WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology capsule novocs

  1. Capsule Endoscopy: New Technology, Old Complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a new tool in the armamentarium of the gastroenterologist to evaluate the small bowel non-invasively. It allows improved diagnostic yield with low complication rates relative to traditional modalities. But this new technology has its own set of complications, some which can lead to significant ...

  2. Technology of swallowable capsule for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Intzes, I; Meng, H; Cosmas, J

    2014-01-01

    Medical technology has undergone major breakthroughs in recent years, especially in the area of the examination tools for diagnostic purposes. This paper reviews the swallowable capsule technology in the examination of the gastrointestinal system for various diseases. The wireless camera pill has created a more advanced method than many traditional examination methods for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases such as gastroscopy by the use of an endoscope. After years of great innovation...

  3. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: IITRI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) technologies use electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. Contaminants are removed from in situ soils and transfe...

  4. Current applications and potential future role of wireless capsule technology in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry; Holleran, Grainne; McNamara, Deirdre

    2014-11-01

    The development of capsule technology has modified our approach to the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. The relatively rapid uptake of capsule endoscopy as an important clinical tool can be largely ascribed to a number of key factors, including the fact that it is a relatively easy examination to perform in an outpatient setting. It has been established as an integral part of the investigation pathway for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). CURRENT USE OF CAPSULE ENDOSCOPY: Small bowel CD can be a challenging entity to diagnose. Capsule endoscopy has been shown to be both useful and safe in patients with both suspected and established small bowel CD. In suspected disease, capsule endoscopy has both a high diagnostic yield and negative predictive value. Capsule findings lead to changes in management in up to 73% of patients with established CD. However, while the technology appears capable of detecting subtle mucosal changes not readily apparent on alternate imaging modalities, the question of what actually constitutes small bowel CD as described by capsule is an issue that remains unresolved to date. Thus, capsule endoscopy is best utilised in tandem with advanced imaging and endoscopic techniques such as balloon- assisted enteroscopy. The development of a capsule capable of viewing the colon coupled with improvements in image quality and battery life are likely to lead to the increasing uptake of this technology. In the future, 'interactive' capsules with the ability to view the entire gastrointestinal tract may be a reality.

  5. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: KAI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAI developed a patented, in situ RFH technology to enhance the removal of volatile and semi-volatile organics by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Electromagnetic energy heats the soil resulting in increased contaminant vapor pressures and soil permeability that may increase with dry...

  6. Technology Insight: current status of video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, David R

    2006-03-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is the most recent major practical and conceptual development in the field of endoscopy. The video capsule endoscope-a small, pill-sized, passive imaging device-has been demonstrated to be the pre-eminent imaging device for disorders of the small intestine. The initial use for VCE was to detect the origin of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Several other indications have now been justified, or are in the process of evaluation. More than 200,000 of these disposable devices have been used worldwide, with an extraordinarily good safety record: indeed, the device has been approved for use in children as young as 10 years of age. In addition, a double-ended capsule has now been approved for the evaluation of mucosal disease in the esophagus. The now-widespread deployment of the device into gastrointestinal practice in the US and many other countries suggests that VCE has achieved mainstream utility. The development of similar competitor devices, and devices whose movement can be controlled, is in progress.

  7. [Comparative study of absorption kinetics in intestines of rats on Xianlinggubao capsule prepared by different technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huichao; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang; Chen, Wen; Ma, Yong; Li, Pengyue

    2011-04-01

    To study the characteristics of intestinal absorption of psoralen and isopsoralen of Xianlinggubao capsule, and compare the absorption of Xianlinggubao capsule prepared by different technologies. Non everted gut sac method was applied to investigate the influence of absorption sites and drug concentration on psoralen and isopsoralen absorption, which were determined by HPLC. Although the absorption rate constants of psoralen and isopsoralen in duodenum were more than that in jejunum and ileum, there was no significance difference between them. The absorption rate constants of psoralen kept at the same level when the concentrations of drug solution were at middle and low level, while the absorption rate constant at high level was absolutely lower than them (P Intestinal absorption of psoralen and isopsoralen may be affected by the dissolution. The absorption rate constants of psoralen and isopsoralen in new Xianlinggubao capsules are higher. The absorptions of active components absorption has significant difference in different preparation processes of Xianlinggubao capsule.

  8. An x-ray-based capsule for colorectal cancer screening incorporating single photon counting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Ronen; Kimchy, Yoav; Gelbard, Nir; Leibushor, Avi; Golan, Oleg; Elgali, Avner; Hassoon, Salah; Kaplan, Max; Smirnov, Michael; Shpigelman, Boaz; Bar-Ilan, Omer; Rubin, Daniel; Ovadia, Alex

    2017-03-01

    An ingestible capsule for colorectal cancer screening, based on ionizing-radiation imaging, has been developed and is in advanced stages of system stabilization and clinical evaluation. The imaging principle allows future patients using this technology to avoid bowel cleansing, and to continue the normal life routine during procedure. The Check-Cap capsule, or C-Scan ® Cap, imaging principle is essentially based on reconstructing scattered radiation, while both radiation source and radiation detectors reside within the capsule. The radiation source is a custom-made radioisotope encased in a small canister, collimated into rotating beams. While traveling along the human colon, irradiation occurs from within the capsule towards the colon wall. Scattering of radiation occurs both inside and outside the colon segment; some of this radiation is scattered back and detected by sensors onboard the capsule. During procedure, the patient receives small amounts of contrast agent as an addition to his/her normal diet. The presence of contrast agent inside the colon dictates the dominant physical processes to become Compton Scattering and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), which differ mainly by the energy of scattered photons. The detector readout electronics incorporates low-noise Single Photon Counting channels, allowing separation between the products of these different physical processes. Separating between radiation energies essentially allows estimation of the distance from the capsule to the colon wall, hence structural imaging of the intraluminal surface. This allows imaging of structural protrusions into the colon volume, especially focusing on adenomas that may develop into colorectal cancer.

  9. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System is an integrated technology used for attacking all phases of volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in soil and groundwater. The SVVS technology promotes insitu remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with or-ga...

  10. Management of the Cs/Sr Capsule Project at the Hanford Site. Technology Readiness Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2018-01-01

    The Federal Project Director (FPD) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) Waste Management and D&D Division (WMD) requested a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) for the Management of the Cesium/Strontium Capsule Storage Project (MCSCP) at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The MCSCP CD-1 TRA was performed by a team selected in collaboration between the Office of Environmental Management (EM) Chief Engineer (EM-3.3) and RL, WMD FPD. The TRA Team included subject matter and technical experts having experience in cask storage, process engineering, and system design who were independent of the MCSCP, and the team was led by the Director of Operations and Processes from the EM Chief Engineer's Office (EM-3.32). Movement of the Cs/Sr capsules to dry storage, based on information from the conceptual design, involves (1) capsule packaging, (2) capsule transfer, and (3) capsule storage. The project has developed a conceptual process, described in 30059-R-02, "NAC Conceptual Design Report for the Management of the Cesium and Strontium Capsules Project", which identifies the five major activities in the process to complete the transfer from storage pool to pad-mounted cask storage. The process, shown schematically in Figure 1, is comprised of the following process steps: (1) loading capsules into the UCS; (2) UCS processing; (3) UCS insertion into the TSC Basket; (4) cask transport from WESF to CSA and (5) extended storage at the CSA.

  11. Ingestible Wireless Capsule Technology: A Review of Development and Future Indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Basar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestible wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE is the one and only painless, effective, novel, diagnostic technology for inspecting the entire gastrointestinal (GI tract for various diseases, such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB, tumors, cancer, Crohn’s disease, and celiac disease. Since the development of this technology, several companies have made remarkable improvements in their clinical products, but there are still some limitations that relate to the use of conventional wired endoscopy. Some of the major limitations that currently impede its wider application include its inability to repeat the view of critical areas, working time constraints, and poor image resolution. Many research groups currently are working on ways to solve these limitations. Presently, developing the ability to control the movement of the capsule, increasing its image transmission speed, and obtaining high-quality images are the main issues in the research area. A complex capsule with some therapeutic tools for the treatment of diseases of the GI tract also is at the beginning of development for the next generation of an active medical robot. In this paper, we report the status of several activities related to WCE, including improvement of capsule technology, research progress, technical challenges, and key indicators concerning the next-generation, active, medical robot.

  12. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: freight pipeline technology. Volume II. First year final report. [Slurry, pneumatic, pneumo-capsule, and hydro-capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, I.; Gimm, K.K.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of pipeline as an intercity freight transportation mode, it was necessary to examine its technological feasibility and reliability. This report describes the technology of the major generic freight pipelines in terms of both historical and current trends and operations. Additionally, it presents a state-of-the-art review of calculating energy requirements of various generic freight pipelines. It was concluded that slurry and pneumatic pipelines are technologically feasible and reliable. There are many commercial installations of both types operating around the world. Based on European experience with pneumo-capsule pipelines for mail delivery and Russian gravel- and sand-transport installations, it appears that a pneumo-capsule pipeline is a technologically feasible and operationally reliable mode for transport of solids. Since no commercial pneumo-capsule pipeline installations yet exist in the U.S., it seems desirable that a service demonstration of the advantages and feasibility of this mode of transport be undertaken to attract the shippers' confidence. Hydro-capsule pipelines are technologically feasible, but its reliability within a commercial environment remains to be tested.

  13. Development of neutron fluence measurement and evaluation technology for the test materials in the capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, U.; Choi, S. H.; Kang, H. D. [Kyungsan University, Kyungsan (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The four kinds of the fluence monitor considered by self-shielding are design and fabricated for evaluation of neutron irradiation fluence. They are equipped with dosimeters consisting of Ni, Fe and Ti wires and so forth. The nuclear reaction rate is obtained by measurement on dosimeter using the spectroscopic analysis of induced {gamma}-ray. We established the nuetron fluence evaluating technology that is based on the measurement of the reaction rate considering reactor's irradiation history, burn-out, self-shielding in fluence monitor, and the influence of impurity in dosimeter. The distribution of high energy neutron flux on the vertical axis of the capsule shows fifth order polynomial equation and is good agree with theoretical value in the error range of 30% by MCNP/4A code. 22 refs., 50 figs., 27 tabs. (Author)

  14. The development of composition and technology for the capsulated drug based on bee pollen and honey powder. Announcement 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Т. Kudrik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To develop experimentally and to substantiate theoretically both in pharmaceutical and industrial conditions the technology of manufacturing for capsules with the immunomodulatory action (provisional name «Api-Immuno-Vit» basing on pharmacotechnological and physical-chemical studies. Also to study the effect of excipients, the residual moisture and the particle size of capsules on technological parameters of mixtures quality, as well as to substantiate the choice of the size for solid gelatin capsules. Material and methods. The study objects were the experimental samples of the mixtures of «Api-Immuno-Vit» capsules with such active pharmaceutical ingredients (API as bee pollen (DSTU 7074:2009, GOST 31776-2012 and honey powder (TU U 10.8-39834691-001:2015, as well as aerosil and mannitol, which were used as excipients. Results. The pharmacotechnological tests of the experimental samples of the mixtures (particle size distribution, moisture content, fluidity, bulk density and tapped density, angle of repose, uniformity of mixing were carried out using the conventional methods given in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. The influence of particle size distribution of the granulate on technological parameters of the mixture quality in capsules has been studied. It has been found that the increase of residual moisture leads to decrease of fluidity, and therefore, the residual moisture of the mixture for encapsulation should be less than 1.5%. It has been also noted that during the experiment the presence of large and medium fractions is important for the particle size distribution since fluidity and the bulk density of the mixtures significantly reduce if the fine fraction in more than 30% in amount. Сonclusions. The results of the experimental studies were used in developing the flowchart of «Api-Immuno-Vit» capsules manufacturing. Taking into account the physical-chemical properties and the pharmacotechnological tests the flowchart of

  15. A new complication from a new technology: what a general surgeon should know about wireless capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Phillip K; Holt, Elizabeth G; De Villiers, Willem J S; Boulanger, Bernard R

    2005-05-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has revolutionized the diagnostic evaluation of the small intestine and is increasingly used by gastroenterologists. However, complications can occur with this seemingly safe procedure. We report two cases of Crohn's disease in which capsule endoscopy was performed with retention of the capsules. Both patients were taken to the operating room electively after careful preoperative planning to address both the surgical aspect of Crohn's disease and the retained capsule. We reviewed the literature on the use of wireless capsule endoscopy in patients with Crohn's disease and discuss the approach to a new surgical complication.

