknesses of these methods are discussed and flowing from this discussion proposals for adapting the South African approach to China is presented. The resultant proposals have a high likelihood of success and will counteract the influences of extreme climate and rampant overloading that occurs on the Chinese roads.

  12. Education and training in nuclear technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junming

    2007-01-01

    The sustained and rapid economic growth and continuous upgrading of people's living standards in China has posed great demand to energy and power supply, which creates a rare opportunity for developing nuclear power and the industry. For the sake of meeting energy needs, adjusting energy mix and protecting environment, the Chinese government has adjusted the principle for nuclear power development from the previous moderate development to the present actively pushing forward. Nuclear power has been taken into the national electricity development planning as an integral component of China's national energy strategy. The portion of nuclear in energy supply will progressively increase through phased development. Nuclear power will become an important pillar in the power supply of the coastal area where economy is developed and demand on electricity high. According to preliminary plan, the installed capacity of nuclear power will reach 40 GWe by 2020, accounting for about 4% of the total installed capacity of electric power nationwide. Nuclear power is going to play a more important role in China's power development in years to come. And developing nuclear power is an important step toward optimizing energy mix, protecting the environment and achieving sustainable development. (author)

  13. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the fifth one, the content is about radiation protection and nuclear chemical industry.

  14. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.4--nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally.This is the fourth one, the content is about nuclear materials, isotope separation, nuclear chemistry and radiological chemistry.

  15. H.E. Professor Wang Liheng, Minister of Aviation of the People's Republic of China, President, China Aerospace Science & Technology Corporation

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    H. E. Professor Wang Liheng, Minister of Aviation, and President, China Aerospace Science & Technology Corporation, People's Republic of China (2nd from left) with (from left to right) Professor Hans Hofer, Professor Roger Cashmore, Research Director for Collider Programmes, Professor Samuel C. C. Ting, CERN and Professor Lei Gang, Secretary to the Minister, September 2001.

  16. Identification of key oil refining technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haiyan; Yu Jianning; Xu Jian; Fan Yu; Bao Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the project 'Vision of the Key Petroleum Refining Technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC) in the Early 21st Century' undertaken by the Department of R and D Administration, CNPC, and its affiliate key laboratory, The Key Laboratory of Catalysis operated by China University of Petroleum, Beijing. The objective of the project was to identify the challenges and opportunities of CNPC's petroleum refining business given increasing economy globalization and stricter environmental regulations. Using the modified Delphi method, four key technologies for CNPC's oil refining industry were identified. They are: integrated fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydroprocessing, residue hydrocracking, and high-grade lubricant production. The most significant technology will be the integrated FCC technology that can economically increase the yield of light fractions as well as upgrade transportation fuels. In China, FCC units produce about 80% and 30% commercial gasoline and diesel, respectively. To ensure compliance with future environmental legislation, hydroprocessing technologies, including those related to petroleum product hydrorefining and distillate hydrocracking, should be developed. By combining residue hydrocracking and FCC technologies, poorer quality residua can be processed. Supplying high-grade lube oils is one of the main tasks for CNPC's oil refining industry. Development of hydrodewaxing technologies to manufacture API group II/III base oil is the main direction for CNPC's lubricant production business

  17. The Philosophy of Science and Technology in China: Political and Ideological Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanlin

    2014-01-01

    In China, the philosophy of science and technology (PST) is derived from "Dialectics of Nature" (DN), which is based on Engels' unfinished book "Dialektik der Natur." DN as a political ideology provides political guidance for scientists and engineers. Therefore, since 1981, "Introduction to Dialectics of Nature" (IDN)…

  18. Learning Design and Technology through Social Networks for High School Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Tang, MingXi; Peng, Xiang; Liu, Xiaoli

    2018-01-01

    The subject of design and technology was introduced to the curriculum for high schools in China 10 years ago. However, the teaching and learning of this subject have become difficult for both teachers and students because there is a lack of qualified teachers with design background to deliver this subject in a way to stimulate the learning…

  19. New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Feng; Dou, Zheng-Xia; He, Pan; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Powlson, David; Chadwick, Dave; Norse, David; Lu, Yue-Lai; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Liang; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cassman, Kenneth G; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2013-05-21

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world's population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st century. China's participation is essential to global efforts in reducing N-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because China is the largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N. To evaluate the impact of China's use of N fertilizer, we quantify the carbon footprint of China's N fertilizer production and consumption chain using life cycle analysis. For every ton of N fertilizer manufactured and used, 13.5 tons of CO2-equivalent (eq) (t CO2-eq) is emitted, compared with 9.7 t CO2-eq in Europe. Emissions in China tripled from 1980 [131 terrogram (Tg) of CO2-eq (Tg CO2-eq)] to 2010 (452 Tg CO2-eq). N fertilizer-related emissions constitute about 7% of GHG emissions from the entire Chinese economy and exceed soil carbon gain resulting from N fertilizer use by several-fold. We identified potential emission reductions by comparing prevailing technologies and management practices in China with more advanced options worldwide. Mitigation opportunities include improving methane recovery during coal mining, enhancing energy efficiency in fertilizer manufacture, and minimizing N overuse in field-level crop production. We find that use of advanced technologies could cut N fertilizer-related emissions by 20-63%, amounting to 102-357 Tg CO2-eq annually. Such reduction would decrease China's total GHG emissions by 2-6%, which is significant on a global scale.

  20. Technologies of monitoring, alerting and controlling for coal fires in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jun; Xiao, Yang; Luo, Zhen-Min; Zhang, Yan-Ni; Zheng, Xue-Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Coalfield fire has become a global disaster, especially in China, which lost a large number of coal resources every year, and caused serious destruction of ecological environment. Coalfield fire area has become urgent to solve the problem for the complex, combustion long-time, wide range, fire source hidden, and controlling difficultly in the formed evolution process. At present, surface coal fire areas prospecting technology mainly have visible light on surface, surface radar remote sensing technology, air ground integration technology. Detecting hidden fire source technology are infrared thermal imaging technology, method of radon-test. The technologies of monitoring and early warning for fire areas with ad-hoc, intelligent monitoring for infrared thermal imaging real time networks are applied. The idea of district controlling as "prevention-control-extinguishing" is established and in-site applications, which the technologies and equipment of fire prevention and extinguishment include the inorganic filling plugging, liquid carbon dioxide, and series of colloidal materials.

  1. A Review on New Technological Progress for Beneficiation of Refractory Phosphate Ore in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xu; Siqing, Liu; Yanqing, Yao; Hailin, Liu; Yi, Pei

    2017-05-01

    The world is rich in phosphate resources, but the vast majority of the resources are of middle and low grade ores, and it is difficult to obtain high grade concentrate at a high recovery by using traditional separation methods. In this paper, the distribution and flotation processes of typical phosphate ores in China are introduced. Considering the current situation in phosphate ore beneficiation both home and abroad, the new trend of processing technology and reagents in China are summarized. Flotation is still regarded as the main processing method in phosphate ore beneficiation for a certain time in near future.

  2. Survey of student attitudes towards digital simulation technologies at a dental school in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q; Wang, Y; Zheng, Q; Ye, L; Zhou, X D; Zhang, L L

    2017-08-01

    Digital simulation technologies have become widespread in healthcare education, especially in dentistry; these technologies include digital X-ray images, digital microscopes, virtual pathology slides and other types of simulation. This study aimed to assess students' attitudes towards digital simulation technologies at a large, top-ranked dental school in China, as well as find out how students compare the digital technologies with traditional training methods. In April 2015, a custom-designed questionnaire was distributed to a total of 389 students who had received digital technology and simulation-based training in West China Dental School during 2012-2014. Results of a cross-sectional survey show that most students accept digital simulation technology; they report that the technology is stimulating and facilitates self-directed and self-paced learning. These findings, together with the objective advantages of digital technology, suggest that digital simulation training offers significant potential for dental education, highlighting the need for further research and more widespread implementation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technological innovation system in China: Structure, function evaluation and policy implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Xianjin; Ye Zhonghua; Xu Zhengzhong; Husar Holmes, Maja; Henry Lambright, W.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can be an important technology option for China in addressing global climate change and developing clean energy technologies. Promoted by international climate conventions and supported by government research and development programs, an increasing number of CCS pilot and demonstration projects have been launched in China. In this study, we analyze the structure of China’s CCS effort from a technological innovation system (TIS) perspective. Within this system, key socio-political components, including institutions, actor-networks, and technology development, are examined to evaluate the state of the innovation system. The study assessed the perceived capacity of seven functional areas of the CCS innovation system through a survey of key CCS actors and stakeholders. The findings suggest that China’s CCS innovation system has a strong functional capacity for knowledge and technology development. It is significantly weaker in the innovative functions of knowledge diffusion, market formation, facilitating entrepreneurs and new entrants into the CCS market. Based on the evaluation of China’s technological innovation system to develop CCS, the article articulates specific public policies to formulate a more robust innovation system to traverse the “valley of death” from research and development to commercial deployment and accelerate energy innovation in China. - Highlights: ► We analyze and evaluate China’s CCS innovation system from TIS perspective. ► Strong and systematic CCS innovation system structure has come into being in China. ► The system has acquired high knowledge development and accumulation. ► Weak innovation functions are identified: market creation, guidance, etc. ► Public policies are needed to improve the innovation system performance.

  4. Comparison of China-US Engineering Ethics Educations in Sino-Western Philosophies of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gui Hong

    2015-12-01

    Ethics education has become essential in modern engineering. Ethics education in engineering has been increasingly implemented worldwide. It can improve ethical behaviors in technology and engineering design under the guidance of the philosophy of technology. Hence, this study aims to compare China-US engineering ethics education in Sino-Western philosophies of technology by using literature studies, online surveys, observational researches, textual analyses, and comparative methods. In my original theoretical framework and model of input and output for education, six primary variables emerge in the pedagogy: disciplinary statuses, educational goals, instructional contents, didactic models, teaching methods, and edificatory effects. I focus on the similarities and differences of engineering ethics educations between China and the U.S. in Chinese and Western philosophies of technology. In the field of engineering, the U.S. tends toward applied ethics training, whereas China inclines toward practical moral education. The U.S. is the leader, particularly in the amount of money invested and engineering results. China has quickened its pace, focusing specifically on engineering labor input and output. Engineering ethics is a multiplayer game effected at various levels among (a) lower level technicians and engineers, engineering associations, and stockholders; (b) middle ranking engineering ethics education, the ministry of education, the academy of engineering, and the philosophy of technology; and (c) top national and international technological policies. I propose that professional engineering ethics education can play many important roles in reforming engineering social responsibility by international cooperation in societies that are becoming increasingly reliant on engineered devices and systems. Significantly, my proposals contribute to improving engineering ethics education and better-solving engineering ethics issues, thereby maximizing engineering

  5. Ballistic Missile Defense and China: Military Technologies, China’s Past, and Shaping the Worlds Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    is often seen as a bad actor it is also the world’s most populous country and is critical to the world economy. So for all of its alleged atrocities...which has the highest aircraft loss rate of any U.S. fighter. The F-16 is sometimes referred to as “The Dorito ” with a reference to the... bad reality. It was once said that good fences make for good neighbors, but in the case of China it would seem that the great wall has held too many

  6. Effects of solar photovoltaic technology on the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liqiang; Zhang, Yajuan

    2017-10-01

    Among the various types of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic has elicited the most attention because of its low pollution, abundant reserve, and endless supply. Solar photovoltaic technology generates both positive and negative effects on the environment. The environmental loss of 0.00666 yuan/kWh from solar photovoltaic technology is lower than that from coal-fired power generation (0.05216 yuan/kWh). The negative effects of solar photovoltaic system production include wastewater and waste gas pollutions, the representatives of which contain fluorine, chromium with wastewater and hydrogen fluoride, and silicon tetrachloride gas. Solar panels are also a source of light pollution. Improper disposal of solar cells that have reached the end of their service life harms the environment through the stench they produce and the damage they cause to the soil. So, the positive and negative effects of green energy photovoltaic power generation technology on the environment should be considered.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in China by cleaner coal technology towards 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Chen, Sha

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese energy system, a major CO2 emitter, relies heavily on fossil fuels, especially coal. Coal will continue to play a major role in the new installed power generation capacity in the future, which will cause unavoidable environmental problems. Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are essential...... for emissions reduction in the power sector. In general, CCTs cover coal upgrading, efficiency improvements, advanced technologies and zero emissions technologies. Besides these, CCTs also include other emissions reduction technologies and comprehensive utilization technologies in China.This paper review...... generation technology, CO2 emissions reduction is 6.4% for super-C, 37.4% for USC and 61.5% for IGCC. Four coal power scenarios are developed based on the assumption of potential investment power for CCTs in 2020, which are super-C, USC, USC and old low efficiency generation substitution by USC, IGCC...

  8. Analyzing the causes of urban waterlogging and sponge city technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yun-Fang; Dong, Wen-Yi; Lin, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    With the rapid development of social economy in China, increased urban population, and rapid urbanization cause serious problems, for example, a heavy rain in the city inevitably leads to waterlogging, which poses a great threat to the livelihood and property security. Disaster due to urban flood is a key problem that restricts the development of urban ecology in China. The reason is the sharp increase of impermeable surface ratio in urban areas, leading to a decrease in rainfall infiltration and increase in surface runoff. To effectively solve the urban waterlogging, China proposed the construction of sponge city. This paper analyzes and summarizes the reasons for the formation of urban waterlogging, and introduces the concept of the sponge city technology to prevent waterlogging.

  9. China Report, Science and Technology, White Paper, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-02

    1,000 times higher than conventional seedling raising methods, and the planted area has reached 50,000 mu. Using bioplast cultivation and fusion...technology the bioplast reproduction plants of 21 types of plants in 10 families have been obtained and tobacco shi ai qian niu [0577 4253 3677 3662

  10. The Mechanism for Organising and Propelling Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqian, Liu; Dongyuan, Cheng; Xinli, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Having started early in the 1920s as a spontaneously launched educational activity by civil organisations under the influence of American audio-visual theory and practice, Chinese educational technology was later put under governmental management. This paper is composed of five parts covering mainly the historical development of educational…

  11. The Philosophy of Science and Technology in China: Political and Ideological Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanlin

    2014-09-01

    In China, the philosophy of science and technology (PST) is derived from "Dialectics of Nature" (DN), which is based on Engels' unfinished book Dialektik der Natur. DN as a political ideology provides political guidance for scientists and engineers. Therefore, since 1981, "Introduction to Dialectics of Nature" (IDN) has been an obligatory course for master's degree students who study natural science or technology. In 1987, DN was renamed PST by the Chinese government in order to communicate and do research. The IDN teachers constitute most of the scholars who research PST. Nowadays, in China, PST includes philosophy of nature, philosophy of science, philosophy of technology, sociology of science, sociology of technology, "science, technology and society," history of science, history of technology, management of science, and management of technology due to having too many IDN teachers. In fact, it is neither a branch of philosophy, nor a subject. The number of the IDN teachers has been increasing since 1981, which makes PST a miscellaneous collection of many branches or subjects. Finally, PST is facing two new challenges: the reduction of IDN and academic corruption.

  12. China, the United States, and competition for resources that enable emerging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Andrew L; Nassar, Nedal T; Xun, Sean

    2018-04-02

    Historically, resource conflicts have often centered on fuel minerals (particularly oil). Future resource conflicts may, however, focus more on competition for nonfuel minerals that enable emerging technologies. Whether it is rhenium in jet engines, indium in flat panel displays, or gallium in smart phones, obscure elements empower smarter, smaller, and faster technologies, and nations seek stable supplies of these and other nonfuel minerals for their industries. No nation has all of the resources it needs domestically. International trade may lead to international competition for these resources if supplies are deemed at risk or insufficient to satisfy growing demand, especially for minerals used in technologies important to economic development and national security. Here, we compare the net import reliance of China and the United States to inform mineral resource competition and foreign supply risk. Our analysis indicates that China relies on imports for over half of its consumption for 19 of 42 nonfuel minerals, compared with 24 for the United States-11 of which are common to both. It is for these 11 nonfuel minerals that competition between the United States and China may become the most contentious, especially for those with highly concentrated production that prove irreplaceable in pivotal emerging technologies. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. China, the United States, and competition for resources that enable emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Andrew L.; Nassar, Nedal T.; Xun, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Historically, resource conflicts have often centered on fuel minerals (particularly oil). Future resource conflicts may, however, focus more on competition for nonfuel minerals that enable emerging technologies. Whether it is rhenium in jet engines, indium in flat panel displays, or gallium in smart phones, obscure elements empower smarter, smaller, and faster technologies, and nations seek stable supplies of these and other nonfuel minerals for their industries. No nation has all of the resources it needs domestically. International trade may lead to international competition for these resources if supplies are deemed at risk or insufficient to satisfy growing demand, especially for minerals used in technologies important to economic development and national security. Here, we compare the net import reliance of China and the United States to inform mineral resource competition and foreign supply risk. Our analysis indicates that China relies on imports for over half of its consumption for 19 of 42 nonfuel minerals, compared with 24 for the United States—11 of which are common to both. It is for these 11 nonfuel minerals that competition between the United States and China may become the most contentious, especially for those with highly concentrated production that prove irreplaceable in pivotal emerging technologies.

  14. Technical and economic assessments commercial success for IGCC technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, T.

    1998-01-01

    The experiences gained from several Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration plants operating in the US and Europe facilitate commercial success of this advanced coal-based power generation technology. However, commercialization of coal-based IGCC technology in the West, particularly in the US, is restricted due to the low price of natural gas. On the contrary, in China--the largest coal producer and consumer in the world--a lack of natural gas supply, strong demand for air pollution control and relatively low costs of manufacturing and construction provide tremendous opportunities for IGCC applications. The first Chinese IGCC demonstration project was initiated in 1994, and other potential IGCC projects are in planning. IGCC applications in re-powering, fuel switching and multi-generation also show a great market potential in China. However, questions for IGCC development in China remain; where are realistic opportunities for IGCC projects and how can these opportunities be converted into commercial success? The answers to these questions should focus on the Chinese market needs and emphasize economic benefits, not just clean, or power. High price of imported equipment, high financing costs, and the technical risk of first-of-a-kind installation barricade IGCC development in China. This paper presents preliminary technical and economic assessments for four typical IGCC applications in the Chinese marketplace: central power station, fuel switching, re-powering, and multi-generation. The major factors affecting project economics--such as plant cost, financing, prices of fuel and electricity and operating capacity factor--are analyzed. The results indicate that well-proven technology for versatile applications, preferred financing, reduction of the plant cost, environmental superiority and appropriate project structure are the key for commercial success of IGCC in China

  15. Current status and application of fine screening technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, E. V.; Chernov, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents data on the design and technical parameters of high frequency vibrating screens, which are produced by Chinese manufacturer - company Landsky Tech Ltd. The technology of high frequency vibration is widely used at mining and metallurgical industries to separate fine and ultra-fine particles from the flow of dry material or pulp. The paper contains different types of screening systems, description, advantages and disadvantages of equipment and test results from mineral processing plants.

  16. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  17. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.dorn@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department Waste Management, Justus-v.-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Nelles, Michael, E-mail: michael.nelles@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department Waste Management, Justus-v.-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Flamme, Sabine, E-mail: flamme@fh-muenster.de [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Corrensstrasse 25, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Jinming, Cai [Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, 230009 Hefei (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We outline the differences of Chinese MSW characteristics from Western MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the requirements of four clusters of plant owner/operators in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the best technology fit for these requirements via a matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variance in waste input affects result more than training and costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For China technology adaptation and localisation could become push, not pull factors. - Abstract: Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four

  18. Construction and Development of CRM Technology and Industry Chain in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunnian; Wang, Yonglong; Pan, Qin

    CRM is any application or initiative designed to help an organization optimize interactions with customers, suppliers, or prospects via one or more touch points. CRM has been interpreted and used in different ways by researchers in the various disciplines and researchers have identified a variety of technologies related to CRM. This paper highlights the implementation from the technology level and contributes to some successful factors in CRM application. The development of CRM is not fully developed in China. There are many critical factors that determine the CRM market development. Construction and development of CRM industry chain in China is a valuable research field and the paper provided some suggestions and analyses on it. In future, it requires our joint efforts of many aspects from every walk of life to make sure that CRM industry chain can improve and maturate gradually.

  19. Application countermeasures of non-incineration technologies for medical waste treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Ding, Qiong; Yang, Xiaoling; Peng, Zhengyou; Xu, Diandou; Feng, Qinzhong

    2013-12-01

    By the end of 2012, there were 272 modern, high-standard, centralized medical waste disposal facilities operating in various cities in China. Among these facilities nearly 50% are non-incineration treatment facilities, including the technologies of high temperature steam, chemical disinfection and microwave. Each of the non-incineration technologies has its advantages and disadvantages, and any single technology cannot offer a panacea because of the complexity of medical waste disposal. Although non-incineration treatment of medical waste can avoid the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans, it is still necessary to decide how to best meet the local waste management needs while minimizing the impact on the environment and public health. There is still a long way to go to establish the sustainable application and management mode of non-incineration technologies. Based on the analysis of typical non-incineration process, pollutant release, and the current tendency for technology application and development at home and abroad, this article recommends the application countermeasures of non-incineration technologies as the best available techniques and best environmental practices in China.

  20. Advances on application of remote sensing technology to uranium prospecting in northwest of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Fawang; Liu Dechang; Zhao Yingjun; Zhang Jielin; Fang Maolong

    2012-01-01

    Some advances on application of remote sensing technology to uranium prospecting in northwest of China since 21st century are presented in this paper. They included: (1) application of ETM multi-spectral remote sensing technology to identify the sandstone-type uranium ore-controlling structure in north of Ordos Basin and investigate the uranium metallogenetic geological conditions in Qiangtang Basin, Tibet, (2) application of ASTER multi-spectral and QuickBird high spatial resolution remote sensing technology to extract and analyze the oil-gas reduced alteration in Bashibulake uranium ore district, Xinjiang, (3) discovery of Salamubulake uranium metallogenetic belt in Keping, Xinjiang, using ASTER multi-spectral, QuickBird high spatial resolution, and CASI/SASI airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing comprehensively, and (4) application of CASI/SASI airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing technology to extract volcanicrock type uranium mineralization alteration in Baiyanghe area, Xinjiang. These application advances show the good application effects of remote sensing technology to uranium exploration in northwest of China, which provides important references for making further uranium prospecting using remote sensing technology. (authors)

  1. New Paradigms in International University/Industry/Government Cooperation. Canada-China Collaboration in Advanced Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgak, Akif Asil; Liquan, He

    1996-01-01

    A Chinese university and a Canadian university collaborated on an advanced manufacturing technologies project designed to address human resource development needs in China. The project featured university/industry/government partnership and attention to environmental issues. (SK)

  2. Choice of technological change for China's low-carbon development: Evidence from three urban agglomerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pinrong; Li, Ke; Shao, Shuai

    2018-01-15

    China's three urban agglomerations, namely, "Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei", "Yangtze River Delta", and "Pearl River Delta", are the most developed regions in China. These agglomerations are also expected to play a leading role in China's low-carbon development. Energy-saving and carbon-free technological changes play key roles in the low-carbon development transformation of these regions. This study investigates the elasticities of the output and substitution of factors, and the biased technological change in the three urban agglomerations based on the stochastic frontier analysis with a translog production function. The results indicate that the economic growth of the three urban agglomerations is mainly driven by the increase in capital stock caused by investment, energy shortage, and environmental degradation. The relationship between electricity input and carbon dioxide emissions is affected by power generation and economic cycles and transforms from complementarity to substitution. However, this relationship varies among regions. Technological change is conducive to electricity saving, but it does not present an emission-reduction effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recycling of waste printed circuit boards: a review of current technologies and treatment status in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-05-30

    From the use of renewable resources and environmental protection viewpoints, recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) receives wide concerns as the amounts of scrap PCBs increases dramatically. However, treatment for waste PCBs is a challenge due to the fact that PCBs are diverse and complex in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Recycle technology for waste PCBs in China is still immature. Previous studies focused on metals recovery, but resource utilization for nonmetals and further separation of the mixed metals are relatively fewer. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a proper recycle technology for waste PCBs. In this paper, current status of waste PCBs treatment in China was introduced, and several recycle technologies were analyzed. Some advices against the existing problems during recycling process were presented. Based on circular economy concept in China and complete recycling and resource utilization for all materials, a new environmental-friendly integrated recycling process with no pollution and high efficiency for waste PCBs was provided and discussed in detail.

  4. Foreign Market Entry - The strategic decision of an entry mode to China by an environmental technology firm

    OpenAIRE

    Monerris Virkki, Jyri

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis was executed for Wind Power Finland Ltd and it concentrates on the strategic decision of a foreign market entry mode to China, especially to the environmental technology markets. The commissioning company, Wind Power Finland Ltd, is a micro-company with four employees that operates in the environmental technology sector. The company was established in 2013. Now Wind Power Finland Ltd wants to expand its business to China, and is therefore looking for the best market ent...

  5. Lifestyles, technology and CO2 emissions in China. A regional comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Guan, Dabo

    2009-01-01

    With rapid economic development, higher income levels, urbanization and other socio-economic drivers, people's lifestyles in China have changed remarkably over the last 50 years. This paper uses the IPAT model (where I = Impact representing CO 2 emissions, P = Population, A = Affluence, and T = emission intensity) to analyze how these main drivers contributed to the growth of CO 2 emissions over this time period. Affluence or lifestyle change has been variously recognized as one of the key factors contributing to CO 2 emissions. Through comparative analysis of the development of five regions in China, we trace lifestyle changes since the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949 until 2002. We find that household consumption across the five regions follows similar trajectories, driven by changes in income and the increasing availability of goods and services, although significant differences still exist between and within regions due to differential policies in China and different possibilities for social mobility. There are considerable differences between the southeast and northwest and between urban and rural areas. We also found that technological improvements have not been able to fully compensate for the increase of emissions due to population growth and increasing wealth, which is also in line with results from other studies. Finally, this paper emphasizes that developing countries such as China, which is home to 22% of the world population and a growing middle class, and which is on a fast track to modernization, need to ensure that people's lifestyles are changing towards more sustainable ways of living. China has been investing heavily in infrastructure and thus creating the emissions of tomorrow. Thus investing, for example, in public transport and low energy building today will help reduce emissions in the future and will support more sustainable lifestyles. (author)

  6. Explaining technological change of wind power in China and the United States: Roles of energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian

    The following dissertation explains how technological change of wind power, in terms of cost reduction and performance improvement, is achieved in China and the US through energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration. The objective of this dissertation is to understand how energy policies affect key actors in the power sector to promote renewable energy and achieve cost reductions for climate change mitigation in different institutional arrangements. The dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay examines the learning processes and technological change of wind power in China. I integrate collaboration and technological learning theories to model how wind technologies are acquired and diffused among various wind project participants in China through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)--an international carbon trade program, and empirically test whether different learning channels lead to cost reduction of wind power. Using pooled cross-sectional data of Chinese CDM wind projects and spatial econometric models, I find that a wind project developer's previous experience (learning-by-doing) and industrywide wind project experience (spillover effect) significantly reduce the costs of wind power. The spillover effect provides justification for subsidizing users of wind technologies so as to offset wind farm investors' incentive to free-ride on knowledge spillovers from other wind energy investors. The CDM has played such a role in China. Most importantly, this essay provides the first empirical evidence of "learning-by-interacting": CDM also drives wind power cost reduction and performance improvement by facilitating technology transfer through collaboration between foreign turbine manufacturers and local wind farm developers. The second essay extends this learning framework to the US wind power sector, where I examine how state energy policies, restructuring of the electricity market, and learning among actors in wind industry lead to

  7. Do External or Internal Technology Spillovers Have a Stronger Influence on Innovation Efficiency in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionghe Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we bridge an important gap in the literature by comparing the extent to which external technology spillovers, as indicated by foreign direct investment (FDI, and internal technology spillovers, as indicated by university-institute-industry cooperation (UIC, influence innovation efficiency in China. We divide the innovation process into two sequential stages, namely the knowledge creation and technology commercialization stages, and employ a network data envelopment analysis approach to measure innovation efficiency at each stage. The spatial analysis of the distribution of knowledge creation efficiency and technology commercialization efficiency reveals the heterogeneity of innovation efficiency at the provincial level. Then, a panel data regression is used to analyze the effect of FDI and UIC on innovation efficiency at each stage, using data from 2009 to 2015 for 30 provinces in China. By comparing FDI with UIC, we find that FDI has a higher coefficient and stronger significance level at the knowledge creation stage, while only industry-institute linkages exhibit a stronger association with innovation efficiency at the technology commercialization stage.

  8. Significance, progress and prospects for research in simplified cultivation technologies for rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M; Ibrahim, Md; Xia, B; Zou, Y

    2011-08-01

    Simplified cultivation technologies for rice have become increasingly attractive in recent years in China because of their social, economical and environmental benefits. To date, several simplified cultivation technologies, such as conventional tillage and seedling throwing (CTST), conventional tillage and direct seeding (CTDS), no-tillage and seedling throwing (NTST), no-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS) and no-tillage and transplanting (NTTP), have been developed in China. Most studies have shown that rice grown under each of these simplified cultivation technologies can produce a grain yield equal to or higher than traditional cultivation (conventional tillage and transplanting). Studies that have described the influences of agronomic practices on yield formation of rice under simplified cultivation have demonstrated that optimizing agronomy practices would increase the efficiencies of simplified cultivation systems. Further research is needed to optimize the management strategies for CTST, CTDS and NTST rice which have developed quickly in recent years, to strengthen basic research for those simplified cultivation technologies that are rarely used at present (such as NTTP and NTDS), to select and breed cultivars suitable for simplified cultivation and to compare the practicability and effectiveness of different simplified cultivation technologies in different rice production regions.

  9. Biofuels development in China: Technology options and policies needed to meet the 2020 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhao, Lili; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides the assessment of potential technology pathways to achieve the 2020 target regarding their respective resource potential and supply cost. Barriers and policy options are identified based on broad literatures review. And an overview of biofuels projections is presented to provide insight into the comparison of various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from technology perspective. But she will probably fall far short of this target if current situations continue. Additional policy efforts are needed. Meanwhile, the target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved. However, if given support policies, it will develop better. - Highlights: ► I. Non-grain feedstocks such as cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato grown in low productive arable lands or unutilized lands have enough potential to meet ethanol targets in 2020. ► II. If current situations continue, China will fall far short of the 2020 target. ► III. The target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved, while, if given support policies, it will develop better. ► IV. Supply cost is one of the major barriers faced by all biofuels pathways. ► V. Various policy measures would be necessary to overcome the costs barriers to biofuels in China.

  10. Factors That Influence Renewable Energy Technological Innovation in China: A Dynamic Panel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Xia He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the driving effects of various factors on technological innovation to renewables (TIRES, focusing on a set of 29 provinces in China, and apply a dynamic panel approach. China has become a leading player in research and development spending in renewables, and the dynamic panel estimators we use prove themselves to be suitable in handling the persistent effect on TIRES. The level of TIRES in the previous periods is positively and highly correlated with that in the current period and confirmed the need for a stable and consistent policy support for renewables. Electricity consumption is the most important driver for all renewables and wind energy, but the driving effect was weaker for solar energy and biomass. Research and development intensity is the most important driver for biomass, but is only the second most important driver for all renewables, solar energy and wind energy. Unexpectedly, electricity price has had significant negative impacts on TIRES, which reveals that lowering electricity prices will lead to higher innovation in renewables. The driving effect of renewable energy tariff surcharge subsidy is not significant, which means that Chinese subsidy policy has not played the desired role. The driving effect of installed renewable energy capacity is also minimal, which may be due to the fact that overcapacity will hinder TIRES in China. This paper may help policy-makers and the industry understand how to promote TIRES in China effectively based on these above influential factors.

