WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology china addresses

  1. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  2. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...

  3. Technology licensing in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Li-Ying, Jason; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms...... of the number of licensed technologies; second, the geographical distribution of licensed technologies among the provinces has gradually reached a new quantitative balance; third, utility models are the most popular technologies to be licensed and the majority of technology licensing in China has been between...... Chinese entities, and most transactions have been local within provinces; and finally, Chinese firms have gradually in-licensed newer and newer technologies, but the technologies in-licensed from foreign sources are by no means state-of-the-art. We make several suggestions for innovation policy...

  4. NEV Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to identify the main determinants of the development of the neighbourhood electric vehicle (NEV) industry in China, including influences from private stakeholders as well as the government, and domestic as well as foreign interest groups. Particular emphasis...... – The findings are useful for understanding the development of the NEV industry in China. Originality/value – The current paper is the first application of the GIST (Governance of Innovation towards Sustainability Technology) framework to the case of the Chinese NEV industry....

  5. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  6. Son Preference in China and India : Policy Interventions to address ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... form, at its most extreme shifting from female infanticide to sex-selective abortion. Both countries have enacted laws to combat gender-based discrimination in ... in China and India that have attempted to address discrimination against girls.

  7. The "Depreciation" and "Appreciation" of Some Address Terms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhucheng, Ju

    1991-01-01

    Examines how the cultural revolution in China has changed, to some extent, the rules governing the use of address terms, discussing the close interrelation between the use of address terms and cultural values and how the change in mental outlook has led to the depreciation or appreciation of certain terms. (Author/CB)

  8. Building technology services that address student needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform.

  9. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  10. White paper: China's policies and actions for addressing climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    The document contains the following sections: Foreword; I. Climate Change and China's Situation; II. Impact of Climate Change on China; III. Strategies and Objectives for Addressing Climate Change; IV. Policies and Actions to Decelerate Climate Change; V. Policies and Actions to Adapt to Climate Change; VI. Enhancing Public Awareness in Addressing Climate Change; VII. Enhancing International Cooperation on Climate Change; VIII. Institution and Mechanism Building for Coping with Climate Change; and Conclusion. Measures for control of greenhouse gas emissions include optimizing the energy consumption structure through developing renewable energy, boosting nuclear power plant construction and speeding up the development and utilization of coal-bed gas. The target by 2010 is to raise the proportion of renewable energy (including large-scale hydropower) in the primary energy supply by up to 10 percent, and the extraction of coal-bed gas up to 10 billion cu m. China will push forward the use of clean coal and develop efficient and clean power generating technology, such as large-scale combined cycle units and poly-generation, and promote technology for carbon dioxide sequestration. China has decided to place the emphasis of its research on technologies which include technologies for the clean and efficient exploitation and utilization of coal, petroleum and natural gas; technologies for manufacturing advanced equipment for coal- and nuclear-generated power; technologies for capturing, utilizing and storing carbon dioxide; and technologies that control greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture and how land is used.

  11. China Report, Science & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-30

    Distribution of Scientists, Engineers Discussed (CHINA DAILY, various dates) 37 Little Freedom of Movement , by Niu Qiuxia 37 ’Imbalanced...the masses to monitor foreshocks. "A few years ago we had such concoctions as ’indigenous telluric electricity,’ ’indigenous geomagnetism,’ and...skills. It is easier and more feasible than movements of skilled personnel. One might say that it is using "nearby water to slake nearby thirst

  12. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  13. Digital Citizenship: Addressing Appropriate Technology Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribble, Mike S.; Bailey, Gerald D.; Ross, Tweed W.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the popular press has pointed to increasing evidence of misuse and abuse of emerging technologies in U.S. schools. Some examples include using Web sites to intimidate or threaten students, downloading music illegally from the Internet, plagiarizing information using the Internet, using cellular phones during class time, and playing games…

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-23

    Petrochemical Corp. Completes First Integrated Network [JISUANJI SHIJIE, 18 Sep 91] ............ 27 Shanghai To Build FTTH CATV Network [Xiao Qiang; JISUANJI...long-wave fiber optic communi- cations. Shanghai To Build FTTH CATV Network 92P60054D Beijing JISUANJI SHIJIE [CHINA First 60-km Unrepeatered Bundle...technology is now moving into Cable Operational"] the home ( FTTH , or fiber-to-the-home), with the upcoming construction in the Shanghai area’s Jiading [Summary

  15. 2006 annual nuclear technology conference - opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Summit organized by Federal Chancellor Merkel set the right course in energy research. The funds to be made available by the federal government for energy research and innovation are to be raised by more than 30% by 2009. However, the Red-Green ban on research into reactor development still needs to be lifted. For Germany, 2005 was a year of change. As far as energy policy is concerned, it was a year more of disenchantment, as the diametrally opposed positions held by CDU/CSU and SPD in matters nuclear mean that, for the time being, the current regulations about residual plant lifetimes will continue to be valid. The Energy Summit as the first round in a process at the end of which, in 2007, there is to be a complete energy policy concept for the next few decades, does raise hopes. Clear emphasis must be given to worldwide developments, however. The assumption that others would follow Germany's 'good' example in opting out of the use of nuclear power has turned out to be naive. Ultimate clarity about which technology will turn out to be a bridge or an interim technology will be obtained in retrospect only. We should buy time now by extending nuclear power plant life so as to be able later to decide more freely about our options. The repository question, which is still considered a point of dispute, is less a technical than a political problem. The sequence of steps to be taken for solution is outlined in great detail and with high precision in the nuclear agreement. Following the ruling by the Lueneburg higher administrative court, Konrad can be installed and commissioned by 2013. After handling the so-called points of doubt, exploration of Gorleben can be completed. Nuclear power is an important building block in the energy mix in peaceful coexistence of various energy resources in accordance with their respective possible uses. For this reason, the renewables and nuclear power should no longer by played off one against the other. Both of them have a

  16. China's High-technology Standards Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are several major technology standards, including audio video coding (AVS), automotive electronics, third generation (3G) mobile phones, mobile television, wireless networks and digital terrestrial television broadcasting, that have been released or are currently under development in China. This article offers a detailed analysis of each standard and studies their impact on China's high-technology industry.

  17. Addressing Climate Change and the Role of Technological Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Axon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As far as sustainability is concerned, the role of technology has always been contested. With regard to environmental degradation, technology is either perceived to be part of the problem or part of the solution. To combat the complex issues of the present time, technological solutions are expected to play a key role towards mitigating and adapting to the negative impacts of climate change. The paper also discusses the role of the 2009 Copenhagen Conference towards addressing climate change. Although the Copenhagen Accord is not a legally binding agreement, it is seen as a necessary first step towards a protocol that will effectively address the issue of climate change.

  18. China marks World Population Day. Address by Zhang Weiqing: (Excerpts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W

    1998-08-01

    This is a summary of remarks by Minister Zhang Weiqing of China's State Family Planning Commission (SFPC) given on World Population Day in China. The world's population size has increased by 1 billion since 1987, and will reach 6 billion by 1999. As the most populous developing country in the world, China has a greater population pressure and bears a large responsibility regarding stabilization of the world's population and realization of sustainable development. China has a less developed economy and a high percentage of rural and illiterate persons, many of whom are below the poverty line. The interests of both present and future generations must be taken into account with regard to development. In addition, the modernization drive must include strategies for sustainable development and basic national policies of FP and environmental protection in order to achieve a balance among population growth, the economy, resources, and the environment. After 30 years of effort, China has succeeded in solving its population problem by integrating governmental guidance with voluntary public participation in FP. In 1997, the birthrate decreased to 16.57/1000, and the total fertility rate was below replacement level. Changes in attitude toward marriage and childbearing have occurred, as has awareness of voluntary participation in FP. However, some problems have emerged in the implementation of population and FP programs. China will carry out its programs strictly and effectively while developing the national economy. Goals include: 1) stressing the IEC program regarding contraception and regular FP management and services; 2) integrating the FP program with economic development; 3) helping the public to become well off; 4) protecting maternal and child health; 5) improving the status of women; 6) delivering reproductive services; and 7) improving social security measures. Efforts will be made to enable the public to have a more active part in implementing the FP program.

  19. Exploring Options to Address Chinas Strategy in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    india_news-article-52022.htm (accessed December 19, 2012). 82 M. V. Ramana and Zia Mian , “The Nuclear Confrontation in South Asia,” SIPRI Yearbook 2003...english.peopledaily.com.cn/90883/7839137.html (accessed December 17, 2012). 90 Bin Wang and Shen Li , “Education Tourism Market in China - an Explorative Study

  20. People's Republic of China's Technological Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Sigurdson

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of the People's Republic of China in the global economy by exemplifying industrial sectors where it has established a strong competitive advantage. The author accounts for China's growth by looking at factors such as direct foreign investment and investment in research and development. This paper discusses several economic sectors including the textile, electronics, semiconductor, and aircraft industries as cases where China has upgraded its technological p...

  1. PM₂.₅ opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin

    2015-02-01

    China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM₂.₅ monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Addresses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...

  3. Clean coal technology challenges for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, J. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2001-01-01

    China is rich in coal reserves and also the largest coal producer and consumer in the world. Coal constitutes over 70% of the total energy consumption, some 86% of coal production is burned directly, which causes serious air pollution problems. However, based on China's specific energy structure, coal utilisation will remain the dominant means of energy usage and clean coal technology must be the way forward if the environmental problems are to be resolved. This article discusses China's Clean Coal Technology Program, its implementation, including the clean coal technologies being developed and introduced, with reference to the key R & D institutes for each of the coal-using sectors. The article is an edited version of the 2000 Robens Coal Science Lecture, delivered in London in October 2000. The China Coal Technology Program for the 9th Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) was approved in 1997. The technologies included in the Program considered in this article are in: coal washing and grading, coal briquette, coal water slurry; circulating fluidised bed technology; pressurised fluidised bed combined cycle; integrated gasification combined cycle; coal gasification, coal liquefaction and flue gas desulfurisation. 4 tabs.

  4. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an initial examination of the evaluative conditioning (EC) of consumers’ attitudes toward food technologies in China, including how EC can affect consumer acceptance of new technology when participants possess different levels of social trust. In a study using the EC paradigm...... and a combination of between-subjects control groups and within-subjects control conditions, participants considered three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic), paired with affectively positive, neutral, and negative images. Subsequent evaluative measurements revealed that EC can explain attitude...... formation toward food technologies in China when consumers see affective images, but the strength of the effects varies at different levels of social trust. Participants with a high level of trust in the institutions that promote and regulate the technologies can be conditioned both positively...

  5. Sustainable recycling of automotive products in China: Technology and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming

    2006-08-01

    The Chinese economy is growing rapidly, but accompanyingsuch growth are issues of environmental protection and social inequity which must be addressed. With the Automobile Industry Development Policy and the Motor Vehicle Product Recovery Technology Policy, an automobile products recoverability target has been established and will be incorporated into an automobile products authentication management system in China. By 2010, for all end-of-life automobile products, reuse and recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 85% by average weight per vehicle, and the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium is prohibited. This paper will address the sustainable recycling of Chinese automobile products within the period of 2006 2010.

  6. Energy Address Delivery Technologies and Thermal Transformations in Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, energetic and technical paradoxes in food nanotechnologies and traditional approaches to evaluation of energy recourses using are considered. Hypotheses of improvement of food production energy technologies are formulated. Classification of principles of address delivery of energy to food raw materials elements is given. We had substantiated the perspective objectives for heat-pumps installations and biphasic heat-transfer systems. The energy efficiency of new technolo-gies is compared on base of the number of energy impact. Principles of mass transfer modeling in ex-traction, dehydration and pasteurization combined processes are considered by food production exam-ple. The objectives of mathematical modeling of combined hydrodynamic and heat and mass transfer processes in modern energy technologies are set. The fuel energy conversion diagrams for drying, in-novative installations on the base of thermal siphons, heat pumps and electromagnetic energy genera-tors are represented. In this article, we illustrate how electromagnetic field, biphasic heat-transfer sys-tems and heat pumps can be effective tools for energy efficiency technologies.

  7. China's nuclear technology for economy growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yanxiao

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of nuclear technology to practical applications in energy, agriculture, food, industries and others has made important contributions to the prosperity of the national economy and the improvement of living standard of Chinese people in the past 40 years. Facing the great challenges in upcoming years, sustained efforts are needed to promote industrialization, commercialization and internationalization of nuclear technology. Rapid economic growth is providing the golden opportunities for the development of nuclear technology in China. With the trends to globalization of economic development, civilian applications of nuclear technology will have to be involved in international co-operation and competitive world markets to narrow the gap between China and other developed countries in the world in the next century. (author)

  8. China nuclear science and technology reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    114 abstracts of nuclear science and technology reports, which were published in 1986-1987 in China, are collected. The subjects inclucled are: nuclear physics, nuclear medicine, radiochemistry, isotopes and their applications, reactors and nuclear power plants, radioactive protection, nuclear instruments etc... They are arranged in accordance with the INIS subject categories, and a report number index is annexed

  9. Progress of photovoltaic technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yuwen; Wang Sicheng; Zhao Ying

    2009-01-01

    Chinese government has been devoting itself to the development of renewable energy sources. This paper de-scribes the history, achievement and future trends of photovoltaic technology, and suggestions are proposed for strength-ening the research and development (R&D) ability of China.

  10. Technology Business Incubators in China and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Mingfeng; Baskaran, Angathevar; Pancholi, Jatin

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative case study of Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) in two major emerging economies in Asia - China and India. We employ an integrative analytical framework that combines three broad categories of indicators (originally developed by developed by Mian, 1997): Management...

  11. Development of isotope hydrology technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhangsu

    1988-01-01

    The development of isotope hydrology technology in China is described. The isotope technology provides an independent approach for solving hydrological problems. Isotope hydrology is applied in three ways: the use of change in environmental isotopic composition of water (especially used in water resources exploitation), the use of artificial radioactive tracers and the use of redioisotope instruments. Many important achievements have been obtained in application of isotopic hydrology technology. For the sake of promoting rapid development of isotope hydrology the topics on management, technology and others are commented

  12. Addressing water challenges on the North China Plain with hydroeconomic optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Grith; Davidsen, Claus; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    . This enables the representation of links and interactions between the water resources system and the power system of Northern China. The multi-reservoir LP model is formulated as a flow path based optimization, which tracks each water delivery from supplier to receiver. This is useful for the exploration...... constructed. However, the project alone cannot solve the NCP’s water crisis. A hydroeconomic optimization model has been developed for the NCP system. The model area represents the administrative area of the Hai River Commission. The challenges addressed are the spatio-temporal distribution of costs......With its diverse environment and large population, China is facing water resource challenges, both in terms of quantity and quality. The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the world’s most densely populated areas and one of the highly water stressed regions of China. It counts for 15% of the Chinese...

  13. International Technology-Oriented Agreements to Address Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Fischer, C.; Newell, R.G.; Ueno, T.

    2007-01-01

    Much discussion has surrounded possible alternatives for international agreements on climate change, particularly post-2012. Among these alternatives, technology-oriented agreements (TOAs) are perhaps the least well defined. We explore what TOAs may consist of, why they might be sensible, which TOAs already exist in international energy and environmental governance, and whether they have the potential to make a valuable contribution to addressing climate change. We conclude that TOAs aimed at knowledge sharing and coordination, research, development, or demonstration could increase the overall efficiency and effectiveness of international climate cooperation, but have limited environmental effectiveness on their own. Technology transfer agreements are likely to have similar properties unless the level of resources expended on them is large, in which case they could be environmentally significant. Technology mandates, standards, or incentives can be environmentally effective, within the applicable sector. However, they are likely to be less cost-effective than broad-based, flexible approaches that place a price on emissions. These results indicate that TOAs have the potential to improve the effectiveness of the global response to climate change. The success of specific TOAs will depend on their design, implementation, and the role they are expected to play relative to other components of the climate policy portfolio

  14. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  15. Targeted opportunities to address the climate-trade dilemma in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Davis, Steven J.; Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Liang, Sai; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chen, Bin; Liu, Jingru; Yan, Jinyue; Guan, Dabo

    2016-02-01

    International trade has become the fastest growing driver of global carbon emissions, with large quantities of emissions embodied in exports from emerging economies. International trade with emerging economies poses a dilemma for climate and trade policy: to the extent emerging markets have comparative advantages in manufacturing, such trade is economically efficient and desirable. However, if carbon-intensive manufacturing in emerging countries such as China entails drastically more CO2 emissions than making the same product elsewhere, then trade increases global CO2 emissions. Here we show that the emissions embodied in Chinese exports, which are larger than the annual emissions of Japan or Germany, are primarily the result of China’s coal-based energy mix and the very high emissions intensity (emission per unit of economic value) in a few provinces and industry sectors. Exports from these provinces and sectors therefore represent targeted opportunities to address the climate-trade dilemma by either improving production technologies and decarbonizing the underlying energy systems or else reducing trade volumes.

  16. Ethanol production in China: Potential and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shi-Zhong; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Rising oil demand in China has resulted in surging oil imports and mounting environmental pollution. It is projected that by 2030 the demand for fossil fuel oil will be 250 million tons. Ethanol seems to be an attractive renewable alternative to fossil fuel. This study assesses China's ethanol supply potential by examining potential non-food crops as feedstock; emerging conversion technologies; and cost competitiveness. Results of this study show that sweet sorghum among all the non-food feedstocks has the greatest potential. It grows well on the available marginal lands and the ASSF technology when commercialized will shorten the fermentation time which will lower the costs. Other emerging technologies such as improved saccharification and fermentation; and cellulosic technologies will make China more competitive in ethanol production in the future. Based on the estimated available marginal lands for energy crop production and conversion yields of the potential feedstocks, the most likely and optimistic production levels are 19 and 50 million tons of ethanol by 2020. In order to achieve those levels, the roadmap for China is to: select the non-food feedstock most suitable to grow on the available marginal land; provide funding to support the high priority conversion technologies identified by the scientists; provide monetary incentives to new and poor farmers to grow the feedstocks to revitalize rural economy; less market regulation and gradual reduction of subsidies to producers for industry efficiency; and educate consumers on the impact of fossil fuel on the environment to reduce consumption. Since the share of ethanol in the overall fuel demand is small, the impact of ethanol on lowering pollution and enhancing fuel security will be minimal. (author)

  17. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-18

    Chile 1987 0.5 Thailand 1985 0.3 JPRS-CST-92-012 18 June 1992 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY POLICY 25 (3) Criteria For Testing Government Disbursements...8217.*, •> ■yiH’v;,!- ! \\%v.7X’>A->:-:-.-:v^>.*>>;v< vih >x-«v.; ’mmii The new Chinese Super VGA Card, as shown above, was developed by the Beijing Legend

  18. China’s Technology Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    China’s best and brightest workers and do not help Chinese companies develop. Prevalence of FOEs stifles China’s national development of R&D. Source...Treatment of tumors; cell biology; sports technology; ophthalmology ; water pollution; optimization of silver/graphite contact materials; exterior...developments; metabolic engineering Guangdong Nano-biotechnology in the chemical industry Guangxi Green chemistry Hebei L-Tryptophan; lettuce breeding

  19. China Report, Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-11

    ZHIYEBING ZAZHI tCHINESE JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES!, No 1, 20 Feb 85 148 YICHUAN XUEBAO TACTA GENETICA SINICAJ, No 1...markets, all cities and counties should enthusiastically create conditions , substanti- ate strength, and augment the equipment to gradually develop... conditions should concentrate certain production capacity and certain technological force on developing new tech- nology and set up and improve the

  20. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kirstein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT. IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB, Controller Area Network (CAN and radio frequency ID (RFID from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6.

  1. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Antonio J.; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F.; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  2. IPv6 addressing proxy: mapping native addressing from legacy technologies and devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Antonio J; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-05-17

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6.

  3. The development of bioenergy technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.Z.; Yin, X.L.; Yuan, Z.H.; Zhou, Z.Q.; Zhuang, X.S. [The Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate Key Laboratory of CAS, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Among renewable energy resources, bioenergy is one of the fastest growth energy alternatives with tremendous potential in China. The thermal, physical, and biological processes of conversion of biomass yield a number of products and can be obtained as gases, liquids, solid fuels, and electricity as well as a variety of chemicals. Various bioenergy technologies that have been developed are at the fundamental research, demonstration, and commercialization stages. This review concentrates on the processes that are attracting the most attention in China. This paper presents the important roles bioenergy plays in China. Firstly, the application status of bioenergy technologies are introduced, including biogas, fuel ethanol, biodiesel, and power generation at the commercialization stage. Then, the current research progresses are analyzed of ethanol derived from lignocellulose, sweet sorghum and cassava, biodiesel from jatropha, biomass briquetting, synthesized fuels and pyrolysis technologies at the fundamental research and demonstration stages. Finally, it is concluded that the key areas for developing bioenergy for the future are the exploitation of new biomass resources and R and D in biofuels from non-food biomass resources, as well as the development of commercialization methods suitable for developing countries. (author)

  4. Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  5. China nuclear science and technology report. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1993 (Report Numbers CNIC-00675∼CNIC-00800) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  6. China nuclear science and technology report. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1993 (Report Numbers CNIC-00675{approx}CNIC-00800) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed.

  7. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Cha, H. K.; Rhee, Y. J. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The main objectives of this project are to develop cooperative channel by personnel exchanges between industrial, educational and research partners of Korea and China on the fields of optical technologies which are the basis of optical industry and being spot-lighted as new industry of 21th century, and to raise the class of Korean optical technology up to world class by utilization of Chinese large facilities through the cooperative research between the optical technology institutions of both sides. To attain the goals mentioned above, we carried out the cooperative researches between the Korean and Chinese optical technology institutions in the following 7 fields; ? research cooperation between KAERI-SITP for the quantum structured far-IR sensor technology - research cooperation for the generation of femtosecond nuclear fusion induced neutrons - research cooperation between KAERI-AIOFM for laser environment analysis and remote sensing technology - research cooperation between KAERI-SIOM for advanced diode-pumped laser technology - cooperative research related on linear and nonlinear magneto-optical properties of advanced magnetic quantum structures - design of pico-second PW high power laser system and its simulation and - cooperative research related on the femto-second laser-plasma interaction physics.

  8. Understanding China's renewable energy technology exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jialu; Goldstein, Don

    2013-01-01

    China became a major player in renewable energy (RE) technology during the 2000s. Chinese solar PV cell and module makers quickly dominated global sales in that industry, while the country's wind turbine producers became poised for significant exports after capturing their rapidly growing home market. In countries like the US, Chinese RE technology strength has been met with claims of excessive governmental support of exports. This study examines to what extent Chinese firms' solar PV and wind technology successes have been enabled by policy supports, and whether those policies appear to have been driven by broader goals versus RE export promotion per se. The evidence suggests that governmental policy toward both wind and solar originated in a push for export-competitive Chinese companies. But the specifics differed substantially due to the particular requirements of building technological capabilities in each: export readiness necessitated substantial support for domestic installation of wind but not solar PV power. The findings also suggest that as the decade of the 2000s progressed, environmental goals played an increasing role alongside export promotion in motivating and shaping Chinese RE technology policies. - Highlights: ► Export policy in the rise of Chinese renewable energy technologies is studied. ► Policy supported wind turbine firms' capabilities via domestic uptake, not exports. ► Pre-2009 solar module exports enjoyed, but did not depend on, export subsidies. ► Renewables development also fit wider technology and environmental policy goals.

  9. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Cha, H. K.; Rhee, Y. J.

    2007-04-01

    The main objectives of this project are to develop cooperative channel by personnel exchanges between industrial, educational and research partners of Korea and China on the fields of optical technologies which are the basis of optical industry and being spot-lighted as new industry of 21th century, and to raise the class of Korean optical technology up to world class by utilization of Chinese large facilities through the cooperative research between the optical technology institutions of both sides. To attain the goals mentioned above, we carried out the cooperative researches between the Korean and Chinese optical technology institutions in the following 7 fields; ? research cooperation between KAERI-SITP for the quantum structured far-IR sensor technology - research cooperation for the generation of femtosecond nuclear fusion induced neutrons - research cooperation between KAERI-AIOFM for laser environment analysis and remote sensing technology - research cooperation between KAERI-SIOM for advanced diode-pumped laser technology - cooperative research related on linear and nonlinear magneto-optical properties of advanced magnetic quantum structures - design of pico-second PW high power laser system and its simulation and - cooperative research related on the femto-second laser-plasma interaction physics

  10. Programmes of Educational Technology in China: Looking Backward, Thinking Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuyin, Xu; Jianli, Jiao

    2010-01-01

    There is a history of programmes in educational technology in colleges and universities in China going back about 70 years. This paper briefly reviews the developmental history of the educational technology programme in China, elaborates the status-quo of the programme and looks ahead into the future trends of educational technology development in…

  11. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  12. RFID in the pharmaceutical industry: addressing counterfeits with technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the pharmaceutical industry has grown in recent years. The technology has matured from its specialized tracking and retail uses to a systemic part of supply chain management in international pharmaceutical production and distribution. Counterfeit drugs, however, remain a significant challenge for governments, pharmaceutical companies, clinicians, and patients and the use of RFID to track these compounds represents an opportunity for development. This paper discusses the medical, technological, and economic factors that support widespread adoption of RFID technology in the pharmaceutical industry in an effort to prevent counterfeit medicines from harming patients and brand equity.

  13. Keynote address : technology management in the knowledge society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, R.

    1994-01-01

    In the process of establishing our nuclear power programme, we have helped in establishing many facets of the present industrial infrastructure in the country and in improving the quality of the products of many companies, big and small. Nuclear Power Corporation and the other industrial units of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) have the powerful R and D backup of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and the other research centres of DAE. There is extra-ordinary multi-disciplinary research expertise and technological capability in BARC, whose full potential I came to realize for the first time during the development programme and the project execution of the Peaceful Explosion Experiment at Pokhran in 1974. This expertise and capability should enable us to advance rapidly in the nuclear technology field and also help India to rapid progress in tomorrow's knowledge society. But these require careful management of technology development in the coming decades. (author)

  14. Addressing Learning Disabilities with UDL and Technology: Strategic Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tracey E.; Cohen, Nicole; Vue, Ge; Ganley, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    CAST created "Strategic Reader," a technology-based system blending Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) in a digital learning environment to improve reading comprehension instruction. This experimental study evaluates the effectiveness of Strategic Reader using two treatment conditions for measuring…

  15. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6)

    OpenAIRE

    Jara, Antonio J.; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F.; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing spa...

  16. 77 FR 5865 - American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda Faucet Works, Inc., Greater China Media & Entertainment Corp., and Xechem International, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading February 2, 2012. It appears... Technologies, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended September 30, 2008. It...

  17. Addressing informatics challenges in Translational Research with workflow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulah, Simon A; Correll, Mick A; Munro, Robin E J; Sheldon, Jonathan G

    2008-09-01

    Interest in Translational Research has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this collision of different data, technologies and cultures lie tremendous opportunities for the advancement of science and business for organisations that are able to integrate, analyse and deliver this information effectively to users. Workflow-based integration and analysis systems are becoming recognised as a fast and flexible way to build applications that are tailored to scientific areas, yet are built on a common platform. Workflow systems are allowing organisations to meet the key informatics challenges in Translational Research and improve disease understanding and patient care.

  18. Assessing the Role of Technology Adoption in China's Growth Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Nadja

    to what extent these productivity increases can be explained by technology-adoption theory. In less developed countries, the key element behind technological progress is technology adoption, the process of copying technological knowledge invented throughout the world. To uncover a measure of China...

  19. China's wind power industry: Policy support, technological achievements, and emerging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhongying; Qin, Haiyan; Lewis, Joanna I.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 the Chinese wind power technology industry has developed rapidly, with China becoming the largest installer of wind power capacity in the world in 2010. This paper reviews the policy system implemented in China to support the wind power industry, centered on China's 2005 Renewable Energy Law. It examines the industry's achievements over the past two decades, including the development of wind power technology and equipment, the utilization of China's wind power resources, and the cost reductions achieved. It then explores the obstacles affecting the ongoing sustainability of the Chinese wind industry, including regulatory barriers, grid integration challenges, and challenges to continued technological innovation. It recommends that integration challenges be addressed through policy reforms, establishing interconnection standards, and creating predictability with forecasting and storage; that market signals be established with long-term development goals and pricing reforms; and that industry limitations be addressed with targeted R and D, improved wind resource assessment and transparency, domestic and international collaborations, and the cultivation of a skilled workforce. - Highlights: ► Review the policy system and the achievements of Chinese wind industry. ► Analyze the obstacles affecting the sustainability of the industry. ► Provide recommendations for how China can address these obstacles.

  20. 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Yun; Xu, Min; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Yujie

    2017-01-01

    This book includes a selection of reviewed papers presented at the 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology, held on November 25-27, 2016 in Xi’an, China. The conference was jointly organized by China Academy of Printing Technology, Xi’an University of Technology and Stuttgart Media University of Germany. The proceedings cover the recent outcomes on color science and technology, image processing technology, digital media technology, digital process management technology in packaging and packaging etc. They will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in graphic communications, packaging, color science, image science, material science, computer science, digital media and network technology fields.

  1. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2007-01-01

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  2. 2009 annual conference on nuclear technology opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, Walter

    2009-01-01

    To Germany, 2009 first and foremost is an election year. The course will be reset. At any rate, reassessing nuclear power policy in Germany in the sense of plant life extension and real progress in solving the energy problem is indispensable. One major reason is the change in boundary conditions since 2000, the year of the agreement between the Red-Green federal government and the nuclear power plant licensees. Climate change, security of power supply, and overcoming the worldwide financial and economic crisis are important points to be mentioned. The world of nuclear power, too, has changed. Besides Finland, also Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy, and Poland are European countries intending to build new nuclear power plants. Premature shutdown of 7 out of the 17 German nuclear power plants in the next legislative term of the German federal parliament would have grave consequences for the security of supply and would greatly jeopardize the objectives of climate protection. In addition, it would weaken Germany's position as a center of industry. It is important, therefore, to negotiate a sensible approach after the national elections. Like the politically motivated alliance of coal and nuclear in the 1970s and 1980s, a model encompassing renewables, efforts towards energy efficiency, and nuclear power could be possible. As nuclear power has lost its divisive effect on society, despite ongoing discussions, the necessary reassessment must be put on the agenda also in Germany. One major issue is real progress in the waste management problem. This dialog will have to be carried on in a committed as well as unbiased way particularly in the weeks and months to come. We need all power technologies, nuclear included. (orig.)

  3. Promoting the development of nuclear technology application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyan

    2004-01-01

    The application of nuclear technology in China has been playing important parts in the fields of military, industry, agriculture, medical science, life science, material science, environment protection, etc. However, comparing with some advanced countries and to satisfy the need of national economy China still has a long way to go

  4. Prevention and Care Programs Addressing the Growing Prevalence of Diabetes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Junmei; Kong, Alice P S; Chan, Juliana C N

    2016-12-01

    According to a 2010 national survey, 11 % of adults in China have diabetes, affecting 109.6 million individuals. The high prevalence of diabetes has been attributed to the aging of the population, the rapid adoption of energy-dense foods, and a reduction in physical activity. Collectively, these secular changes have created an obesogenic environment that can unmask diabetes in subjects with a genetic predisposition. The growing prevalence of maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, childhood obesity, and early-onset disease can lead to premature morbidity and mortality. Rising to meet these public health challenges, researchers in China have conducted randomized studies to demonstrate the benefits of lifestyle modification in preventing diabetes (the Da Qing Study), as well as that of team-based integrated care, using multiple strategies including peer support and information technology, in order to reduce hospitalizations, cardiovascular-renal complications, and premature deaths. With growing evidence supporting the benefits of these diabetes prevention and management programs, the next challenge is to use policies and systems to scale up the implementation of these programs through raising awareness, building capacity, and providing resources to reduce the human and socioeconomic burden of diabetes.

  5. Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation ... aimed at providing a blueprint for universal basic healthcare coverage for all by 2020. ... Implementing clinical pathway management and reforming compensation mechanism in rural ...

  6. A Decade of Reform: Science and Technology Policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The State Science and Technology Commission (People's Republic of China), IDRC ... In 1995, and at the request of the Chinese government, Canada's International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) assembled a ... Related content ...

  7. Primary EFL Teachers' Technology Use in China: Patterns and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofang; Ni, Xiaopeng

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on survey data, this paper examines the patterns and perceptions of technology use by primary EFL teachers in China. Findings suggest that although Chinese EFL teachers hold positive attitudes toward the value of technology for teaching and learning, they use technology mainly for teacher-centered purposes, such as teaching preparation and…

  8. Horizontal well technology in the oilfield of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiange, L.; Shangqi, L.; Zhixiang, J. [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development (China)

    1998-12-31

    The current state of horizontal well development and enhanced recovery technology in the onshore oilfields of China is described. The paper includes discussion of technology developed for light oil reservoirs, heavy oil reservoirs with thermal recovery, low permeability reservoirs and high water flooding reservoirs. Examples of various applications of the technology are described. 3 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. The Evolving Relationship Between Technology and National Security in China: Innovation, Defense Transformation, and China’s Place in the Global Technology Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Stockmann, Xiao Qiang. Changing Media, Changing China , New York: Oxford University Press, (01 2011) Dieter Ernst. Indigenous Innovation and...2211 China , science, technology, dual use, defense, security, innovation REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10...ABSTRACT Final Report: The Evolving Relationship Between Technology and National Security in China : Innovation , Defense Transformation, and China’s

  10. China's rise as a major contributor to science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Lai, Qing

    2014-07-01

    In the past three decades, China has become a major contributor to science and technology. China now employs an increasingly large labor force of scientists and engineers at relatively high earnings and produces more science and engineering degrees than the United States at all levels, particularly bachelor's. China's research and development expenditure has been rising. Research output in China has been sharply increasing since 2002, making China the second largest producer of scientific papers after the United States. The quality of research by Chinese scientists has also been improving steadily. However, China's rise in science also faces serious difficulties, partly attributable to its rigid, top-down administrative system, with allegations of scientific misconduct trending upward.

  11. Climate change in China and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Y.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the first assessment report (FAR of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC in 1990, the international scientific community has made substantial progresses in climate change sciences. Changes in components of climate system, including the atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, indicate that global warming is unequivocal. Instrumental records demonstrate that the global mean temperature has a significant increasing trend during the 20th century and in the latest 50 years the warming become faster. In the meantime, the global sea level has a strong increasing trend, as well as the snow coverage of Northern Hemisphere showed an obvious downward trend. Moreover, the global warming plays a key role in significantly affecting the climate system and social-economy on both global and regional scales, such as sea level rise, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, desertification, deforestation, increase of weather extremes (typhoon, hurricane and rainstorm and so on. The state of the art understanding of IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 was most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Climate change issues, as a grave challenge to the sustainable development of the human society, have received ever greater attention from the international community. Deeply cognizant of the complexity and extensive influence of these issues and fully aware of the arduousness and urgency of the task of addressing climate change, the Chinese government is determined to address climate change in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The facts of climate change in China and its impacts, and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change are introduced in this paper.

  12. Address for the Beginning Issue of “RFID Technologies and Applicationsn”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Recently RFID technology got a widely attentions. As a result of this, RFID Technology and Application is published as the first professional RFID publication mainly issuing in the China and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. This article summarizes the RFID characteristic, suitable applied field and its development situation and its developing reason in Asia-Pacific area. The article also presents the Magazine’s target and goal, column and the future perspective.

  13. Commercialization Development of Crop Straw Gasification Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop straw gasification technologies are the most promising biomass gasification technologies and have great potential to be further developed in China. However, the commercialization development of gasification technology in China is slow. In this paper, the technical reliability and practicability of crop straw gasification technologies, the economic feasibility of gas supply stations, the economic feasibility of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises and the social acceptability of crop straw gasification technologies are analyzed. The results show that presently both the atmospheric oxidation gasification technology and the carbonization pyrolysis gasification technology in China are mature and practical, and can provide fuel gas for households. However, there are still a series of problems associated with these technologies that need to be solved for the commercialization development, such as the high tar and CO content of the fuel gas. The economic feasibility of the gas supply stations is different in China. Parts of gas supply stations are unprofitable due to high initial investment, the low fuel gas price and the small numbers of consumers. In addition, the commercialization development of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises is hindered for the low market demand for gasification equipment which is related to the fund support from the government. The acceptance of the crop straw gasification technologies from both the government and the farmers in China may be a driving force of further commercialization development of the gasification technologies. Then, the crop straw gasification technologies in China have reached at the stage of pre-commercialization. At this stage, the gasification technologies are basically mature and have met many requirements of commercialization, however, some incentives are needed to encourage their further development.

  14. Integrating technology education concepts into China's educational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Faxian

    The problem of this study was to develop a strategy for integrating technology education concepts within the Chinese mathematics and science curricula. The researcher used a case study as the basic methodology. It included three methods for collecting data: literature review, field study in junior and senior secondary schools in America and China, and interviews with experienced educators who were familiar with the status of technology education programs in the selected countries. The data came from the following areas: Japan, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, China, and five states in the United States: Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New York. The researcher summarized each state and country's educational data, identified the advantages and disadvantages of their current technology education program, and identified the major concepts within each program. The process determined that identified concepts would be readily acceptable into the current Chinese educational system. Modernization of, industry, agriculture, science and technology, and defense have been recent objectives of the Chinese government. Therefore, Chinese understanding of technology, or technology education, became important for the country. However, traditional thought and culture curb the implementation of technology education within China's current education system. The proposed solution was to integrate technology education concepts into China's mathematics and science curricula. The purpose of the integration was to put new thoughts and methods into the current educational structure. It was concluded that the proposed model and interventions would allow Chinese educators to carry out the integration into China's education system.

  15. Climbing Up the Technology Ladder? High-Technology Exports in China and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Kevin P.; Porzecanski, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we determine the “dynamic revealed competitiveness position” (DRCP) of nations for high technology exports between 1980 and 2005. We find that the developed world has lost significant market share in high technology and that China has climbed the high technology ladder during this period. In 1980 China was ranked 99th of all nations in terms of the percentage of global exports in high technology. By 2005 China climbed to second place in the world, first place if high technology ...

  16. Understanding technology use and constructivist strategies when addressing Saudi primary students' mathematics difficulties.

    OpenAIRE

    Alabdulaziz, M.; Higgins, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper will investigate the relationship between technology use and the use of constructivist strategies when addressing Saudi primary students' mathematics difficulties. Semi-structured interviews and observations were used for the purpose of this research, which were undertaken with three mathematics teachers from school A which used technology, and the other three from school B, which did not use technology. We found that technology can support constructivist approach when teaching and...

  17. Policy and innovation: Nanoenergy technology in the USA and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Na; Guan, JianCheng

    2016-01-01

    The USA is a leading country while China is an up-and-coming one in nanotechnology. We carried out a cross-country comparative study on policy and innovation of the two countries in subset nanoenergy field. They both created favorable policy environments for nanotechnology involving applications of nanotechnology in the energy sector. However, Chinese policy deployments for nanotechnology lack coordinated arrangements and effective assessment mechanisms. China performs better than the USA in technological quantity, but weaker in technological influence. The USA expresses an industry-oriented model in nanoenergy technological research and development, but China exhibits a university-and-institute-oriented model. Interorganizational collaboration relationships in the two countries are both still very rare and have huge development space. They both have a long way to go in converting their technological achievements into commercial products, especially China. Finally, we provide the policy implications of this study. In particular, the Chinese government should strengthen its efforts in policies by changing the national S&T evaluation system to set up the basic idea that quality is better than quantity in order to raise the original innovation motivations of innovators. - Highlights: •We compare development status of nanoenergy technologies between China and the USA. •We mainly focus on their policies, innovation performance and pattern in nanoenergy. •Differences are observed in nanoenergy technologies developed in these two countries. •We propose their endeavor directions in nanoenergy based on this study.

  18. Mobile technology for health care in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of mobile technologies in China, the Chinese mobile medical applications market is growing rapidly. This may be particularly useful for Chinese rural populations who have limited access to quality medical care where mobile technologies can reach across geographic and socioeconomic boundaries and potentially increase access to care and improve health outcomes.

  19. Capability Building in Educational Technology for Teachers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Han; Zhuzhu, Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the project called Education Technology Capacity Building Plan for All Primary and Secondary Teachers now being implemented in China. Because information and communication technology skills training cannot match the demand of teachers' professional development, the Chinese Ministry of Education established…

  20. Emergy Evaluation of Different Straw Reuse Technologies in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxian Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Open burning of straw in China has degraded agricultural environments and has become a contributor to air pollution. Development of efficient straw-reuse technologies not only can yield economic benefits but also can protect the environment and can provide greater benefit to society. Thus, the overall benefits of straw-reuse technologies must be considered when making regional development planning and enterprise technology decisions. In addition, agricultural areas in China cross several climatic zones and have different weather characteristics and cultural conditions. In the present study, we assessed five types of straw-reuse technologies (straw-biogas production, -briquetting, -based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production, using emergy analysis, in northeast China. Within each type, five individual cases were investigated, and the highest-performing cases were used for comparison across technologies. Emergy indices for comprehensive benefits for each category, namely, EYR, ELR, and ESI were calculated. Calculated indices suggest that straw-briquetting and -biogas production are the most beneficial technologies in terms of economy, environmental impact, and sustainability compared to straw-based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production technologies. These two technologies can thus be considered the most suitable for straw reuse in China.

  1. System and prospects of China's intercity rail transit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ming

    2018-06-01

    City clusters and metropolitan areas in China are flourishing in the midst of the deepening urbanization in the country, thereby resulting in the emergence of intercity rail transit. Intercity railways connect mainline and urban railways for an integrated regional transportation system that underpins and leads the development of city clusters and metropolitan areas. This study explores the development mode and service characteristics of intercity rail transit, as well as proposes overviews on this system and prospects of its future technology in China.