  16. [Separation and purification technology of main active composition of Hongye Xingtong soft capsules with macroporous resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Wang, Yong-Lin; Wang, Ai-Min; Lan, Yan-Yu; Li, Yong-Jun; He, Xun; Huang, Yong

    2008-03-01

    To study the technical conditions of the extraction and purification of the active composition from Polygonum orientale and Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. in Hongye Xingtong soft capsules with the macroporous resin. The orientm, isorientm and hyperoside were used as index to screen the five kinds of resins. And the technical conditions of the enrichment and purification of D101 resin selected out of above were all-round studied. The D101 was fit for adsorbing orientm, isorientm and hyperoside. Under the optimal conditions, the transfer rate of orientm, isorientm and hyperoside was above 91%, and the total solid was cut down by more than 60%. The D101 is greatly effective for the enrichment and purification of the active composition of P. orientale and C. pinnatifida Bge.

  17. opened capsule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The accuracy of the off-label opened capsule dosing method for stavudine is acceptable. There is no need to instruct caregivers to include sediment in the aliquot given to the infant. However, studies that confirm adequate bioavailability and efficacy are needed. In addition, it is important to avoid supplying generic capsules ...

  18. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  19. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE - TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  20. Capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Anders Peter; Burcharth, Jakob; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard

    2013-01-01

    with ultrasound, MRI, and subsequently a capsule endoscopy. Six months later, the patient presented, and an abdominal CT-scan showed mechanical small bowel obstruction with suspicion of metallic foreign body and perforation. Laparotomy showed perforation, stenosis, and foreign body, approximately 5 cm from...

  1. The future of wireless capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Paul

    2008-07-14

    We outline probable and possible developments with wireless capsule endoscopy. It seems likely that capsule endoscopy will become increasingly effective in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy. This will be attractive to patients especially for cancer or varices detection because capsule endoscopy is painless and is likely to have a higher take up rate compared to conventional colonoscopy and gastroscopy. Double imager capsules with increased frame rates have been used to image the esophagus for Barrett's and esophageal varices. The image quality is not bad but needs to be improved if it is to become a realistic substitute for flexible upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. An increase in the frame rate, angle of view, depth of field, image numbers, duration of the procedure and improvements in illumination seem likely. Colonic, esophageal and gastric capsules will improve in quality, eroding the supremacy of flexible endoscopy, and become embedded into screening programs. Therapeutic capsules will emerge with brushing, cytology, fluid aspiration, biopsy and drug delivery capabilities. Electrocautery may also become possible. Diagnostic capsules will integrate physiological measurements with imaging and optical biopsy, and immunologic cancer recognition. Remote control movement will improve with the use of magnets and/or electrostimulation and perhaps electromechanical methods. External wireless commands will influence capsule diagnosis and therapy and will increasingly entail the use of real-time imaging. However, it should be noted that speculations about the future of technology in any detail are almost always wrong.

  2. Polydopamine-coated capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Kang, Sen; Baginska, Marta B.

    2018-04-17

    One aspect of the invention is a polymer material comprising a capsule coated with PDA. In certain embodiments, the capsule encapsulates a functional agent. The encapsulated functional agent may be an indicating agent, healing agent, protecting agent, pharmaceutical drug, food additive, or a combination thereof.

  3. Effect of Rheology and Poloxamers Properties on Release of Drugs from Silicon Dioxide Gel-Filled Hard Gelatin Capsules-A Further Enhancement of Viability of Liquid Semisolid Matrix Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Misbah; Butt, Mobashar Ahmad; Saeed, Tariq; Mahmood, Rizwan; Ul Hassan, Saeed; Hussain, Khalid; Raza, Syed Atif; Ahsan, Muhammad; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan

    2017-08-01

    The liquid and semisolid matrix technology, filling liquids, semi-solids and gels in hard gelatin capsule are promising, thus, there is a need of enhanced research interest in the technology. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate isoniazid (freely soluble) and metronidazole (slightly soluble) gels filled in hard gelatin capsules for the effect of poloxamers of different viscosities on release of the drugs. Gel of each drug (10% w/w, particle size 180-250 μm), prepared by mixing poloxamer and 8% w/w hydrophilic silicon dioxide (Aerosil® A200), was assessed for rheology, dispersion stability and release profile. Both the drugs remained dispersed in majority of gels for more than 30 days, and dispersions were depended on gels' viscosity, which was further depended on viscosity of poloxamers. A small change in viscosity was noted in gels on storage. FTIR spectra indicated no interactions between components of the gels. The gels exhibited thixotropic and shear-thinning behaviour, which were suitable for filling in hard gelatin capsules without any leakage from the capsules. The release of both drugs from the phase-stable gels for 30 days followed first-order kinetics and was found to be correlated to drugs' solubility, poloxamers' viscosity, polyoxyethylene contents and proportion of block copolymer (poloxamers) in the gels. The findings of the present study indicated that release of drugs of different solubilities (isoniazid and metronidazole) might be modified from gels using different poloxamers and Aerosil® A200.

  4. Irradiation tests of materials using HANARO instrumented capsules in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, K. M.; Joe, M. S.; Oh, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Kang, Y. H.; Lim, I. C.; Hwang, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    The HANARO irradiation capsule system has been actively utilized for the various irradiation tests requested by users of research institutes, universities, and industries. In 2003, two instrumented capsules were designed, fabricated, and successfully irradiated at HANARO and another is under fabrication. For the evaluation of the irradiation properties of the RPV(Reactor Pressure Vessel) materials and for the development of improved evaluation technology, 02M-02K instrumented capsule was designed, fabricated, and successfully irradiated at HANARO. 02M-05U instrumented capsule was designed, fabricated, and successfully irradiated as a part of 2002 project for active utilization of HANARO. Reactor core materials were also irradiated using 02M-05U capsule. Another instrumented capsule is under design and fabrication as a part of 2003 project for active utilization of HANARO and for the development of precise temperature controlling technology

  5. Wireless capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddan, Gavriel; Meron, Gavriel; Glukhovsky, Arkady; Swain, Paul

    2000-05-01

    We have developed a new type of endoscopy, which for the first time allows painless endoscopic imaging of the whole of the small bowel. This procedure involves a wireless capsule endoscope and we describe here its successful testing in humans.

  6. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  7. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  8. Overview of technical solutions and assessment of clinical usefulness of capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents an overview of endoscopic capsules with particular emphasis on technical aspects. It indicates common problems in capsule endoscopy such as: (1) limited wireless communication (2) the use of capsule endoscopy in the case of partial patency of the gastrointestinal tract, (3) limited imaging area, (4) external capsule control limitations. It also presents the prospects of capsule endoscopy, the most recent technical solutions for biopsy and the mobility of the capsule in the gastrointestinal tract. The paper shows the possibilities of increasing clinical usefulness of capsule endoscopy resulting from technological limitations. Attention has also been paid to the current role of capsule endoscopy in screening tests and the limitations of its effectiveness. The paper includes the author's recommendations concerning the direction of further research and the possibility of enhancing the scope of capsule endoscopy.

  9. Wireless capsule endoscopy: perspectives beyond gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Cerezo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Capilla, Antonio Damián; De La Torre-Rubio, Paloma; De Teresa, Javier

    2014-11-14

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) is a technology developed for the endoscopic exploration of the small bowel. The first capsule model was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001, and its first and essential indication was occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Over subsequent years, this technology has been refined to provide superior resolution, increased battery life, and capabilities to view different parts of the GI tract. Indeed, cases for which CE proved useful have increased significantly over the last few years, with new indications for the small bowel and technical improvements that have expanded its use to other parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus and colon. The main challenges in the development of CE are new devices with the ability to provide therapy, air inflation for a better vision of the small bowel, biopsy sampling systems attached to the capsule and the possibility to guide and move the capsule with an external motion control. In this article we review the current and new indications of CE, and the evolving technological changes shaping this technology, which has a promising potential in the coming future of gastroenterology.

  10. Capsule irradiation tests of non-fissile materials in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Kim, B. G.; Shin, Y. T.; Oh, J. M.; Lim, I. C.; Kang, Y. H.

    2003-01-01

    The R and D programs on the nuclear reactor materials require numerous in-pile tests in HANARO. Extensive efforts have been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the development of irradiation facilities. Material capsule and rabbit(small non-instrumented capsule) systems were developed for the irradiation test of non fissile materials in HANARO. Several irradiation capsules (8 instrumented and 2 non-instrumented capsules) and rabbits(17 rabbits) has been designed, fabricated and successfully irradiated in HANARO CT, IR, HTS or IP test holes since 1995. Capsules were designed for the irradiation of RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel), reactor core materials, and Zr-based alloys. Most capsules were made for KAERI material research projects, but 3 capsules were made as a part of national projects for the promotion of HANARO utilization. Rabbits were used for the irradiation of semi-conductors(Si, Sapphire) and magnetic materials. 3,300 specimens from domestic 13 research institutes, 2 nuclear industry companies and 51 universities, were irradiated in HANARO for 26,000 hours using capsule and rabbit irradiation systems. Through this research, the nuclear characteristics of HANARO capsules and rabbits were also produced and piled up in our database

  11. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  12. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications. PMID:23820511

  13. Gelatin capsule in stomach (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect the presence of intestinal parasites. A weighted gelatin capsule attached to a string is swallowed and left in place. After about 4 hours, the gelatin capsule is pulled out of the stomach by ...

  14. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this project was to establish basic capsule irradiation technology using the multi-purpose research reactor [HANARO] to eventually support national R and D projects of advanced fuel and materials related to domestic nuclear power plants and next generation reactors. There are several national nuclear projects in KAERI, which require several irradiation tests to investigate in-pile behavior of nuclear reactor fuel and materials for the R and D of several types of fuels such as advanced PWR and DUPIC fuels and for the R and D of structural materials such as RPV(reactor pressure vessel) steel, Inconel, zirconium alloy, and stainless steel. At the moment, internal and external researchers in institutes, industries and universities are interested in investigating the irradiation characteristics of materials using the irradiation facilities of HANARO. For these kinds of material irradiation tests, it is important to develop various capsules using our own techniques. The development of capsules requires several leading-edge technologies and our own experiences related to design and fabrication. In the second phase from April 1,2000 to March 31, 2003, the utilization technologies were developed using various sensors for the measurements of temperature, pressure and displacement, and instrumented capsule technologies for the required fuel irradiation tests were developed. In addition, the improvement of the existing capsule technologies and the development of an in-situ measurable creep capsule for specific purposes were done to meet the various requirements of users

  15. Management of adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupay KL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kristen L Stupay,1 Andrew S Neviaser2 1Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a condition of capsular contracture that reduces both active and passive glenohumeral motion. The cause of adhesive capsulitis is not known but it is strongly associated with endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes. Diverse terminology and the absence of definitive criteria for diagnosis make evaluating treatment modalities difficult. Many treatment methods have been reported, most with some success, but few have been proved to alter the natural course of this disease. Most afflicted patients will achieve acceptable shoulder function without surgery. Those who remain debilitated after 8–12 months are reasonable candidates for invasive treatments. Here, the various treatment methods and the data to support their use are reviewed. Keywords: frozen shoulder, stiff shoulder, periarthritis, painful shoulder 

  16. Hardware image assessment for wireless endoscopy capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsandi, M A; Karimi, N; Samavi, S; Hajabdollahi, M; Soroushmehr, S M R; Ward, K; Najarian, K

    2016-08-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy is a new technology in the realm of telemedicine that has many advantages over the traditional endoscopy systems. Transmitted images should help diagnosis of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Two important technical challenges for the manufacturers of these capsules are power consumption and size of the circuitry. Also, the system must be fast enough for real-time processing of image or video data. To solve this problem, many hardware designs have been proposed for implementation of the image processing unit. In this paper we propose an architecture that could be used for the assessment of endoscopy images. The assessment allows avoidance of transmission of medically useless images. Hence, volume of data is reduced for more efficient transmission of images by the endoscopy capsule. This is done by color space conversion and moment calculation of images captured by the capsule. The inputs of the proposed architecture are RGB image frames and the outputs are images with converted colors and calculated image moments. Experimental results indicate that the proposed architecture has low complexity and is appropriate for a real-time application.