  11. Investigating the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.

    2017-12-01

    Human's innovative abilities do not only enable rapid expansion of civilization, but also lead to enormous modifications on the natural environment. Technology, while a key factor embedded in socioeconomic developments, its impacts have been rarely appropriately considered in river basin management. This research aims to examine the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China, and how its characteristics interacted with the river basin environment. It adopts a content analysis approach to collect and summarize quantitative technological information in the Heihe River Basin across a time span of more than 2000 years from the Han Dynasty (206 BC) to 2015. Two Chinese academic research databases: Wan Fang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were chosen as data sources. The results show that irrigated agricultural technologies in Heihe River Basin have shifted from focusing on developing new farming tools and cultivation methods to adapting modernized, water-saving irrigation methods and water diversion infrastructures. In additions, the center of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe river basin has moved from downstream to middle stream since the Ming Dynasty (1368AD) as a result of degraded natural environment. The developing trend of technology in the Heihe River Basin thus coincides with the change of societal focus from agricultural production efficiency to the human-water balance and environmental remediation. This research demonstrates that irrigated agricultural technologies had a twisted evolutionary history in the Heihe River Basin, influenced by a diverse range of environmental and socioeconomic factors. It provides insights into the fact that technology exhibits a co-evolutionary characteristic with the social development history in the region, pointing towards the urgent need to maintain the balance between human and environment.

  12. Transfer of Telegraph Technology to China: The Role of The Great northern Telegraph Company 1870-1890

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    This report examines the historical events surrounding the introduction of telegraph technology in China by the Danish Great Northern Telegraph Company. It describes the influence of Great Northern on diplomatic relations between Denmark and China during the decades of the 1870s and 1880s, and th......, and the contributions in terms of the establishment of telegraph schools and development of a Chinese telegraph code that this company made as part of the technology transfer process.......This report examines the historical events surrounding the introduction of telegraph technology in China by the Danish Great Northern Telegraph Company. It describes the influence of Great Northern on diplomatic relations between Denmark and China during the decades of the 1870s and 1880s...

  13. Typical Underwater Tunnels in the Mainland of China and Related Tunneling Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairong Hong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many underwater tunnels have been constructed in the mainland of China, and great progress has been made in related tunneling technologies. This paper presents the history and state of the art of underwater tunnels in the mainland of China in terms of shield-bored tunnels, drill-and-blast tunnels, and immersed tunnels. Typical underwater tunnels of these types in the mainland of China are described, along with innovative technologies regarding comprehensive geological prediction, grouting-based consolidation, the design and construction of large cross-sectional tunnels with shallow cover in weak strata, cutting tool replacement under limited drainage and reduced pressure conditions, the detection and treatment of boulders, the construction of underwater tunnels in areas with high seismic intensity, and the treatment of serious sedimentation in a foundation channel of immersed tunnels. Some suggestions are made regarding the three potential great strait-crossing tunnels—the Qiongzhou Strait-Crossing Tunnel, Bohai Strait-Crossing Tunnel, and Taiwan Strait-Crossing Tunnel—and issues related to these great strait-crossing tunnels that need further study are proposed. Keywords: Underwater tunnel, Strait-crossing tunnel, Shield-bored tunnel, Immersed tunnel, Drill and blast

  14. A Vision of China-Arab Interconnection Transmission Network Planning with UHVDC Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Liu, Yujun; Yin, Hongyuan; Xu, Qingshan; Xu, Xiaohui; Ding, Maosheng

    2017-05-01

    Developments in ultra-high-voltage (UHV) power systems and clean energy technologies are paving the way towards unprecedented energy market globalization. In accordance with the international community’s enthusiasm for building up the Global Energy Internet, this paper focuses on the feasibility of transmitting large-size electricity from northwest China to Arab world through a long-distance transnational power interconnection. The complete investigations on the grids of both the sending-end and receiving-end is firstly presented. Then system configuration of the transmission scheme and corridor route planning is proposed with UHVDC technology. Based on transmission costs’ investigation about similar transmission projects worldwide, the costs of the proposed transmission scheme are estimated through adjustment factors which represent differences in latitude, topography and economy. The proposed China-Arab transmission line sheds light on the prospects of power cooperation and resource sharing between China and Arab states, and appeals for more emphasis on green energy concentrated power interconnections from a global perspective.

  15. China high-intensity accelerator technology developments for neutron sources and accelerator driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Fu, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    There have been aggressive developments in China on the technology of high intensity hadron accelerators for spallation neutron source, compact neutron source, accelerator driven sub-critical systems (ADS), and other related programs including hadron therapy. The primary challenge is to build a robust facility at a fraction of the 'world standard' cost. Benefiting from a close collaboration with world leading institutes and facilities, tremendous efforts were made in China to develop domestic vendors to comprehend the technology for key systems of high intensity ion source, linear accelerators, and rapid cycling synchrotron. Goals of such facilities include spallation-neutron-based, muon-based, and proton-based platforms for multi-discipline science and industrial applications, fast-neutron-based platform for nuclear science and applications, and parasitic apparatus for medical therapy and ADS tests. This paper attempts to summarize the R and D efforts, key component prototyping and vendor development experience, and user development efforts during the past several years in China. (author)

  16. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  17. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinrong, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The research and applications of isotope technology and radiation sources in China are presented. Many effort were directed towards production of radiopharmaceuticals, radiation sources, radiation treatment and radioactive tracers. Reactor and accelerator produced radioisotopes contributed to and will further accelerate the development of nuclear medicine in China. Recently, much attention has been paid on tumor therapy mainly with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody, radiolabelled microsphere and colloid, bone-seeking agents, and radiolabelled Octreotide. Radioimmunoassay has been widely used with many convenient kits available. There are above 30 radioimmunoassay kit produces and more than 60 radioimmunoassay centers. Recently the advance is mainly in solid-phase separation process and in radioimmunoassay method, including some nonradioactive immunoassay methods, such as enzyme immunoassay, fluorescence immunoassay, and chemiluminescence immunoassay. Kits for enzyme immunoassay have been put into clinical use. Various radiation sources are produced for medical purposes and for use in nuclear power stations

  18. Well-to-wheels life-cycle analysis of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wei; Han Weijian; Chock, David; Chai Qinhu; Zhang Aling

    2012-01-01

    A well-to-wheels life cycle analysis on total energy consumptions and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions for alternative fuels and accompanying vehicle technologies has been carried out for the base year 2010 and projected to 2020 based on data gathered and estimates developed for China. The fuels considered include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, liquid fuels from coal conversion, methanol, bio-ethanol and biodiesel, electricity and hydrogen. Use of liquid fuels including methanol and Fischer–Tropsch derived from coal will significantly increase GHG emissions relative to use of conventional gasoline. Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit because of the present highly inefficient agricultural practice and plant processing in China. Electrification of vehicles via hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle technologies offers a progressively improved prospect for the reduction of energy consumption and GHG emission. However, the long-term carbon emission reduction is assured only when the needed electricity is generated by zero- or low-carbon sources, which means that carbon capture and storage is a necessity for fossil-based feedstocks. A PHEV that runs on zero- or low-carbon electricity and cellulosic ethanol may be one of the most attractive fuel-vehicle options in a carbon-constrained world. - Highlights: ► Data and estimates unique to China are used in this analysis. ► Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit in China. ► Use of methanol derived from coal will incur even more carbon disbenefit. ► Plug-in-hybrid with cellulosic ethanol and clean electricity may be a viable option.

  19. The Deployment of Low Carbon Technologies in Energy Intensive Industries: A Macroeconomic Analysis for Europe, China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nabernegg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes currently contribute 40% to global CO2 emissions and therefore substantial increases in industrial energy efficiency are required for reaching the 2 °C target. We assess the macroeconomic effects of deploying low carbon technologies in six energy intensive industrial sectors (Petroleum, Iron and Steel, Non-metallic Minerals, Paper and Pulp, Chemicals, and Electricity in Europe, China and India in 2030. By combining the GAINS technology model with a macroeconomic computable general equilibrium model, we find that output in energy intensive industries declines in Europe by 6% in total, while output increases in China by 11% and in India by 13%. The opposite output effects emerge because low carbon technologies lead to cost savings in China and India but not in Europe. Consequently, the competitiveness of energy intensive industries is improved in China and India relative to Europe, leading to higher exports to Europe. In all regions, the decarbonization of electricity plays the dominant role for mitigation. We find a rebound effect in China and India, in the size of 42% and 34% CO2 reduction, respectively, but not in Europe. Our results indicate that the range of considered low-carbon technology options is not competitive in the European industrial sectors. To foster breakthrough low carbon technologies and maintain industrial competitiveness, targeted technology policy is therefore needed to supplement carbon pricing.

  20. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  1. 77 FR 5864 - In the Matter of Along Mobile Technologies, Inc., and China Yingxia International, Inc., Order of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Along Mobile Technologies, Inc., and China Yingxia International, Inc., Order of... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Along Mobile Technologies, Inc...

  2. A Review on Development Practice of Smart Grid Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liu; Chen, Wei; Zhuang, Bo; Shen, Hongming

    2017-05-01

    Smart grid has become an inexorable trend of energy and economy development worldwide. Since the development of smart grid was put forward in China in 2009, we have obtained abundant research results and practical experiences as well as extensive attention from international community in this field. This paper reviews the key technologies and demonstration projects on new energy connection forecasts; energy storage; smart substations; disaster prevention and reduction for power transmission lines; flexible DC transmission; distribution automation; distributed generation access and micro grid; smart power consumption; the comprehensive demonstration of power distribution and utilization; smart power dispatching and control systems; and the communication networks and information platforms of China, systematically, on the basis of 5 fields, i.e., renewable energy integration, smart power transmission and transformation, smart power distribution and consumption, smart power dispatching and control systems and information and communication platforms. Meanwhile, it also analyzes and compares with the developmental level of similar technologies abroad, providing an outlook on the future development trends of various technologies.

  3. The energy consumption and environmental impacts of SCR technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zengying; Ma, Xiaoqian; Lin, Hai; Tang, Yuting [School of Electric Power, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Energy and environment are drawing greater attention today, particularly with the rapid development of the economy and increase consumption of energy in China. At present, coal-fired power plants are mainly responsible for atmospheric air pollution. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is a highly effective method for NO{sub X} control. The present study identified and quantified the energy consumption and the environmental impacts of SCR system throughout the whole life cycle, including production and transportation of manufacturing materials, installation and operation of SCR technology. The analysis was conducted with the utilization of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology which provided a quantitative basis for assessing potential improvements in the environmental performance of the system. The functional unit of the study was 5454 t NO{sub X} emission from an existing Chinese pulverized coal power plant for 1 year. The current study compared life cycle emissions from two types of de-NO{sub X} technologies, namely the SCR technology and the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, and the case that NO{sub X} was emitted into atmosphere directly. The results showed that the environmental impact loading resulting from SCR technology (66810 PET{sub 2000}) was smaller than that of flue gas emitted into atmosphere directly (164121 PET{sub 2000}) and SNCR technology (105225 PET{sub 2000}). More importantly, the SCR technology is much more effective at the elimination of acidification and nutrient enrichment than SNCR technology and the case that NO{sub X} emitted into atmosphere directly. This SCR technology is more friendly to the environment, and can play an important role in NO{sub X} control for coal-fired power plants as well as industrial boilers. (author)

  4. Evaluating the enhancement and improvement of China's technology and financial services platform innovation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Sung; Hu, Kuang-Hua; Chen, Fu-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-tech industry has been prosperous around the world in past decades, while technology and finance have already become the most significant issues in the information era. While high-tech firms are a major force behind a country's economic development, it requires a lot of money for the development process, as well as the financing difficulties for its potential problems, thus, how to evaluate and establish appropriate technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy has become one of the most critical and difficult issues. Moreover, how the chosen intertwined financial environment can be optimized in order that high-tech firms financing problems can be decided has seldom been addressed. Thus, this research aims to establish a technology and financial services platform innovation strategy improvement model, as based on the hybrid MADM model, which addresses the main causal factors and amended priorities in order to strengthen ongoing planning. A DEMATEL technique, as based on Analytic Network Process, as well as modified VIKOR, will be proposed for selecting and re-configuring the aspired technology and financial services platform. An empirical study, as based on China's technology and financial services platform innovation strategy, will be provided for verifying the effectiveness of this proposed methodology. Based on expert interviews, technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy improvement should be made in the following order: credit guarantee platform ( C )_credit rating platform ( B )_investment and finance platform ( A ).

  5. From the Abacus to the World Wide Web: An Analysis of the Educational Technology Movement and Its Impact upon Adult Literacy in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlubowski, Michael G.

    This paper discusses the various educational technology movements and initiatives currently underway in China and the impact they may have on the literacy rate of the Chinese people. Topics addressed include: (1) China's political history and its impact on the educational system, including China under the rule of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, and…

  6. Patent licensing and selling to China as a strategy of technology transfer in a New Era: A perspective of European firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Meijer, Elise; Duysters, Geert

    2010-01-01

    International technology transfer enables firms in developed countries to exploit the value of their technological innovations, and provides firms in developing countries with access to technological and organizational knowledge. This study aims to present a timely description of the experience...... the primary concern despite the recently adaption of the new Patent Law in China; (4) EU firms are most interested in selling obsolete technologies and licensing state-of-art technologies to China....

  7. Mitigating pesticide pollution in China requires law enforcement, farmer training, and technological innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhen; Zeng, Eddy Y; You, Jing

    2014-05-01

    To feed an ever-growing population, it is necessary to take all measures to increase crop yields, including the use of pesticides. It has long been a difficult task to boost agricultural production and simultaneously minimize the impact of pesticide application on the environment, particularly in China, a developing country with more than 1.3 billion people. China has recently become the world's leading producer and consumer of pesticides, with production and consumption reaching 265 tons and 179 tons, respectively, in 2011, and a national average pesticide application dosage of more than 14 kg/ha. The large quantities of pesticides applied in agricultural fields have resulted in serious environmental deterioration. Organochlorine pesticides, such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane and hexachlorohexane, have become ubiquitous in the environment of China, with spatial distributions in soils and aquatic systems similar to their historic application patterns in different geographic regions: southeast > central > northwest. Pollution by current-use pesticides, for example, organophosphates and pyrethroids, has also been of great concern. To mitigate pesticide pollution in China, a significant reduction in pesticide inputs into the environment is mandatory. This can be accomplished only with joint efforts by the government, professionals, and citizens in combination with rigorous enforcement of laws and regulations, training of farmers in pesticide knowledge and environmental awareness, and technological innovation for producing low-risk pesticides and developing efficient application approaches. Restoring contaminated sites is also an urgent task. Finally, food security and environmental pollution are not problems for a sole country, and international cooperation and communication are necessary. © 2014 SETAC.

  8. Progress in researches on MOX fuel pellet producing technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaodan

    2010-01-01

    Being the key section of nuclear-fuel cycle, the producing technology of MOX(UO 2 -PuO 2 ) fuel had driven to maturity in France, England, Russia, Belgium, etc. MOX fuel had been applied in FBR and LWR successfully in those countries. With the rapidly developing of nuclear-generated power, the MOX fuel for FBR and LWR was active demanded in China. However, the producing technology of MOX fuel developed slowly. During the period of 'the seventh five year's project', MOX fuel pellet was produced by mechanically mixed method and oxalate deposited method, respectively. Parts of cool performance of MOX fuel pellet produced by oxalate deposited method reached the qualification of fuel for FBR. During the period of 'the ninth five year's project' and 'the tenth five year's project', the technical route of producing MOX fuel was determined, and the test line of producing MOX fuel was built preliminarily. In the same time, the producing technology and analyzing technology of MOX fuel pellet by mechanically mixed was studied roundly, and the representative analogue pellet(UO 2 -CeO 2 ) was produced. That settled the supporting technology for the commercial process and research of MOX fuel rod and MOX fuel module. (authors)

  9. Making Breakthroughs in the Turbulent Decade: China's Space Technology During the Cultural Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Dehui; Hu, Danian

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses why Chinese space programs were able to develop to the extent they did during the turbulent decade of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It first introduces briefly what China had accomplished in rocket and missile technology before the Cultural Revolution, including the establishment of a system for research and manufacturing, breakthroughs in rocket technology, and programs for future development. It then analyzes the harmful impacts of the Cultural Revolution on Chinese space programs by examining activities of contemporary mass factions in the Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry. In the third section, this article presents the important developments of Chinese space programs during the Cultural Revolution and explores briefly the significance of these developments for the future and overall progress in space technology. Finally, it discusses the reasons for the series of developments of Chinese space technology during the Cultural Revolution. This article concludes that, although the Cultural Revolution generated certain harmful impacts on the development of Chinese space technology, the Chinese essentially accomplished their scheduled objectives in their space program, both because of the great support of top Chinese leaders, including the officially disgraced Lin Biao and the Gang of Four, and due to the implementation of many effective special measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993 have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. Discussions. China’s usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. Conclusions. More human and material resources need to be invested in China’s usability research, particularly in HIT.

  11. Developments and Prospects of Long-Span High-Speed Railway Bridge Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunquan Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid developments of the high-speed railway in China, a great number of long-span bridges have been constructed in order to cross rivers and gorges. At present, the longest main span of a constructed high-speed railway bridge is only 630 m. The main span of Hutong Yangtze River Bridge and of Wufengshan Yangtze River Bridge, which are under construction, will be much longer, at 1092 m each. In order to overcome the technical issues that originate from the extremely large dead loading and the relatively small structural stiffness of long-span high-speed railway bridges, many new technologies in bridge construction, design, materials, and so forth have been developed. This paper carefully reviews progress in the construction technologies of multi-function combined bridges in China, including combined highway and railway bridges and multi-track railway bridges. Innovations and practices regarding new types of bridge and composite bridge structures, such as bridges with three cable planes and three main trusses, inclined main trusses, slab-truss composite sections, and steel-concrete composite sections, are introduced. In addition, investigations into high-performance materials and integral fabrication and erection techniques for long-span railway bridges are summarized. At the end of the paper, prospects for the future development of long-span high-speed railway bridges are provided.

  12. How energy technology innovation affects transition of coal resource-based economy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Pibin; Wang, Ting; Li, Dan; Zhou, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to investigate factors and mechanisms that may facilitate the transition from coal resource-based economy to sustainability. Based on the energy technology innovation theory, factors that may influence the transition of coal resource-based economy were categorized into four types, including: innovation policy, innovation input, innovation ability, and innovation organization. Hypotheses were proposed regarding the mechanisms of these factors. Data were collected from surveys administered to 314 Chinese energy firms, and a structural equation model (SEM) was employed to test the hypotheses. Ten of fifteen hypotheses were retained based on the reliability tests, validity tests, and SEM. The results show that the four proposed factors are crucial in transforming the coal resource-based economy, and the effects become statistically significant through three intermediate variables, namely, transition of energy consumption structure, correction of resource wealth investment, and improvement of transition environment. - Highlights: •Approximately, 66% of energy relies on coal in China. •Serious environment problems have occurred in many coal-based regions. •Energy technology innovation can promote the transition of coal-based economy. •China should accelerate the development of clean energy.

  13. PREFACE: The 8th China International NanoScience and Technology Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Hailin

    2009-09-01

    The 8th China International NanoScience and Technology Symposium, Xiangtan (2009) - Nano-products Exposition, sponsored by Chinese Society of Miro-nanoTechnology and IEEE Nanotechnology Council, etc will be held on 23-27 October 2009 in Xiangtan, China. This symposium is held in order to promote the technology for the development of micro- and nano-scale, cross-scale integration, to share new micro/nano technologies, to exchange information and knowledge over all fields and promote the industrialization and development of nanotechnology. This is a leading professional and traditional conference with at least 400 participants every year. Famous experts, professors and government officials at home and abroad will give lectures during the symposium, which provides a good platform for delegates to discover the latest developments and dynamics of nanotechnology. Researchers, teachers and students in colleges, and technical personnel in the industrial community are welcome to contribute and actively participate in the symposium. In our last symposium held in 2008, over 600 participants from all over the world attended, and we received over 570 abstract and paper submissions for the proceedings published in different languages in famous professional journals. And this year, we have already received over 400 submissions. After strict peer review, 60 of them are published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are confident that the event will be even more successful this year. Consequently, the organizing committee and proceedings editorial committee would like to thank our colleagues at the IOP Publishing, the invited speakers, our sponsors and all the delegates for their great contributions in this conference. Hailin Cong Vice Chair of the proceedings editorial committee

  14. Technology advance and the carbon dioxide emission in China – Empirical research based on the rebound effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lisha; Li, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    At present, technology advance is the greatest contributor to the carbon dioxide mitigation. However, the real effect of technology advance on mitigation is worth further studying due to the existence of rebound effect (RE). A key issue is how to quantify the relationship between technology advance and carbon dioxide emission accurately. This paper figures out a comprehensive and modified framework involving around the RE of carbon emission from the macroeconomic perspective. Using this framework, this paper quantitatively evaluates the relationship between technical change and carbon emission based on the data of 30 provinces in China. It is founded that: (1) the carbon RE is about 10–60% in Chinese provinces; (2) the RE of carbon emission differs among the regions in China; (3) carbon reduction and environment issues should be solved step by step regionally in China. (4) According to our results, a reasonable control on total energy consumption and fossil-energy pricing adjustment, should be taken as the supplementary policy in China; at the same time, carbon financing, carbon trading and other aspects of institutional innovation should be taken into account at the appropriate time. - Highlights: • Build a macroresearch framework for carbon emission rebound effect. • Further extend the definition of the technological progress. • The macrocarbon emission rebound effect is distributed between 10% and 60%. • Confirms the regional differences of the carbon emission rebound effect in China.

  15. The potential of Biochar technology in combating rocky desertification in the Karst area of south China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, X.; Xing, Y.; Fang, B.; Zhang, L.; Yang, F.; Zhou, H.

    2012-04-01

    field experiments using the Biochar technology. Here we report the results. As a province with the dominating agriculture, Guizhou produces 10~30 million tons of crop stalks annually, of which roughly 10% were used as fodder of domestic animals or in some other ways while most were subject to the notorious field combustion. The provincial government has issued policies calling for the exploitation of this renewable resource, no breakthrough, however, has been made toward this goal due to the low economic benefit of the current straw use technologies. Should the straws be used in the biochar way, based on our data of field experiments in Guizhou province, the biomass could yield 300~900 thousand tons of charcoal, which would sequester the atmospheric CO2 by 10~30 million tons. Meanwhile the application of the biochar in the basic farmland would enhance the production of corn and rapeseed by about 30%, and the total production of crop by 300 thousand tons. The increased benefit from these two sources is equivalent to a total of 6600 million RMB, or 244 Yuan per capita of farmers per year in the whole province. This income would enable 850 thousand hectares of hill slopes to be relieved from cultivation without impairing the food security. This area accounts for 25% of the total rocky desertification of the province, or 65% of its medium ~severe desertified hillsides. *This research was financially supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDA05070400), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41021062, 40872212) and the Key Technologies R & D Project in Agriculture of Guizhou Province (No.[2011]3079).

  16. China general nuclear power corporation--The recent research and application of the modular technology in nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qinwu

    2014-01-01

    Modular design and construction is one of the distinctive features of the 3 rd generation nuclear power technology. In order to promote the technological innovations in nuclear power engineering design and construction and develop the self-owned modular technology, China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN) has carried out the R and D and application of the modular technology based on the CPR1000-type nuclear power plants, and has made the national-level achievements in the establishment of modular design technology system, development of 3D modular design system and application of modular construction of containment steel liner in the demonstration projects. (author)

  17. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-01

    Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the

  18. The theory-practice gap of black carbon mitigation technologies in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weishi; Li, Aitong; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Junfeng

    2018-02-01

    Black carbon mitigation has received increasing attention for its potential contribution to both climate change mitigation and air pollution control. Although different bottom-up models concerned with unit mitigation costs of various technologies allow the assessment of alternative policies for optimized cost-effectiveness, the lack of adequate data often forced many reluctant explicit and implicit assumptions that deviate away from actual situations of rural residential energy consumption in developing countries, where most black carbon emissions occur. To gauge the theory-practice gap in black carbon mitigation - the unit cost differences that lie between what is estimated in the theory and what is practically achieved on the ground - this study conducted an extensive field survey and analysis of nine mitigation technologies in rural China, covering both northern and southern regions with different residential energy consumption patterns. With a special focus on two temporal characteristics of those technologies - lifetimes and annual utilization rates, this study quantitatively measured the unit cost gaps and explain the technical as well as sociopolitical mechanisms behind. Structural and behavioral barriers, which have affected the technologies' performance, are discussed together with policy implications to narrow those gaps.

  19. Life-cycle assessment (EASEWASTE) of two municipal solid waste incineration technologies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-06-01

    The environmental profile of two municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) technologies with semi-dry flue gas cleaning, namely grated firing incinerators (GFI) and fluidised bed incinerators (FBI) that are commonly used in China were evaluated and compared by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. All emissions of key pollutants as well as energy, resource and material inputs and outputs associated with the two MSWI technologies were determined and the corresponding environmental impact potentials were modelled. Incineration of MSW with a lower heating value (LHV) around 4.5 MJ kg(-1) demands that auxiliary fuel is used, and both GFI and FBI caused environmental loads by contributing with environmental impact potentials in most categories except for some saving in global warming (GW100) and hazardous waste (HW). Coal combustion in FBI is a main contributor to the environmental impact potentials and thus should always be limited to a minimum. Auxiliary fuels can be avoided when the LHV of MSW is higher than 5-6 MJ kg(- 1). For all scenarios, GFI saves more global warming potentials than FBI due to its higher net power generation from combustion of MSW itself. Leachate from the bunker could be sprayed into the furnace for evaporation under high temperature, as an alternative to waste-water treatment, without major changes in the environmental profile of the incinerator. The presented evaluations may contribute to a more balanced environmental assessment of the two incineration technologies with respect to incineration of MSW with low heating values as often found in Asia and China.

  20. Comparison of municipal solid waste treatment technologies from a life cycle perspective in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao; Huang, Qunxing; Ni, Mingjiang

    2014-01-01

    China has endured the increasing generation of municipal solid waste; hence, environmental analysis of current waste management systems is of crucial importance. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of three waste treatment technologies practiced in Hangzhou, China: landfill with and without energy recovery, and incineration with waste-to-energy. Adopting region-specific data, the study covers various environmental impacts, such as global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation, human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The results show that energy recovery poses a positive effect in environmental savings. Environmental impacts decrease significantly in landfill with the utilization of biogas owing to combined effects by emission reduction and electricity generation. Incineration is preferable to landfill, but toxicity-related impacts also need to be improved. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the benefit of carbon sequestration will noticeably decrease global warming potential of both landfill scenarios. Gas collection efficiency is also a key parameter influencing the performance of landfill. Based on the results, improvement methods are proposed. Energy recovery is recommended both in landfill and incineration. For landfill, gas collection systems should be upgraded effectively; for incineration, great efforts should be made to reduce heavy metals and dioxin emissions.

  1. Cold or hot wash: Technological choices, cultural change, and their impact on clothes-washing energy use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-01-01

    Usage pattern of clothes washing (and clothes washers) are strongly related to local cultural practices. Such practices have led to the development of distinctive clothes-washing technologies in the US, Europe, and Japan. In emerging markets such as China, several types of technologies often co-exist. Some use less energy but more water (the impeller type), and some use more energy but less water (the horizontal axis type). The competition between different technologies is thought to lead to better consumer choices. However, it could also lead to changes in clothes-washing habits-from cold to hot wash, and therefore to much higher energy use. This paper examines the standard development process in China to illustrate that adoption of foreign technologies and technical standards, if not carefully calibrated to the local cultural practices, could have unintended consequences for energy use and environment

  2. Some progress on radiation chemistry of substances of biological interests and biological applications of radiation technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Fang Xingwang

    1995-01-01

    Studies in China on the detection method of irradiated food, mechanism of DNA damage induced by peroxidation, radiolysis of natural products and herbs are reviewed on the update open literature, and some progress on applications of radiation technology is summarized. (author)

  3. The Relationships among Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematics, Mathematics Teaching, and Use of Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinrong; Leung, Frederick K. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated pre-service mathematics teachers' mathematics beliefs, beliefs about information and communication technology (ICT), and their relationships. 787 pre-service mathematics teachers in China completed a survey questionnaire measuring their beliefs about the nature of mathematics, beliefs about mathematics learning and…

  4. The Impact of Agricultural Cooperatives on the Adoption of Technologies and Farm Performance of Apple Farmers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Wanglin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of agricultural cooperative membership on the adoption of technologies and farm performance, using data collected from 481 apple farmers in China. Specifically, the study first examines the impact of cooperative membership on investment in organic fertilizer, farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer using a recursive bivariate probit model. Second, the causal link between cooperative membership and adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) technology is analyz...

  5. Efficiency of the supply chain collaborative technological innovation in China: An empirical study based on DEA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is an attempt to investigate the current issues and development of the supply chain collaborative technological innovation in China. Design/methodology/approach: DEA is employed to measure the efficiency of the supply chain collaborative technological innovation. Findings: From the results of this research, we can get the conclusion that there are big spaces for improvement for the selected companies in terms of supply chain collaborative technological innovation, especially in the collaborative benefit aspect. The efficiencies of the supply chain collaborative technological innovation in the selected companies vary a lot. Research limitations: More industries are needed to generalize the conclusions. Practical implications: Our practical recommendations for improving supply chain companies in terms of improving their collaborative technological innovation efficiency are: (1 expanding the cooperative scope; (2 optimizing the collaboration operations; (3 improving the compactness in supply chain; (4 increasing the innovation input; and (5 improving the knowledge exchange capacity. Originality/value: The evaluation and the measure of the efficiency of performance of the collaborative technological innovation both in theory and in practice have been proven to be very important and quite complex, and there have been limited researches in the current literature. From observations, however, the efficiency of supply chain collaborative technological innovation is relatively low. This research investigates the current issues and development of the supply chain collaborative technological innovation in China, and provides the guideline in terms of improving the efficiency of supply chain collaborative technological innovation.

  6. Bilateral cooperation and technology transfer between France and China at Daya-Bay, Qinshan II and Yibin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Fubanf; Zenf Wenxing; He Jiacheng; Charbonneau, S.; Darolles, J.F.; Ellia, G.; Freslon, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Daya-Bay nuclear power station in Guangdong Province, The Qinshan phase II nuclear power station in Zhejiang Province, and the fuel manufacturing facility at Yibin in Sichuan Province have all afforded Framatome the opportunity to develop wide-ranging bilateral cooperation and technology transfer with the People's Republic of china. These projects are all good examples of how a country with some nuclear power experience, such as the now-operating Qinshan 1 (300 M We) nuclear power unit designed and build by China itself, can make much more rapid progress in its civil nuclear power program through cooperation with an industry leader, such as Framatome

  7. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.10--nuclear Information sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the tenth one, the content is about nuclear Information and computer applications

  8. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.6--computational physics sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 13 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the sixth one, the content is about computational physics sub-volume

  9. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.8--nuclear agriculture sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 10 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about nuclear agriculture sub-volume

  10. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.2--uranium mining and metallurgy sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 48 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the second one, the content is about uranium mining and metallurgy sub-volume

  11. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.3--nuclear power sub-volume (Pt.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 86 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the third one, the content is about nuclear power sub-volume (Pt.2)

  12. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.4--isotope separation sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 37 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the fourth one, the content is about isotope separation sub-volume

  13. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.8--radiation research and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 12 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation research and its application sub-volume

  14. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.2--nuclear power sub-volume (Pt.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the second one, the content is about uranium mining, uranium metallurgy and nuclear power.

  15. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.2--uranium mining and metallurgy sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the second one, the content is about uranium mining, uranium metallurgy and nuclear power.