  2. ALI (Autonomous Lunar Investigator): Revolutionary Approach to Exploring the Moon with Addressable Reconfigurable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.; Floyd, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART) based structures: Mission Concepts based on Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART), originally studied for future ANTS (Autonomous Nanotechnology Swarm) Space Architectures, are now being developed as rovers for nearer term use in lunar and planetary surface exploration. The architecture is based on the reconfigurable tetrahedron as a building block. Tetrahedra are combined to form space-filling networks, shaped for the required function. Basic structural components are highly modular, addressable arrays of robust nodes (tetrahedral apices) from which highly reconfigurable struts (tetrahedral edges), acting as supports or tethers, are efficiently reversibly deployed/stowed, transforming and reshaping the structures as required.

  3. Comic Relief: Graduate Students Address Multiple Meanings for Technology Integration with Digital Comic Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, Beth Rajan; Sutton, Rhonda; Herrmann, Michele

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the usefulness of digital comic creation with 77 graduate students in a teacher technology course. Students completed an assigned reading and created digital comics that addressed technology integration concerns in the schools and society. Using practical action research, 77 student-created comics were analyzed. The findings…

  4. Future implications of China's energy-technology choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Wu Zongxin; DeLaquil, Pat; Chen Wenying; Gao Pengfei

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes an assessment of future energy-technology strategies for China that explored the prospects for China to continue its social and economic development while ensuring national energy-supply security and promoting environmental sustainability over the next 50 years. The MARKAL energy-system modeling tool was used to build a model of China's energy system representing all sectors of the economy and including both energy conversion and end-use technologies. Different scenarios for the evolution of the energy system from 1995 to 2050 were explored, enabling insights to be gained into different energy development choices. The analysis indicates a business-as-usual strategy that relies on coal combustion technologies would not be able to meet all environmental and energy security goals. However, an advanced technology strategy emphasizing (1) coal gasification technologies co-producing electricity and clean liquid and gaseous energy carriers (polygeneration), with below-ground storage of some captured CO 2 ; (2) expanded use of renewable energy sources (especially wind and modern biomass); and (3) end-use efficiency would enable China to continue social and economic development through at least the next 50 years while ensuring security of energy supply and improved local and global environmental quality. Surprisingly, even when significant limitations on carbon emissions were stipulated, the model calculated that an advanced energy technology strategy using our technology-cost assumptions would not incur a higher cumulative (1995-2050) total discounted energy system cost than the business-as-usual strategy. To realize such an advanced technology strategy, China will need policies and programs that encourage the development, demonstration and commercialization of advanced clean energy conversion technologies and that support aggressive end-use energy efficiency improvements

  5. Canadian wind technology licensed for use in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-01

    A collaboration between Calgary-based Sustainable Energy Technology Ltd. and the China Renewable Energy Technologies Delegation was discussed. Sustainable Energy Technology develops, manufactures and markets products for emerging alternative and renewable energy markets. The aim of the collaboration is to advance the development and commercialization of Darrieus type wind turbines for use in China and other markets around the world. Sustainable Energy will license its technology and expertise in advancing the Chinook 250 vertical axis wind turbine technology, beginning with the construction and testing of a commercial proto-type 250 kW turbine at a test site in southern Alberta. A memorandum of understanding was signed by Guo Shuyan on behalf of the China Renewable Energy Technologies Delegation. It was noted that Shuyan is currently vice chairman of the finance and economic committee of the National People's Congress and was also the executive director of the Three Gorges Project Construction Committee. Sustainable Energy is a leader in vertical axis wind turbines, and the Chinook 250 design was developed with support from Canada's National Research Council in 1999 in order to provide a simple, low-cost turbine that will reduce costly diesel fuel consumption for power generation on small islands in remote areas and throughout the developing world. The agreement with China is subject to approval by National Research Council.

  6. Canadian wind technology licensed for use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    A collaboration between Calgary-based Sustainable Energy Technology Ltd. and the China Renewable Energy Technologies Delegation was discussed. Sustainable Energy Technology develops, manufactures and markets products for emerging alternative and renewable energy markets. The aim of the collaboration is to advance the development and commercialization of Darrieus type wind turbines for use in China and other markets around the world. Sustainable Energy will license its technology and expertise in advancing the Chinook 250 vertical axis wind turbine technology, beginning with the construction and testing of a commercial proto-type 250 kW turbine at a test site in southern Alberta. A memorandum of understanding was signed by Guo Shuyan on behalf of the China Renewable Energy Technologies Delegation. It was noted that Shuyan is currently vice chairman of the finance and economic committee of the National People's Congress and was also the executive director of the Three Gorges Project Construction Committee. Sustainable Energy is a leader in vertical axis wind turbines, and the Chinook 250 design was developed with support from Canada's National Research Council in 1999 in order to provide a simple, low-cost turbine that will reduce costly diesel fuel consumption for power generation on small islands in remote areas and throughout the developing world. The agreement with China is subject to approval by National Research Council

  7. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China

    CERN Document Server

    Guan Xia Ling; Ding Da Zhao; Fang Jia Xun; Fang Shou Xian; Fu Shin Ian; Guo, Z Y; Jiang Wei; Li Jie Quan; Luo Zi Hua; Ouyang Hua Fu; Peng Chao Hua; Xu Tao Guang; Xu Wen Wu; Yu Qi; Zhang Zong Hua; Zhao Sheng Chu

    2001-01-01

    High Power Proton Accelerator (HPPA) is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. In China, a multi-purpose verification system as a first phase of Chinese ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton linac) and a swimming pool light water sub-critical reactor. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described

  8. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xialing; Jiang Weisheng; Cui Baoqun; Peng Chaohua; Ding Dazhao; Fu Shinian; Yu Qingchang; Luo Zihua; Xu Wenwu; Ouyang Huafu; Xu Taoguang; Zhao Shengchu; Zhang Zonghua; Li Jian; Fang Shouxian

    2002-01-01

    High Power Proton Accelerator (HPPA) is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. In China, a multi-purpose verification system as a first phase of Chinese ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton linac) and a swimming pool light water sub-critical reactor. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described

  9. American Telemedicine Association: First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the support of Tianjin Municipal People’s Government and the People’s Government of Binhai New Area, the “First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition” hosted by the American Telemedicine Association (ATA, will be held October 28- 30, 2014 at the Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center. The three day event will feature keynote sessions, concurrent discussion forums, exhibits (e.g., telemedicine, information technology, mHealth, a venture summit, meet-and-greet sessions for international and domestic companies for potential business collaboration, and policy discussions on China healthcare. For registration information: http://www.atacn.org/en/

  10. Can CDM bring technology transfer to China?-An empirical study of technology transfer in China's CDM projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo

    2010-01-01

    China has undertaken the greatest number of projects and reported the largest emission reductions on the global clean development mechanism (CDM) market. As technology transfer (TT) was designed to play a key role for Annex II countries in achieving greenhouse gas emission reductions, this study examines various factors that have affected CDM and TT in China. The proportion of total income derived from the certified emissions reductions (CER) plays a key role in the project owners' decision to adopt foreign technology. Incompatibility of CDM procedures with Chinese domestic procedures, technology diffusion (TD) effects, Chinese government policy and the role of carbon traders and CDM project consultants all contribute to the different degrees and forms of TT. International carbon traders and CDM consultants could play a larger role in TT in China's CDM projects as investors and brokers in the future.

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. China: Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-28

    Rural Power Industry Has Record Year [CHINA DAILY (National), 8 Jan 92] 4 Achievements in Energy Conservation and Future Tasks [ Zhu ...Development Targets Detailed [Yuan Changlong; GUIZHOU RIBAO, 23 Sep 91] 21 Another Power Crunch in Zhejiang Province [Xie Ranhao; JINGJI RIBAO, 7 Dec 91...OVERSEAS EDITION, 20 Dec 91] 25 THERMAL POWER Shenhai Plant Completed, Generating Power [ JINGJI RIBAO, 27 Dec 92] 26 Jiangyou Power Plant

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-29

    to build a 150-meter dam or a 185-meter dam for the Three Gorges Project. The reason given by the MWREP was: We want to " select a dam water level...34The initial selection of a dam water level does not mean that the Three Gorges Project will be built. The dam water level initially decided on will...25 like inadequate knowledge, inappropriate planning, management systems, and so on. I. Strippable Coal Resources China has proven strippable

  13. Addressing the trade-climate change-energy nexus: China's explorations in a global governance landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Monkelbaan, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We have arrived at a critical juncture when it comes to understanding the numerous ways in which trade interacts with climate change and energy (trade-climate-energy nexus). Trade remains crucial for the sustainable development of the world's greatest trading nation: China. After clarifying the linkages within the trade, climate change and energy nexus, this article delves into China's specific needs and interests related to trade, climate change and energy. Then it explores the ways in which...

  14. Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurria, Angel

    2009-01-01

    It is a great honour to open this International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy. It is also a privilege for the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to co-sponsor this conference. I wish to thank both our hosts, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of China, represented by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the China Atomic Energy Authority, for convening us today to advance on our common goal: to secure clean and peaceful nuclear power for the 21st century. The global crisis has exposed not only the paramount challenges of today?s global economy and the remarkable level of interdependence among our nations. It has also confronted us with our duty to define the kind of global economy we need for tomorrow. It is our responsibility to devise sound policies for a stronger, cleaner and fairer global economy. Clean and affordable energy, including access to safe and secure nuclear power, should be a central element of our efforts. This is essential not only for a sustainable economy, but also for the future of our planet. The crisis has prompted us to act immediately and in concert. Take the example of our hosts, the Government of China. In the face of the economic slowdown, they responded rapidly and in a comprehensive fashion. Importantly, they increased government spending, and stimulated domestic demand, and are looking into effective ways to enhance social policies. The turmoil showed that China and all of us need to be more involved in international economic cooperation. We are profoundly affected by the policies implemented by each of our countries. There is no better example than energy to illustrate our interdependence. Holding this meeting in Beijing shows the importance China places on international cooperation and recognizes the role China could play in designing clean and safe energy solutions for the future. For me, coming to Beijing is also an opportunity to stress the high significance of the OECD partnership with

  15. China's nuclear technology for economy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yanxiao [China Nuclear Information Center (China)

    1998-07-01

    The transfer of nuclear technology to practical applications in energy, agriculture, food, industries and others has made important contributions to the prosperity of the national economy and the improvement of living standard of Chinese people in the past 40 years. Facing the great challenges in upcoming years, sustained efforts are needed to promote industrialization, commercialization and internationalization of nuclear technology. Rapid economic growth is providing the golden opportunities for the development of nuclear technology in China. With the trends to globalization of economic development, civilian applications of nuclear technology will have to be involved in international co-operation and competitive world markets to narrow the gap between China and other developed countries in the world in the next century. (author)

  16. Early Pleistocene occurrence of Acheulian technology in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingwen; Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Shan; Huang, Weiwen; Hou, Yamei; Zhang, Weihua; An, Zhisheng

    2017-01-01

    Acheulian tools with their associated level of cognizance heralded a major threshold in the evolution of hominin technology, culture and behavior. Thus, unraveling occurrence ages of Acheulian technology across different regions worldwide constitutes a key aspect of understanding the archeology of early human evolution. Here we present a magneto-cyclochronology for the Acheulian assemblage from Sanmenxia Basin, Loess Plateau, North China. Our results place a sequence of stable normal and reversed paleomagnetic polarities within a regional lithostratigraphic context. The Acheulian assemblage is dated to be older than the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary at 0.78 Ma, and is found in strata that are probably equivalent to a weak paleosol subunit within loess layer L9 in the Chinese loess-paleosol sequence, which corresponds to marine isotope stage (MIS) 23, a relatively subdued interglacial period with age range of ∼0.89-0.92 Ma. This age of ∼0.9 Ma implies that Acheulian stone tools were unambiguously present in North China during the Early Pleistocene. It distinctly enlarges the geographic distribution of Acheulian technology and brings its occurrence in North China back into the Early Pleistocene, which is contemporaneous with its first emergence in Europe. Combined with other archeological records, the larger area over which Acheulian technology existed in East Asia during the terminal Early Pleistocene has important implications for understanding early human occupation of North China.

  17. Dental laboratory technology education in China: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liwei; Yue, Li; Zhou, Min; Yu, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Modern dentistry and dental education in China were first introduced from abroad by Dr. Lindsay in 1907. However, advancements in the field of dental laboratory technology did not occur to the same degree in specialties such as prosthodontics and orthodontics. Since the 1990s, orders from abroad demanding dental appliances surged as the image of China as the "world's factory" strengthened. The assembly line model, in which technicians work like simple procedure workers, was rapidly applied to denture production, while the traditional education system and apprenticeship systems demonstrated little progress in these years. The lack of advancement in dental laboratory technology education caused insufficient development in China's dental technology industry. In order to alter the situation, a four-year dental laboratory technology undergraduate educational program was established in 2005 by West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University (WCSS, SCU). This program was based on SCU's undergraduate education and WCSS's junior college education systems. The program introduced scientific methods in relevant subjects into laboratory technicians' training and made many improvements in the availability of trained faculty, textbooks, laboratory facilities, and curriculum.

  18. Technology transfer? The rise of China and India in green technology sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Lema, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    International technology transfer is central to the debate about how to curb the carbon emissions from rapid economic growth in China and India. But given China and India's great progress in building innovation capabilities and green industries, how relevant is technology transfer...... for these countries? This paper seeks insights from three green technology sectors in both countries: wind power, solar energy and electric and hybrid vehicles. We find that, conventional technology transfer mechanisms such as foreign direct investments and licensing, were important for industry formation and take...

  19. Abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Report (1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1998 (Report Numbers CNIC-01231-CNIC-01330) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed.

  20. Abstracts China nuclear science and technology report (1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1999 (Report Numbers CNIC-01331 -CNIC-01430) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  1. Abstracts: China Nuclear Science and Technology Report (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1990 (Report Numbers CNIC--00355 to CNIC-00454) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subjects categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  2. China nuclear science and technology report (1991). Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1991 (Report Numbers CNIC-00455 to CNIC-00554) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  3. China nuclear science and technology report: Abstracts, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1992 (Report Numbers CNIC-00555 ∼ CNIC-00674) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  4. Abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Report (1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1998 (Report Numbers CNIC-01231-CNIC-01330) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  5. Abstracts China nuclear science and technology report (1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1999 (Report Numbers CNIC-01331 -CNIC-01430) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed.

  6. Abstracts China nuclear science and technology reports (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1988 (Report Numbers CNIC -00115 ∼ CNIC-00254) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  7. Abstracts: China Nuclear Science and Technology Report (1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Report published in 1989 (Report Numbers CNIC--00255∼CNIC--00354) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  8. Addressing the trade-climate change-energy nexus: China's explorations in a global governance landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Monkelbaan

    2014-12-01

    As a way forward, different approaches towards the governance of trade and climate change will be highlighted. Besides discussing the specific aspects of Chinese participation in global trade and climate change governance, this paper aims at offering broader insights into the nexus between trade, energy and climate governance in China.

  9. Application and problems of biomass briquetting densification fuel(BBDF) technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xutao; Zhang Bailiang [Key Lab. of Renewable Energy of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhengzhou (China)

    2008-07-01

    Even though China has built several kinds of BBDF machine and burning equipments which established the base for BBDF industrialization, there are still several difficulties faced by Chinese scholars. Some of them are biomass gathering, mechanical abrasion of the equipment in briquetting process and sediment of clinker, and cauterization of the hearth in combustion process, which greatly limit the development of BBDF industry. Thus, this paper argues that the difficulties should be solved within BBDF technology research and application in actual engineering. Moreover, the application status of BBDF technology was addressed and analyzed in this paper. By summing up the successful and the failing experiences, some methods to deal with the difficulties are recommended and a proposal of BBDF development model in China was also provided. (orig.)

  10. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.7--pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about nuclear electronics, nuclear detecting technology, pulse power technology, nuclear fusion and plasma

  11. Building biophysics in mid-century China: the University of Science and Technology of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Yi Lai Christine

    2015-01-01

    Biophysics has been either an independent discipline or an element of another discipline in the United States, but it has always been recognized as a stand-alone discipline in the People's Republic of China (PRC) since 1949. To inquire into this apparent divergence, this paper investigates the formational history of biophysics in China by examining the early institutional history of one of the best-known and prestigious science and technology universities in the PRC, the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). By showing how the university and its biophysics program co-evolved with national priorities from the school's founding in 1958 to the eve of the Cultural Revolution in 1966, the purpose of this paper is to assess the development of a scientific discipline in the context of national demands and institutional politics. Specific materials for analysis include the school's admission policies, curricula, students' dissertations, and research program. To further contextualize the institutional setting of Chinese biophysics, this paper begins with a general history of proto-biophysical institutions in China during the Nationalist-Communist transitional years. This paper could be of interest to historians wanting to know more about the origin of the biophysics profession in China, and in particular how research areas that constitute biophysics changed in tandem with socio-political contingencies.

  12. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technological innovation system in China: Structure, function evaluation and policy implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Xianjin; Ye Zhonghua; Xu Zhengzhong; Husar Holmes, Maja; Henry Lambright, W.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can be an important technology option for China in addressing global climate change and developing clean energy technologies. Promoted by international climate conventions and supported by government research and development programs, an increasing number of CCS pilot and demonstration projects have been launched in China. In this study, we analyze the structure of China’s CCS effort from a technological innovation system (TIS) perspective. Within this system, key socio-political components, including institutions, actor-networks, and technology development, are examined to evaluate the state of the innovation system. The study assessed the perceived capacity of seven functional areas of the CCS innovation system through a survey of key CCS actors and stakeholders. The findings suggest that China’s CCS innovation system has a strong functional capacity for knowledge and technology development. It is significantly weaker in the innovative functions of knowledge diffusion, market formation, facilitating entrepreneurs and new entrants into the CCS market. Based on the evaluation of China’s technological innovation system to develop CCS, the article articulates specific public policies to formulate a more robust innovation system to traverse the “valley of death” from research and development to commercial deployment and accelerate energy innovation in China. - Highlights: ► We analyze and evaluate China’s CCS innovation system from TIS perspective. ► Strong and systematic CCS innovation system structure has come into being in China. ► The system has acquired high knowledge development and accumulation. ► Weak innovation functions are identified: market creation, guidance, etc. ► Public policies are needed to improve the innovation system performance.

  13. Status of fast reactor technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1992-01-01

    The paper has introduced briefly the recent news about the Chinese nuclear programme on PWR and FBR. Concerning the FFR design, some issues under consideration have been presented, including the matches between thermo-parameters of primary sodium and of steam, the arrangement of control and safety rods which correspond to first and second shut-down systems, the structure of inner vessel and the axial length of subassembly. With regard to the R and D of FBR technology, some results on sodium technology and on the cladding materials have been given in the paper. Finally, some progress and troubles on site selection for this reactor have also been outlined. (author)

  14. Using an Optimized Chinese Address Matching Method to Develop a Geocoding Service: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the coming era of big data and the rapid development and widespread applications of Geographical Information Systems (GISs, geocoding technology is playing an increasingly important role in bridging the gap between non-spatial data resources and spatial data in various fields. However, Chinese geocoding faces great challenges because of the complexity of the address string format in Chinese, which contains no delimiters between Chinese words, and the poor address management resulting from the existence of multiple address authorities spread among different governmental agencies. This paper presents a geocoding service based on an optimized Chinese address matching method, including address modeling, address standardization and address matching. The address model focuses on the spatial semantics of each address element, and the address standardization process is based on an address tree model. A geocoding service application is implemented in practice using a large quantity of data from Shenzhen Municipality. More than 1,460,000 data records were used to test the geocoding service, and good matching rates were achieved with good adaptability and intelligence.

  15. Internet and mobile technologies: addressing the mental health of trauma survivors in less resourced communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, J I; Yeager, C M

    2017-01-01

    Internet and mobile technologies offer potentially critical ways of delivering mental health support in low-resource settings. Much evidence indicates an enormous negative impact of mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and many of these problems are caused, or worsened, by exposure to wars, conflicts, natural and human-caused disasters, and other traumatic events. Though specific mental health treatments have been found to be efficacious and cost-effective for low-resource settings, most individuals living in these areas do not have access to them. Low-intensity task-sharing interventions will help, but there is a limit to the scalability and sustainability of human resources in these settings. To address the needs of trauma survivors, it will be important to develop and implement Internet and mobile technology resources to help reduce the scarcity, inequity, and inefficiency of current mental health services in LMICs. Mobile and Internet resources are experiencing a rapid growth in LMICs and can help address time, stigma, and cost barriers and connect those who have been socially isolated by traumatic events. This review discusses current research in technological interventions in low-resource settings and outlines key issues and future challenges and opportunities. Though formidable challenges exist for large-scale deployment of mobile and Internet mental health technologies, work to date indicates that these technologies are indeed feasible to develop, evaluate, and deliver to those in need of mental health services, and that they can be effective.

  16. Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D. This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage.

  17. 77 FR 39559 - In The Matter of China Medical Technologies, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In The Matter of China Medical Technologies... Medical Technologies, Inc. (``China Medical'') because of questions regarding the accuracy and adequacy of disclosures by China Medical concerning, among other things: (1) The status of the company's officers and...

  18. China Report, Science and Technology, White Paper, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-02

    traditional biotechnology to produce liquor, soy sauce, vinegar and other fermented food products. In the late fifties, China established an antibiotic...to transform the traditional fermentation industry, including the use of fixed fungi or fixed cells to make alcohol, beer, soy sauce, vinegar , and...use. We should also improve the techniques and equipment of fermentation , develop 35 the technologies of central heating and small-scale methane

  19. The influence of future-oriented technology analysis: addressing the Cassandra challenge

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSTON Ron; CAGNIN Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on a series of interviews with nine leading researchers conducted during the Future-Oriented Technology Analysis International Conference held in Seville on 16–17 October 2008. Analysis of these interviews paints a picture of FTA as an increasingly important approach being adopted in many countries to address the many challenges which are emerging at this time in human history. From this are drawn implications for the community of FTA practitioners. The biggest challenge i...

  20. Future-oriented technology analysis: Its potential to address disruptive transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnin, Cristiano; Havas, Attila; Saritas, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on the potential of future-oriented analysis (FTA) to address major change and to support decision-makers and other stakeholders in anticipating and dealing with transformations. It does so by critically reflecting on the selected papers for this special issue as well as on the discussions that took place at the fourth Seville International Conference on Future-oriented Technology Analysis. Considering the potential roles of FTA in enabling a better understanding of co...

  1. Explicating the Influences That Explain Intention to Use Technology among English Teachers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Huang, Fang; Hoi, Cathy Ka Weng

    2018-01-01

    Given the paradox between pervasive promotion of technology use in English teaching and lack of studies about teachers' technology acceptance in China, this study aims to examine intentions of English teachers in China to use technology in their classroom teaching. Based on the technology acceptance model, eight variables including perceived…

  2. Assessment of Wave Energy in the South China Sea Based on GIS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China is now the world’s largest user of coal and also has the highest greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining and use of coal. Under today’s enormous pressures of the growing shortage of conventional energy sources and the need for emission reductions, the search for clean energy is the most effective strategy to address the energy crisis and global warming. This study utilized satellite remote sensing technology, geographic information system (GIS technology, and simulated wave data for the South China Sea. The characteristic features of the wave energy were obtained by analysis through the wave resource assessment formula and the results were stored in a GIS database. Software for the evaluation of wave energy in the South China Sea was written. The results should provide accurate, efficient references for wave energy researchers and decision-makers. Based on a 24-year WW3 model simulation wave data and GIS technology, this study presented the characteristic of the wave energy in the SCS; results demonstrated that the SCS has the feasibility and viability for wave energy farming.

  3. China nuclear science and technology report 1995. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1995 (Report Numbers CNIC-00921∼CNIC-01020) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  4. China nuclear science and technology report 1995. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1995 (Report Numbers CNIC-00921{approx}CNIC-01020) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed.

  5. China nuclear science and technology report. Abstracts 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1994 (Report Numbers CNIC-00801{approx}CNIC-00920) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed.

  6. China nuclear science and technology report abstracts 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1996 (Report Numbers CNIC-01021{approx}CNIC-01130) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed.

  7. China nuclear science and technology report abstracts 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1996 (Report Numbers CNIC-01021∼CNIC-01130) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  8. China nuclear science and technology report. Abstracts 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1994 (Report Numbers CNIC-00801∼CNIC-00920) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  9. 46{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT) 2015. Opening address

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueldner, Ralf [DAtF, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (ANMT) is the only one in Germany and also in Europe which is dedicated so holistically to nuclear technology and at the same time specifically promotes the international exchange of expertise. Main topics, which have been addressed in the Opening Adress by Ralf Gueldner, President of the DAtF (German Atomic Forum), are ''Final Repository Commission - Contribution and participation of the nuclear industry'', ''New attempt at alternative interim storage'', ''Future of the electricity market and the electricity supply'', ''Nuclear energy in the world - between departure and economic challenges'', ''Nuclear expertise in Germany'', ''The challenge of preserving skills'' and ''Nuclear technology in top-level research''.

  10. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    2000-01-01

    Considering the future clean energy supply in China, a rather consistent opinion is to develop nuclear power step by step with the contribution from a supplementary one up to an important one. The large scale utilization of nuclear energy obviously determines the interest in fast breeders; China right now already has about 300 GWe total electricity capacity using conventional energy resources. As the first step for fast reactor technology development in the country, the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) project is still under detail design stage, which is a sodium cooled pool type fast reactor with 65 MW thermal power matched with a turbine-generator of 25 MW. The ordering of the components is continuing. The site is ready and the steel works for the 3 m x 69 m x 82.5 m foundation base of reactor building are being arranged layer by layer. The review to the PSAR by the China National Nuclear Safety Administration (CNNSA) is going to the final stage, if everything goes smoothly. The first pouring of the concrete for the reactor building will be in the middle of the year 2000. The brief introduction of the CEFR design, safety characteristics, the main results of the safety analysis and design test demonstration are given in the paper. (author)

  11. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Rhee, Y. J.; Jung, D. Y. and others

    2004-06-01

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the international collaboration basis of optical technologies between Korea and China. The combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korean industrialization and commercialization infrastructures is realized, by ways of exchanging scientists and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to those of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both countries, providing technical advice and suggestions to the optical industries in the two countries is an another goal of this project. The state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defence technology, medical technology, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and up to one of the most advanced in the world. Thus it is thought to be necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued in order to enhance the levels of Korean technologies in these fields

  12. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Rhee, Y. J.; Jung, D. Y. and others

    2004-06-15

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the international collaboration basis of optical technologies between Korea and China. The combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korean industrialization and commercialization infrastructures is realized, by ways of exchanging scientists and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to those of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both countries, providing technical advice and suggestions to the optical industries in the two countries is an another goal of this project. The state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defence technology, medical technology, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and up to one of the most advanced in the world. Thus it is thought to be necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued in order to enhance the levels of Korean technologies in these fields.

  13. Review of research on sonar imaging technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haitao; Li, Renping; Xu, Feng; Liu, Liyuan

    2013-11-01

    Over the past 20 years, sonar imaging technology particularly for the high-technology sector has been a focus of research, in which many developed countries, especially those with coast lines, have been competing with each other. It has seen a rapid development with increasing widespread applications that has played an important and irreplaceable role in underwater exploration with great prospects for social, economic, scientific, and military benefits. The fundamental techniques underlying sonar imaging, including multi-beamforming, synthetic-aperture and inverse synthetic-aperture sonar, acoustic lensing, and acoustical holography, are described in this paper. This is followed by a comprehensive and systematic review on the advantages and disadvantages of these imaging techniques, applicability conditions, development trends, new ideas, new methods, and improvements in old methods over recent years with an emphasis on the situation in China, along with a bold and constructive prediction to some development characteristics of sonar imaging technology in the near future in China. The perspectives presented in this paper are offered with the idea of providing some degree of guidance and promotion of research on sonar imaging technology.

  14. People's Republic of China in the International Technology Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Igorevich Salitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the current state of the S&T in China in the context of its historical development and national policy in the sphere. The evaluation of the Chinese scientific and technological potential is based on some indicators of foreign trade as well as patent activity - in international comparisons. The trends in Chinese S&T sector and its role in the international technology transfers are viewed in the context of internationalization of the global economy. Today’s globally recognized achievements of China in trade in technology-intensive goods and services are based on a long history of rational state policy in acquisition and diffusion of foreign technology and expertise. This policy have resulted in the build-up of S&T system - which is already remarkably productive and keeps growing. One important and specific feature of China’s role in international exchange of high-tech goods and knowledge-intensive services is a growing self-capacity, and a lowering dependence on foreign sources (in relative terms.

  15. Addressing the road trauma burden in China: Exploring attitudes, behaviours, risk perceptions and cultural uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Watson, Barry

    2016-10-01

    As China continues to motorise rapidly, solutions are needed to reduce the burden of road trauma that is spread inequitably across the community. Little is currently known about how new drivers are trained to deal with on-road challenges, and little is also known about the perceptions, behaviours and attitudes of road users in China. This paper reports on a pilot study conducted in a driver retraining facility in one Chinese city where people who have had their licence suspended for accrual of 12 demerit points in a one year period must attend compulsory retraining in order to regain their licence. A sample of 239 suspended drivers responded to an anonymous questionnaire that sought information about preferred driving speeds and perceptions of safe driving speeds across two speed zones. Responses indicated that speeds higher than the posted limits were commonly reported, and that there was incongruence between preferred and safe speeds, such that a greater proportion of drivers reported preferred speeds that were substantially faster than what were reported as safe speeds. Participants with more driving experience reported significantly fewer crashes than newly licensed drivers (less than 2 years licensed) but no differences were found in offences when compared across groups with different levels of driving experience. Perceptions of risky behaviours were assessed by asking participants to describe what they considered to be the most dangerous on-road behaviours. Speeding and drink driving were the most commonly reported by far, followed by issues such as fatigue, ignoring traffic rules, not obeying traffic rules, phone use while driving, and non-use of seatbelts, which attracted an extremely low response which seems consistent with previously reported low belt wearing rates, unfavourable attitudes towards seatbelt use, and low levels of enforcement. Finally, observations about culturally specific considerations are made from previous research conducted by the

  16. Strategies to address the desertion university from Information Technologies and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Rocio Ramirez Saavedra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents general objective describe the main components of a strategy by the use of Information Technology and Communications (TIC to address the problem of the undergraduate student desertion of universities in Colombia. it is the purpose of proposing a strategy to avoid duplication of efforts and resources expenses when determining whether a student is at risk of dropping out. The overall methodological development was approached from heuristics and the projectile area, the specific methodology to establish three phases, planning, design and development were defined. Through this article the institutions of higher education may have a strategy to address the problem of undergraduate student desertion. Regionally the study may be used as a reference for implementing new strategies to help reduce dropout rates from the experiences of other institutions in the country.

  17. Strategies to address mental health through schools with examples from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Cheryl Vince; Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Magner, Elizabeth

    2008-06-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that approximately one in five young people under the age of 18 experiences some form of developmental, emotional or behavioural problem, and one in eight experiences a mental disorder. Because research shows that half of adult mental disorders begin before the age of 14 and that early intervention can prevent and reduce more serious consequences later in life, it is critical to expand the role of mental health professionals with schools worldwide. Schools have the potential to affect the mental health of millions of young people, as well as those who work in schools. Research indicates that programmes promoting mental health are among the most effective of health promoting school efforts. This paper discusses the health promoting schools framework, reviews effective strategies for promoting mental health in schools, and provides examples from Zhejiang Province, China. This article also discusses the key roles that mental health professionals can play in promoting mental health through schools. As advocates, policy makers, researchers and teachers, mental health professionals can bridge the sectors of education, mental health and public health. Developing common frameworks and interdisciplinary training will create a foundation of shared understanding to achieve this goal.

  18. The prospects and trends of nuclear energy technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengjie

    1989-09-01

    Assurance of reliable and economic energy supply under conditions acceptable to the environment and transportation is one of the major prerequisites for achieving the ultimate goal of quadrupling the national gross annual value of industry and agriculture by the end of this century in China. The statistical data on energy and electricity usage and socioeconomic development in China show clearly the necessity for developing nuclear power station in this century, and for developing advanced nuclear energy technology in the next century, this paper gives a summary description of the nuclear power development plan by 2000, as well as the trends of nuclear energy technology in the future of China. Before the year 2000 there will be approximately 10 nuclear power reactors with a total net capacity of 6700 MWe connected into the grid and 5 nuclear power reactors with net capacity of 5000 MWe under construction. From now on, great attention is being paid to developing advanced nuclear reactor systems, and there are several types of reactors to be taken into account: High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, Fast Breeder Reactor and Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor. At all stages of nuclear power development particular emphasis is being given for enhancing reactor safety and measuring operational reliability. Supply of nuclear fuels based on self-reliance is our inherent policy. China is undertaking to set up a fully integrated advanced nuclear fuel cycle, adapted to the nuclear power development. With the decommissioning of some nuclear facilities set up during the 1960's, the R and D program is being considered on the following topics: decommissioning safety assessment, robotic remote handling, decommissioning waste treatment environment evaluation methodology and cost analysis. 2 refs, 2 tabs

  19. Evaluating the enhancement and improvement of China's technology and financial services platform innovation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Sung; Hu, Kuang-Hua; Chen, Fu-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-tech industry has been prosperous around the world in past decades, while technology and finance have already become the most significant issues in the information era. While high-tech firms are a major force behind a country's economic development, it requires a lot of money for the development process, as well as the financing difficulties for its potential problems, thus, how to evaluate and establish appropriate technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy has become one of the most critical and difficult issues. Moreover, how the chosen intertwined financial environment can be optimized in order that high-tech firms financing problems can be decided has seldom been addressed. Thus, this research aims to establish a technology and financial services platform innovation strategy improvement model, as based on the hybrid MADM model, which addresses the main causal factors and amended priorities in order to strengthen ongoing planning. A DEMATEL technique, as based on Analytic Network Process, as well as modified VIKOR, will be proposed for selecting and re-configuring the aspired technology and financial services platform. An empirical study, as based on China's technology and financial services platform innovation strategy, will be provided for verifying the effectiveness of this proposed methodology. Based on expert interviews, technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy improvement should be made in the following order: credit guarantee platform ( C )_credit rating platform ( B )_investment and finance platform ( A ).

  20. A Case Study of Policies and Procedures to Address Cyberbullying at a Technology-Based Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Bettina Polite

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the policies and procedures used to effectively address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school. The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of policies and procedures used to address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school in the southern United States. The study sought…

  1. Korea-China optical technology research centre project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Lee, J M; Rhee, Y J. and others

    2001-09-01

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the internatinal collaboration basis of optical technolgies between Korean and China through the combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korea industrialization and commercialization infrastructures, by ways of exchanging scientist and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to that of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both of the countries, technical support for the investment on the optical industries in the two countries and establishment of foundation for the venture capitals are also the purpose of this project. Because the state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defense technology, applications to medical treatments, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and upto one of the most advanced in the world, it is necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, resulting in the enhancement of the levels of domestic technologies in these fields, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued.

  2. Korea-China optical technology research centre project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Lee, J. M.; Rhee, Y. J. and others

    2001-09-01

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the internatinal collaboration basis of optical technolgies between Korean and China through the combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korea industrialization and commercialization infrastructures, by ways of exchanging scientist and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to that of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both of the countries, technical support for the investment on the optical industries in the two countries and establishment of foundation for the venture capitals are also the purpose of this project. Because the state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defense technology, applications to medical treatments, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and upto one of the most advanced in the world, it is necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, resulting in the enhancement of the levels of domestic technologies in these fields, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued

  3. Some progress on seismic isolation technology in building structure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Luan

    1992-01-01

    Seismic isolation technology has been considerably developed in China. Appropriate codes and design manuals have ben used. There is a plan of developing Fast reactor technology in China. The conceptual design for a fast experimental reactor was completed. Investigation of seismic isolation technology for fast reactor has started

  4. Improving Evaluation to Address the Unintended Consequences of Health Information Technology:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammenwerth, E.; Hyppönen, H.; de Keizer, N.; Nykänen, P.; Rigby, M.; Scott, P.; Talmon, J.; Georgiou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives With growing use of IT by healthcare professionals and patients, the opportunity for any unintended effects of technology to disrupt care health processes and outcomes is intensified. The objectives of this position paper by the IMIA Working Group (WG) on Technology Assessment and Quality Development are to highlight how our ongoing initiatives to enhance evaluation are also addressing the unintended consequences of health IT. Methods Review of WG initiatives Results We argue that an evidence-based approach underpinned by rigorous evaluation is fundamental to the safe and effective use of IT, and for detecting and addressing its unintended consequences in a timely manner. We provide an overview of our ongoing initiatives to strengthen study design, execution and reporting by using evaluation frameworks and guidelines which can enable better characterization and monitoring of unintended consequences, including the Good Evaluation Practice Guideline in Health Informatics (GEP-HI) and the Statement on Reporting of Evaluation Studies in Health Informatics (STARE-HI). Indicators to benchmark the adoption and impact of IT can similarly be used to monitor unintended effects on healthcare structures, processes and outcome. We have also developed EvalDB, a web-based database of evaluation studies to promulgate evidence about unintended effects and are developing the content for courses to improve training in health IT evaluation. Conclusion Evaluation is an essential ingredient for the effective use of IT to improve healthcare quality and patient safety. WG resources and skills development initiatives can facilitate a proactive and evidence-based approach to detecting and addressing the unintended effects of health IT. PMID:27830232

  5. Addressing diverse learner preferences and intelligences with emerging technologies: Matching models to online opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reviews various learning preferences and human intelligence theories and models with a particular focus on the implications for online learning. It highlights a few key models, Gardner’s multiple intelligences, Fleming and Mills’ VARK model, Honey and Mumford’s Learning Styles, and Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model, and attempts to link them to trends and opportunities in online learning with emerging technologies. By intersecting such models with online technologies, it offers instructors and instructional designers across educational sectors and situations new ways to think about addressing diverse learner needs, backgrounds, and expectations. Learning technologies are important for effective teaching, as are theories and models and theories of learning. We argue that more immense power can be derived from connections between the theories, models and learning technologies. Résumé : Cet article passe en revue de manière critique les divers modèles et théories sur les préférences d’apprentissage et l’intelligence humaine, avec un accent particulier sur les implications qui en découlent pour l’apprentissage en ligne. L’article présente quelques-uns des principaux modèles (les intelligences multiples de Gardner, le modèle VAK de Fleming et Mills, les styles d’apprentissage de Honey et Mumford et le modèle d’apprentissage expérientiel de Kolb et tente de les relier à des tendances et occasions d’apprentissage en ligne qui utilisent les nouvelles technologies. En croisant ces modèles avec les technologies Web, les instructeurs et concepteurs pédagogiques dans les secteurs de l’éducation ou en situation éducationnelle se voient offrir de nouvelles façons de tenir compte des divers besoins, horizons et attentes des apprenants. Les technologies d’apprentissage sont importantes pour un enseignement efficace, tout comme les théories et les modèles d’apprentissage. Nous sommes d

  6. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.