  17. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neviaser, Andrew S; Neviaser, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by painful, gradual loss of active and passive shoulder motion resulting from fibrosis and contracture of the joint capsule. Other shoulder pathology can produce a similar clinical picture, however, and must be considered. Management is based on the underlying cause of pain and stiffness, and determination of the etiology is essential. Subtle clues in the history and physical examination can help differentiate adhesive capsulitis from other conditions that cause a stiff, painful shoulder. The natural history of adhesive capsulitis is a matter of controversy. Management of true capsular restriction of motion (ie, true adhesive capsulitis) begins with gentle, progressive stretching exercises. Most patients improve with nonsurgical treatment. Indications for surgery should be individualized. Failure to obtain symptomatic improvement and continued functional disability following ≥6 months of physical therapy is a general guideline for surgical intervention. Diligent postoperative therapy to maintain motion is required to minimize recurrence of adhesive capsulitis.

  18. Effects of powder flow properties on capsule filling weight uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Juan G; Muzzio, Fernando J

    2013-09-01

    Filling capsules with the right amount of powder ingredients is an important quality parameter. The purpose of this study was to develop effective laboratory methods for characterizing flow properties of pharmaceutical powder blends and correlating such properties to weight variability in filled capsules. The methods used for powder flow characterization were bulk and tapped density, gravitational displacement rheometer (GDR) flow index, Freeman Technology V.4 (FT4) powder rheometer compressibility, FT4 basic flow energy (BFE), and cohesion parameters [cohesion, (C) and flow factor (ffc)] measured in a shear cell also using the FT4. Capsules were filled using an MG2-G140 continuous nozzle dosator capsule-filling machine. Powder flow properties were the most predominant factors affecting the weight and weight variability in the filled capsules. Results showed that the weight variability decreased with increasing bulk and tapped density, ffc and BFE, while the weight variability increased with increasing compressibility, cohesion and GDR flow index. Powder flow properties of the final blends were significantly correlated to the final capsule weight and weight variability of the filled capsules.

  19. Wireless capsule endo bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baratz DM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 67 year-old man presents 10 days after swallowing a capsule endoscopy camera that was never retrieved. The wireless capsule was swallowed asymptomatically for evaluation of heme positive stools after negative upper and lower endoscopies. Patient noted that the evening after swallowing the camera he developed mild shortness of breath and cough. The cough and shortness of breath were persistent and worsened while lying down and when moving positions. He denied prior issues with swallowing or aspiration. Review of Systems Negative other than what is noted above. PMH, SH, and FH Past medical history: coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, hyperlipidemia Surgical history: femoral-popliteal bypass, previous shoulder and back surgery Social history: 1 pack/day of cigarettes for 50 years, prior alcohol usage but not current, no illicit drugs Family history: no pulmonary diseases Physical Exam Vital signs: temperature 36.7º C, heart rate 86 beats per minute ...

  20. Wireless pH capsule--yield in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, S; Mion, F; Zerbib, F; Benamouzig, R; Letard, J C; Bruley des Varannes, S

    2012-03-01

    Wireless pH monitoring is one of the recent technologies that focus on improving the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The capsule, which is fixed within the esophagus, transmits data via telemetry to an external receiver. The capsule is usually inserted 6 cm above the squamocolumnar junction during an upper endoscopy. The standard recording duration is 48 hours but this can be extended to 96 hours. The wireless capsule has been shown to be at least as accurate as the conventional catheter for the monitoring of esophageal pH. Normal pH values have been established in three different series. The use of a wireless capsule provides an increased diagnostic yield for GERD compared with the conventional catheter. The increased yield is the result of higher sensitivity to detect both abnormal acid esophageal exposure and positive symptom-reflux association. This may be related both to the prolonged recording duration and to fewer dietary modifications and restrictions on activities. Several studies have shown that the pH capsule was better tolerated by patients than the conventional pH catheter. Mild-to-moderate chest pain represents the main side effect of the pH capsule: severe chest pain requiring endoscopic removal of the capsule is rare. The main indication for wireless capsule application is monitoring of distal esophageal pH for diagnostic purpose, particularly in patients with a normal endoscopic examination. The capsule technique has some limitations: costs are higher than conventional pH monitoring, misplacement may occur, and the sampling rate is lower. Finally, compared with pH-impedance monitoring, only acid reflux events can be evaluated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Colon capsule endoscopy: Advantages, limitations and expectations. Which novelties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Maria Elena; Urgesi, Riccardo; Cianci, Rossella; Bizzotto, Alessandra; Spada, Cristiano; Costamagna, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Since the first reports almost ten years ago, wireless capsule endoscopy has gained new fields of application. Colon capsule endoscopy represents a new diagnostic technology for colonic exploration. Clinical trials have shown that colon capsule endoscopy is feasible, accurate and safe in patients suffering from colonic diseases and might be a valid alternative to conventional colonoscopy in selected cases such as patients refusing conventional colonoscopy or with contraindications to colonoscopy or when colonoscopy is incomplete. Despite the enthusiasm surrounding this new technique, few clinical and randomized controlled trials are to be found in the current literature, leading to heterogeneous or controversial results. Upcoming studies are needed to prove the substantial utility of colon capsule endoscopy for colon cancer screening, especially in a low prevalence of disease population, and for other indications such as inflammatory bowel disease. Possible perspectives are critically analysed and reported in this paper. PMID:22523610

  2. Development of capsule assembling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayama, Yoshinobu; Kanazawa, Yoshiharu; Sozawa, Shizuo; Kawamata, Kazuo; Shizuoka, Yoshihiro; Onizawa, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    The service of JMTR hot laboratory, associated with the Japan Materials Testing Reactor, was started on 1971 to examine specimens irradiated mainly in the JMTR. A wide variety of post irradiation examinations for research and development of nuclear fuels and materials are available in the JMTR hot laboratory. This laboratory has an advantage that its hot cell is connected with JMTR by a canal directly, and it is easy to transport irradiated capsule and specimens. New power ramping test for the high burn-up fuels by using the JMTR has been planed. The power ramping test using a boiling water capsule facility needs a re-capsuling of fuel rods for re-irradiation, and a modification of the facility up to about 100 GWD/t were necessary. This report introduces the new handling techniques and capsule assembling apparatus for the boiling water capsule facility. (author)

  3. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobing Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.

  4. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guobing; Wang, Litong

    2012-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE) is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT) is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed. PMID:22253621

  5. Development of the instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation test at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jae Min; Oh, Jong Myung; Park, Sung Jae; Shin, Yoon Taeg; Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, Hark Rho; Kim, Young Jin

    2006-01-01

    The instrumented capsule for the nuclear fuel irradiation test (hereinafter referred to as 'instrumented fuel capsule'), which is crucial for the verification of a nuclear fuel performance and safety, has been developed at HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor). The irradiation test of the first instrumented fuel capsule was carried out in March 2003 and the irradiation test of the second instrumented fuel capsule was carried out in April 2004 at HANARO. Through the irradiation tests of the two capsules, the design specifications and safety of the instrumented fuel capsule were successfully verified. In the first instrumented fuel capsule, only the technologies for measuring the center temperature of the nuclear fuel and neutron flux were implemented. In the second instrumented fuel capsule, the technologies for measuring the center temperature of the nuclear fuel, the internal pressure of the fuel rod, the elongation of the nuclear fuel and the neutron flux were implemented. Currently the dual instrumented technologies that alloy for two characteristics to be measured simultaneously in one fuel rod, is being developed. The duel instrumented fuel rods have been successfully designed as a part of the technology enhancement program for the instrumented fuel capsule. The instrumented fuel capsule will be utilized for the development of nuclear fuel. The instrumentation technologies for measuring the nuclear fuel characteristics will be applied to the 3-pin FTL (Fuel Test Loop) facility which is currently being developed. And, the duel instrumented technologies will contribute to enhancing the efficiency of the irradiation test using an instrumented fuel capsule at HANARO. (author)

  6. Quantitative measurements in capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuchel, M; Kurniawan, N; Baltes, P; Bandorski, D; Koulaouzidis, A

    2015-10-01

    This review summarizes several approaches for quantitative measurement in capsule endoscopy. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) typically provides wireless imaging of small bowel. Currently, a variety of quantitative measurements are implemented in commercially available hardware/software. The majority is proprietary and hence undisclosed algorithms. Measurement of amount of luminal contamination allows calculating scores from whole VCE studies. Other scores express the severity of small bowel lesions in Crohn׳s disease or the degree of villous atrophy in celiac disease. Image processing with numerous algorithms of textural and color feature extraction is further in the research focuses for automated image analysis. These tools aim to select single images with relevant lesions as blood, ulcers, polyps and tumors or to omit images showing only luminal contamination. Analysis of motility pattern, size measurement and determination of capsule localization are additional topics. Non-visual wireless capsules transmitting data acquired with specific sensors from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are available for clinical routine. This includes pH measurement in the esophagus for the diagnosis of acid gastro-esophageal reflux. A wireless motility capsule provides GI motility analysis on the basis of pH, pressure, and temperature measurement. Electromagnetically tracking of another motility capsule allows visualization of motility. However, measurement of substances by GI capsules is of great interest but still at an early stage of development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Future prospects in digestive endoscopy: wireless capsule endoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher-Huvelin, S; Bourreille, A; Le Rhun, M; Galmiche, J-P

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the millennium, the development of wireless capsule endoscopy has represented a major technological advance. The capsule is ingested by the patient and images are transmitted via several sensors positioned on the skin of the patient and downloaded in a computer system. The first applications were focused on the exploration of the small bowel which was previously considered as an obscure area for conventional endoscopy. Wireless capsule endoscopy of the small bowel is now an established technique with many acknowledged indications for the diagnosis of obscure bleeding, anemia of presumed digestive origin, Crohn's disease and small bowel tumors. Recently, thanks to technological progresses, novel capsules have been developed for specific segments of the gut namely the oesophagus and the colon. Recent data suggest that these new capsules could have potential applications for the diagnosis of oesophageal varices, Barrett's oesophagus and for the screening and/or surveillance of polyps of the colon. However, further studies are required before such strategies could be approved for clinical use or even replace conventional endoscopic modalities. In the long-term, progresses in signal processing as well as in the miniaturisation of sensors or markers may lead to a new generation of endoscopic robots. This technological breakthrough may ultimately result in new concepts and change current practice of digestive endoscopy.

  8. Capsulitis of the Second Toe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arch that is structurally unstable and a tight calf muscle. Symptoms Because capsulitis of the second toe is ... may be prescribed for patients who have tight calf muscles. Shoe modifications. Supportive shoes with stiff soles are ...

  9. Status of irradiation capsule design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Nagao, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    For the irradiation test after the restart of JMTR, further precise temperature control and temperature prediction are required. In the design of irradiation capsule, particularly sophisticated irradiation temperature prediction and evaluation are urged. Under such circumstance, among the conventional design techniques of irradiation capsule, the authors reviewed the evaluation method of irradiation temperature. In addition, for the improvement of use convenience, this study examined and improved FINAS/STAR code in order to adopt the new calculation code that enables a variety of analyses. In addition, the study on the common use of the components for radiation capsule enabled the shortening of design period. After the restart, the authors will apply this improved calculation code to the design of irradiation capsule. (A.O.)

  10. Adhesive capsulitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Anthony

    2011-02-15

    Adhesive capsulitis is a common, yet poorly understood, condition causing pain and loss of range of motion in the shoulder. It can occur in isolation or concomitantly with other shoulder conditions (e.g., rotator cuff tendinopathy, bursitis) or diabetes mellitus. It is often self-limited, but can persist for years and may never fully resolve. The diagnosis is usually clinical, although imaging can help rule out other conditions. The differential diagnosis includes acromioclavicular arthropathy, autoimmune disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis), biceps tendinopathy, glenohumeral osteoarthritis, neoplasm, rotator cuff tendinopathy or tear (with or without impingement), and subacromial and subdeltoid bursitis. Several treatment options are commonly used, but few have high-level evidence to support them. Because the condition is often self-limited, observation and reassurance may be considered; however, this may not be acceptable to many patients because of the painful and debilitating nature of the condition. Nonsurgical treatments include analgesics (e.g., acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), oral prednisone, and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Home exercise regimens and physical therapy are often prescribed. Surgical treatments include manipulation of the joint under anesthesia and capsular release.