  16. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.6--particle accelerator sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 10 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the sixth one, the content is about particle accelerator sub-volume

  17. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--nuclear fusion and plasma physics sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 22 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about nuclear fusion and plasma physics sub-volume

  18. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.8--radiation research and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation research and its application

  19. An overview of ecological monitoring based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jia; Du, Xiangyang; Kang, Hou; Qiao, Minjuan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the rapid development of human economy and society, the resulting ecological problems are becoming more and more prominent, and the dynamic monitoring of the various elements in the ecosystem has become the focus of the current research. For the complex structure and function of the ecological environment monitoring, advanced technical means should be adopted. With the development of spatial information technology, the ecological monitoring technology based on GIS and RS is becoming more and more perfect, and spatial analysis will play an important role in the field of environmental protection. Based on the GIS and RS technology, this paper analyzes the general centralized ecological monitoring model, and makes an objective analysis of the current ecological monitoring trend of China. These are important for the protection and management of ecological environment in China.

  20. Effect of Cattle Breeds on Milk Composition and Technological Characteristics in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. X. Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cattle breeds have a striking effect on milk, including milk composition and technological characteristics. This study aims to compare milk composition, acidification activity, viscosity, milk dispersion system stability and casein molecular weight among three buffalo breeds in China. The technological characteristics of milk produced by three cattle breeds of river buffalo (Murrah, crossbreed 1st generation (F1, crossbreed multiple generation (FH, H≥3 buffaloes were investigated. Cattle breeds showed evident effect on milk protein, fat and total solids content, but little effect on most of buffalo casein molecular weight. Milk fat, protein content and the viscosity of buffalo milk from river buffalo were lower than those of F1 and FH, so was the buffer capacity. The viscosity was negatively correlated to temperature and concentration. Results of stability coefficient showed that milk dispersion system had the best dynamic stability characteristics under pH 6.6 and 6 times dilution, while zeta potential of Murrah milk was slightly higher than that of hybrid offspring (F1, FH. SDS-PAGE results showed that buffalo αs-casein had a slightly faster mobility than standard αs-casein; while buffalo β-casein showed a slightly slower mobility than standard β-casein. There is no clear differences in molecular weight of αs-, β-, and κ-casein among Murrah, F1 and FH.

  1. Media Discourse on Cell Phone Technology and “Left-Behind Children” in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Hua Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Through critical analysis of selected news stories from sina.com from 2010 to 2015 about cell phones and “left-behind children” in China, this article examines media discourses on the relationship between migrant families and communication technology. The author finds that the roles of cell phones in their lives are portrayed in the following narratives: 1 cell phones are highly valuable for connecting family members living apart; 2 cell phones are used as a problem-solver in charity giving and rural development projects; 3 cell phones can bring unexpected risks to children lacking media literacy; and 4 cell phones could harbour or unleash evil—associated with increasing cases of juvenile delinquency or crime stories. The author discusses how the different institutional goals of social agencies, corporations, educators, and law enforcement contribute to the polarity of the discourses, reflecting the societal anxieties over unsupervised use of mobile devices by adolescents, as well as the cultural and political implications of empowering the “have-nots” of the digital divide by improving access to communication technology.

  2. [Research and application progress of near infrared spectroscopy analytical technology in China in the past five years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiao-Li; Lu, Wan-Zhen

    2014-10-01

    In the past decade, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) has expanded rapidly and been applied widely in many fields in China. The recent progress of the research and application of NIR analytical technology in China especially in the past five years has been reviewed. It includes hardware and software R&D, Chemometric algorithms and experimental methods research, and quantitative and qualitative applications in the typical fields such as food, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, forestry, and medical diagnosis. 209 references are cited, which are mainly published in national journals, professional magazines, and book chapters. The developing trend of near infrared spectroscopy and the strategies to further promote its innovation and development in China in the near future are put forward and discussed.

  3. 78 FR 57921 - A.G. Volney Center, Inc. (f/k/a Buddha Steel, Inc.), China Green Material Technologies, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] A.G. Volney Center, Inc. (f/k/a Buddha Steel, Inc.), China Green Material Technologies, Inc., China Tractor Holdings, Inc., and Franklin Towers....G. Volney Center, Inc. (f/k/a Buddha Steel, Inc.) because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  4. The Role of Technology in Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Sector in Developing Countries: the Case of China, India, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge China, India, and Mexico are the top emitters of CO2 among developing nations. The electric power sectors in China and India is dominated by coal-fired power plants, whereas in Mexico, fuel oil and natur...

  5. Design status and development strategy of China liquid lithium-lead blankets and related material technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; FDS Team

    2007-08-01

    A series of fusion reactors (named FDS series) have been designed and assessed in China, with four types of liquid lithium lead blankets including the RAFM steel-structured He-cooled quasi-static LiPb tritium breeder (SLL) blanket, the RAFM steel-structured He-LiPb dual-cooled (DLL) blanket, the RAFM steel-structured refractory material thermally-insulated high temperature LiPb (HTL) hydrogen production blanket and the RAFM steel or optionally the austenitic stainless steel-structured He-LiPb dual-cooled high level waste transmutation (DWT) blanket. To demonstrate and validate the feasibility of the candidate blankets for fusion energy application, the three-phases-strategy of TBM (test blanket module) development, i.e. material R&D and out-of-pile experimental mockup, EAST-TBM and ITER-TBM have been proposed. A brief overview of the four types of LiPb blanket designs and their goals are given. Material technology requirement and development strategy are also presented in this paper.

  6. [Preliminary assessment of the potential of biochar technology in mitigating the greenhouse effect in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The production of biochar by pyrolysis and its application to soil can sequester the CO2 which was absorbed by plants from atmosphere into soil, in addition it can also bring multiple benefits for agriculture production. On the basis of the available potential survey of the biomass residues from agriculture and forestry section, life cycle assessment was employed to quantify the potential of biochar technology in mitigation of greenhouse gases in our country. The results showed: In China, the amount of available biomass resource was 6.04 x 10(8) t every year and its net greenhouse effect potential was 5.32 x 10(8) t CO(2e) (CO(2e): CO2 equivalent), which was equivalent to 0.88 t CO(2e) for every ton biomass. The greatest of contributor to the total potential was plant carbon sequestration in soil as the form of biochar which accounts for 73.94%, followed by production of renewable energy and its percentage was 23.85%. In summary, production of biochar from agriculture and forestry biomass residues had a significant potential for our country to struggle with the pressure of greenhouse gas emission.

  7. A System Dynamics Analysis of Investment, Technology and Policy that Affect Natural Gas Exploration and Exploitation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jianzhong; Cheng, Jinhua; Shen, Jun; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas has an increasing role in Chinese energy transformation. We present a system dynamics model of the natural gas industry in China. A new system dynamics model for natural gas companies based on reserve exploration and well construction as well as investment dynamics is proposed. The contribution of the paper is to analyze the influence of technology, investment and policy factors on the natural gas industry. We found that the dynamics of the main variables, including gas policy, co...

  8. China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Actions and Chronology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2001-01-01

    .... Some critics opposed satellite exports to China, while others were concerned that the Clinton Administration relaxed export controls and monitoring of commercial satellites in moving the licensing...

  9. The Impact of Technological Progress in the Energy Sector on Carbon Emissions: An Empirical Analysis from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between technological progress in the energy sector and carbon emissions based on the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC and data from China during the period of 1995–2012. Our study confirms that the situation in China conforms to the EKC hypothesis and presents the inverted U-curve relationship between per capita income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, the inflection point will be reached in at least five years. Then, we use research and development (R & D investment in the energy industry as the quantitative indicator of its technological progress to test its impact on carbon emissions. Our results show that technological progress in the energy sector contributes to a reduction in carbon emissions with hysteresis. Furthermore, our results show that energy efficiency improvements are also helpful in reducing carbon emissions. However, climate policy and change in industrial structure increase carbon emissions to some extent. Our conclusion demonstrates that currently, China is not achieving economic growth and pollution reduction simultaneously. To further achieve the goal of carbon reduction, the government should increase investment in the energy industry research and improve energy efficiency.

  10. The Impact of Technological Progress in the Energy Sector on Carbon Emissions: An Empirical Analysis from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Duan, Keran; Shi, Chunming; Ju, Xianwei

    2017-12-04

    This paper investigates the relationship between technological progress in the energy sector and carbon emissions based on the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) and data from China during the period of 1995-2012. Our study confirms that the situation in China conforms to the EKC hypothesis and presents the inverted U-curve relationship between per capita income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, the inflection point will be reached in at least five years. Then, we use research and development (R & D) investment in the energy industry as the quantitative indicator of its technological progress to test its impact on carbon emissions. Our results show that technological progress in the energy sector contributes to a reduction in carbon emissions with hysteresis. Furthermore, our results show that energy efficiency improvements are also helpful in reducing carbon emissions. However, climate policy and change in industrial structure increase carbon emissions to some extent. Our conclusion demonstrates that currently, China is not achieving economic growth and pollution reduction simultaneously. To further achieve the goal of carbon reduction, the government should increase investment in the energy industry research and improve energy efficiency.

  11. The Impact of Technological Progress in the Energy Sector on Carbon Emissions: An Empirical Analysis from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Duan, Keran; Shi, Chunming; Ju, Xianwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between technological progress in the energy sector and carbon emissions based on the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) and data from China during the period of 1995–2012. Our study confirms that the situation in China conforms to the EKC hypothesis and presents the inverted U-curve relationship between per capita income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, the inflection point will be reached in at least five years. Then, we use research and development (R & D) investment in the energy industry as the quantitative indicator of its technological progress to test its impact on carbon emissions. Our results show that technological progress in the energy sector contributes to a reduction in carbon emissions with hysteresis. Furthermore, our results show that energy efficiency improvements are also helpful in reducing carbon emissions. However, climate policy and change in industrial structure increase carbon emissions to some extent. Our conclusion demonstrates that currently, China is not achieving economic growth and pollution reduction simultaneously. To further achieve the goal of carbon reduction, the government should increase investment in the energy industry research and improve energy efficiency. PMID:29207562

  12. China power - thermal coal and clean coal technology export. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binsheng Li

    1996-12-31

    China is the world`s fourth largest electric power producer, and is expected to surpass Japan within the next two years to become the third largest power producer. During the past 15 years, China`s total electricity generation more than tripled, increasing from about 300 TWh to about 1,000 TWh. Total installed generating capacity grew at an average of 8.2 percent per year, increasing from 66 to 214 GW. The share of China`s installed capacity in Asia increased from 21 to 31 percent. The Chinese government plans to continue China`s rapid growth rate in the power sector. Total installed capacity is planned to reach 300 GW by 2000, which will generate 1,400 TWh of electricity per year. China`s long-term power sector development is subject to great uncertainty. Under the middle scenario, total capacity is expected to reach 700 GW by 2015, with annual generation of 3,330 TWh. Under the low and high scenarios, total capacity will reach 527-1,005 GW by 2015. The high scenario representing possible demand. To achieve this ambitious scenario, dramatic policy changes in favor of power development are required; however, there is no evidence that such policy changes will occur at this stage. Even under the high scenario, China`s per capita annual electricity consumption would be only 3,000 kWh by 2015, less than half of the present per capita consumption for OECD countries. Under the low scenario, electricity shortages will seriously curb economic growth.

  13. The evolution of China's National Energy RD and D Programs: The role of scientists in science and technology decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Qiang; Su, Jun; Ru, Peng; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Since 1978, when China launched its “opening up” reform, a range of large-scale national science and technology programs have been implemented to spur economic development. Energy has received significant attention and has become a growing priority in the past years. In this paper we have analyzed the goals, management, and impact over time of China's three largest national programs: Gong Guan, 863, and 973 Programs. Using quantitative metrics to describe the input and output, by conducting semi-structured interviews with officials, scientists, and other decision makers, and by reviewing available documents as well as a case study on the coal sector we examined the changes in the decision making process, particularly in regard to the role of scientists. We found that the changes in strategic priorities set by China's high level political leaders were implemented and then transformed into outputs by using scientists as inputs or policy tools. The decreased role of scientists has been driven by two forces: (1) periodic changes in national strategy emphasizing technology commercialization; and (2) changes in the management structure involving low tolerance of risk. We suggest four ways that the government's efforts to turn China into an innovation oriented country. - Highlights: • New data was provided for the energy sector of China's three largest RD and D programs. • Transitions of goals, priorities, management, and impact over time of the programs were reviewed. • We found the role of scientists has been reduced in the decision making process. • Two forces are identified as the shaping factors

  14. Ballistic Missile Defense and China: China’s Past, Military Technologies, and Shaping the World’s Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    to be the mother of strange bedfellows. Although the PRC is often seen as a bad actor it is also the world’s most populous country and is critical...to as "The Dorito " with a reference to the advertisement which states, "Eat all you want, we’ll make more." 14 keep China a generation of...community on so many new levels. The conditions that must be set should be considered carefully before good intention turns into a bad reality. It was once

  15. 77 FR 39559 - In The Matter of China Medical Technologies, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... disclosures by China Medical concerning, among other things: (1) The status of the company's officers and directors, (2) the accuracy of the company's financial statements filed with the Commission, and (3) the current financial condition of the company. China Medical's securities are quoted on OTC Link operated by...

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in follicular fluid of women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies from central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yindi; Huang, Bo; Li, Qing X.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Female infertility rates have increased by approximately 4% since the 1980s. There is evidence of adverse effects on female fertility in relation to exposure of chemical pollution in recent years. Follicular fluid samples were collected from 127 woman patients (aged 20–35) who underwent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and had no records indicating occupational exposure to OCPs. Seventeen OCPs were analyzed in this study. The results showed that methoxychlor was dominant, accounted for 13.4% of total OCPs with a mean concentration of 167.9 ± 33.9 ng/g lipid weight (lw), followed by heptachlor-epoxide, hexachlorocyclohexanes, endrin and DDT. The concentrations of OCPs in the follicular fluid samples in the present study were moderate in comparison with those reported from developed or industrialized countries. All these pollutants can accumulate in different tissues of human body through diet, drinking water and respiration. No correlation between patient age and OCP concentrations was observed in this study. - Highlights: • 17 OCPs in follicular fluid samples from 127 woman patients were analyzed. • Methoxychlor was the most dominant, constituting 13.4% of total OCPs with a mean concentration of 168 ng/g lw. • The concentrations of DDT and HCHs were lower than those in human breast milk from Russia and Iran and blood from India. • DDTs and HCHs in the samples would be mainly from historical usage. • The correlation between patient ages and concentrations of OCPs was weak. - OCPs at median concentrations of 460.0–2927.2 ng/g lipid weight in follicular fluids of central China have physiological effects.

  17. Simulation technology used for risky assessment in deep exploration project in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    jiao, J.; Huang, D.; Liu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deep exploration has been carried out in China for five years in which various heavy duty instruments and equipments are employed for gravity, magnetic, seismic and electromagnetic data prospecting as well as ultra deep drilling rig established for obtaining deep samples, and so on. The deep exploration is a large and complex system engineering crossing multiple subjects with great investment. It is necessary to employ advanced technical means technology for verification, appraisal, and optimization of geographical prospecting equipment development. To reduce risk of the application and exploration, efficient and allegeable management concept and skills have to be enhanced in order to consolidate management measure and workflow to benefit the ambitious project. Therefore, evidence, prediction, evaluation and related decision strategies have to be taken into accouter simultaneously to meet practical scientific requests and technique limits and extendable attempts. Simulation technique is then proposed as a tool that can be used to carry out dynamic test on actual or imagined system. In practice, it is necessary to combine the simulation technique with the instruments and equipment to accomplish R&D tasks. In this paper, simulation technique is introduced into the R&D process of heavy-duty equipment and high-end engineering project technology. Based on the information provided by a drilling group recently, a digital model is constructed by combination of geographical data, 3d visualization, database management, and visual reality technologies together. It result in push ahead a R&D strategy, in which data processing , instrument application, expected result and uncertainty, and even operation workflow effect environment atmosphere are simulated systematically or simultaneously, in order to obtain an optimal consequence as well as equipment updating strategy. The simulation technology is able to adjust, verify, appraise and optimize the primary plan due to changing in

  18. Endowments, Technology, and Factor Markets: A Natural Experiment of Induced Institutional Innovation from China's Rural Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Yifu Lin

    1995-01-01

    The induced institutional innovation hypothesis postulates that new institutions are innovated to exploit profitable opportunities arising from institutional disequilibrium. The removal of legal restrictions on factor market exchanges after recent reforms in China resulted in institutional disequilibrium. This paper utilizes data from a household survey in China to explore (i) the relationship between the emergence of land, labor, and rental markets in a region and the distribution of factor ...

  19. The Relative Efficiencies of Research Universities of Science and Technology in China: Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanyi, Wang; Xiaohong, Lv; Shikui, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to explore the relative efficiency of China's research universities of science and technology. According to the finding, when talent training is the only output, the efficiency of research universities of science and technology is far lower than that of…

  20. A Case Study of the Link between Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Creation in Emerging Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2017-01-01

    in much knowledge creation research, the empirical insights come from a case study in a Chinese startup SME (small and medium-sized enterprise) within the emerging industry of visual intelligence/surveillance systems. The findings, extracted from semi-structured interviews as well as observations, suggest...... of consent requirements when collecting information and a willing population makes China an ideal test bed for visual intelligence technologies. The chapter exposes the shortcomings of the existing knowledge creation theory and bridges these with insights on how to overcome them in different contexts...

  1. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Junfeng, Li [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  2. Technology choice and CDM projects in China: case study of a small steel company in Shandong Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Shinji; Yonamine, Asaka; Jung, Tae Yong

    2006-01-01

    Corporate motives and strategies of both investing and hosting country affect the outcomes of a clean development mechanism (CDM) project-who introduces what technology to whom-and result in large differences in economic viability and the CO 2 emission reductions. This is particularly true for steel industry in which steel making consists of many detailed and complex processes, a given strategy could produce cumulative effects of the individual technologies used, leading to large energy savings overall. The objective of this study is to demonstrate some analytical methods that can be used to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of technology selection on the profit performance of CDM projects. Specifically, in this study we analyze a CDM project to introduce energy saving technology from Japan to a small steel manufacturer in China's Shandong Province, and conduct a simulation of the quantitative relationships between various technology options and profitability. Based on these results, we examine the environmental and economic significance of technology selection for CDM projects. To take this further, we then reconsider the profitability of a project as typical FDI activity (i.e., without the CDM), and by comparing this outcome with the CDM case, we clarify the significance and potential of the CDM

  3. Suitability assessment of building energy saving technologies for office buildings in cold areas of China based on an assessment framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Geng; Wang, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Neng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An assessment method considering economy, environment and technology is proposed. • Office buildings are classified into 3 types and weights are calculated respectively. • BESTs were summed up as 3 suitability levels. • Recommendations are proposed for adopting in design stage. - Abstract: Blind application and extensive copy of building energy saving technologies have been found very common through investigation in China. Emphases should be put on the suitability assessment when selecting and optimizing building energy saving technologies. This paper created an assessment method, namely an assessment framework to assess the suitability level of building energy saving technologies from a holistic point of view. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process was adopted. 3 factors and 8 sub-factors were included in the framework. The office buildings were classified into 3 types to calculate weights of factors and sub-factors. The assessment framework was established for each type of office buildings. 20 energy saving technologies from surveyed cases was selected as case study. Ranks of suitability level of the assessment objects were obtained for each type of office buildings. The assessment results could be referred when selecting building energy saving technologies in the design stage

  4. [Innovations on technology, management and concept are indispensible for scientific research, prevention and treatment of malignant tumor in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, G W

    2017-01-10

    Malignant tumor has become the top cause of deaths before the average life expectancy in Chinese population. From the variations in the morbidity rate and mortality rate of malignant tumor in the mainland of China between 2000 and 2011, the primary prevention targeting the risk factors/etiological agents significantly reduced the morbidity rates of gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, and primary liver cancer, therefore reduced the mortality rates of these cancers. However, the contribution of clinical treatments to the mortality reduction was not obviously improved during this period. Importantly, it is necessary to conduct research to identify precancerous lesions and early tumors which are prone to progress to aggressive diseases for the active secondary prevention to avoid over-diagnosis and over-treatment. Multi-center, prospective randomized controlled clinical trials and prognosis evaluation independently carried out by third parts are needed to evaluate the longterm effectiveness of some clinical treatment efficiency for cancers with different histological types. On the basis of a series of population-based studies in China, the prevention and clinical treatments for malignant tumor need innovations on technology, management, and even concept; the mechanisms of "forward placement of strategic pass" for the prevention and control of malignant tumor should be established and improved to reduce the increasing disease burden due to malignant tumor in China.

  5. Technology Development Through Pooling ARV Drug Patents: A Vision from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Lu, Hongzhou

    2010-01-01

    Unaffordable prices still bar the end-users in China from accessing ARV drugs. Patent protection of ARV drugs has dramatically limited the availability of these lifesaving drugs to AIDS patients in China. The way Chinese government can go to breakthrough the ARV drug patents are suggested as: Make more generic drugs available through compulsory licensing, impartment from other countries or building ARVs plants by partnerships between governments or generic drug companies.Do a thorough and detailed research on the patent application of ARV drugs to find out the loophole.Try patent pool to make AIDS medicines more affordable and appropriate for patients. PMID:20224635

  6. An application of a double bootstrap to investigate the effects of technological progress on total-factor energy consumption performance in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) for measuring China's energy efficiency across 30 provinces during the period 1997 to 2012. The TEPI is derived by solving an improved non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) model, which is based on an energy distance function. The production possibility set is constructed by combining the super-efficiency and sequential DEA models to avoid “discriminating power problem” and “technical regress”. In order to explore the impacts of technological progress on TEPI and perform statistical inferences on the results, a two-stage double bootstrap approach is adopted. The important findings are that China's energy technology innovation produces a negative effect on TEPI, while technology import and imitative innovation produce positive effects on TEPI. Thus, the main contribution of TEPI improvement is technology import. These conclusions imply that technology import especially foreign direct investment (FDI) is important for imitative innovation and can improve China's energy efficiency. In the long run, as the technical level of China approaches to the frontier, energy technology innovation and its wide adoption become a sustained way to improve energy efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent for China to introduce measures such as technology translation and spillover policies as well as energy pricing reforms to support energy technology innovation. - Highlights: • A total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) is introduced. • Three types of technological progress have various effects on TEPI. • FDI is the main contributor of TEPI improvement. • An improved DEA calculation method is introduced. • A two-stage double-bootstrap non-radial DEA model is used.

  7. A System Dynamics Analysis of Investment, Technology and Policy that Affect Natural Gas Exploration and Exploitation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has an increasing role in Chinese energy transformation. We present a system dynamics model of the natural gas industry in China. A new system dynamics model for natural gas companies based on reserve exploration and well construction as well as investment dynamics is proposed. The contribution of the paper is to analyze the influence of technology, investment and policy factors on the natural gas industry. We found that the dynamics of the main variables, including gas policy, cost of investment, accounting depreciation and exploitation technology, are sensitive to the sustainable development of resources. The simulations and results presented here will be helpful for government to reform policies, and for upstream companies to make decisions.

  8. The Technological Input-output Efficiency of High-technology Enterprises in China Based on the DEA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-technology enterprises play the leader role in the regional economic progress, but nowadays technological resources have many problems such as division, separation and dispersing. It’s an urgent problem to be solved that how to evaluate input-output productivity of technological resources towards industries and regions scientifically and efficiently. Firstly the article analyzes the input-output efficiency status of technological resources at home and abroad. Then high-technology enterprises in 29 provinces, as the subject of evaluation, are analyzed for their operation efficiency by DEA. The article states the suggestions like balanced development among regions and reasonable structure of input and output by comparing the differences among regions. And the article estimates the technological resources configuration efficiency of 5 leader industries and explains the developmental characteristics and direction among industries. And on these bases the article conducts hypothesis testing for inner elements which might have an influence on the operational efficiency by Tobit model. Finally, the paper proposes many suggestions to the benefits of promoting the productivity of high-technology enterprise according to the comprehensive analysis.

  9. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Xi, Fengming; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO(2)e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kg ce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: Simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xudong; Xi Fengming; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Urban symbiosis creates compatibility of industrial development and waste management. → Mechanical technology leads to more CO 2 emission reduction. → Energy recovery technology leads to more fossil fuel saving. → Clean energy makes recycling technologies cleaner. → Demand management is crucial for realizing potential environmental gains of recycling. - Abstract: With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO 2 e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kgce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption.

  11. Development of Gender-Specific Technologies. Evidence from China, Poland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Bo; Rolfstam, Max

    2013-01-01

    is the innovation system capable of utilizing experiences from women as well? The article examines two sets of technologies—agricultural equipment for rural application and teleservices—in two transition economies, Poland and China, with Sweden as a point of reference. The empirical data presented here on women...

  12. Provision of assisted reproductive technology for single women in China: a new challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling Jing

    2004-01-01

    Following the enactment of the Jilin Regulation, single women, for the first time, are allowed to access assisted reproductive services in China. This paper is intended to analyze the arguments over whether single women are entitled to access assisted reproductive services, in relation to Chinese legal, ethical and social characteristics.

  13. 76 FR 32951 - Coal Mining Equipment, Technologies and Services Trade Mission to China and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... more uniform application of standards and incentives is also needed. Mining U.S. companies enjoy their... grows in importance. In 2010 coal overtook copper as Mongolia's most important export, accounting for 30..., Australia, South Korea, Japan, the U.S., India and China are reported to be among the consortia bidders...

  14. Benefits of agricultural technology innovation capacity to peasant farmers in rural poor areas: The case of DBN-Group, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Agri Eneji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available DaBeiNong (DBN Technology Group Co Ltd is a private enterprise, at the cutting edge of the agricultural high-tech industry in China. It has developed its innovative capabilities through Research and Development (R&D activities, skilled R&D personnel, new products, services, processes and markets. This study contributes to knowledge by identifying and constructing a model of the enterprise innovation capacity; the inputs and outputs of innovation in DBN and 9 other agricultural high-tech enterprises in China. We analyzed the enterprise technology innovation capacity and offered recommendations. Two sets of questionnaires were used; for the peasant farmers, and for the agricultural enterprises. We used the rank factors on an ordinal scale and simple percentages. We used econometric model to analyze seven factors of agricultural enterprise innovation capacity. The results show that R&D is strategic to Agricultural Enterprise Innovation Capacity (AETIC. However, the benefits to the peasant farmers need to be further intensified, and stepped up from its present average level. We found that enterprises with higher capital and larger sales have more R&D investment than those with smaller sales. Promoting agricultural research and rural development is crucial to pro-poor growth, given the potential for smallholder agriculture to rapidly absorb and adopt innovations.

  15. 76 FR 6839 - ActiveCore Technologies, Inc., Battery Technologies, Inc., China Media1 Corp., Dura Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... International, Inc. (n/k/a Dexx Corp.), Global Mainframe Corp., GrandeTel Technologies, Inc., Magna... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Global Mainframe...

  16. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  17. What do we need from intermediaries for technology transfer to China?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2012-01-01

    . To facilitate technology transfer between technology providers and recipients and to compensate for the weakness in the system of innovation, the role of technology intermediaries as bridging organizations has been widely recognized and discussed. This study deepens our understanding of the role...

  18. Coal and Coalbed Methane Co-Extraction Technology Based on the Ground Movement in the Yangquan Coalfield, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yangquan coalfield is one of the typical highly gassy mining areas in China. However, its coal seams are of lower permeability, which are not conductive to coalbed methane (CBM drainage. In this study, based on the theory of the ground movement, we analyzed the principle of coal and CBM coextraction in the Yangquan coalfield, and established the technology system of coal and CBM coextraction which was further implemented in the coal and CBM coextraction in the Yangquan coalfield. The coal and CBM coextraction technologies based on the “pressure-relief and permeability-increase” effect caused by the mining overburden movement can optimally ensure the safe and efficient mining and improve the gas drainage rate. A series of developed coal and CBM coextraction technologies for the Yangquan coalfield were mainly characterized by the high-level gas drainage roadway. This reached a maximum gas drainage amount of 270,000 m3/day for single drainage roadway and a pressure-relief gas drainage rate of >90%. Those technologies significantly improved the gas drainage effect safely and efficiently achieving the coal and CBM coextraction.

  19. Analysis of experiment testing technology for single event effects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui

    2001-01-01

    The merit and demerit of simulation source were analyzed for Single Event Effects (SEE) experiment testing in China. Laboratory experiment systems for SEE were brief introduced and requests for SEE test system were emphasize analyzed. Test systems were presented for Single Event Upset, Single Event Latch-up, Single Event Burnout and Single Event Gate-Rupture. The attention should be in mind in SEE experiments were discussed

  20. Development of the neutron technology for measuring the moisture content in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingwu; Liu Shengkang; Zhang Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    According to measuring mode (in-hopper, surface, sampling neutron moisture gauge), the development and application of neutron moisture gauge in china were introduced, which include the following course from only measuring moisture content of soil to monitoring moisture content of farmland and saving water for irrigating farmland, from measuring moisture content of pellet to coke and coal material, from only measuring moisture content to computerized neutron moisture gauges with density compensation and o f high precision. (authors)

  1. When new technology joins old documents and east meets west: virtually reconstructing the Fisher Island Pagoda Lighthouse (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K.H. Leung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Located on the route between Xiamen and Taiwan (China, the Penghu (Pescadores Islands are an archipelago and the site of a military garrison. The second largest island, Xiyu or Fisher Island, was accordingly an obvious point to build a navigational marker to guide sailors. Records indicate that some type of a marker, in the form of a tower or pagoda, was constructed in the 17thcentury. However, in 1778the original was replaced by a different sort of pagoda tower. The new structure has long been known to have been a purpose fully designed lighthouse. Although today’s Yuwengdao lighthouse, built in 1875, has become a famous heritage landmark, the earlier 1778 structure, it can be argued has greater heritage significance in that it was an entirely original creation preceding the introduction of western lighthouse technology in China by nearly a century. Thanks to the fortunate discovery of a hitherto unknown photograph of this earlier lighthouse backed by further research in early navigational documents, gazetteers, charts and inscriptions and The authors have been able to make a 3D virtual reconstruction using state-of-the-art Revit software and thus answer several research questions about this old lighthouse pagoda, including dimensions, location, orientation, function and materials.

  2. Nurses' Interest, Readiness and Absorptive Capacity to Information Technology: A Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boning; Liu, Ping; Xiao, Qian

    2017-01-01

    To investigate nurses' interest, readiness and absorptive capacity to information technology, 261 nurses were investigated using anonymous questionnaires. This study showed: 1) the top 3 information technologies were personal digital assistant (PDA), Hospital Information System (HIS) and wireless mobile nursing trolley; and 2) the mean scores of interest, readiness and absorptive capacity to information technology were 16.3, 56.7 and 46.8, respectively. Further educational programs should be provided for nurses.

  3. When does inward technology licensing facilitate firms’ NPD performance? Evidence from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Salomo, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, many firms have found inward technology licensing a relatively quick and inexpensive way for new product development (NPD) as compared to internal R&D started. Although the literature on NPD has suggested some advantages and disadvantages regarding NPD by means of inward technology...... relationship is moderated by technology origin (foreign versus domestic), firms’ absorptive capacity, and the appropriability regime and knowledge endowment of the region where the licensee firms operate....

  4. History of establishment of scientific technology law focused on exchanges of Korea, China and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyeong Hui

    1990-10-15

    This book introduces science and technology promotion related law, industrial technology related law, resources and energy related law, nuclear energy related law, information and communication related law, intellectual property right related law, and environment related law. It explains process of development of 7 laws in threes countries and relations of three countries exchanges. It also covers special law for science and technology innovation, electric utility law, petroleum enterprise law, telecommunication related law, law of settlement of digital divide, and information-oriented law.