    2002-01-01

    China, as a developing country with a great number of population and relatively less energy resources, reasonably emphasizes the nuclear energy utilization development. For the long term sustainable energy supply, as for nuclear application the basic strategy of PWR-FBR-Fusion has been settled and envisaged. Due to the economy and experience reasons the nuclear power and technology development with a moderate style are kept in China up to now. In China mainland apart from two NPPs with the total capacity of 2.1 GWe in operation, four NPPs are under construction and two NPPs are planned for the Tenth Five Year Plan (2001-2005). Also another one or two NPPs are still in discussion. It could be foreseen that the total nuclear power capacity will reach 8.5GWe before the year 2005 and 14-15 GWe before 2010 respectively. As the first step for the Chinese fast reactor engineering development the 65MWt China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is under construction. The main components of primary, secondary and tertiary circuits and of fuel handling system have been ordered. The reactor building under construction has reached 16.8m above the ground. Forty seven components and shielding doors have been installed. It is planned that the construction of reactor building with about 40,000m2 floor surface will be completed in the end of the year 2002 and envisaged that the first criticality of the CEFR will be in the end of 2005. The second step of the Chinese fast reactor engineering development is a 300MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor which is only under consideration up to now. Some important technical selections have been settled, but its design has not yet started. (author)

  7. The Progress of Fast Reactor Technology Development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hongyi; Xu, Mi

    1994-01-01

    China, as a developing country with a great number of population and relatively less energy resources, reasonably emphasizes the nuclear energy utilization development. For the long term sustainable energy supply, as for nuclear application the basis strategy of PWR-FBR-Fusion has been settled and envisaged. Due to the economy and experience reasons the nuclear power and technology development with a moderate style are kept in China up to now. In China mainland apart from two NPPs with the total capacity of 2.1 GWe in operation, four NPPs are under construction and two NPPs are planned for the Tenth Five Year Plan(2001-2005). Also another one or two NPPs are still in discussion. It could be foreseen that the total nuclear power capacity will reach 8.5GWe before the year 2005 and 14-15 GWe before respectively. As the first step for the Chinese fast reactor engineering development the 65MWt China Experimental Fast Reactor(CEFR) is under construction. The main components of primary, secondary and tertiary circuits and of fuel handling system have been ordered. The reactor building under construction has reached the top namely 57m above the ground. More than one hundred components and shielding doors have been installed. It is planned that the construction of reactor building with about 40,000m 2 floor surface will be completed in the end of the year 2002 and envisaged that the first criticality of the CEFR will be in the end of 2005. The second step of the Chinese fast reactor engineering development is a 300MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor which in only under consideration up to now. Some important technical selections have been settled, but its design has not yet started

  8. Leveraging CubeSat Technology to Address Nighttime Imagery Requirements over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. J.; Mamula, D.; Caulfield, M.; Gallagher, F. W., III; Spencer, D.; Petrescu, E. M.; Ostroy, J.; Pack, D. W.; LaRosa, A.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has begun planning for the future operational environmental satellite system by conducting the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study. In support of the NSOSA study, NOAA is exploring how CubeSat technology funded by NASA can be used to demonstrate the ability to measure three-dimensional profiles of global temperature and water vapor. These measurements are critical for the National Weather Service's (NWS) weather prediction mission. NOAA is conducting design studies on Earth Observing Nanosatellites (EON) for microwave (EON-MW) and infrared (EON-IR) soundings, with MIT Lincoln Laboratory and NASA JPL, respectively. The next step is to explore the technology required for a CubeSat mission to address NWS nighttime imagery requirements over the Arctic. The concept is called EON-Day/Night Band (DNB). The DNB is a 0.5-0.9 micron channel currently on the operational Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument, which is part of the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership and Joint Polar Satellite System satellites. NWS has found DNB very useful during the long periods of darkness that occur during the Alaskan cold season. The DNB enables nighttime imagery products of fog, clouds, and sea ice. EON-DNB will leverage experiments carried out by The Aerospace Corporation's CUbesat MULtispectral Observation System (CUMULOS) sensor and other related work. CUMULOS is a DoD-funded demonstration of COTS camera technology integrated as a secondary mission on the JPL Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna mission. CUMULOS is demonstrating a staring visible Si CMOS camera. The EON-DNB project will leverage proven, advanced compact visible lens and focal plane camera technologies to meet NWS user needs for nighttime visible imagery. Expanding this technology to an operational demonstration carries several areas of risk that need to be addressed prior to an operational mission

  9. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  10. Mobilizing science and technology to address the problems of the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Writing in The Economist of 15 February this year, Prof. Sachs raised several points that are relevant to any discussion of technical co-operation for sustainable development. He urges a stronger emphasis on the transfer of appropriate technology, and supports expanded roles for United Nations organizations in helping to solve the problems of the world's poorest countries. Here are some excerpts: 'A(n)...important challenge, as yet mainly unrecognised, is that of mobilising global science and technology to address the crises of public health, agricultural productivity, environmental degradation and demographic stress confronting these countries (i.e., the 42 so-called Highly Indebted Poor Countries - HIPCs, ed.) In part this will require that the wealthy governments enable the grossly underfinanced and underempowered United Nations institutions to become vibrant and active partners of human development.' The conditions in many HIPCs are worsening dramatically, even as global science and technology create new surges of wealth and well-being in richer countries. The problem is that, for myriad reasons, the technological gains in wealthy countries do not readily diffuse to the poorest ones....Research and development of new technologies are overwhelmingly directed at rich-country problems. To the extent that the poor face distinctive challenges, science and technology must be directed purposefully towards them (emphasis added). In today's global set-up, that rarely happens....Currently, the international system fails to meet the technological needs of the world's poorest.' Prof. Sachs has been one of the few development economists to consistently remind us that most of the world's poor live under vastly different environmental conditions - mainly tropical climates with their often unique disease agents and agricultural factors - than most of the rich. He points out that sustainable development is not possible unless the underlying ecological constraints are

  11. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  12. The experiences from implementing decision support technology to address water management plans in an operational environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, S. [4DM Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Tonkin, C. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation described Ontario Power Generation's experience in implementing a decision support tool to enable water management plans for its operations through technology solutions. All hydroelectric producers in Ontario are required to make water management plans in order to maintain water levels and flows in their operating regions. This regulation was created in response to environmental concerns as well as to changes in the electricity market and growth of residential and cottage property near water bodies. In order to keep informed and to address compliance issues, operators and managers need situation awareness information to balance operational decisions. The online Adaptive Water Management System (AWMS) decision support tool was recently adopted by Ontario Power Generation to provide information needed to address the requirements of Water Management Plans. The AWMS provides users with information on water levels and flows; the ability to implement, modify, and manage daily instructions at the facilities; track conditions in the watershed; and, provide a status of compliance. The tool was developed by 4DM Inc. in collaboration with Ottawa St. Lawrence Plant Group for the Madawaska River Watershed Management, a model partnership between operator, regulator and Public Advisory Committee to develop a water management plan.

  13. Convergent Innovation in Emerging Healthcare Technology Ecosystems: Addressing Complexity and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Phillips

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision Medicine and Digital Health are emerging areas in healthcare, and they are underpinned by convergent or cross-industry innovation. However, convergence results in greater uncertainty and complexity in terms of technologies, value networks, and organization. There has been limited empirical research on emerging and convergent ecosystems, especially in addressing the issue of integration. This research identifies how organizations innovate in emerging and convergent ecosystems, specifically, how they address the challenge of integration. We base our research on empirical analyses using a series of longitudinal case studies employing a combination of case interviews, field observations, and documents. Our findings identify a need to embrace the complexity by adopting a variety of approaches that balance “credibility-seeking” and “advantage-seeking” behaviours, to navigate, negotiate, and nurture both the innovation and ecosystem, in addition to a combination of “analysis” and “synthesis” actions to manage aspects of integration. We contribute to the convergent innovation agenda and provide practical approaches for innovators in this domain.

  14. Research on Upgrade Path to Technology Innovation of Resource-based SMEs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Xu

    2017-08-01

    Complexity, diversity and coordination are features of technology innovation of resource-based SMEs in China. This paper studies on the key factors of macro-environment, cooperation among enterprises and enterprise interior, which influence the upgrading of technology innovation of resource-based SMEs in China. This paper constructs integrated system of technology innovation to analyse the upgrade path to technology innovation of resource-based SMEs in China, so that enterprises would improve their technology innovation and get a new way to accomplish sustainable innovated development.

  15. Technology innovation and entrepreneurial state: the development of China's high-speed rail industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Z.

    2015-01-01

    China proactively promotes indigenous technology innovation towards developing an innovation-based economy. This contradicts the developmental state literature that puts emphasis on technology imitation. Drawn from the strategic entrepreneurship perspective, this article explores the role of the

  16. Lightning Wires: The Telegraph and China's Technological Modernization 1860-1890

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    This book examines the transfer of telegraph technology to China in the late nineteenth century. It shows how the initial Chinese rejection of the telegraph as an "inconvenient technology" contributed to violent conflicts between foreigners and the...

  17. A sunny future: expert elicitation of China's solar photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long T.; Branstetter, Lee; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2018-03-01

    China has emerged as the global manufacturing center for solar photovoltaic (PV) products. Chinese firms have entered all stages of the supply chain, producing most of the installed solar modules around the world. Meanwhile, production costs are at record lows. The decisions that Chinese solar producers make today will influence the path for the solar industry and its role towards de-carbonization of global energy systems in the years to come. However, to date, there have been no assessments of the future costs and efficiency of solar PV systems produced by the Chinese PV industry. We perform an expert elicitation to assess the technological and non-technological factors that led to the success of China’s silicon PV industry as well as likely future costs and performance. Experts evaluated key metrics such as efficiency, costs, and commercial viability of 17 silicon and non-silicon solar PV technologies by 2030. Silicon-based technologies will continue to be the mainstream product for large-scale electricity generation application in the near future, with module efficiency reaching as high as 23% and production cost as low as 0.24/W. The levelized cost of electricity for solar will be around 34/MWh, allowing solar PV to be competitive with traditional energy resources like coal. The industry’s future developments may be affected by overinvestment, overcapacity, and singular short-term focus.

  18. Marketing Strategic Choices for Wind Technology in China : case: Chinese Domestic Wind Technology Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yi

    2011-01-01

    There are almost 80 wind turbine manufacturers in China. However, the supportive government policies are the fact behind the rapid growth of those case companies. In reality, there are less than 10 Chinese wind turbine manufacturers with actual production capacity. Most of them lack core technology and depend in many ways on state patronage. The current situation is worrisome. Therefore, the correct comprehension of wind power market conditions and the consequent adoption of right marketing s...

  19. Marketing strategic choice for wind power technology in China : case: Chinese domestic wind technology companies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yi

    2011-01-01

    There are almost 80 wind turbine manufacturers in China. However, the supportive government policies are the fact behind the rapid growth of those case companies. In reality, there are less than 10 Chinese wind turbine manufacturers with actual production capacity. Most of them lack core technology and depend in many ways on state patronage. The current situation is worrisome. Therefore, the correct comprehension of wind power market conditions and the consequent adoption of right marketing s...

  20. Leveraging Big Data Tools and Technologies: Addressing the Challenges of the Water Quality Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ponce Romero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The water utility sector is subject to stringent legislation, seeking to address both the evolution of practices within the chemical/pharmaceutical industry, and the safeguarding of environmental protection, and which is informed by stakeholder views. Growing public environmental awareness is balanced by fair apportionment of liability within-sector. This highly complex and dynamic context poses challenges for water utilities seeking to manage the diverse chemicals arising from disparate sources reaching Wastewater Treatment Plants, including residential, commercial, and industrial points of origin, and diffuse sources including agricultural and hard surface water run-off. Effluents contain broad ranges of organic and inorganic compounds, herbicides, pesticides, phosphorus, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals of emerging concern. These potential pollutants can be in dissolved form, or arise in association with organic matter, the associated risks posing significant environmental challenges. This paper examines how the adoption of new Big Data tools and computational technologies can offer great advantage to the water utility sector in addressing this challenge. Big Data approaches facilitate improved understanding and insight of these challenges, by industry, regulator, and public alike. We discuss how Big Data approaches can be used to improve the outputs of tools currently in use by the water industry, such as SAGIS (Source Apportionment GIS system, helping to reveal new relationships between chemicals, the environment, and human health, and in turn provide better understanding of contaminants in wastewater (origin, pathways, and persistence. We highlight how the sector can draw upon Big Data tools to add value to legacy datasets, such as the Chemicals Investigation Programme in the UK, combined with contemporary data sources, extending the lifespan of data, focusing monitoring strategies, and helping users adapt and plan more efficiently. Despite

  1. Innovation and technology transfer through global value chains: Evidence from China's PV industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fang; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2016-01-01

    China's success as a rapid innovation follower in the infant Photovoltaic (PV) industry surprised many observers. This paper explores how China inserted itself into global clean energy innovation systems by examining the case of the solar PV industry. The paper decomposes the global PV industrial value chain, and determines the main factors shaping PV technology transfer and diffusion. Chinese firms first entered PV module manufacturing through technology acquisition, and then gradually built their global competitiveness by utilizing a vertical integration strategy within segments of the industry as well as the broader PV value chain. The main drivers for PV technology transfer from the global innovation system to China are global market formation policy, international mobilization of talent, the flexibility of manufacturing in China, and belated policy incentives from China's government. The development trajectory of the PV industry in China indicates that innovation in cleaner energy technologies can occur through both global and national innovation processes, and knowledge exchange along the global PV value chain. - Highlights: •The value chain analytical approach is synergized with the theories of technology transfer and innovation systems. •A detailed review of how China integrated itself into the global solar PV innovation system is provided. •Four main factors shape PV technology transfer to China across various value chain segments. •Innovation in cleaner energy technologies is a combination of global and national innovation processes.

  2. Dr Liu Yanhua, Deputy Minister of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, People's Republic of China

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    China and CERN renew co-operation agreement for a further five years. During a visit to CERN on 17 February, Liu Yanhua, the vice-minister of science and technology of the People's Republic of China, signed a new co-operation agreement with the laboratory.

  3. AIR Louisville: Addressing Asthma With Technology, Crowdsourcing, Cross-Sector Collaboration, And Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Meredith; Combs, Veronica; Su, Jason G; Henderson, Kelly; Tuffli, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Cross-sector partnerships benefit public health by leveraging ideas, resources, and expertise from a wide range of partners. In this study we documented the process and impact of AIR Louisville (a collaboration forged among the Louisville Metro Government, a nonprofit institute, and a technology company) in successfully tackling a complex public health challenge: asthma. We enrolled residents of Louisville, Kentucky, with asthma and used electronic inhaler sensors to monitor where and when they used medication. We found that the use of the digital health platform achieved positive clinical outcomes, including a 78 percent reduction in rescue inhaler use and a 48 percent improvement in symptom-free days. Moreover, the crowdsourced real-world data on inhaler use, combined with environmental data, led to policy recommendations including enhancing tree canopy, tree removal mitigation, zoning for air pollution emission buffers, recommended truck routes, and developing a community asthma notification system. AIR Louisville represents a model that can be replicated to address many public health challenges by simultaneously guiding individual, clinical, and policy decisions.

  4. 76 FR 6839 - ActiveCore Technologies, Inc., Battery Technologies, Inc., China Media1 Corp., Dura Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] ActiveCore Technologies, Inc., Battery Technologies, Inc., China Media1 Corp., Dura Products International, Inc. (n/k/a Dexx Corp.), Global Mainframe Corp., GrandeTel Technologies, Inc., Magna Entertainment Corp. (n/k/a Reorganized Magna Entertainment...

  5. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  6. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhifu, Luo [Dept. of Isotope, China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1998-10-01

    The research and application of the technology of isotopes and radiation have been reviewed. Since the setup of the China`s first nuclear reactor at China Institute of Nuclear Energy in 1958, the technology of isotopes and radiation has been developed significantly. A research and application system has formed a considerable state. The technology of isotopes and radiation has been taken into the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and scientific research. The main achievements are on radiopharmaceuticals, radiation source, radiation process, and radioactive tracers. (author)

  7. Research on Technology Innovation of China's NEV Industry Based on Patent Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance: The development of Chinas new energy vehicle(NEV) industry is concerned by both the government and enterprises. Method/Process: Based on the patent data, this paper conducts a deep analysis on the technology innovation of Chinas NEV industry from three perspectives- the year...... distribution of the patent, the distribution of the patent applicants and the distribution of patent technology area. Then, the paper makes further correlation analysis on the NEV industry chain and the patent data. Result/Conclusion: In general,the paper comprehensively reflects the whole picture of Chinas...... NEV industry technology innovation and gives some ideas for its further development....

  8. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.7--nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about nuclear electronics, nuclear detecting technology, pulse power technology, nuclear fusion and plasma

  9. China's coke industry: Recent policies, technology shift, and implication for energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Hong; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Lijian; He, Kebin

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest coke producer in the world, accounting for over 60% of the world coke production, which makes the coke industry in China a significant coal consumer and air pollutant emitter. Recently, China has taken a series of measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from the coke industry, including eliminating old and low energy-efficiency coking technologies, promoting advanced technologies, and strengthening energy and environmental requirements on coking processes. As a consequence, China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift, which was characterized by the elimination of old, inefficient, and polluting indigenous ovens and small machinery ones within 10 years. This study examines the policies and the prompt technology shift in China's coke industry, as well as the associated energy and environmental effects, and discusses the implications with respect to the development of the coke industry in China towards a more efficient and clean future. As China sets stricter requirements on energy efficiency and the ambient environment, a more significant change focusing on technologies of energy saving and emission reduction is urgently needed at present. Those mature technologies, including coke dry quenching, coke oven gas recycle, fine particle removal, etc., should be enforced in the near future. - Highlights: ► With 60% of world coke output, China's coke making has big energy/pollution issues. ► Actions were taken to improve energy and environmental performance of coke plants. ► China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift. ► Another shift, focusing on technologies of energy and emission saving, is needed. ► More measurement studies on coking emissions are needed given the importance.

  10. 77 FR 5865 - China Agro-Technology Holdings Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Suspension of Trading February 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a... trading in the securities of China Agro-Technology Holdings Ltd. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of China Agro...

  11. The Development of Educational Technology Policies (1996-2012): Lessons from China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamin, Alnuaman A.; Shaoqing, Guo; Le, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the development of educational technology macro policies in China and USA based on the historical juxtaposition approach. It shows that, despite the fact that two countries have major differences, with China officially being a socialist country, while the USA is a capitalist country; the development of educational technology…

  12. Interactions of energy technology development and new energy exploitation with water technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Interactions of energy policies with water technology development in China are investigated using a hybrid input-output model and scenario analysis. The implementation of energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. Water saving potential of energy technology development is much larger than that of new energy exploitation. From the viewpoint of proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. From the viewpoint of proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water technology development, water sector benefits the most. Moreover, economic sectors are classified into four categories concerning co-benefits on water saving, energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in categories 1 and 2 have big direct co-benefits. Thus, they can take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. If China implements life cycle materials management, sectors in category 3 can also take additional responsibility for water and energy saving and CO 2 mitigation. Sectors in category 4 have few co-benefits from both direct and accumulative perspectives. Thus, putting additional responsibility on sectors in category 4 might produce pressure for their economic development. -- Highlights: ► Energy policies and water technology development can produce co-benefits for each other. ► For proportions of water saving co-benefits of energy policies, energy sectors benefit the most. ► For proportions of energy saving and CO 2 mitigation co-benefits of water policy, water sector benefits the most. ► China’s economic sectors are classified into four categories for policy implementation at sector scale.

  13. Technology requirements to be addressed by the NASA Lewis Research Center Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelott, J. C.; Rudland, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the planning and execution of a scientific program which will provide advance in space cryogenic fluid management technology. A number of future space missions were identified that require or could benefit from this technology. These fluid management technology needs were prioritized and a shuttle attached reuseable test bed, the cryogenic fluid management facility (CFMF), is being designed to provide the experimental data necessary for the technology development effort.

  14. To accelerate technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching for mining mineral resources of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mei

    1999-01-01

    Recently, in situ leaching and heap leaching are the most advanced technology for mining low-grade mineral resources in the world. The author briefly expounds the basic concept and advantages of in situ leaching and heap leaching and deals with the main research content of the hydrometallurgical technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching, its development and present application at home and abroad. Having expounded the gap existing between China's technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching and the foreign technology, the author forecasts the prospects of accelerating the mining of China's mineral resources by using the technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching

  15. Technology Strategies to Address Grade-Level Outcomes: National Standards 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The need to prepare students to thrive in the digital world and the benefit of using instructional technology have both been widely recognized in education. As new technology becomes available, its use by both students and teachers must be carefully evaluated. Technology can help enhance learning and facilitate the teaching process, if and when it…

  16. Addressing the Nets for Students through Constructivist Technology Use in K-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhauser, Dale S.; Lindstrom, Denise L.

    2006-01-01

    The National Educational Technology Standards for Students promote constructivist technology use for K-12 students in U.S. schools. In this study, researchers reported on 716 cases in which teachers described technology-based activities they conducted with their students. Narrative analysis was used to examine case transcripts relative to the…

  17. Environmental protection technologies and prospect for uranium mining and metallurgy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie

    2002-01-01

    Based on practices of production and environmental protection of China's uranium mining and metallurgy, control and protection of the three wastes in uranium mining and metallurgy are discussed. Prospects for environmental protection technologies of uranium mining and metallurgy is made

  18. U.S. Collaborative-Engagement with China: Using Strategic Technological Collaborative Leadership (STCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Red Rock Tech., Seagate, Sony Storage Devices Lantronix, SBE Terminal Server Technologies Table 1. COTS Suppliers and Components in the Aegis...million Singapore $711 China $622 Australia $471 Taiwan $363 Malaysia $301 South Korea $246 74

  19. Practice and prospect of advanced fuel management and fuel technology application in PWR in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Min; Zhang Hong; Ma Cang; Bai Chengfei; Zhou Zhou; Wang Lei; Xiao Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Since Daya Bay nuclear power plant implemented 18-month refueling strategy in 2001, China has completed a series of innovative fuel management and fuel technology projects, including the Ling Ao Advanced Fuel Management (AFM) project (high-burnup quarter core refueling) and the Ningde 18-month refueling project with gadolinium-bearing fuel in initial core. First, this paper gives brief introduction to China's advanced fuel management and fuel technology experience. Second, it introduces practices of the advanced fuel management in China in detail, which mainly focuses on the implementation and progress of the Ningde 18-month refueling project with gadolinium-bearing fuel in initial core. Finally, the paper introduces the practices of advanced fuel technology in China and gives the outlook of the future advanced fuel management and fuel technology in this field. (author)

  20. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1998-01-01

    The paper will outline the main activities on fast reactor technology in China. In the year 1996, with the increasing of about 15 GWe installed electricity capacity, the total national electricity generation capacity has reached 225 GWe in the Country. Two nuclear power plants, Qinshan Phase 1 and Daya Bay have their rather good operation. The load factor of Qinshan Phase 1 was 84.7%. 76.1% and 64.1% for Daya Bay Unit 1 and Unit 2 respectively. During the Ninth 5-year (from 1996 to 2000) four NPPs Consisting of eight units of installed 6620MWe will be constructed. Under the framework of the High Technology Programme the Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) with the power 65MWth matched with 25MWe turbine-generator is still under preliminary design stage, which is sodium cooled pool type, (Pu,U)O 2 as fuel, in-core primary Went fuel storage, two mechanical pumps and four intermediate heat exchangers for primary circuit two loops for secondary circuits two independent immersed heat exchangers and air coolers with high stacks for passive residual heat removal system. Some design changes are presented in the paper. Concerning the R and D for the CEFR, besides the facilities already prepared, for demonstration of thermohydraulic characteristics of natural convection, a water simulation reactor pool facility in about one third scale is planned, in order to prepare the reactor physics experiments for its start-up, the zero power fast neutron facility with 50kg U-235 has been restored, for endurance testing of core subassemblies and getting some sodium loop operation experiences, Italian ESPRESSO and CEDI are under reconstruction in our lab. As for the engineering preparation of the project CEFR, the Feasibility Study Report was approved by Authorities on November last year. The site preparation and the design of incorporated to grid are just started. Finally, the activities of the international cooperation are presented in the paper. (author)

  1. New Content Addressable Memory (CAM) Technologies for Big Data and Intelligent Electronics Enabled by Magneto-Electric Ternary CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0198 NEW CONTENT ADDRESSABLE MEMORY (CAM) TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIG DATA AND INTELLIGENT ELECTRONICS ENABLED BY MAGNETO-ELECTRIC...MEMORY (CAM) TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIG DATA AND INTELLIGENT ELECTRONICS ENABLED BY MAGNETO-ELECTRIC TERNARY CAM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7655 5b... electronic applications, such as internet of things, big data, wireless sensors, and mobile devices, have begun to focus on the importance of energy

  2. Current status and technology development tendency of research reactors in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Guotu; Shen Feng; Zhao Shouzhi; Zhang Weiguo; Yuan Luzheng

    2009-01-01

    The current status and development history of domestic and abroad research reactors (RRs) are mentioned. The representative RRs and their respective technology characteristics are introduced. The utilizations of China's RRs, mainly included as nuclear engineering technology, basic research applications of nuclear technology, teaching and personnel training, are explained. (authors)

  3. Energy technology patents–CO2 emissions nexus: An empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaohua; Yang Zhongmin; Zhang Yixiang; Yin Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Energy technology innovation plays a crucial role in reducing carbon emissions. This paper investigates whether there is relationship between energy technology patents and CO 2 emissions of 30 provinces in mainland China during 1997–2008. Gross domestic product (GDP) is included in the study due to its impact on CO 2 emissions and energy technology innovation, thus avoiding the problem of omitted variable bias. Furthermore, we investigate three cross-regional groups, namely eastern, central and western China. The results show that domestic patents for fossil-fueled technologies have no significant effect on CO 2 emissions reduction; however, domestic patents for carbon-free energy technologies appear to play an important role in reducing CO 2 emissions, which is significant in eastern China, but is not significant in central, western and national level of China. The results of this study enrich energy technology innovation theories and provide some implications for energy technology policy making. - Highlights: ► We studied the causality between energy technology patents and CO 2 emissions using dynamic panel data approach. ► There is a long-run equilibrium relationship among energy technology patents, CO 2 emissions and GDP. ► Domestic patents for fossil-fueled technologies have no significant effect on CO 2 emissions reduction. ► Domestic patents for carbon-free energy technologies appear to play an important role in reducing CO 2 emissions. ► This study provides some references for the future energy technology policy making.

  4. The R/D of high power proton accelerator technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xialing, Guan

    2002-12-01

    In China, a multipurpose verification system as a first phase of our ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton LINAC) and a swimming pool light water subcritical reactor. In this paper the activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described.

  5. Military technology and absorptive capacity in China and India: implications for modernization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the reforms that have taken place with regard to technology policies in China and India since the 1980s, and their effects on the possibilities for development of melitary capacity in the two countries.......This paper examines the reforms that have taken place with regard to technology policies in China and India since the 1980s, and their effects on the possibilities for development of melitary capacity in the two countries....

  6. Breaking through barriers: using technology to address executive function weaknesses and improve student achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Assistive technologies provide significant capabilities for improving student achievement. Improved accessibility, cost, and diversity of applications make integration of technology a powerful tool to compensate for executive function weaknesses and deficits and their impact on student performance, learning, and achievement. These tools can be used to compensate for decreased working memory, poor time management, poor planning and organization, poor initiation, and decreased memory. Assistive technology provides mechanisms to assist students with diverse strengths and weaknesses in mastering core curricular concepts.

  7. Proceedings of the 11th China symposium on computer application in modern science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The 11th China symposium on computer application in modern science and technology were held by China Electronics Society and Nuclear Electronics and Nuclear Detecting Technology branch Society of China Nuclear Society on september, 8th-12th, 2003 in Changdao of Shandong province 77 articles is collected in the proceedings. The contents included calculation and calculation method, software system and software application, data acquisition and control system, database, and management information system, general system, network application and grid calculation and its application system and so on

  8. Prospects for the medium- and long-term development of China`s electric power industry and analysis of the potential market for superconductivity technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Bob Lawrence and Associates, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    First of all, overall economic growth objectives in China are concisely and succinctly specified in this report. Secondly, this report presents a forecast of energy supply and demand for China`s economic growth for 2000--2050. In comparison with the capability of energy construction in China in the future, a gap between supply and demand is one of the important factors hindering the sustainable development of Chain`s economy. The electric power industry is one of China`s most important industries. To adopt energy efficiency through high technology and utilizing energy adequately is an important technological policy for the development of China`s electric power industry in the future. After briefly describing the achievements of China`s electric power industry, this report defines the target areas and policies for the development of hydroelectricity and nuclear electricity in the 2000s in China, presents the strategic position of China`s electric power industry as well as objectives and relevant plans of development for 2000--2050. This report finds that with the discovery of superconducting electricity, the discovery of new high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, and progress in materials techniques, the 21st century will be an era of superconductivity. Applications of superconductivity in the energy field, such as superconducting storage, superconducting transmission, superconducting transformers, superconducting motors, its application in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD), as well as in nuclear fusion, has unique advantages. Its market prospects are quite promising. 12 figs.

  9. Unpacking policy processes for addressing systemic problems in technological innovation systems : The case of offshore wind in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichardt, Kristin; Rogge, Karoline S.; Negro, Simona O.

    2017-01-01

    While empirical studies on technological innovation systems (TIS) usually focus on policy instruments and their suitability for curing identified weaknesses of such emerging systems, the underlying policy processes and their effects have been largely disregarded. We address this gap by exploring the

  10. A Holistic Approach towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Addressing Education Challenges in Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Sungsup; Chin, Brian; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers opportunities for governments to address key education challenges of quality, equity, and efficiency. While governments and educational institutions in developed countries may have taken up these opportunities, many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region have often missed them out.…

  11. UK-China review of opportunities for landfill gas (LFG) technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to identify opportunities to transfer UK skills with regard to landfill gas (LFG) technologies to China and other countries looking to develop LFG as a commercially viable clean energy source. The aim of the project was to develop all aspects of LFG extraction and utilisation techniques. The project involved: examining current Chinese waste disposal practices; identifying key technologies and methods for maximising LFG recovery; considering end use options and methods to optimise gas use; assessing the environmental benefits; and identifying potential opportunities for UK industry. The report consider: barriers to the development of LFG; waste disposal and landfill design in China; China's experience of LFG use; UN Development Programme (UNDP) and Global Environmental Forum (GEF) LFG demonstration projects in China; environmental regulation and controls in China; LFG technology in the UK; support for renewable energy in China and the UK; design and operational needs in China from a UK perspective; technology needs, barriers and opportunities; and recommendations for action and future work.

  12. Technology roadmap study on carbon capture, utilization and storage in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xian; Fan, Jing-Li; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology will likely become an important approach to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and optimize the structure of energy consumption in China in the future. In order to provide guidance and recommendations for CCUS Research, Development and Demonstration in China, a high level stakeholder workshop was held in Chongqing in June 2011 to develop a technology roadmap for the development of CCUS technology. This roadmap outlines the overall vision to provide technically viable and economically affordable technological options to combat climate change and facilitate socio-economic development in China. Based on this vision, milestone goals from 2010 to 2030 are set out in accordance with the technology development environment and current status in China. This study identifies the critical technologies in capture, transport, utilization and storage of CO 2 and proposes technical priorities in the different stages of each technical aspect by evaluating indices such as the objective contribution rate and technical maturity, and gives recommendations on deployment of full-chain CCUS demonstration projects. Policies which would support CCUS are also suggested in this study. - Highlights: • A technology roadmap for CCUS development in China from 2010 to 2030 is presented. • Sound data and analysis in combination with expert workshops are used. • Critical technologies in CCUS are identified. • Priority actions of all stages are identified and proposed. • Guidance and recommendations for CCUS RD and D are provided

  13. Education Technologies in Addressing the Problem of Forming the Socially Active Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technological support of the educational process in solving the problem of forming the socially active individual. The authors studied the value of the category "social activity" and analyzed educational technologies that have an impact on its formation. The obtained results gave the possibility…

  14. Has Research on Collaborative Learning Technologies Addressed Massiveness? A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manathunga, Kalpani; Hernández-Leo, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding to what extent innovative educational technologies can be used to support massive courses. Collaboration is one of the main desired elements in massive learning actions involving large communities of participants. Accumulated research in collaborative learning technologies has proposed and evaluated…

  15. Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

    2009-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

  16. A Planning Process Addresses an Organizational and Support Crisis in Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Keith R.; Davenport, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    An institutionwide strategic planning effort at Central Michigan University, in response to a need for rapid and significant changes in its information technology infrastructure, is outlined. The effort resulted in a matrix governance structure for information technology that acknowledges the value of both distributed support and a strong central…

  17. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.8--isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation study, radiation technology, isotope and nuclear agriculture

  18. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.8--nuclear agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation study, radiation technology, isotope and nuclear agriculture

  19. Addressing the Role of Risk Management and Digital Finance Technology on Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Boskov, Tatjana; Drakulevski, Ljubomir

    2017-01-01

    Financial inclusion focuses on population which is “unbanked” to get into the formal financial system. The new patterns of financial inclusion rely on digital technologies, and “fin-tech” continues to revolutionize the nature of provision. Very important fact is that 78% of access on financial services in developing countries involves mobile money. Financial digital technologies improve data transmission, analysis and give the small companies the opportunity to develop low-cost di...

  20. The Digital Age of Mobile Cellular Network in Germany and China :Policies, Technologies and Markets (PartⅠ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingtao Shi

    2009-01-01

    The German Postal Reform Ⅰ in 1989 introduced competition in the mobile cellular market. German cellular operators, DeTeMobil, Mannesmann, E-Plus and VIAG Interkom, built DI-, D2-, El- and E2-Netze based on GSM standards made in Europe. China Unicom was created in 1994 and China Telecom was separated from MPT in 1995. China Telecom and China Unicorn competed in a duopoly from the mid-1990s onwards and the cellular services provided by them also rely on GSM standards. China Telecom additionally deployed XLT technology (PHS) from the late 1990s onwards. While DeTeMobil and Mannesmarm conquered approximately 80%-90% of the market throughout the 1990s and were the two dominant market players in Germany, China's cellular market was mainly controlled by China Mobile. In Germany, prices related to cellular technology continued the downwards trend as a major result of the process of deregulation, liberalisation and competition. In China, price wars bad led to significant price reductions in the cellular market. Although network operators in both countries strived to deliver differentiated cellular Services, the two national markets in the 1990s were visibly shaped by product homogeneity.

  1. Analysis of the market penetration of clean coal technologies and its impacts in China's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Nakata, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for promoting the market penetration of clean coal technologies (CCTs) into China's electricity sector and the evaluation of corresponding effects. Based on the reality that coal will remain the predominant fuel to generate electricity and conventional pulverized coal boiler power plants have serious impacts on environment degradation, development of clean coal technologies could be one alternative to meet China's fast growing demand of electricity as well as protect the already fragile environment. A multi-period market equilibrium model is applied and an electricity model of China is established to forecast changes in the electricity system up to 2030s. Three policy instruments: SO 2 emission charge, CO 2 emission charge and implementing subsidies are considered in this research. The results show that all instruments cause a significant shift in China's electricity structure, promote CCTs' competitiveness and lead China to gain great benefit in both resource saving and environment improvement. Since resource security and environment degradation are becoming primary concerns in China, policies that could help to gain generations' market share of advanced coal-based technologies such as CCTs' is suitable for the current situation of China's electricity sector. (author)

  2. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: a case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiliang Zhang; Shuhua Gu; Wenqiang Liu; Lin Gan

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the spread of small household wind generators and the development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyses the patterns of wind technology dissemination within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It also discusses international investment and technology transfer relating to wind energy technology. The economics of windfarm development are examined and the role of alternative policy instruments analysed. Major constraints to wind technology development are identified and relevant policy recommendations suggested. (Author)

  3. Wind energy technology development and diffusion: a case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiliang; Liu Wenqiang; Gu Shuhua; Gan Lin

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the spread of small household wind generators and the development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China with emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyzes the patterns of wind technology dissemination within social, economic, and environmental contexts. It also discusses international investment and technology transfer relating to wind energy technology. The economics of windfarm development are examined and the role of alternative policy instruments analyzed. Major constraints to wind technology development are identified and relevant policy recommendations suggested. (author)

  4. China's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) research environment: A snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xueying; Appelbaum, Richard P

    2018-01-01

    In keeping with China's President Xi Jinping's "Chinese Dream," China has set a goal of becoming a world-class innovator by 2050. China's higher education Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) research environment will play a pivotal role in influencing whether China is successful in transitioning from a manufacturing-based economy to an innovation-driven, knowledge-based economy. Past studies on China's research environment have been primarily qualitative in nature or based on anecdotal evidence. In this study, we surveyed STEM faculty from China's top 25 universities to get a clearer understanding of how faculty members view China's overall research environment. We received 731 completed survey responses, 17% of which were from individuals who received terminal degrees from abroad and 83% of which were from individuals who received terminal degrees from domestic institutions of higher education. We present results on why returnees decided to study abroad, returnees' decisions to return to China, and differences in perceptions between returnees and domestic degree holders on the advantages of having a foreign degree. The top five challenges to China's research environment identified by survey respondents were: a promotion of short-term thinking and instant success (37% of all respondents); research funding (33%); too much bureaucratic or governmental intervention (31%); the evaluation system (27%); and a reliance on human relations (26%). Results indicated that while China has clearly made strides in its higher education system, there are numerous challenges that must be overcome before China can hope to effectively produce the kinds of innovative thinkers that are required if it is to achieve its ambitious goals. We also raise questions about the current direction of education and inquiry in China, particularly indications that government policy is turning inward, away from openness that is central to innovative thinking.

  5. Let nuclear technology create new brilliancy for china's sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangwan

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development and application directions of nuclear technology, including five aspects: nuclear technology and energy nuclear technology and medicine, nuclear anclear analysis technology, nuclear radiation technology, astronautics and voyage's nuclear power, etc. The paper discusses the importance of them to sustainable development and generalizes the development trilogy of nuclear science and technology and its prospect. (authors)

  6. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Opening address

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueldner, Ralf [Deutsches Atomforum e.V. (DAtF), Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The 47{sup th} Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) was an excellent opportunity for a comprehensive outlook on nuclear technology, fostering international exchange in industry, research, politics and administration. Ralf Gueldner, President of the German Atomic Forum (DAtF) talked about important decisions in nuclear energy in Germany in 2016. Finally, Gueldner noticed that even with a phase out, Germany needs nuclear expertise and competent people for the upcoming challenges and international cooperation. In this context, also publicly-financed education and research are indispensable.

  7. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China. Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia; Xing, Li

    2009-01-01

    China has the abundant agro-residue resources, producing more than 630 million tons of agro-residues in 2006, and amounting to about 20% of total energy consumption in rural areas. Efficient utilization of enormous agro-residues resource is crucial for providing bioenergy, releasing risk of environmental pollution, and increasing farmers' income. The paper presented the feasibility of densified solid biofuels technology for utilizing agro-residues in China. The output and distribution of agro-residues in recent 10 years, the R and D of briquetting technology, and the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China have been analyzed. The result indicated that the abundant agro-residue resources can provide the economical and sustainable raw material for densified solid biofuels development in China. The R and D of briquetting technology at present can strongly support the large scale production of densified solid biofuels. With continued improvement and cost reduction of briquetting technology, along with the support of nation energy policy on biomass energy, the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be more fully deployed. Based on the above mentioned key factors, development of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be promising and feasible. (author)

  8. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China. Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia [Center for Biomass Resource Utilization, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University (East Campus), 17 Qing-Hua-Dong-Lu, Hai-Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Xing, Li [Service Center for Trading Technology Service, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-12-15

    China has the abundant agro-residue resources, producing more than 630 million tons of agro-residues in 2006, and amounting to about 20% of total energy consumption in rural areas. Efficient utilization of enormous agro-residues resource is crucial for providing bioenergy, releasing risk of environmental pollution, and increasing farmers' income. The paper presented the feasibility of densified solid biofuels technology for utilizing agro-residues in China. The output and distribution of agro-residues in recent 10 years, the R and D of briquetting technology, and the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China have been analyzed. The result indicated that the abundant agro-residue resources can provide the economical and sustainable raw material for densified solid biofuels development in China. The R and D of briquetting technology at present can strongly support the large scale production of densified solid biofuels. With continued improvement and cost reduction of briquetting technology, along with the support of nation energy policy on biomass energy, the market of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be more fully deployed. Based on the above mentioned key factors, development of densified solid biofuels from agro-residues in China will be promising and feasible. (author)

  9. Cultural factors influencing safety need to be addressed in design and operation of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkati, N

    1996-10-01

    Cultural factors which influence aviation safety in aircraft design, air traffic control, and human factors training are examined. Analysis of the Avianca Flight 052 crash in New York in January, 1990, demonstrates the catastrosphic effects cultural factors can play. Cultural factors include attitude toward work and technology, organizational hierarchy, religion, and population stereotyping.

  10. Addressing service delivery in rural areas through deployment of information and communication technology platforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foko, Thato E

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available deployment of ICT Platforms in the rural areas. The contribution of ICT Platform adds to the important notion of access which enhances service delivery. This is seen through the Technology Acceptance Models used in this paper. The main research methodology...

  11. Progress and status of fusion technology and materials research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zengyu; Liu Xiang; Chen Jiming; Zhang Fu

    2003-01-01

    Fusion technology and materials research in China was included in the National High Technology Project during 1986-2000. Since 2000, the National Natural Science Foundation Committee, the State Development Planning Commission, and the Ministry of Science and Technology have supported this field of research. The research program has covered the topics of tritium engineering, plasma facing materials and structural materials. The Southwestern Institute of Physics has been a leading institute in this research program in the last 15 years in China, and over ten universities and institutes have joined the program. (author)

  12. [Ten years retrospective review of the application of digital medical technology in general surgery in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, C H; Lau, Y Y; Zhou, W P; Cai, W

    2017-12-01

    Digital medical technology is a powerful tool which has forcefully promoted the development of general surgery in China. In this article, we reviews the application status of three-dimensional visualization and three-dimensional printing technology in general surgery, introduces the development situation of surgical navigation guided by optical and electromagnetic technology and preliminary attempt to combined with mixed reality applied to complicated hepatectomy, looks ahead the development direction of digital medicine in the era of artificial intelligence and big data on behalf of surgical robot and radiomics. Surgeons should proactively master these advanced techniques and accelerate the innovative development of general surgery in China.

  13. 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China collects selected papers from the 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China held in Nanjing on October 16-19, 2012. The book features state-of-the-art studies on spacecraft TT&C in China with the theme of “Shared and Flexible TT&C Systems”. The selected works can help  promote development of spacecraft TT&C technology towards interconnectivity, resource sharing, flexibility and high efficiency. Researchers and engineers in the field of aerospace engineering and communication engineering can benefit from the book. Rongjun Shen is the Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering; Weiping Qian is the Director General of Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunications Technology.

  14. Technology transfer of nuclear power development in developing countries: Case study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiachen; Shen Wenquan; Zhang Luqing

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the specific experiences in the technology transfer of nuclear power in China, a country that both imported and developed indigenous nuclear technology. Based on this experience some recommendations are presented that should be considered particularly by the developing countries. (author)

  15. From technology transfer to local manufacturing: China's emergence in the global wind power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joanna Ingram

    This dissertation examines the development of China's large wind turbine industry, including the players, the status of the technology, and the strategies used to develop turbines for the Chinese market. The primary goals of this research project are to identify the models of international technology transfer that have been used among firms in China's wind power industry; examine to what extent these technology transfers have contributed to China's ability to locally manufacture large wind turbine technology; and evaluate China's ability to become a major player in the global wind industry. China is a particularly important place to study the opportunities for and dynamics of clean energy development due to its role in global energy consumption. China is the largest coal consuming and producing nation in the world, and consequently the second largest national emitter of carbon dioxide after only the United States. Energy consumption and carbon emissions are growing rapidly, and China is expected to surpass the US and become the largest energy consuming nation and carbon dioxide emitter in coming decades. The central finding of this dissertation is that even though each firm involved in the large wind turbine manufacturing industry in China has followed a very different pathway of technology procurement for the Chinese market, all of the firms are increasing the utilization of locally-manufactured components, and many are doing so without transferring turbine technology or the associated intellectual property. Only one fully Chinese-owned firm, Goldwind, has succeeded in developing a commercially available large wind turbine for the Chinese market. No Chinese firms or foreign firms are manufacturing turbines in China for export overseas, though many have stated plans to do so. There already exists a possible niche market for the smaller turbines that are currently being made in China, particularly in less developed countries that are looking for less expensive

  16. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S

    1998-07-01

    This address delivered to the 40th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in India in 1998 opens by noting that a shortage of jobs for youth is India's most urgent problem but that the problems that attend the increasing numbers of elderly also require serious attention. The address then notes that the Earth's population is growing at an unsustainable rate while economic inequities among countries are increasing, so that, while intellectual property is becoming the most important asset in developed countries, nutritional anemia among pregnant women causes their offspring to be unable to achieve their full intellectual potential from birth. Next, the address uses a discussion of the 18th-century work on population of the Marquis de Condorcet and of Thomas Malthus to lead into a consideration of estimated increased needs of countries like India and China to import food grains in the near future. Next, the progress of demographic transition in Indian states is covered and applied to Mahbub ul Haq's measure of human deprivation developed for and applied to the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives). The address continues by reiterating some of the major recommendations forwarded by a government of India committee charged in 1995 with drafting a national population policy. Finally, the address suggests specific actions that could be important components of the Hunger-Free India Programme and concludes that all success rests on the successful implementation of appropriate population policies.