  11. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The essential technology for an irradiation test of materials and nuclear fuel has been successively developed and utilized to meet the user's requirements in Phase I(July 21, 1997 to March 31, 2000). It enables irradiation tests to be performed for a non-fissile material under a temperature control(300{+-}10 .deg. C) in a He gas environment, and most of the irradiation tests for the internal and external users are able to be conducted effectively. The basic technology was established to irradiate a nuclear fuel, and a creep capsule was also developed to measure the creep property of a material during an irradiation test in HANARO in Phase II(April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2003). The development of a specific purpose capsule, essential technology for a re-irradiation of a nuclear fuel, advanced technology for an irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel were performed in Phase III(April 1, 2003 to February 28, 2007). Therefore, the technology for an irradiation test was established to support the irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel which is required for the National Nuclear R and D Programs. In addition, an improvement of the existing capsule design and fabrication technology, and the development of an instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel and a specific purpose will be able to satisfy the user's requirements. In order to support the irradiation test of materials and a nuclear fuel for developing the next generation nuclear system, it is also necessary to continuously improve the design and fabrication technology of the existing capsule and the irradiation technology.

  12. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  13. Investigating the effects of membrane deformability on artificial capsule adhesion to the functionalized surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Hiren D; Banton, Rohan J; Eggleton, Charles D

    2016-10-01

    Understanding, manipulating and controlling cellular adhesion processes can be critical in developing biomedical technologies. Adhesive mechanisms can be used to the target, pattern and separate cells such as leukocytes from whole blood for biomedical applications. The deformability response of the cell directly affects the rolling and adhesion behavior under viscous linear shear flow conditions. To that end, the primary objective of the present study was to investigate numerically the influence of capsule membrane's nonlinear material behavior (i.e. elastic-plastic to strain hardening) on the rolling and adhesion behavior of representative artificial capsules. Specifically, spherical capsules with radius of [Formula: see text] were represented using an elastic membrane governed by a Mooney-Rivlin strain energy functions. The surfaces of the capsules were coated with P-selectin glycoprotein-ligand-1 to initiate binding interaction with P-selectin-coated planar surface with density of [Formula: see text] under linear shear flow varying from 100 to [Formula: see text]. The numerical model is based on the Immersed Boundary Method for rolling of deformable capsule in shear flow coupled with Monte Carlo simulation for receptor/ligand interaction modeled using Bell model. The results reveal that the mechanical properties of the capsule play an important role in the rolling behavior and the binding kinetics between the capsule contact surface and the substrate. The rolling behavior of the strain hardening capsules is relatively smoother and slower compared to the elastic-plastic capsules. The strain hardening capsules exhibits higher contact area at any given shear rate compared to elastic-plastic capsules. The increase in contact area leads to decrease in rolling velocity. The capsule contact surface is not in complete contact with the substrate because of thin lubrication film that is trapped between the capsule and substrate. This creates a concave shape on the bottom

  14. Stress Analysis of Cyrano Capsule Hanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2000-01-01

    Base on the requirement criteria on nuclear installation, and to complete the document of the cyrano capsule facility the analysis of the cyrano capsule hanger has been done. The cyrano capsule hanger by the overhang installation on the main support of fixed bridge is a main support of whole of the cyrano capsule and frame. By using W 4 x 13 shave as main hanger of cyrano capsule, the maximum allowable stress was found to be bigger than the actual stress. From the final analysis it can be concluded that the hanger of the cyrano capsule is in safe condition

  15. Endurance test for DUPIC capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung June; Bae, K. K.; Lee, C. Y.; Park, J. M.; Ryu, J. S.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for mini-plate fuel rig which were designed fabricately by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate across the capsule corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 9.632 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the capsule ranges from 14 to 18.5 Hz. RMS (Root Mean Square) displacement for the fuel rig is less than 14 μm, and the maximum displacement is less than 54 μm. Based on the endurance test results, the appreciable fretting wear for the DUPIC capsule was not detected. Oxidation on the support tube is observed, also tiny trace of wear between contact points observed. (author). 4 refs., 10 tabs., 45 figs

  16. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  17. A modular and programmable development platform for capsule endoscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tareq Hasan; Shrestha, Ravi; Wahid, Khan A

    2014-06-01

    The state-of-the-art capsule endoscopy (CE) technology offers painless examination for the patients and the ability to examine the interior of the gastrointestinal tract by a noninvasive procedure for the gastroenterologists. In this work, a modular and flexible CE development system platform consisting of a miniature field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronic capsule, a microcontroller based portable data recorder unit and computer software is designed and developed. Due to the flexible and reprogrammable nature of the system, various image processing and compression algorithms can be tested in the design without requiring any hardware change. The designed capsule prototype supports various imaging modes including white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI), and communicates with the data recorder in full duplex fashion, which enables configuring the image size and imaging mode in real time during examination. A low complexity image compressor based on a novel color-space is implemented inside the capsule to reduce the amount of RF transmission data. The data recorder contains graphical LCD for real time image viewing and SD cards for storing image data. Data can be uploaded to a computer or Smartphone by SD card, USB interface or by wireless Bluetooth link. Computer software is developed that decompresses and reconstructs images. The fabricated capsule PCBs have a diameter of 16 mm. An ex-vivo animal testing has also been conducted to validate the results.

  18. Capsule endoscopy: new technology | Schneider | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Gastroenterology Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Wireless capsule endoscopy of the small intestine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevit, Noam; Shamir, Raanan

    2015-06-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) for the diagnosis of small-bowel disease has been in clinical use for more than a decade, and is no longer an emerging technology, but rather one that has reached fruition. This noninvasive technology has been readily embraced by both physicians and patients. Used in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, for locating sources of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, and for assessing small-bowel polyp burden in polyposis syndromes as well as for less common indications, CE has transformed the diagnostic algorithms of small-bowel investigations. Although already in widespread use, the technology incorporated into the various CE platforms continues to improve and expand. Here, we briefly review the indications, limitations, and advances in video capsule technology, with an emphasis on its use in pediatrics.

  20. Chromoendoscopy in magnetically guided capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia via conventional endoscopy is characterized by low interobserver agreement and poor correlation with histopathologic findings. Chromoendoscopy significantly enhances the visibility of mucosa irregularities, like metaplasia and dysplasia mucosa. Magnetically guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) offers an alternative technology for upper GI examination. We expect the difficulties of diagnosis of neoplasm in conventional endoscopy to transfer to MGCE. Thus, we aim to chart a path for the application of chromoendoscopy on MGCE via an ex-vivo animal study. Methods We propose a modified preparation protocol which adds a staining step to the existing MGCE preparation protocol. An optimal staining concentration is quantitatively determined for different stain types and pathologies. To that end 190 pig stomach tissue samples with and without lesion imitations were stained with different dye concentrations. Quantitative visual criteria are introduced to measure the quality of the staining with respect to mucosa and lesion visibility. Thusly determined optimal concentrations are tested in an ex-vivo pig stomach experiment under magnetic guidance of an endoscopic capsule with the modified protocol. Results We found that the proposed protocol modification does not impact the visibility in the stomach or steerability of the endoscopy capsule. An average optimal staining concentration for the proposed protocol was found at 0.4% for Methylene blue and Indigo carmine. The lesion visibility is improved using the previously obtained optimal dye concentration. Conclusions We conclude that chromoendoscopy may be applied in MGCE and improves mucosa and lesion visibility. Systematic evaluation provides important information on appropriate staining concentration. However, further animal and human in-vivo studies are necessary. PMID:23758801

  1. A study on the development of instrumented capsule for the material irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Park, J. M.; Choo, K. N.; Maeng, W. Y.; Park, D. K.; Oh, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Jung, S. H.; Park, J. S.; Kim, T. R.; Park, J. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Jun, Y. K.; Yang, S. H.

    1997-08-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO`s characteristics. (author). 86 refs., 45 tabs., 146 figs.

  2. Osmotic buckling of spherical capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2014-11-07

    We study the buckling of elastic spherical shells under osmotic pressure with the osmolyte concentration of the exterior solution as a control parameter. We compare our results for the bifurcation behavior with results for buckling under mechanical pressure control, that is, with an empty capsule interior. We find striking differences for the buckling states between osmotic and mechanical buckling. Mechanical pressure control always leads to fully collapsed states with opposite sides in contact, whereas uncollapsed states with a single finite dimple are generic for osmotic pressure control. For sufficiently large interior osmolyte concentrations, osmotic pressure control is qualitatively similar to buckling under volume control with the volume prescribed by the osmolyte concentrations inside and outside the shell. We present a quantitative theory which also captures the influence of shell elasticity on the relationship between osmotic pressure and volume. These findings are relevant for the control of buckled shapes in applications. We show how the osmolyte concentration can be used to control the volume of buckled shells. An accurate analytical formula is derived for the relationship between the osmotic pressure, the elastic moduli and the volume of buckled capsules. This also allows use of elastic capsules as osmotic pressure sensors or deduction of elastic properties and the internal osmolyte concentration from shape changes in response to osmotic pressure changes. We apply our findings to published experimental data on polyelectrolyte capsules.

  3. Photon Production Within Storage Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Rittmann, P D

    2003-01-01

    This report provides tables and electronic worksheets that list the photon production rate within SrF2 and CsC1 storage capsules, particularly the continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons from the slowing down of the emitted electrons (BREMCALC).

  4. Sensor capsule for diagnosis of gastric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Motility and pH sensor capsule is developed to monitor gastric acidity, pressure, and temperature. Capsule does not interfere with digestion. Sensor is capsule which includes pH electrode, Pitran pressure transducer, and thermistor temperature sensor all potted in epoxy and enclosed in high density polyethylene sheath.

  5. Probing cell internalisation mechanics with polymer capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Ping, Yuan; Suma, Tomoya; Cavalieri, Francesca; Besford, Quinn A; Chen, George; Braunger, Julia A; Caruso, Frank

    2016-10-06

    We report polymer capsule-based probes for quantifying the pressure exerted by cells during capsule internalisation (P in ). Poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) capsules with tuneable mechanical properties were fabricated through layer-by-layer assembly. The P in was quantified by correlating the cell-induced deformation with the ex situ osmotically induced deformation of the polymer capsules. Ultimately, we found that human monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells exerted up to approximately 360 kPa on the capsules during internalisation.

  6. What we have learned and what to expect from capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Samuel N; Bjarnason, Ingvar

    2012-10-16

    Capsule endoscopy was conceived by Gabriel Iddan and Paul Swain independently two decades ago. These applications include but are not limited to Crohn's disease of the small bowel, occult gastrointestinal bleeding, non steroidal anti inflammatory drug induced small bowel disease, carcinoid tumors of the small bowel, gastro intestinal stromal tumors of the small bowel and other disease affecting the small bowel. Capsule endoscopy has been compared to traditional small bowel series, computerized tomography studies and push enteroscopy. The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy has consistently been superior in the diagnosis of small bowel disease compared to the competing methods (small bowel series, computerized tomography, push enteroscopy) of diagnosis. For this reason capsule endoscopy has enjoyed a meteoric success. Image quality has been improved with increased number of pixels, automatic light exposure adaptation and wider angle of view. Further applications of capsule endoscopy of other areas of the digestive tract are being explored. The increased transmission rate of images per second has made capsule endoscopy of the esophagus a realistic possibility. Technological advances that include a double imager capsule with a nearly panoramic view of the colon and a variable frame rate adjusted to the movement of the capsule in the colon have made capsule endoscopy of the colon feasible. The diagnostic rate for the identification of patients with polyps equal to or larger than 6 mm is high. Future advances in technology and biotechnology will lead to further progress. Capsule endoscopy is following the successful modern trend in medicine that replaces invasive tests with less invasive methodology.