  5. History of establishment of scientific technology law focused on exchanges of Korea, China and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyeong Hui

    1990-10-01

    This book introduces science and technology promotion related law, industrial technology related law, resources and energy related law, nuclear energy related law, information and communication related law, intellectual property right related law, and environment related law. It explains process of development of 7 laws in threes countries and relations of three countries exchanges. It also covers special law for science and technology innovation, electric utility law, petroleum enterprise law, telecommunication related law, law of settlement of digital divide, and information-oriented law.

  6. Using spatial information technologies to select sites for biomass power plants: A case study in Guangdong Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xun [Geography Department, Dartmouth College, 6017 Fairchild, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elmore, Andrew [Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Li, Xia; Wang, Fang [School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Gorence, Nathaniel J. [Epic Systems Corporation, Madison, WI 53703 (United States); Jin, Haiming [TX Energy, LLC, Houston, TX 77056 (United States); Zhang, Xiaohao [Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangzhou 510070 (China)

    2008-01-15

    Biomass is distributed over extensive areas. Therefore, transportation cost is a critical factor in planning new biomass power plants. This paper presents a case study of using remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) to evaluate the feasibility of setting up new biomass power plants and optimizing the locations of plants in Guangdong, China. In this study, the biologically available biomass was estimated from MODIS/Terra remote sensing data. The amount of biomass that is usable for energy production was then derived using a model incorporating factors including vegetation type, ecological retaining, economical competition, and harvest cost. GIS was employed to define the supply area of each candidate site based on transportation distance along roads. The amount of usable biomass within the supply area was calculated and optimal sites were identified accordingly. This study presents a procedural framework for taking advantage of spatial information technologies to achieve more scientific planning in bioenergy power plant construction. (author)

  7. Advanced Technology Acquisition Strategies of the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    gst /fullpage.html?res=9406E5D71431F934A35755C0A9609C8B63 44 “KongJing-2000 Airborne Warning & Control System,” SinoDefence.com, January 4, 2009...traditional Russian arms-buyers such as Iran, India , and Serbia, has a 90-mile range and can be used against both cruise missiles and aircraft. Open-source...cooperative military relationship between China and Pakistan, an outgrowth of the countries’ mutual rivalry with India , is now approaching its sixth decade

  8. An Analysis of China’s Information Technology Strategies and their Implication for US National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    team of American advisers to South Vietnam to report on conditions there (December 1961 White Paper) and to assess possible future American...unification of China under the Qin state. Sun Tzu, a military leader for one of the warring states, who led troops with brass-tipped spears and rhinoceros -hide... White House and U.S. House of Representatives sites were also shut down. By the morning of May 5, over 1,400 U.S. 77 sites were shut down by the

  9. The Learning Process and Technological Change in Wind Power: Evidence from China's CDM Wind Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian; Popp, David

    2016-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a project-based carbon trade mechanism that subsidizes the users of climate-friendly technologies and encourages technology transfer. The CDM has provided financial support for a large share of Chinese wind projects since 2002. Using pooled cross-sectional data of 486 registered CDM wind projects in China…

  10. Analysis of the lack of scientific and technological talents of high-level women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2017-08-01

    The growth and development of high-level female scientific and technological talents has become a global problem, facing severe challenges. The lack of high-level women in science and technology has become a global problem. How to recruit and help female scientists and technological talents grow raises awareness from the industry. To find out the main reasons for the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talent. This paper analyses the impact of gender discrimination on the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talents, the impact of disciplinary differences on female roles. The main reasons are: women’s natural disadvantage of mathematical thinking; female birth, the traditional culture on the role of women and the impact of values.

  11. A Spatial, Social and Environmental Study of Tuberculosis in China Using Statistical and GIS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a major public health problem in China, and its incidence shows certain regional disparities. Systematic investigations of the social and environmental factors influencing TB are necessary for the prevention and control of the disease. Data on cases were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease and Prevention. Social and environmental variables were tabulated to investigate the latent factor structure of the data using exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Partial least square path modeling (PLS-PM was used to analyze the complex causal relationship and hysteresis effects between the factors and TB prevalence. A geographically weighted regression (GWR model was used to explore the local association between factors and TB prevalence. EFA and PLS-PM indicated significant associations between TB prevalence and its latent factors. Altitude, longitude, climate, and education burden played an important role; primary industry employment, population density, air quality, and economic level had hysteresis with different lag time; health service and unemployment played a limited role but had limited hysteresis. Additionally, the GWR model showed that each latent factor had different effects on TB prevalence in different areas. It is necessary to formulate regional measures and strategies for TB control and prevention in China according to the local regional effects of specific factors.

  12. The dual role of local sites in assisting firms with developing technological capabilities: Evidence from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Zhou, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    As strong local knowledge bases emerge in some developing countries and regions, more research efforts are devoted to examine the role of local sites in technological-capability development of firms from developing countries. However, most of these studies illuminate the direct input (e.......g., knowledge, human capital) and the role of motivating multinational companies (MNCs) to upgrade their local operations in developing countries so as to perform more innovation activities. Few articles are presented that examine the role of local sites in the learning and technological-capability building...... processes that take place during technology import activities. This study investigates how local sites in developing countries help their firms benefit from the spillovers of international technology diffusion, by empirically scrutinizing Chinese licensee firms. The empirical results support the hypothesis...

  13. Research status and future trends on surface pre-grouting technology in reforming wall rock of vertical shafts in coal mines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    In the mine construction, the surface pre-grouting technology is an important method to prevent water blast in excavation process of vertical shaft when the shaft must pass through the thick, water-rich and high water-pressure bedrock aquifer. It has been nearly 60 years since the technology was used to reform wall rock of vertical shaft in coal mine in China for the first time, and the existing technology can basically meet the needs of constructing 1000m deep vertical shaft. Firstly, the article introduces that in view of Magg’s spherical seepage theory and Karol’s spherical seepage theory, Chinese scholars found that the diffusion of grout from borehole into the surrounding strata in horizontal direction is irregular through a lot of research and engineering practice of using the surface pre-grouting technology to reform wall rock of vertical shafts, and put forward the selecting principles of grout’s effective diffusion radius in one grouting engineering; Secondly, according to the shape of the grouting boreholes, surface pre-grouting technology of vertical shaft is divided into two stages: vertical borehole stage and S-type borehole stage. Thirdly, the development status of grouting materials and grouting equipment for the technology is introduced. Fourthly, grouting mode, stage height and pressure of the technology are introduced. Finally, it points out that with the increasing depth of coal mining in China, the technology of reforming wall rock of 1000~2000m deep vertical shafts will face many problems, such as grouting theory, grouting equipment, grouting finishing standard, testing and evaluation of grouting effect, and so on. And it put forward a preliminary approach to solving these problems. This paper points out future research directions of the surface pre-grouting technology in China.

  14. Establishment of 2000 National Geodetic Control Network of China and It’s Technological Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junyong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 2000’ National Geodetic Control Network of China is an important fundamental scientific engineering project in China. It consists of three parts which are establishment of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network, its combination adjustment with national astro-geodetic network and 2000 National Gravity Fundamental network. It provides the high precise coordinate reference and gravity reference for three dimensional geo-center national coordinates system and gravity system, respectively. Additionally, it provides precise unified geometric and physical geodesy information for the economic construction, the national defense and the scientific research. Methods: 1. The larger number of data are processed in triple networks adjustment of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network, which are chosen from the GPS monitoring stations, such as grade A, B of national GPS network , grade 1st and 2nd of national GPS network, crustal movement observation network of China, and others crustal deformation monitoring stations. Finally, the data of 2666 GPS stations are used in the data processing of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network, including 124 external stations and 2542 internal stations. In order to the results of triple networks adjustment are corresponding to that of three dimensional geo-center coordinates system, ITRF 97 and epoch 2000.0 are chosen as the coordinate reference frame and epoch reference, respectively. The methods of “strong reference” and “weak reference” are combined used in the control data selection of triple networks adjustment. The scale and rotation scales are adopted for each sub network. The least square adjustment is firstly adopted in each sub network adjustment. The data of obvious abnormal baselines are found and rejected firstly. And the method of double factor robust estimation is adopted in the data processing. 2. The combined adjustment of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network and national astro-geodetic network is

  15. China’s Emerging Capabilities in Energy Technology Innovation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-22

    deployment of new, state-of-the- art technology systems -- and how the Sino-foreign commercial partnerships surrounding their development -- can inform...and civilian nuclear power sectors. In a sense, our model for this type of comparative industrial ethnography is that set out by Ronald Dore in his

  16. Hadal Science and Technology Program (HADSTEP): First Step to Understand the Deepest Ocean in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Peng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The hadal zone (depths greater than 6000 m), comprising mostly deep trenches on Earth, represents the largest poorly understood and the most mysterious habitat on Earth. Hadal Science and Technology Program (HADSTEP), the first Chinese deep-sea program focusing primarily on the hadal zones, was financially supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences in April, 2014. The objective of this program is to explore and understand of the deepest environments and their ecosystems on Earth, in combination with the development of hadal technology. The main research interests of this program are to determine (i) the community structure, ecological function, and evolution of the hadal communities, (ii) the environmental features and biogeochemical processes of hadal zones, (iii) the impact of deep-sea current and tectonic activity on hadal fauna, and (iv) the geological evolution of hadal zones. Meanwhile, a great effort will be made for technological developments to access the extreme depths. Several hadal equipments (e.g. free-fall imaging lander, glider, deep mooring, animal trap, sediment trap, chemical sensor, and seismometer) will be developed to improve the capability of hadal exploration. Renewed interest in the deep trenches combined with technological advances will create new opportunities to explore and understand the deepest environment on earth.

  17. Toward Technology-Sensitive Catching-Up Policies: Insights from Renewable Energy in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binz, Christian; Gosens, Jorrit; Hansen, Teis

    2017-01-01

    -complex product systems (CoPS). In this paper, we extend this argument by introducing a set of separate policy mixes for each industry type, which appears most capable of providing the key resources required for catching-up: knowledge, market access, financial investment and technology legitimacy. This framework...

  18. A Brief Introduction to the Technological and Vocational Education of the Republic of China, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Taipei (Taiwan).

    Successful implementation of the technological and vocational education (TVE) system has been a major factor in Taiwan's rapid economic development. In the 1999-2000 academic year, 1,034,289 TVE students account for 57.7 percent of students in upper-secondary and post-secondary schools. The junior high school technical arts program gives students…

  19. Advance the Earth Science Education in China by Using New Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, R.; Wang, X.; Sun, L.

    2013-12-01

    With the development of Chinese economy, science and technology, as well as the increasing demand of the persons with knowledge and experience in earth science and geological exploration, the higher education of earth science has been boosted in recent years. There are 2,000 to 3,000 students studying earth science every year and many of them will take part in scientific research and engineering technology work around the world after graduation, which increased the demand of educators, both in quantity and quality. However, the fact is that there is a huge gap between the demand and the current number of educators due to the explosion of students, which makes the reform of traditional education methods inevitable. There is great significance in doing research on the teaching methods catering to a large number of students. Some research contents and result based on the reform of education methods has been conducted. We integrate the teaching contents with the cutting-edge research projects and stress significance of earth science, which will greatly enhance the student's enthusiasm of it. Moreover. New technology will be applied to solve the problem that every teacher are responsible for 100~150 students in one courses. For instance, building the Internet platform where teachers and the students can discuss the courses contents, read the latest scientific articles. With the numerical simulation technology, the internal structure of the Earth, geological phenomena, characteristics of ore body, geophysical and hydrological fields, etc. can be simulated and the experiments and teaching practice can be demonstrated via video technology. It can also be used to design algorithm statistics and assessment and monitor teaching effect. Students are separated into small groups to take research training with their personal tutor at the beginning of the first semester, which will increase the opportunities for students to communicate with educators and solve the problem that the

  20. Marginal abatement cost and carbon reduction potential outlook of key energy efficiency technologies in China's building sector to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, He; Wei, Qingpeng; Wang, Hailin

    2014-01-01

    China achieved an energy savings of 67.5 Mtce in the building sector at the end of the 11th Five-Year Plan and set a new target of 116 Mtce by the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan. In this paper, an improved bottom-up model is developed to assess the carbon abatement potential and marginal abatement cost (MAC) of 34 selected energy-saving technologies/measures for China's building sector. The total reduction potential is 499.8 million t-CO 2 by 2030. 4.8 Gt-CO 2 potential will be achieved cumulatively to 2030. By 2030, total primary energy consumption of Chinese building sector will rise continuously to 1343 Mtce in the reference scenario and 1114 Mtce in the carbon reduction scenario. Total carbon dioxide emission will rise to 2.39 Gt-CO 2 and 1.9 Gt-CO 2 in two scenarios separately. The average carbon abatement cost of the aforementioned technologies is 19.5 $/t-CO 2 . The analysis reveals that strengthening successfully energy-saving technologies is important, especially for the residential building sector. The central government's direct investments in such technologies should be reduced without imposing significant negative effects. - Highlights: • MAC of 34 energy-saving technologies of China's building sector is calculated. • Energy use and CO 2 emission of China's building sector by 2030 is forecasted. • The reference and the carbon reduction scenarios are compared

  1. Research on the Relationship between Economic Growth and Environmental Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haibo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the time series data from 1990 to 2012,with the expanded IPAT model, the economic-environment coefficient (GT was constructed to measure the impact of economic growth on the environmental technologies. The results showed that there was a diminishing trend of the impact in the period of 1990 -1998 except the year of 1996, meaning the coordinated development between economic growth and environment technologies. In order to further analyze the measures and methods of energy saving and emission reduction, DEA model was using for the calculation of input redundancy and output deficit value. The results revealed that the coal consumption keeps Pareto optimal all the time. The emission of pollution decreased and the employment rate increased gradually. The input redundancy decreased to efficiency in the second and third industries.

  2. The internet of things and the development of network technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruxin; Zhao, Jianzhen; Ma, Hangtong

    2018-04-01

    The English name of the Internet of Things the Internet of Things, referred to as: the IOT. Internet of Things through the pass, radio frequency identification technology, global positioning system technology, real-time acquisition of any monitoring, connectivity, interactive objects or processes, collecting their sound, light, heat, electricity, mechanics, chemistry, biology, the location of a variety of the information you need network access through a variety of possible things and things, objects and people in the Pan-link intelligent perception of items and processes, identification and management. The Internet of Things IntelliSense recognition technology and pervasive computing, ubiquitous network integration application, known as the third wave of the world's information industry development following the computer, the Internet. Not so much the Internet of Things is a network, as Internet of Things services and applications, Internet of Things is also seen as Internet application development. Therefore, the application of innovation is the core of the development of Internet of Things, and 2.0 of the user experience as the core innovation is the soul of Things.

  3. GIS-based technology for marine geohazards in LW3-1 Gas Field of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Liu, Lejun; Li, Xishuang; Hu, Guanghai; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The exploration and exploitation of deep-water oil-gas are apt to be suffered from high-risk geo-hazards such as submarine landslide, soft clay creep, shallow gas, excess pore-water pressure, mud volcano or mud diaper, salt dome and so on. Therefore, it is necessary to survey the seafloor topography, identify the unfavourable geological risks and investigate their environment and mechanism before exploiting the deep-water oil-gas. Because of complex environment, the submarine phenomenon and features, like marine geohazards, can not be recognized directly. Multi-disciplinary data are acquired and analysed comprehensively in order to get more clear understanding about the submarine processes. The data include multi-beam bathymetry data, sidescan sonar images, seismic data, shallow-bottom profiling images, boring data, etc.. Such data sets nowadays increase rapidly to large amounts, but may be heterogeneous and have different resolutions. It is difficult to make good management and utilization of such submarine data with traditional means. GIS technology can provide efficient and powerful tools or services in such aspects as spatial data management, processing, analysis and visualization. They further promote the submarine scientific research and engineering development. The Liwan 3-1 Gas Field, the first deep-water gas field in China, is located in the Zhu II Depression in the Zhujiang Basin along the continental slope of the northern South China Sea. The exploitation of this field is designed to establish subsea wellhead and to use submarine pipeline for the transportation of oil. The deep-water section of the pipeline route in the gas field is to be selected to pass through the northern continental slope of the South China Sea. To avoid huge economic loss and ecological environmental damage, it is necessary to evaluate the geo-hazards for the establishment and safe operation of the pipeline. Based on previous scientific research results, several survey cruises have

  4. An Updating System for the Gridded Population Database of China Based on Remote Sensing, GIS and Spatial Database Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohuan; Huang, Yaohuan; Dong, Pinliang; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Honghui

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of population is closely related to land use and land cover (LULC) patterns on both regional and global scales. Population can be redistributed onto geo-referenced square grids according to this relation. In the past decades, various approaches to monitoring LULC using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been developed, which makes it possible for efficient updating of geo-referenced population data. A Spatial Population Updating System (SPUS) is developed for updating the gridded population database of China based on remote sensing, GIS and spatial database technologies, with a spatial resolution of 1 km by 1 km. The SPUS can process standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS L1B) data integrated with a Pattern Decomposition Method (PDM) and an LULC-Conversion Model to obtain patterns of land use and land cover, and provide input parameters for a Population Spatialization Model (PSM). The PSM embedded in SPUS is used for generating 1 km by 1 km gridded population data in each population distribution region based on natural and socio-economic variables. Validation results from finer township-level census data of Yishui County suggest that the gridded population database produced by the SPUS is reliable. PMID:22399959

  5. An Updating System for the Gridded Population Database of China Based on Remote Sensing, GIS and Spatial Database Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Yang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of population is closely related to land use and land cover (LULC patterns on both regional and global scales. Population can be redistributed onto geo-referenced square grids according to this relation. In the past decades, various approaches to monitoring LULC using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS have been developed, which makes it possible for efficient updating of geo-referenced population data. A Spatial Population Updating System (SPUS is developed for updating the gridded population database of China based on remote sensing, GIS and spatial database technologies, with a spatial resolution of 1 km by 1 km. The SPUS can process standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS L1B data integrated with a Pattern Decomposition Method (PDM and an LULC-Conversion Model to obtain patterns of land use and land cover, and provide input parameters for a Population Spatialization Model (PSM. The PSM embedded in SPUS is used for generating 1 km by 1 km gridded population data in each population distribution region based on natural and socio-economic variables. Validation results from finer township-level census data of Yishui County suggest that the gridded population database produced by the SPUS is reliable.

  6. Emergy-based comparative analysis on industrial clusters: economic and technological development zone of Shenyang area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zuoxi

    2014-09-01

    In China, local governments of many areas prefer to give priority to the development of heavy industrial clusters in pursuit of high value of gross domestic production (GDP) growth to get political achievements, which usually results in higher costs from ecological degradation and environmental pollution. Therefore, effective methods and reasonable evaluation system are urgently needed to evaluate the overall efficiency of industrial clusters. Emergy methods links economic and ecological systems together, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. This method has been successfully applied in many case studies of ecosystem but seldom in industrial clusters. This study applied the methodology of emergy analysis to perform the efficiency of industrial clusters through a series of emergy-based indices as well as the proposed indicators. A case study of Shenyang Economic Technological Development Area (SETDA) was investigated to show the emergy method's practical potential to evaluate industrial clusters to inform environmental policy making. The results of our study showed that the industrial cluster of electric equipment and electronic manufacturing produced the most economic value and had the highest efficiency of energy utilization among the four industrial clusters. However, the sustainability index of the industrial cluster of food and beverage processing was better than the other industrial clusters.

  7. The Research of China's Civil Aviation Passenger Multi-Channel Service Technology Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang

    IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors' company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.

  8. Transmission Technologies and Operational Characteristic Analysis of Hybrid UHV AC/DC Power Grids in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhang; Yanfeng, Gong

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the contradiction between demand and distribution range of primary energy resource, Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power grids should be developed rapidly to meet development of energy bases and accessing of large-scale renewable energy. This paper reviewed the latest research processes of AC/DC transmission technologies, summarized the characteristics of AC/DC power grids, concluded that China’s power grids certainly enter a new period of large -scale hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids and characteristics of “strong DC and weak AC” becomes increasingly pro minent; possible problems in operation of AC/DC power grids was discussed, and interaction or effect between AC/DC power grids was made an intensive study of; according to above problems in operation of power grids, preliminary scheme is summarized as fo llows: strengthening backbone structures, enhancing AC/DC transmission technologies, promoting protection measures of clean energ y accessing grids, and taking actions to solve stability problems of voltage and frequency etc. It’s valuable for making hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids adapt to operating mode of large power grids, thus guaranteeing security and stability of power system.

  9. 25 November 2008 - State Councilor in charge of Science, Technology and Education Y. Liu, People's Repblic of China, visiting AMS experiment with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and AMS Collaborator Y. Yang.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    25 November 2008 - State Councilor in charge of Science, Technology and Education Y. Liu, People's Repblic of China, visiting AMS experiment with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and AMS Collaborator Y. Yang.

  10. Evolution of National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology competition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Wang, XiaoPing; Zheng, XiaoDong; Lin, YuanFang; Wang, Kaiwei

    2017-08-01

    The goal of National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology Competition (NUSOSTC) is to provide a nation-wide platform for students from the colleges and universities, which have majors in the field of optics and photonics, to communicate and learning each other. Meanwhile, it works on pushing forward the popularity of optoelectronic knowledge, cultivating the students' teamwork and innovation ability, promoting higher education personnel training mode and practice teaching reform, and then improving the quality of talent training. The founding, organizational structure development and overall organizational arrangements of NUSOSTC were introduced in this paper. Besides, the competition logo, theme, title, final date, numbers of participating universities, undertaking universities and cities of the five NUSOSTCs held during 2008 to 2016 and the progress had been made were given in detail.

  11. Research on preventive technologies for bed-separation water hazard in China coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Herong; Tong, Shijie; Qiu, Weizhong; Lin, Manli

    2018-03-01

    Bed-separation water is one of the major water hazards in coal mines. Targeted researches on the preventive technologies are of paramount importance to safe mining. This article studied the restrictive effect of geological and mining factors, such as lithological properties of roof strata, coal seam inclination, water source to bed separations, roof management method, dimensions of mining working face, and mining progress, on the formation of bed-separation water hazard. The key techniques to prevent bed-separation water-related accidents include interception, diversion, destructing the buffer layer, grouting and backfilling, etc. The operation and efficiency of each technique are corroborated in field engineering cases. The results of this study will offer reference to countries with similar mining conditions in the researches on bed-separation water burst and hazard control in coal mines.

  12. Can technological innovation help China take on its climate responsibility? An intertemporal general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wei

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of China’s indigenous R and D and technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. The mechanism of endogenous technical change (TC) is incorporated an intertemporal computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. R and D investments and knowledge creations are modeled as the endogenous behaviors of private firms. The accumulated stocks of knowledge are applied in the production process to affect the rate and bias of TC. Simulation results show that: (1) while China’s indigenous R and D efforts play a significant role to curb carbon emissions, sole dependence on R and D may be far from sufficient to achieve pledged climate target, with complementary policies being required to reinforce existing climate actions; (2) innovation policies can strengthen R and D investment and cut emissions further, but the complementary effect is relatively minor; (3) carbon taxation can generate significant carbon-saving benefits and fulfill climate target, but this achievement is at the cost of economic losses. The induced technical improvement, however, can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax distortion. - Highlights: ► We examine the effect of China’s technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. ► A mechanism of R and D-induced technical change is incorporated into an intertemporal CGE model. ► Private R and D efforts and public R and D intervention are insufficient to achieve climate target. ► A carbon tax is indispensable to achieve climate target but at the cost of output losses. ► Induced technical change can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax.

  13. Carbon Footprint Analyses of Mainstream Wastewater Treatment Technologies under Different Sludge Treatment Scenarios in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Chai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanization and infrastructure investment, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Chinese cities are putting increased pressure on energy consumption and exacerbating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts. This study examined three mainstream wastewater treatment technologies: Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A–A–O, Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR and Oxygen Ditch, considering four different sludge treatment alternatives for small-to-medium-sized WWTPs. Following the life cycle approach, process design data and emission factors were used by the model to calculate the carbon footprint. Results found that direct emissions of CO2 and N2O, and indirect emissions of electricity use, are significant contributors to the carbon footprint. Although sludge anaerobic digestion and biogas recovery could significantly contribute to emission reduction, it was less beneficial for Oxygen Ditch than the other two treatment technologies due to its low sludge production. The influence of choosing “high risk” or “low risk” N2O emission factors on the carbon footprint was also investigated in this study. Oxygen Ditch was assessed as “low risk” of N2O emissions while SBR was “high risk”. The carbon footprint of A–A–O with sludge anaerobic digestion and energy recovery was more resilient to changes of N2O emission factors and control of N2O emissions, though process design parameters (i.e., effluent total nitrogen (TN concentration, mixed-liquor recycle (MLR rates and solids retention time (SRT and operation conditions (i.e., nitrite concentration are critical for reducing carbon footprint of SBR. Analyses of carbon footprints suggested that aerobic treatment of sludge not only favors the generation of large amounts of CO2, but also the emissions of N2O, so the rationale of reducing aerobic treatment and

  14. A study on the implementation of joint research projects in the field of nuclear technology between Korea and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Joon Keuk; Suh, In Suk; Lee, Eui Jin; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Lee, Byung Wook; Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Chung, Whan Sam; Lee, Man Ki; Lee, Hyo Se; Jun, Byung Jin; Park, Byung Bae; Hong, Young Don; Lee, Chang Woo; Chung, Moon Ki; Sim, Suk Ku; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Oh, Won Zin

    1999-11-01

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following provisions were made. First of all, the current status of energy industry was carefully reviewed. An increase of energy consumption, both in industrial and home purposes, implored introduction of nuclear power as an alternative energy production source. Secondly, the current status of China's nuclear development programs together with future prospects was reviewed. Through this review, more effective implementation of nuclear cooperative programs could be devised. Thirdly, China's newly developed nuclear infrastructure was analyzed. The re-structuring of the CNNC was reviewed. Based on this analysis, future cooperative programs could be identified. Lastly, proper strategies for future cooperation between the two countries on a complementary basis were studied. Recommendations for better cooperation programs, particularly for the nuclear policy-making process, were presented. For fruitful cooperation, it is naturally needed match funds to support the implementation of joint projects. It is basically China's idea that Korea provides the funds and China provides manpower. China has a great potential market. The Korean Governments support for key funds for cooperative programs will thus have a sincere meaning. For fruitful cooperation, it is naturally needed match funds to support the implementation of joint projects. It is basically China's idea that Korea provides the funds and China provides manpower. China has a great potential market. The Korean Governments support for key funds for cooperative programs will thus have a sincere meaning. The findings of this study could serve as the database for future nuclear cooperation between the two countries. It is hoped that all local nuclear related organizations in Korea could use some valuable references derived from the study. Information generated from the study could also be used as a benchmark for continued cooperation with China. Various

  15. Barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies in the building sector: A survey study of Jing-jin-tang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Ping; Zheng, Li-Qun; Xie, Bai-Chen; Mahalingam, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    The building sector of China currently consumes 20% of the total energy consumption. Studies on barriers to the adoption of building energy-saving technologies are of great significance on implementing policies related to achieving energy-saving goals. This paper studied 15 barriers with the aid of information collected through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The respondents were 135 employees working in the Jing-jin-tang area. Based on the results of the factor analysis, the barriers were categorized into five groups: attitudes of stakeholders, policies and regulations, auxiliary resources, profitability, and adaptability of the technologies. Analysis of the entire sample showed that the stakeholders’ reluctance to use was the largest barrier, followed by high initial investment and low profitability. Further analysis showed that the occupation and designation of the respondents and the size of the enterprises that they served influenced their perspectives on the barriers. It was found that architects attributed more importance to the adoption of energy-saving technologies than contractors; barriers confronted by employees of large enterprises and small enterprises were different; managers perceived weaker barriers than frontline employees and were more optimistic about the prospect of building energy-saving technologies. Finally, policy recommendations were proposed based on these in-depth and targeted analyses. - Highlights: • Fifteen barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies are discussed. • Surveys are conducted in one of China's most technologically developed area. • The barriers are divided into 5 groups according to the results of factor analysis. • Barriers related to profitability greatly hamper the adoption of the technologies. • Comparative analyses show the background of respondents influence their viewpoints

  16. Exposure to indoor air pollution from household energy use in rural China: the interactions of technology, behavior, and knowledge in health risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinlong; Ma, Xiao; Chen, Xining; Cheng, Yibin; Baris, Enis; Ezzati, Majid

    2006-06-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from household use of biomass and coal is a leading environmental health risk in many developing nations. Much of the initial research on household energy technology overlooked the complex interactions of technological, behavioral, economic, and infrastructural factors that determine the success of environmental health interventions. Consequently, despite enormous interest in reducing the large and inequitable risks associated with household energy use in international development and global health, there is limited empirical research to form the basis for design and delivery of effective interventions. We used data from four poor provinces in China (Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi) to examine the linkages among technology, user knowledge and behavior, and access and infrastructure in exposure to IAP from household energy use. We conclude that broad health risk education is insufficient for successful risk mitigation when exposure behaviors are closely linked to day-to-day activities of households such as cooking and heating, or have other welfare implications, and hence cannot be simply stopped. Rather, there should be emphasis on the economic and infrastructure determinants of access to technology, as well as the details of behaviors that affect exposure. Better understanding of technology-behavior interface would also allow designing technological interventions that account for, and are robust to, behavioral factors or to provide individuals and households with alternative behaviors. Based on the analysis, we present technological and behavioral interventions for these four Chinese provinces.

  17. Climate protection and development aid by technology transfer. Clean development mechanism enables advanced energy technology for China; Klimaschutz und Entwicklungshilfe durch Technologietransfer. Clean Development Mechanism ermoeglicht neue Energietechnologie fuer China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

    2005-07-01

    Enlightened is the problem of climate change from an economical point of view by the Institute of Microeconomics of the EconomicScientific Faculty of the Hannover University and the Institute of Global Issues of the Nankai Unviversity at Tianjin in China. In special the aspect of Carbon Dioxide reduction is focussed. (GL)

  18. Food traceability systems in China: The current status of and future perspectives on food supply chain databases, legal support, and technological research and support for food safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Mei; Lv, Jun; Gai, Ruoyan; Mei, Lin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of food security has witnessed numerous problems and incidents that have garnered public attention. Given this serious situation, the food traceability system (FTS) has become part of the expanding food safety continuum to reduce the risk of food safety problems. This article reviews a great deal of the related literature and results from previous studies of FTS to corroborate this contention. This article describes the development and benefits of FTS in developed countries like the United States of America (USA), Japan, and some European countries. Problems with existing FTS in China are noted, including a lack of a complete database, inadequate laws and regulations, and lagging technological research into FTS. This article puts forward several suggestions for the future, including improvement of information websites, clarification of regulatory responsibilities, and promotion of technological research.