  17. Stakeholder views addressing the development and uptake of powered wheelchair assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Michael; Pepper, Matthew; Kelly, Steve; Howells, Gareth

    2017-12-14

    The objective of this research is to identify stakeholder views with regard to the development of effective powered wheelchair assistive technologies more suited to the user and carer needs, whilst also meeting the requirements for other stakeholders, such that developers can be better guided towards producing solutions which have a better chance of getting to the market place and hence to the end user. A questionnaire was designed to collect the views of all stakeholders and circulated to a statistically representative number of them. The question rating data were then checked for correlation between groups, and within groups, to establish validity. The 74 stakeholders across the eight classes who responded had a good correlation between each other, with a cross class "Pearson's correlation" ranging between 0.7 and 0.95, and the "Fleiss's Kappa reliability of agreement" within each class ranging between 0.07 and 0.36. This research has identified that all stakeholders should be involved in the development of the technology and that some may benefit in 'role-reversal' to help understand user problems and stakeholder concerns more clearly. Cost was a significant barrier to the uptake of appropriate technology, and training of users and carers was a major issue. Furthermore, development should not increase user isolation and the impact on the user must be monitored for 'quality of life'. Technical support and training should be given to the user and their carers, and equipment must be adaptive to meet the changing needs of the user. Implications for Rehabilitation Improved acceptance and use of technology by the user and their carers. Reduced rejection of appropriate provision. Improved mobility and interaction with others. Improved quality of life for users and carers.

  18. Virtual reality and interactive digital game technology: new tools to address obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Rizzo, Albert; Lange, Belinda; Suma, Evan A; Bolas, Mark

    2011-03-01

    The convergence of the exponential advances in virtual reality (VR)-enabling technologies with a growing body of clinical research and experience has fueled the evolution of the discipline of clinical VR. This article begins with a brief overview of methods for producing and delivering VR environments that can be accessed by users for a range of clinical health conditions. Interactive digital games and new forms of natural movement-based interface devices are also discussed in the context of the emerging area of exergaming, along with some of the early results from studies of energy expenditure during the use of these systems. While these results suggest that playing currently available active exergames uses significantly more energy than sedentary activities and is equivalent to a brisk walk, these activities do not reach the level of intensity that would match playing the actual sport, nor do they deliver the recommended daily amount of exercise for children. However, these results provide some support for the use of digital exergames using the current state of technology as a complement to, rather than a replacement, for regular exercise. This may change in the future as new advances in novel full-body interaction systems for providing vigorous interaction with digital games are expected to drive the creation of engaging, low-cost interactive game-based applications designed to increase exercise participation in persons at risk for obesity. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. The R/D of high power proton accelerator technology in China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In China, a multipurpose verification system as a first phase of our ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton LINAC) and a swimming pool light water subcritical reactor. In this paper the activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the ...

  20. Addressing Ethics and Technology in Business: Preparing Today's Students for the Ethical Challenges Presented by Technology in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rochelle

    2008-01-01

    The ethical development of information systems is but one of those sensitive scenarios associated with computer technology that has a tremendous impact on individuals and social life. The significance of these issues of concern cannot be overstated. However, since computer ethics is meant to be everybody's responsibility, the result can often be…

  1. Health promotion interventions and policies addressing excessive alcohol use: a systematic review of national and global evidence as a guide to health-care reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Babor, Thomas F; Zeigler, Donald; Xuan, Ziming; Morisky, Donald; Hovell, Melbourne F; Nelson, Toben F; Shen, Weixing; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Steady increases in alcohol consumption and related problems are likely to accompany China's rapid epidemiological transition and profit-based marketing activities. We reviewed research on health promotion interventions and policies to address excessive drinking and to guide health-care reform. We searched Chinese- and English-language databases and included 21 studies in China published between 1980 and 2013 that covered each policy area from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. We evaluated and compared preventive interventions to the global alcohol literature for cross-national applicability. In contrast with hundreds of studies in the global literature, 11 of 12 studies from mainland China were published in Chinese; six of 10 in English were on taxation from Taiwan or Hong Kong. Most studies demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excessive drinking, and some reported the reduction of health problems. Seven were randomized controlled trials. Studies targeted schools, drink-driving, work-places, the health sector and taxation. China is the world's largest alcohol market, yet there has been little growth in alcohol policy research related to health promotion interventions over the past decade. Guided by a public health approach, the WHO Global Strategy and health reform experience in Russia, Australia, Mexico and the United States, China could improve its public health response through better coordination and implementation of surveillance and evidence-based research, and through programmatic and legal responses such as public health law research, screening and early intervention within health systems and the implementation of effective alcohol control strategies. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Scientific and Technological Information Activity in China (White Paper on Science and Technology : No.1, 1986.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Translated By Joho Kanri Editorial Committee

    This is a translation of Chapter 4 : Information Systems of Volume 5 : Environment and Resources in the first number of White Paper on Science and Technology edited in May 1986 by State Scientific and Technological Commission (SSTC). Scientific and technological information activity in China has progressed by keeping close cooperation among the Institute for Scientific and Technological Information in China (ISTIC) as a core organization, 33 information institutes under the control of each ministrial commission of The State Council and 35 information institutes of the local governments and cities. As a result of having promoted the information activities along with the guiding principle decided by the 5th National Conference on Scientific and Technological Information in July 1980, information business could be made a great contribution to political decision, national projects and economy stressing plan, technology introduction, etc. The Scientific and Technological Information Bureau of SSTC as a coordinating body proposed the following subjects as an important item for promoting future information business in China: standardization of abstract journals, bringing up of investigators and researchers, production of data bases and consolidation of international online retrieval services, step by step introduction of a charging system for information service, etc.

  3. Impact of energy technology patents in China: Evidence from a panel cointegration and error correction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing energy technology innovation performance, which is widely measured by energy technology patents through energy technology research and development (R&D) activities, is a fundamental way to implement energy conservation and emission abatement. This study analyzes the effects of R&D investment activities, economic growth, and energy price on energy technology patents in 30 provinces of China over the period 1999–2013. Several unit root tests indicate that all the above variables are generated by panel unit root processes, and a panel cointegration model is confirmed among the variables. In order to ensure the consistency of the estimators, the Fully-Modified OLS (FMOLS) method is adopted, and the results indicate that R&D investment activities and economic growth have positive effects on energy technology patents while energy price has a negative effect. However, the panel error correction models indicate that the cointegration relationship helps to promote economic growth, but it reduces R&D investment and energy price in the short term. Therefore, market-oriented measures including financial support and technical transformation policies for the development of low-carbon energy technologies, an effective energy price mechanism, especially the targeted fossil-fuel subsidies and their die away mode are vital in promoting China's energy technology innovation. - Highlights: • Energy technology patents in China are analyzed. • Relationship between energy patents and funds for R&D activities are analyzed. • China's energy price system hinders energy technology innovation. • Some important implications for China's energy technology policy are discussed. • A panel cointegration model with FMOLS estimator is used.

  4. Technology transfer by CDM projects: A comparison of Brazil, China, India and Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Glachant, Matthieu; Meniere, Yann

    2009-01-01

    In a companion paper [Dechezlepretre, A., Glachant, M., Meniere, Y., 2008. The Clean Development Mechanism and the international diffusion of technologies: An empirical study, Energy Policy 36, 1273-1283], we gave a general description of technology transfers by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and we analyzed their drivers. In this paper, we use the same data and similar econometric models to explain inter-country differences. We focus on 4 countries gathering about 75% of the CDM projects: Brazil, China, India and Mexico. Sixty eight percent of Mexican projects include an international transfer of technology. The rates are, respectively, 12%, 40% and 59% for India, Brazil and China. Our results show that transfers to Mexico and Brazil are mainly related to the strong involvement of foreign partners and good technological capabilities. Besides a relative advantage with respect to these factors, the higher rate of international transfers in Mexico seems to be due to a sector-composition effect. The involvement of foreign partners is less frequent in India and China, where investment opportunities generated by fast growing economies seem to play a more important role in facilitating international technology transfers through the CDM. International transfers are also related to strong technology capabilities in China. In contrast, the lower rate of international transfer (12%) in India may be due to a better capability to diffuse domestic technologies

  5. New power generation technology options under the greenhouse gases mitigation scenario in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qiang [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, 19A Yu Quan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Energy Research Institute, Guohong Mansion, Xicheng District, Beijing 100038 (China); Shi, Minjun [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, 19A Yu Quan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang, Kejun [Energy Research Institute, Guohong Mansion, Xicheng District, Beijing 100038 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Climate change has become a global issue. Almost all countries, including China, are now considering adopting policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The power generation sector, as a key source of GHG emissions, will also have significant potential for GHG mitigation. One of the key options is to use new energy technologies with higher energy efficiencies and lower carbon emissions. In this article, we use an energy technology model, MESSAGE-China, to analyze the trend of key new power generation technologies and their contributions to GHG mitigation in China. We expect that the traditional renewable technologies, high-efficiency coal power generation and nuclear power will contribute substantially to GHG mitigation in the short term, and that solar power, biomass energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) will become more important in the middle and long term. In the meantime, in order to fully bring the role of technology progress into play, China needs to enhance the transfer and absorption of international advanced technologies and independently strengthen her ability in research, demonstration and application of new power generation technologies. (author)

  6. New power generation technology options under the greenhouse gases mitigation scenario in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Liu [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, 19A Yu Quan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Energy Research Institute, Guohong Mansion, Xicheng District, Beijing 100038 (China)], E-mail: liuqiang@eri.org.cn; Minjun, Shi [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, 19A Yu Quan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Kejun, Jiang [Energy Research Institute, Guohong Mansion, Xicheng District, Beijing 100038 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Climate change has become a global issue. Almost all countries, including China, are now considering adopting policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The power generation sector, as a key source of GHG emissions, will also have significant potential for GHG mitigation. One of the key options is to use new energy technologies with higher energy efficiencies and lower carbon emissions. In this article, we use an energy technology model, MESSAGE-China, to analyze the trend of key new power generation technologies and their contributions to GHG mitigation in China. We expect that the traditional renewable technologies, high-efficiency coal power generation and nuclear power will contribute substantially to GHG mitigation in the short term, and that solar power, biomass energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) will become more important in the middle and long term. In the meantime, in order to fully bring the role of technology progress into play, China needs to enhance the transfer and absorption of international advanced technologies and independently strengthen her ability in research, demonstration and application of new power generation technologies.

  7. Technology Roadmaps: China Wind Energy Development Roadmap 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The report shows how China, already the world's largest wind market, could reach 1 000 GW of wind power by the middle of the century, an achievement that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1.5 gigatonnes per year, or roughly equivalent to the combined CO2 emissions of Germany, France and Italy in 2009. The China Wind Energy Roadmap is the first national roadmap that has been developed by a country with IEA support, drawing from its global roadmap series.

  8. Addressing Cancer Disparities Among American Indians through Innovative Technologies and Patient Navigation: The Walking Forward Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petereit, Daniel G. [Department of Oncology, John T. Vucurevich Cancer Care Institute, Rapid City, SD (United States); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wong, Rosemary; Coleman, C. Norman, E-mail: dpetereit@regionalhealth.com [Radiation Research Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2011-06-22

    Purpose/Objective(s): American Indians (AIs) present with more advanced stages of cancer and, therefore, suffer from higher cancer mortality rates compared to non-AIs. Under the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP) Program, we have been researching methods of improving cancer treatment and outcomes since 2002, for AIs in Western South Dakota, through the Walking Forward (WF) Program. Materials/Methods: This program consists of (a) a culturally tailored patient navigation program that facilitated access to innovative clinical trials in conjunction with a comprehensive educational program encouraging screening and early detection, (b), surveys to evaluate barriers to access, (c) clinical trials focusing on reducing treatment length to facilitate enhanced participation using brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for breast and prostate cancer, as AIs live a median of 140 miles from the cancer center, and (d) a molecular study (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to address whether there is a specific profile that increases toxicity risks. Results: We describe the design and implementation of this program, summary of previously published results, and ongoing research to influence stage at presentation. Some of the critical outcomes include the successful implementation of a community-based research program, development of trust within tribal communities, identification of barriers, analysis of nearly 400 navigated cancer patients, clinical trial accrual rate of 10%, and total enrollment of nearly 2,500 AIs on WF research studies. Conclusion: This NCI funded pilot program has achieved some initial measures of success. A research infrastructure has been created in a community setting to address new research questions and interventions. Efforts underway to promote cancer education and screening are presented, as well as applications of the lessons learned to other health disparity populations – both nationally and

  9. Addressing Cancer Disparities Among American Indians through Innovative Technologies and Patient Navigation: The Walking Forward Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petereit, Daniel G.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Wong, Rosemary; Coleman, C. Norman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): American Indians (AIs) present with more advanced stages of cancer and, therefore, suffer from higher cancer mortality rates compared to non-AIs. Under the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP) Program, we have been researching methods of improving cancer treatment and outcomes since 2002, for AIs in Western South Dakota, through the Walking Forward (WF) Program. Materials/Methods: This program consists of (a) a culturally tailored patient navigation program that facilitated access to innovative clinical trials in conjunction with a comprehensive educational program encouraging screening and early detection, (b), surveys to evaluate barriers to access, (c) clinical trials focusing on reducing treatment length to facilitate enhanced participation using brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for breast and prostate cancer, as AIs live a median of 140 miles from the cancer center, and (d) a molecular study (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to address whether there is a specific profile that increases toxicity risks. Results: We describe the design and implementation of this program, summary of previously published results, and ongoing research to influence stage at presentation. Some of the critical outcomes include the successful implementation of a community-based research program, development of trust within tribal communities, identification of barriers, analysis of nearly 400 navigated cancer patients, clinical trial accrual rate of 10%, and total enrollment of nearly 2,500 AIs on WF research studies. Conclusion: This NCI funded pilot program has achieved some initial measures of success. A research infrastructure has been created in a community setting to address new research questions and interventions. Efforts underway to promote cancer education and screening are presented, as well as applications of the lessons learned to other health disparity populations – both nationally and

  10. Mortality in women treated with assisted reproductive technology treatment - addressing the healthy patient effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Schmidt, Lone; Pinborg, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have reported reduced mortality among women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, possibly related to selection of healthy women into ART treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of relevant selection factors on the association between ART...... treatment and mortality and explore effect modification by parity. Women treated with ART in fertility clinics in Denmark during 1994-2009 (n = 42,897) were age-matched with untreated women from the background population (n = 204,514) and followed until ultimo 2010. With adjustment for relevant confounders...

  11. Using innovation from block chain technology to address privacy and security problems of Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Manocha, Jitendra

    2017-01-01

    Internet of things (IoT) is growing at a phenomenal speed and outpacing all the technological revolutions that occurred in the past. Together with window of opportunity it also poses quite a few challenges. One of the most important and unresolved challenge is vulnerability in security and privacy in IoT. This is mainly due to lack of a global decentralized standard even though characteristically IoT is based on distributed systems. Due to lack of standard IoT has interoperability issue betwe...

  12. International technology transfer for climate change mitigation and the cases of Russia and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinot, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group]|[Stockholm Environment Inst., Boston, MA (United States); Sinton, J.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Haddad, B.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The environmental agenda for mitigating climate change through international transfers of technology is linked with a diverse literature, reviewed here within a framework that combines technological, agent/agenda, and market/transaction perspectives. Literature that bears on international technology transfer for climate change mitigation is similar in many ways for Russia and China: opportunities for energy efficiency and renewable energy, economic reform and restructuring, the difficulties enterprises face in responding to market conditions, international assistance policies, international joint ventures, market intermediation, and capacity building for market development. In both countries, capacity building means enhancing market-oriented capabilities in addition to technological capabilities. For Russia, institutional development is critical, such as new commercial legal codes and housing-sector changes beyond privatization. For China, technology policies and modernization programs significantly influence technology transfers. 234 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. International technology transfer for climate change mitigation and the cases of Russia and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, E.; Sinton, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental agenda for mitigating climate change through international transfers of technology is linked with a diverse literature, reviewed here within a framework that combines technological, agent/agenda, and market/transaction perspectives. Literature that bears on international technology transfer for climate change mitigation is similar in many ways for Russia and China: opportunities for energy efficiency and renewable energy, economic reform and restructuring, the difficulties enterprises face in responding to market conditions, international assistance policies, international joint ventures, market intermediation, and capacity building for market development. In both countries, capacity building means enhancing market-oriented capabilities in addition to technological capabilities. For Russia, institutional development is critical, such as new commercial legal codes and housing-sector changes beyond privatization. For China, technology policies and modernization programs significantly influence technology transfers. 234 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Virtual Reality and Interactive Digital Game Technology: New Tools to Address Obesity and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Skip” Rizzo, Albert; Lange, Belinda; Suma, Evan A; Bolas, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The convergence of the exponential advances in virtual reality (VR)-enabling technologies with a growing body of clinical research and experience has fueled the evolution of the discipline of clinical VR. This article begins with a brief overview of methods for producing and delivering VR environments that can be accessed by users for a range of clinical health conditions. Interactive digital games and new forms of natural movement-based interface devices are also discussed in the context of the emerging area of exergaming, along with some of the early results from studies of energy expenditure during the use of these systems. While these results suggest that playing currently available active exergames uses significantly more energy than sedentary activities and is equivalent to a brisk walk, these activities do not reach the level of intensity that would match playing the actual sport, nor do they deliver the recommended daily amount of exercise for children. However, these results provide some support for the use of digital exergames using the current state of technology as a complement to, rather than a replacement, for regular exercise. This may change in the future as new advances in novel full-body interaction systems for providing vigorous interaction with digital games are expected to drive the creation of engaging, low-cost interactive game-based applications designed to increase exercise participation in persons at risk for obesity. PMID:21527091

  15. Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Framework for monitoring and evaluation of the health sector reform in China ... Le Conseil des gouverneurs félicite Jean Lebel pour son nouveau mandat au poste ... CDRI est heureux d'annoncer que le premier appel à candidatures pour les ...

  16. Getting the chemicals right: addressing inorganics in sustainability assessments of technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Nienke; Fantke, Peter

    sustainability assessments, the toxicity potential of several thousand organic chemicals is included in characterization models within life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). However, many economic production processes involve the use of inorganic chemicals to a large extent, while the related pressure on human...... and environmental health of environmental emissions of these substances is not yet fully understood and not included in any existing LCIA method. In th is presentation, we provide an overview of the relevance of inorganic chemicals and outline possible ways towards incorporating inorganic chemicals in LCIA toxicity......A main goal of sustainability research is to enable a technological development in industry and elsewhere that ensures that what is produced and how it is produced today does not harm the quality of human or environmental health for present and future generations. As part of current environmental...

  17. Addressing national priorities through nuclear technology: Application of stable isotope techniques in evaluating nutritional intervention programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwangi, C.; Ndemwa, P.

    2008-01-01

    The concept is a new concept in Kenya that need driven technology. A paradigm shift from the conventional methods of measuring breast milk intake by means of weighing infants before and after feeding. A validation tool against anthropometrical measures of body fat through body density and skin-fold measurements. A reliable, accurate and non-invasive tool for monitoring lean body mass changes in clinical assessments.Isotopes Techniques in Body composition assessment.Technique-based Parameters of efficacy and/or effect are: Isotope (deuterium) dose given orally to subject (about 30 grams),Saliva (or urine) samples collected after 3-4 hrs, Concentration of isotope in saliva is measured using Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), Concentration gives the Total Body Water (TBW) component in the body, TBW = 73% Fat Free Mass (FFM), Calculate FFM (kg) from equation and subtract from Total Body Weight (kg) to get value of Fat Mass (kg)

  18. Pressure transmitters: Addressing post-Fukushima regulations and requirements with Bibloc technology by Rolls-Royce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, Herve; Desgeorge, Romain; Chowanek, Michel

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear power stations are designed to withstand substantial seismic activity and as such represent some of the most robust buildings in the world. However The Fukushima nuclear incident highlighted the potential vulnerability of nuclear power plants when multiple natural events of historic proportions happen simultaneously. Following the incident, the worldwide nuclear industry quite rightly called for an immediate review and a targeted reassessment of the safety margins of nuclear reactors. Several recommendations have been given by international safety authorities, including a significant toughening of the already stringent regulations and requirements, with respect to earthquakes, extreme temperatures, pressure and radiation resistance. In the event of an accident, a quick response is imperative and to act efficiently, a correct knowledge of the situation as well as an accurate estimation of its severity are required. Thus, it is essential to be able to rely on the most reliable sensors possible, in particular for the 50 to 100 classified pressure transmitters. Equipment used in nuclear plants all over the world, such pressure transmitters, are implemented following one of two different types of design: - The Monobloc design where almost all the equipment or system is installed very close to the reactor, within the reactor building. - The Bibloc design where the most sensitive parts (in particular the electronics) are removed from the harsh environment present in the vicinity of the reactor to be placed outside of the reactor building. The paper will present the advantages of the Bibloc technology and will show how this technology meets the 'Post Fukushima' requirements. (authors)

  19. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  20. Nuclear technologies to address the challenges in plant-water systems and adaptation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In India, over the last decade or so, the stagnation in yield and recent declining trend of the most popular varieties of wheat and rice suggest that the farmers' limited fields with the current soil fertility and agronomic practices has reached the limits of food production sustainability. While water is an important input resource in agriculture, a reliable assessment of its aggregate situation and its protection from depletion and degradation has not received its due respect in the management of agriculture. For enhancement in food production, besides the HYVs and agronomic practices, proper management of the limited groundwater resource, and the water demand under the scarce water availability conditions, enhancing water use efficiency and reducing post-harvest losses is important. Nuclear techniques can provide detailed insight into many long-term process governing Plant-Water Systems, and could be helpful to address the challenges in agriculture. Extensive studies on groundwater assessment and water use efficiency using radioactive "3H, "1"4C, "2"3"4U, "2"3"8U) and stable (2"H, "1"3C, "1"8O) isotopes, have been undertaken for over three decades in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh of the Gangetic Plains, in Sabarmati River Basin, Gujarat and in arid Rajasthan. Some examples have been discussed, along with HYV development and post harvest preservation using gamma irradiation

  1. Electron multibeam technology for mask and wafer writing at 0.1 nm address grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzgummer, Elmar; Klein, Christof; Loeschner, Hans

    2013-07-01

    IMS Nanofabrication realized a 50 keV electron multibeam proof-of-concept (POC) tool confirming writing principles with 0.1 nm address grid and lithography performance capability. The POC system achieves the predicted 5 nm 1 sigma blur across the 82 μm×82 μm array of 512×512 (262,144) programmable 20 nm beams. 24-nm half pitch (HP) has been demonstrated and complex patterns have been written in scanning stripe exposure mode. The first production worthy system for the 11-nm HP mask node is scheduled for 2014 (Alpha), 2015 (Beta), and first-generation high-volume manufacturing multibeam mask writer (MBMW) tools in 2016. In these MBMW systems the max beam current through the column is 1 μA. The new architecture has also the potential for 1× mask (master template) writing. Substantial further developments are needed for maskless e-beam direct write (EBDW) applications as a beam current of >2 mA is needed to achieve 100 wafer per hour industrial targets for 300 mm wafer size. Necessary productivity enhancements of more than three orders of magnitude are only possible by shrinking the multibeam optics such that 50 to 100 subcolumns can be placed on the area of a 300 mm wafer and by clustering 10 to 20 multicolumn tools. An overview of current EBDW efforts is provided.

  2. How does green technology influence CO2 emission in China?--An empirical research based on provincial data of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weina; Han, Botang; Zhao, Xin; Mazzanti, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the role of green innovations aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions as a factor that compensates for growth and population effects. It has been shown from tests that the positive effect of green innovations on carbon emissions exists within a STIRPAT framework from a local perspective. The panel data is derived from China Statistical Yearbook and China Intellectual Property Office covered from 1999 to 2013. In addition,the static panel model was run to estimate the diversity among three typical regions of China. The main result shows that the green technology change has not played a dominant role yet in promoting environmental protection, while a scale effect (Affluence and Population)still prevails, although green patents show positive influences on the CO2 emission reduction inthe whole country as well as the East and West regions, except the Central region. Moreover, it turns out that the classical EKC hypothesis does stand in China, referring to the three regions with the inverted "U" shape. The analysis gives suggestions to the policy makers, which would support enlarging the investment scale on green patents and encourage international corporation with environmental related innovations.

  3. Developments in lithium-ion battery technology in the Peoples Republic of China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory prepared this report, under the sponsorship of the Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, for the Vehicles Technologies Team. The information in the report is based on the author's visit to Beijing; Tianjin; and Shanghai, China, to meet with representatives from several organizations (listed in Appendix A) developing and manufacturing lithium-ion battery technology for cell phones and electronics, electric bikes, and electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of lithium-ion battery technology in China and to determine if lithium-ion batteries produced in China are available for benchmarking in the United States. With benchmarking, DOE and the U.S. battery development industry would be able to understand the status of the battery technology, which would enable the industry to formulate a long-term research and development program. This report also describes the state of lithium-ion battery technology in the United States, provides information on joint ventures, and includes information on government incentives and policies in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).

  4. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Behavioral Research: Addressing Technological and Human Participant Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lora E; Shiffman, Saul; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Kriska, Andrea; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel; Ewing, Linda J; Chasens, Eileen; French, Brian; Mancino, Juliet; Mendez, Dara; Strollo, Patrick; Rathbun, Stephen L

    2017-03-15

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) assesses individuals' current experiences, behaviors, and moods as they occur in real time and in their natural environment. EMA studies, particularly those of longer duration, are complex and require an infrastructure to support the data flow and monitoring of EMA completion. Our objective is to provide a practical guide to developing and implementing an EMA study, with a focus on the methods and logistics of conducting such a study. The EMPOWER study was a 12-month study that used EMA to examine the triggers of lapses and relapse following intentional weight loss. We report on several studies that informed the implementation of the EMPOWER study: (1) a series of pilot studies, (2) the EMPOWER study's infrastructure, (3) training of study participants in use of smartphones and the EMA protocol and, (4) strategies used to enhance adherence to completing EMA surveys. The study enrolled 151 adults and had 87.4% (132/151) retention rate at 12 months. Our learning experiences in the development of the infrastructure to support EMA assessments for the 12-month study spanned several topic areas. Included were the optimal frequency of EMA prompts to maximize data collection without overburdening participants; the timing and scheduling of EMA prompts; technological lessons to support a longitudinal study, such as proper communication between the Android smartphone, the Web server, and the database server; and use of a phone that provided access to the system's functionality for EMA data collection to avoid loss of data and minimize the impact of loss of network connectivity. These were especially important in a 1-year study with participants who might travel. It also protected the data collection from any server-side failure. Regular monitoring of participants' response to EMA prompts was critical, so we built in incentives to enhance completion of EMA surveys. During the first 6 months of the 12-month study interval, adherence to

  5. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.10--nuclear technology economy and management modernization sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 18 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the tenth one, the content is about nuclear technology economy and management modernization sub-volume

  6. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 18 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

  7. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 57 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology sub-volume

  8. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.10--nuclear technology economy and management modernization sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the tenth one, the content is about nuclear technology economy and management modernization

  9. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.9--nuclear technology applied in industry sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 35 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the ninth one, the content is about nuclear technology applied in industry sub-volume

  10. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.7--Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology

  11. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.7--pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about Nuclear electronics and pulse power technology and its application

  12. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.8--radiation research and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation study, radiation technology, isotope and nuclear agriculture

  13. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  14. H.E. Professor Wang Liheng, Minister of Aviation of the People's Republic of China, President, China Aerospace Science & Technology Corporation

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    H. E. Professor Wang Liheng, Minister of Aviation, and President, China Aerospace Science & Technology Corporation, People's Republic of China (2nd from left) with (from left to right) Professor Hans Hofer, Professor Roger Cashmore, Research Director for Collider Programmes, Professor Samuel C. C. Ting, CERN and Professor Lei Gang, Secretary to the Minister, September 2001.

  15. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the fifth one, the content is about radiation protection and nuclear chemical industry.

  16. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.4--nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally.This is the fourth one, the content is about nuclear materials, isotope separation, nuclear chemistry and radiological chemistry.

  17. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.6--nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the sixth one, the content is about nuclear physics, computational physics and particle accelerator

  18. A Holistic Approach for Addressing the Issue of Effective Technology Transfer in the Frame of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Karakosta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change policy and sustainable development issues and goals are closely intertwined. Recognizing the dual relationship between sustainable development and climate change points to a need for the exploration of actions that jointly address sustainable development and climate change. Technology transfer is considered an issue with growing interest worldwide and has been recognized as the key in supporting countries to achieve sustainable development, while addressing climate change challenges. This study presents an integrated decision support methodological framework for the formulation and evaluation of activities to promote technology transfer, as well as the provision of clear recommendations and strategies for framing specific policy in the context of climate change. The philosophy of the proposed approach, under the name: assess-identify-define (AID, consists of three components, where each one focuses on a particular problem. The methodology is integrated using appropriate tools in the information decision support system for effective technology transfer (DSS-ΕTT. The pilot application of the proposed methodology, in five representative developing countries, provided the possibility to evaluate the characteristics of the adopted methodology in terms of completeness, usability, extensionality, as well as analysis of results reliability.

  19. Roles Prioritization of Hydrogen Production Technologies for Promoting Hydrogen Economy in the Current State of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Gao, Suzhao; Tan, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production technologies play an important role in the hydrogen economy of China. However, the roles of different technologies played in promoting the development of hydrogen economy are different. The role prioritization of various hydrogen production technologies is of vital importance...... information. The prioritization results by using the proposed method demonstrated that the technologies of coal gasification with CO2 capture and storage and hydropower-based water electrolysis were regarded as the two most important hydrogen production pathways for promoting the development of hydrogen...... for the stakeholders/decision-makers to plan the development of hydrogen economy in China and to allocate the finite R&D budget reasonably. In this study, DPSIR framework was firstly used to identify the key factors concerning the priorities of various hydrogen production technologies; then, a fuzzy group decision...

  20. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  1. Address to the international workshop on greenhouse gas mitigation, technologies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Netherlands has a long history in combatting natural forces for it`s mere survival and even creation. Around half of the country was not Yet existent around 2000 years ago: it was still below sea level that time. Building dikes and the discovery of eolic energy applied in windmills, allowing to pump water from one side of the dike to the other, are technologies that gradually shaped the country into its current form, a process that continues to materialize till the present day. Water has not always been an enemy of the country. In the Hundred Year War with Spain, during which the country was occupied territory for most of the time, the water was used to drive the Spanish armies from the country. As large parts are well below sea level breaking the dikes resulted in flooding the country which made the armoury of the Spanish army useless. In this way they had to give up the siege of several major Dutch cities that time. These events marked the gradual liberation of the Dutch territory. Consequently, in the discussion on adaption and prevention of the greenhouse effect the Netherlands has a clear stand. The greenhouse effect will occur anyway, even if countries deploy all possible counter measures at once. So their aim is to prevent the occurrence of the greenhouse effect to the highest extent possible, and to protect the most vulnerable areas meanwhile, especially the coastal zones. In order to reach these goals the Dutch government has established a Joint Implementation Experimental Programme in accordance with the provisions made by the Conference of Parties in Berlin (1995).

  2. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1999-01-01

    The paper outlines the recent development status of nuclear power plants in China and introduces the main design characteristics and nuclear safety features of the Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR). During the review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report some important subjects have been proposed by the China National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA). More detailed research for the answer has been done. The main analysis results for (1) Reactor Shut-down System, (2) Decay Heat Removal System and (3) Fuel Subassembly Blockage as three examples are given in this paper. The CEFR is still in the detail design stage. Its site is almost ready for the construction of the main building. It is planned to have the first pouring of concrete in June, 1999, but it depends on the license issued by the NNSA. (author)

  3. Singapore Technologies Electronics——Committed to Growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ About ST Electronics Headquartered in Singapore,ST Electronics has almost 40 years of experience providing electronics,communications,ICT(Information Communications Technologies)and IT(Information Technologies)solutions to governments and commercial enterorises worldwide.

  4. Education and training in nuclear technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junming

    2007-01-01

    The sustained and rapid economic growth and continuous upgrading of people's living standards in China has posed great demand to energy and power supply, which creates a rare opportunity for developing nuclear power and the industry. For the sake of meeting energy needs, adjusting energy mix and protecting environment, the Chinese government has adjusted the principle for nuclear power development from the previous moderate development to the present actively pushing forward. Nuclear power has been taken into the national electricity development planning as an integral component of China's national energy strategy. The portion of nuclear in energy supply will progressively increase through phased development. Nuclear power will become an important pillar in the power supply of the coastal area where economy is developed and demand on electricity high. According to preliminary plan, the installed capacity of nuclear power will reach 40 GWe by 2020, accounting for about 4% of the total installed capacity of electric power nationwide. Nuclear power is going to play a more important role in China's power development in years to come. And developing nuclear power is an important step toward optimizing energy mix, protecting the environment and achieving sustainable development. (author)

  5. Identification of key oil refining technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haiyan; Yu Jianning; Xu Jian; Fan Yu; Bao Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the project 'Vision of the Key Petroleum Refining Technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC) in the Early 21st Century' undertaken by the Department of R and D Administration, CNPC, and its affiliate key laboratory, The Key Laboratory of Catalysis operated by China University of Petroleum, Beijing. The objective of the project was to identify the challenges and opportunities of CNPC's petroleum refining business given increasing economy globalization and stricter environmental regulations. Using the modified Delphi method, four key technologies for CNPC's oil refining industry were identified. They are: integrated fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydroprocessing, residue hydrocracking, and high-grade lubricant production. The most significant technology will be the integrated FCC technology that can economically increase the yield of light fractions as well as upgrade transportation fuels. In China, FCC units produce about 80% and 30% commercial gasoline and diesel, respectively. To ensure compliance with future environmental legislation, hydroprocessing technologies, including those related to petroleum product hydrorefining and distillate hydrocracking, should be developed. By combining residue hydrocracking and FCC technologies, poorer quality residua can be processed. Supplying high-grade lube oils is one of the main tasks for CNPC's oil refining industry. Development of hydrodewaxing technologies to manufacture API group II/III base oil is the main direction for CNPC's lubricant production business

  6. Plug-and-actuate on demand: multimodal individual addressability of microarray plates using modular hybrid acoustic wave technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Amgad R; Ramesan, Shwathy; Yeo, Leslie Y

    2018-01-30

    The microarray titre plate remains a fundamental workhorse in genomic, proteomic and cellomic analyses that underpin the drug discovery process. Nevertheless, liquid handling technologies for sample dispensing, processing and transfer have not progressed significantly beyond conventional robotic micropipetting techniques, which are not only at their fundamental sample size limit, but are also prone to mechanical failure and contamination. This is because alternative technologies to date suffer from a number of constraints, mainly their limitation to carry out only a single liquid operation such as dispensing or mixing at a given time, and their inability to address individual wells, particularly at high throughput. Here, we demonstrate the possibility for true sequential or simultaneous single- and multi-well addressability in a 96-well plate using a reconfigurable modular platform from which MHz-order hybrid surface and bulk acoustic waves can be coupled to drive a variety of microfluidic modes including mixing, sample preconcentration and droplet jetting/ejection in individual or multiple wells on demand, thus constituting a highly versatile yet simple setup capable of improving the functionality of existing laboratory protocols and processes.

  7. Rapid Development of Drilling Technology and Market of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guanqing; Ni Rongfu

    1994-01-01

    @@ China's developing drilling market Now, CNPC is the owner of more than 1 000 rigs of large and medium size, including imported electric-drive rigs with 6 000 to 9 000 m drilling capacity, imported mechanical drive rigs with 5 000 to 6 000 m drilling capacity, imported mobile rigs with 1 500 to 3 000 m drilling capacity and a lot of home-made mechanical rigs with 2 000,3 200, 4 500 and 6 000m drilling capacity, which can meet the requirement of the domestic and foreign drilling market.

  8. The Philosophy of Science and Technology in China: Political and Ideological Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanlin

    2014-01-01

    In China, the philosophy of science and technology (PST) is derived from "Dialectics of Nature" (DN), which is based on Engels' unfinished book "Dialektik der Natur." DN as a political ideology provides political guidance for scientists and engineers. Therefore, since 1981, "Introduction to Dialectics of Nature" (IDN)…

  9. Learning Design and Technology through Social Networks for High School Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Tang, MingXi; Peng, Xiang; Liu, Xiaoli

    2018-01-01

    The subject of design and technology was introduced to the curriculum for high schools in China 10 years ago. However, the teaching and learning of this subject have become difficult for both teachers and students because there is a lack of qualified teachers with design background to deliver this subject in a way to stimulate the learning…

  10. Entrepreneurship, technological progress and resource allocation efficiency: a case of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, B.; Li, Z.; Vinig, T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the role of entrepreneurship in promoting China's technological progress and efficiency improvement during the economic reform process of the past two decades. The paper contributes to our understanding of the drivers of economic

  11. Wind energy technology development and diffusion. A case study of Inner Mongolia, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiliang; Gu Shuhua; Liu Wenqiang; Lin Gan

    1999-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the diffusion of small household wind generators and development of wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China, with the emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. It analyses the patterns of wind technology diffusion within social, economic, and environmental contexts and relates the diffusion of wind technology to institutional framework building and international investment and technology transfer. By examining the economics of windfarm development and analysing the role of alternative policy instruments, the major constraints of wind technology development are analysed and relevant policy recommendations are given. 12 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Singapore Technologies Electronics——Committed to Growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ About STElectronics Headquartered in Singapore, ST Electronics has almost 40 years of experience providing electronics, communications and ICT (information communications technologies) solutions to governments and commercial enterprises worldwide.

  13. A Response to the Commentary Entitled: “Addressing the Shortage of Health Professionals in Rural China: Issues and Progress”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal problems of healthcare services in China are “difficulty in seeing a doctor”and “high expense of getting medical service” (commonly known in Chinese as “kan bing nan, kan bing gui”. The central Chinese government has already launched the bottom-up cascading medical system and two-way referral system recently in order to solve these problems (1. Only when patients go to medical institutions in an orderly fashion, can we see the hope of breaking the kan bing nan, kan bing gui (2. However, we face a number of obstacles when implementing the referral policies. The biggest obstacle is the lack of Human Resource (HR for primary care both in capacity and volume (3. The central Chinese government has launched a series of policies to deal with the shortage of HRs in rural areas. Profound measurements involve postgraduate training for General Practitioner (GP (a three-year plan beginning in 2010 for producing health professionals for rural areas and improving rural retention, “3+2” medical education model (3-year diploma education and 2-year postgraduate GP training, and in-service training for physicians in rural areas (4. It is not the time to assess their effectiveness, however, these measurements are certain to improve the capacity of Community Health Service (CHS institutions.

  14. Analysis of Global CCS Technology, Regulations and Its Potential for Emission Reduction with Focus on China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the development of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology, the progress in CCS demonstration projects, and regulations and policies related to CCS. Barriers and limitations for the large-scale deployment of CCS are discussed. CCS and different technological solutions for emission reduction (e.g., energy conservation and renewable energy) are compared. The analysis shows that China should carefully evaluate the negative impacts of CCS deployment and needs to enhance ...

  15. Analysis and outlook of applications of blockchain technology to equity crowdfunding in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Huasheng; Zhou, Zach Zhizhong

    2016-01-01

    Equity crowdfunding via the Internet is a new channel of raising money for startups. It features low barriers to entry, low cost, and high speed, and thus encourages innovation. In recent years, equity crowdfunding in China has experienced some developments. However, some problems remain unsolved in practice. Blockchain is a decentralized and distributed ledger technology to ensure data security, transparency, and integrity. Because it cannot be tampered with or forged, the technology is deem...

  16. Early Pleistocene occurrence of Acheulian technology in North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xingwen; Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Shan; Huang, Weiwen; Hou, Yamei; Zhang, Weihua; An, Zhisheng

    2017-01-01

    Acheulian tools with their associated level of cognizance heralded a major threshold in the evolution of hominin technology, culture and behavior. Thus, unraveling occurrence ages of Acheulian technology across different regions worldwide constitutes a key aspect of understanding the archeology of

  17. A Review on New Technological Progress for Beneficiation of Refractory Phosphate Ore in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xu; Siqing, Liu; Yanqing, Yao; Hailin, Liu; Yi, Pei

    2017-05-01

    The world is rich in phosphate resources, but the vast majority of the resources are of middle and low grade ores, and it is difficult to obtain high grade concentrate at a high recovery by using traditional separation methods. In this paper, the distribution and flotation processes of typical phosphate ores in China are introduced. Considering the current situation in phosphate ore beneficiation both home and abroad, the new trend of processing technology and reagents in China are summarized. Flotation is still regarded as the main processing method in phosphate ore beneficiation for a certain time in near future.

  18. Singapore Technologies Electronics——Committed to Growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ About ST Electronics Headquartered in Singapore, ST Electronics has almost 40 years of experience providing electronics, communications and ICT (information communications technologies) solutions to governments and commercial enterprises worldwide.

  19. Singapore Technologies Electronics——Committed to Growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ About ST Electronics Headquartered in Singapore,ST Electronics has almost 40 years of experience providing electronics,communications and ICT (information communications technologies) solutions to governments and commercial enterprises worldwide.

  20. Singapore Technologies Electronics——Committed to Growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ About ST Electronics Headquartered in Singapore,ST Electronics has almost 40 years of experience providing electronics,communications and ICT(information communications technologies)solutions to governments and commercial enterprises worldwide.

  1. Governing Technological Entrepreneurship in China and the West

    OpenAIRE

    Junbo, Y.; Stough, R.R.; Nijkamp, P.

    2008-01-01

    China’s effort in the past two decades to develop technological entrepreneurship by means of establishing science parks and business incubators is unique in terms of both its large scale and the speed with which this has been achieved. This paper attempts to contribute on the understanding of China’s technological entrepreneurship promotion programs by positioning their policies and practice against an international context where the governance model appears to show much variation. Distinctiv...