  7. Multilevel wireless capsule endoscopy video segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sae; Celebi, M. Emre

    2010-03-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. WCE transmits more than 50,000 video frames per examination and the visual inspection of the resulting video is a highly time-consuming task even for the experienced gastroenterologist. Typically, a medical clinician spends one or two hours to analyze a WCE video. To reduce the assessment time, it is critical to develop a technique to automatically discriminate digestive organs and shots each of which consists of the same or similar shots. In this paper a multi-level WCE video segmentation methodology is presented to reduce the examination time.

  8. DIABETES AND SHOULDER ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mohanakrishnan; Bhanumathy Mohanakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adhesive capsulitis (AC) of shoulder is a common condition encountered by physical therapists in their routine outpatient care services; AC of shoulder is as by itself being a self limiting disorder lasts from months to years causing pain and discomfort to the patients. The condition is commonly associated with Diabetes mellitus or other co morbidities. The incidence of AC is high among diabetic individuals and it becomes mandatory on the part of physical therapists and other heal...

  9. Contraindications for video capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bandorski, Dirk; Kurniawan, Niehls; Baltes, Peter; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Hecker, Matthias; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has been applied in the last 15 years in an increasing field of applications. Although many contraindications have been put into perspective, some precautions still have to be considered. Known stenosis of the gastrointestinal tract is a clear contraindication for VCE unless surgery is already scheduled or at least has been considered as an optional treatment modality. In patients with a higher incidence of stenosis, as in an established diagnosis of Crohn?s dise...

  10. Wall surface temperature measurement for the in-pile radioisotope target capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan

    2008-01-01

    The surface temperatures of the radioisotope target capsule is one of the important parameter to its structure integrity. In order to verify the results of theoretical calculation for design, an in-pile surface temperature of capsule wall was measured in Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR). The results showed that the temperature were accordant with the theoretical calculation.The measuring methods of the external and internal surface of capsule wall were described also, including instruments selection, the technology of embedded thermocouples and error analysis. (authors)

  11. Application of the microcapsule fabrication technology to magnetic particle testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Fuyumi; Nishimura, Akihiko; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Nagai, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to apply the micro capsule technology to the facility maintenance. The micro capsule technology for laser fusion target was developed at the Institute of Laser Engineering Osaka University. We have a plan to apply the fabrication technology of polystyrene micro capsules to the facility maintenance where the magnetic particle testing for complex piping system is investigated. (author)

  12. CAPSULES AS A PREVENTION OF FIBRE CLUSTERS IN CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    JOSEF STRYK; KAREL POSPíšIL; RADEK MATULA

    2012-01-01

    Homogenous concrete mixture without aggregate pockets and fibre clusters is a presumption for appropriate properties of concrete element or structure. There are technological measures how to achieve homogenously looking mixture from aggregate point of view, but fibres are still predisposed for clusters forming. The paper evaluates originally designed and protected within European patent treatment of fibre, based on capsules containing individual rolled fibre which can be admixed into a concre...

  13. Capsule Endoscopy: A Single Centre Experience with the First 226 Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Enns

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Capsule endoscopy (CE refers to a novel diagnostic method of imaging the gastrointestinal tract using a wireless capsule that transmits images to a data recorder while the device traverses the small intestine.

  14. Diagnostic and therapeutic radio pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, T.A.; Wedeking, P.W.; Morcos, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved pharmaceutical radioactive capsule consisting of a non-toxic, water soluble material adapted to being ingested and rapidly disintegrating on contact with fluids of the gastro-intestinal tract is described. Each capsule is provided with filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound absorbable from the gastro-intestinal tract. The capsule is preferably of gelatin, methyl cellulose or polyvinyl alcohol and the filler is a polyethylene glycol. The radioactive compound may be iodine e.g. sodium radioiodide I-131 or 123. The capsule may also contain a reducing agent e.g. sodium thiosulphate, sulphite, or bisulphite. (author)

  15. Challenges and Future of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Beneche, Nicolas; Chambon, Christine; Pioche, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, capsule endoscopy was introduced as the main investigation method for small bowel mucosal diseases, and its role in colonic diseases has been gradually revealed. Future challenges for capsule endoscopy, besides improvements of image quality and visualization of each part of the small bowel and colonic mucosa, include the development of gastric capsules, the capacity to perform histological examination of the mucosa, and maybe in the future, some capsule endoscopy-driven therapeutics. The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical demands and feasibility of achieving the aforementioned objectives.

  16. Critical swelling of fluctuating capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Haim; Haleva, Emir

    2009-03-01

    In many natural transport processes the solute molecules to be transported are encapsulated in semipermeable, flexible membrane vesicles of micron size. We study the swelling of such fluctuating capsules, as the number of encapsulated particles is increased, or the concentration of the outer solution is decreased. The approach to the maximum volume-to-area ratio and the associated buildup of membrane tension involve a continuous phase transition and follow universal scaling laws. The criticality and its features are model-independent, arising solely from the interplay between volume and surface degrees of freedom.ootnotetextE. Haleva and H. Diamant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 078104 (2008).

  17. Integrity Assessment of HANARO Irradiation Capsule for Long-Term Irradiation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee Nam; Cho, Man Soon; Yang, Sung Woo; Shin, Yoon Taek; Park, Seng Jae; Yang, Tae Ho; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Kim, Myong Seop [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sang Hyun [Chungnam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The capsule technology was basically developed for irradiation testing under a commercial reactor operation environment. Most irradiation testing using capsules has been performed at around 300 .deg. C within four reactor operation cycles (about 100 days equivalent to 1.5 dpa (displacement for atom)) at HANARO. Based on the accumulated experience as well as the sophisticated requirements of users, HANARO has recently been required to support national R and D projects requiring much higher neutron fluence. To scope the user requirements for higher neutron irradiation fluence, several efforts using an instrumented capsule have been applied at HANARO. In this paper, the applied stresses on the capsule are estimated because the capsule was suspected to be susceptible to fatigue failure during irradiation testing. In addition, the on-going design improvements of the irradiation capsule for higher neutron irradiation fluence at HANARO are described. The applied stresses on the rod tip were analyzed using the ANSYS program. The applied stresses on the rod tip can be classified into stresses by the designed bottom spring, by the upward flowing coolant, by the capsule vibration, and by the welding residual stress. The maximal stresses due to the first three factors were estimated as 5.4 MPa, 132.9 MPa, and 161 MPa, respectively. These stresses do not exceed the known fatigue strength of stainless steels (∼300 MPa). Residual stress by welding is another possible stress and it is known to occur at up to about 300 MPa.

  18. Preparation of sustained release capsules by electrostatic dry powder coating, using traditional dip coating as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Shen, Lian; Yuan, Feng; Fu, Hui; Shan, Weiguang

    2018-03-27

    Lately, a great deal of attention is being paid to capsule coating, since the coat protects active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from damage, as is in the case of tablet and pellet. However, moisture and heat sensitivity of gelatin shells make it challenging to coat capsules using the conventional aqueous coating techniques. In an effort to overcome this challenge, the present study aims to coat capsules using two different coating techniques: electrostatic dry powder coating (EDPC) and dip coating (DC). Both capsule coatings and free films were prepared by these two coating techniques, and the effects of coating formulations and processing conditions on the film quality were investigated. The corresponding drug in vitro release and mechanisms were characterized and compared. The results of dissolution tests demonstrated that the drug release behavior of both EDPC and DC coated capsules could be optimized to a sustained release of 24 hours, following the Fick's diffusion law. The results of this study suggest that EDPC method is better than DC method for coating capsules, with respect to the higher production efficiency and better stability, indicating that this dry coating technology has promised in gelatin capsule coating applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W.; Joyce, S.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing

  20. Indirect MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoon, Young Cheol; Choi, Sang-Hee

    2011-12-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the indirect MR arthrographic findings of patients with adhesive capsulitis and patients without adhesive capsulitis. Indirect MR arthrograms of 35 patients (21 women, 14 men; mean age, 50.1 years) diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis clinically were compared with indirect MR arthrograms of 45 patients (23 women, 22 men; mean age, 48.9 years) without adhesive capsulitis. Joint capsule thickness in the axillary recess and the thicknesses of the enhancing portion of the axillary recess and the rotator interval were, respectively, evaluated on coronal T2-weighted images and coronal and sagittal fat-suppressed enhanced T1-weighted images by two radiologists independently. Reliability was studied using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared. Patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly thickened joint capsules in the axillary recess and a thickened enhancing portion in the axillary recess and in the rotator interval. The difference in the thicknesses of the enhancing portion in the axillary recess and in the rotator interval were significantly greater than the difference in joint capsule thicknesses in the axillary recess between the adhesive capsulitis group and the control group (p capsule in the axillary recess and the thicknesses of the enhancing portion of the axillary recess and the rotator interval were 0.797, 0.861, and 0.847, respectively. An abundance of enhancing tissue in the rotator interval and thickening and enhancement of the axillary recess are signs suggestive of adhesive capsulitis on indirect MR arthrography.

  1. DIABETES AND SHOULDER ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mohanakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhesive capsulitis (AC of shoulder is a common condition encountered by physical therapists in their routine outpatient care services; AC of shoulder is as by itself being a self limiting disorder lasts from months to years causing pain and discomfort to the patients. The condition is commonly associated with Diabetes mellitus or other co morbidities. The incidence of AC is high among diabetic individuals and it becomes mandatory on the part of physical therapists and other health professionals to approach this issue on a holistic manner. This paper deals with the importance of a physiotherapist role in prevention and dealing with the causative factors of AC and not merely its symptom. Methods: Extensive literature review was done from the electronic data bases, Systematic reviews and critical reviews from Pub med indexed journals and other peer reviewed publications across the globe. Results: It was not the type of diabetes but the duration of the disease and the glycemic index, marking the causative factor for adhesive capsulitis of shoulder. Conclusion: It may be concluded that physiotherapist play a vital role in identifying the pre-diabetic or a diabetic state of an individual reporting in a multi disciplinary set up with a AC of shoulder, and also has a role in the prevention of AC by helping the individual to maintain a good glycemic control with a holistic approach which includes aerobic exercises, General Flexibility exercises, Weight management and Yoga therapy.

  2. Passive sorting of capsules by deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haener, Edgar; Juel, Anne

    We study passive sorting according to deformability of liquid-filled ovalbumin-alginate capsules. We present results for two sorting geometries: a straight channel with a half-cylindrical obstruction and a pinched flow fractioning device (PFF) adapted for use with capsules. In the half-cylinder device, the capsules deform as they encounter the obstruction, and travel around the half-cylinder. The distance from the capsule's centre of mass to the surface of the half-cylinder depends on deformability, and separation between capsules of different deformability is amplified by diverging streamlines in the channel expansion downstream of the obstruction. We show experimentally that capsules can be sorted according to deformability with their downstream position depending on capillary number only, and we establish the sensitivity of the device to experimental variability. In the PFF device, particles are compressed against a wall using a strong pinching flow. We show that capsule deformation increases with the intensity of the pinching flow, but that the downstream capsule position is not set by deformation in the device. However, when using the PFF device like a T-Junction, we achieve improved sorting resolution compared to the half-cylinder device.

  3. Feasibility and safety of string, wireless capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Francisco C; Shaukat, Masud S; Young, Michele A; Johnson, David A; Akins, Rodney

    2005-05-01

    Capsule endoscopy is a major technological advancement in the visualization of the small bowell. Its utility in the evaluation of the esophagus is mainly limited by its rapid and unpredictable transmission, thus limiting the number of pictures of the esophagus, in particular, the distal esophagus. Strings were attached to the wireless capsule endoscopy device to allow its controlled movement up and down the esophagus. Microbiologic cultures of the capsule's surface after high-level disinfection were carried out after the procedure. At the time of recording, discomfort associated with the procedure was documented. Patient preference compared with conventional EGD was recorded. An independent endoscopist blinded to the EGD diagnoses assessed the diagnostic accuracy of pictures obtained. Fifty patients with Barrett's esophagus were enrolled: 28 with short-segment Barrett's and 22 with long-segment Barrett's. The procedure was safe (no strings were disrupted, and no capsule was lost), and it rendered negative microbiologic cultures after high-level disinfection. The mean recording time was 7.9 minutes; all patients with both short- and long-segment Barrett's esophagus were successfully identified. The difficulty/discomfort associated with swallowing the device, throat discomfort, gagging, moving the capsule (up and down and upon retrieval of the capsule) was none or minimal in 74%, 98%, 96%, 94%, and 76%, respectively. A single capsule was used in 24 studies, and the majority of patients (92%) preferred string-capsule endoscopy to EGD. String-capsule endoscopy was feasible, safe, and highly acceptable, and was preferred by patients and may prove to be more cost effective than screening EGD.