  19. 2000-2001 creation of expertise and engineering technology of environment and energy project for anaerobic digestion of multiple kinds of organic industrial wastewater in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Libin [China Biogas Society (CBS) (China). Dept. of International Affairs

    2001-07-01

    Environmental protection is the basic policy of China. It has been proved by both of Chinese and world's development practice that the contradictions between development and environment must be well solved so as to realize sustainable development. Much concern has been paid on the research and development of technology on biogas (anaerobic digestion) to treat wastewater by China in last two decades, in addition with international influence and promotion from environment and development, the trend of anaerobic digestion development shows rapidly sign. Biogas technology has a wide field and good market for its implementation in China. Some environment and energy projects for anaerobic digestion of multiple kinds of organic industrial wastewater obtained fine benefits in pollution control, cleaner energy recovery and sustainable economic growth. However, the potentiality for market exploration is still higher. This paper presented the Chinese explorative research and successive design and anaerobic digestion project case studies on some 50 sorts of organic industrial wastewater, which are hard to biodegrade, hazardous, non-hygienic and chemical, e.g. alkali method straw pulp and chemical pulp-paper making wastewater, wastewater form medical industry, biopharmaceutical production, antibiotics as penicillin, erythromycin etc. Chinese medical herbs processing, antibiotics, tanning, brewery, distillery, agricultural chemicals, pesticide and insecticide, animal medicine, dyeing production, textile and printing industry, petroleum-chemical processing (PTA-phenyl terephthalic acid), coke processing, explosive production as RDX, hospitals, can and food processing, sugar-processing, municipal sewage with mixed industrial and domestic wastewater etc. All the mentioned research and practice show that both Chinese people and Chinese government have made great efforts in the last two decades in purifying the environment of water, soil and atmosphere via combining good

  20. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  1. A Study of EFL Curriculum of China's Science and Technology Institutes under Graded Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyan; Han, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Recent years, most universities and colleges have been reforming the English as a foreign language (EFL) curriculum system in China. Some reformed EFL curriculum into English for Specific Purposes (ESP) courses, for instance, while some conducted a graded teaching model in EFL teaching. However, the effect of this reform was not so good,…

  2. Journey to Medieval China: Using Technology-Enhanced Instruction to Develop Content Knowledge and Digital Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Kristen; Winstead, Lisa; Kottler, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Recent innovations in Web-based technology tools have made planning instruction with technology in mind far more doable than in years past. To aid teachers in planning with technology, tools are organized into five broad categories: communication, collaboration, presentation, organization and critical-thinking. The purpose and potential of each…

  3. Building capacity for information and communication technology use in global health research and training in China: a qualitative study among Chinese health sciences faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Abdullah, Abu S; Ma, Zhenyu; Fu, Hua; Huang, Kaiyong; Yu, Hongping; Wang, Jiaji; Cai, Le; He, Huimin; Xiao, Jian; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H; Yang, Li

    2017-06-28

    The demand to use information and communications technology (ICT) in education and research has grown fast among researchers and educators working in global health. However, access to ICT resources and the capacity to use them in global health research remains limited among developing country faculty members. In order to address the global health needs and to design an ICT-related training course, we herein explored the Chinese health science faculty members' perceptions and learning needs for ICT use. Nine focus groups discussions (FGDs) were conducted during December 2015 to March 2016, involving 63 faculty members working in areas of health sciences from six universities in China. All FGDs were audio recorded and analysed thematically. The findings suggest that the understandings of ICT were not clear among many researchers; some thought that the concept of ICT was too wide and ambiguous. Most participants were able to cite examples of ICT application in their research and teaching activities. Positive attitudes and high needs of ICT use and training were common among most participants. Recommendations for ICT training included customised training programmes focusing on a specific specialty, maintaining a balance between theories and practical applications, more emphasis on the application of ICT, and skills in finding the required information from the bulk information available in the internet. Suggestions regarding the format and offering of training included short training programmes, flexible timing, lectures with practicum opportunities, and free of charge or with very minimal cost to the participants. Two participants suggested the linking of ICT-related training courses with faculty members' year-end assessment and promotion. This study among health sciences faculty members in China demonstrated a high level of need and interest in learning about ICT use in research and training. The results have important implications for the design and implementation of

  4. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  5. Energy supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  6. Ecological Vulnerability Assessment Integrating the Spatial Analysis Technology with Algorithms: A Case of the Wood-Grass Ecotone of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates ecological vulnerability of the wood-grass ecotone of northeast China integrating the spatial analysis technology with algorithms. An assessment model of ecological vulnerability is developed applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process. The composite evaluation index system is established on the basis of the analysis of contemporary status and potential problems in the study area. By the application of the evaluation model, ecological vulnerability index is calculated between 1990 and 2005. The results show that ecological vulnerability was mostly at a medium level in the study area, however the ecological quality was deteriorating. Through the standard deviational ellipse, the variation of ecological vulnerability can be spatially explicated. It is extremely significative for the prediction of the regions that will easily deteriorate. The deterioration zone was concentrating in the area of Da Hinggan Ling Mountain, including Xingan League, Chifeng, Tongliao, and Chengde, whereas the improvement zone was distributing in the north-central of Hulunbeier.

  7. Sovereignty, wealth, culture and technology: Mainland China and Taiwan grapple with the parameters of 'nation state' in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Pastreich

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este texto introduce los antecedentes históricos de las actuales confrontaciones y negociaciones entre Taiwán, llamada Formosa (" la isla hermosa" en portugués y el continente, es decir las relaciones con Portugal y Holanda,  con los sobrevivientes de la dinastía de Ming y de la dinastía de Qing (1644-1911, con Japón, y Estados Unidos. Los intereses extranjeros han complicado el controlo sobre Taiwán. Se incluye también una consideración de la relación de la Republica Nacionalista China y de la República Popular Comunista China. El debate sobre cultura, la economía y el control político entre estas dos entidades políticas es una preocupación por la actual legitimidad de ambas entidades. Por otra parte, los desafíos de la globalización complican el cuadro en que la convergencia impar de la convergencia económica y cultural con tensiones políticas puede ser representante de los conflictos que encontraremos en este siglo. El artículo considera los lazos económicos, culturales, y tecnológicos que continúan atando Taiwán y el continente a pesar de diferencias serias y se cierra con una pequeña consideración de las posibilidades de una solución pacífica de largo plazo.______________ABSTRACT:This paper introduces the historical background of the present confrontations and negotiations between Taiwan and the mainland in terms of Formosa’s ("the beautiful island" in Portuguese convoluted relations with the Portugal and Holland, survivors of the Ming dynasty, the Qing dynasty (1644-1911, Japan, and the United States. The foreign interests who have had control of Taiwan make its sovereignty more complex. A consideration of the relationship of the Nationalist Republic of China and the Communist People’s Republic of China is also included. The debate on culture, economics and political control between their two political entities is informed past events, and a concern for the present legitimacy of both entities. Moreover, the

  8. Co-seismic Displacement of the 25 April 2015 Nepal Ms8.1 Earthquake Effects on the China's Mount Everest Area Derived from GNSS Data Using the PPP Network Solution by UPD Ambiguity Fixed Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-seismic displacement of the GNSS stations in areas surrounding the earthquake are accurately obtained using UPD (uncalibrated phase delay ambiguity fixed technology without having to consider the effects of earthquake on the GNSS baseline calculating. During the 25 April 2015 Nepal Ms8.1 seismological GNSS data from the National Datum Engineering of China, the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and the Mount Everest GNSS stations are calculated using UPD ambiguity fixed technology, then co-seismic displacement field of the China's Mount Everest and surrounding areas are derived and analyzed. Firstly, the UPD of wide-lane and narrow lane are estimated using the uniform distribution National GNSS and the surrounding IGS stability stations away from the seismic zones. Secondly, the float carrier phase ambiguities from each GNSS station in the seismic zones are fixed using the UPD of wide-lane and narrow until all the GNSS station are completed. Then whole network GNSS station coordinates are just only estimated using the accurately phase observations without ambiguity form all the GNSS stations. The GNSS data from IGS stations are used to verify the precision of the above method. Finally, Co-seismic displacement field of the China's Mount Everest are derived and particularly analyzed. From 2005 to 2015 year the displacement of China's Mount Everest are showed. Meanwhlile, this paper provides a precise and reliable method to monitor earthquake.

  9. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  10. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  11. Effects of Low-Carbon Technologies and End-Use Electrification on Energy-Related Greenhouse Gases Mitigation in China by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions in China have been increasing in line with its energy consumption and economic growth. Major means for energy-related greenhouse gases mitigation in the foreseeable future are transition to less carbon intensive energy supplies and structural changes in energy consumption. In this paper, a bottom-up model is built to examine typical projected scenarios for energy supply and demand, with which trends of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 can be analyzed. Results show that low-carbon technologies remain essential contributors to reducing emissions and altering emissions trends up to 2050. By pushing the limit of current practicality, emissions reduction can reach 20 to 28 percent and the advent of carbon peaking could shift from 2040 to 2030. In addition, the effect of electrification at end-use sectors is studied. Results show that electrifying transport could reduce emissions and bring the advent of carbon peaking forward, but the effect is less significant compared with low-carbon technologies. Moreover, it implies the importance of decarbonizing power supply before electrifying end-use sectors.

  12. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  13. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  14. Towards a Strategic Process Model of Governance for Agile IT Implementation: A Healthcare Information Technology Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Say Yen Teoh; Xi Chen

    2013-01-01

    To remain competitive in the present dynamic environment, ‘governance for agility’ has become a key solution. Past literature paid little attention to understanding how governance for agility, particularly in regard to the delivery of Information Technology (IT) implementation. Using agile organisation and IT-governance theory as lenses to analyse data from a hospital case study, a strategic process model of governance for agility is empirically derived. This model suggests that agile hea...

  15. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  16. Life cycle energy use and GHG emission assessment of coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for SNG and power cogeneration. • A model based on a Chinese domestic database is developed for evaluation. • Cogeneration shows lower GHG emissions than coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration has lower life cycle energy use than supercritical coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies. - Abstract: Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) and power cogeneration/polygenereation (PG) technology and its competitive alternatives. Four main SNG applications are considered, including electricity generation, steam production, SNG vehicle and battery electric vehicle (BEV). Analyses show that if SNG is produced from a single product plant, the lower limits of its life cycle energy use and GHG emissions can be comparable to the average levels of coal-power and coal-BEV pathways, but are still higher than supercritical and ultra supercritical (USC) coal-power and coal-BEV pathways. If SNG is coproduced from a PG plant, when it is used for power generation, steam production, and driving BEV car, the life cycle energy uses for PG based pathways are typically lower than supercritical coal-power pathways, but are still 1.6–2.4% higher than USC coal-power pathways, and the average life cycle GHG emissions are lower than those of all coal-power pathways including USC units. If SNG is used to drive vehicle car, the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of PG-SNGV-power pathway are both much higher than all combined coal-BEV and coal-power pathways, due to much higher energy consumption in a SNG driven car than in a BEV car. The coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology shows comparable or better energy and environmental performances when compared to other coal-based alternatives, and is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies.

  17. Learning from our global competitors: A comparative analysis of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education pipelines in the United States, Mainland China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Christina M.

    Maintaining a competitive edge within the 21st century is dependent on the cultivation of human capital, producing qualified and innovative employees capable of competing within the new global marketplace. Technological advancements in communications technology as well as large scale, infrastructure development has led to a leveled playing field where students in the U.S. will ultimately be competing for jobs with not only local, but also international, peers. Thus, the ability to understand and learn from our global competitors, starting with the examination of innovative education systems and best practice strategies, is tantamount to the economic development, and ultimate survival, of the U.S. as a whole. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current state of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and workforce pipelines in the U.S., China, and Taiwan. Two broad research questions examined STEM workforce production in terms of a) structural differences in primary and secondary school systems, including analysis of minimum high school graduation requirements and assessments as well as b) organizational differences in tertiary education and trends in STEM undergraduate and graduate degrees awarded in each region of interest. While each of the systems studied had their relative strengths and weaknesses, each of the Asian economies studied had valuable insights that can be categorized broadly in terms of STEM capacity, STEM interest and a greater understanding of global prospects that led to heightened STEM awareness. In China and Taiwan, STEM capacity was built via both traditional and vocational school systems. Focused and structured curriculum during the primary and early secondary school years built solid mathematics and science skills that translated into higher performance on international assessments and competitions. Differentiated secondary school options, including vocational high school and technical colleges and

  18. Exploration of an Optimal Policy for Water Resources Management Including the Introduction of Advanced Sewage Treatment Technologies in Zaozhuang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengyu He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such as transformation of economic development, restriction of groundwater exploitation, and improvement of water environment. In this paper, we develop a linear optimization model by input–output analysis to study water resources management with the introduction of three advanced sewage treatment technologies for pollutant treatment and reclaimed water production. The simulation results showed that from 2014 to 2020, Zaozhuang City will realize an annual GDP growth rate of 7.1% with an annual chemical oxygen demand (COD emissions reduction rate of 5.5%. The proportion of primary industry, secondary industry, and tertiary industry would be adjusted to 5.6%, 40.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The amount of reclaimed water supply could be increased by 91% and groundwater supply could be decreased by 6%. Based on the simulation, this model proposes a scientific reference on water resources management policies, including water environment control, water supply plan, and financial subsidy, to realize the sustainable development of economy and water resources usage.

  19. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  20. The Current Status of Research on GNSS-R Remote Sensing Technology in China and Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, has a significant impact on all areas of human activity, not only can provide users with shared global navigation, position and timing information, but also can provide a L-band microwave signal source of long term stability and high temporal-spatial resolution. In recent years, development of the navigation satellite remote sensing applications using GNSS as a external illuminator, it has been forming a new Global Navigation Satellite System METeorology (GNSS/MET, of which Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflection (GNSS-R signals remote sensing technology is rising. It could be considered as a non-cooperative artificial illuminator, bistatic (multi-static radar system, and has the advantages of both passive and active remote sensing. Then it gets more and more people’s attention and favor, and broadening into Atmosphere -ocean and land surface remote sensing fields. However, the address of this technology is very messy at home and abroad, and not able to accurately express its special meaning. This article attempts to give a new term: Exogenous-Aided Remote Sensing (EARS for discussion.

  1. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: Final Report, December 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-10-01

    Final subcontractor report giving an overview of the biomass power generation technologies used in China. Report covers resources, technologies, foreign technologies and resources for comparison purposes, biomass potential in China, and finally government policies in China that support/hinder development of the using biomass in China for power generation.

  2. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    ” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  3. Empirical Examination of Users’ Adoption of the Sharing Economy in China Using an Expanded Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the popularity of sharing-based applications such as bicycle and car sharing, the sharing economy has attracted considerable global attention. The factors that affect users’ adoption of the sharing economy must be identified to facilitate the promotion of low-carbon lifestyles and help enterprises attract more active users. By employing the technology acceptance model (TAM and herd behavior, this study implemented an expanded TAM and identified several factors affecting behavioral intention (BI toward the sharing economy. A questionnaire was used to obtain the data, which were analyzed through structural equation modeling. The results revealed that perceived usefulness (PU and perceived ease of use (PEOU are the main factors affecting BI. Moreover, trust (TRU was identified as a mediator of subjective norm (SN and PEOU. Imitating others (IMI affects BI, and SN affects TRU, PU, and PEOU. Gender moderates SN and IMI. This paper indicates that to improve users’ BI, enterprises should enhance PU, PEOU, and TRU; cooperate with organizations to enhance SN; and guide potential users to imitate others.

  4. Government funded renewable energy innovation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Cui; Su, Jun; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Sui, Jigang; Ru, Peng; Zhang, Hanwei; Wang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, China is facing pressures caused by traditional energy deficiency and environmental pollution in recent years, which has forced the Chinese government to start to pay attention to the development and utilization of renewable energy (RE). This article, based on data and statistics available up to 2008, studies features of China's RE technology innovation and problems thereof. It finds that national science and technology programs are the main aspect of China's RE technology innovation, and most of R and D funds for the RE technology come from China's three main national programs. Besides, the overall expenditures on RE technology innovation constitute only a small proportion of China's total domestic R and D funding and seem not enough. This paper also finds that, compared with research and development stages of RE technology, the demonstration and diffusion of RE technology in China are given less attention and thus are relatively less sufficient. Furthermore, influenced by China's traditional scientific research system, there appears lack of sufficient incentives and opportunities for private sectors to fully participate in RE technology innovation because most national programs are undertaken by universities or research institutes. - Highlights: ► We study statistically China's renewable energy technology innovation (RETI). ► National science and technology (S and T) programs are the main aspect of China's RETI. ► Most of R and D funds come from China's three main national (S and T) programs. ► The overall expenditure on RETI is small proportion of China's total domestic R and D funding. ► The demonstration and diffusion of RETI in China are relatively less sufficient.

  5. Quality of professional education in China – problems and prospects (On example of Changsha university of Science and Technology, Hunan Province, Changsha)

    OpenAIRE

    Pliskina, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the one of the urgent problems of international educational society, quality and volume of educational services provided to foreign students within government projects of China. The article deals with mechanisms for the implementation of ideas, principles and directions, forming the basis of models for the educational environment in China. It is revealed the ambiguity of the definition of the concept «quality» and priority mechanisms in determining it. The opinion po...

  6. China Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    In 1992, China enacted an internal law on territorial sea and contiguous zone, which claims Chinese sovereignty over all islands that fell within a...historical components to the disputes in the South China Sea that have bearing on the issue. China , Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , the Philippines...The past decade of mutual respect, cooperation, and investment by China led to amazing prosperity for all Southeast Asian states and is a blueprint

  7. Depending on scientific and technological progress to prospect for superlarge uranium deposits. Across-century target for uranium resources exploration work in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Feng

    1995-01-01

    After over 30 years' development, uranium resources exploration work in China has resulted in the discovery of more than 10 economic types of uranium deposits in 23 provinces (regions) of the whole country and large quantities of uranium reserves have been submitted which guarantee the development of nuclear industry in China. However, characteristics such as smaller size of deposits and ore bodies, and lower ore grade of discovered China's uranium deposits have brought about a series of problems on how to economically exploit and utilize these uranium resources. To prospect for superlarge uranium deposits is a guarantee of making uranium resources essentially meet the demand for the long-term development of nuclear industry in China, and is an important way of improving economic benefits in mining China's uranium resources. It is an important mark for uranium geological exploration work to go up a new step as well. China exhibits the geological environment in which various types of superlarge uranium deposits can be formed. Having the financial support from the state to uranium resources exploration work, having professional uranium exploration teams well-experienced in ore prospecting, having modernized uranium exploration techniques and equipment and also having foreign experience in prospecting for superlarge uranium deposits as reference, it is entirely possible to find out superlarge uranium deposits in China at the end of this century and at the beginning of next century. In order to realize the objective, the most important prerequisite is that research work on metallogenetic geological theory and exploration techniques and prospecting methodology for superlarge uranium deposits must be strengthened, and technical quality of the geological teams must be improved. Within this century, prospect targets should be selected and located accurately to carry out the emphatic breakthrough in exploration strategy

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-09

    Norfloxacin or ofloxacin was the drug of choice in the treatment of CRST. Key words: Typhoid fever, Chloramphenicol-resistant salmonella typhi (CRST...reduction pulsed columns are devices that combine an electrolysis tank with a pulsed screen plate column and are capable of simultaneously carrying out...control circuit, the HRDC2112 rotary transformer/digital converter, the HTSL5136B dual S/D converting fine/coarse combination coder, the HFX15 bit

  9. China Report, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-11

    ZHIYEBING ZAZHI tCHINESE JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES!, No 1, 20 Feb 85 148 YICHUAN XUEBAO TACTA GENETICA SINICAJ, No 1...institutes, and all 200 general hospitals have dental de- partments. But they are still not enough to care for the populace of about 12 million, according to...ACTA GENETICA SINICA] in Chinese No 1, 1985 pp 14-19 TEXT OF ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Several tested strains of Bacillus subtilis were found to be

  10. JPRS Report, Science & Technology China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-23

    Turn Missile /Luan Zewei, et al.; YUHANG XUEBAO, No 3, 31 Jul 88/ 14 - a Difference Scheme With Autocontrol Artificial Viscosity to Predict...Control of a Bank-to-Turn Missile," AD/A 144 043, March 1984. 14 AEROSPACE Difference Scheme With Autocontrol Artificial Viscosity to Predict Ablated

  11. JPRS Report Science & Technology China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-28

    16 Dec 88? 25 BIOTECHNOLOGY Study of New Tachykinin From Chinese Green Foul Frog _ /fang Yiquan, et al.; ZHONGGUO KEXUE, No 9, Sep 88...own* 2 955 m MM taunehlno wrt»ht 2450 kg 26 BIOTECHNOLOGY Study of New Tachykinin From Chinese Green Foul Frog 40081012 Beijing ZHONGGUO...other Tachykinin -type peptides. Apart from this, the paper also briefly discusses green foul frog kinin sulphoxide formation during the purification

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-20

    Aflatoxin B, and Extracts of Fungi [Ruan Cuicai, Liang Yuan, et al; ZHONGHUA YUFANG YIXUE ZAZHI, Mar 92] 12 Effects of ß-Agkistrodotoxin on Synaptic...scientists and technicians in the country will contribute toward cracking the tough nuts in their disciplines. Officials hope that the program will...this paper, the growth of bulk BaTi03 single crystals by top- seeded solution growth technique, using two synthetic raw materials, is described

  13. JPRS Report. Science & Technology: China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-16

    the Chemical Components of Illigera sp.s" ACTA BOTANICA SINICA, Vol 29, 1987 p 324. Hong Kangxin, et al., "Active Component of Medicinal Herb...2. Sun Jingsan, et al., ACTA BOTANICA SINICA, Vol 28 No 1, 1986 pp 33-37. 3. Sun Jingsan, et al., BOTANICAL BULLETIN, Vol 3 No 1, 1985 pp 47-48...63 8. Chen Huimin, et al., ACTA BOTANICA SINICA, Vol 22 No 2, 1980 pp 112-116. 9. Hao Shui, et al., "Proceedings of the Second Congress and

  14. JPRS Report. Science & Technology: China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-17

    Coupler Patented—A new fiber-optic coupler developed by design engineers Lu Wenquan [4151 2429 0356] and Jin Wujun [6855 2976 0193] of the Guilin ...run by the Guilin civil administration. This new improved coupler will mainly be used in laser medical instruments and in fiber-optic transmission

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-02

    aforementioned three companies this year and next. When all is ready, they will manufacture Epson printer heads, bank terminals, and VAX system...development; in light, textile , and garment industries; in agricultural and sideline product intensive processing; and in mechanical and electrical... printer sales. Printers are not expensive, and aside from the fact that they can be fitted to computers, they can also be used independently, used broadly

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-10

    ZHONGGUO JIXIE BAO, 30 Jul 88] 82 New World-Class Chinese Planer [ZHONGGUO JIXIE BAO, 9 Aug 88] 84 New Hobbing Machine [Lei Wenfu; JISHU SHICHANG...H ■H «-I CO CO UJH ►J CO •H S _ 01 01 H CO g u ■ HOB ^H B 1 u u St! CO 4J 01 •M CO O. C EC •H a O ■< EC...the technique of electromagnetic induction is used in the dataglove, the operator who wears it can, for instance, operate from the earth a robot hand

  17. FY 1998 survey report on the basic study of a possibility of cooperation in new energy technology in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru shin energy gijutsu kyoryoku kanosei kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The development and utilization of new energy and reusable energy in China have greatly progressed for these 20 years, but it is necessary to further enhance the rate of these energy in the energy structure by heightening the conversion efficiency and reducing the production cost. As to the matured technology, it is necessary to attempt a large scale modernization and form a completed production/service system by making large breakthrough of new technology/new industrial art. For improvement of levels of a lot of new energy technology, emphasis should be placed on international cooperation, R and D, and model business. Together with the introduction of reusable energy such as photovoltaic, wind, geothermal and ocean power, the conventional low efficiency biomass utilization system is converted one after another. The development/spread of clean coal technology are promoted, and the rate of the hydroelectric/atomic power generation is heightened. By 2010, the full-scale application/spread of new energy technology should be advanced, and the technology and production of the world top level should be realized. It is necessary to make the energy consumption clean and promote the continuously harmonized growth of economy, society and environment. (NEDO)

  18. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  19. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  20. Application of nuclear instruments in China`s industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yan-xiao [China Nuclear Information Center, Beijing (China); Cai Shan-yu; Wang Yi-shan; Lun Xiao [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-31

    The progress of nuclear instruments and their applications in China`s industries have been greatly dependent on the development of social economy. In recent years, the economy in China demands an increasing application of industrial nuclear instruments. The reliability of system performance and its adaptability are prerequisites to ensure widespread application in industry. Through the efforts over 40 years, a sound foundation for the development of nuclear instruments and their application has formed in China with the establishment of a comprehensive nuclear industrial system and skilled technical teams. The international cooperation and technical exchange between China and other countries has provided more opportunities to absorb new concepts, new ideas and new technology for upgrading current products and shorten the gap with the developed countries.

  1. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  2. FY 2000 Survey report. Survey on the technologies required for the China-Japan recycling networks; 2000 nendo Nicchu recycle network ni motomerareru gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The survey is conducted for feasibility of establishing the resources recovering networks useful for the both countries, viewed from effective utilization of resources. The treatment situations of wasted home electrical appliances in the both countries are surveyed. The results indicate that there are already large demands for these appliances in the both countries and that the wasted quantities are increasing year by year. Necessity for establishing the China-Japan recycling networks is pointed out, based on the predicted waste quantities of these appliances and treatment cost, among others, in the both countries, which lead to prediction of shortage of iron, copper and aluminum in China, and increased treatment cost in Japan. Of the recycling network scenarios analyzed, the economically and environmentally adequate ones include the case in which Japan is responsible for the steps up to the third step of crushing and screening, and China is responsible for the last step of recycling the material scraps into the stock materials, and the case in which Japan is responsible for the steps up to the second step of compression and cutting treatment of the wastes, and exporting the resultant scraps to China. (NEDO)

  3. Comprehensive evaluation technology for shale gas sweet spots in the complex marine mountains, South China: A case study from Zhaotong national shale gas demonstration zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and development of marine shale gas reservoirs in South China is challenged by complex geological and geographical conditions, such as strong transformation, post maturity, complex mountains and humanity. In this paper, the evaluations on shale gas sweet spots conducted in Zhaotong demonstration zone in the past six years and the construction of 500 million m3 shale gas productivity in Huangjinba region were discussed, and the results of shale gas reservoir evaluations in China and abroad were investigated. Accordingly, it is proposed that another two key indicators be taken into consideration in the evaluation on shale gas sweet spots in marine mountains in South China, i.e. shale gas preservation conditions and pore pressure, and the research on ground stress and natural microfracture systems should be strengthened. Then, systematic analysis was conducted by integrating shale gas multidisciplinary data and geological and engineering integration study was carried out. Finally, a 3D model, which was composed of “geophysics, reservoir geology, fracture system and rock geomechanics”, was established for shale gas reservoirs. Application practice shows that the geological engineering integration and the 3D reservoir modeling are effective methods for evaluating the shale gas sweet spots in complex marine mountains in South China. Besides, based on shale gas sweet spot evaluation, 3D spatial congruency and superposition effects of multiple attributes and multiple evaluation parameters are presented. Moreover, the short-plate principle is the factor controlling the distribution patterns and evaluation results of shale gas sweet spots. It is concluded that this comprehensive evaluation method is innovative and effective in avoiding complex geological and engineering risks, so it is of guiding significance in exploration and development of marine shale gas in South China.

  4. Technological Environment and Innovation of Township Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Qijun

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the technological environment and innovation, and analyzes the barriers of technological innovation in township enterprises. Finally, this paper puts forward related countermeasures to improve the technological innovation of township enterprises in China.

  5. Explaining Spatial Convergence of China's Industrial Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate a produc......This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate...... a productivity growth–technology gap reaction function. We find that as China's coastal industry has closed the technology gap with the international frontier, labour productivity growth in the coastal region has begun to slow in relation to the interior. This may serve as an early indicator of China's initial...

  6. Testimony before the US-China Economic Security Review Commission: China's Agriculture Policy and US Access to China's Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dermot J. Hayes

    2013-01-01

    Testimony before the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission on April 25, 2013, by Dermot Hayes, professor of Economics and Finance, Iowa State University. Testimony covers impacts on food demand from China's rising incomes and urbanization; the viability of China's attempt to remain self-sufficient in meat and key staple crop production under inherent supply constraints, and the possible technological- and policy-based measures they may pursue in regard of such constraints; and, the...

  7. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Xin, D. [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  8. Pedagogical Beliefs and Attitudes toward Information and Communication Technology: A Survey of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haixia; Lin, Chin-Hsi; Zhang, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    Though pedagogical beliefs have been identified as critical factors in the success of technology integration, very few studies have included them in technology-adoption models. The present study revises the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by adding teachers' pedagogical beliefs, and tests the revised model among university-level…

  9. Regional energy efficiency, carbon emission performance and technology gaps in China: A meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Xin; Zhou, Hongchen; Zhang, Aizhen; Li, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    At present, China is the largest primary energy consumer and carbon emitter in the world. Meantime, China is a large transitional economy with significant regional gaps. Against such backgrounds, the calculated results of energy and carbon performance indicators may be biased, without considering heterogeneity across regions. To this end, after incorporating region-heterogeneity, this paper provides detailed information, regarding energy efficiency, carbon emission performance and the potential of carbon emission reductions from regional perspectives, which may be important and useful for policy makers. Our main findings are as follows. Firstly, there is significant group-heterogeneity across regions in China, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon emission performance. Secondly, there are no considerable differences between total-factor and single-factor performance indices, since there is limited substitutability between energy inputs and other production inputs. Finally, significant carbon emission reductions can be made by “catching up” for regions with low energy efficiency and carbon emission performance. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should adopt measures to promote improvements in terms of energy efficiency and carbon emission performance in the short term. -- Highlights: •We adopt a meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function analysis. •We provide detailed information regarding energy and carbon emission performance. •We find that there is significant region-heterogeneity in China. •There are no large differences between total- and single-factor performance indices. •It can make great contributions to carbon emission reductions by “catching up”

  10. Building for the Future: China’s Progress in Space Technology During the Tenth 5-Year Plan and the U.S. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    orbit on a Long March-4B (LM-4B). In addition, the first test launch of the Pioneer-1 solid -fuel rocket was conducted in September, though...vehicle, China completed the development of a smaller solid fuel rocket , called the Pioneer (kaituozhe), designed to launch micro and small...years. In contrast, development of the U.S. Atlas V and Delta IV launchers took approximately 8 years, while the European Ariane 5 took approximately

  11. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-06-10

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program.

  12. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-01-01

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program

  13. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  14. Commentary: China Will Change Our Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2013-01-01

    The current spurt in life science activity in China has been driven by repatriating researchers trained in the prestigious institutions of the world. China's publications show a clear concentration in the physical sciences and technology, with materials science, chemistry, and physics predominant. Also clear is that the growth areas include…

  15. Fusion research activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiwen

    1998-01-01

    The fusion program in China has been executed in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion for more than 30 years. Basing on the situation of the power supply requirements of China, the fusion program is becoming an important and vital component of the nuclear power program in China. This paper reviews the status of fusion research and next step plans in China. The motivation and goal of the Chinese fusion program is explained. Research and development on tokamak physics and engineering in the southwestern institute of physics (SWIP) and the institute of plasma physics of Academic Sinica (ASIPP) are introduced. A fusion breeder program and a pure fusion reactor design program have been supported by the state science and technology commission (SSTC) and the China national nuclear corporation (CNNC), respectively. Some features and progress of fusion reactor R and D activities are reviewed. Non fusion applications of plasma science are an important part of China fusion research; a brief introduction about this area is given. Finally, an introductional collaboration network on fusion research activities in China is reported. (orig.)