  2. International and intranational technological spillovers and productivity growth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Xiaolan; Gong, Yundan

    2009-01-01

    Technological spillovers from foreign direct investment (FDI) have been regarded as a major source of technical progress and productivity growth. This paper explores the role of international and intranational technological spillovers from FDI in technical change, efficiency improvement, and total factor productivity growth in Chinese manufacturing firms using a recent Chinese manufacturing firm-level panel data set over the 2001–05 period. International industry-specific research and develop...

  3. Korea-China Joint R and D on Doppler Lidar Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, S. O.; Yang, K. H.; Song, I. K.

    2009-03-01

    Doppler lidar technology is to monitor atmospheric wind velocity by measuring the light scattering signals between a laser and aerosol particles or molecules existing in the atmosphere. When the particles (or molecules) in the atmosphere are moving by wind force, the frequency of backscattering light is shifted by doppler effect, so that the wind velocity profile can be obtained by measurement of the shifted frequencies. When the laser radiation is scanned in four different direction, three dimensional wind profiles are obtained. The Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics under the China Academy of Sciences has developed and operated the doppler lidar system for long time. In this project we want to developed a new technologies adopted to the chinese doppler system and to test the updated In the process of collaboration between China and Korea research teams, we want to learn the state-of-art technology involved in the doppler lidar system

  4. Comparison of China-US Engineering Ethics Educations in Sino-Western Philosophies of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gui Hong

    2015-12-01

    Ethics education has become essential in modern engineering. Ethics education in engineering has been increasingly implemented worldwide. It can improve ethical behaviors in technology and engineering design under the guidance of the philosophy of technology. Hence, this study aims to compare China-US engineering ethics education in Sino-Western philosophies of technology by using literature studies, online surveys, observational researches, textual analyses, and comparative methods. In my original theoretical framework and model of input and output for education, six primary variables emerge in the pedagogy: disciplinary statuses, educational goals, instructional contents, didactic models, teaching methods, and edificatory effects. I focus on the similarities and differences of engineering ethics educations between China and the U.S. in Chinese and Western philosophies of technology. In the field of engineering, the U.S. tends toward applied ethics training, whereas China inclines toward practical moral education. The U.S. is the leader, particularly in the amount of money invested and engineering results. China has quickened its pace, focusing specifically on engineering labor input and output. Engineering ethics is a multiplayer game effected at various levels among (a) lower level technicians and engineers, engineering associations, and stockholders; (b) middle ranking engineering ethics education, the ministry of education, the academy of engineering, and the philosophy of technology; and (c) top national and international technological policies. I propose that professional engineering ethics education can play many important roles in reforming engineering social responsibility by international cooperation in societies that are becoming increasingly reliant on engineered devices and systems. Significantly, my proposals contribute to improving engineering ethics education and better-solving engineering ethics issues, thereby maximizing engineering

  5. Agreement on technology? Exploring the political feasibility of technology-oriented agreements and their compatibility with cap-and-trade approaches to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Bakker, S.; Van der Zwaan, B.; Junginger, M.; Kuik, O.; Massey, E.

    2007-11-01

    Climate change has been on the international policy agenda since the UNFCCC was agreed in 1992. The Kyoto Protocol was the UNFCCC's answer to the call for measures and has been effective in establishing an international carbon market and reducing emissions in some countries and regions. A follow-up of the Kyoto Protocol is currently under discussion. In theory, the economically most efficient form of a global agreement is a global cap-and-trade agreement. It remains highly uncertain whether an effective global climate regime fully founded on another cap-and-trade type of agreement is politically feasible. In addition, it has been suggested that a new agreement would have to be more effective in promoting technology development and diffusion. This report explores the compatibility of a cap-and trade regime with a different form of international agreements to address climate change: technology-oriented agreements (TOAs)

  6. Bridging the digital divide in health care: the role of health information technology in addressing racial and ethnic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Lenny; Green, Alexander R; Tan-McGrory, Aswita; King, Roderick; Betancourt, Joseph R

    2011-10-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health care have been consistently documented in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of many common clinical conditions. There has been an acceleration of health information technology (HIT) implementation in the United States, with health care reform legislation including multiple provisions for collecting and using health information to improve and monitor quality and efficiency in health care. Despite an uneven and generally low level of implementation, research has demonstrated that HIT has the potential to improve quality of care and patient safety. If carefully designed and implemented, HIT also has the potential to eliminate disparities. Several root causes for disparities are amenable to interventions using HIT, particularly innovations in electronic health records, as well as strategies for chronic disease management. Recommendations regardinghealth care system, provider, and patient factors can help health care organizations address disparities as they adopt, expand, and tailor their HIT systems. In terms of health care system factors, organizations should (1) automate and standardize the collection of race/ethnicity and language data, (2) prioritize the use of the data for identifying disparities and tailoring improvement efforts, (3) focus HIT efforts to address fragmented care delivery for racial/ethnic minorities and limited-English-proficiency patients, (4) develop focused computerized clinical decision support systems for clinical areas with significant disparities, and (5) include input from racial/ethnic minorities and those with limited English proficiency in developing patient HIT tools to address the digital divide. As investments are made in HIT, consideration must be given to the impact that these innovations have on the quality and cost of health care for all patients, including those who experience disparities.

  7. Analyzing the causes of urban waterlogging and sponge city technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yun-Fang; Dong, Wen-Yi; Lin, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    With the rapid development of social economy in China, increased urban population, and rapid urbanization cause serious problems, for example, a heavy rain in the city inevitably leads to waterlogging, which poses a great threat to the livelihood and property security. Disaster due to urban flood is a key problem that restricts the development of urban ecology in China. The reason is the sharp increase of impermeable surface ratio in urban areas, leading to a decrease in rainfall infiltration and increase in surface runoff. To effectively solve the urban waterlogging, China proposed the construction of sponge city. This paper analyzes and summarizes the reasons for the formation of urban waterlogging, and introduces the concept of the sponge city technology to prevent waterlogging.

  8. Effects of solar photovoltaic technology on the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liqiang; Zhang, Yajuan

    2017-10-01

    Among the various types of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic has elicited the most attention because of its low pollution, abundant reserve, and endless supply. Solar photovoltaic technology generates both positive and negative effects on the environment. The environmental loss of 0.00666 yuan/kWh from solar photovoltaic technology is lower than that from coal-fired power generation (0.05216 yuan/kWh). The negative effects of solar photovoltaic system production include wastewater and waste gas pollutions, the representatives of which contain fluorine, chromium with wastewater and hydrogen fluoride, and silicon tetrachloride gas. Solar panels are also a source of light pollution. Improper disposal of solar cells that have reached the end of their service life harms the environment through the stench they produce and the damage they cause to the soil. So, the positive and negative effects of green energy photovoltaic power generation technology on the environment should be considered.

  9. Report on the 10th anniversary of international drug discovery science and technology conference, 8 - 10 november 2012, nanjing, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jeremy R

    2013-03-01

    The 10th Anniversary of International Drug Discovery Science and Technology (IDDST) Conference was held in Nanjing, China from 8 to 10 November 2012. The conference ran in parallel with the 2nd Annual Symposium of Drug Delivery Systems. Over 400 delegates from both conferences came together for the Opening Ceremony and Keynote Addresses but otherwise pursued separate paths in the huge facilities of the Nanjing International Expo Centre. The IDDST was arranged into 19 separate Chapters covering drug discovery biology, target validation, chemistry, rational drug design, pharmacology and toxicology, drug screening technology, 'omics' technologies, analytical, automation and enabling technologies, informatics, stem cells and regenerative medicine, bioprocessing, generics, biosimilars and biologicals and seven disease areas: cancer, CNS, respiratory and inflammation, autoimmune, emerging infectious, bone and orphan diseases. There were also two sessions of a 'Bench to Bedside to Business' Program and a Chinese Scientist programme. In each period of the IDDST conference, up to seven sessions were running in parallel. This Meeting Highlight samples just a fraction of the content of this large meeting. The talks included have as a link, the use of new approaches to drug discovery. Many other excellent talks could have been highlighted and the author has necessarily had to be selective.

  10. The Mechanism for Organising and Propelling Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqian, Liu; Dongyuan, Cheng; Xinli, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Having started early in the 1920s as a spontaneously launched educational activity by civil organisations under the influence of American audio-visual theory and practice, Chinese educational technology was later put under governmental management. This paper is composed of five parts covering mainly the historical development of educational…

  11. China, the United States, and competition for resources that enable emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Andrew L.; Nassar, Nedal T.; Xun, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Historically, resource conflicts have often centered on fuel minerals (particularly oil). Future resource conflicts may, however, focus more on competition for nonfuel minerals that enable emerging technologies. Whether it is rhenium in jet engines, indium in flat panel displays, or gallium in smart phones, obscure elements empower smarter, smaller, and faster technologies, and nations seek stable supplies of these and other nonfuel minerals for their industries. No nation has all of the resources it needs domestically. International trade may lead to international competition for these resources if supplies are deemed at risk or insufficient to satisfy growing demand, especially for minerals used in technologies important to economic development and national security. Here, we compare the net import reliance of China and the United States to inform mineral resource competition and foreign supply risk. Our analysis indicates that China relies on imports for over half of its consumption for 19 of 42 nonfuel minerals, compared with 24 for the United States—11 of which are common to both. It is for these 11 nonfuel minerals that competition between the United States and China may become the most contentious, especially for those with highly concentrated production that prove irreplaceable in pivotal emerging technologies.

  12. Technical and economic assessments commercial success for IGCC technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, T.

    1998-01-01

    The experiences gained from several Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration plants operating in the US and Europe facilitate commercial success of this advanced coal-based power generation technology. However, commercialization of coal-based IGCC technology in the West, particularly in the US, is restricted due to the low price of natural gas. On the contrary, in China--the largest coal producer and consumer in the world--a lack of natural gas supply, strong demand for air pollution control and relatively low costs of manufacturing and construction provide tremendous opportunities for IGCC applications. The first Chinese IGCC demonstration project was initiated in 1994, and other potential IGCC projects are in planning. IGCC applications in re-powering, fuel switching and multi-generation also show a great market potential in China. However, questions for IGCC development in China remain; where are realistic opportunities for IGCC projects and how can these opportunities be converted into commercial success? The answers to these questions should focus on the Chinese market needs and emphasize economic benefits, not just clean, or power. High price of imported equipment, high financing costs, and the technical risk of first-of-a-kind installation barricade IGCC development in China. This paper presents preliminary technical and economic assessments for four typical IGCC applications in the Chinese marketplace: central power station, fuel switching, re-powering, and multi-generation. The major factors affecting project economics--such as plant cost, financing, prices of fuel and electricity and operating capacity factor--are analyzed. The results indicate that well-proven technology for versatile applications, preferred financing, reduction of the plant cost, environmental superiority and appropriate project structure are the key for commercial success of IGCC in China

  13. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  14. Current status and application of fine screening technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, E. V.; Chernov, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents data on the design and technical parameters of high frequency vibrating screens, which are produced by Chinese manufacturer - company Landsky Tech Ltd. The technology of high frequency vibration is widely used at mining and metallurgical industries to separate fine and ultra-fine particles from the flow of dry material or pulp. The paper contains different types of screening systems, description, advantages and disadvantages of equipment and test results from mineral processing plants.

  15. Construction and Development of CRM Technology and Industry Chain in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunnian; Wang, Yonglong; Pan, Qin

    CRM is any application or initiative designed to help an organization optimize interactions with customers, suppliers, or prospects via one or more touch points. CRM has been interpreted and used in different ways by researchers in the various disciplines and researchers have identified a variety of technologies related to CRM. This paper highlights the implementation from the technology level and contributes to some successful factors in CRM application. The development of CRM is not fully developed in China. There are many critical factors that determine the CRM market development. Construction and development of CRM industry chain in China is a valuable research field and the paper provided some suggestions and analyses on it. In future, it requires our joint efforts of many aspects from every walk of life to make sure that CRM industry chain can improve and maturate gradually.

  16. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.

    2003-01-01

    The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years

  17. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We outline the differences of Chinese MSW characteristics from Western MSW. ► We model the requirements of four clusters of plant owner/operators in China. ► We examine the best technology fit for these requirements via a matrix. ► Variance in waste input affects result more than training and costs. ► For China technology adaptation and localisation could become push, not pull factors. - Abstract: Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don’t sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no ‘best’ plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four

  18. Advances on application of remote sensing technology to uranium prospecting in northwest of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Fawang; Liu Dechang; Zhao Yingjun; Zhang Jielin; Fang Maolong

    2012-01-01

    Some advances on application of remote sensing technology to uranium prospecting in northwest of China since 21st century are presented in this paper. They included: (1) application of ETM multi-spectral remote sensing technology to identify the sandstone-type uranium ore-controlling structure in north of Ordos Basin and investigate the uranium metallogenetic geological conditions in Qiangtang Basin, Tibet, (2) application of ASTER multi-spectral and QuickBird high spatial resolution remote sensing technology to extract and analyze the oil-gas reduced alteration in Bashibulake uranium ore district, Xinjiang, (3) discovery of Salamubulake uranium metallogenetic belt in Keping, Xinjiang, using ASTER multi-spectral, QuickBird high spatial resolution, and CASI/SASI airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing comprehensively, and (4) application of CASI/SASI airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing technology to extract volcanicrock type uranium mineralization alteration in Baiyanghe area, Xinjiang. These application advances show the good application effects of remote sensing technology to uranium exploration in northwest of China, which provides important references for making further uranium prospecting using remote sensing technology. (authors)

  19. Application countermeasures of non-incineration technologies for medical waste treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Ding, Qiong; Yang, Xiaoling; Peng, Zhengyou; Xu, Diandou; Feng, Qinzhong

    2013-12-01

    By the end of 2012, there were 272 modern, high-standard, centralized medical waste disposal facilities operating in various cities in China. Among these facilities nearly 50% are non-incineration treatment facilities, including the technologies of high temperature steam, chemical disinfection and microwave. Each of the non-incineration technologies has its advantages and disadvantages, and any single technology cannot offer a panacea because of the complexity of medical waste disposal. Although non-incineration treatment of medical waste can avoid the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans, it is still necessary to decide how to best meet the local waste management needs while minimizing the impact on the environment and public health. There is still a long way to go to establish the sustainable application and management mode of non-incineration technologies. Based on the analysis of typical non-incineration process, pollutant release, and the current tendency for technology application and development at home and abroad, this article recommends the application countermeasures of non-incineration technologies as the best available techniques and best environmental practices in China.

  20. The status of fast reactor technology development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes recent status and trends on Chinese national economy, electrical power capacity and nuclear power development. The preliminary design of the CEFR has been approved by the State Science and Technology Commission. Now it is in the detail design stage. It is planned that the first pot of concrete will be in April of 1999, in the end of 2000 the reactor building construction will be finished and the first criticality of the reactor will be envisaged in July 2003. The brief of preliminary design, analysis results of some beyond design basic accidents and design basic accidents, CEFR research works, and international cooperation are presented in the paper. (author)

  1. Transfer of Telegraph Technology to China: The Role of The Great northern Telegraph Company 1870-1890

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    This report examines the historical events surrounding the introduction of telegraph technology in China by the Danish Great Northern Telegraph Company. It describes the influence of Great Northern on diplomatic relations between Denmark and China during the decades of the 1870s and 1880s......, and the contributions in terms of the establishment of telegraph schools and development of a Chinese telegraph code that this company made as part of the technology transfer process....

  2. Lifestyles, technology and CO2 emissions in China. A regional comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Guan, Dabo

    2009-01-01

    With rapid economic development, higher income levels, urbanization and other socio-economic drivers, people's lifestyles in China have changed remarkably over the last 50 years. This paper uses the IPAT model (where I = Impact representing CO 2 emissions, P = Population, A = Affluence, and T = emission intensity) to analyze how these main drivers contributed to the growth of CO 2 emissions over this time period. Affluence or lifestyle change has been variously recognized as one of the key factors contributing to CO 2 emissions. Through comparative analysis of the development of five regions in China, we trace lifestyle changes since the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949 until 2002. We find that household consumption across the five regions follows similar trajectories, driven by changes in income and the increasing availability of goods and services, although significant differences still exist between and within regions due to differential policies in China and different possibilities for social mobility. There are considerable differences between the southeast and northwest and between urban and rural areas. We also found that technological improvements have not been able to fully compensate for the increase of emissions due to population growth and increasing wealth, which is also in line with results from other studies. Finally, this paper emphasizes that developing countries such as China, which is home to 22% of the world population and a growing middle class, and which is on a fast track to modernization, need to ensure that people's lifestyles are changing towards more sustainable ways of living. China has been investing heavily in infrastructure and thus creating the emissions of tomorrow. Thus investing, for example, in public transport and low energy building today will help reduce emissions in the future and will support more sustainable lifestyles. (author)

  3. CANDU flexible and economical fuel technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingjun, C. [CNNC Nuclear Power Operation Management Co., Zhejiang (China); Zhenhua, Z.; Zhiliang, M. [CNNC Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co., Zhejiang (China); Cottrell, C.M.; Kuran, S. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Use in CANDU reactor is one good option of recycled uranium (RU) and thorium (Th) resource. It is also good economy to CANDU fuel. Since 2008 Qinshan CANDU Plant and our partners (Candu Energy and CNNC and NPIC) have made great efforts to develop the engineering technologies of Flexible and Economical Fuel (RU and Th) in CANDU type reactor and finding the CANDU's position in Chinese closed fuel cycle (CFC) system. This paper presents a proposal of developing strategy and implementation plan. Qinshan CANDU reactors will be converted to use recycled and depleted uranium based fuels, a first-of-its-kind. The fuel is composed of both recycled and depleted uranium and simulating natural uranium behavior. This paper discusses its development, design, manufacture and verification tested with success and the full core implementation plan by the end of 2014. (author)

  4. Significance, progress and prospects for research in simplified cultivation technologies for rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M; Ibrahim, Md; Xia, B; Zou, Y

    2011-08-01

    Simplified cultivation technologies for rice have become increasingly attractive in recent years in China because of their social, economical and environmental benefits. To date, several simplified cultivation technologies, such as conventional tillage and seedling throwing (CTST), conventional tillage and direct seeding (CTDS), no-tillage and seedling throwing (NTST), no-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS) and no-tillage and transplanting (NTTP), have been developed in China. Most studies have shown that rice grown under each of these simplified cultivation technologies can produce a grain yield equal to or higher than traditional cultivation (conventional tillage and transplanting). Studies that have described the influences of agronomic practices on yield formation of rice under simplified cultivation have demonstrated that optimizing agronomy practices would increase the efficiencies of simplified cultivation systems. Further research is needed to optimize the management strategies for CTST, CTDS and NTST rice which have developed quickly in recent years, to strengthen basic research for those simplified cultivation technologies that are rarely used at present (such as NTTP and NTDS), to select and breed cultivars suitable for simplified cultivation and to compare the practicability and effectiveness of different simplified cultivation technologies in different rice production regions.

  5. Do External or Internal Technology Spillovers Have a Stronger Influence on Innovation Efficiency in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionghe Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we bridge an important gap in the literature by comparing the extent to which external technology spillovers, as indicated by foreign direct investment (FDI, and internal technology spillovers, as indicated by university-institute-industry cooperation (UIC, influence innovation efficiency in China. We divide the innovation process into two sequential stages, namely the knowledge creation and technology commercialization stages, and employ a network data envelopment analysis approach to measure innovation efficiency at each stage. The spatial analysis of the distribution of knowledge creation efficiency and technology commercialization efficiency reveals the heterogeneity of innovation efficiency at the provincial level. Then, a panel data regression is used to analyze the effect of FDI and UIC on innovation efficiency at each stage, using data from 2009 to 2015 for 30 provinces in China. By comparing FDI with UIC, we find that FDI has a higher coefficient and stronger significance level at the knowledge creation stage, while only industry-institute linkages exhibit a stronger association with innovation efficiency at the technology commercialization stage.

  6. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  7. Explaining technological change of wind power in China and the United States: Roles of energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian

    The following dissertation explains how technological change of wind power, in terms of cost reduction and performance improvement, is achieved in China and the US through energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration. The objective of this dissertation is to understand how energy policies affect key actors in the power sector to promote renewable energy and achieve cost reductions for climate change mitigation in different institutional arrangements. The dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay examines the learning processes and technological change of wind power in China. I integrate collaboration and technological learning theories to model how wind technologies are acquired and diffused among various wind project participants in China through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)--an international carbon trade program, and empirically test whether different learning channels lead to cost reduction of wind power. Using pooled cross-sectional data of Chinese CDM wind projects and spatial econometric models, I find that a wind project developer's previous experience (learning-by-doing) and industrywide wind project experience (spillover effect) significantly reduce the costs of wind power. The spillover effect provides justification for subsidizing users of wind technologies so as to offset wind farm investors' incentive to free-ride on knowledge spillovers from other wind energy investors. The CDM has played such a role in China. Most importantly, this essay provides the first empirical evidence of "learning-by-interacting": CDM also drives wind power cost reduction and performance improvement by facilitating technology transfer through collaboration between foreign turbine manufacturers and local wind farm developers. The second essay extends this learning framework to the US wind power sector, where I examine how state energy policies, restructuring of the electricity market, and learning among actors in wind industry lead to

  8. Biofuels development in China: Technology options and policies needed to meet the 2020 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhao, Lili; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides the assessment of potential technology pathways to achieve the 2020 target regarding their respective resource potential and supply cost. Barriers and policy options are identified based on broad literatures review. And an overview of biofuels projections is presented to provide insight into the comparison of various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from technology perspective. But she will probably fall far short of this target if current situations continue. Additional policy efforts are needed. Meanwhile, the target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved. However, if given support policies, it will develop better. - Highlights: ► I. Non-grain feedstocks such as cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato grown in low productive arable lands or unutilized lands have enough potential to meet ethanol targets in 2020. ► II. If current situations continue, China will fall far short of the 2020 target. ► III. The target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved, while, if given support policies, it will develop better. ► IV. Supply cost is one of the major barriers faced by all biofuels pathways. ► V. Various policy measures would be necessary to overcome the costs barriers to biofuels in China.

  9. Fusion reactor design and technology program in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid reactor program was launched in 1987. The purpose of development of the hybrid reactor is twofold: to solve the problem of nuclear fuel supply for an expected large-scale development of fission reactor plants, and to maintain the momentum of fusion research. The program is described and the activities and progress of the program are presented. Two conceptual designs of an engineering test reactor with tokamak configuration were developed at the Southwestern Institute of Physics and the Institute of Plasma Physics. The results are a tokamak engineering test breeder (TETB) series design and a fusion-fission hybrid reactor design (SSEHR), characterized by a liquid-Li self-cooled blanket and an He-cooled solid tritium breeder blanket respectively. In parallel with the design studies, relevant technological experiments on a small or medium scale have been supported by this program. These include LHCD, ICRH and pellet injection in the area of plasma engineering; neutronics integral experiments with U, Pu, Fe and Be; various irradiation tests of austenitic and ferritic steels, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop experiments using a liquid metal loop; research into permeation barriers for tritium and hydrogen isotopes; solid tritium breeder tests using an in-situ loop in a fission reactor. All these experiments have proceeded successfully. The second step of this program is now starting. It seems reasonable that most of the research carried out in the first step will continue. ((orig.))

  10. Investigating the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.

    2017-12-01

    Human's innovative abilities do not only enable rapid expansion of civilization, but also lead to enormous modifications on the natural environment. Technology, while a key factor embedded in socioeconomic developments, its impacts have been rarely appropriately considered in river basin management. This research aims to examine the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China, and how its characteristics interacted with the river basin environment. It adopts a content analysis approach to collect and summarize quantitative technological information in the Heihe River Basin across a time span of more than 2000 years from the Han Dynasty (206 BC) to 2015. Two Chinese academic research databases: Wan Fang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were chosen as data sources. The results show that irrigated agricultural technologies in Heihe River Basin have shifted from focusing on developing new farming tools and cultivation methods to adapting modernized, water-saving irrigation methods and water diversion infrastructures. In additions, the center of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe river basin has moved from downstream to middle stream since the Ming Dynasty (1368AD) as a result of degraded natural environment. The developing trend of technology in the Heihe River Basin thus coincides with the change of societal focus from agricultural production efficiency to the human-water balance and environmental remediation. This research demonstrates that irrigated agricultural technologies had a twisted evolutionary history in the Heihe River Basin, influenced by a diverse range of environmental and socioeconomic factors. It provides insights into the fact that technology exhibits a co-evolutionary characteristic with the social development history in the region, pointing towards the urgent need to maintain the balance between human and environment.

  11. A Vision of China-Arab Interconnection Transmission Network Planning with UHVDC Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Liu, Yujun; Yin, Hongyuan; Xu, Qingshan; Xu, Xiaohui; Ding, Maosheng

    2017-05-01

    Developments in ultra-high-voltage (UHV) power systems and clean energy technologies are paving the way towards unprecedented energy market globalization. In accordance with the international community’s enthusiasm for building up the Global Energy Internet, this paper focuses on the feasibility of transmitting large-size electricity from northwest China to Arab world through a long-distance transnational power interconnection. The complete investigations on the grids of both the sending-end and receiving-end is firstly presented. Then system configuration of the transmission scheme and corridor route planning is proposed with UHVDC technology. Based on transmission costs’ investigation about similar transmission projects worldwide, the costs of the proposed transmission scheme are estimated through adjustment factors which represent differences in latitude, topography and economy. The proposed China-Arab transmission line sheds light on the prospects of power cooperation and resource sharing between China and Arab states, and appeals for more emphasis on green energy concentrated power interconnections from a global perspective.

  12. Typical Underwater Tunnels in the Mainland of China and Related Tunneling Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairong Hong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many underwater tunnels have been constructed in the mainland of China, and great progress has been made in related tunneling technologies. This paper presents the history and state of the art of underwater tunnels in the mainland of China in terms of shield-bored tunnels, drill-and-blast tunnels, and immersed tunnels. Typical underwater tunnels of these types in the mainland of China are described, along with innovative technologies regarding comprehensive geological prediction, grouting-based consolidation, the design and construction of large cross-sectional tunnels with shallow cover in weak strata, cutting tool replacement under limited drainage and reduced pressure conditions, the detection and treatment of boulders, the construction of underwater tunnels in areas with high seismic intensity, and the treatment of serious sedimentation in a foundation channel of immersed tunnels. Some suggestions are made regarding the three potential great strait-crossing tunnels—the Qiongzhou Strait-Crossing Tunnel, Bohai Strait-Crossing Tunnel, and Taiwan Strait-Crossing Tunnel—and issues related to these great strait-crossing tunnels that need further study are proposed. Keywords: Underwater tunnel, Strait-crossing tunnel, Shield-bored tunnel, Immersed tunnel, Drill and blast

  13. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  14. The Digital Age of Mobile Cellular Network in Germany and China: Policies, Technologies and Markets (Part Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingtao Shi

    2009-01-01

    The German Postal Reform Ⅰ in 1989 introduced competition in the mobile cellular market. German cellular operators, DeTeMobil, Mannesmann, E-Plus and VIAG Interkom, built D1-, D2-, El-and E2-Netze based on GSM standards made in Europe. China Unicom was created in 1994 and China Telecom was separated from MPT in 1995. China Telecom and China Unicom competed in a duopoly from the mid-1990s onwards and the cellular services provided by them also rely on GSM standards. China Telecom additionally deployed XLT technology (PHS) from the late 1990s onwards. While DeTeMobil and Mannesmann conquered approximately 80%-90% of the market throughout the 1990s and were the two dominant market players in Germany, China's cellular market was mainly controlled by China Mobile. In Germany, prices related to cellular technology continued the downwards trend as a major result of the process of deregulation, liberalisation and competition. In China, price wars had led to significant price reductions in the cellular market. Although network operators in both countries strived to deliver differentiated cellular services, the two national markets in the 1990s were visibly shaped by product homogeneity.

  15. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinrong, Z. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, (China). Department of Isotopes

    1997-10-01

    The research and applications of isotope technology and radiation sources in China are presented. Many effort were directed towards production of radiopharmaceuticals, radiation sources, radiation treatment and radioactive tracers. Reactor and accelerator produced radioisotopes contributed to and will further accelerate the development of nuclear medicine in China. Recently, much attention has been paid on tumor therapy mainly with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody, radiolabelled microsphere and colloid, bone-seeking agents, and radiolabelled Octreotide. Radioimmunoassay has been widely used with many convenient kits available. There are above 30 radioimmunoassay kit produces and more than 60 radioimmunoassay centers. Recently the advance is mainly in solid-phase separation process and in radioimmunoassay method, including some nonradioactive immunoassay methods, such as enzyme immunoassay, fluorescence immunoassay, and chemiluminescence immunoassay. Kits for enzyme immunoassay have been put into clinical use. Various radiation sources are produced for medical purposes and for use in nuclear power stations 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  16. The development and current status of the technology of isotope and radiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinrong, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The research and applications of isotope technology and radiation sources in China are presented. Many effort were directed towards production of radiopharmaceuticals, radiation sources, radiation treatment and radioactive tracers. Reactor and accelerator produced radioisotopes contributed to and will further accelerate the development of nuclear medicine in China. Recently, much attention has been paid on tumor therapy mainly with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody, radiolabelled microsphere and colloid, bone-seeking agents, and radiolabelled Octreotide. Radioimmunoassay has been widely used with many convenient kits available. There are above 30 radioimmunoassay kit produces and more than 60 radioimmunoassay centers. Recently the advance is mainly in solid-phase separation process and in radioimmunoassay method, including some nonradioactive immunoassay methods, such as enzyme immunoassay, fluorescence immunoassay, and chemiluminescence immunoassay. Kits for enzyme immunoassay have been put into clinical use. Various radiation sources are produced for medical purposes and for use in nuclear power stations

  17. Seizing the strategic opportunities of emerging technologies by building up innovation system: monoclonal antibody development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mao-Yu; Li, Jian; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2015-11-04

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as an emerging technology, have become increasingly important in the development of human therapeutic agents. How developing countries such as China could seize this emerging technological opportunity remains a poorly studied issue in prior literature. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the research and development of mAbs in China based on an innovation system functions approach and probes into the question of how China has been taking advantage of emerging technologies to overcome its challenges of building up a complete innovation system in developing mAbs. Mixed research methods were applied by combining archival data and field interviews. Archival data from the China Food and Drug Administration, Web of Science, the United States Patent and Trademark Office, the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the National Science and Technology Report Service were used to examine the status quo of the technology and research and development (R&D) activities in China, while the opinions of researchers and managers in this field were synthesized from the interviews. From the perspective of innovation system functions, technological development of mAb in China is being driven by incentives such as the subsidies from the State and corporate R&D funding. Knowledge diffusion has been well served over the last 10 years through exchanging information on networks and technology transfer with developed countries. The State has provided clear guidance on search of emerging mAb technologies. Legitimacy of mAb in China has gained momentum owing to the implementation of government policies stipulated in the "The Eleventh Five-year Plan" in 2007, as well as national projects such as the "973 Program" and "863 Program", among others. The potential of market formation stays high because of the rising local demand and government support. Entrepreneurial activities for mAb continue to prosper. In addition, the situation of resource supply has been improved

  18. Well-to-wheels life-cycle analysis of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wei; Han Weijian; Chock, David; Chai Qinhu; Zhang Aling

    2012-01-01

    A well-to-wheels life cycle analysis on total energy consumptions and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions for alternative fuels and accompanying vehicle technologies has been carried out for the base year 2010 and projected to 2020 based on data gathered and estimates developed for China. The fuels considered include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, liquid fuels from coal conversion, methanol, bio-ethanol and biodiesel, electricity and hydrogen. Use of liquid fuels including methanol and Fischer–Tropsch derived from coal will significantly increase GHG emissions relative to use of conventional gasoline. Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit because of the present highly inefficient agricultural practice and plant processing in China. Electrification of vehicles via hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle technologies offers a progressively improved prospect for the reduction of energy consumption and GHG emission. However, the long-term carbon emission reduction is assured only when the needed electricity is generated by zero- or low-carbon sources, which means that carbon capture and storage is a necessity for fossil-based feedstocks. A PHEV that runs on zero- or low-carbon electricity and cellulosic ethanol may be one of the most attractive fuel-vehicle options in a carbon-constrained world. - Highlights: ► Data and estimates unique to China are used in this analysis. ► Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit in China. ► Use of methanol derived from coal will incur even more carbon disbenefit. ► Plug-in-hybrid with cellulosic ethanol and clean electricity may be a viable option.

  19. The development of clean coal technology is the main way to control of atmospheric pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Lixin; Xu Hong [Clean Coal Engineering & Research Center of Coal Industry (China)

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution in China and its causes are analysed. Power stations, industrial boilers and kilns and domestic coal combustion are the main pollution sources. Clean coal technologies are urgently needed. Main clean coal technologies which can improve the present situation of industrial coal combustion are coal cleaning, blending and briquetting; boiler retrofitting; advanced technologies to improve combustion efficiency and reduce pollution - fluidized bed combustion and pulverized coal desulfurization; and advanced desulfurization and dedusting technologies and equipment.

  20. The Deployment of Low Carbon Technologies in Energy Intensive Industries: A Macroeconomic Analysis for Europe, China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nabernegg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes currently contribute 40% to global CO2 emissions and therefore substantial increases in industrial energy efficiency are required for reaching the 2 °C target. We assess the macroeconomic effects of deploying low carbon technologies in six energy intensive industrial sectors (Petroleum, Iron and Steel, Non-metallic Minerals, Paper and Pulp, Chemicals, and Electricity in Europe, China and India in 2030. By combining the GAINS technology model with a macroeconomic computable general equilibrium model, we find that output in energy intensive industries declines in Europe by 6% in total, while output increases in China by 11% and in India by 13%. The opposite output effects emerge because low carbon technologies lead to cost savings in China and India but not in Europe. Consequently, the competitiveness of energy intensive industries is improved in China and India relative to Europe, leading to higher exports to Europe. In all regions, the decarbonization of electricity plays the dominant role for mitigation. We find a rebound effect in China and India, in the size of 42% and 34% CO2 reduction, respectively, but not in Europe. Our results indicate that the range of considered low-carbon technology options is not competitive in the European industrial sectors. To foster breakthrough low carbon technologies and maintain industrial competitiveness, targeted technology policy is therefore needed to supplement carbon pricing.

  1. 77 FR 5864 - In the Matter of Along Mobile Technologies, Inc., and China Yingxia International, Inc., Order of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Along Mobile Technologies, Inc., and China Yingxia International, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading February 2, 2012. It... concerning the securities of Along Mobile Technologies, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  2. A Review on Development Practice of Smart Grid Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liu; Chen, Wei; Zhuang, Bo; Shen, Hongming

    2017-05-01

    Smart grid has become an inexorable trend of energy and economy development worldwide. Since the development of smart grid was put forward in China in 2009, we have obtained abundant research results and practical experiences as well as extensive attention from international community in this field. This paper reviews the key technologies and demonstration projects on new energy connection forecasts; energy storage; smart substations; disaster prevention and reduction for power transmission lines; flexible DC transmission; distribution automation; distributed generation access and micro grid; smart power consumption; the comprehensive demonstration of power distribution and utilization; smart power dispatching and control systems; and the communication networks and information platforms of China, systematically, on the basis of 5 fields, i.e., renewable energy integration, smart power transmission and transformation, smart power distribution and consumption, smart power dispatching and control systems and information and communication platforms. Meanwhile, it also analyzes and compares with the developmental level of similar technologies abroad, providing an outlook on the future development trends of various technologies.

  3. The energy consumption and environmental impacts of SCR technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zengying; Ma, Xiaoqian; Lin, Hai; Tang, Yuting [School of Electric Power, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Energy and environment are drawing greater attention today, particularly with the rapid development of the economy and increase consumption of energy in China. At present, coal-fired power plants are mainly responsible for atmospheric air pollution. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is a highly effective method for NO{sub X} control. The present study identified and quantified the energy consumption and the environmental impacts of SCR system throughout the whole life cycle, including production and transportation of manufacturing materials, installation and operation of SCR technology. The analysis was conducted with the utilization of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology which provided a quantitative basis for assessing potential improvements in the environmental performance of the system. The functional unit of the study was 5454 t NO{sub X} emission from an existing Chinese pulverized coal power plant for 1 year. The current study compared life cycle emissions from two types of de-NO{sub X} technologies, namely the SCR technology and the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, and the case that NO{sub X} was emitted into atmosphere directly. The results showed that the environmental impact loading resulting from SCR technology (66810 PET{sub 2000}) was smaller than that of flue gas emitted into atmosphere directly (164121 PET{sub 2000}) and SNCR technology (105225 PET{sub 2000}). More importantly, the SCR technology is much more effective at the elimination of acidification and nutrient enrichment than SNCR technology and the case that NO{sub X} emitted into atmosphere directly. This SCR technology is more friendly to the environment, and can play an important role in NO{sub X} control for coal-fired power plants as well as industrial boilers. (author)

  4. Science and Technology on China Onshore Petroleum Industry Towards 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Chengde; Liu Bingyi; Gao Chao

    1995-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation has paid great attention to improving its economy by developing its science and technology. It has 269 research institutes of various kinds. Over 43000 staff engaged in scientific and technical research and over13 000 large instruments and lab oratory apparatus. Since 1978, a total of 15 000 research projects have been completed which are generally met with the international standards of 1980s. And most of them have been popularized and applied in production and have played a significant role in pushing forward the develop ment of Chinese onshore petroleum industry and in improving the economy.

  5. The progresses of superconducting technology for power grid last decade in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Liye; Gu, Hong Wei

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing development of renewable energy, it is expected that large-scale renewable power would be transported from the west and north area of China to the east and south area. For this reason, it will be necessary to develop a wide-area power grid in which the renewable energy would be the dominant power source, and the power grid will be faced by some critical challenges such as long-distance large-capacity power transmission, the stability of the wide-area power grid and the land use problem for the power grid. The superconducting technology for power (STP) would be a possible alternative for the development of China’s future power grid. In last decade, STP has been extensively developed in China. In this paper, we present an overview of the R and D of STP last decade in China including: 1) the development of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, 2) DC power cables, 3) superconducting power substations, 4) fault current limiters and 5) superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES)

  6. The progresses of superconducting technology for power grid last decade in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Liye; Gu, Hong Wei [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2015-03-15

    With the increasing development of renewable energy, it is expected that large-scale renewable power would be transported from the west and north area of China to the east and south area. For this reason, it will be necessary to develop a wide-area power grid in which the renewable energy would be the dominant power source, and the power grid will be faced by some critical challenges such as long-distance large-capacity power transmission, the stability of the wide-area power grid and the land use problem for the power grid. The superconducting technology for power (STP) would be a possible alternative for the development of China’s future power grid. In last decade, STP has been extensively developed in China. In this paper, we present an overview of the R and D of STP last decade in China including: 1) the development of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, 2) DC power cables, 3) superconducting power substations, 4) fault current limiters and 5) superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES)

  7. China, Technology and the Spratly Islands: The Geopolitical Impact of New Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    implications of this contract for the United States are addressed below. 4 Statement by Chinese Premier Li Peng to Malaysian Defense Minister Mohamed Najib on 18...Malaysian Defense Minister Razak in Beijing. 13-15 December 1993 - Crestone Energy Corporation President Randall Thompson meets with Vietnamese

  8. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  9. The Data Age of Mobile Cellular Network in Germany and China: Policies, Technologies and Markets (Part Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Mingtao

    2009-01-01

    The UMTS auction in 2000 brought approximately 100 billion DM (Deutsche Mark) for the German National Treasury. T-Mobile (D1-Netz), Vodafone (D2-Netz), E-Plus (E1-Netz) and 02 (E2-Netz) have gradually evolved from GSM to full-fledged UMTS operators over the past years. The conglomerate of China Telecom was split twice. China acceded to WTO and promulgated the FITE Provisions. MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology) became the regulator and China Netcom was incorporated into China Unicorn in 2008. Most recently the layout of 3G future has been reconfirmed by MIIT. Voice service has remained the main source of income in both countries and operators have continued to focus on voice quality and network availability in their respective 2G networks. Because value-added and higher-speed data applications have been gaining market attention, 2.5G and 3G infrastructure has increasingly become the focal network strategy for the operators since the beginning of the new century. Germany has rolled out WCDMA/UMTS services on a large scale in the consumer market, while China has adopted all three 3G standards (TD-SCDMA, WCDMA/UMTS, CDMA2000), which shall gradually capture a wider 3G subscriber base. The summary shows that the development of the cellular technology and market in Germany and China can be discussed in three distinct historical periods. The conclusion suggests that the case of the cellular technology appears to be consistent with and applicable to a number of arguments widely disputed in economics and management related to technology and innovation, such as dominant design, technology waves/ S-Curve, disruptive technologies, Technology Adoption Life Cycle.

  10. Some strategic considerations on the development of advance nuclear fuel cycle technologies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhongmao

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the different fuel cycle options are analyzed from the view point of sustainable development of nuclear fission energy. It is pointed out that the 'once-through' option of fuel cycle does not comply with the sustainability of the nuclear energy development. For the sake of full utilization of uranium resources and the minimization of nuclear waste, the closed fuel cycle of fast breeder reactor is the fundamental way out for the sustainable development of nuclear fission energy. Based on the wide investigations on the present status and R and D trends of the key technologies of fuel cycle both at home and abroad, the strategy for developing China's fuel cycle technologies is explored, some important measures to be taken for achieving the above strategic goal are suggested. (authors)

  11. How energy technology innovation affects transition of coal resource-based economy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Pibin; Wang, Ting; Li, Dan; Zhou, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to investigate factors and mechanisms that may facilitate the transition from coal resource-based economy to sustainability. Based on the energy technology innovation theory, factors that may influence the transition of coal resource-based economy were categorized into four types, including: innovation policy, innovation input, innovation ability, and innovation organization. Hypotheses were proposed regarding the mechanisms of these factors. Data were collected from surveys administered to 314 Chinese energy firms, and a structural equation model (SEM) was employed to test the hypotheses. Ten of fifteen hypotheses were retained based on the reliability tests, validity tests, and SEM. The results show that the four proposed factors are crucial in transforming the coal resource-based economy, and the effects become statistically significant through three intermediate variables, namely, transition of energy consumption structure, correction of resource wealth investment, and improvement of transition environment. - Highlights: •Approximately, 66% of energy relies on coal in China. •Serious environment problems have occurred in many coal-based regions. •Energy technology innovation can promote the transition of coal-based economy. •China should accelerate the development of clean energy.