  4. Flexible and capsule endoscopy for screening, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliker, Levin J; Ciuti, Gastone

    2014-11-01

    Endoscopy dates back to the 1860s, but many of the most significant advancements have been made within the past decade. With the integration of robotics, the ability to precisely steer and advance traditional flexible endoscopes has been realized, reducing patient pain and improving clinician ergonomics. Additionally, wireless capsule endoscopy, a revolutionary alternative to traditional scopes, enables inspection of the digestive system with minimal discomfort for the patient or the need for sedation, mitigating some of the risks of flexible endoscopy. This review presents a research update on robotic endoscopic systems, including both flexible scope and capsule technologies, detailing actuation methods and therapeutic capabilities. A future perspective on endoscopic potential for screening, diagnostic and therapeutic gastrointestinal procedures is also presented.

  5. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: MR arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Han, Tae Il; Lee, Kwang Won; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Dae Hong; Han, Hyun Young; Song, Mun Kab [Eulji Univ. School of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a clinical syndrome involving pain and decreased joint motion caused by thickening and contraction of the joint capsule. The purpose of this study is to describe the MR arthrographic findings of this syndrome. Twenty-nine sets of MR arthrographic images were included in the study. Fourteen patients had adhesive capsulitis diagnosed by physical examination and arthrography, and their MR arthrographic findings were compared with those of 15 subjects in the control group. The images were retrospectively reviewed with specific attention to the thickness of the joint capsule, volume of the axillary pouch (length, width, height(depth)), thinkness of the coracohumeral ligament, presence of extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrst filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Mean capsular thickness measured at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch was 4.1 mm in patients with adhesive capsulitis and 1.5 mm in the control group. The mean width of the axillary pouch was 2.5 mm in patients and 9.5 mm in controls. In patients, the capsule was significantly thicker and the axillary pouch significantly narrower than in controls (p<0.05). Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch (sensitivity 93%, specificity 80%) and a pouch narrower than 3.5 mm (sensitivity 93%, specificity 100%) were useful criteria for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis. In patients with this condition, extra-articular contrast extravasation was noted in six patients (43%) and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa in three (21%). The MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis are capsular thickening, a low-volume axillary pouch, extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch and a pouch width of less than 3.5 mm are useful diagnostic imaging characteristics.

  6. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  7. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  8. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  9. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....

  11. Colon capsule endoscopy: toward the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Naoki; Tanaka, Kumiko; Teramae, Satoshi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2017-02-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy is a wireless and minimally invasive technique for visualization of the whole colon. With recent improvements of technical features in second-generation systems, a more important role for colon capsule endoscopy is rapidly emerging. Although several limitations and drawbacks are yet to be resolved, its usefulness as a tool for colorectal cancer screening and monitoring disease activity in inflammatory bowel diseases has become more apparent with increased use. Further investigations, including multicenter trials, are required to evaluate the substantial role of the colon capsule in managing colorectal diseases.

  12. The environmental psychology of capsule habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, P; Steel, G D

    2000-01-01

    Capsule habitats make it possible for human beings to survive and function in environments that would otherwise be lethal, such as space, the ocean depths, and the polar regions. The number of people entering capsules in the course of their work or for purposes of recreation is constantly increasing. However, long-term living in such habitats imposes physical and psychological risks as well as offering opportunities and benefits. This paper reviews what is known about the environmental, social, and personality aspects of adaptation to capsules, including sources of stress, selection criteria, obstacles to and facilitators of adequate coping, changes in group interaction, the role of temporal factors, and post-mission consequences.

  13. Design and manufacturing of non-instrumented capsule for advanced PWR fuel pellet irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Song, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This project is preparing to irradiation test of the developed large grain UO{sub 2} fuel pellet in HANARO for pursuit fuel safety and high burn-up in 'Advanced LWR Fuel Technology Development Project' as a part Nuclear Mid and Long-term R and D Program. On the basis test rod is performed the nuclei property and preliminary fuel performance analysis, test rod and non-instrumented capsule are designed and manufactured for irradiation test in HANARO. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule of Advanced PWR Fuel pellet was referred the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO(DUPIC Rig-001) and 18-element HANARO fuel, was designed to ensure the integrity and the endurance of non-instrumented capsule during the long term(2.5 years) irradiation. To irradiate the UO{sub 2} pellets up to the burn-up 70 MWD/kgU, need the time about 60 months and ensure the integrity of non-instrumented capsule for 30 months until replace the new capsule. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule will be based to develope the non-instrumented capsule for the more long term irradiation in HANARO. 22 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  14. Polyamide capsules via soft templating with oil drops-1. Morphological studies of the capsule wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essawy, Hisham; Tauer, Klaus

    2010-02-01

    Poly(terephthalamide) microcapsules can be reproducibly and easily prepared by interfacial polycondensation around emulsion droplets in water. Oil drops of cyclohexane/chloroform mixture stabilized with poly(vinyl alcohol) containing terephthaloylchloride serve as soft template. The interfacial polycondensation starts immediately after addition of an amine mixture (hexamethylenediamine/diethylenetriamine). Light and scanning electron microscopy prove the formation of capsules with size distribution in the range from a few up to 100 microm depending on particular composition of the reaction mixture. The morphology of the capsule wall is characterized by precipitated particles. If instead of pure organic solvents a reactive oil phase is used as template, the capsules can serve in subsequent reactions as templates for the synthesis of composite particles. In this way, styrene can be radically polymerized inside the capsule leading to composite capsules. The capsule morphology is determined by the partition of all components between all phases.

  15. Gravimetric Analysis of Particulate Matter using Air Samplers Housing Internal Filtration Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sean; O'Connor, Paula Fey; Feng, H Amy; Ashley, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    An evaluation was carried out to investigate the suitability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) internal capsules, housed within air sampling devices, for gravimetric analysis of airborne particles collected in workplaces. Experiments were carried out using blank PVC capsules and PVC capsules spiked with 0,1 - 4 mg of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material ® (NIST SRM) 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) and Arizona Road Dust (Air Cleaner Test Dust). The capsules were housed within plastic closed-face cassette samplers (CFCs). A method detection limit (MDL) of 0,075 mg per sample was estimated. Precision S r at 0,5 - 4 mg per sample was 0,031 and the estimated bias was 0,058. Weight stability over 28 days was verified for both blanks and spiked capsules. Independent laboratory testing on blanks and field samples verified long-term weight stability as well as sampling and analysis precision and bias estimates. An overall precision estimate Ŝ rt of 0,059 was obtained. An accuracy measure of ±15,5% was found for the gravimetric method using PVC internal capsules.

  16. Wireless capsule endoscopy of the large intestine: a review with future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gossum, Andre

    2014-09-01

    Video capsule endoscopy, which was initially developed for exploring the small bowel, has been adapted for investigating the colon. This review summarizes recent developments in colon capsule technology as well as indications for its use. Second-generation PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE-2) has been recently developed and has significantly improved the sensitivity and specificity of colon capsules for detecting polyps and/or tumors in patients with suspected or known colonic lesions. The use of CCE-2 has been shown to be of value in patients with incomplete standard colonoscopy. The use of CCE-2 has also been investigated in patients with ulcerative colitis and in outpatient settings. Several trials have tried to simplify the colon preparation regimen. Colon capsule endoscopy is a novel technique for exploring the colon. CCE-2 has improved the diagnostic capability of this noninvasive method. There is still room for improvement and simplification of colon preparation regimens. Apart from detection of polyps or neoplasms, colon capsule endoscopy has also been assessed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  17. An optimized methodology to analyze biopolymer capsules by environmental scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conforto, Egle, E-mail: egle.conforto@univ-lr.fr [LaSIE UMR 7356 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Joguet, Nicolas [Equipe Approches Moléculaires Environnement-Santé, LIENSs, UMR 7266 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Buisson, Pierre [INNOV' IA, 4 rue Samuel Champlain, Z.I. Chef de Baie, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Vendeville, Jean-Eudes; Chaigneau, Carine [IDCAPS, filiale R and D INNOV' IA, 4 rue Samuel Champlain, Z.I. Chef de Baie, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Maugard, Thierry [Equipe Approches Moléculaires Environnement-Santé, LIENSs, UMR 7266 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe an optimized methodology to study the surface characteristics and internal structure of biopolymer capsules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in environmental mode. The main advantage of this methodology is that no preparation is required and, significantly, no metallic coverage is deposited on the surface of the specimen, thus preserving the original capsule shape and its surface morphology. This avoids introducing preparation artefacts which could modify the capsule surface and mask information concerning important feature like porosities or roughness. Using this method gelatin and mainly fatty coatings, difficult to be analyzed by standard SEM technique, unambiguously show fine details of their surface morphology without damage. Furthermore, chemical contrast is preserved in backscattered electron images of unprepared samples, allowing visualizing the internal organization of the capsule, the quality of the envelope, etc.… This study provides pointers on how to obtain optimal conditions for the analysis of biological or sensitive material, as this is not always studied using appropriate techniques. A reliable evaluation of the parameters used in capsule elaboration for research and industrial applications, as well as that of capsule functionality is provided by this methodology, which is essential for the technological progress in this domain. - Highlights: • We optimized a methodology using ESEM to analyze biopolymer capsules. • This methodology allows analyzing original surface samples without any preparation. • No preparation artefact are introduced which would mask important surface details. • Morphological details and chemical contrast from the original surface are preserved. • Capsule shape, volume, surface roughness and coating quality were reliably evaluated.

  18. Therapeutic Capsule Endoscopy: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rasouli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for non-invasive (or less-invasive monitoring and treatment of medical conditions has attracted both physicians and engineers to work together and investigate new methodologies. Wireless capsule endoscopy is a successful example of such techniques which has become an accepted routine for diagnostic inspection of the gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a non-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy and provides the opportunity for exploring distal areas of the small intestine which are otherwise not accessible. Despite these advantages, wireless capsule endoscopy is still limited in functionality compared to traditional endoscopy. Wireless capsule endoscopes with advanced functionalities, such as biopsy or drug delivery, are highly desirable. In this article, the current status of wireless capsule endoscopy is reviewed together with some of its possible therapeutic applications as well as the existing challenges.

  19. CAPSULE REPORT: HARD CHROME FUME ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    All existing information which includes the information extrapolated from the Hard Chrome Pollution Prevention Demonstration Project(s) and other sources derived from plating facilities and industry contacts, will be condensed and featured in this document. At least five chromium emission prevention/control devices have been tested covering a wide spectrum of techniques currently in use at small and large-sized chrome metal plating shops. The goal for limiting chromium emissions to levels specified in the MACT Standards are: (1) 0.030 milligrams per dry standard cubic meter of air (mg/dscm) for small facilities with existing tanks, (2) 0.015 mg/dscm for small facilities with new tanks or large facilities with existing or new tanks. It should be emphasized that chemical mist suppressants still have quality issues and work practices that need to be addressed when they are used. Some of the mist suppressants currently in use are: one-, two-, and three-stage mesh pad mist eliminators; composite mesh pad mist eliminators; packed-bed scrubbers and polyballs. This capsule report should, redominantly, emphasize pollution prevention techniques and include, but not be restricted to, the afore-mentioned devices. Information

  20. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  1. The history of time for capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Samuel N

    2017-05-01

    Capsule endoscopy was conceived by inventive minds of good people. In the beginning there was a will to do something for medicine. The idea fomented after a discourse between the talented engineer with his physician friend. It took years to develop the concept. Then excellent engineers created de novo the necessary components to turn the capsule into a viable reality. The story is a tribute to human ingenuity.