  16. CHINA.COM The Effect of Globalization on Chinese Decision- Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-18

    interdependence is the engine of globalization , and information technology is the turbo-charger. If China continues along its current path, a more...interdependence is the engine of globalization , and information technology is the turbo-charger. If China continues along its current path of change, a...Change in China 3 The Forces of Globalization 4 Globalization and China 6 The Revolution in Information Technology 11 Globalization’s Effect

  17. Academic Library User Education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Rader, Hannelore B.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses user education in China's academic libraries in light of educational reform and the changing role of academic libraries. Describes information technology developments, objectives of user education, and the emphasis on computerbased searching in the Tsinghua University library. (LRW)

  18. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  19. Joint R and D in low-carbon technology development in China: A case study of the wind-turbine manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanchun; Zhang Bing; Zou Ji; Bi Jun; Wang Ke

    2012-01-01

    China faces the dual challenges of climate change and increased energy demand. These challenges in turn increase the demand for wind energy development. Along with rapid growth in manufacturing capacity, Chinese companies have aspired to increase their innovation capacity in order to enhance their competitiveness in the market. Joint research and development (R and D) is an attractive path for Chinese companies striving to advance their R and D capacity. This paper examines joint R and D between Chinese wind-turbine manufacturing companies and foreign design firms, assessing the performance of joint R and D activities in China using the structure-conduct-performance (SCP) framework. The study found that joint R and D has improved Chinese companies’ technical capacity, human resources and financial growth. However, the effect on Chinese companies’ innovation capacity is still limited because of unequal technical capacities of the two sides in collaboration, as well as their preference for augmenting profits rather than technical capacity. Current joint R and D mode is only the extension of licensing mode in wind-turbine manufacturing industry. - Highlights: ► Joint R and D is an attractive path for Chinese companies striving to advance R and D capacity. ► We examined the performance of joint R and D in wind-turbine manufacturing industry. ► Joint R and D has improved Chinese companies’ technical capacity. ► The effect of Joint R and D on innovation capacity is still limited.

  20. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.

    1995-01-01

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  1. Toilet revolution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shikun; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Mang, Heinz-Peter; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Lingling

    2017-09-20

    The wide-spread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value. Opportunities for implementing the toilet revolution include: fulfilling Millennium Development Goals and new Sustainable Development Goals; government support at all levels for popularizing sanitary toilet; environmental protection to alleviate wastewater pollution; resource recovery from human waste and disease prevention for health and wellbeing improvement. Meanwhile, the challenges faced are: insufficient funding and policy support, regional imbalance and lagging approval processes, weak sanitary awareness and low acceptance of new toilets, lack of R&D and service system. The toilet revolution requires a concerted effort from many governmental departments. It needs to address not only technology implementation, but also social acceptance, economic affordability, maintenance issues and, increasingly, gender considerations. Aligned with the ecological sanitation principles, it calls for understanding issues across the entire sanitation service chain. Public-private partnership is also recommended to absorb private capital to make up the lack of funds, as well as arouse the enthusiasm of the public. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. China's Launch Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jingwu

    2002-01-01

    China's Launch Vehicle technologies have been started since 1950s. With the efforts made by several-generation Chinese Space people, the Long March (LM) Launch Vehicles, China's main space transportation tools, have undergone a development road from conventional propellants to cryogenic propellants, from stage-by-stage to strap-on, from dedicated-launch to multiple-launch, from satellite-launching to space capsule-launching. The LM Launch Vehicles are capable of sending various payloads to different orbits with low cost and high reliability. Till now, the LM Launch Vehicles have conducted 67 launch missions, putting 76 spacecraft into the given orbits since the successful mission made by LM-1 in 1970. Especially, they have performed 22 international commercial satellite-launching missions, sending 27 foreign satellites successfully. The footprints of LM Launch Vehicles reflect the development and progress of Chinese Space Industry. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of launch vehicle technology and the economic globalization, it is an inexorable trend that Chinese space industry must participate in the international cooperation and competition. Being faced with both opportunities and challenges, Chinese Space Industry should promote actively the commercial launch service market to increase service quality and improve the comprehensive competition capabilities. In order to maintain the sustaining development of China's launch vehicle technology and to meet the increasing needs in the international commercial launch service market, Chinese space industry is now doing research work on developing new-generation Chinese launchers. The new launchers will be large-scale, powerful and non-contamination. The presence of the new-generation Chinese launchers will greatly speed up the development of the whole space-related industries in China, as well as other parts of the world. In the first part, this paper gives an overview on China Aerospace Science

  3. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bujin

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear technique is a powerful scientific tool in agricultural research, an area with fruitful achievements in China. Nuclear technique application in agriculture based on the development of related science and technology is of a high technical area, and also a meaningful aspect of non-electrical power application of nuclear technique. Nuclear Agricultural Sciences is an important component of agricultural science and technology, and has been made a lot of significant achievements, which has made remarkable contribution to the development in economy, society and ecology of China. This article reviews the achievements and present situation of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China briefly. For promoting its development, the author strongly suggests that Chinese government bodies should put more attention to the study on the application of nuclear technique in agriculture to make further more contributions to Chinese society and agriculture. (authors)

  4. Development of natural gas vehicles in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmin, Cheng

    1996-12-31

    Past decade and current status of development of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in China is described. By the end of 1995, 35 CNG refueling stations and 9 LPG refueling stations had been constructed in 12 regions, and 33,100 vehicles had been converted to run on CNG or LPG. China`s automobile industry, a mainstay of the national economy, is slated for accelerated development over next few years. NGVs will help to solve the problems of environment protection, GHGs mitigation, and shortage of oil supply. The Chinese government has started to promote the development of NGVs. Projects, investment demand, GHG mitigation potential, and development barriers are discussed. China needs to import advanced foreign technologies of CNGs. China`s companies expect to cooperate with foreign partners for import of CNG vehicle refueling compressors, conversions, and light cylinders, etc.

  5. Current development of biorefinery in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Shang, Fei; Zhang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    To meet the demand of its fast growing economy, China has become already the second largest buyer of crude oil. China is facing critical problems of energy shortage and environment deterioration. Rational and efficient energy use and environment protection are both getting more attention in China. Biomass energy is renewable energy made from biological sources. China's biomass resources are abundant, which could provide energy for future social and economic development. However technologies for biomass resource conversion in China are still just beginning. In this paper, current biomass resource distribution and technologies of biomass energy, including power generation, biofuel production and biomass-based chemical production are reviewed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical Resources for Emerging Clean Technologies: Case study of Wind Turbines. World Resource Forum 2012; 21-23 October, 2012; Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Wenzel, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    approach to resource criticality assessment on the technology level and it compares alternative wind turbine technologies. It involves the trade-off between higher Dysprosium and Neodymium consumption in the direct drive turbine and higher Copper consumption of the gearbox turbine and it strives......The dilemma of resource scarcity is not new but its focus has changed from fossil fuels depletion to the mineral resource constraints of clean energy technologies. In order to be independent of fossil fuels we need broad implementation of clean technologies such as wind turbines, photovoltaic...... to quantify and assess this trade-off. [1] Graedel, T.E., Barr, R., Chandler, C., Chase, T., Choi, J., Christoffersen, L., Friedlander, E., Henly, C., Jun,C., Nassar, N.T., Schechner, D., Warren, S., Yang, M and Zhu, C. 2012. Methodology of Metal Criticality Determination. Environ. Sci. Technol: 46 (2). pp...

  7. Role of technologies in energy-related CO2 mitigation in China within a climate-protection world: A scenarios analysis using REMIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Bauer, Nico; Luderer, Gunnar; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The augmented REMIND model is used to study the role of energy technologies under a carbon tax. • The scale and timing of fossil fuels with CCS, nuclear, and renewables are examined. • CCS is important but the window of opportunity for its deployment is limited. • The effectiveness of nuclear is strongly linked to its cost performance. • Renewable energy is a long-term mitigation option. - Abstract: In a world with the need of climate protection through emission reduction, China’s domestic mitigation will be put on the national agenda. The large-scale deployment of innovative technologies induced by climate policies is a key determinant for reducing emissions in an effective and efficient manner. A distinguishing feature of the Chinese energy sector (especially electricity generation), is that investment costs are significantly lower than in other world regions. Represented in the methodological framework of the augmented REMIND model, three promising mitigation technologies (also known as technology clusters) in the electricity sector: CCS with advanced coal-generation technologies, nuclear, and renewables are the focus of this study. The scenarios are designed to analyze the roles of these technologies and their associated economic impacts under a climate policy (i.e., a carbon tax). Our results indicate that: (1)Technology policies improving the techno-economic features of low-carbon technologies are insufficient to restrain China’s increasing emissions. (2)Carbon-pricing policies can effectively reduce emissions by making low-carbon options more competitive than conventional fossil fuel alternatives. In the global carbon tax regime framed in this paper, China’s mitigation potential is larger than that of any of other region and the peak of emissions occurs earlier (by 2020) and is 50% lower than in the BASE scenario. (3)CCS is important, but the window of opportunity for its deployment is limited to the near- to mid-term future. It

  8. Comparative Analysis for Science, Technology and Innovation Policy; Lessons Learned from Some Selected Countries (Brazil, India, China, South Korea and South Africa for Other LdCs Like Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Salami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Having recognized the importance of designing Science, Technology and Innovation policies (STIP, many Less Developed Countries (LDCs such as Iran have nowadays attempt to reshape their STI policies. The policy makers of LDCs like Iran can adopt and design suitable strategies learning from the successful experiences of prosperous nations. This paper performs a comparative analysis of STI policies of some successful countries in managing their technological change. This is mostly due to the fact that the other LDCs can draw valuable lessons from these success stories which in turn can also contribute to success in their own short and long term development. Firstly, the empirical experiences of some successful nations namely (Brazil, India, China, South Africa and South Korea will be studied. The empirical experience in STI policymaking will be surveyed. The most critical success factors contributed mostly to their management of STI policies will also be compared. Finally, a general framework of STI policymaking drawing from the experiences of these countries will be proposed for other LDCs like Iran.

  9. Research on the evaluation method of rural hollowing based on RS and GIS technology: a case study of the Ningxia Hui autonomous region in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kai; Wen, MeiPing; Zhang, FeiFei; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Xiupeng

    2016-10-01

    With the acceleration of urbanization in China, most rural areas formed a widespread phenomenon, i.e., destitute village, labor population loss, land abandonment and rural hollowing. And it formed a unique hollow village problem in China finally. The governance of hollow village was the objective need of the development of economic and social development in rural area for Chinese government, and the research on the evaluation method of rural hollowing was the premise and basis of the hollow village governance. In this paper, several evaluation methods were used to evaluate the rural hollowing based on the survey data, land use data, social and economic development data. And these evaluation indexes were the transition of homesteads, the development intensity of rural residential areas, the per capita housing construction area, the residential population proportion in rural area, and the average annual electricity consumption, which can reflect the rural hollowing degree from the land, population, and economy point of view, respectively. After that, spatial analysis method of GIS was used to analyze the evaluation result for each index. Based on spatial raster data generated by Kriging interpolation, we carried out re-classification of all the results. Using the fuzzy clustering method, the rural hollowing degree in Ningxia area was reclassified based on the two spatial scales of county and village. The results showed that the rural hollowing pattern in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region had a spatial distribution characteristics that the rural hollowing degree was obvious high in the middle of the study area but was low around the study area. On a county scale, the specific performances of the serious rural hollowing were the higher degree of extensive land use, and the lower level of rural economic development and population transfer concentration. On a village scale, the main performances of the rural hollowing were the rural population loss and idle land. The

  10. Page 1 WITHER SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology (TANISSAT) under the Tanzania Commission for. Science and Technology (COSTECH). .... Industries Development Organisation (SIDO) and COSTECH. Between 1990 and 1991 special Policy ... endowment have been displayed in Canada, Australia, the United. States, the United Kingdom and China.

  11. Find Them Home or Abroad? The Relative Contribution of International Technology In-licensing to “Indigenous Innovation” in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi

    2015-01-01

    indigenous innovation policy will continue to make sense in the next decade. This study uses a unique dataset containing information on 178 Chinese firms that were active in technology in-licensing during 2000-2004 - and their patenting activities up to 2009 - to investigate this question. Our findings...

  12. Computational toxicity in 21st century safety sciences (China talk - Fuzhou China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    presentation at the Joint Meeting of Analytical Toxicology and Computational Toxicology Committee (Chinese Society of Toxicology) International Workshop on Advanced Chemical Safety Assessment Technologies on 11 May 2016, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou China

  13. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  14. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  15. Green lights program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu [Beijing Energy Efficiency Center (China)

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  16. Heavy oil : PetroChina's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, C. [PetroChina Co., Ltd., Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    This keynote presentation discussed China's future in relation to heavy oil refining. An overview of PetroChina's overseas operations was also presented. China currently has six 200,000 bpd refineries as well as an additional 12 refineries with a 100,000 bpd capacity that are able to process lower quality feedstocks with a high acid and sulphur content. Seven new 200,000 bpd refineries will be built by 2020. Poor and heavy crude oil from global heavy oil reserves will form a significant percentages of China's refinery feedstocks, and Canada is expected to provide a significant portion of its heavy oil and bitumen resources for further refining in China. China's existing refineries are being reconfigured and optimized for the processing of heavy crude oils. Additional hydrotreating and hydrocracking technologies have been added, and resid fluid catalytic cracking technologies have been retrofitted. China envisages a future with steady increases in oil consumption, high oil prices, and an increased reliance on heavy and poor quality crude oils. China's strong economic growth will increase demand for petrochemical feedstocks. Various research organizations and institutions have been established to accelerate innovation and technology development for ensuring that clean fuels standards are met. New refineries in China will include resid upgrading and new generation catalyst technologies. Details of various technologies were included. tabs., figs.

  17. Nuclear medicine in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shihchen; Liu, Xiujie

    1986-01-01

    Since China first applied isotopes to medical research in 1956, over 800 hospitals and research institutions with 4000 staff have taken up nuclear technology. So far, over 120 important biologically active materials have been measured by radioimmunoassay in China, and 44 types of RIA kit have been supplied commercially. More than 50,000 cases of hyperthyroidism have been treated satisfactorily with 131 I. Radionuclide imaging of practically all organs and systems of the human body has been performed, and adrenal imaging and nuclear cardiology have become routine clinical practice in several large hospitals. The thyroid iodine uptake test, renogram tracing and cardiac function studies with a cardiac probe are also commonly used in most Chinese hospitals. The active principles of more than 60 medicinal herbs have been labelled with isotopes in order to study the drug metabolism and mechanism of action. Through the use of labelled neurotransmitters or deoxyglucose, RIA, radioreceptor assay and autoradiography, Chinese researchers have made remarkable achievements in the study of the scientific basis of acupuncture analgesia. In 1980 the Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine was founded, and since 1981 the Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine has been published. Although nuclear medicine in China has already made some progress, when compared with advanced countries, much progress is still to be made. It is hoped that international scientific exchange will be strengthened in the future. (author)

  18. International Conference on Millimeter Wave and Far-Infrared Technology (1st) Held in Beijing, China, August 17-21, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Vacuum Technology, John Wiley & Sons, (1980)9 7. F. 3. Liao.Acta Electronica Sinica (In Chineoe)19(3)(1991)89 8. Guang-Yi Liu. 34th International Field...Zarubezhnaya radioelectronica. 1980, v. No 1, pp 3-32. 2. Andreyev G.A., Chernaya L.F. i/ Radiotekhnica electronica . 1981, v. 26, No 6, pp. 1198-1206. 3

  19. Assessing equity in the distribution of high-technology medical equipment in Guangxi: evidence from an ethnic minority region in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jian; Gu, Hai; Wen, Qiulin; Luo, Hongye

    2017-01-01

    Background High-technology medical equipment (HTME) are important health resources. However, there is unequal distribution of these equipment in favor of metropolis and well equipped health facilities. This study sought to examine the equity gaps in the distribution of HTME in Guangxi. The results of this study could shed light on the future HTME allocation in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Methods Data related to HTME was sourced from a general investigation of all the hospitals of Guangx...

  20. Characterization of macropore structure of Malan loess in NW China based on 3D pipe models constructed by using computed tomography technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanrong; He, Shengdi; Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Yongxin

    2018-04-01

    Malan loess is a grayish yellow or brownish yellow, clastic, highly porous and brittle late Quaternary sediment formed by the accumulation of windblown dust. The present-day pore structure of Malan loess is crucial for understanding the loessification process in history, loess strengths and mechanical behavior. This study employed a modern computed tomography (CT) device to scan Malan loess samples, which were obtained from the east part of the Loess Plateau of China. A sophisticated and efficient workflow for processing the CT images and constructing 3D pore models was established by selecting and programming relevant mathematical algorithms in MATLAB, such as the maximum entropy method, medial axis method, and node recognition algorithm. Individual pipes within the Malan loess were identified and constructed by partitioning and recombining links in the 3D pore model. The macropore structure of Malan loess was then depicted using quantitative parameters. The parameters derived from 2D images of CT scanning included equivalent radius, length and aspect ratio of pores, porosity, and pore distribution entropy, whereas those derived from the constructed 3D structure models included porosity, coordination number, node density, pipe radius, length, length density, dip angle, and dip direction. The analysis of these parameters revealed that Malan loess is a strongly anisotropic geomaterial with a dense and complex network of pores and pipes. The pores discovered on horizontal images, perpendicular to the vertical direction, were round and relatively uniform in shape and size and evenly distributed, whereas the pores discovered on vertical images varied in shape and size and were distributed in clusters. The pores showed good connectivity in vertical direction and formed vertically aligned pipes but displayed weak connectivity in horizontal directions. The pipes in vertical direction were thick, long, and straight compared with those in horizontal directions. These

  1. The Chinese Politics of Communication Technology: Utility, State Building and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an examination into the formulation and construction of information and communication technology policy in China. It traces the rise of information technology and the "informatization" drive in China's political rhetoric, and identifies the changes and trajectory of information and communication technology in China's…

  2. The 2006 Eldon D. Foote lecture in international business : a changing China : the resource challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balloch, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    China's important role in the market for international resources was discussed. China's emergence as a major economic power may mean that human activity in the world will continue to stress global resource capacities. Challenges that currently face China will affect its own growth in addition to the future of global resource markets and international politics, and China's global influence will have profound implications for the Canadian and international business community. This paper discussed China's economic growth and drivers, and examined the country's growing need for resources. China's foreign policy was examined, and the politics of resource acquisitions were discussed. Recent technological innovations in China were reviewed

  3. Biotechnology and bioeconomy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhao, Qinghua; Hu, Yihong; Wang, Hongguang

    2006-11-01

    From the review of the achievements and advantages in the development of biotechnology (BT) and bioindustry in China, it is clear that the bioeconomy would provide a tremendous opportunity for China to develop sustainably or even surpass a few developed countries. A long-term vision has been made to guide the research and development and industrialization of BT in China. This review detailed the strategies, targets, priorities, and key technologies in each stage. Furthermore, the reviewers expatiated on the establishment of the favorable policies, the foundation of the professional groups, the establishment of the advanced laboratories or centers, the investment mechanisms, the development and evaluation of biosafety, the encouragement and support for the international collaborations and exchanges, and the establishment of the general organizational structure.

  4. China joins Alberta oilsands research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that China's state oil company has bought a stake in an in situ oilsands research project in northern Alberta. China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC) will invest $6.5 million in the Underground Test Facility (UTF) operated by Alberta Oilsands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra) near Fort McMurray. It is the first foreign research investment for CNPC. The UTF is a joint venture by provincial agency Aostria, the Canadian federal government, and commercial partners in underground mining techniques to extract crude oil from bitumen. Alberta opened a trade office in Beijing in 1991 and now sells several hundred million dollars a year in petroleum equipment and services to China. A horizontal well in situ steam injection process is approaching the production stage at the UTF. It is to begin producing at a rate of 2,000 b/d this fall. The current project is a followup to a pilot project

  5. Current development of liver transplantation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the only effective way for the treatment of end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation has been developed rapidly in China over recent years. The latest developments of liver transplantation in China are reviewed, including establishment of selection criteria for the liver cancer recipients of liver transplantation——Hangzhou Criteria; latest application of salvage liver transplantation and downstaging therapy in liver transplantation for liver cancer; progress in liver transplantation combined with artificial liver support system for treatment of severe acute liver failure; breakthrough in technology innovation of living donor liver transplantation and organ donation and transplantation after cardiac death in China. Facing the problem of organ shortage, a scientific and standardized organ donation system should be established in line with the national conditions of China, so as to benefit the people and further improve the reputation of China in the international organ transplant community.

  6. The Anatomy of Teleneurosurgery in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With its huge population and vast territory, China faces a great challenge in providing modern advanced health care services to all parts of the country. The advances of information communication technologies (ICTs and the advent of internet have revolutionised the means in the delivery of healthcare via telemedicine to remote and underserved populations, which to a certain extent has been very well exploited in China, especially where 70% peasants residing in the rural areas. This paper reviews the latest development in telemedicine infrastructure in China with the focus on the development of teleneurosurgery, drawing from the results gained from a 3-year networking project between Europe and China on telemedicine (TIME, 2005–2007 funded by European Commission under Asia ICT programme, with an aim to shape up envisages of future medical care in China. Comparison with its counterparts in Europe is also addressed.

  7. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  8. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    ... whether continued economic growth will lead to increasing hegemonic tendencies. This thesis employs a China-centric approach--China's history, classical strategic literature, strategic trends, and sources from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  9. Emission Inventory Development and Application Based On an Atmospheric Emission Source Priority Control Classification Technology Method, a Case Study in the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Cheng, S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to investigate the emission source control of the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations (MRYRUA), one of the national urban agglomerations in China. An emission inventory of the MRYRUA was the first time to be developed as inputs to the CAMx model based on county-level activity data obtained by full-coverage investigation and source-based spatial surrogates. The emission inventory was proved to be acceptable owing to the atmospheric modeling verification. A classification technology method for atmospheric pollution source priority control was the first time to be introduced and applied in the MRYRUA for the evaluation of the emission sources control on the region-scale and city-scale. MICAPS (Meteorological Information comprehensive Analysis and Processing System) was applied for the regional meteorological condition and sensitivity analysis. The results demonstrated that the emission sources in the Hefei-center Urban Agglomerations contributed biggest on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA and should be taken the priority to control. The emission sources in the Ma'anshan city, Xiangtan city, Hefei city and Wuhan city were the bigger contributors on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA among the cities and should be taken the priority to control. In addition, the cities along the Yangtze River and the tributary should be given the special attention for the regional air quality target attainments. This study provide a valuable preference for policy makers to develop effective air pollution control strategies.

  10. Technological Innovation for China’s Logistics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Yu Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s logistics industry has started to pay attention to adopt more efficient logistics technologies to provide better services for their customers. This paper employes the questionnaire survey to study the factors influencing the adoption of technological innovations by logistics service providers in China as well as the influences of technological innovation on supply chain performance. Technological innovations are categorized into data acquisition technologies, information technologies, warehousing technologies, and transportation technologies. The results show that the adoption of technological innovations is significantly influenced by technological, organizational and environmental factors, and adopting innovative technologies will increase supply chain performance for the logistics industry in China.

  11. China Changes the Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Rzeszotarska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the twentieth century fundamentally changed the situation in the global economy. China's spectacular economic success has increased an interest in this country. The short time in which China moved on from the a poor agricultural country into a global economic power is admirable. China's model combines conflicted elements of different economic systems: the bureaucratic planning, island-capitalism, simple goods production and natural economy. The current development and transformation of the economy have brought about spectacular achievements and successes. However, the "the world's manufacturer" produces goods designed in other countries. In contrast, the modern idea is to build a modern and independent Chinese industry. The possibilities of the current model of economic development based on simple reserves and large statedriven infrastructure projects, which no longer drive the economy to the extent they previously did, dried out. Thus, the "Middle Kingdom" will have to compete against the rest of the world on quality and innovation. Therefore the development of the new model is a prerequisite to ensure progress in the future. Discussion on further development has been expedited in 2011, when it became abundantly clear that the Chinese economy would share the experience of the effects of the global crisis. The Chinese look at the challenges that the economy is facing realistically in thinking about the modern technology which begins to dominate the country. China is determined to become the leading technological superpower of the world. Today, many developing countries are looking towards China watching the development model implemented there with the hope of its adaptation in their economies. However, China is a unique entity. Therefore, it may be that adaptation of the Chinese model of development in other countries is not possible.

  12. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  13. Environmental issues in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Environmental issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs

  15. Press kit. Areva in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The results achieved in the nuclear energy field illustrate the exemplary nature of the cooperation between France and China. Over 20 years, China has developed the nuclear technology for generating electricity, using the expertise and knowledge of the AREVA Group. AREVA has been present in China since 1986 and now employs 3,500 staff there. The group supplied the nuclear islands for 4 reactors at Daya Bay and Ling Ao as well as technology and equipment for 4 more reactors at the Qinshan II and Tianwan plants. AREVA has developed an ambitious program for transferring technology to the Chinese industry and developing local skills. The group's objective is to remain China's partner of choice in terms of its nuclear program. During an official visit to France in June 2004, China's Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan said he was in favor of 'overall and long-lasting cooperation between China and France in the field of nuclear energy'. AREVA took the opportunity to sign two letters of intent for cooperation over technology from its next generation of nuclear reactors. Electricity consumption forecasts report a need for 900 GW through 2020 and the country's objective is to increase nuclear-generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output (36 GW: the equivalent of around twenty 1,500 MWe reactors). An official decision to build 4 new reactors was announced in July 2004 and a further decision concerning another 4 reactors is expected in the near future. Various construction sites are being considered, mainly along the country's eastern coast. An official decision to build four duplicate reactors was announced n July 2004. In addition to these four duplicate reactors to be built on existing sites, China has decided to build four 3. generation reactors at Yangjiang and Sanmen. An international call for tender was launched on September 28, 2004. AREVA will reply to the tender by offering its EPR model. AREVA also aims to expand its Chinese operations into exploring and extracting

  16. Can Energy Structure Optimization, Industrial Structure Changes, Technological Improvements, and Central and Local Governance Effectively Reduce Atmospheric Pollution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Area in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxuan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region has been achieved by consuming large amounts of fossil fuels. This produces a large number of pollutants, which damage the physical and mental health of residents, and prevent sustainable economic development. The most urgent task at present is improving the quality of the environment. This paper takes carbon emission as a pollution index, and adopts an extended stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology (STIRPAT model in order to study the impact of the optimization of industry structure (in particular the reduction of the proportion of energy-intensive secondary industry, the optimization of the energy structure, and technological improvements on the atmospheric environmental quality. We obtain some important and enlightening discoveries. First of all, the rapid economic growth that has been based on magnanimous fossil fuel consumption is still the main reason for the deterioration of the atmospheric environment. This means that the main driving force of economic growth still comes from high pollution industries, despite a strategy for the transformation of the pattern of economic growth having been proposed for many years. Second, the optimization of the industrial structure has not played a significant role in promoting the reduction of carbon emissions. Through further research, we believe that this may be due to the low-quality development of the third industry. In other words, the traditional service industry related to high energy consumption accounts for a large proportion in regional total output, while the high-end service industry related to small pollution accounts for a relatively small proportion. Third, reducing the consumption of coal and improving the technological level can effectively curb the deterioration of the environmental quality. In addition, we find that transboundary pollution is an important factor affecting the environment in

  17. Entering China: an unconventional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, W

    1997-01-01

    Conventional wisdom has it that the best way to do business in China is through an equity joint venture (EJV) with a well-connected Chinese partner. But pioneering companies are starting a trend toward a new way to enter that market: as a wholly foreign-owned enterprise, or WFOE. Increasingly, says the author, joint ventures do not offer foreign companies what they need to succeed in China. For example, many companies want to do business nationally, but the prospects for finding a Chinese partner with national scope are poor. Moreover, there are often conflicting perceptions between partners about how to operate an EJV: Chinese companies, for example, typically have a more immediate interest in profits than foreign investors do. By contrast, the author asserts, WFOEs are faster to set up and easier to manage; and they allow managers to expand operations more rapidly. That makes them the perfect solution, right? The answer is a qualified yes. First, foreign companies will still need sources of guanxi, or social and political connections. Second, managers must take steps to avoid trampling on China's cultural or economic sovereignty. Third and perhaps most important, foreign companies must be prepared to bring something of value to China-usually in the form of jobs or new technology that can help the country develop. Companies willing to make the effort, says the author, can reap the rewards of China's burgeoning marketplace.

  18. China's energy efficiency target 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government has set an ambitious target: reducing China's energy intensity by 20%, or 4.36% each year between 2006 and 2010 on the 2005 level. Real data showed that China missed its target in 2006, having reduced its energy intensity only by 1.3%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Chinese to achieve the target. This paper presents issues of macro-economy, population migration, energy savings, and energy efficiency policy measures to achieve the target. A top-down approach was used to analyse the relationship between the Chinese economic development and energy demand cycles and to identify the potentials of energy savings in sub-sectors of the Chinese economy. A number of factors that contribute to China's energy intensity are identified in a number of energy-intensive sectors. This paper concludes that China needs to develop its economy at its potential GDP growth rate; strengthen energy efficiency auditing, monitoring and verification; change its national economy from a heavy-industry-dominated mode to a light industry or a commerce-dominated mode; phase out inefficient equipment in industrial sectors; develop mass and fast railway transportation; and promote energy-efficient technologies at the end use. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for designing their policy to achieve China's energy efficiency target

  19. Implementation of environmental management in China

    OpenAIRE

    Håkansson, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    This thesis project was carried out within the cooperation between theIndustrial Ecology Department at Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),Stockholm, Sweden and Center for Space Thermal Science of ShandongUniversity, Jinan, China. The aim of this thesis report is to investigate Environmental ManagementSystem (EMS) and its support system, give a general view of theenvironmental work in companies in China, and make recommendation forSwedish joint ventures how they should work with environmental...

  20. Wind power development and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Cuiping; Farid, Nida R.; Jochem, Eberhard; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The People's Republic of China foresees a target of 30 GW for installed wind power capacity by 2010 (2008: 12 GW). This paper reports on the technical and economic potentials of wind power, the recent development, existing obstacles, and related policies in China. The barriers to further commercialization of the wind power market are important and may deter the 100 GW capacity target of the Chinese government by 2020. The paper concludes that the diffusion of wind power in China is an important element for not only reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, but also for worldwide progress of wind power technology and needed economies of scale. (author)

  1. 2015 4th China Academic Conference on Printing and Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Min; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    This book includes a selection of reviewed papers presented at the 2015, 4th China Academic Conference on Printing and Packaging, which was held on October 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, China. The conference was jointly organized by the China Academy of Printing Technology, Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, and Hangzhou Dianzi University. With 3 keynote talks and 200 presented papers on graphic communications, packaging technologies and materials, the conference attracted more than 400 scientists.  These proceedings cover the recent research outcomes on color science and technology, image-processing technology, digital-media technology, printing-engineering technology, packaging-engineering technology etc. They will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in graphic communications, packaging, color science, image science, materials science, computer science, digital media and network technology fields.

  2. Dynamics of clean coal-fired power generation development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Li

    2012-01-01

    Coal-fired power technology will play an important role over a long period in China. Clean coal-fired power technology is essential for the global GHG emission reduction. Recently, advanced supercritical (SC)/ultra-supercritical (USC) technology has made remarkable progress in China and greatly contributed to energy saving and emission reduction. This study analyzes the dynamics of SC/USC development in China from an integrated perspective. The result indicates that, besides the internal demand, the effective implementation of domestic public policy and technology transfer contributed greatly to the development of SC/USC technology in China. In future low carbon scenario, SC/USC coal-fired power technology might still be the most important power generation technology in China until 2040, and will have a significant application prospect in other developing countries. The analysis makes a very useful introduction for other advanced energy technology development, including a renewable energy technology, in China and other developing countries. - Highlights: ► The US/USC technology is the key clean coal-fired power technology in current China. ► The domestic policy and technology transfer largely contributed to their development. ► This makes a useful introduction for the development of renewable energy in China.