  12. Progress in researches on MOX fuel pellet producing technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaodan

    2010-01-01

    Being the key section of nuclear-fuel cycle, the producing technology of MOX(UO 2 -PuO 2 ) fuel had driven to maturity in France, England, Russia, Belgium, etc. MOX fuel had been applied in FBR and LWR successfully in those countries. With the rapidly developing of nuclear-generated power, the MOX fuel for FBR and LWR was active demanded in China. However, the producing technology of MOX fuel developed slowly. During the period of 'the seventh five year's project', MOX fuel pellet was produced by mechanically mixed method and oxalate deposited method, respectively. Parts of cool performance of MOX fuel pellet produced by oxalate deposited method reached the qualification of fuel for FBR. During the period of 'the ninth five year's project' and 'the tenth five year's project', the technical route of producing MOX fuel was determined, and the test line of producing MOX fuel was built preliminarily. In the same time, the producing technology and analyzing technology of MOX fuel pellet by mechanically mixed was studied roundly, and the representative analogue pellet(UO 2 -CeO 2 ) was produced. That settled the supporting technology for the commercial process and research of MOX fuel rod and MOX fuel module. (authors)

  13. Making Breakthroughs in the Turbulent Decade: China's Space Technology During the Cultural Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Dehui; Hu, Danian

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses why Chinese space programs were able to develop to the extent they did during the turbulent decade of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It first introduces briefly what China had accomplished in rocket and missile technology before the Cultural Revolution, including the establishment of a system for research and manufacturing, breakthroughs in rocket technology, and programs for future development. It then analyzes the harmful impacts of the Cultural Revolution on Chinese space programs by examining activities of contemporary mass factions in the Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry. In the third section, this article presents the important developments of Chinese space programs during the Cultural Revolution and explores briefly the significance of these developments for the future and overall progress in space technology. Finally, it discusses the reasons for the series of developments of Chinese space technology during the Cultural Revolution. This article concludes that, although the Cultural Revolution generated certain harmful impacts on the development of Chinese space technology, the Chinese essentially accomplished their scheduled objectives in their space program, both because of the great support of top Chinese leaders, including the officially disgraced Lin Biao and the Gang of Four, and due to the implementation of many effective special measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PREFACE: The 8th China International NanoScience and Technology Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Hailin

    2009-09-01

    The 8th China International NanoScience and Technology Symposium, Xiangtan (2009) - Nano-products Exposition, sponsored by Chinese Society of Miro-nanoTechnology and IEEE Nanotechnology Council, etc will be held on 23-27 October 2009 in Xiangtan, China. This symposium is held in order to promote the technology for the development of micro- and nano-scale, cross-scale integration, to share new micro/nano technologies, to exchange information and knowledge over all fields and promote the industrialization and development of nanotechnology. This is a leading professional and traditional conference with at least 400 participants every year. Famous experts, professors and government officials at home and abroad will give lectures during the symposium, which provides a good platform for delegates to discover the latest developments and dynamics of nanotechnology. Researchers, teachers and students in colleges, and technical personnel in the industrial community are welcome to contribute and actively participate in the symposium. In our last symposium held in 2008, over 600 participants from all over the world attended, and we received over 570 abstract and paper submissions for the proceedings published in different languages in famous professional journals. And this year, we have already received over 400 submissions. After strict peer review, 60 of them are published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are confident that the event will be even more successful this year. Consequently, the organizing committee and proceedings editorial committee would like to thank our colleagues at the IOP Publishing, the invited speakers, our sponsors and all the delegates for their great contributions in this conference. Hailin Cong Vice Chair of the proceedings editorial committee

  15. China general nuclear power corporation--The recent research and application of the modular technology in nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qinwu

    2014-01-01

    Modular design and construction is one of the distinctive features of the 3"r"d generation nuclear power technology. In order to promote the technological innovations in nuclear power engineering design and construction and develop the self-owned modular technology, China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN) has carried out the R and D and application of the modular technology based on the CPR1000-type nuclear power plants, and has made the national-level achievements in the establishment of modular design technology system, development of 3D modular design system and application of modular construction of containment steel liner in the demonstration projects. (author)

  16. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  17. The theory-practice gap of black carbon mitigation technologies in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weishi; Li, Aitong; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Junfeng

    2018-02-01

    Black carbon mitigation has received increasing attention for its potential contribution to both climate change mitigation and air pollution control. Although different bottom-up models concerned with unit mitigation costs of various technologies allow the assessment of alternative policies for optimized cost-effectiveness, the lack of adequate data often forced many reluctant explicit and implicit assumptions that deviate away from actual situations of rural residential energy consumption in developing countries, where most black carbon emissions occur. To gauge the theory-practice gap in black carbon mitigation - the unit cost differences that lie between what is estimated in the theory and what is practically achieved on the ground - this study conducted an extensive field survey and analysis of nine mitigation technologies in rural China, covering both northern and southern regions with different residential energy consumption patterns. With a special focus on two temporal characteristics of those technologies - lifetimes and annual utilization rates, this study quantitatively measured the unit cost gaps and explain the technical as well as sociopolitical mechanisms behind. Structural and behavioral barriers, which have affected the technologies' performance, are discussed together with policy implications to narrow those gaps.

  18. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-01

    Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the

  19. Research on the Synergy Degree of China Yangtze River Delta Region Technology Innovation System Evolution from the Perspective of Technology Innovation Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bin Feng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper divides technology innovation system into research and development input subsystem, technology research and development subsystem and technology application subsystem from the perspective of technology innovation chain, combining with the system theory. Then selects the corresponding ordinal variables, makes an empirical analysis to the synergy degree of Yangtze River delta regional technology innovation system evolution by complex system synergy degree model which based on the data of 2002-2009. The results show that the development of synergy degree of the technology innovation system appears a rising trend and the technology application subsystem is the key factor of direction and degree of synergy development in the evolution process of regional technology innovation system in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Finally, this paper analyzes the characteristics and causes of synergy degree’s evolution, and puts forward the corresponding policy recommendations to different problems.

  20. Technology and Sexuality--What's the Connection? Addressing Youth Sexualities in Efforts to Increase Girls' Participation in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To date, girls and women are significantly underrepresented in computer science and technology. Concerns about this underrepresentation have sparked a wealth of educational efforts to promote girls' participation in computing, but these programs have demonstrated limited impact on reversing current trends. This paper argues that this is, in part,…

  1. National Institute of Justice (NIJ): improving the effectiveness of law enforcement via homeland security technology improvements (Keynote Address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John S.

    2005-05-01

    Law enforcement agencies play a key role in protecting the nation from and responding to terrorist attacks. Preventing terrorism and promoting the nation"s security is the Department of Justice"s number one strategic priority. This is reflected in its technology development efforts, as well as its operational focus. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the national focal point for the research, development, test and evaluation of technology for law enforcement. In addition to its responsibilities in supporting day-to-day criminal justice needs in areas such as less lethal weapons and forensic science, NIJ also provides critical support for counter-terrorism capacity improvements in state and local law enforcement in several areas. The most important of these areas are bomb response, concealed weapons detection, communications and information technology, which together offer the greatest potential benefit with respect to improving the ability to law enforcement agencies to respond to all types of crime including terrorist acts. NIJ coordinates its activities with several other key federal partners, including the Department of Homeland Security"s Science and Technology Directorate, the Technical Support Working Group, and the Department of Defense.

  2. BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU! TO BE OR NOT TO BE ONLINE... OR SCREEN AS OUR OWN TECHNOLOGICAL ADDRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Maria Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to answer the question: how the screens are interposed between the subject and reality, in contexts of the New Technologies of Information and Communication, particularly in the case of television screens (in the reality show format and computer screens (by the profusion of social networks? Using the interpretative methodology, our goal is to take as a starting point the etymology of technic and technology to establish the technological nature of man’s relationship with reality. Once this premise is demonstrated, we will convene the Heideggerian concepts (dasein and ge-stell to interpret how the technology of the screen meets a social need for happiness that comes from the media in a world that re-discovers itself as iconic. Each of us is called upon, in our day-to-day life, to an important, special and urgent meeting with the representation of our own selves, against a screen, where will be its own place of happiness. We intend to assess whether ideologies are hiper-evaluated today, especially when translating reality into binary conceptions of the world, projecting dasein on the demand for unity (1, opposing it to failure (0, each time using the screen more like a mirror or a window, and forgetting its function as a ge-stell by making it a promotion, and not doing it as a way to discover dasein, but, instead, as the opening of the simulacra itself.

  3. Comparison of municipal solid waste treatment technologies from a life cycle perspective in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao; Huang, Qunxing; Ni, Mingjiang

    2014-01-01

    China has endured the increasing generation of municipal solid waste; hence, environmental analysis of current waste management systems is of crucial importance. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of three waste treatment technologies practiced in Hangzhou, China: landfill with and without energy recovery, and incineration with waste-to-energy. Adopting region-specific data, the study covers various environmental impacts, such as global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation, human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The results show that energy recovery poses a positive effect in environmental savings. Environmental impacts decrease significantly in landfill with the utilization of biogas owing to combined effects by emission reduction and electricity generation. Incineration is preferable to landfill, but toxicity-related impacts also need to be improved. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the benefit of carbon sequestration will noticeably decrease global warming potential of both landfill scenarios. Gas collection efficiency is also a key parameter influencing the performance of landfill. Based on the results, improvement methods are proposed. Energy recovery is recommended both in landfill and incineration. For landfill, gas collection systems should be upgraded effectively; for incineration, great efforts should be made to reduce heavy metals and dioxin emissions.

  4. Cold or hot wash: Technological choices, cultural change, and their impact on clothes-washing energy use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-01-01

    Usage pattern of clothes washing (and clothes washers) are strongly related to local cultural practices. Such practices have led to the development of distinctive clothes-washing technologies in the US, Europe, and Japan. In emerging markets such as China, several types of technologies often co-exist. Some use less energy but more water (the impeller type), and some use more energy but less water (the horizontal axis type). The competition between different technologies is thought to lead to better consumer choices. However, it could also lead to changes in clothes-washing habits-from cold to hot wash, and therefore to much higher energy use. This paper examines the standard development process in China to illustrate that adoption of foreign technologies and technical standards, if not carefully calibrated to the local cultural practices, could have unintended consequences for energy use and environment

  5. A proposal to address the governance of carbon capture and storage technologies in Spain: Trust, communication and public involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Sala, R.; Oltra, C.; Gamero, N.

    2007-07-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a process consisting of the separation of CO{sub 2} from industrial and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) considers it an option in the portfolio of mitigation actions for stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. But the widespread application of CCs would depend on different issues such as technical feasibility, regulatory aspects, environmental issues and public acceptability, CCS, in spite of being a very important and necessary technology for the mitigation of climate change, involves some risks that should be managed. When dealing with technologies that involve some kind of environmental or health risk, risk governance is a key part of the development and deployment process. (Author) 63 refs.

  6. The Relationships among Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematics, Mathematics Teaching, and Use of Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinrong; Leung, Frederick K. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated pre-service mathematics teachers' mathematics beliefs, beliefs about information and communication technology (ICT), and their relationships. 787 pre-service mathematics teachers in China completed a survey questionnaire measuring their beliefs about the nature of mathematics, beliefs about mathematics learning and…

  7. Some progress on radiation chemistry of substances of biological interests and biological applications of radiation technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Fang Xingwang

    1995-01-01

    Studies in China on the detection method of irradiated food, mechanism of DNA damage induced by peroxidation, radiolysis of natural products and herbs are reviewed on the update open literature, and some progress on applications of radiation technology is summarized. (author)

  8. Improving Evaluation to Address the Unintended Consequences of Health Information Technology:. a Position Paper from the Working Group on Technology Assessment & Quality Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrabi, F.; Ammenwerth, E.; Hyppönen, H.; de Keizer, N.; Nykänen, P.; Rigby, M.; Scott, P.; Talmon, J.; Georgiou, A.

    2016-01-01

    With growing use of IT by healthcare professionals and patients, the opportunity for any unintended effects of technology to disrupt care health processes and outcomes is intensified. The objectives of this position paper by the IMIA Working Group (WG) on Technology Assessment and Quality

  9. Review of production status of heavy steel castings and key technologies for their manufacture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Baicheng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper expatiates on domestic status of heavy steel casting production, with a special focus on hydraulic turbine castings for Three Gorges Project. In China, there is magnificent demand for heavy castings with the rapid growth of the national economy in recent years and the expected high growth in the coming 10 to 20 years. Some heavy and large castings such as mill housing and hydraulic turbine runner crown, blade and band for Three Gorges Project have been successfully made. However, the domestic production capability is still far from meeting the gigantic requirements. The domestic capability still lags behind the world class level, and a lot of heavy castings still depend on import. The paper also gives a particular introduction of the key technologies in the manufacturing of heavy steel castings like metal melting, foundry technology, heat treatment technology and numerical simulation technique, etc. In addition, several case studies on the application of numerical simulation in the production of heavy steel castings are presented.

  10. Social acceptance of solar energy technologies in China-End users' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xueliang; Zuo Jian; Ma Chunyuan

    2011-01-01

    Energy is essential to human beings. The increasing demand of energy has triggered the public scrutiny on the sustainability issues associated with the energy production and transmission. There have been a large number of studies focusing on reducing the environmental impacts associated with the energy sector. Renewable energy sources such as solar energy have been prompted to mitigate these environmental impacts. This research adopted a quantitative approach to investigate the social acceptance of solar energy technologies from end users' perspective in Shandong province, China. A large scale questionnaire survey was conducted. The results show that there is a considerable high level of social acceptance and public awareness of solar water heater. However, another major application of solar energy, solar PV has not gained a high level of social acceptance or public awareness in Shandong. This study provides useful references for policy makers to further promote the utilization of solar energy innovations. - Research Highlights: → Social acceptance of solar energy technologies from end users' perspective is investigated by a large scale questionnaire survey. → Higher level of social acceptance and public awareness of solar water heater than solar PV. → Impact factors for social acceptance of solar energy technologies are analyzed.

  11. Addressing Sustainable International Branch Campus Development through an Organizational Structure Lens: A Comparative Analysis of China, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgos, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The growth of international branch campuses (IBCs) in China, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) accounts for a significant portion of the overall growth of IBCs globally. Conversely the largest exporter of IBCs globally is the United States, with several U.S. IBCs located in each of these importing countries. With the intention of focusing…

  12. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang (ed.) [Tsinghua Univ. Beijing (China). China Automotive Energy Research Center

    2013-06-01

    The latest research available on automotive energy system analysis in China. Thorough introduction on automotive energy system in China. Provides the broad perspective to aid in planning sustainable road transport in China. Sustainable Automotive Energy System in China aims at identifying and addressing the key issues of automotive energy in China in a systematic way, covering demography, economics, technology and policy, based on systematic and in-depth, multidisciplinary and comprehensive studies. Five scenarios of China's automotive energy development are created to analyze the possible contributions in the fields of automotive energy, vehicle fuel economy improvement, electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and the 2nd generation biofuel development. Thanks to this book, readers can gain a better understanding of the nature of China's automotive energy development and be informed about: (1) the current status of automotive energy consumption, vehicle technology development, automotive energy technology development and policy; (2) the future of automotive energy development, fuel consumption, propulsion technology penetration and automotive energy technology development, and (3) the pathways of sustainable automotive energy transformation in China, in particular, the technological and the policy-related options. This book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduates students in the low-carbon transportation and environmental protection field.

  13. Inaugural address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    Along with the R and D activities related to technology upgradation in the existing reactors, considerable efforts are being expended in various units of Department of Atomic Energy for the development of advanced technologies to meet the future requirements of Indian nuclear power programme. The two major activities in this thrust area are development of technologies related to the 500 MWe PHWRs and fast breeder reactors. An overview of the activities in some of the thrust areas is given. (author)

  14. Efficiency of the supply chain collaborative technological innovation in China: An empirical study based on DEA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is an attempt to investigate the current issues and development of the supply chain collaborative technological innovation in China. Design/methodology/approach: DEA is employed to measure the efficiency of the supply chain collaborative technological innovation. Findings: From the results of this research, we can get the conclusion that there are big spaces for improvement for the selected companies in terms of supply chain collaborative technological innovation, especially in the collaborative benefit aspect. The efficiencies of the supply chain collaborative technological innovation in the selected companies vary a lot. Research limitations: More industries are needed to generalize the conclusions. Practical implications: Our practical recommendations for improving supply chain companies in terms of improving their collaborative technological innovation efficiency are: (1 expanding the cooperative scope; (2 optimizing the collaboration operations; (3 improving the compactness in supply chain; (4 increasing the innovation input; and (5 improving the knowledge exchange capacity. Originality/value: The evaluation and the measure of the efficiency of performance of the collaborative technological innovation both in theory and in practice have been proven to be very important and quite complex, and there have been limited researches in the current literature. From observations, however, the efficiency of supply chain collaborative technological innovation is relatively low. This research investigates the current issues and development of the supply chain collaborative technological innovation in China, and provides the guideline in terms of improving the efficiency of supply chain collaborative technological innovation.

  15. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.6--computational physics sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 13 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the sixth one, the content is about computational physics sub-volume

  16. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--nuclear fusion and plasma physics sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 22 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about nuclear fusion and plasma physics sub-volume

  17. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.10--Nuclear Information sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 28 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the tenth one, the content is about Nuclear Information sub-volume

  18. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.2--nuclear power sub-volume (Pt.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the second one, the content is about nuclear power (Pt.1)

  19. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.8--nuclear agriculture sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 10 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about nuclear agriculture sub-volume

  20. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.2--uranium mining and metallurgy sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 48 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the second one, the content is about uranium mining and metallurgy sub-volume

  1. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.3--nuclear power sub-volume (Pt.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 86 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the third one, the content is about nuclear power sub-volume (Pt.2)

  2. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.4--isotope separation sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 37 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the fourth one, the content is about isotope separation sub-volume

  3. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.8--radiation research and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 12 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation research and its application sub-volume

  4. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.2--nuclear power sub-volume (Pt.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the second one, the content is about uranium mining, uranium metallurgy and nuclear power.

  5. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.10--nuclear Information sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the tenth one, the content is about nuclear Information and computer applications

  6. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.2--uranium mining and metallurgy sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the second one, the content is about uranium mining, uranium metallurgy and nuclear power.

  7. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.4--Nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 24 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the fourth one, the content is about Nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry sub-volume

  8. Attribution of maize yield increase in China to climate change and technological advancement between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Wu, Dingrong; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    2014-12-01

    Crop yields are affected by climate change and technological advancement. Objectively and quantitatively evaluating the attribution of crop yield change to climate change and technological advancement will ensure sustainable development of agriculture under climate change. In this study, daily climate variables obtained from 553 meteorological stations in China for the period 1961-2010, detailed observations of maize from 653 agricultural meteorological stations for the period 1981-2010, and results using an Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) model, are used to explore the attribution of maize (Zea mays L.) yield change to climate change and technological advancement. In the AEZ model, the climatic potential productivity is examined through three step-by-step levels: photosynthetic potential productivity, photosynthetic thermal potential productivity, and climatic potential productivity. The relative impacts of different climate variables on climatic potential productivity of maize from 1961 to 2010 in China are then evaluated. Combined with the observations of maize, the contributions of climate change and technological advancement to maize yield from 1981 to 2010 in China are separated. The results show that, from 1961 to 2010, climate change had a significant adverse impact on the climatic potential productivity of maize in China. Decreased radiation and increased temperature were the main factors leading to the decrease of climatic potential productivity. However, changes in precipitation had only a small effect. The maize yields of the 14 main planting provinces in China increased obviously over the past 30 years, which was opposite to the decreasing trends of climatic potential productivity. This suggests that technological advancement has offset the negative effects of climate change on maize yield. Technological advancement contributed to maize yield increases by 99.6%-141.6%, while climate change contribution was from -41.4% to 0.4%. In particular, the actual

  9. Bilateral cooperation and technology transfer between France and China at Daya-Bay, Qinshan II and Yibin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Fubanf; Zenf Wenxing; He Jiacheng; Charbonneau, S.; Darolles, J.F.; Ellia, G.; Freslon, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Daya-Bay nuclear power station in Guangdong Province, The Qinshan phase II nuclear power station in Zhejiang Province, and the fuel manufacturing facility at Yibin in Sichuan Province have all afforded Framatome the opportunity to develop wide-ranging bilateral cooperation and technology transfer with the People's Republic of china. These projects are all good examples of how a country with some nuclear power experience, such as the now-operating Qinshan 1 (300 M We) nuclear power unit designed and build by China itself, can make much more rapid progress in its civil nuclear power program through cooperation with an industry leader, such as Framatome

  10. Electron multi-beam technology for mask and wafer writing at 0.1nm address grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzgummer, Elmar; Klein, Christof; Loeschner, Hans

    2013-03-01

    An overview of electron beam tool configurations is provided. The adoption of multi-beam writing is mandatory in order to fulfill industrial needs for 11nm HP nodes and below. IMS Nanofabrication realized a 50keV electron multibeam proof-of-concept (POC) tool confirming writing principles with 0.1nm address grid and lithography performance capability. The new architecture will be introduced for mask writing at first, but has also the potential for 1xmask (master template) and direct wafer writing. The POC system achieves the predicted 5nm 1sigma blur across the 82μm x 82μm array of 512 x 512 (262,144) programmable 20nm beams. 24nm HP has been demonstrated and complex patterns have been written in scanning stripe exposure mode. The first production worthy system for the 11nm HP mask node is scheduled for 2014 (Alpha), 2015 (Beta) and 1st generation HVM mask writer tools in 2016. Implementing a multi-axis column configuration, 50x / 100x productivity enhancements are possible for direct 300mm / 450mm wafer writing.

  11. Tissue is alive: New technologies are needed to address the problems of protein biomarker pre-analytical variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Virginia; Mueller, Claudius; Edmiston, Kirsten; Sciro, Manuela; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A

    2009-08-01

    Instability of tissue protein biomarkers is a critical issue for molecular profiling. Pre-analytical variables during tissue procurement, such as time delays during which the tissue remains stored at room temperature, can cause significant variability and bias in downstream molecular analysis. Living tissue, ex vivo, goes through a defined stage of reactive changes that begin with oxidative, hypoxic and metabolic stress, and culminate in apoptosis. Depending on the delay time ex vivo, and reactive stage, protein biomarkers, such as signal pathway phosphoproteins will be elevated or suppressed in a manner which does not represent the biomarker levels at the time of excision. Proteomic data documenting reactive tissue protein changes post collection indicate the need to recognize and address tissue stability, preservation of post-translational modifications, and preservation of morphologic features for molecular analysis. Based on the analysis of phosphoproteins, one of the most labile tissue protein biomarkers, we set forth tissue procurement guidelines for clinical research. We propose technical solutions for (i) assessing the state of protein analyte preservation and specimen quality via identification of a panel of natural proteins (surrogate stability markers), and (ii) using multi-purpose fixative solution designed to stabilize, preserve and maintain proteins, nucleic acids, and tissue architecture.

  12. Support needs for medication use and the suitability of eHealth technologies to address these needs: a focus group study of older patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijssen EGE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elke GE Mathijssen,1 Johanna E Vriezekolk,1 Agnes MM Eijsbouts,1 Frank HJ van den Hoogen,1,2 Bart JF van den Bemt3 1Department of Rheumatology, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 2Department of Rheumatology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 3Department of Pharmacy, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Objective: The objectives of this study were to explore the needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA regarding support for medication use and to gain insight into their perspective on the suitability of eHealth technologies to address these needs.Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 28 patients with RA. Audio recordings made during the focus groups were transcribed verbatim. Two researchers independently performed an inductive, thematic analysis on the data (ie, the transcripts and field notes.Results: The following three themes that described support needs of patients with RA for medication use were identified in the data: 1 informational support; 2 practical support; and 3 emotional support. Informational support reflected the provision of information and facts, including advice, suggestions, and feedback from health care providers. Practical support included the reinforcement of practical skills as well as the provision of medication aids and pharmacy services. Emotional support reflected a trusted patient–health care provider relationship, characterized by good communication. Although potential advantages of eHealth technologies to address the patients’ support needs were recognized, concerns over matters such as personal interaction with health care providers, privacy and data security, and the quality and reliability of online information were prevalent.Conclusion: Patients with RA have informational, practical, and emotional support needs for medication use. Informational support seems to be most important. From the patients’ perspective, eHealth technologies may

  13. An overview of ecological monitoring based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jia; Du, Xiangyang; Kang, Hou; Qiao, Minjuan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the rapid development of human economy and society, the resulting ecological problems are becoming more and more prominent, and the dynamic monitoring of the various elements in the ecosystem has become the focus of the current research. For the complex structure and function of the ecological environment monitoring, advanced technical means should be adopted. With the development of spatial information technology, the ecological monitoring technology based on GIS and RS is becoming more and more perfect, and spatial analysis will play an important role in the field of environmental protection. Based on the GIS and RS technology, this paper analyzes the general centralized ecological monitoring model, and makes an objective analysis of the current ecological monitoring trend of China. These are important for the protection and management of ecological environment in China.

  14. Media Discourse on Cell Phone Technology and “Left-Behind Children” in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Hua Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Through critical analysis of selected news stories from sina.com from 2010 to 2015 about cell phones and “left-behind children” in China, this article examines media discourses on the relationship between migrant families and communication technology. The author finds that the roles of cell phones in their lives are portrayed in the following narratives: 1 cell phones are highly valuable for connecting family members living apart; 2 cell phones are used as a problem-solver in charity giving and rural development projects; 3 cell phones can bring unexpected risks to children lacking media literacy; and 4 cell phones could harbour or unleash evil—associated with increasing cases of juvenile delinquency or crime stories. The author discusses how the different institutional goals of social agencies, corporations, educators, and law enforcement contribute to the polarity of the discourses, reflecting the societal anxieties over unsupervised use of mobile devices by adolescents, as well as the cultural and political implications of empowering the “have-nots” of the digital divide by improving access to communication technology.

  15. Effect of Cattle Breeds on Milk Composition and Technological Characteristics in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. X. Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cattle breeds have a striking effect on milk, including milk composition and technological characteristics. This study aims to compare milk composition, acidification activity, viscosity, milk dispersion system stability and casein molecular weight among three buffalo breeds in China. The technological characteristics of milk produced by three cattle breeds of river buffalo (Murrah, crossbreed 1st generation (F1, crossbreed multiple generation (FH, H≥3 buffaloes were investigated. Cattle breeds showed evident effect on milk protein, fat and total solids content, but little effect on most of buffalo casein molecular weight. Milk fat, protein content and the viscosity of buffalo milk from river buffalo were lower than those of F1 and FH, so was the buffer capacity. The viscosity was negatively correlated to temperature and concentration. Results of stability coefficient showed that milk dispersion system had the best dynamic stability characteristics under pH 6.6 and 6 times dilution, while zeta potential of Murrah milk was slightly higher than that of hybrid offspring (F1, FH. SDS-PAGE results showed that buffalo αs-casein had a slightly faster mobility than standard αs-casein; while buffalo β-casein showed a slightly slower mobility than standard β-casein. There is no clear differences in molecular weight of αs-, β-, and κ-casein among Murrah, F1 and FH.

  16. The Health Sciences and Technology Academy: an educational pipeline to address health care disparities in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendall, Sherron Benson; Kasten, Kasandra; Hanks, Sara; Chester, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Health and educational disparities are national issues in the United States. Research has shown that health care professionals from underserved backgrounds are more likely than others to work in underserved areas. The Association of American Medical Colleges' Project 3000 by 2000, to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in medical schools, spurred the West Virginia School of Medicine to start the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) in 1994 with the goal of supporting interested underrepresented high school students in pursuing college and health professions careers. The program was based on three beliefs: (1) if underrepresented high school students have potential and the desire to pursue a health professions career and are given the support, they can reach their goals, including obtaining a health professions degree; (2) underserved high school students are able to predict their own success if given the right resources; and (3) community engagement would be key to the program's success.In this Perspective, the authors describe the HSTA and its framework and philosophy, including the underlying theories and pedagogy from research in the fields of education and the behavioral/social sciences. They then offer evidence of the program's success, specifically for African American students, including graduates' high college-going rate and overwhelming intention to choose a health professions major. Finally, the authors describe the benefits of the HSTA's community partnerships, including providing mentors to students, adding legislative language providing tuition waivers and a budgetary line item devoted to the program, and securing program funding from outside sources.

  17. Main ways and suitable technologies of improving economic benefits for uranium ore heap leaching in China (the end)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Zibin

    2001-01-01

    Combining with practice of China's uranium ore heap leaching, the author proposes main ways and suitable technologies in the fields of emphasizing feasibility research, adopting strengthened technologies, improving equipment level, optimizing control technological factors and developing application range and so on, which include adopting acid-currying and ferric sulphate-trickle leaching process, bacteria heap leaching, countercurrent heap leaching, selecting advanced material of heap bottom, developing large mechanized heap construction equipment and methods, popularizing drip irrigation distributing solution, optimizing heap leaching process parameters, as well as developing recovery equipment suited to heap leaching, etc, in order to increase leaching rate, reduce heap leaching period and achieve more economic benefits

  18. FY 2000 international exchange project on exchanges of engineers - Coal mine technology field. Overseas workshop (China); 2000 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Chugoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of making technical exchanges with coal mine related engineers in China and surveying levels of coal production technology and the needs in China and possibilities of technology transfer from Japan, workshop was held and technical tours were made. On December 13, 2000, a workshop was held in China which was named 'Japan-China Joint Coal Project Workshop: Environment/Production/Security.' Participants were 112 including 16 from Japan and 96 from China. Subjects were as follows: subjects on coal resource and technical strategy in the 21st century, technical exchange project and technical development, Japan-China technical cooperation project, report on the operational situation of China Coal Industry Environmental Preservation Safety Training Center, Japan-China Joint Project on spontaneous combustion prevention technology, CMG recovery/utilization system joint demonstration project, Japan-China joint coal exploration project, Japan-China coal field geology joint exploration project, etc. (NEDO)

  19. inaugral address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While political reorientation and economic redress were of immediate concern, ... South African context, where widespread changes have been proposed for education at all ... education at school and other levels and needs to be addressed so as to ..... the major national curriculum intervention in environmental education.

  20. The Role of Technology in Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Sector in Developing Countries: the Case of China, India, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge China, India, and Mexico are the top emitters of CO2 among developing nations. The electric power sectors in China and India is dominated by coal-fired power plants, whereas in Mexico, fuel oil and natur...

  1. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1993-01-01

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  2. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, R

    1996-07-01

    By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.

  3. Addressing the CO2 emissions of the world's largest coal producer and consumer: Lessons from the Haishiwan Coalfield, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Younger, Paul L.; Cheng, Yuanping; Zhang, Baoyong; Zhou, Hongxing; Liu, Qingquan; Dai, Tao; Kong, Shengli; Jin, Kan; Yang, Quanlin

    2015-01-01

    China is now the world's largest user of coal, and also has the highest greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining and use of coal. In the mining sector, the interests of workforce safety coincide with those of GHG (greenhouse gas) management. While the traditional approach to ensuring workforce safety in coal mines was simply to vent the hazardous gases to the atmosphere, thus increasing GHG emissions, recent innovations have seen elements of CCS (carbon capture and storage) being used to simultaneously ensure workforce safety and minimization of GHG emissions. The Haishiwan Coalfield represents a particularly challenging environment for applying this approach, as the coal-bearing strata host both oil shales and a naturally-occurring CO 2 reservoir, disturbance of which could both imperil workers and lead to elevated GHG emissions. A low-carbon, CCS-based model of gas management developed in the Haishiwan Coalfield offers attractive lessons for application to other coal mines, within and beyond China. This approach achieves multiple benefits: energy production, enhanced workforce safety and minimization of GHG emissions. Given the extreme nature of the Haishiwan case, it ought to be even easier to implement these approaches elsewhere. - Highlights: • Boreholes coalbed CO 2 capture involving oil shales pyrolysis and retorting gas power generation. • A gas hydrate separation and CO 2 injection into abandoned mine for CO 2 capture and storage. • A low-carbon, CCS-based model of gas management developed in the Haishiwan Coalfield

  4. China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Actions and Chronology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2001-01-01

    .... Some critics opposed satellite exports to China, while others were concerned that the Clinton Administration relaxed export controls and monitoring of commercial satellites in moving the licensing...

  5. [Preliminary assessment of the potential of biochar technology in mitigating the greenhouse effect in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The production of biochar by pyrolysis and its application to soil can sequester the CO2 which was absorbed by plants from atmosphere into soil, in addition it can also bring multiple benefits for agriculture production. On the basis of the available potential survey of the biomass residues from agriculture and forestry section, life cycle assessment was employed to quantify the potential of biochar technology in mitigation of greenhouse gases in our country. The results showed: In China, the amount of available biomass resource was 6.04 x 10(8) t every year and its net greenhouse effect potential was 5.32 x 10(8) t CO(2e) (CO(2e): CO2 equivalent), which was equivalent to 0.88 t CO(2e) for every ton biomass. The greatest of contributor to the total potential was plant carbon sequestration in soil as the form of biochar which accounts for 73.94%, followed by production of renewable energy and its percentage was 23.85%. In summary, production of biochar from agriculture and forestry biomass residues had a significant potential for our country to struggle with the pressure of greenhouse gas emission.

  6. Application of coal-water fuel technology in the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G. [International Centre for Scientific Culture (World Laboratory), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Under the auspices of the ICSC - World Laboratory of Losanna presided by Prof. A. Zichichi, an important Project was launched on 1988 dealing with the feasibility study of coal-water fuel technology in China. The study, that is starting now with the last phase, will be completed in the 1993. The paper will report on the general line of the study and the status of the project. This is related to a complete program including: the slurry production near the coal open air mine in the region of Shemnu (new Mongolia), the transportation by pipeline for about 800 km. of 7 millions of tons/year of dry coal in form of CWF, and some possible direct utilization during the route until the final destination in one of the ports of Yellow sea. This is for the time been the biggest commercial project in the world on this area and was developed using the experiences of more than 50 italian and chinese scientists, technologists and experts coming from important and specialized italian companies under the drive of Snamprogetti (including the experiences of ENEL, Ansaldo, Laviosa, etc.) and chinese organization from the Graduate School, CUMT; Institute of Mechanics CAS; Institute of Photochemistry, CAS; in R.P.C.

  7. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr

  8. Status and prospects of exploration and exploitation key technologies of the deep petroleum resources in onshore China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genshun Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, China's deep oil and gas exploration and exploitation have developed rapidly. Technological advancements have played an important role in the rapid exploration and highly efficient development. Aimed at the complex engineering geological environment of deep oil and gas in China, this paper has combined the four technological systems that have made significant progress, mainly including: (1 seismic imaging and reservoir prediction techniques for deep–burial complex structures, includign “2W1S” technique (wide-band, wide azimuth, and small bin, RTM (Reverse Time Migration, integrated modeling technology for complex structures and variable velocity mapping technique, improving structural interpretation accuracy, ensuring high precision ofimaging, and prediction for deep geological bodies; (2 deep speed raising and efficiency drilling technology series, which significantly improved the drilling speed, in turn reduced the drilling cost and drilling risk; (3 development of a deep high-temperature and high-pressure logging technology series, which provided a guarantee for the accurate identification of reservoir properties and fluid properties; (4 the efficient development technology for deep reservoirs, especially the development and maturity of the reconstruction volume technology, improve the production of single well and the benefit of deep oil and gas development. This paper further points out the improvement direction of the four major technology series of deep oil based on the analysis of the current development of the four major technological systems. Moreover, the development of applicability and economy for technical system is the key to realize high efficiency and low-cost exploration and development of deep oil and gas. Keywords: Deep oil & gas, Exploration and exploitation technologies, Seismic, Logging, Drilling, Petroleum reservoir stimulation

  9. Building capacity for information and communication technology use in global health research and training in China: a qualitative study among Chinese health sciences faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Abdullah, Abu S; Ma, Zhenyu; Fu, Hua; Huang, Kaiyong; Yu, Hongping; Wang, Jiaji; Cai, Le; He, Huimin; Xiao, Jian; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H; Yang, Li

    2017-06-28

    The demand to use information and communications technology (ICT) in education and research has grown fast among researchers and educators working in global health. However, access to ICT resources and the capacity to use them in global health research remains limited among developing country faculty members. In order to address the global health needs and to design an ICT-related training course, we herein explored the Chinese health science faculty members' perceptions and learning needs for ICT use. Nine focus groups discussions (FGDs) were conducted during December 2015 to March 2016, involving 63 faculty members working in areas of health sciences from six universities in China. All FGDs were audio recorded and analysed thematically. The findings suggest that the understandings of ICT were not clear among many researchers; some thought that the concept of ICT was too wide and ambiguous. Most participants were able to cite examples of ICT application in their research and teaching activities. Positive attitudes and high needs of ICT use and training were common among most participants. Recommendations for ICT training included customised training programmes focusing on a specific specialty, maintaining a balance between theories and practical applications, more emphasis on the application of ICT, and skills in finding the required information from the bulk information available in the internet. Suggestions regarding the format and offering of training included short training programmes, flexible timing, lectures with practicum opportunities, and free of charge or with very minimal cost to the participants. Two participants suggested the linking of ICT-related training courses with faculty members' year-end assessment and promotion. This study among health sciences faculty members in China demonstrated a high level of need and interest in learning about ICT use in research and training. The results have important implications for the design and implementation of

  10. Energy Performance Contract models for the diffusion of green-manufacturing technologies in China: A stakeholder analysis from SMEs’ perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Dillon K.; Xue, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are significant to China's emission reduction programme. This research aims to improve our understanding of the challenge of diffusing green-manufacturing technologies among SMEs in China. Specifically, this study examines the Chinese Government's effort to facilitate reduction of energy consumption among SMEs through Energy Performance Contracts (EPCs) to incentivize domestic manufacturers to adopt energy efficient measures (EEMs) in order to reduce demand for energy and corresponding drop in emissions. The data is gathered from relevant EPC stakeholders in the National Motor Upgrading Demonstration Project and its implementation in Dongguan city, which is based on 30 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions. Using stakeholder analysis, this study finds that guaranteed energy savings model is the favorite model in implementation, given the gained benefits outweigh committed resources, and the control capability overrides possible risks among the two core stakeholders. The outcomes of this study may allow the government to have a clear understanding of stakeholder perception of the different EPC models used in China so the design and deployment of these mechanisms can be improved. - Highlights: • Examine the barriers faced by green technologies when they are promoted to SMEs on a large scale. • Explain why green technology diffusion is thwarted when stakeholders cannot reach compromises. • Find that the guaranteed energy savings model is the best mechanism for upgrading SMEs. • Note that new EPC models and new policies are needed to increase stakeholders’ adoption rate.

  11. Information inefficiency and willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient technology: A stated preference approach for China Energy Label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Bukenya, James O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which consumers' willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient room air conditioners may be altered by correcting the information inefficiency on the China Energy Label. The data are collected from a discrete choice experiment with two alternatives (variable-speed and constant-speed room air conditioners) characterized by attributes of brand, purchase price and energy grade. Three versions of the questionnaires with choice sets differing only in energy consumption indicators were distributed randomly to 1602 potential consumers in Nanjing, China and a sample of 1569 was obtained after dropping missing data. The analysis with multinomial and mixed logit models reveal that the price premium that consumers are willing to pay for a variable-speed room AC over a constant-speed room AC increases significantly when energy consumption information becomes comparable and additional energy-related information is provided. Furthermore, the impact of information on WTP varies under different energy-saving scenarios. It is suggested that China Energy Label should correct information inefficiency by adopting same energy indicators for room ACs with different technologies and providing energy consumption information based on different climate zones. - Highlights: • Choice experiments were carried out to examine the effect of information on WTP. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if information is comparable. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if more information is provided. • The impact of information on WTP is significant when energy saving is considerable. • Some demographics influence people's WTP.

  12. The Impact of Technological Progress in the Energy Sector on Carbon Emissions: An Empirical Analysis from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Duan, Keran; Shi, Chunming; Ju, Xianwei

    2017-12-04

    This paper investigates the relationship between technological progress in the energy sector and carbon emissions based on the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) and data from China during the period of 1995-2012. Our study confirms that the situation in China conforms to the EKC hypothesis and presents the inverted U-curve relationship between per capita income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, the inflection point will be reached in at least five years. Then, we use research and development (R & D) investment in the energy industry as the quantitative indicator of its technological progress to test its impact on carbon emissions. Our results show that technological progress in the energy sector contributes to a reduction in carbon emissions with hysteresis. Furthermore, our results show that energy efficiency improvements are also helpful in reducing carbon emissions. However, climate policy and change in industrial structure increase carbon emissions to some extent. Our conclusion demonstrates that currently, China is not achieving economic growth and pollution reduction simultaneously. To further achieve the goal of carbon reduction, the government should increase investment in the energy industry research and improve energy efficiency.

  13. The Impact of Technological Progress in the Energy Sector on Carbon Emissions: An Empirical Analysis from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between technological progress in the energy sector and carbon emissions based on the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC and data from China during the period of 1995–2012. Our study confirms that the situation in China conforms to the EKC hypothesis and presents the inverted U-curve relationship between per capita income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, the inflection point will be reached in at least five years. Then, we use research and development (R & D investment in the energy industry as the quantitative indicator of its technological progress to test its impact on carbon emissions. Our results show that technological progress in the energy sector contributes to a reduction in carbon emissions with hysteresis. Furthermore, our results show that energy efficiency improvements are also helpful in reducing carbon emissions. However, climate policy and change in industrial structure increase carbon emissions to some extent. Our conclusion demonstrates that currently, China is not achieving economic growth and pollution reduction simultaneously. To further achieve the goal of carbon reduction, the government should increase investment in the energy industry research and improve energy efficiency.