  2. Adhesive capsulitis: review of imaging and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Guy; Bou-Haider, Pascal; Harris, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is one of the most common conditions affecting the shoulder; however, early clinical diagnosis can be challenging. Treatment is most effective when commenced prior to the onset of capsular thickening and contracture; consequently, the role of imaging is increasing. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the typical imaging appearances of adhesive capsulitis and to examine some of the evidence regarding each of these imaging modalities. An evaluation of the various management options available to the clinician is also presented.

  3. Radioactive gas-containing polymeric capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Lewis, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A disposable ventilation study system for dispensing a single patient dosage of gaseous radioisotopes to patients for pulmonary function studies is disclosed. A gas impermeable capsule encloses the gaseous radioisotope and is stored within a radioactivity shielding body of valve means which shears the capsule to dispense the radioisotope to the patient. A breathing bag receives the patient's exhalation of the radioisotope and permits rebreathing of the radioisotope by the patient. 18 claims, 7 drawing figures

  4. CAPSULES AS A PREVENTION OF FIBRE CLUSTERS IN CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEF STRYK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Homogenous concrete mixture without aggregate pockets and fibre clusters is a presumption for appropriate properties of concrete element or structure. There are technological measures how to achieve homogenously looking mixture from aggregate point of view, but fibres are still predisposed for clusters forming. The paper evaluates originally designed and protected within European patent treatment of fibre, based on capsules containing individual rolled fibre which can be admixed into a concrete mixture and set up homogenously in its whole volume within the mixing process.

  5. Wireless fluorescence capsule for endoscopy using single photon-based detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawhani, Mohammed A.; Beeley, James; Cumming, David R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescence Imaging (FI) is a powerful technique in biological science and clinical medicine. Current FI devices that are used either for in-vivo or in-vitro studies are expensive, bulky and consume substantial power, confining the technique to laboratories and hospital examination rooms. Here we present a miniaturised wireless fluorescence endoscope capsule with low power consumption that will pave the way for future FI systems and applications. With enhanced sensitivity compared to existing technology we have demonstrated that the capsule can be successfully used to image tissue autofluorescence and targeted fluorescence via fluorophore labelling of tissues. The capsule incorporates a state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor single photon avalanche detector imaging array, miniaturised optical isolation, wireless technology and low power design. When in use the capsule consumes only 30.9 mW, and deploys very low-level 468 nm illumination. The device has the potential to replace highly power-hungry intrusive optical fibre based endoscopes and to extend the range of clinical examination below the duodenum. To demonstrate the performance of our capsule, we imaged fluorescence phantoms incorporating principal tissue fluorophores (flavins) and absorbers (haemoglobin). We also demonstrated the utility of marker identification by imaging a 20 μM fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelling solution on mammalian tissue.

  6. An MRI study of symptomatic adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yuying; Yang, Wenlu; Amirbekian, Vardan; Diaz, Luis E; Huang, Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Appilication of MR imaging to diagnose Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) has previously been described. However, there is insufficient information available for the MRI analysis of AC. This study is to describe and evaluate the pathomorphology of the shoulder in Asian patients with AC compared to healthy volunteers. 60 Asian patients with clinically diagnosed AC and 60 healthy volunteers without frozen shoulder underwent MRI of the shoulder joint. All subjects who were age- and sex-matched control ones underwent routine MRI scans of the affected shoulder, including axial, oblique coronal, oblique sagittal T1WI SE and coronal oblique T2WI FSE sequences. Significant abnormal findings were observed on MRI, especially at the rotator cuff interval. The coracohumeral ligament (CHL), articular capsule thickness in the rotator cuff interval as well as the fat space under coracoid process were evaluated. MRI showed that patients with adhesive capsulitis had a significantly thickened coracohumeral ligament and articular capsule in the rotator cuff interval compared to the control subjects (4.2 vs. 2.4 mm, 7.2 vs. 4.4 mm; padhesive capsulitis compared with control subjects (73% vs. 13%, 26% vs. 1.6%; padhesive capsulitis than in control subjects. With regards to the inter-observer variability, two MR radiologists had an excellent kappa value of 0.86. MRI can be used to show characteristic findings in diagnosing AC. Thickening of the CHL and the capsule at the rotator cuff interval and complete obliteration of the fat triangle under the coracoid process have been shown to be the most characteristic MR findings seen with AC.

  7. An MRI study of symptomatic adhesive capsulitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appilication of MR imaging to diagnose Adhesive Capsulitis (AC has previously been described. However, there is insufficient information available for the MRI analysis of AC. This study is to describe and evaluate the pathomorphology of the shoulder in Asian patients with AC compared to healthy volunteers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 60 Asian patients with clinically diagnosed AC and 60 healthy volunteers without frozen shoulder underwent MRI of the shoulder joint. All subjects who were age- and sex-matched control ones underwent routine MRI scans of the affected shoulder, including axial, oblique coronal, oblique sagittal T1WI SE and coronal oblique T2WI FSE sequences. Significant abnormal findings were observed on MRI, especially at the rotator cuff interval. The coracohumeral ligament (CHL, articular capsule thickness in the rotator cuff interval as well as the fat space under coracoid process were evaluated. MRI showed that patients with adhesive capsulitis had a significantly thickened coracohumeral ligament and articular capsule in the rotator cuff interval compared to the control subjects (4.2 vs. 2.4 mm, 7.2 vs. 4.4 mm; p<0.05. Partial or complete obliteration of the subcoracoid fat triangle was significantly more frequent in patients with adhesive capsulitis compared with control subjects (73% vs. 13%, 26% vs. 1.6%; p<0.001. Synovitis-like abnormality around the long biceps tendon was significantly more common in patients with adhesive capsulitis than in control subjects. With regards to the inter-observer variability, two MR radiologists had an excellent kappa value of 0.86. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MRI can be used to show characteristic findings in diagnosing AC. Thickening of the CHL and the capsule at the rotator cuff interval and complete obliteration of the fat triangle under the coracoid process have been shown to be the most characteristic MR findings seen with AC.

  8. Application of Dika Fat in the Formulation of Hard Gelatin Capsules ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the drugs was achieved over 8 hours and that drug release was by diffusion control. These fatty excipients may prove useful in this emerging technology for drug delivery. Keywords: sustained release, hard gelatin capsules, dika fat, hydrogenated fatty acids. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 8 No 1 pp.

  9. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -2  m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  10. Video capsule endoscopy of the small bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Rami

    2013-03-01

    Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) was introduced 13 years ago by Given Imaging (Yokneam, Israel). It has become one of the most important investigational tools of the small bowel. The capsule is swallowed with water after a 12 h fast, propelled via peristalsis through the gastrointestinal tract and excreted naturally. A nonvideo patency capsule was developed to confirm functional patency of the gastrointestinal tract. Four additional companies have introduced competitive small bowel video capsules, some of which are Food and Drug Admistration (FDA) approved. Due to the easiness of the procedure, SBCE has become a first-line tool to detect small bowel abnormalities. The main indications for SBCE include obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, suspected Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors and practically any abnormal small bowel imaging. New indications are emerging like small bowel motility and monitoring of drug therapy and mucosal healing. The present review will describe the available capsules in the market, the procedure itself, present indications and future expectations. It will focus on the PillCam SB of Given Imaging as it is the one on which most of the literature is written. Over the past 10 years, SBCE has become a routine, first-line investigational tool of many small bowel pathologies.

  11. Blood detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using expectation maximization clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Cox, Jay; Tang, Shou Jiang; Tibbals, Harry F.

    2006-03-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. Other endoscopies such as colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and intraoperative enteroscopy could be used to visualize up to the stomach, duodenum, colon, and terminal ileum, but there existed no method to view most of the small intestine without surgery. With the miniaturization of wireless and camera technologies came the ability to view the entire gestational track with little effort. A tiny disposable video capsule is swallowed, transmitting two images per second to a small data receiver worn by the patient on a belt. During an approximately 8-hour course, over 55,000 images are recorded to a worn device and then downloaded to a computer for later examination. Typically, a medical clinician spends more than two hours to analyze a WCE video. Research has been attempted to automatically find abnormal regions (especially bleeding) to reduce the time needed to analyze the videos. The manufacturers also provide the software tool to detect the bleeding called Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), but its accuracy is not high enough to replace human examination. It was reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of SBI were about 72% and 85%, respectively. To address this problem, we propose a technique to detect the bleeding regions automatically utilizing the Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed bleeding detection method achieves 92% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  12. The evolution of endoscopy: wireless capsule cameras for the diagnosis of occult gastrointestinal bleeding and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian R; Harris, Hobart; Vitale, Gary C

    2005-06-01

    Occult gastrointestinal bleeding and lesions associated with inflammatory bowel disease represent a diagnostic dilemma because they often lie in areas of the small bowel that are difficult to access with flexible fiberoptic endoscopy. Capsule endoscopy has been developed to access these areas in a way that avoids the pain and anesthesia risks of push endoscopy. The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy has proven to be superior to both flexible small-bowel endoscopy and radiologic studies in several prospective trials. Capsule endoscopy transmits a large number of images that do not correlate well with the standard endoscopic view, creating a diagnostic challenge for the endoscopist. Complications of this procedure include capsule retention in diverticulae or at stricture sites. The technology of this procedure continues to evolve through improving image resolution and diagnostic accuracy. Capsule endoscopy also represents an overall economic saving despite a high unit price compared with the expense of repeat diagnostic testing. Because the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy is nearly twofold greater than conventional endoscopy, it has become the procedure of choice for the dilemma of assessing small-bowel pathology for many clinicians. Further studies are needed to determine whether the capsule endoscope can replace conventional endoscopy in the first-line diagnosis of pathology in other parts of the alimentary tract.

  13. The influence of polymorphism on the manufacturability and in vitro dissolution of sulindac-containing hard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe Sánchez-González, Elizabeth; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; Jesús Hernández-Abad, Vicente; Jung Cook, Helgi

    2015-05-01

    Drug polymorphism could affect drug product dissolution, manufacturability, stability and bioavailability/bioequivalence. The impact of polymorphism on the manufacturability and in vitro dissolution profiles of sulindac capsules has not been studied yet. To evaluate the impact of polymorphism on the manufacturability and in vitro dissolution of sulindac hard gelatin capsules. Sulindac crystal forms I and II (SLDI and SLDII, respectively) were prepared and characterized. Powder formulations containing one of the polymorphs, lactose and magnesium stearate (at three different levels) were prepared and their flow properties determined. Hard gelatin capsules were filled with the formulations and tested for fill-weight variations. Drug dissolution for SLDI- and SLDII-containing hard gelatin capsules was determined. Differences in flow properties for each polymorph were observed, as well as for their formulations, which in turn affected capsule weight homogeneity. Statistically significant differences in the rate and extent of drug release were observed between SLDI- and SLDII-containing capsules. Formulations containing SLDI showed a better manufacturability and a better dissolution profile than those with SLDII. Sulindac crystalline form I was the best candidate for hard gelatin capsule formulation because of its technological and in vitro dissolution properties.