  3. China's new path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yingling

    2008-01-01

    The recent policy tools have also consolidated and advanced traditional renewable energy industries, including hydropower and solar thermal panels, where China has already been a world leader. The technologies are comparatively simple and low-cost, and the country has developed fairly strong construction, manufacturing and installation industries for both sources. They are still dominant in China's renewable energy use, and are expected to see continuous strong growth. Hydropower accounts for about two-thirds of China's current renewable energy use. It has grown by over 8 per cent annually from 2002 to 2006, and installed capacity will reach 190 GW by 2010 and 300 GW by 2020. China also has nearly two-thirds of the world's solar hot water capacity: more than one in every ten households bathe in water heated by the sun. Such solar thermal has witnessed 20-25 per cent annual growth in recent years, with installed capacity rising from 35 million square metres in 2000 to 100 million square metres by the end of 2006. The government aims for 150 million square metres by 2010 and double that figure by 2020. A more optimistic prediction envisages 800 million square metres installed capacity by 2030, which would mean that more than half of all Chinese households would be using solar energy for water heating. Renewable energy has become a strategic industry in China. The country has more than 50 domestic wind turbine manufacturers, over 15 major solar cell manufacturers and roughly 50 companies constructing, expanding or planning for polysilicon production lines, the key components for solar PV systems. Those two industries together employ some 80,000 people. The country also has thousands of hydropower manufacturers and engineering and design firms. More than a thousand solar water heater manufacturers throughout the country - and associated design, installation and service providers - provide some 600,000 jobs. As renewable industries are scaled up, costs will come down

  4. The application of stereo-video technology for the assessment on population change of black rockfish Sebastes schlegeli in a vessel reef area in Haizhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Qinzeng; Zhang, Yingqiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of population structure and abundance of fish assemblages associated with artificial reefs (ARs) is an important aspect of AR management. In the present study, we used a Dive-Operated Stereo Video (stereo-DOV) technique to assess the population structure and abundance of Sebastes schlegeli associated with two metallic, and three wooden, vessel reefs in Haizhou Bay during 2012 and 2013. The study used video systems to obtain length measurements and estimates of abundance. The size composition of S. schlegeli differed among reefs and individuals around vessel reefs were all adults, with total lengths (TL) of >20 cm. Juvenile fish were encountered by divers in a rocky area near the island away from the vessel reefs. The largest individual S. schlegeli (with the highest TL) among five reefs were found around a metallic vessel reef in both 2012 and 2013. TL of S. s chlegeli from all reefs increased by an average of 3.2 cm ( P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013, with an estimated mean weight increase of 250.4 g ( P<0.05). The video survey also indicated a decrease in the biomass of schools near two metallic vessels between the years. Stereo-video technology was found to be suitable for rockfish surveys around the reefs.

  5. Assessing equity in the distribution of high-technology medical equipment in Guangxi: evidence from an ethnic minority region in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Gu, Hai; Wen, Qiulin; Luo, Hongye

    2017-05-16

    High-technology medical equipment (HTME) are important health resources. However, there is unequal distribution of these equipment in favor of metropolis and well equipped health facilities. This study sought to examine the equity gaps in the distribution of HTME in Guangxi. The results of this study could shed light on the future HTME allocation in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Data related to HTME was sourced from a general investigation of all the hospitals of Guangxi. Concentration index was used to assess the equity status of HTME in Guangxi. Over all, the total amount of HTME in Guangxi had been increasing from 2011 to 2015, and the per million population HTME of five kinds were all increased at the same time. Meanwhile, the concentration indices ranged between 0.1020 and 0.4617. The five medical equipment were all concentrated among the rich. The possession of SPECT per million population in Guangxi is lower than the national average level while it is superior to the national average level for CT, MRI, DSA and LA. The equity status in the distribution of the five medical equipment has deteriorated since 2011. In 2015, the equity status of CT was the best, while the equity status of MRI was the worst. Meanwhile, 45.1% of HTME were concentrated in Nanning, Guilin, and Liuzhou.

  6. MARKET RESEARCH FOR DOMESTIC SOLAR PRODUCT IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Lijie

    2015-01-01

    The thesis introduces the situation of solar energy and smart solar mobile power in China market. The report was completed by doing research based on relevant data and information from reports, academic books, internet, and interviews energy companies. Chinese government has realized renewable energy is the one way to replace the traditional energy. The solar energy is an emerging industry in China. Solar technology and devices have become increasingly popular in China in recent years. Th...

  7. Modeling of Alpine Grassland Cover Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology and Multi-Factor Methods: A Case Study in the East of Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Meng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Grassland cover and its temporal changes are key parameters in the estimation and monitoring of ecosystems and their functions, especially via remote sensing. However, the most suitable model for estimating grassland cover and the differences between models has rarely been studied in alpine meadow grasslands. In this study, field measurements of grassland cover in Gannan Prefecture, from 2014 to 2016, were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technology. Single-factor parametric and multi-factor parametric/non-parametric cover inversion models were then constructed based on 14 factors related to grassland cover, and the dynamic variation of the annual maximum cover was analyzed. The results show that (1 nine out of 14 factors (longitude, latitude, elevation, the concentrations of clay and sand in the surface and bottom soils, temperature, precipitation, enhanced vegetation index (EVI and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI exert a significant effect on grassland cover in the study area. The logarithmic model based on EVI presents the best performance, with an R2 and RMSE of 0.52 and 16.96%, respectively. Single-factor grassland cover inversion models account for only 1–49% of the variation in cover during the growth season. (2 The optimum grassland cover inversion model is the artificial neural network (BP-ANN, with an R2 and RMSE of 0.72 and 13.38%, and SDs of 0.062% and 1.615%, respectively. Both the accuracy and the stability of the BP-ANN model are higher than those of the single-factor parametric models and multi-factor parametric/non-parametric models. (3 The annual maximum cover in Gannan Prefecture presents an increasing trend over 60.60% of the entire study area, while 36.54% is presently stable and 2.86% exhibits a decreasing trend.

  8. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  9. Interpretation of Forest Resources at the Individual Tree Level at Purple Mountain, Nanjing City, China, Using WorldView-2 Imagery by Combining GPS, RS and GIS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songqiu Deng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to measure forest resources at the individual tree level using high-resolution images by combining GPS, RS, and Geographic Information System (GIS technologies. The images were acquired by the WorldView-2 satellite with a resolution of 0.5 m in the panchromatic band and 2.0 m in the multispectral bands. Field data of 90 plots were used to verify the interpreted accuracy. The tops of trees in three groups, namely ≥10 cm, ≥15 cm, and ≥20 cm DBH (diameter at breast height, were extracted by the individual tree crown (ITC approach using filters with moving windows of 3 × 3 pixels, 5 × 5 pixels and 7 × 7 pixels, respectively. In the study area, there were 1,203,970 trees of DBH over 10 cm, and the interpreted accuracy was 73.68 ± 15.14% averaged over the 90 plots. The numbers of the trees that were ≥15 cm and ≥20 cm DBH were 727,887 and 548,919, with an average accuracy of 68.74 ± 17.21% and 71.92 ± 18.03%, respectively. The pixel-based classification showed that the classified accuracies of the 16 classes obtained using the eight multispectral bands were higher than those obtained using only the four standard bands. The increments ranged from 0.1% for the water class to 17.0% for Metasequoia glyptostroboides, with an average value of 4.8% for the 16 classes. In addition, to overcome the “mixed pixels” problem, a crown-based supervised classification, which can improve the classified accuracy of both dominant species and smaller classes, was used for generating a thematic map of tree species. The improvements of the crown- to pixel-based classification ranged from −1.6% for the open forest class to 34.3% for Metasequoia glyptostroboides, with an average value of 20.3% for the 10 classes. All tree tops were then annotated with the species attributes from the map, and a tree count of different species indicated that the forest of Purple Mountain is mainly dominated by Quercus acutissima, Liquidambar formosana

  10. Development and application of wood adhesives in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiyou Gu; Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic development and growth in China has resulted in a substantial increase in the demand for utilization of bio-based composites. This provides a unique opportunity for developing wood adhesives. This study reviews research development and major accomplishments in wood adhesives and technology in China over the last 50 years. It also discusses the...

  11. China's indigenous innovation approach: the emergence of Chinese innovation theory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinig, T.; Bossink, B.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Theory-driven and theory-based studies on innovation in China are relatively scarce. Most innovation studies about Chinese business are based on Chinese policy and government programmes and their results. This special issue of Technology Analysis and Strategic Management explores China's indigenous

  12. Internet and Information Control: The Case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoming, Hao; Zhang, Kewen; Yu, Huang

    1996-01-01

    Examines the potential impact of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on government controls of information in China. Examines the current development of CMC in China; challenges posed by new media technologies to government information control; and the current policy of the Chinese government towards on-line communication and its implications.…

  13. The birth and routinization of IVF in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2016-01-01

    comprehensive family planning programmes aimed at preventing birth was being rolled out. IVF was not merely imported into China, rather it was experimentally developed within China into a form suitable for its restrictive family planning regulations. As a result, IVF and other assisted reproductive technologies...

  14. Comparison of Engineering Education in Norway and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Jia, Yanrui; Li, Zhenchun; Song, Yu

    2018-01-01

    The Washington Accord is an internationally recognized agreement in engineering education of undergraduates. China joined the agreement as the 18th member country in 2016. The exploration technology and engineering major of China University of Petroleum has obtained the professional certification from international engineering education system and…

  15. Anticounterfeit holograms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dahsiung; Zhou, Jing; Pei, Wen; Li, Qiang; Huang, Xuhuai; Cao, Yulin

    1995-02-01

    The Chinese holography industry has been given an enormous boost by the energetic sales and technology transfer of several western businesses. It is a fast growing industry which can keep up with domestic demand for anti-counterfeit embossed holograms because product counterfeiting is so rife internally. Tax papers, stamps, plastic cards, identification cards, and many packaged goods are authenticated with embossed holograms. Up to now, about 1,000 kinds of products in China have used holograms to protect themselves. Anti-counterfeit holograms with secret codes have also been used. After dependence on imports, China is rapidly developing its own sources of equipment, holographic materials, and embossing substrates. The quality of this equipment and materials is improving. The new Chinese Holography Association, a national industry association aiming to develop the application of holograms and to promote cooperation between organizations, was established in 1993. The CHA has requested affiliation to the International Hologram Manufacturers Association, a move which should improve the communication between the Chinese industry and the rest of the world industry.

  16. Modern Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  17. Clean coal use in China: Challenges and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; McLellan, Benjamin C.; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption in China is currently dominated by coal, a major source of air pollution and carbon emissions. The utilization of clean coal technologies is a likely strategic choice for China at present, however, although there have been many successes in clean coal technologies worldwide, they are not widely used in China. This paper examines the challenges that China faces in the implementation of such clean coal technologies, where the analysis shows that those drivers that have a negative bearing on the utilization of clean coal in China are mainly non-technical factors such as the low legal liability of atmospheric pollution related to coal use, and the lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal use in China. Policies for the development of clean coal technologies are in their early stages in China, and the lack of laws and detailed implementation requirements for clean coal require resolution in order to accelerate China's clean coal developments. Currently, environmental pollution has gained widespread attention from the wider Chinese populace and taking advantage of this opportunity provides a space in which to regain the initiative to raise people’s awareness of clean coal products, and improve enterprises’ enthusiasm for clean coal. - Highlights: • Clean coal is not widely used in China due to many management issues. • Legal liability of pollution related with coal utilization is too low in China. • China is lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal utilization. • It is difficult to accelerate clean coal utilization by incentive subsidies alone.

  18. PROVING SOLUTIONS FOR A BETTER TOMORROW: A PROGRESS REPORT ON U.S. EPA'S DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS IN ECUADOR, MEXICO AND CHINA (EPA/600/F-98/008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication describes the progress of USEPA's Drinking Water Treatment Demonstration projects currently underway in Ecuador, Mexico and China. Material includes descriptions of problems faced and approaches used to improve water quality.

  19. China's mixed signals on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ultimately, it is nuclear whether the Chinese leadership has made up its collective mind on practical nuclear weapons. It is known from Chinese official sources, including articles in Communist Party and military publications and histories of the Chinese nuclear program, that an internal debate has proceeded for more than two decades, punctuated by occasional nuclear exercises or low-yield warhead tests. But China presumably has less reason now to pursue development of tactical nuclear weapons than in previous decades: relations with the Soviet Union have improved and military confrontation has eased; China's relations with India and Vietnam are also improving. The decision may already have been made, however, and the weapons built. The mystery surrounding Chinese tactical nuclear weapons is itself interesting, but it is also symbolic of the difficulty of understanding China's nuclear weapons program and policies. The West has accumulated a considerable body of knowledge about China's nuclear forces, especially historical material. But important aspects of China's nuclear behavior and its future as a nuclear power are hard to discern. A key question is China's future role in the spread of nuclear-capable weapons to other countries. China might add to international efforts to stem the proliferation of nuclear related technology, or it might become the world's missile merchant. It could make a constructive contribution to arms control efforts in general, or it could act as a spoiler

  20. China's early space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilin, Zhu

    1994-05-01

    China's space exploration began in the late 1950s in response to the launch of the Soviet Sputnik. The Chinese Academy of Science formed a team which was responsible for establishing three design institutes. The Shanghai Institute for Machine and Electricity Design was established. When the plan for the other design institutes was abandoned, the Shanghai Institute began to develop a sounding rocket. In 1960 the liquid-propellant sounding rocket 'T-7' was launched. The T-7 was modified and improved. A series of interplanetary flight symposia were held to discuss developmental approaches to Chinese space technology. Academic research results and technical development achievements laid a solid foundation for the launch in 1970 of the first artificial satellite.

  1. India : the new China?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanavaty, K. [Reliance Industries Ltd., Mumbai (India). Cracker and Polymer Div.

    2006-07-01

    India is emerging as a strong force in the global economy. The population of China is 1.2 times that of India, and its gross domestic product is 2.5 times that of India. However, analyses of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) indicate that if India continues its rate of growth, its' consumption and production will reach China's current levels in less than 15 years. This represents a significant investment opportunity in basic industry, particularly since a growing middle class will ensure a boom in consumer products consumption. This presentation compared India and China, in terms of economic approaches and challenges for India. Implications for the petrochemical industry were also discussed with reference to Reliance Industries Ltd. and its full integration in the value chain with petroleum refining. Reliance Industries Ltd. claims that India's captive utilities and labour productivity provide the company with conversion costs that are among the lowest in the industry. In terms of agriculture, India is one of the largest producers of agricultural commodities in the world and is well supported by varying agro-climates and fertile land. This presentation also included an agro-commodities yield comparison for rice, wheat and cereal. The Indian manufacturing industry is also competitive, focusing on cutting cost, increasing productivity and innovation. It was noted that although China has the advantage of a well established infrastructure on a global and domestic scale as well as job opportunities and quick policy implementation, it has lax labour laws, poor pollution laws and a challenging banking system. In contrast, India has the entrepreneurial advantage as well as global scale information technology, a globally competitive manufacturing industry, an independent regulatory framework and world class capital markets and banking system. India's challenge lies in its lack of a world-class infrastructure, complicated tax structure and slow

  2. All projects related to China | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, ACCESS TO INFORMATION, LICENSING, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, LICENCE AGREEMENTS, ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING. Region: Asia, China, India. Program: Networked Economies ... Toward Détente in Media Piracy. Project. Negotiations around intellectual property rights ...

  3. China Wind Power Outlook 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junfeng, Li; Pengfei, Shi; Hu, Gao

    2010-10-01

    China's wind power can reach 230 GW of installed capacity by 2020, which is equal to 13 times the current capacity of the Three Gorges Dam; its annual electricity output of 464.9 TWh could replace 200 coal fire power plants. In 2009, China led the world in newly installed wind-energy devices, reaching a capacity of 13.8 GW (10,129 turbines) - a rate of one new turbine every hour. In terms of overall capacity, China ranks second, at 25.8 GW. The report projects that by 2020, China's total wind power capacity will reach at least 150GW, possibly up to 230GW, which, if realized, could cut 410 million tons of CO2 emission, or 150 million tons of coal consumption. Compared to multinationals, many Chinese companies are young and lack a strong basis for research and development. Despite a renewable energy policy requiring grid companies to purchase all electricity from wind farms, access to wind power for the grid is frequently lagging behind an unstable, out-dated grid infrastructure. There is also the problem of a lack of incentives and penalties for grid companies, and slow progress in more wind energy technologies.

  4. 5th China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Wenhai; Wu, Haitao; Lu, Mingquan

    2014-01-01

    China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2014 Proceedings presents selected research papers from CSNC2014, held on 21-23 May in Nanjing, China. The theme of CSNC2014 is 'BDS Application: Innovation, Integration and Sharing'. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 9 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2014, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.  SUN Jiadong is the Chief Designer of the Compass/ BDS, and the Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); JIAO Wenhai is a researcher at China Satellite Navigation Office; WU Haitao is a professor at Navigation Headquarters, CAS; LU Mingquan is a professor at Department of Electronic Engineering of Tsinghua University.

  5. China's Nuclear Power Program: Options for the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttmeier, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The issue of American nuclear cooperation with the People's Republic of China is examined with regards to political relations, commercial benefits to the United States, and nonproliferation. China's interest in nuclear power is examined, and its nuclear program is briefly reviewed from the 1950's to present. China's international nuclear relations with other countries are discussed, and implications for the United States examined, particularly with regards to China's intentions toward nuclear proliferation, danger of diversion of material for nuclear weapons, use of pressurized water reactor technology for Chinese naval reactors, and the terms of the nuclear cooperation agreement

  6. Energy efficiency opportunities in China. Industrial equipment and small cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    A quick glance at comparative statistics on energy consumption per unit of industrial output reveals that China is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. Energy waste not only impedes economic growth, but also creates pollution that threatens human health, regional ecosystems, and the global climate. China`s decision to pursue economic reform and encourage technology transfer from developed countries has created a window of opportunity for significant advances in energy efficiency. Policy changes, technical training, public education, and financing can help China realize its energy conservation potential.

  7. China's S&T Emergence: A Proposal for U.S. DOD-China Collaboration in Fundamental Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, William; Loeb, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    ...). China has committed to an ambitious strategy to increase its investments in S&T and in a workforce capable of making it a world class center for technological innovation that will drive its future economic and national security...

  8. Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Min; Kim, Min; Jeong, Hee Jong; Hwang, Jeong Ki; Cho, Chung Hee

    1996-10-01

    China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

  9. Finnish High Tech in China - A Study of Business Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Suhonen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study the challenges caused by differences in Finnish and Chinese business cultures in the high technology industry. The study explains the main characteristics of the Chinese national and business cultures which every company operating in China will be dealing with, and offers examples of how these affect a high tech company. The study was conducted as a case study of a Finnish high technology company running a project in China. The company encountere...

  10. Economic evaluation of coalbed methane production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Dongkun; Dai Youjin

    2009-01-01

    Roaring natural gas demand, energy security and environment protection concerns coupled with stringent emission reduction requirement have made China's abundant coalbed methane (CBM) resource an increasingly valuable energy source. However, not all of China's CBM resource is economic to develop under current technological condition and economic situation. In order to locate the CBM resource with economic viability to develop in China, economic evaluation of CBM production is conducted by applying net present value (NPV) method. The results indicate that more than half of CBM resource in China is economic to develop. It shows that CBM price, production rate and operating costs are the three major factors with most impact on the economic viability of the CBM development in target areas in China. The result also demonstrates that the economic limit production is roughly 1200 cubic meters per day. These economic evaluation results provide important information for both CBM companies and China government.

  11. China assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Wu, C P

    1984-06-01

    For many years the people of China were inclined to underestimate the detrimental effects of population on socioeconomic development, but the consequences of the increase of 100 million people between 1966-70 provided a bitter lesson. By 1974 Comrade Mao Zedong stressed that population growth must be controlled. Since the 1970s and particularly since 1978, all levels of government have paid considerable attention to population problems. A population plan now makes up part of the socioeconomic development plan, and population and family planning issues are included in the government's report to the People's Congress. In 1980 the Centtrral Committee of the Chiness Communist Party issued an open letter to all Party and Youth League members regarding population control. The report of General Secretary Hu Yaobang to the 12th National Party Congress stated explicitly that population problems will always be treated with extreme importance and that family planning is basic state policy. Legislation now makes family planning the right and duty each citizen. China has family planning committee under the State Council and of the provincial, municipal, and county levels. At the grassroots level staff members with special training gather statistics and engage in publicity, education, contraceptive distribution, and technical instruction. Some local family planning committees have enlisted the cooperation of colleges and universities to set up special training units, and in some provinces and municipalities lessons on population are taught in the high schools. Since 1978 many special institutions for population research have been established. Since 1975 women in both urban and rural districts have delayed marriage by an averrage of 2 years compared with the previous decade, a trend which has contributed considerably to the reduction of average family size. To attain ideal demograic growth 3 areas of population dynamics should be carefully planned: it is important to stick to the

  12. Countermeasures for Developing New Energy Bus Standards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of new energy vehicle technology, new energy bus has become more and more popular in China, and the relevant standards and policy are urgently needed to guide the market. According to the assessment of the development situation on new energy vehicle technology and new energy bus, combing with traffic policy guidance and the development trend of new energy vehicles, this paper aims to put forward the countermeasures of the new energy bus standard in China, including standard system, key standards and relevant recommendations. Research result is expected to provide decision support for the wide application of new energy bus in China.

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-10

    equivalent to 20 million tons of standard coal. The firewood-saving capacity in wood and coal-saving stoves, biogas pits and solar cookers alone was...development and utilization of solar , wind, geothermal and other energy resources, the energy conservation capacity and newly-added energy resources were...hydropower, small coal pits and small-scale thermal power in areas with the proper conditions, to carry out good trial applications of wind, solar and

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-29

    calculation of all aspects of the developmental work. These projects should look at the needs of coal mine production and the future benefits which new...temperatures than other reactor types. 3. The fuel conversion ratio is high, the fuel cycle is flexible, and deep burnup is achieved. HTGR’s can use not...resources. Fuel burnup can be as high as 100 GW-day/ton. In a 100-MW (electric) nuclear power plant, for example, an HTGR requires replacement of only

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. China: Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-28

    consumption is highest, more than 4 times that of France, more than 3 times that of England, 1.6 times that of India . There are incomparable factors...high quality power- generating coal are in short supply, and in the northeast there is an increased amount of lignite . Next year the newly

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology China: Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-26

    platforms , basin transi- tional zones, and Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic era delta leading edge zones that may have formed lithologic traps are very well...forms regional capping strata for the Paleozoic natural gas. Lower Cambrian series muddy shale, Middle and Upper Ordovi- cian series muddy shale...combination, Paleozoic - Mesozoic era unconformable combination, Triassic system internal combination, Jurassic system internal combination, Cretaceous

  17. JPRS Report, Science and Technology: China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-17

    coupler developed by design engineers Lu Wenquan [4151 2429 0356] and Jin Wujun [6855 2976 0193] of the Guilin Laser Communications Research Institute...received a patent at the end of last year and is now in batch production at the fiber-optic components plant run by the Guilin civil administration

  18. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  19. Delivering power system transition in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jiahai; Xu Yan; Hu Zhaoguang

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the transition to low carbon power systems in China. The methodology is built on the newly developed multi-level perspective (MLP) transitions, as well as literature on innovation systems. Three lines of thought on the transition process are integrated to probe the possible transition pathways in China's power sector. Five transition pathways, namely reproduction, transformation, substitution, reconfiguration, de-alignment/re-alignment and reconfiguration, with their possible technology options are presented. The requirements for a smart grid in the socio-technical transition process are addressed within the MLP framework. The paper goes further to propose an interactive framework for low carbon transition management in China. Representative technology options are appraised by employing innovation theory to demonstrate the logic of policy design within the framework. The work presented in this paper will be useful in informing policy-makers and other stakeholders in China and it may prove to be a valuable reference for other countries in energy transition management. - Highlights: ► The transition to low carbon power systems is studied from a multi-level perspective. ► Transition pathways with possible technology options are presented. ► An interactive framework is proposed for managing this transition. ► Representative technology options are appraised within the framework to show the logic of policy design.

  20. China | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Innovations in farming. Our research support over two decades has introduced innovative farming practices in China. For example, Canadian and Chinese researchers developed a mobile phone technology that supports applications to make valuable information, such as wholesale food prices, accessible to poor farmers.

  1. Contrarian Perspective on China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-19

    China’s exploding population growth has resulted in one of the fasting aging populations in the world. China suffers from potential wide spread health...transparency. A CONTRARIAN PERSPECTIVE ON CHINA The People’s Republic of China contains twenty percent of the world’s population , has the world’s second largest...U.S.’s periods of industrial growth , oil prices were relatively low comparatively speaking. China is now in a similar period of growth and oil is

  2. Western China energy development and west to east energy transfer: Application of the Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenying; Li Hualin; Wu Zongxin

    2010-01-01

    China is striving for coordinated regional economic development and to solve the energy shortage in eastern China through a western China development plan with one focus being energy development and west to east energy transfer. This paper describes Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model (WSED) to evaluate various energy development scenarios for western China. The model includes a Western China MARKAL model, a Computable General Equilibrium Model for Western China (WCGE), and an Energy Service Demand Projection Model (ESDP). The ESDP provides energy service demand projections for the Western China MARKAL model, while the WCGE provides macroeconomic inputs for the ESDP and analyzes the impact of different energy development scenarios on western China economy. A reference scenario and several different west to east energy transfer scenarios with and without consideration of the water constraints and the endogenous technology learning are presented. The modeling describes the energy consumption, carbon emissions, water consumption, energy investment cost, and the impact on western China GDP of the different scenarios through the year 2050. These results have implications on sustainable energy development policies and sustainable west to east energy transfer strategies.

  3. Made in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2005-01-01

    China has a long history in commerce and marketing. For many centuries, 'Made in China' was a high quality, prestige label imported exclusively for the royals and the rich. This paper traces the history of Made in China and reports current branding practice in the world’s largest market.

  4. Focus on the Development of Natural Gas Hydrate in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrate, also known as combustible ice, and mainly composed of methane, is identified as a potential clean energy for the 21st century. Due to its large reserves, gas hydrate can ease problems caused by energy resource shortage and has gained attention around the world. In this paper, we focus on the exploration and development of gas hydrate as well as discussing its status and future development trend in China and abroad. We then analyze its opportunities and challenges in China from four aspects, resource, technology, economy and policy, with five forces model and Politics Economics Society Technology method. The results show China has abundance gas hydrate resource; however, backward technologies and inadequate investment have seriously hindered the future development of gas hydrate; thus, China should establish relevant cooperation framework and intuitional arrangement to attract more investment as well as breaking through technical difficulties to commercialization gas hydrate as soon as possible.

  5. Global implications of China's healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tang, Shenglan; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing healthcare reform in China has a powerful spillover effect beyond the health sector and the borders of China. A successful completion of the Chinese reform will offer a new model for social justice development, shift the global economy toward sustainability and create a new hub for science and technology in medical and health science. However, reforming the healthcare system in the most populated country is a daunting task. China will not live up to its promise, and all the potentials may end with hype not hope if coherent national strategies are not constructed and state-of-the-art navigation is not achieved with staggering domestic and global challenges. The cost of failure will be immensely high, socioeconomic costs for Chinese and an opportunity cost for the world as a whole. A full appreciation of the global implications of China's healthcare reform is crucial in keeping China receptive toward good practices evidence-approved elsewhere and open minded to fulfill its international obligations. More critically, the appreciation yields constructive engagements from global community toward a joint development and global prosperity. The current report provides a multiple disciplinary assessment on the global implications of the healthcare reform in China. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. China's Organic Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...

  7. Multimedia Image Technology and Computer Aided Manufacturing Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Song

    2018-03-01

    Since the reform and opening up, with the continuous development of science and technology in China, more and more advanced science and technology have emerged under the trend of diversification. Multimedia imaging technology, for example, has a significant and positive impact on computer aided manufacturing engineering in China. From the perspective of scientific and technological advancement and development, the multimedia image technology has a very positive influence on the application and development of computer-aided manufacturing engineering, whether in function or function play. Therefore, this paper mainly starts from the concept of multimedia image technology to analyze the application of multimedia image technology in computer aided manufacturing engineering.

  8. Coal and the environment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiang; Chen Peng

    1993-01-01

    The environment has aroused greater concern recently in many countries. China ranks as the world's highest in coal consumption, although the energy consumption per capita accounts for only one third of the global average. Yet, the Chinese government has determined to pay more attention to environmental control in the development of the economy and the energy industry. They hope to develop sincere cooperation with various countries in the world on the basis of equality and mutual benefit in the development of clean coal technologies using coal in a more effective, clean and inexpensive way, thus eventually improving the environment in China and the world. This paper reviews some of these efforts

  9. The China Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Mingwu

    2001-01-01

    The China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), established in 1950, carries out multidisciplinary research in nuclear science, technology and engineering. It has three research reactors and ten low energy accelerators. The focus of its nuclear energy related R and D is on reactor engineering and technology. In the area of nuclear techniques for applications, R and D is carried out on accelerators, isotope production, nuclear electronics and utilization of radioisotopes and radiation. There is also a strong programme in basic nuclear physics and radiochemistry. New major facilities under construction in CIAE include China Advanced Research Reactor (flux 8x10 14 n/cm 2 /sec) and China Experimental Fast Reactor. China has been successfully using the products of its R and D for a variety of applications in medicine, industry, materials science etc. A dynamic research programme is tuned to attract young talent to CIEA and there is good collaboration with the Beijing University. CIEA has been an active participant of RCA programmes of the IAEA and has been a resource for many developing countries. The management expects the Institute to be a leading multidisciplinary institute in the field of nuclear science, technology and engineering. (author)

  10. Introducing externalities in the power generation sector of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.; Krakowski, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results from the application of the China Regional Energy Trade Model (CRETM, developed at PSI) to analyse the impact of externalities in the power-generation sector of China. The model applies state-of-the-art optimisation methods and incorporates partial equilibrium, endogenous technological change and external costs related to regional pollution and the climate change. This model was used in the China Energy Technology Program, CETP, which chartered pathways to sustainable futures based on the use of conventional coal technologies in the electricity sector, as well as considering a range of alternative electricity-generation options. The study using CRETM focused on countrywide China, as described by seven fuel- and power-trading regions, and a 1995-2050 time horizon deemed necessary for the introduction of advanced technologies utilising carbon-dioxide sequestration. The earlier CETP study and recent updates of the CRETM used therein concludes in favour of advanced, low-sulphur-generation technologies and carbon-free technologies through policies that foster Research Development and Demonstration (RD and D) activities and related international cooperation. When externalities are included in the analyses, the power-generation system of China becomes more sustainable while the adoption of advanced energy systems is further justified, since the cost per unit of reduced emissions is far below the projected unit cost for the related externalities. (author)

  11. China's air pollution and Japan's response to it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, S.

    1995-01-01

    Long-range transport of air pollutants has been a serious global environment problem. Japan's Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) researchers are investigating the possibility of acid rain from China. So far, the acid rain that has appeared in Japan has not had a significant effect. However, because of the high economic growth projected for the coming years in China, acidic fallout from that country is likely to cause serious damage there and in Japan as well. China is one of the largest coal users in the world. One of the biggest factors making air quality worse is the lack of appropriate technologies. Although Japanese desulfurization technologies are well advanced, they cannot be directly applied to stationary pollution sources in China, because of their cost. Japan has sophisticated technologies, but lacks experience in and knowledge of alternative, intermediate, and low-technology solutions. Given this, Japan may attempt to buy pollution control technology equipment from the United States, which provides a wider range of desulfurization technologies, as a part of the Official Development Assistance program. At the same time, international support that includes the establishment of additional global environmental monitoring stations in China are also necessary

  12. China's energy security and strategic choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellistrandi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Considering the present day international political and economical situation, China's energy security covers five important aspects: energy supplies security, energy prices security, environment security with respect to energy consumption, energy transport security, R and D security in the domain of energy resources exploration, exploitation and utilisation. Considering the above-mentioned aspects, China's strategic choices should include five major goals: counting on its own energy resources and giving priority to energy saving, participating to the international competition and implementing a national strategic reserves system, readjusting the energy consumption structure and promoting environment protection by developing nuclear energy, harmonizing China's relations with some countries and avoiding political and military conflicts, increasing investment in energy R and D, in particular in clean coal, nuclear, automotive, renewable energy and energy saving technologies. (J.S.)