  14. Addressing the source contribution of PM2.5 on mortality: an evaluation study of its impacts on excess mortality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Wentan; Guo, Qun; Wu, Ziting; Pan, Xiaochuan; Li, Guoxing; Liu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    We estimated PM2.5 concentrations using satellite data and population mortality values for cause-specific diseases and employed the integrated exposure-response model to obtain the associations between exposure and response. PM2.5 source apportionment data were then used to evaluate the excess mortality attributable to PM2.5 from different emission sources. In 2013, 1.07 million excess deaths were attributed to PM2.5 exposure in China. The potentially avoidable excess deaths would be 279 000, 459 000, 731 000 and 898 000 if the PM2.5 concentrations were reduced to meet WHO interim target (IT)-1 (35 μg m-3, also the Chinese standard), IT-2 (25 μg m-3), IT-3 (15 μg m-3) and the air quality guidelines (10 μg m-3), respectively, compared with concentrations experienced in 2013. There were 249 000 (95% CI: 115-337), 228 000 (95% CI: 105-309), 203 000 (95% CI: 94-274), 197 000 (95% CI: 91-266), and 193 000 (95% CI: 88-262) excess deaths attributed to PM2.5 from coal burning, vehicle emissions, industry-related emissions, dust and other sources in 2013, respectively. Coal burning was the main source of atmospheric PM2.5; it contributed the most to excess mortalities and the health effects were likely to have been conservatively estimated. Considerable health benefits could be achieved if more stringent ambient PM2.5 standards were achieved in China.

  15. China power - thermal coal and clean coal technology export. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binsheng Li

    1996-12-31

    China is the world`s fourth largest electric power producer, and is expected to surpass Japan within the next two years to become the third largest power producer. During the past 15 years, China`s total electricity generation more than tripled, increasing from about 300 TWh to about 1,000 TWh. Total installed generating capacity grew at an average of 8.2 percent per year, increasing from 66 to 214 GW. The share of China`s installed capacity in Asia increased from 21 to 31 percent. The Chinese government plans to continue China`s rapid growth rate in the power sector. Total installed capacity is planned to reach 300 GW by 2000, which will generate 1,400 TWh of electricity per year. China`s long-term power sector development is subject to great uncertainty. Under the middle scenario, total capacity is expected to reach 700 GW by 2015, with annual generation of 3,330 TWh. Under the low and high scenarios, total capacity will reach 527-1,005 GW by 2015. The high scenario representing possible demand. To achieve this ambitious scenario, dramatic policy changes in favor of power development are required; however, there is no evidence that such policy changes will occur at this stage. Even under the high scenario, China`s per capita annual electricity consumption would be only 3,000 kWh by 2015, less than half of the present per capita consumption for OECD countries. Under the low scenario, electricity shortages will seriously curb economic growth.

  16. The evolution of China's National Energy RD and D Programs: The role of scientists in science and technology decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Qiang; Su, Jun; Ru, Peng; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Since 1978, when China launched its “opening up” reform, a range of large-scale national science and technology programs have been implemented to spur economic development. Energy has received significant attention and has become a growing priority in the past years. In this paper we have analyzed the goals, management, and impact over time of China's three largest national programs: Gong Guan, 863, and 973 Programs. Using quantitative metrics to describe the input and output, by conducting semi-structured interviews with officials, scientists, and other decision makers, and by reviewing available documents as well as a case study on the coal sector we examined the changes in the decision making process, particularly in regard to the role of scientists. We found that the changes in strategic priorities set by China's high level political leaders were implemented and then transformed into outputs by using scientists as inputs or policy tools. The decreased role of scientists has been driven by two forces: (1) periodic changes in national strategy emphasizing technology commercialization; and (2) changes in the management structure involving low tolerance of risk. We suggest four ways that the government's efforts to turn China into an innovation oriented country. - Highlights: • New data was provided for the energy sector of China's three largest RD and D programs. • Transitions of goals, priorities, management, and impact over time of the programs were reviewed. • We found the role of scientists has been reduced in the decision making process. • Two forces are identified as the shaping factors

  17. Nuclear energy in the 21st century. Address at Joint IAEA/CNNC seminar on 21st century nuclear energy development in China, 23 May 1997 Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1997-05-01

    The address discusses the following issues: the increasing demand for energy; the energy efficiency factor; the role of oil and gas; fossil fuels and environment; share of renewable in the future; evolution toward higher density energy sources; factors influencing the choice of the nuclear option; new generations of nuclear power plants; waste management; nuclear safety; strengthening safeguards; nuclear power and nuclear weapons

  18. Find Them Home or Abroad? The Relative Contribution of International Technology In-licensing to “Indigenous Innovation” in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi

    2015-01-01

    Innovation policy in China has been promoting “indigenous innovation” by urging Chinese firms to strengthen their internal research and development (R&D) expenditures and to actively acquire external technologies only if they are advanced and necessary. This policy aims to gradually achieve technology excellence and reduce China’s reliance on foreign key technologies. But, it is still unclear how international technology in-licensing by Chinese firms, compared with domestic technology in-...

  19. Internationalization and technological catching up of emerging multinationals : a case study of China's Haier group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysters, G.M.; Jacob, J.; Lemmens, C.E.A.V.; Yu, Jintian

    2009-01-01

    A number of firms from China and India have in recent years been demonstrating their ability to face up to the challenges of globalization by internationalizing their operations. In this article we carry out a case study of China's Haier Group followed by a comparison of its growth and

  20. The Role of Institutional Support in Energy Technology Diffusion in Rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.L.; van Groenendaal, W.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    In the past China's rural areas, home to 70% of its population, suffered energy shortages.China's indigenous energy resources are limited, with the exception of coal.The widespread use of coal requires large investments in production and transport -making it costly-, and degrades the environment.As

  1. Lunchtime address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1976-01-01

    The energy needs of the UK are considered: it is suggested that the only robust solution to the long-term problem lies with energy conservation, coal production and nuclear power. These subjects are then examined in more detail. The technical, organisational and social problems of nuclear power technology are assumed to be soluble, and further attention is given to the industrial capability needed to retain the nuclear option. The dilemma of present surplus generating capacity, while the nuclear industry needs to be kept alive to prepare for the much expanded role foreseen around the turn of the century, is discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Plan of Using Modern Agriculture High-New Information Technology for Building Stable Nation Commercial Grain and Green Agriculture Base of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The North-East China is nation commercial grain base of China. It provides important grain supply for other areas of the country every year. The nation and modern farmers are looking for advanced technological solutions to increase production and preserve environment. Considering of this aim,this paper introduce a new planning that using 3S technology to develop precision farming, explaining its technology frame, operation steps and advantages. On the other hand,this paper also introduce the concept of precision farming and discusses the role of 3S technology as a data collection,management and analysis tool.

  3. Luncheon address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdeswell, E.

    1991-01-01

    Public policy responses to climate change are discussed from a global viewpoint. The public policy issue is one of unprecedented scope and complexity, and concerns the interaction of two vast and complex systems: the physical planetary system, and the human economic system. Decision making is required in the face of uncertainty, and scientific knowledge is lagging behind policy issues. Continuing world development is going to drastically change the balance of global population, trade, and economic power. Environmental quality performance requirements should be set with a great deal of attention paid to how they will affect the process of innovation, and must encourage demand for emerging technologies, products and services. Effective solutions can come only from effective international agreement. Governments, citizens and industry must become partners in action, and improved education and communication is required. Science, public policy and social consensus must converge, as climate change is not merely a scientific or technical problem, but is also a social and political problem

  4. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magwood, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Overall state of energy needs and production with special emphasis on increasing consumption and global climate challenge induce increasing efficiency in the broad sense, i.e. increasing the energy efficiency of homes, business, transportation, industry; increasing the efficiency of how energy is delivered to consumers and increasing the efficiency of electricity generation. Being a part of the solution for overall efficiency challenges, past increases in nuclear power plant reliability and availability have kept nuclear power in the race but they have not yet assured survival. There would be limited future for nuclear power unless existing plants prove that the technology is economically competitive. This could be done because it helps attaining healthier global environment. Successful cooperation across all sectors of society and across all oceans of the world would lead to first maintaining the nuclear energy option, and then expanding its application in the future, the potential of nuclear energy would be fully realized to the benefit of all the world

  5. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farlinger, W.

    1997-01-01

    In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market

  6. Organochlorine pesticides in follicular fluid of women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies from central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yindi; Huang, Bo; Li, Qing X.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Female infertility rates have increased by approximately 4% since the 1980s. There is evidence of adverse effects on female fertility in relation to exposure of chemical pollution in recent years. Follicular fluid samples were collected from 127 woman patients (aged 20–35) who underwent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and had no records indicating occupational exposure to OCPs. Seventeen OCPs were analyzed in this study. The results showed that methoxychlor was dominant, accounted for 13.4% of total OCPs with a mean concentration of 167.9 ± 33.9 ng/g lipid weight (lw), followed by heptachlor-epoxide, hexachlorocyclohexanes, endrin and DDT. The concentrations of OCPs in the follicular fluid samples in the present study were moderate in comparison with those reported from developed or industrialized countries. All these pollutants can accumulate in different tissues of human body through diet, drinking water and respiration. No correlation between patient age and OCP concentrations was observed in this study. - Highlights: • 17 OCPs in follicular fluid samples from 127 woman patients were analyzed. • Methoxychlor was the most dominant, constituting 13.4% of total OCPs with a mean concentration of 168 ng/g lw. • The concentrations of DDT and HCHs were lower than those in human breast milk from Russia and Iran and blood from India. • DDTs and HCHs in the samples would be mainly from historical usage. • The correlation between patient ages and concentrations of OCPs was weak. - OCPs at median concentrations of 460.0–2927.2 ng/g lipid weight in follicular fluids of central China have physiological effects.

  7. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  8. The United States of America and the People`s Republic of China experts report on integrated gasification combined-cycle technology (IGCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    A report written by the leading US and Chinese experts in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, intended for high level decision makers, may greatly accelerate the development of an IGCC demonstration project in the People`s Republic of China (PRC). The potential market for IGCC systems in China and the competitiveness of IGCC technology with other clean coal options for China have been analyzed in the report. Such information will be useful not only to the Chinese government but also to US vendors and companies. The goal of this report is to analyze the energy supply structure of China, China`s energy and environmental protection demand, and the potential market in China in order to make a justified and reasonable assessment on feasibility of the transfer of US Clean Coal Technologies to China. The Expert Report was developed and written by the joint US/PRC IGCC experts and will be presented to the State Planning Commission (SPC) by the President of the CAS to ensure consideration of the importance of IGCC for future PRC power production.

  9. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  10. Simulation technology used for risky assessment in deep exploration project in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    jiao, J.; Huang, D.; Liu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deep exploration has been carried out in China for five years in which various heavy duty instruments and equipments are employed for gravity, magnetic, seismic and electromagnetic data prospecting as well as ultra deep drilling rig established for obtaining deep samples, and so on. The deep exploration is a large and complex system engineering crossing multiple subjects with great investment. It is necessary to employ advanced technical means technology for verification, appraisal, and optimization of geographical prospecting equipment development. To reduce risk of the application and exploration, efficient and allegeable management concept and skills have to be enhanced in order to consolidate management measure and workflow to benefit the ambitious project. Therefore, evidence, prediction, evaluation and related decision strategies have to be taken into accouter simultaneously to meet practical scientific requests and technique limits and extendable attempts. Simulation technique is then proposed as a tool that can be used to carry out dynamic test on actual or imagined system. In practice, it is necessary to combine the simulation technique with the instruments and equipment to accomplish R&D tasks. In this paper, simulation technique is introduced into the R&D process of heavy-duty equipment and high-end engineering project technology. Based on the information provided by a drilling group recently, a digital model is constructed by combination of geographical data, 3d visualization, database management, and visual reality technologies together. It result in push ahead a R&D strategy, in which data processing , instrument application, expected result and uncertainty, and even operation workflow effect environment atmosphere are simulated systematically or simultaneously, in order to obtain an optimal consequence as well as equipment updating strategy. The simulation technology is able to adjust, verify, appraise and optimize the primary plan due to changing in

  11. Internationalization and technological catching up of emerging multinationals: a comparative case study of China's Haier group

    OpenAIRE

    Geert Duysters; Jojo Jacob; Charmianne Lemmens; Yu Jintian

    2009-01-01

    A number of firms from China and India have in recent years been demonstrating their ability to face up to the challenges of globalization by internationalizing their operations. In this article we carry out a case study of China's Haier Group followed by a comparison of its growth and internationalization with those of India's Tata Group. We examine several aspects of their internationalization, such as the mode of internationalization and the choice of overseas destinations. The study furth...

  12. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  13. The birth and routinization of IVF in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2016-01-01

    How can it be that China today is home to some of the world’s largest IVF clinics, carrying out as many as 30,000 cycles annually? In this article, I address how IVF was developed in China during the early 1980s only to be routinized during the exact same period that one of the world’s most...... comprehensive family planning programmes aimed at preventing birth was being rolled out. IVF was not merely imported into China, rather it was experimentally developed within China into a form suitable for its restrictive family planning regulations. As a result, IVF and other assisted reproductive technologies...

  14. The Relative Efficiencies of Research Universities of Science and Technology in China: Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanyi, Wang; Xiaohong, Lv; Shikui, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to explore the relative efficiency of China's research universities of science and technology. According to the finding, when talent training is the only output, the efficiency of research universities of science and technology is far lower than that of…

  15. A Case Study of the Link between Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Creation in Emerging Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2017-01-01

    in much knowledge creation research, the empirical insights come from a case study in a Chinese startup SME (small and medium-sized enterprise) within the emerging industry of visual intelligence/surveillance systems. The findings, extracted from semi-structured interviews as well as observations, suggest...... of consent requirements when collecting information and a willing population makes China an ideal test bed for visual intelligence technologies. The chapter exposes the shortcomings of the existing knowledge creation theory and bridges these with insights on how to overcome them in different contexts...

  16. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Junfeng, Li [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  17. The Anatomy of Teleneurosurgery in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With its huge population and vast territory, China faces a great challenge in providing modern advanced health care services to all parts of the country. The advances of information communication technologies (ICTs and the advent of internet have revolutionised the means in the delivery of healthcare via telemedicine to remote and underserved populations, which to a certain extent has been very well exploited in China, especially where 70% peasants residing in the rural areas. This paper reviews the latest development in telemedicine infrastructure in China with the focus on the development of teleneurosurgery, drawing from the results gained from a 3-year networking project between Europe and China on telemedicine (TIME, 2005–2007 funded by European Commission under Asia ICT programme, with an aim to shape up envisages of future medical care in China. Comparison with its counterparts in Europe is also addressed.

  18. Suitability assessment of building energy saving technologies for office buildings in cold areas of China based on an assessment framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Geng; Wang, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Neng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An assessment method considering economy, environment and technology is proposed. • Office buildings are classified into 3 types and weights are calculated respectively. • BESTs were summed up as 3 suitability levels. • Recommendations are proposed for adopting in design stage. - Abstract: Blind application and extensive copy of building energy saving technologies have been found very common through investigation in China. Emphases should be put on the suitability assessment when selecting and optimizing building energy saving technologies. This paper created an assessment method, namely an assessment framework to assess the suitability level of building energy saving technologies from a holistic point of view. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process was adopted. 3 factors and 8 sub-factors were included in the framework. The office buildings were classified into 3 types to calculate weights of factors and sub-factors. The assessment framework was established for each type of office buildings. 20 energy saving technologies from surveyed cases was selected as case study. Ranks of suitability level of the assessment objects were obtained for each type of office buildings. The assessment results could be referred when selecting building energy saving technologies in the design stage

  19. Technology choice and CDM projects in China: case study of a small steel company in Shandong Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Shinji; Yonamine, Asaka; Jung, Tae Yong

    2006-01-01

    Corporate motives and strategies of both investing and hosting country affect the outcomes of a clean development mechanism (CDM) project-who introduces what technology to whom-and result in large differences in economic viability and the CO 2 emission reductions. This is particularly true for steel industry in which steel making consists of many detailed and complex processes, a given strategy could produce cumulative effects of the individual technologies used, leading to large energy savings overall. The objective of this study is to demonstrate some analytical methods that can be used to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of technology selection on the profit performance of CDM projects. Specifically, in this study we analyze a CDM project to introduce energy saving technology from Japan to a small steel manufacturer in China's Shandong Province, and conduct a simulation of the quantitative relationships between various technology options and profitability. Based on these results, we examine the environmental and economic significance of technology selection for CDM projects. To take this further, we then reconsider the profitability of a project as typical FDI activity (i.e., without the CDM), and by comparing this outcome with the CDM case, we clarify the significance and potential of the CDM

  20. For which option is credit risk more representative on China banks' total factor productivity Efficiency change or technological progress?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the impact of credit risk on China banks' total factor productivity.Design/methodology/approach-The paper employs the Malmquist Productivity Index (MP1) which allows for the examination of five different indices:total factor productivity change (TFPCH);technological change (TECHCH);efficiency change (EFFCH);pure technical efficiency change (PEFFCH);and scale efficiency change (SECH) indices.Findings-The empirical findings indicate that the State Owned Commercial Banks (SOCB),Joint Stock Commercial Banks (JSCB),and City Commercial Banks (CCB) have exhibited lower TFPCH levels with the inclusion of risk factor.It was found that the JSCB and CCB have exhibited lower TFPCH due to TECHCH,while the SOCB have exhibited lower TFPCH due to EFFCH.The empirical findings suggest that the inclusion of credit risk factor has resulted in a higher JSCB EFFCH levels.On the other hand,the SOCB and CCB have exhibited a lower EFFCH levels due to SECH and PEFFCH,respectively.Research limitations/implications-The results clearly highlight the importance of credit risk and lending quality in determining the total factor productivity change of banks operating in the China banking sector.The author demonstrates that the inclusion of credit risk factor has resulted in a lower TFPCH level of all banks operating in the China banking sector.Thus,excluding the credit risk factor from the analysis on the China banking sector may potentially bias the result upwards.Practical impIications-In an environment of heavy government influence over the lending process,a large proportion of loans extended by Chinese banks over the years have gone bad.Policymakers should prevent the flow of new non-performing loans by separating bad clients from banks that are being restructured and recapitalized in the reform of the banking sector.Originality/value-By employing the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI),the present paper contributes to

  1. An application of a double bootstrap to investigate the effects of technological progress on total-factor energy consumption performance in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) for measuring China's energy efficiency across 30 provinces during the period 1997 to 2012. The TEPI is derived by solving an improved non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) model, which is based on an energy distance function. The production possibility set is constructed by combining the super-efficiency and sequential DEA models to avoid “discriminating power problem” and “technical regress”. In order to explore the impacts of technological progress on TEPI and perform statistical inferences on the results, a two-stage double bootstrap approach is adopted. The important findings are that China's energy technology innovation produces a negative effect on TEPI, while technology import and imitative innovation produce positive effects on TEPI. Thus, the main contribution of TEPI improvement is technology import. These conclusions imply that technology import especially foreign direct investment (FDI) is important for imitative innovation and can improve China's energy efficiency. In the long run, as the technical level of China approaches to the frontier, energy technology innovation and its wide adoption become a sustained way to improve energy efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent for China to introduce measures such as technology translation and spillover policies as well as energy pricing reforms to support energy technology innovation. - Highlights: • A total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) is introduced. • Three types of technological progress have various effects on TEPI. • FDI is the main contributor of TEPI improvement. • An improved DEA calculation method is introduced. • A two-stage double-bootstrap non-radial DEA model is used.

  2. Determinants of knowledge translation from health technology assessment to policy-making in China: From the perspective of researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Shi, Lizheng; Pong, Raymond W.; Dong, Hengjin; Mao, Yiwei; Tang, Meng; Chen, Yingyao

    2018-01-01

    Background For health technology assessment (HTA) to be more policy relevant and for health technology-related decision-making to be truly evidence-based, promoting knowledge translation (KT) is of vital importance. Although some research has focused on KT of HTA, there is a dearth of literature on KT determinants and the situation in developing countries and transitional societies remains largely unknown. Objective To investigate the determinants of HTA KT from research to health policy-making from the perspective of researchers in China. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods A structured questionnaire which focused on KT was distributed to HTA researchers in China. KT activity levels in various fields of HTA research were compared, using one-way ANOVA. Principal component analysis was performed to provide a basis to combine similar variables. To investigate the determinants of KT level, multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results Based on a survey of 382 HTA researchers, it was found that HTA KT wasn’t widespread in China. Furthermore, results showed that no significant differences existed between the various HTA research fields. Factors, such as attitudes of researchers toward HTA and evidence utilization, academic ranks and linkages between researchers and policy-makers, had significant impact on HTA KT (p-valuespolicy-makers, policy-relevance of HTA research, practicality of HTA outcomes and making HTA reports easier to understand also contributed to predicting KT level. However, academic nature of HTA research was negatively associated with KT level. Conclusion KT from HTA to policy-making was influenced by many factors. Of particular importance were collaborations between researchers and policy-makers, ensuring policy relevance of HTA and making HTA evidence easier to understand by potential users. PMID:29300753

  3. A System Dynamics Analysis of Investment, Technology and Policy that Affect Natural Gas Exploration and Exploitation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has an increasing role in Chinese energy transformation. We present a system dynamics model of the natural gas industry in China. A new system dynamics model for natural gas companies based on reserve exploration and well construction as well as investment dynamics is proposed. The contribution of the paper is to analyze the influence of technology, investment and policy factors on the natural gas industry. We found that the dynamics of the main variables, including gas policy, cost of investment, accounting depreciation and exploitation technology, are sensitive to the sustainable development of resources. The simulations and results presented here will be helpful for government to reform policies, and for upstream companies to make decisions.

  4. Provision of assisted reproductive technology for single women in China: a new challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling Jing

    2004-01-01

    Following the enactment of the Jilin Regulation, single women, for the first time, are allowed to access assisted reproductive services in China. This paper is intended to analyze the arguments over whether single women are entitled to access assisted reproductive services, in relation to Chinese legal, ethical and social characteristics.

  5. Technological inputs and productivity growth in China's high-tech industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Szirmai, A.

    2003-01-01

    The relationships between investment in R&D and productivity growth at sectoral level have been well documented in the literature. So far little research has been done on this topic for China, in part due to data limitations. This paper presents an empirical study of productivity growth and R&D at

  6. Development of Gender-Specific Technologies. Evidence from China, Poland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Bo; Rolfstam, Max

    2013-01-01

    is the innovation system capable of utilizing experiences from women as well? The article examines two sets of technologies—agricultural equipment for rural application and teleservices—in two transition economies, Poland and China, with Sweden as a point of reference. The empirical data presented here on women...

  7. Electricity generation costs of concentrated solar power technologies in China based on operational plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhao; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    plants, and favorable renewable energy policies are expected to result in a large-scale CSP deployment in the next years. Detailed CSP studies for China are however hardly available. To fill this knowledge gap, this study collects plant-specific data in a national CSP database in collaboration with local...

  8. Benefits of agricultural technology innovation capacity to peasant farmers in rural poor areas: The case of DBN-Group, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Agri Eneji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available DaBeiNong (DBN Technology Group Co Ltd is a private enterprise, at the cutting edge of the agricultural high-tech industry in China. It has developed its innovative capabilities through Research and Development (R&D activities, skilled R&D personnel, new products, services, processes and markets. This study contributes to knowledge by identifying and constructing a model of the enterprise innovation capacity; the inputs and outputs of innovation in DBN and 9 other agricultural high-tech enterprises in China. We analyzed the enterprise technology innovation capacity and offered recommendations. Two sets of questionnaires were used; for the peasant farmers, and for the agricultural enterprises. We used the rank factors on an ordinal scale and simple percentages. We used econometric model to analyze seven factors of agricultural enterprise innovation capacity. The results show that R&D is strategic to Agricultural Enterprise Innovation Capacity (AETIC. However, the benefits to the peasant farmers need to be further intensified, and stepped up from its present average level. We found that enterprises with higher capital and larger sales have more R&D investment than those with smaller sales. Promoting agricultural research and rural development is crucial to pro-poor growth, given the potential for smallholder agriculture to rapidly absorb and adopt innovations.

  9. China's brick history and conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, C. X.; Cantisani, E.; Fratini, F.

    2017-01-01

    . This study focuses on Shanghai as a representative city in that transitional period, aims at addressing the true condition of the modern changes in China's brick history and the heritage today. The paper presents the first results of an interdisciplinary investigation. Fourteen brick samples and one sample...... critical issues: the provenance of the bricks, the hitherto undocumented changes in the manufacturing technology, and the condition of the brick material in terms of conservation....

  10. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Xi, Fengming; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO(2)e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kg ce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: Simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xudong; Xi Fengming; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Urban symbiosis creates compatibility of industrial development and waste management. → Mechanical technology leads to more CO 2 emission reduction. → Energy recovery technology leads to more fossil fuel saving. → Clean energy makes recycling technologies cleaner. → Demand management is crucial for realizing potential environmental gains of recycling. - Abstract: With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO 2 e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kgce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption.

  12. The Technological Input-output Efficiency of High-technology Enterprises in China Based on the DEA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-technology enterprises play the leader role in the regional economic progress, but nowadays technological resources have many problems such as division, separation and dispersing. It’s an urgent problem to be solved that how to evaluate input-output productivity of technological resources towards industries and regions scientifically and efficiently. Firstly the article analyzes the input-output efficiency status of technological resources at home and abroad. Then high-technology enterprises in 29 provinces, as the subject of evaluation, are analyzed for their operation efficiency by DEA. The article states the suggestions like balanced development among regions and reasonable structure of input and output by comparing the differences among regions. And the article estimates the technological resources configuration efficiency of 5 leader industries and explains the developmental characteristics and direction among industries. And on these bases the article conducts hypothesis testing for inner elements which might have an influence on the operational efficiency by Tobit model. Finally, the paper proposes many suggestions to the benefits of promoting the productivity of high-technology enterprise according to the comprehensive analysis.

  13. Addressing challenges of training a new generation of clinician-innovators through an interdisciplinary medical technology design program: Bench-to-Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Patrick D; Elder, Craig T; D'Ambrosio, Troy; Langell, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education has traditionally focused on training future physicians to be outstanding clinicians with basic and clinical science research skills. This focus has resulted in substantial knowledge gains, but a modest return on investment based on direct improvements in clinical care. In today's shifting healthcare landscape, a number of important challenges must be overcome to not only improve the delivery of healthcare, but to prepare future physicians to think outside the box, focus on and create healthcare innovations, and navigate the complex legal, business and regulatory hurdles of bringing innovation to the bedside. We created an interdisciplinary and experiential medical technology design competition to address these challenges and train medical students interested in moving new and innovative clinical solutions to the forefront of medicine. Medical students were partnered with business, law, design and engineering students to form interdisciplinary teams focused on developing solutions to unmet clinical needs. Over the course of six months teams were provided access to clinical and industry mentors, $500 prototyping funds, development facilities, and non-mandatory didactic lectures in ideation, design, intellectual property, FDA regulatory requirements, prototyping, market analysis, business plan development and capital acquisition. After four years of implementation, the program has supported 396 participants, seen the development of 91 novel medical devices, and launched the formation of 24 new companies. From our perspective, medical education programs that develop innovation training programs and shift incentives from purely traditional basic and clinical science research to also include high-risk innovation will see increased student engagement in improving healthcare delivery and an increase in the quality and quantity of innovative solutions to medical problems being brought to market.

  14. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  15. Development of the neutron technology for measuring the moisture content in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingwu; Liu Shengkang; Zhang Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    According to measuring mode (in-hopper, surface, sampling neutron moisture gauge), the development and application of neutron moisture gauge in china were introduced, which include the following course from only measuring moisture content of soil to monitoring moisture content of farmland and saving water for irrigating farmland, from measuring moisture content of pellet to coke and coal material, from only measuring moisture content to computerized neutron moisture gauges with density compensation and o f high precision. (authors)

  16. Buy, Build, or Steal: China’s Quest for Advanced Military Aviation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    from Britain (1975) SA–321 Super Frelon helicopter from France (1977) Coproduce Chengdu J–5A: Chinese MiG–17PF (1964) Spey fan-jet engine...affected by the Cultural Revolution as capable individuals with managerial and planning roles in key enterprises were branded bourgeoisie ...helicopter (1980) U.S. “Peace Pearl” transfer of advanced avionics for J–8 fighters (1984) Coproduce France gives China production rights for

  17. MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology applied in China: combustion temperature, flue gas loss and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhe; Zhang, Shihong; Li, Xiangpeng; Shao, Jingai; Wang, Ke; Chen, Hanping

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the application prospect of MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology in China, the technical and economical analyses of a municipal solid waste (MSW) grate furnace with oxy-fuel incineration technology in comparison to co-incineration with coal are performed. The rated capacity of the grate furnace is 350 tonnes MSW per day. When raw MSW is burned, the amount of pure oxygen injected should be about 14.5 wt.% under 25% O2 oxy-fuel combustion conditions with the mode of oxygen supply determined by the actual situation. According to the isothermal combustion temperature (Ta), the combustion effect of 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (α = 1.43) is identical with that of MSW co-incineration with 20% mass ratio of coal (α = 1.91). However, the former is better than the latter in terms of plant cost, flue gas loss, and environmental impact. Despite the lower costs of MSW co-incineration with mass ratio of 5% and 10% coal (α = 1.91), 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (α = 1.43) is far more advantageous in combustion and pollutant control. Conventional combustion flue gas loss (q2) for co-incineration with 0% coal, 20% coal, 10% coal, 5% coal are around 17%, 13%, 14% and 15%, respectively, while that under the condition of 25% O2 oxy-enriched combustion is approximately 12% (α = 1.43). Clearly, q2 of oxy-enriched incineration is less than other methods under the same combustion conditions. High moisture content presents challenges for MSW incineration, therefore it is necessary to dry MSW prior to incineration, and making oxy-enriched incineration technology achieves higher combustion temperature and lower flue gas loss. In conclusion, based on technical and economical analysis, MSW oxy-enriched incineration retains obvious advantages and demonstrates great future prospects for MSW incineration in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What do we need from intermediaries for technology transfer to China?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2012-01-01

    . To facilitate technology transfer between technology providers and recipients and to compensate for the weakness in the system of innovation, the role of technology intermediaries as bridging organizations has been widely recognized and discussed. This study deepens our understanding of the role...

  19. Technology line and case analysis of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in Northern heating areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    The building area in northern heating areas accounting for 70% of the total land area in China is 6,500,000,000 m 2 . The average heating energy consumption in northern China is 100-200% times more than developed countries in the same latitude. This paper introduced firstly the heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit background of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China organized by mohurd and MOF, and then put forward the total principle and contents of retrofit. Through analyzing some retrofit cases in Germany, Poland and China, some technological experiences were summarized and finally a technology line suitable for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China which involved retrofit for heat metering and temperature regulation of heating systems, heat balance of heat source and network, and building envelope was described to provide a systematic, scientific, technological guide for the retrofit projects of 0.15 billion m 2 in 'the Eleventh Five-Year Plan' period.

  20. Applied Technologies and Prospects of Conformance Control Treatments in China Technologies et perspectives pour l’amélioration du profil de balayage dans les champs pétroliers matures produits par injection d’eau en Chine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuzhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available China is the largest user of chemical-based conformance control treatments and a series of technologies have been successfully developed and deployed in recent years. This paper first shows the milestones of development and application of conformance control technologies in China. Then integrated conformance control technologies are reviewed followed by the lessons we have learned, and then a few major specific conformance control technologies are addressed, including tracer injection and channels explanation, potentiometric testing to identify areal sweep efficiency, Pressure Index (PI decisionmaking technology to select well candidate, complementary decision-making technology to select well candidate and design application parameters, and major chemicals for in-depth fluid diversion technologies. In addition, this paper also describes the principles and applications of some promising technologies of combined chemical-based conformance treatment with other EOR/IOR process, including the combination technology of surfactant and water shutoff, profile control and mini-scale surfactant flooding, acid treatment and profile control treatment. Finally, this paper summarizes the problems and challenges faced by mature water flooded oilfields in China. Based on recent well tests, tracer testing and interpretation, and previous water control treatment experience, it appears that channels or high permeability streaks are common in mature water flooded oilfields. Some research directions and promising technologies are suggested. La Chine est le plus grand utilisateur de méthodes chimiques pour l’amélioration du profil de balayage de l’eau pour l’exploitation des champs pétroliers matures. Toute une série de technologies y ont d’ailleurs été créées et déployées avec succès ces dernières années. Cet article commence par présenter les étapes du développement et de la mise en place de ces technologies de contrôle de profil en Chine

  1. Industrial influences on R&D transfer to China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2010-01-01

    , and innovation theory, which is illustrated in two cases from globally leading MNCs from different industries and technological fields which have established R&D units in China. It addresses the issue of industrial influences on R&D transfer to emerging markets, and the importance of complementary assets...... the argument that complementary assets are important for R&D in emerging markets. Implications for management in China are outlined. The term captive knowledge transfer is coined....

  2. When new technology joins old documents and east meets west: virtually reconstructing the Fisher Island Pagoda Lighthouse (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K.H. Leung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Located on the route between Xiamen and Taiwan (China, the Penghu (Pescadores Islands are an archipelago and the site of a military garrison. The second largest island, Xiyu or Fisher Island, was accordingly an obvious point to build a navigational marker to guide sailors. Records indicate that some type of a marker, in the form of a tower or pagoda, was constructed in the 17thcentury. However, in 1778the original was replaced by a different sort of pagoda tower. The new structure has long been known to have been a purpose fully designed lighthouse. Although today’s Yuwengdao lighthouse, built in 1875, has become a famous heritage landmark, the earlier 1778 structure, it can be argued has greater heritage significance in that it was an entirely original creation preceding the introduction of western lighthouse technology in China by nearly a century. Thanks to the fortunate discovery of a hitherto unknown photograph of this earlier lighthouse backed by further research in early navigational documents, gazetteers, charts and inscriptions and The authors have been able to make a 3D virtual reconstruction using state-of-the-art Revit software and thus answer several research questions about this old lighthouse pagoda, including dimensions, location, orientation, function and materials.

  3. [Predictive distribution and planting GAP of Cyathula officinalis in China based on 3S technology and MaxEnt modelling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Yan; He, Lan; Chen, Jia-Li; Dong, Guang; Cheng, Wu-Xue

    2017-11-01

    Research on predictive distribution and planting GAP of Cyathula officinalis in China is helpful to provide scientific basis for its protection and planting popularization. According to the data in 63 distribution sites and 49 ecological variables, using MaxEnt ecological niche model and 3S technology, we performed a quantitative analysis of suitable distribution and planting GAP of C. officinalis in China. Our results show that: ① the area of suitable distribution of C. officinalis is about 634 385.80 km² in total, and mainly in Northeastern and Southeastern Sichuan, Northern and Southeastern Yunnan, Western and Southwestern Guizhou, Southwestern and Northeastern Chongqing, Southwestern Shaanxi, Southeastern Gansu, Western Guangxi, Southeastern Tibet. ② The main ecological factors determining the potential distribution are precipitation, altitude, minimum temperature of coldest month, soil type, monthly mean temperature. ③ The planting GAP region are mainly in Guangyuan, Mianyang, Ya'an, Leshan, Liangshan, Panzhihua of Sichuan province, Hanzhong of Shaanxi province, Dali, Nujiang, Chuxiong, Baoshan, Qujing, Wenshan of Yunnan province, southwestern autonomous prefecture in Guizhou province. The results are of great significance for realizing the growth environment, predicting the potential distribution and promoting planting popularization for C. officinalis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Stories From the Field: The Use of Information and Communication Technologies to Address the Health Needs of Underserved Populations in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farach, Nasim; Faba, Gladys; Julian, Soroya; Mejía, Felipe; Cabieses, Báltica; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Cortinois, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    As their availability grew exponentially in the last 20 years, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in health has been widely espoused, with many emphasizing their potential to decrease health inequities. Nonetheless, there is scarce availability of information regarding ICT as tools to further equity in health, specifically in Latin American and Caribbean settings. Our aim was to identify initiatives that used ICT to address the health needs of underserved populations in Latin America and Caribbean. Among these projects, explore the rationale behind the selection of ICT as a key component, probe perceptions regarding contributions to health equity, and describe the challenges faced during implementation. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study. Interviews were completed via Skype or face-to-face meetings using a semistructured interview guide. Following participant consent, interviews were audio recorded and verbatim transcriptions were developed. All transcriptions were coded using ATLASti7 software. The text was analyzed for patterns, shared themes, and diverging opinions. Emerging findings were reviewed by all interviewers and shared with participants for feedback. We interviewed representatives from eight organizations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries that prominently employed ICT in health communication, advocacy, or surveillance projects. ICT expanded project's geographic coverage, increased their reach into marginalized or hard-to-reach groups, and allowed real-time data collection. Perceptions of contributions to health equity resided mainly in the provision of health information and linkage to health services to members of groups experiencing greater morbidity because of poverty, remote place of residence, lack of relevant public programs, and/or stigma and discrimination, and in more timely responses by authorities to the health needs of these groups as a result of the increased availability of strategic

  5. Developments and Prospects of Long-Span High-Speed Railway Bridge Technologies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shunquan Qin; Zongyu Gao

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid developments of the high-speed railway in China, a great number of long-span bridges have been constructed in order to cross rivers and gorges. At present, the longest main span of a constructed high-speed railway bridge is only 630 m. The main span of Hutong Yangtze River Bridge and of Wufengshan Yangtze River Bridge, which are under construction, will be much longer, at 1092 m each. In order to overcome the technical issues that originate from the extremely large dead loading...

  6. History of establishment of scientific technology law focused on exchanges of Korea, China and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyeong Hui

    1990-10-01

    This book introduces science and technology promotion related law, industrial technology related law, resources and energy related law, nuclear energy related law, information and communication related law, intellectual property right related law, and environment related law. It explains process of development of 7 laws in threes countries and relations of three countries exchanges. It also covers special law for science and technology innovation, electric utility law, petroleum enterprise law, telecommunication related law, law of settlement of digital divide, and information-oriented law.

  7. The dual role of local sites in assisting firms with developing technological capabilities: Evidence from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Zhou, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    .g., knowledge, human capital) and the role of motivating multinational companies (MNCs) to upgrade their local operations in developing countries so as to perform more innovation activities. Few articles are presented that examine the role of local sites in the learning and technological-capability building......, and the collaborations with local industrial community firms positively influence the relationship between firms' international inward technology licensing and technological capabilities. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. A study to promote a collaboration of basic and fundamental R and D for nuclear energy technology development between Korea and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hark Rho; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hyun Jun; Park, Hyun Sik; Song, Chul Hwa; Chang, Jong Hwa; Chun, Se Young; Lee, Yong Joo; Choi, Byung Ho

    2003-11-01

    The goal of this study was to strengthen an cooperation basis of the B group through activating an operation of the WGSRD. The contents of this study were 1.Activating an operation of the WGSRD, 2. Promoting technology and information exchanges of B Group between two countries, 3. Promoting expert-exchange programs of B Group between two countries, 4. Establishing a reciprocal cooperation basis of each project of B Group. This study recommended that future cooperation between China and Korea should focus on promotion of JRC-establishment with an emphasis of following three areas; 1. to promote to establish JRC in Korea side for the areas of more developed nuclear technologies than China such as research reactor in order to contribute to construct a far-eastern Asia nuclear R and D hub, 2. to promote reciprocal cooperation for areas of nuclear thermal-hydraulics and nuclear data in order to inducing an innovation of them, 3. to promote to establish JRC in China side for areas of less developed nuclear technologies than China such as HTGR and laser in order of effective acquisition of advanced technologies

  9. The roles of information technology in global chain supply: a multiple case study of multinational companies of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mao; Duan, Wanchun

    2007-12-01

    Nowadays many Chinese companies have being becoming more and more international. Therefore, these Chinese companies have to face global supply chains rather than the former domestic ones. The use of information technology (IT) is considered a prerequisite for the effective control of today's complex global supply chains. Based on empirical data from 10 multinational companies of China, this paper presents a classification of the ways in which companies use IT in SCM, and examines the drivers for these different utilization types. According to the findings of this research, the purposes of using of IT in SCM can be divided into 1) transaction processing, 2) supply chain planning and collaboration, and 3) order tracking and delivery coordination. The findings further suggest that the drivers between these three uses of IT in SCM differ.

  10. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiaochun; Shen, Yi; Shao, Shegang

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and...

  11. A Spatial, Social and Environmental Study of Tuberculosis in China Using Statistical and GIS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a major public health problem in China, and its incidence shows certain regional disparities. Systematic investigations of the social and environmental factors influencing TB are necessary for the prevention and control of the disease. Data on cases were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease and Prevention. Social and environmental variables were tabulated to investigate the latent factor structure of the data using exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Partial least square path modeling (PLS-PM was used to analyze the complex causal relationship and hysteresis effects between the factors and TB prevalence. A geographically weighted regression (GWR model was used to explore the local association between factors and TB prevalence. EFA and PLS-PM indicated significant associations between TB prevalence and its latent factors. Altitude, longitude, climate, and education burden played an important role; primary industry employment, population density, air quality, and economic level had hysteresis with different lag time; health service and unemployment played a limited role but had limited hysteresis. Additionally, the GWR model showed that each latent factor had different effects on TB prevalence in different areas. It is necessary to formulate regional measures and strategies for TB control and prevention in China according to the local regional effects of specific factors.

  12. When does inward technology licensing facilitate firms’ NPD performance? Evidence from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Salomo, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, many firms have found inward technology licensing a relatively quick and inexpensive way for new product development (NPD) as compared to internal R&D started. Although the literature on NPD has suggested some advantages and disadvantages regarding NPD by means of inward technology ...