  13. China and nuclear arms limitation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    The Chinese attitudes from 1949 to 1980 towards nuclear arms limitation are divided into four distinct periods: 1949-1956, 1957-1963, 1964-1972 and 1973-1980. During 1949-1956, China held the view that an atom bomb or nuclear weapons are not decisive for the outcome of any war. It is the people who decide the outcome of a war. The period 1957-1963, after Soviet refusal to transfer nuclear technology, is marked by the development of the nuclear programme which led to the explosion of a nuclear device in 1964. China continued to build nuclear capability during 1964-1972. Mao died in 1976 and the relations with the U.S.A. were normalised in 1979. Taking an anti-Soviet stance China now takes the view that any nuclear arms agreement with Soviet Union is futile and describes SALT II agreement as an absolute farce. (M.G.B.)

  14. Technology for Education and Learning

    CERN Document Server

    2012 international conference on Technology for Education and Learning (ICTEL 2012)

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains 108 selected papers presented at the 2012 international conference on Technology for Education and Learning (ICTEL 2012), Macau, China, March 1-2, 2012. The conference brought together researchers working in various different areas of Technology for Education and Learning with a main emphasis on technology for business and economy in order to foster international collaborations and exchange of new ideas. This proceedings book has its focus on Technology for Economy, Finance and Education representing some of the major subareas presented at the conference.

  15. A review on nuclear-agricultural sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuexian; Liu Tuoyuan; Ji Xiaobing

    1995-10-01

    The developmental history of nuclear-agricultural sciences (NAS) in China was introduced. The proportion of NAS estimated by the sensitometric is about 1%∼3% to the agricultural sciences, 3% to the nuclear science and technology, and below 0.3% to the foundational life science, respectively. Citation indexes of NAS in China were compared with those of other scientific literatures domestic and abroad with bibliometrics. The main achievements and outcomes of NAS in China were described. In the past 25 years, the contribution of the NAS to the gross agricultural production in China was up to 250 hundred millions yuan RMB, corresponding to the ratio of 1:31 of integrated scientific investments to the output. Comparison was made between the development of NAS in China and that abroad. Present situation and the prospect of the NAS were also discussed. (1 fig.; 5 tabs.)

  16. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  17. Coal market outlook in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhufeng; Zheng Xingzhou

    2005-01-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, the production capacity building of mines, transport conditions, and ecological and environmental impacts. More comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, strengthening coal production and transportation capacity, to rationalise coal mine disposition and the coal production structure, and to raise the levels of coal mining technologies and mine safety management, etc. (author)

  18. Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During its 1999 economic conference, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China released a strategy for the development of the western region that included (among other things) revamping the infrastructure, reviewing fiscal policies, promoting trade and investment, and strengthening science and technology ...

  19. Technology Is Culture: Two Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Basile

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses the relationship of technology to culture in the People's Republic of China. Basing his discussion on his experiences in Beijing between 2001 and 2004, the author suggests that the two paradigms of accumulation of decisions and struggle against difference can be used to describe technology in its relation to culture, including–but not limited to–popular electronic music in Beijing.

  20. China's rare-earth industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  1. Social Unrest in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-08

    investments in China , and the effects on PRC foreign policy. Growing disparities of income, official corruption , and the lack of democratic institutions...Trends and Implications Underlying Causes Inequality and Corruption . A principal, indirect cause of social unrest in China is the wide and growing...may face organized resistance.55 Other experts argue that, in the long run, social unrest and corruption in China may undermine the country’s economic

  2. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-06

    everywhere, and the public in China can be heard everywhere censuring and even cursing these corrupt phenomena. The high-level leaders of China have come...is that some places and enter- prises in China are unfolding keen competition with each offering bribes , so that the value of a gift becomes higher...putting in any work, and each of them received a dividend of 7,000 yuan a year. The corruption that is more serious than extorting and accepting bribes

  3. Estimating the energy saving potential of telecom operators in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tian-Jian; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Huang, Jin; Peng, Ruo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    A set of models are employed to estimate the potential of total energy saved of productions and segmented energy saving for telecom operators in China. During the estimation, the total energy saving is divided into that by technology and management, which are derived from technical reform and progress, and management control measures and even marketing respectively, and the estimating methodologies for energy saving potential of each segment are elaborated. Empirical results from China Mobile indicate that, first, the technical advance in communications technology accounts for the largest proportion (70%–80%) of the total energy saved of productions in telecom sector of China. Second, technical reform brings about 20%–30% of the total energy saving. Third, the proportions of energy saving brought by marketing and control measures appear relatively smaller, just less than 3%. Therefore, China's telecom operators should seize the opportunity of the revolution of communications network techniques in recent years to create an advanced network with lower energy consumption

  4. The birth and routinization of IVF in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2016-01-01

    How can it be that China today is home to some of the world’s largest IVF clinics, carrying out as many as 30,000 cycles annually? In this article, I address how IVF was developed in China during the early 1980s only to be routinized during the exact same period that one of the world’s most...... comprehensive family planning programmes aimed at preventing birth was being rolled out. IVF was not merely imported into China, rather it was experimentally developed within China into a form suitable for its restrictive family planning regulations. As a result, IVF and other assisted reproductive technologies...... (ARTs) have settled alongside contraception, sterilization and abortion as yet another technology of birth control....

  5. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate the a...... the absence of a direct link between financial development and economic growth.......We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  6. China Report, Economic Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This report contains articles from China dealing with Economic Affairs. The Topics include National Affairs and Policy, Foreign Trade and Investment, Economic Zones, Finance and Banking, and Agriculture.

  7. JPRS Report, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Partial Contents: Political, History, Literary Freedom, Cultures, Finance, Banking, Economics, Foreign Banks, Bond Markets, Agriculture, Machinery, Social, Educations, China, Addresses, Employment, Regional, Political...

  8. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2006-01-01

    ...), the state banking system, and fixed exchange rate system. In addition, China faces several other difficult challenges, such as pollution and growing income inequality, that threaten social stability...

  9. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... However, China faces a number of challenges, including the fallout from the global financial crisis, widespread government corruption, an inefficient banking system, over-dependence on exports...

  10. Trade Barriers and Countermeasures for Export of China’s Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    WU, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    At present, export of China’s agricultural products is faced with many trade barriers, especially technological barriers. Trade barriers include (1) technological barriers (such as quarantine and inspection barrier, identity certification/authentication barrier and labeling rules barrier); (2) trade remedy barrier; (3) other non-tariff barriers (NTB). Through positioning and analysis of trade barriers of China’s agricultural products, it is known that technological barriers should not be ...

  11. The development of low-carbon vehicles in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Mingfa; Liu Haifeng; Feng Xuan

    2011-01-01

    Reducing CO 2 emissions from vehicles in China is crucial and will significantly alleviate the environmental burden of the Earth. Some promising technologies that make possible low-carbon vehicles are reviewed in this work, including electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, hybrid vehicles, biofuels vehicles, other alternative fuel vehicles, and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles with improvement. In the short term, expanding the use of mature technologies in conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles is the most realistic, effective, and timely solution for China to meeting the urgent challenges of energy saving and greenhouse gas reduction; while in the long run biofuel is a promising candidate due to their renewability and carbon neutrality. The blueprint of low-carbon vehicles for China depends on three aspects: breakthroughs in technology, awareness of public, and government guidance. - Highlights: → Reducing CO 2 emissions and saving energy from vehicles in China is crucial. → Low-carbon depends on technology breakthrough, public awareness, and government guidance. → Use of mature technologies in ICEVs is the most realistic solution for China. → Biofuels are the key to realize neutral carbon emission in the long run.

  12. China in space the great leap forward

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The 21st century has seen the emergence, after the Soviet Union and the United States, of the third great space superpower: China. Here, in China in Space - The Great Leap Forward, Brian Harvey takes a contemporary look at the new Chinese space program. China has already launched its first space station, Tiangong; has sent its first spacecraft to the Moon, the Chang e; and has plans to send spaceships to Mars and further afield. China's annual launch rate has already overtaken those of both Europe and the United States. Huge new production plants and launch centers are under construction, to build and launch the new family of Long March 5, 6, and 7 rockets. In Roadmap 2050, the Academy of Sciences indicates that China intends to be the leading spacefaring nation by mid-century, with bases on the Moon and Mars. This book gives an informed, fully up-to-date commentary on all aspects of the Chinese space program, including its history, development, technology, missions, and the personalities involved. It lists a...

  13. New development stage of China's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rong

    2001-01-01

    From the early 1980s China adjusted its uranium industry to better meet the market economy requirements. Until 1997, the adjustment has been completed. The technical and managerial improvements result in a more efficient uranium production. In 1996 a series of events related to the nuclear power development of China manifests very favorable situation for the uranium industry. The first two nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 2100 MW in the mainland of China have been operating safely and steadily for several years. The additional nuclear power projects to be constructed for the rest of this century are implemented in an all-round way. Four plants with eight reactors of a total of 6900 MW have entered their construction period in succession. In 1996 a commercial ISL mine in Xinjiang with annual capacity 100 tU was completed, and the larger scale of ISL mine is expected to be constructed by 2000. The Benxi uranium mine in northeast China was put into production. It applies some new mining and processing technologies and improved management, which might serve as a new model of uranium mines in China. (author)

  14. China's soil and groundwater management challenges: Lessons from the UK's experience and opportunities for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Frédéric; Jones, Kevin; Li, Hong; Hu, Qing; Gao, Jingyang; Li, Fasheng; Chen, Mengfang; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Liu, Rongxia; Liu, Ming; Canning, Kate; Harries, Nicola; Bardos, Paul; Nathanail, Paul; Sweeney, Rob; Middleton, David; Charnley, Maggie; Randall, Jeremy; Richell, Martin; Howard, Trevor; Martin, Ian; Spooner, Simon; Weeks, Jason; Cave, Mark; Yu, Fang; Zhang, Fang; Jiang, Ying; Longhurst, Phil; Prpich, George; Bewley, Richard; Abra, Jonathan; Pollard, Simon

    2016-05-01

    There are a number of specific opportunities for UK and China to work together on contaminated land management issues as China lacks comprehensive and systematic planning for sustainable risk based land management, encompassing both contaminated soil and groundwater and recycling and reuse of soil. It also lacks comprehensive risk assessment systems, structures to support risk management decision making, processes for verification of remediation outcome, systems for record keeping and preservation and integration of contamination issues into land use planning, along with procedures for ensuring effective health and safety considerations during remediation projects, and effective evaluation of costs versus benefits and overall sustainability. A consequence of the absence of these overarching frameworks has been that remediation takes place on an ad hoc basis. At a specific site management level, China lacks capabilities in site investigation and consequent risk assessment systems, in particular related to conceptual modelling and risk evaluation. There is also a lack of shared experience of practical deployment of remediation technologies in China, analogous to the situation before the establishment of the independent, non-profit organisation CL:AIRE (Contaminated Land: Applications In Real Environments) in 1999 in the UK. Many local technology developments are at lab-scale or pilot-scale stage without being widely put into use. Therefore, a shared endeavour is needed to promote the development of technically and scientifically sound land management as well as soil and human health protection to improve the sustainability of the rapid urbanisation in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  16. Sustainable development of new energy vehicle industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyang; Li, Lingzhi

    2018-03-01

    The new energy vehicle industry in China has developed rapidly in recent years, but there is still a gap in core technology. Some problems are brought the adverse effect on it, such as imperfect infrastructures, imperfect systems in market access and regulatory, single channels for marketing and low acceptance among consumer. Based on the development of new energy vehicle industry home and abroad, this paper puts forward some problems of new energy vehicles industry in China, then offers some feasible suggestions.

  17. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world’s population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urban...

  18. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE URBANISATION IN FUTURE CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Bromberek

    2009-01-01

    Rapid urbanisation of China is a phenomenon putting huge pressure on the society, environment and services in the existing cities. The growth of large regional centres is usually seen as an unwelcome but unavoidable both source and result of the Chinese urbanisation. The paper disputes this ‘unavoidability’ claim. The reasons for the present day urbanization and concurrent ‘de-ruralisation’ processes in China are outlined. Opportunities arising from IT-age technologies as life style-generatin...

  19. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  20. Escaping the resource curse in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Li, Shurong; Ma, Hua; Sun, Yutong

    2015-02-01

    Many societies face an income gap between rich regions with access to advanced technology and regions that are rich in natural resources but poorer in technology. This "resource curse" can lead to a Kuznets trap, in which economic inequalities between the rich and the poor increase during the process of socioeconomic development. This can also lead to depletion of natural resources, environmental degradation, social instability, and declining socioeconomic development. These problems will jeopardize China's achievements if the current path continues to be pursued without intervention by the government to solve the problems. To mitigate the socioeconomic development gap between western and eastern China, the government implemented its Western Development Program in 2000. However, recent data suggest that this program has instead worsened the resource curse. Because each region has its own unique strengths and weaknesses, China must escape the resource curse by accounting for this difference; in western China, this can be done by improving education, promoting high-tech industry, adjusting its economic strategy to balance regional development, and seeking more sustainable approaches to socioeconomic development.

  1. China's economic reform and industry sector energy requirement: A forecast to 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    With its GDP growing at an average rate of 9.8% for the last seventeen years, China has the world's fastest growing economy. This rapid pace of growth and industrialization has caused economic strain because fuel production cannot keep pace with demand, If China allows this situation to continue, significant oil imports will be necessary. In 1993, the industrial sector contributed 56% to China's GDP and consumed 61% of the total final energy. The industrial sector will remain the largest energy consumer in China well into the next century. According to China's Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996--2000), China will strengthen its ability to develop new products and will use technological advancement to promote industrial development. The Plan calls for special attention in four major areas: microelectronics technology, digital technology, software technology, and network technology. Given China's emphasis on developing light industries and on improving industrial sector energy efficiency, it is important to study the future energy demand of the industrial sector. Two scenarios for future energy requirements are studied through the year 2015: a Business As Usual (BASU) scenario and an Energy Efficient (EE) scenario. The study evaluates China's current economic reform policies and energy efficiency policies. The results of this evaluation are used to assign appropriate growth rates to industrial GDP and the industrial energy intensity for both scenarios. Results from the two scenarios are compared and analyzed

  2. Sino/American cooperation for rural electrification in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, W.L.; Tsuo, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    Rapid growth in economic development, coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of the rural countryside, have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and rural areas in China. There is a very large need for new sources of energy for rural electrification in China as represented by 120 million people in remote regions who do not have access to an electric grid and by over 300 coastal islands in China that are unelectrified. In heavily populated regions in China where there is an electric grid, there are still severe shortages of electric power and limited access to the grid by village populations. In order to meet energy demands in rural China, renewable energy in the form of solar, wind, and biomass resources are being utilized as a cost effective alternative to grid extension and use of diesel and gasoline generators. An Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Protocol Agreement was signed by the U.S. Department of Energy with the Chinese State Science and Technology Commission in Beijing in February, 1995. Under this agreement, projects using photovoltaics for rural electrification are being conducted in Gansu Province in western China and Inner Mongolia in northern China, providing the basis for much wider deployment and use of photovoltaics for meeting the growing rural energy demands of China. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Solar water heaters in China: A new day dawning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingyi; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Lu, Yonglong

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in China in recent decades. Manufacturing and marketing developments have been especially strong in provinces such as Zhejiang, Shandong and Jiangsu. This paper takes Zhejiang, a relatively affluent province, as a case study area to assess the performance of solar water heater utilization in China. The study will focus on institutional setting, economic and technological performance, energy performance, and environmental and social impact. Results show that China has greatly increased solar water heater utilization, which has brought China great economic, environmental and social benefits. However, China is confronted with malfeasant market competition, technical flaws in solar water heater products and social conflict concerning solar water heater installation. For further development of the solar water heater, China should clarify the compulsory installation policy and include solar water heaters into the current 'Home Appliances Going to the Countryside' project; most of the widely used vacuum tube products should be replaced by flat plate products, and the technology improvement should focus on anti-freezing and water saving; the resources of solar water heater market should be consolidated and most of the OEM manufacturers should evolve to ODM and OBM enterprises.

  4. Sports Medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…

  5. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  6. China's water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    After the devastating natural disasters that have hit China recently, another crisis is looming, Drought, pollution and heavy usage in the fast-developing megacities have resulted in a shortage of water. A huge construction effort is underway to divert water from the south to the north. But experts warn that it will not solve China's structural water problems

  7. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  8. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  9. China and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquoire-Brillet, E.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the history of nuclear power development in China from the first research works started in the 1950's for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons to the recent development of nuclear power plants. This study tries to answer the main questions raised by the attitude of China with respect to the civil and military nuclear programs. (J.S.)

  10. Carbon emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhu [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Sustainability Science Program

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  11. Outsourcing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  12. Sport in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuttgen, Howard G., Ed.; And Others

    Part 1 of this book, "Evoluation and Organization of Physical Culture," examines the history and current organization of physical education and sport in the People's Republic of China. This part includes chapters on: the evolution and organization of physical culture; physical culture in China today; the organizational structure of…

  13. Democracy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahuda, Michael

    1973-01-01

    Since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese people have experienced control over decisions and implementation of policies while also being subject to centrally determined controls and mobilisation, reflecting a paradox of centralism and democracy not peculiar to China alone. (Author/JB)

  14. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US–China re......’ for peaceful bargaining with the outside world. A status quo foreign policy is not a wise choice for the United States because of the changing power and interest configurations in the international system.......Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US......–China relations as a bargaining process. Whereas China negotiates for a new status in the system with redefined interests, the United States and other countries need to adjust their old political practices. China's ‘core interest’ diplomacy launched in 2009 is the first step in revealing ‘private information...

  15. Private power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  16. AP1000 - update on projects in US and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, Pennsy lvania (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Westinghouse is the only company solely focused on commercial nuclear technology. Westinghouse business is based on four product lines regionally divided: nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel, nuclear services and nuclear automation. The AP1000 is the technology of choice for more than half of the new plants identified in the US. Westinghouse has the only certified Generation III+ technology by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The first Generation III+ plants are under construction in China and the US.

  17. AP1000 - update on projects in US and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, M.

    2012-01-01

    Westinghouse is the only company solely focused on commercial nuclear technology. Westinghouse business is based on four product lines regionally divided: nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel, nuclear services and nuclear automation. The AP1000 is the technology of choice for more than half of the new plants identified in the US. Westinghouse has the only certified Generation III+ technology by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The first Generation III+ plants are under construction in China and the US.

  18. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    and influence without requiring widespread exercise of military or economic pressure. Odgaard examines the origins of peaceful coexistence in early Soviet doctrine, its midcentury development by China and India, and its ongoing appeal to developing countries. She reveals what this foreign policy offers China......“Peaceful coexistence,” long a key phrase in China’s strategic thinking, is a constructive doctrine that offers China a path for influencing the international system. So argues Liselotte Odgaard in this timely analysis of China's national security strategy in the context of its foreign policy...... practice. China’s program of peaceful coexistence emphasizes absolute sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Odgaard suggests that China’s policy of working within the international community and with non-state actors such as the UN aims to win for China greater power...

  19. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...... draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...... against the US and how China is considered a valuable ally to acquire more independence. However, this situation of interdependence can paradoxically lead to a new kind of dependence, in this case on China. To analyze these relations, I propose a conceptual framework consisting of three dimensions: 1...

  20. Electricity securitization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Song, Chang [Renmin University of China, Beijing (China). School of Business; Wang, J.H. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago (United States). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Xie, Jun [Wuhan University of Technology (China). School of Management

    2007-10-15

    This paper discusses the past and the status quo of electricity securitization in China. First, the stranded cost securitization in American electricity industry and the ongoing securitization progress in emerging market countries are investigated, which enlightens the way of electricity securitization in China. Through analysis of electricity industry in China, the paper proposes constructive policy suggestions for regulators who intend to prompt securitization to develop electricity infrastructure, and detailed recommendations for companies who plan to raise money at reduced cost. It is concluded that even though it is at the very beginning stage in China, securitization not only provides financing for investment projects, but also speeds up the reform by stranded cost securitization, a novel idea for electricity industry in China. (author)

  1. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    “Peaceful coexistence,” long a key phrase in China’s strategic thinking, is a constructive doctrine that offers China a path for influencing the international system. So argues Liselotte Odgaard in this timely analysis of China's national security strategy in the context of its foreign policy...... practice. China’s program of peaceful coexistence emphasizes absolute sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Odgaard suggests that China’s policy of working within the international community and with non-state actors such as the UN aims to win for China greater power...... and influence without requiring widespread exercise of military or economic pressure. Odgaard examines the origins of peaceful coexistence in early Soviet doctrine, its midcentury development by China and India, and its ongoing appeal to developing countries. She reveals what this foreign policy offers China...

  2. Research on Impact Mechanism and Power System of Urbanization in West China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Pei

    2011-01-01

    Based on the current situation of urbanization development in West China, this paper analyses main factors responsible for sluggish urbanization in West China as follows: impact of environment factor, impact of population quality and quantity, lagging of public product service, stagnancy of technological development, backwardness of slow growth, and rigidity of system building. And then this paper analyses the restriction mechanism of urbanization in West China: at the superficial level, the ...

  3. China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-03

    countries) for secret nuclear weapons facilities, while experts from China worked at a uranium mine at Saghand and a centrifuge facility (for uranium...the report. Also, South Korea suspected that, in December 2012, China exported bauxite (aluminum ore), a material that could be used to manufacture...that the China Guangfa Bank engaged in business with the DPRK’s arms dealer, Global Trading and Technology (a front for Korea Mining Development

  4. China and India Going Green: The Power of Wind, International Norms, and National Commitments

    OpenAIRE

    Silvan Siefert

    2017-01-01

    India and China have established reputations in the international community for rapid economic development, innovative technology and exploitation of natural resources. Aside from the United States, China and India are the two major producers of carbon dioxide emissions in the world. At the same time China and India are two of the leading developing countries in promoting green energy and international climate change objectives. The local wind energy industry, as an alternative to replace fue...

  5. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20

    China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various

  6. AREVA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    China has a great need for secure, safe, and economic energy supplies that combat the greenhouse effect and global warming. Since January 2002, China, the most heavily populated country with more than 1.3 billion inhabitants in a territory of 9.5 million km 2 (17 times larger than France), has a nuclear capacity of 9 GWe with 11 nuclear plants on line. Forecasts of electricity consumption report a need for 900 to 1,000 GWe per year through 2020, and at this time the country's objective is to increase nuclear generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output. This means a need for additional 30 GWe, which is the equivalent of twenty 1,500 MWe reactors. In addition to nuclear power, China is pushing renewable energy. With the passage of the 2005 Renewable Energy Law, China's government imposed a national renewable energy requirement that is expected to boost the use of renewable energy capacity from 10 to 12 percent by 2020, up from 3% in 2003. This law requires power operators to buy electricity from alternative energy providers and gives economic incentives to these providers. Consequently, China is expanding its interests in renewable energy sources including wind and bio-energies, among others. It is in this context that AREVA, a world expert in energy, creates and offers solutions to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity for China. Based on its long experience and global presence, AREVA has become the worldwide leader for nuclear energy in the areas of construction, equipment, and services for nuclear power plants, and for the whole nuclear fuel cycle. AREVA is also a world leader in electrical power-grid equipment and systems. This document presents: China's need for energy; the Sources of China's energy mix; the challenges of China's nuclear program; AREVA's action in supporting China's ambitious nuclear program; the strong opportunities in renewable energy; and the high potential market for AREVA's T and D Division

  7. ICT and (Personal) Development in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Oreglia, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is increasingly widespread in rural China, and is finding unlikely users: elderly people, rural women, and people with little education or disposable income. Their ICT use is driven by the desire to find connections and entertainment, and it offers three insights for broadly utilitarian ICT for development (ICTD) projects: first, rural users who are thought to be beyond the reach of ICTs because of their age or educational level and who do not se...

  8. Exploring energy consumption and demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ying; Xia, Yan

    2012-01-01

    China has been experiencing industrialization and urbanization since reform and opening of its economy in 1978. Energy consumption in the country has featured issues such as a coal-dominated energy mix, low energy efficiency and high emissions. Thus, it is of great importance to explore the factors driving the increase in energy consumption in the past two decades and estimate the potential for decreasing energy demands in the future. In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to identify how these factors impact changes in energy intensity. A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in a BAU scenario and an alternative scenario. The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. Energy demand in China will continue to increase at a rapid rate if the economy develops as in the past decades, and is projected to reach 4.7 billion tce in 2020. However, the huge potential for a decrease cannot be neglected, since growth could be better by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements. The total energy demand could be less than 4.0 billion tce in 2020. -- Highlights: ► In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to China’s energy intensity change. ► A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in China. ► The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. ► Energy demand in China will reach 4.7 billion ton in 2020 if the economy develops as in the past decades. ► There is a huge potential for a decrease of energy demand by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements.

  9. Countering China’s Maritime Territorial Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    and Arabian Gulf in support 5 Robert Willard, Press Briefing (Moana Surfrider Hotel , Honolulu, November, 13, 2011), http://www.whitehouse.gov/the...due to terrain, requiring the peoples of the region to turn to the sea as a source of food. Additionally, the continued industrialization and...strength. From a security perspective, while China has been predominantly a continental focused military power, it has recently invested in technology that

  10. Enterprise’ E-invoicing Adoption in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis is an empirical investigation project that has been carried out in cooperation with Trustweaver AB. The purpose is to identify the key factors that influence the adoption of electronic invoicing in Chinese enterprises. A background study on global e-invoicing adoption and current e-invoicing development in China is conducted. A research model integrated by the diffusion of innovation theory, the technology, organization, and environment framework and Iacovou et al. (1995) m...

  11. Coal chemical industry and its sustainable development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Kechang; Li, Wenying; Zhao, Wei

    2010-01-01

    China is rich in coal resource, which is vital for energy security in this country. In early 21st century, the coal chemical industry in China will be oriented to the development of high efficiency, safety, cleanliness, and optimum utilization. In this review, the authors present an introduction to the utilization status of primary energy production and consumption in China. Since 2005, fundamental research studies, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Chinese National Basic Research Program, have been carried out at Taiyuan University of Technology. The Ministry stresses that the new coal chemical industry should be developed in a sustainable manner to realize effective utilization of energy. Moreover, upgrading the high technology to improve actively the recycling processes of coal chemical engineering is of strategic importance to realize the modern coal chemical engineering.

  12. 7th China Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Li; Guo, Zhongwen

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Technologies in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks collects selected papers from the 7th China Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks (CWSN2013) held in Qingdao, October 17-19, 2013. The book features state-of-the-art studies on Sensor Networks in China with the theme of “Advances in wireless sensor networks of China”. The selected works can help promote development of sensor network technology towards interconnectivity, resource sharing, flexibility and high efficiency. Researchers and engineers in the field of sensor networks can benefit from the book. Xue Wang is a professor at Tsinghua University; Li Cui is a professor at Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhongwen Guo is a professor at Ocean University of China.

  13. Progresses and Prospects in Developing Marine Geodetic Datum and Marine Navigation of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Yuanxi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Territorial water is a significant part of national sovereignty of China, thus the infrastructures of national space datum and location services should not only cover the land areas, but also the sea areas. China has established relatively complete geodetic datum in land areas over the past decades, including the new developed China Geodetic Coordinate System 2000 (CGCS 2000 and the national gravity datum 2000. However, the currently used geodetic infrastructures have not well covered the sea areas of China. The marine geodetic datum and marine navigation technologies need to be further developed and extended to satisfy the national demands of marine defense and marine economy development in new era of China. This paper mainly reviews the developing states and progress of Chinese marine geodetic datum and marine navigation, analyses key technologies in establishing the national marine geodetic datum. The develop current trends and future directions for the national marine geodetic datum and marine navigation technologies are listed.

  14. The Internet in India and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Press

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With our colleagues in the Mosaic group, we have done several studies of the state of the Internet in India and in China beginning in 1998. These studies were conducted using a six-dimension framework we have developed for characterizing the state of the Internet in a nation. In 1999, we published a comparison of the state of the Internet in China and India. At that time we found that China had a clear lead in each of our six dimensions. This paper updates the comparison. We compare China and India on our six dimensions and find that China continues to have a substantial lead. We also see that India has made significant strides since our 1999 comparison. After examining the six dimensions, we turn to determinants of the values of those dimensions. What has led to China's lead and the progress that both nations have made recently? We conclude that the following factors were important in shaping China's lead over India. (1 Although Indian universities undertook Internet experiments before those of China, China decided to make the Internet a priority and began building it in earnest before India. (2 Chinese economic reforms, which began in the late 1980s, provided both capital for and openness to the Internet. (3 The pre-Internet Chinese decision to invest in telecommunication infrastructure and information technology industries provided complementary infrastructure and human resources for the Internet. (4 The Chinese ability to execute by decree rather than consensus building followed by legislative and regulatory reform accelerated the diffusion of the Internet. (5 The Chinese were able to create competition among government-owned organizations without taking time for legislative change and the raising of private capital. (6 The Chinese were able to establish competitors to the incumbent telephone company relatively rapidly. Although these factors jump-started the Chinese Internet, and will continue to work in its favor, market forces and

  15. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  16. Holography applications in recent China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dahsiung

    2000-10-01

    Reports on recent developments on holography applications in China are given in this paper, including the development of anti-counterfeiting Holograms from 1986-2000, China issued Banknotes in 1999 with holograms and OVIs, the developments in Machine Readable Holograms in China, the developments in Anti-counterfeiting Information Networks in China.

  17. China and CERN renew their Co-operation Agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Liu Yanhua, Chinese Vice Minister of Science and Technology, and Dr. Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, sign a new Co-operation Agreement between the Government of the People's Republic of China and CERN. During his visit to CERN on 17 February, Liu Yanhua, Vice Minister of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China, signed a new Co-operation Agreement with the Laboratory. The Agreement, which is valid for a period of five years and renewable, lays down the framework for the development of scientific and technological co-operation between CERN and China. This includes China's participation, as a non-Member State, in CERN's research projects as well as its main programmes. Robert Aymar and Liu Yanhua underlined that this Agreement will provide an excellent framework for close co-operation on the LHC Programme and Grid and accelerator technologies. Scientific co-operation between China and CERN is nothing new, as Chinese physicists already took part in the LEP experiments. Today, CERN's C...

  18. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  19. The progress and prospects of rural biogas production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ling; Zhao, Lixin; Ren, Changshan; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Biogas production is an important aspect of China's energy strategy. After decades’ application and research, China biogas has achieved considerable accomplishments. This study presents the progress and prospect of biogas technologies and industry in China. Two biogas patterns exist in China, that is, household-scaled digester for scattered farmers and biogas plant for centralized biogas production. Household-scaled digester which is simple and practical has been widely used and fully developed. Biogas plants have being sprung up with different materials, process and biogas utilization technologies. By the end of 2010, 38.51 million household-scaled digesters, and 27,436 large- and medium-scaled biogas plants for agricultural wastes were built. The calculation result of biogas potential from agricultural wastes shows that those used raw materials account for only 1.90% of the total availability. Chinese government promulgated several laws and policies, and gave financial supports to promote the development of biogas. However, some problems such as inferior equipment technology, imperfect policy incentive hamper its wide application and promotion. With the rapid development of economy and the improvement of rural living condition, China biogas industry is expected to advance toward orientation of scalization, industrialization and commercialization. - Highlights: ► Developing progress of biogas production in China is evaluated comprehensively. ► Status of biogas industrialization is estimated. ► New problems which occurred during rural biogas construction were analyzed. ► Biogas production potentials from agricultural wastes in China were calculated. ► Prospect of China rural biogas is expected.

  20. Current state of sewage treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

    2014-12-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10 × 10(4) m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.