  13. The Learning Process and Technological Change in Wind Power: Evidence from China's CDM Wind Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian; Popp, David

    2016-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a project-based carbon trade mechanism that subsidizes the users of climate-friendly technologies and encourages technology transfer. The CDM has provided financial support for a large share of Chinese wind projects since 2002. Using pooled cross-sectional data of 486 registered CDM wind projects in China…

  14. Analysis of the lack of scientific and technological talents of high-level women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2017-08-01

    The growth and development of high-level female scientific and technological talents has become a global problem, facing severe challenges. The lack of high-level women in science and technology has become a global problem. How to recruit and help female scientists and technological talents grow raises awareness from the industry. To find out the main reasons for the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talent. This paper analyses the impact of gender discrimination on the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talents, the impact of disciplinary differences on female roles. The main reasons are: women’s natural disadvantage of mathematical thinking; female birth, the traditional culture on the role of women and the impact of values.

  15. Challenges of Implementing New Technologies for Sustainable Energy. Opening address at the Sixth Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, London, 13-16 September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgen Koch, Hans

    To meet the commitments made in Kyoto, energy-related CO 2 emissions would have to fall to almost 30% below the level projected for a "Business-As-Usual" scenario. Meeting this goal will require a large-scale shift toward climate-friendly technologies such as fuel cells, which have a large long-term potential for both stationary generation and transportation. The deployment of a technology is the last major stage in the process of technological shift. Climate-friendly technologies are not being deployed at a sufficient rate or in sufficient amount to allow IEA countries to meet their targets. Hence, if technology is to play an important roll in reducing emissions within the Kyoto time frame (2008-2012) and beyond, immediate and sustained action to accelerate technology deployment will be required. Obstacles in the way of the deployment of technologies that are ready or near-ready for normal use have come to be referred to as market barriers. The simplest yet most significant form of market barrier to a new technology is the out-of-pocket cost to the user relative to the cost of technologies currently in use. Some market barriers also involve market failure, where the market fails to take account of all the costs and benefits involved, such as omitting external environmental costs, and therefore retard the deployment of more environmentally sustainable technologies. Other barriers include poor information dissemination, excessive and costly regulations, slow capital turnover rates, and inadequate financing. Efforts by governments to alleviate market barriers play an important role to complement private-sector activities, and there are many policies and measures each government could take. In addition, international technology collaboration can help promote the best use of available R&D resources and can contribute to more effective deployment of the result of research and development by sharing costs, pooling information and avoiding duplication of efforts.

  16. Toilet revolution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shikun; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Mang, Heinz-Peter; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Lingling

    2018-06-15

    The wide-spread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value. Opportunities for implementing the toilet revolution include: fulfilling Millennium Development Goals and new Sustainable Development Goals; government support at all levels for popularizing sanitary toilet; environmental protection to alleviate wastewater pollution; resource recovery from human waste and disease prevention for health and wellbeing improvement. Meanwhile, the challenges faced are: insufficient funding and policy support, regional imbalance and lagging approval processes, weak sanitary awareness and low acceptance of new toilets, lack of R&D and service system. The toilet revolution requires a concerted effort from many governmental departments. It needs to address not only technology implementation, but also social acceptance, economic affordability, maintenance issues and, increasingly, gender considerations. Aligned with the ecological sanitation principles, it calls for understanding issues across the entire sanitation service chain. Public-private partnership is also recommended to absorb private capital to make up the lack of funds, as well as arouse the enthusiasm of the public. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  18. The New Digital [St]age: Barriers to the Adoption and Adaptation of New Technologies to Deliver Extension Programming and How to Address Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of social media and the need for statewide program cohesiveness, The Ohio State University Extension has the opportunity to position itself as a catalyst for technology adoption and adaptation nationwide. Unfortunately, many barriers exist to the successful use and implementation of technology, including an organizational structure…

  19. Ineffective healthcare technology management in Benin’s public health sector: the perceptions of key actors and their ability to address the main problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houngbo, P.T.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Bunders- Aelen, J.G.F.; Medenou, D.; Dakpanon, L.Y.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Coleman, H.L.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low-income countries face many contextual challenges to manage healthcare technologies effectively, as the majority are imported and resources are constrained to a greater extent. Previous healthcare technology management (HTM) policies in Benin have failed to produce better quality of

  20. China's national climate change programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The National Climate Change Program identifies China's basic stand, current achievements and challenges as well as its goals, principles and key areas of efforts in the coming years on the issue of climate change. Contents of the document are: climate change and corresponding efforts in China; Impacts and challenges of climate change on China; Guidelines, principles and objectives of China to address climate change; China's policies and measures to address climate change; and China's position on key climate change issues and needs for international cooperation. Measures to mitigate greenhouse gases include: to expedite the constitution and amendment of laws and regulations that are favourable to greenhouse gas mitigation (including amending the Law on the Coal Industry and Electric Power of the People's Republic of China); to prepare or improve national energy programmes and programmes for coal, electricity etc.; to develop 600 MW or above supercritical units and large combined-cycle units and other with efficient and clean power generation technologies; to develop heat and power cogeneration; to develop coal-bed methane and coal-mine methane industry; to develop technologies for the clean and efficient development and utilisation of coal. Emphasis will be on the research and development of highly-efficient coal mining technologies, efficient power generation technologies such as heavy-duty gas turbines, integrated gasification combined cycle, high-pressure, high-temperature ultra supercritical unit and large-scale supercritical circulation fluid bed boilers; vigorously develop coal liquefaction, gasification and coal-chemistry and other technologies for coal conversion, coal gasification based multi-generation systems technology, and carbon dioxide capture, utilization and storage technologies. In the iron and steel industry many technological improvements are recommended to be made.

  1. The development and application of silicon neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technology in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Chenyang; Sun Zhiyong; Ke Guotu, Lu Cungang; Shen Feng; Chen Huiqiang

    2009-01-01

    The research and development history of silicon Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) technology and its applications at home and abroad are introduced in this paper. The advantages of NTD, compared with conventional technology of doping, are narrated. The principle of NTD as well as the implementation of the main procedures related to Si NTD is explained. The market demand tendency is prospected, and the advanced measures on NTD quality control are described. (authors)

  2. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  3. Research status and future trends on surface pre-grouting technology in reforming wall rock of vertical shafts in coal mines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    In the mine construction, the surface pre-grouting technology is an important method to prevent water blast in excavation process of vertical shaft when the shaft must pass through the thick, water-rich and high water-pressure bedrock aquifer. It has been nearly 60 years since the technology was used to reform wall rock of vertical shaft in coal mine in China for the first time, and the existing technology can basically meet the needs of constructing 1000m deep vertical shaft. Firstly, the article introduces that in view of Magg’s spherical seepage theory and Karol’s spherical seepage theory, Chinese scholars found that the diffusion of grout from borehole into the surrounding strata in horizontal direction is irregular through a lot of research and engineering practice of using the surface pre-grouting technology to reform wall rock of vertical shafts, and put forward the selecting principles of grout’s effective diffusion radius in one grouting engineering; Secondly, according to the shape of the grouting boreholes, surface pre-grouting technology of vertical shaft is divided into two stages: vertical borehole stage and S-type borehole stage. Thirdly, the development status of grouting materials and grouting equipment for the technology is introduced. Fourthly, grouting mode, stage height and pressure of the technology are introduced. Finally, it points out that with the increasing depth of coal mining in China, the technology of reforming wall rock of 1000~2000m deep vertical shafts will face many problems, such as grouting theory, grouting equipment, grouting finishing standard, testing and evaluation of grouting effect, and so on. And it put forward a preliminary approach to solving these problems. This paper points out future research directions of the surface pre-grouting technology in China.

  4. Establishment of 2000 National Geodetic Control Network of China and It’s Technological Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junyong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 2000’ National Geodetic Control Network of China is an important fundamental scientific engineering project in China. It consists of three parts which are establishment of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network, its combination adjustment with national astro-geodetic network and 2000 National Gravity Fundamental network. It provides the high precise coordinate reference and gravity reference for three dimensional geo-center national coordinates system and gravity system, respectively. Additionally, it provides precise unified geometric and physical geodesy information for the economic construction, the national defense and the scientific research. Methods: 1. The larger number of data are processed in triple networks adjustment of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network, which are chosen from the GPS monitoring stations, such as grade A, B of national GPS network , grade 1st and 2nd of national GPS network, crustal movement observation network of China, and others crustal deformation monitoring stations. Finally, the data of 2666 GPS stations are used in the data processing of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network, including 124 external stations and 2542 internal stations. In order to the results of triple networks adjustment are corresponding to that of three dimensional geo-center coordinates system, ITRF 97 and epoch 2000.0 are chosen as the coordinate reference frame and epoch reference, respectively. The methods of “strong reference” and “weak reference” are combined used in the control data selection of triple networks adjustment. The scale and rotation scales are adopted for each sub network. The least square adjustment is firstly adopted in each sub network adjustment. The data of obvious abnormal baselines are found and rejected firstly. And the method of double factor robust estimation is adopted in the data processing. 2. The combined adjustment of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network and national astro-geodetic network is

  5. Patent licensing and selling to China as a strategy of technology transfer in a New Era: A perspective of European firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Meijer, Elise; Duysters, Geert

    2010-01-01

    International technology transfer enables firms in developed countries to exploit the value of their technological innovations, and provides firms in developing countries with access to technological and organizational knowledge. This study aims to present a timely description of the experience...... and intentions of EU firms with regard to patent licensing and/or selling to China in this new era. Firms from 12 European countries in various industries were surveyed by an online questionnaire. We found that (1) large and small EU firms are very different with regard to the number of non...

  6. Toward Technology-Sensitive Catching-Up Policies: Insights from Renewable Energy in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binz, Christian; Gosens, Jorrit; Hansen, Teis

    2017-01-01

    , but were of limited importance in the early solar PV industry, and resulted only in a limited period of rapid growth in the biomass power plant industry. The relative progress achieved in these three industries is not related to top-down policy guidance alone, but also to private sector initiative......, international interdependencies, and flexibility in adapting policy mixes to each industry's technological characteristics. These results suggest that policy makers in newly industrializing countries (NICs) should avoid drafting generic sector plans, but should tailor plans to individual industries, and respond...... to changing policy support needs as technological capacities and global competitiveness develop....

  7. High-resolution inventory of technologies, activities, and emissions of coal-fired power plants in China from 1990 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, F.; Zheng, B.; He, K.B. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control; Zhang, Q. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling; Tong, D.; Li, M. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control; Huo, H. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Energy, Environment and Economy

    2015-07-01

    This paper, which focuses on emissions from China's coal-fired power plants during 1990-2010, is the second in a series of papers that aims to develop a high-resolution emission inventory for China. This is the first time that emissions from China's coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20-year period. This inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this study, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units and supplements with aggregated data where unit-based information is not available. Between 1990 and 2010, compared to a 479 % growth in coal consumption, emissions from China's coal-fired power plants increased by 56, 335, and 442 % for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, respectively, and decreased by 23 and 27 % for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} respectively. Driven by the accelerated economic growth, large power plants were constructed throughout the country after 2000, resulting in a dramatic growth in emissions. The growth trend of emissions has been effectively curbed since 2005 due to strengthened emission control measures including the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and the optimization of the generation fleet mix by promoting large units and decommissioning small ones. Compared to previous emission inventories, CPED significantly improved the spatial resolution and temporal profile of the power plant emission inventory in China by extensive use of underlying data at unit level. The new inventory developed in this study will enable a close examination of temporal and spatial variations of power plant emissions in China and will help to improve the performances of chemical transport models by providing more accurate emission data.

  8. Integrative Curriculum Planning in Technological and Vocational Education in Taiwan, Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert T. Y.

    Taiwan is facing these three challenges: cultivating a world-class work force, preventing shortages of industry-related workers, and increasing industrial competitiveness. To meet them, technological and vocational education (TVE) needs to integrate the curricula among the technical arts programs in junior high schools, senior vocational high…

  9. Fiscal 1998 research report. Research cooperation on car energy and environmental technology based on ITS technology in China; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Chugoku ni okeru ITS gijutsu wo mochiita jidosha energy kankyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This research aims at preparation of the car energy/environmental vision based on ITS (intelligent transport system) technology in China, enhancement of the transport planning ability of Qinghua University, and promotion of effective energy use in China. The following activities were carried out concretely: Survey on the actual traffic situation by Qinghua University, analysis of environment deterioration factors based on the survey result, estimation of a traffic environment improvement effect, study on traffic flow simulation technique based on traffic engineering, and study on traffic planning technique. As the diffusion strategy of ITS along Chinese circumstances, standardization and improvement of a multi- modal traffic system, navigation and its application system, and ETC (electronic toll collection) system are promising. Expectation for Japan and Japanese roles are as follows: Improvement of signal control, provision of information systems such as navigation, discussion on ITS technology such as ETC with Chinese specialists, and feasibility study on introduction of ITS technology for every Chinese district. (NEDO)

  10. Advance the Earth Science Education in China by Using New Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, R.; Wang, X.; Sun, L.

    2013-12-01

    With the development of Chinese economy, science and technology, as well as the increasing demand of the persons with knowledge and experience in earth science and geological exploration, the higher education of earth science has been boosted in recent years. There are 2,000 to 3,000 students studying earth science every year and many of them will take part in scientific research and engineering technology work around the world after graduation, which increased the demand of educators, both in quantity and quality. However, the fact is that there is a huge gap between the demand and the current number of educators due to the explosion of students, which makes the reform of traditional education methods inevitable. There is great significance in doing research on the teaching methods catering to a large number of students. Some research contents and result based on the reform of education methods has been conducted. We integrate the teaching contents with the cutting-edge research projects and stress significance of earth science, which will greatly enhance the student's enthusiasm of it. Moreover. New technology will be applied to solve the problem that every teacher are responsible for 100~150 students in one courses. For instance, building the Internet platform where teachers and the students can discuss the courses contents, read the latest scientific articles. With the numerical simulation technology, the internal structure of the Earth, geological phenomena, characteristics of ore body, geophysical and hydrological fields, etc. can be simulated and the experiments and teaching practice can be demonstrated via video technology. It can also be used to design algorithm statistics and assessment and monitor teaching effect. Students are separated into small groups to take research training with their personal tutor at the beginning of the first semester, which will increase the opportunities for students to communicate with educators and solve the problem that the

  11. Marginal abatement cost and carbon reduction potential outlook of key energy efficiency technologies in China's building sector to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, He; Wei, Qingpeng; Wang, Hailin

    2014-01-01

    China achieved an energy savings of 67.5 Mtce in the building sector at the end of the 11th Five-Year Plan and set a new target of 116 Mtce by the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan. In this paper, an improved bottom-up model is developed to assess the carbon abatement potential and marginal abatement cost (MAC) of 34 selected energy-saving technologies/measures for China's building sector. The total reduction potential is 499.8 million t-CO 2 by 2030. 4.8 Gt-CO 2 potential will be achieved cumulatively to 2030. By 2030, total primary energy consumption of Chinese building sector will rise continuously to 1343 Mtce in the reference scenario and 1114 Mtce in the carbon reduction scenario. Total carbon dioxide emission will rise to 2.39 Gt-CO 2 and 1.9 Gt-CO 2 in two scenarios separately. The average carbon abatement cost of the aforementioned technologies is 19.5 $/t-CO 2 . The analysis reveals that strengthening successfully energy-saving technologies is important, especially for the residential building sector. The central government's direct investments in such technologies should be reduced without imposing significant negative effects. - Highlights: • MAC of 34 energy-saving technologies of China's building sector is calculated. • Energy use and CO 2 emission of China's building sector by 2030 is forecasted. • The reference and the carbon reduction scenarios are compared

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in China by cleaner coal technology towards 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Chen, Sha

    2015-01-01

    the complete life cycle modeling of CCTs. The advanced technologies include super-critical (super-C), ultra super-critical (USC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The results show that the higher efficiency technologies have lower potential impacts. Compared with the average level of power...... generation technology, CO2 emissions reduction is 6.4% for super-C, 37.4% for USC and 61.5% for IGCC. Four coal power scenarios are developed based on the assumption of potential investment power for CCTs in 2020, which are super-C, USC, USC and old low efficiency generation substitution by USC, IGCC...... and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The CO2 emissions intensity is 1.93 kg/kWh for super-C, 1.69 kg/kWh for USC, 1.59 kg/kWh for USC + replacement and 1.29 kg/kWh for IGCC + CCS. The CO2 emissions intensity was 1.95 kg/kWh in 2010, which had decreased 5.5% compared with the level in 2005. The energy...

  13. The internet of things and the development of network technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruxin; Zhao, Jianzhen; Ma, Hangtong

    2018-04-01

    The English name of the Internet of Things the Internet of Things, referred to as: the IOT. Internet of Things through the pass, radio frequency identification technology, global positioning system technology, real-time acquisition of any monitoring, connectivity, interactive objects or processes, collecting their sound, light, heat, electricity, mechanics, chemistry, biology, the location of a variety of the information you need network access through a variety of possible things and things, objects and people in the Pan-link intelligent perception of items and processes, identification and management. The Internet of Things IntelliSense recognition technology and pervasive computing, ubiquitous network integration application, known as the third wave of the world's information industry development following the computer, the Internet. Not so much the Internet of Things is a network, as Internet of Things services and applications, Internet of Things is also seen as Internet application development. Therefore, the application of innovation is the core of the development of Internet of Things, and 2.0 of the user experience as the core innovation is the soul of Things.

  14. GIS-based technology for marine geohazards in LW3-1 Gas Field of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Liu, Lejun; Li, Xishuang; Hu, Guanghai; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The exploration and exploitation of deep-water oil-gas are apt to be suffered from high-risk geo-hazards such as submarine landslide, soft clay creep, shallow gas, excess pore-water pressure, mud volcano or mud diaper, salt dome and so on. Therefore, it is necessary to survey the seafloor topography, identify the unfavourable geological risks and investigate their environment and mechanism before exploiting the deep-water oil-gas. Because of complex environment, the submarine phenomenon and features, like marine geohazards, can not be recognized directly. Multi-disciplinary data are acquired and analysed comprehensively in order to get more clear understanding about the submarine processes. The data include multi-beam bathymetry data, sidescan sonar images, seismic data, shallow-bottom profiling images, boring data, etc.. Such data sets nowadays increase rapidly to large amounts, but may be heterogeneous and have different resolutions. It is difficult to make good management and utilization of such submarine data with traditional means. GIS technology can provide efficient and powerful tools or services in such aspects as spatial data management, processing, analysis and visualization. They further promote the submarine scientific research and engineering development. The Liwan 3-1 Gas Field, the first deep-water gas field in China, is located in the Zhu II Depression in the Zhujiang Basin along the continental slope of the northern South China Sea. The exploitation of this field is designed to establish subsea wellhead and to use submarine pipeline for the transportation of oil. The deep-water section of the pipeline route in the gas field is to be selected to pass through the northern continental slope of the South China Sea. To avoid huge economic loss and ecological environmental damage, it is necessary to evaluate the geo-hazards for the establishment and safe operation of the pipeline. Based on previous scientific research results, several survey cruises have

  15. Space Law and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchetti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few years, China has made remarkable achievements in the space sector and become one of the most relevant players in the outer space domain. Highlights of this process have been the deployment in orbit of the first Chinese space station, Tiangong-1, on September 29, 2011; and the landing of the Yutu rover on the lunar surface on December 14, 2013. While technological developments have occurred at such a rapid pace, the same cannot be said of the regulatory framework governing Chinese space activities, which still lays at its infant stage. Indeed, unlike other major space-faring countries, China lacks comprehensive and uniform national space legislation; as of now, China has enacted two low-level administrative regulations addressing the issues of launching and registration of space objects. With the growth of the Chinese space program, such a lack of a structured national space law is beginning to show its limits and to create concerns about its negative impact on business opportunities and the ability of China to fully comply with international obligations. One should keep in mind that the international space treaties (China is part to four international space law treaties) are not self-executing, thus requiring States to adopt domestic measures to ensure their effective implementation. Importantly, Chinese authorities appear to be aware of these issues; as stated by the secretary-general of the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) in 2014, national space law has been listed in the national legislation plan and the CNSA is directly engaged in such a process. However, questions remain as to how this drafting process will be conducted and what legal form and content the law will have. For example, China could either decide to proceed with a gradual approach, consisting in the adoption of laws addressing selected issues to be eventually assembled into one single law; or to directly move to the adoption of one comprehensive law. In any case, if

  16. Opening Address [International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris, France, March 4-7, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2013-01-01

    Public confidence in nuclear power was greatly shaken by the Fukushima Daiichi accident. It will take time to rebuild that confidence. This will only be possible if everyone involved in nuclear power has a total commitment to safety and if the sector is open and transparent. The public need to be reassured that nuclear energy is efficient and safe, can mitigate the effects of climate change and can play a key role in meeting the growing global demand for energy. Fast reactors and related fuel cycles will be important for the long-term sustainability of nuclear power. This innovative technology has the potential to ensure that energy resources which would run out in a few hundred years, using today’s technology, will actually last several thousand years. Fast reactors also reduce the volume and toxicity of the final waste. China’s Experimental Fast Reactor has been connected to the grid. Work is at an advanced stage on construction of India’s 500 MW(e) Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor and of the large BN-800 reactor in the Russian Federation. Interest in fast reactors with closed fuel cycles is increasing steadily. A number of emerging economies are joining the existing fast reactor technology-holders. Considerable R & D work is being done on advanced designs with enhanced safety characteristics. It is important to gather the operational experience of countries with operating fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities. This can help to achieve higher levels of safety. Events such as the Joint GIF-IAEA Workshop on the safety of sodium-cooled fast reactors last week are a useful way of doing this. They also help to ensure that relevant lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi accident are learned. The IAEA remains the unique collaboration forum for ensuring continued progress in fast reactor technology. We provide an umbrella for knowledge preservation, information exchange and collaborative R&D in which resources and expertise are pooled

  17. 25 November 2008 - State Councilor in charge of Science, Technology and Education Y. Liu, People's Repblic of China, visiting AMS experiment with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and AMS Collaborator Y. Yang.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    25 November 2008 - State Councilor in charge of Science, Technology and Education Y. Liu, People's Repblic of China, visiting AMS experiment with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and AMS Collaborator Y. Yang.

  18. An Updating System for the Gridded Population Database of China Based on Remote Sensing, GIS and Spatial Database Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohuan; Huang, Yaohuan; Dong, Pinliang; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Honghui

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of population is closely related to land use and land cover (LULC) patterns on both regional and global scales. Population can be redistributed onto geo-referenced square grids according to this relation. In the past decades, various approaches to monitoring LULC using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been developed, which makes it possible for efficient updating of geo-referenced population data. A Spatial Population Updating System (SPUS) is developed for updating the gridded population database of China based on remote sensing, GIS and spatial database technologies, with a spatial resolution of 1 km by 1 km. The SPUS can process standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS L1B) data integrated with a Pattern Decomposition Method (PDM) and an LULC-Conversion Model to obtain patterns of land use and land cover, and provide input parameters for a Population Spatialization Model (PSM). The PSM embedded in SPUS is used for generating 1 km by 1 km gridded population data in each population distribution region based on natural and socio-economic variables. Validation results from finer township-level census data of Yishui County suggest that the gridded population database produced by the SPUS is reliable. PMID:22399959

  19. An Updating System for the Gridded Population Database of China Based on Remote Sensing, GIS and Spatial Database Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Yang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of population is closely related to land use and land cover (LULC patterns on both regional and global scales. Population can be redistributed onto geo-referenced square grids according to this relation. In the past decades, various approaches to monitoring LULC using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS have been developed, which makes it possible for efficient updating of geo-referenced population data. A Spatial Population Updating System (SPUS is developed for updating the gridded population database of China based on remote sensing, GIS and spatial database technologies, with a spatial resolution of 1 km by 1 km. The SPUS can process standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS L1B data integrated with a Pattern Decomposition Method (PDM and an LULC-Conversion Model to obtain patterns of land use and land cover, and provide input parameters for a Population Spatialization Model (PSM. The PSM embedded in SPUS is used for generating 1 km by 1 km gridded population data in each population distribution region based on natural and socio-economic variables. Validation results from finer township-level census data of Yishui County suggest that the gridded population database produced by the SPUS is reliable.

  20. Emergy-based comparative analysis on industrial clusters: economic and technological development zone of Shenyang area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zuoxi

    2014-09-01

    In China, local governments of many areas prefer to give priority to the development of heavy industrial clusters in pursuit of high value of gross domestic production (GDP) growth to get political achievements, which usually results in higher costs from ecological degradation and environmental pollution. Therefore, effective methods and reasonable evaluation system are urgently needed to evaluate the overall efficiency of industrial clusters. Emergy methods links economic and ecological systems together, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. This method has been successfully applied in many case studies of ecosystem but seldom in industrial clusters. This study applied the methodology of emergy analysis to perform the efficiency of industrial clusters through a series of emergy-based indices as well as the proposed indicators. A case study of Shenyang Economic Technological Development Area (SETDA) was investigated to show the emergy method's practical potential to evaluate industrial clusters to inform environmental policy making. The results of our study showed that the industrial cluster of electric equipment and electronic manufacturing produced the most economic value and had the highest efficiency of energy utilization among the four industrial clusters. However, the sustainability index of the industrial cluster of food and beverage processing was better than the other industrial clusters.

  1. The Research of China's Civil Aviation Passenger Multi-Channel Service Technology Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang

    IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors' company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.

  2. Transmission Technologies and Operational Characteristic Analysis of Hybrid UHV AC/DC Power Grids in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhang; Yanfeng, Gong

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the contradiction between demand and distribution range of primary energy resource, Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power grids should be developed rapidly to meet development of energy bases and accessing of large-scale renewable energy. This paper reviewed the latest research processes of AC/DC transmission technologies, summarized the characteristics of AC/DC power grids, concluded that China’s power grids certainly enter a new period of large -scale hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids and characteristics of “strong DC and weak AC” becomes increasingly pro minent; possible problems in operation of AC/DC power grids was discussed, and interaction or effect between AC/DC power grids was made an intensive study of; according to above problems in operation of power grids, preliminary scheme is summarized as fo llows: strengthening backbone structures, enhancing AC/DC transmission technologies, promoting protection measures of clean energ y accessing grids, and taking actions to solve stability problems of voltage and frequency etc. It’s valuable for making hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids adapt to operating mode of large power grids, thus guaranteeing security and stability of power system.

  3. Allegheny County Addressing Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  4. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  5. Evolution of National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology competition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Wang, XiaoPing; Zheng, XiaoDong; Lin, YuanFang; Wang, Kaiwei

    2017-08-01

    The goal of National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology Competition (NUSOSTC) is to provide a nation-wide platform for students from the colleges and universities, which have majors in the field of optics and photonics, to communicate and learning each other. Meanwhile, it works on pushing forward the popularity of optoelectronic knowledge, cultivating the students' teamwork and innovation ability, promoting higher education personnel training mode and practice teaching reform, and then improving the quality of talent training. The founding, organizational structure development and overall organizational arrangements of NUSOSTC were introduced in this paper. Besides, the competition logo, theme, title, final date, numbers of participating universities, undertaking universities and cities of the five NUSOSTCs held during 2008 to 2016 and the progress had been made were given in detail.

  6. Research on preventive technologies for bed-separation water hazard in China coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Herong; Tong, Shijie; Qiu, Weizhong; Lin, Manli

    2018-03-01

    Bed-separation water is one of the major water hazards in coal mines. Targeted researches on the preventive technologies are of paramount importance to safe mining. This article studied the restrictive effect of geological and mining factors, such as lithological properties of roof strata, coal seam inclination, water source to bed separations, roof management method, dimensions of mining working face, and mining progress, on the formation of bed-separation water hazard. The key techniques to prevent bed-separation water-related accidents include interception, diversion, destructing the buffer layer, grouting and backfilling, etc. The operation and efficiency of each technique are corroborated in field engineering cases. The results of this study will offer reference to countries with similar mining conditions in the researches on bed-separation water burst and hazard control in coal mines.

  7. The Impacts on Illegal Farmland Conversion of Adopting Remote Sensing Technology for Land Inspection in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiyang Zhong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While China’s central government has adopted remote sensing technology in land inspection since 2000, little empirical research has been done on its effect. This study aims to measure the effect of satellite imagery-based land inspection (SIBI on illegal farmland conversion. The data used in this study were collected for the period from 1997 to 2010 at the province-level. The econometrics approach for panel data model was used in this research. The results showed that SIBI has a deterrent effect of approximately 2.42 ha for every increase of 1% in proportion to the area of prefecture-level regions inspected in a province-level region. The results also indicate land inspections with RS (Remote Sensing technology saved approximately 11,880 ha farmland from illegal conversion during 2000–2010 with an estimated contribution of reducing illegal farmland conversion by nearly 11%. Furthermore, the governance structure change for land inspection has also contributed to deterring illegal farmland conversion. The deterrent effects due to land inspection by the Supervisor of State Land (SSL are about 7332 ha during 2008–2010 with an estimated contribution of reducing illegal farmland conversion by nearly 33%. In conclusion, although SIBI has strengthened China’s central capacity to uncover illegal farmland conversion and weakened local governments’ abilities to hide illegal farmland conversion, it has limited impact on illegal farmland conversion since it is just a technical tool. Improvements in the land inspection governance structure have also helped to deter illegal farmland conversion.

  8. Can technological innovation help China take on its climate responsibility? An intertemporal general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wei

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of China’s indigenous R and D and technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. The mechanism of endogenous technical change (TC) is incorporated an intertemporal computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. R and D investments and knowledge creations are modeled as the endogenous behaviors of private firms. The accumulated stocks of knowledge are applied in the production process to affect the rate and bias of TC. Simulation results show that: (1) while China’s indigenous R and D efforts play a significant role to curb carbon emissions, sole dependence on R and D may be far from sufficient to achieve pledged climate target, with complementary policies being required to reinforce existing climate actions; (2) innovation policies can strengthen R and D investment and cut emissions further, but the complementary effect is relatively minor; (3) carbon taxation can generate significant carbon-saving benefits and fulfill climate target, but this achievement is at the cost of economic losses. The induced technical improvement, however, can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax distortion. - Highlights: ► We examine the effect of China’s technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. ► A mechanism of R and D-induced technical change is incorporated into an intertemporal CGE model. ► Private R and D efforts and public R and D intervention are insufficient to achieve climate target. ► A carbon tax is indispensable to achieve climate target but at the cost of output losses. ► Induced technical change can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax.

  9. Carbon Footprint Analyses of Mainstream Wastewater Treatment Technologies under Different Sludge Treatment Scenarios in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Chai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanization and infrastructure investment, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Chinese cities are putting increased pressure on energy consumption and exacerbating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts. This study examined three mainstream wastewater treatment technologies: Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A–A–O, Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR and Oxygen Ditch, considering four different sludge treatment alternatives for small-to-medium-sized WWTPs. Following the life cycle approach, process design data and emission factors were used by the model to calculate the carbon footprint. Results found that direct emissions of CO2 and N2O, and indirect emissions of electricity use, are significant contributors to the carbon footprint. Although sludge anaerobic digestion and biogas recovery could significantly contribute to emission reduction, it was less beneficial for Oxygen Ditch than the other two treatment technologies due to its low sludge production. The influence of choosing “high risk” or “low risk” N2O emission factors on the carbon footprint was also investigated in this study. Oxygen Ditch was assessed as “low risk” of N2O emissions while SBR was “high risk”. The carbon footprint of A–A–O with sludge anaerobic digestion and energy recovery was more resilient to changes of N2O emission factors and control of N2O emissions, though process design parameters (i.e., effluent total nitrogen (TN concentration, mixed-liquor recycle (MLR rates and solids retention time (SRT and operation conditions (i.e., nitrite concentration are critical for reducing carbon footprint of SBR. Analyses of carbon footprints suggested that aerobic treatment of sludge not only favors the generation of large amounts of CO2, but also the emissions of N2O, so the rationale of reducing aerobic treatment and

  10. Technical engineers exchange project (coal mine technology field). Training in China; Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun`ya). Chugoku no kenshu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, T. [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The paper described JCOAL`s project on the exchange of technical coal engineers of China. In the project on sending of engineers to China in the first term, coal mine engineers of Japan (Taiheiyo Coal Mine, Kushiro Works, Training Center) were sent to the Daitun coal-thermal power plant, Peixuan city, Jiangsu province, in September, 1997 to introduce the production control technology in Japan. They contributed to the heightening of productivity in coal mines in China. Eighteen Chinese participated in the training. Mechanization has been comparatively well in progress, and it was 83% in coal mining and 91% in drilling. The kind of coal is mostly a raw material coal. The stuff members are 30,000, and expert engineers are 4,200. The plant has an output of 130,000 kWh, owns its railroad, is run on the general multiple management, and is largely developing. The project on sending of engineers to China in the last term was carried out in February 1998 for tracing/confirming how the results of the training conducted in September are made the most of and if or not there is something bad and for obtaining the detailed data. A certain degree of promotion and effects were able to be confirmed. A project on training of the head, sub-head, etc. who were invited to Japan to lean production/management control was also carried out in November and December 1997. 1 tab.

  11. Find Them Home or Abroad? The Relative Contribution of International Technology In-licensing to “Indigenous Innovation” in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi

    2015-01-01

    Innovation policy in China has been promoting “indigenous innovation” by urging Chinese firms to strengthen their internal research and development (R&D) expenditures and to actively acquire external technologies only if they are advanced and necessary. This policy aims to gradually achieve...... indigenous innovation policy will continue to make sense in the next decade. This study uses a unique dataset containing information on 178 Chinese firms that were active in technology in-licensing during 2000-2004 - and their patenting activities up to 2009 - to investigate this question. Our findings...... suggest that, given the importance of R&D, Chinese firms that in-licensed international technologies have performed better with regard to indigenous innovation than those that mainly inlicensed domestic technologies, even though the national innovation policy suggests otherwise. The strategic implications...

  12. Delivering power system transition in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jiahai; Xu Yan; Hu Zhaoguang

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the transition to low carbon power systems in China. The methodology is built on the newly developed multi-level perspective (MLP) transitions, as well as literature on innovation systems. Three lines of thought on the transition process are integrated to probe the possible transition pathways in China's power sector. Five transition pathways, namely reproduction, transformation, substitution, reconfiguration, de-alignment/re-alignment and reconfiguration, with their possible technology options are presented. The requirements for a smart grid in the socio-technical transition process are addressed within the MLP framework. The paper goes further to propose an interactive framework for low carbon transition management in China. Representative technology options are appraised by employing innovation theory to demonstrate the logic of policy design within the framework. The work presented in this paper will be useful in informing policy-makers and other stakeholders in China and it may prove to be a valuable reference for other countries in energy transition management. - Highlights: ► The transition to low carbon power systems is studied from a multi-level perspective. ► Transition pathways with possible technology options are presented. ► An interactive framework is proposed for managing this transition. ► Representative technology options are appraised within the framework to show the logic of policy design.

  13. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  14. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  15. Obama Emphasizes Science and Innovation in State of the Union Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-02-01

    U.S. president Barack Obama emphasized innovation and competitiveness in his State of the Union address on 25 January. He also raised science and technology early in the hour-long speech, noting that nations like China and India are focusing on math and science education and investing in research and technology. To be competitive with those countries, “we need to out-innovate, out-educate, and out-build the rest of the world,” Obama said. “The first step in winning the future is encouraging American innovation.”

  16. ATLes: the strategic application of Web-based technology to address learning objectives and enhance classroom discussion in a veterinary pathology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Stephen A; Collins, Peggy L; Quitadamo, Ian J; Brahler, C Jayne; Knudson, Cameron D; Crouch, Gregory J

    2005-01-01

    A case-based program called ATLes (Adaptive Teaching and Learning Environments) was designed for use in a systemic pathology course and implemented over a four-year period. Second-year veterinary students working in small collaborative learning groups used the program prior to their weekly pathology laboratory. The goals of ATLes were to better address specific learning objectives in the course (notably the appreciation of pathophysiology), to solve previously identified problems associated with information overload and information sorting that commonly occur as part of discovery-based processes, and to enhance classroom discussion. The program was also designed to model and allow students to practice the problem-oriented approach to clinical cases, thereby enabling them to study pathology in a relevant clinical context. Features included opportunities for students to obtain additional information on the case by requesting specific laboratory tests and/or diagnostic procedures. However, students were also required to justify their diagnostic plans and to provide mechanistic analyses. The use of ATLes met most of these objectives. Student acceptance was high, and students favorably reviewed the online ''Content Links'' that made useful information more readily accessible and level appropriate. Students came to the lab better prepared to engage in an in-depth and high-quality discussion and were better able to connect clinical problems to underlying changes in tissue (lesions). However, many students indicated that the required time on task prior to lab might have been excessive relative to what they thought they learned. The classroom discussion, although improved, was not elevated to the expected level-most likely reflecting other missing elements of the learning environment, including the existing student culture and the students' current discussion skills. This article briefly discusses the lessons learned from ATLes and how similar case-based exercises might be

  17. A study on the implementation of joint research projects in the field of nuclear technology between Korea and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Joon Keuk; Suh, In Suk; Lee, Eui Jin; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Lee, Byung Wook; Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Chung, Whan Sam; Lee, Man Ki; Lee, Hyo Se; Jun, Byung Jin; Park, Byung Bae; Hong, Young Don; Lee, Chang Woo; Chung, Moon Ki; Sim, Suk Ku; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Oh, Won Zin

    1999-11-01

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following provisions were made. First of all, the current status of energy industry was carefully reviewed. An increase of energy consumption, both in industrial and home purposes, implored introduction of nuclear power as an alternative energy production source. Secondly, the current status of China's nuclear development programs together with future prospects was reviewed. Through this review, more effective implementation of nuclear cooperative programs could be devised. Thirdly, China's newly developed nuclear infrastructure was analyzed. The re-structuring of the CNNC was reviewed. Based on this analysis, future cooperative programs could be identified. Lastly, proper strategies for future cooperation between the two countries on a complementary basis were studied. Recommendations for better cooperation programs, particularly for the nuclear policy-making process, were presented. For fruitful cooperation, it is naturally needed match funds to support the implementation of joint projects. It is basically China's idea that Korea provides the funds and China provides manpower. China has a great potential market. The Korean Governments support for key funds for cooperative programs will thus have a sincere meaning. For fruitful cooperation, it is naturally needed match funds to support the implementation of joint projects. It is basically China's idea that Korea provides the funds and China provides manpower. China has a great potential market. The Korean Governments support for key funds for cooperative programs will thus have a sincere meaning. The findings of this study could serve as the database for future nuclear cooperation between the two countries. It is hoped that all local nuclear related organizations in Korea could use some valuable references derived from the study. Information generated from the study could also be used as a benchmark for continued cooperation with China. Various

  18. A study on the implementation of joint research projects in the field of nuclear technology between Korea and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Joon Keuk; Suh, In Suk; Lee, Eui Jin; Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong; Lee, Byung Wook; Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Chung, Whan Sam; Lee, Man Ki; Lee, Hyo Se; Jun, Byung Jin; Park, Byung Bae; Hong, Young Don; Lee, Chang Woo; Chung, Moon Ki; Sim, Suk Ku; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Oh, Won Zin

    1999-11-01

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following provisions were made. First of all, the current status of energy industry was carefully reviewed. An increase of energy consumption, both in industrial and home purposes, implored introduction of nuclear power as an alternative energy production source. Secondly, the current status of China's nuclear development programs together with future prospects was reviewed. Through this review, more effective implementation of nuclear cooperative programs could be devised. Thirdly, China's newly developed nuclear infrastructure was analyzed. The re-structuring of the CNNC was reviewed. Based on this analysis, future cooperative programs could be identified. Lastly, proper strategies for future cooperation between the two countries on a complementary basis were studied. Recommendations for better cooperation programs, particularly for the nuclear policy-making process, were presented. For fruitful cooperation, it is naturally needed match funds to support the implementation of joint projects. It is basically China's idea that Korea provides the funds and China provides manpower. China has a great potential market. The Korean Governments support for key funds for cooperative programs will thus have a sincere meaning. For fruitful cooperation, it is naturally needed match funds to support the implementation of joint projects. It is basically China's idea that Korea provides the funds and China provides manpower. China has a great potential market. The Korean Governments support for key funds for cooperative programs will thus have a sincere meaning. The findings of this study could serve as the database for future nuclear cooperation between the two countries. It is hoped that all local nuclear related organizations in Korea could use some valuable references derived from the study. Information generated from the study could also be used as a benchmark for continued cooperation with China. Various contacts by experts from

  19. Barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies in the building sector: A survey study of Jing-jin-tang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Ping; Zheng, Li-Qun; Xie, Bai-Chen; Mahalingam, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    The building sector of China currently consumes 20% of the total energy consumption. Studies on barriers to the adoption of building energy-saving technologies are of great significance on implementing policies related to achieving energy-saving goals. This paper studied 15 barriers with the aid of information collected through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The respondents were 135 employees working in the Jing-jin-tang area. Based on the results of the factor analysis, the barriers were categorized into five groups: attitudes of stakeholders, policies and regulations, auxiliary resources, profitability, and adaptability of the technologies. Analysis of the entire sample showed that the stakeholders’ reluctance to use was the largest barrier, followed by high initial investment and low profitability. Further analysis showed that the occupation and designation of the respondents and the size of the enterprises that they served influenced their perspectives on the barriers. It was found that architects attributed more importance to the adoption of energy-saving technologies than contractors; barriers confronted by employees of large enterprises and small enterprises were different; managers perceived weaker barriers than frontline employees and were more optimistic about the prospect of building energy-saving technologies. Finally, policy recommendations were proposed based on these in-depth and targeted analyses. - Highlights: • Fifteen barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies are discussed. • Surveys are conducted in one of China's most technologically developed area. • The barriers are divided into 5 groups according to the results of factor analysis. • Barriers related to profitability greatly hamper the adoption of the technologies. • Comparative analyses show the background of respondents influence their viewpoints

  20. Edible Mushroom Cultivation for Food Security and Rural Development in China: Bio-Innovation, Technological Dissemination and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoqi Zhang; Wei Geng; Yueqin Shen; Yanling Wang; Yu-Cheng Dai

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms traditionally collected from forests and now more cultivated have recently become the products of the fifth-largest agricultural sector in China. It was estimated that more than 25 million farmers in China are currently engaged in the collection, cultivation processing and marketing of mushrooms. The total value of mushroom products amounted to 149 billion RMB Yuan (24 billion USD) in 2011. The raw materials have expanded from a few hardwoods to a variety of woods and increasing mor...