  14. The first capsule implosion experiments on Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbett, W J; Horsfield, C J; Gales, S G; Leatherland, A E; Rubery, M S; Coltman, J E; Meadowcroft, A E; Rice, S J; Simons, A J; Woolhead, V E

    2016-01-01

    Direct drive capsule implosions are being developed on the Orion laser at AWE as a platform for ICF and HED physics experiments. The Orion facility combines both long pulse and short-pulse beams, making it well suited for studying the physics of alternative ignition approaches. Orion implosions also provide the opportunity to study aspects of polar direct drive. Limitations on drive symmetry from the relatively small number of laser beams makes predictive modelling of the implosions challenging, resulting in some uncertainty in the expected capsule performance. Initial experiments have been fielded to evaluate baseline capsule performance and inform future design optimization. Highly promising DD fusion neutron yields in excess of 10 9 have been recorded. Results from the experiments are presented alongside radiation-hydrocode modelling. (paper)

  15. Production of 131I gelatin capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, A.; Hirshfeld, N.; Canfi, A.; Melamud, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodine ( 131 I) hard-gelatin capsules are widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of various thyroid disorders. Until 1980 radioiodine was supplied by us as a liquid dosage. This proved to be a rather inconvenient form since it resulted in inaccurate dosing by the physicians and caused frequent contamination of the patients and the hospital personnel. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have designed and constructed a production facility for capsules in which 1311 is packaged. Because of the extreme precautions necessary in handling radioactive compounds, encapsulation of radioactive materials requires specifically designed production techniques, special instrumentation and unique quality control procedures that are not encountered in the standard capsule production processes in the pharmaceutical industry

  16. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  17. Endoscopic placement of the small-bowel video capsule by using a capsule endoscope delivery device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jeremy P; Dureja, Parul; Pfau, Patrick R; Schwartz, Darren C; Reichelderfer, Mark; Judd, Robert H; Danko, Istvan; Iyer, Lalitha V; Gopal, Deepak V

    2007-05-01

    Capsule endoscopy performed via the traditional peroral route is technically challenging in patients with dysphagia, gastroparesis, and/or abnormal upper-GI (UGI) anatomy. To describe the indications and outcomes of cases in which the AdvanCE capsule endoscope delivery device, which has recently been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration, was used. Retrospective, descriptive, case series. Tertiary care, university hospital. We report a case series of 16 consecutive patients in whom the AdvanCE delivery device was used. The study period was May 2005 through July 2006. Endoscopic delivery of the video capsule to the proximal small bowel by using the AdvanCE delivery device. Indications, technique, and completeness of small bowel imaging in patients who underwent endoscopic video capsule delivery. The AdvanCE delivery device was used in 16 patients ranging in age from 3 to 74 years. The primary indications for endoscopic delivery included inability to swallow the capsule (10), altered UGI anatomy (4), and gastroparesis (2). Of the 4 patients with altered UGI anatomy, 3 had dual intestinal loop anatomy (ie, Bilroth-II procedure, Whipple surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) and 1 had a failed Nissen fundoplication. In all cases, the capsule was easily deployed without complication, and complete small intestinal imaging was achieved. Small patient size. Endoscopic placement of the Given PillCam by use of the AdvanCE delivery device was safe and easily performed in patients for whom capsule endoscopy would otherwise have been contraindicated or technically challenging.

  18. Capsule storage and density-analog techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, H.C.

    1975-05-01

    Density-analog schemes for describing critical arrays of fissile units have a long history. They originated as methods for generalizing results of subcritical measurements on weapon capsules. Such measurements were needed to establish reasonably efficient rules for capsule storage. Although specific density-analog models have been improved throughout the years, they are now largely replaced by comprehensive tabulations of critical-lattice parameters. Certain simplified forms are still useful as convenient formulas for extrapolation or for gross sorting of safety features. (U.S.)

  19. Adhesive capsulitis: review of imaging and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Guy; Bou-Haidar, Pascal; Harris, Craig

    2013-12-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is one of the most common conditions affecting the shoulder; however, early clinical diagnosis can be challenging. Treatment is most effective when commenced prior to the onset of capsular thickening and contracture; consequently, the role of imaging is increasing. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the typical imaging appearances of adhesive capsulitis and to examine some of the evidence regarding each of these imaging modalities. An evaluation of the various management options available to the clinician is also presented. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  20. Treatment of adhesive capsulitis: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Orsi, Giovanni Maria; Via, Alessio Giai; Frizziero, Antonio; Oliva, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Summary Adhesive capsulitis is a condition “difficult to define, difficult to treat and difficult to explain from the point of view of pathology”. This Codman’s assertion is still actual because of a variable nomenclature, an inconsistent reporting of disease staging and many types of treatment. There is no consensus on how the best way best to manage patients with this condition, so we want to provide an evidence-based overview regarding the effectiveness of conservative and surgical interventions to treat adhesive capsulitis. PMID:23738277

  1. Surgical evaluation of a novel tethered robotic capsule endoscope using micro-patterned treads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliker, Levin J; Kern, Madalyn D; Schoen, Jonathan A; Rentschler, Mark E

    2012-10-01

    The state-of-the-art technology for gastrointestinal (GI) tract exploration is a capsule endoscope (CE). Capsule endoscopes are pill-sized devices that provide visual feedback of the GI tract as they move passively through the patient. These passive devices could benefit from a mobility system enabling maneuverability and controllability. Potential benefits of a tethered robotic capsule endoscope (tRCE) include faster travel speeds, reaction force generation for biopsy, and decreased capsule retention. In this work, a tethered CE is developed with an active locomotion system for mobility within a collapsed lumen. Micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) treads are implemented onto a custom capsule housing as a mobility method. The tRCE housing contains a direct current (DC) motor and gear train to drive the treads, a video camera for visual feedback, and two light sources (infrared and visible) for illumination. The device was placed within the insufflated abdomen of a live anesthetized pig to evaluate mobility performance on a planar tissue surface, as well as within the cecum to evaluate mobility performance in a collapsed lumen. The tRCE was capable of forward and reverse mobility for both planar and collapsed lumen tissue environments. Also, using an onboard visual system, the tRCE was capable of demonstrating visual feedback within an insufflated, anesthetized porcine abdomen. Proof-of-concept in vivo tRCE mobility using micro-patterned PDMS treads was shown. This suggests that a similar method could be implemented in future smaller, faster, and untethered RCEs.

  2. Evaluation of released malathion and spinosad from chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules against Culex pipiens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badawy MEI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed EI Badawy,1 Nehad EM Taktak,2 Osama M Awad,2 Souraya A Elfiki,2 Nadia E Abou El-Ela2 1Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, 2Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Efficacy of spinosad and malathion loaded in eco-friendly biodegradable formulations was evaluated for controlling Culex pipiens larvae. Malathion (organophosphorus larvicide and spinosad (naturally derived insecticide were loaded on chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules. Capsules were characterized by size measurement, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and water uptake. In vitro release kinetics of the larvicides was studied in the running and stagnant water. Biochemical studies on the larvae treated with technical and formulated insecticides were also demonstrated. The results indicated that the released spinosad was active for a long time up to 48 and 211 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. However, the capsules loaded with malathion showed larvicidal activity for 20 and 27 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. Technical and formulated malathion and spinosad had an inhibition effect on acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, and glutathione S-transferase. The results proved that the prepared capsules consisting of biodegradable polymers containing larvicides could be effective as controlled-release formulation against C. pipiens larvae for a long period. Keywords: chitosan capsules, larvicide, controlled-release formulation, swelling, mosquitocidal activity, Culex pipiens, biochemical study

  3. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%.

  4. Artist concept of Mercury program study of medical effects and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    Artist concept of Mercury program study of medical effects and technology development. Drawing depicts cut-away view of Mercury capsule orbiting the Earth, showing the astronaut and his capsule's hardware.

  5. Isolation of Capsulate Bacteria from Acute Dentoalveolar Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. A. O.; Milligan, S. G.; MacFarlane, T. W.; Carmichael, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a capsule was determined for 198 bacterial strains (57 facultative anaerobes, 141 strict anaerobes) isobdted from pus samples aspirated from 40 acute dentoalveolar abscesses. A total of 133 (67 per cent) of the isolates (42 facultative anaerobes, 91 strict anaerobes) were found to have a capsule. Possession ofa capsule may in part explain the apparent pathogenicity of the bacterial species encountered in acute dentoalveolar abscess.Keywords - Bacterial capsule; Acute dentoalve...

  6. Ultrasound capsule endoscopy: sounding out the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Benjamin F; Stewart, Fraser; Lay, Holly; Cummins, Gerard; Newton, Ian P; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Steele, Robert J C; Näthke, Inke; Cochran, Sandy

    2017-05-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has been of immense benefit in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders since its introduction in 2001. However, it suffers from a number of well recognized deficiencies. Amongst these is the limited capability of white light imaging, which is restricted to analysis of the mucosal surface. Current capsule endoscopes are dependent on visual manifestation of disease and limited in regards to transmural imaging and detection of deeper pathology. Ultrasound capsule endoscopy (USCE) has the potential to overcome surface only imaging and provide transmural scans of the GI tract. The integration of high frequency microultrasound (µUS) into capsule endoscopy would allow high resolution transmural images and provide a means of both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the bowel wall. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) can provide data in an objective and measurable manner, potentially reducing lengthy interpretation times by incorporation into an automated diagnostic process. The research described here is focused on the development of USCE and other complementary diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Presently investigations have entered a preclinical phase with laboratory investigations running concurrently.

  7. Calcitonin effects on shoulder adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Alireza; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Bazavar, Mohammadreza; Barzgar, Mahmood; Tabrizi, Ali; Hashemi-Motlagh, Keyvan; Saheb-Ekhtiari, Khashayar

    2016-08-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) is a relatively prevalent disease of shoulder and affects soft tissue of glenohumeral joint. Signs include painful restricted motion and disability of the patient in daily activities. Calcitonin is a thyroid hormone, and its effectiveness has been demonstrated in painful conditions. The presents study aims to evaluate the effect of calcitonin in treating shoulder adhesive capsulitis. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted on 64 patients suffering from shoulder adhesive capsulitis. The intervention and control groups were given intranasal calcitonin and placebo for 6 weeks, respectively. For both groups, physiotherapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were administered correspondingly. The patients were evaluated pre- and post-treatment for shoulder pain and shoulder range of motion (ROM). Shoulder functional outcome (secondary outcome) was evaluated using Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, and Health Assessment Questionnaire disability criteria. The mean age of patients in calcitonin and control group was 52.4 ± 4.6 and 53.2 ± 4.9, respectively. Demographic characteristics and pre-treatment scores were similar in both groups (all P > 0.05). In post-treatment follow-up, shoulder pain, ROM, and the patients' functional scores were significantly improved in both groups (P adhesive capsulitis with regard to the efficiency in alleviating pain and improving functional outcome. II.

  8. Diagnosis and management of adhesive capsulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Manske, Robert C.; Prohaska, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a musculoskeletal condition that has a disabling capability. This review discusses the diagnosis and both operative and nonoperative management of this shoulder condition that causes significant morbidity. Issues related to medications, rehabilitation, and post surgical considerations are discussed.

  9. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  10. Wireless Capsule Enteroscopy in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachecí, Ilja; Bradna, Petr; Douda, Tomáš; Baštecká, Drahomíra; Kopáčová, Marcela; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Lutonský, Martin; Soukup, Tomáš; Bureš, Jan

    The aim of our prospective study was to define endoscopy appearance of the small bowel in healthy volunteers. Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent wireless capsule endoscopy, clinical investigation, laboratory tests, and completed a health-status questionnaire. All subjects were available for a 36-month clinical follow-up. Eleven subjects (26%) had fully normal endoscopy findings. Remaining 31 persons (74%), being asymptomatic, with normal laboratory results, had some minor findings at wireless capsule endoscopy. Most of those heterogeneous findings were detected in the small intestine (27/31; 87%), like erosions and/or multiple red spots, diminutive polyps and tiny vascular lesions. During a 36-month clinical follow-up, all these 42 healthy volunteers remained asymptomatic, with fully normal laboratory control. Significant part of healthy subjects had abnormal findings at wireless capsule endoscopy. These findings had no clinical relevance, as all these persons remained fully asymptomatic during a 36-month follow-up. Such an endoscopic appearance would be previously evaluated as "pathological". This is a principal report alerting that all findings of any control group of wireless capsule endoscopic studies must be evaluated with caution.

  11. Wireless Capsule Enteroscopy in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Tachecí

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of our prospective study was to define endoscopy appearance of the small bowel in healthy volunteers. Method: Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent wireless capsule endoscopy, clinical investigation, laboratory tests, and completed a health-status questionnaire. All subjects were available for a 36-month clinical follow-up. Results: Eleven subjects (26% had fully normal endoscopy findings. Remaining 31 persons (74%, being asymptomatic, with normal laboratory results, had some minor findings at wireless capsule endoscopy. Most of those heterogeneous findings were detected in the small intestine (27/31; 87%, like erosions and/or multiple red spots, diminutive polyps and tiny vascular lesions. During a 36-month clinical follow-up, all these 42 healthy volunteers remained asymptomatic, with fully normal laboratory control. Conclusions: Significant part of healthy subjects had abnormal findings at wireless capsule endoscopy. These findings had no clinical relevance, as all these persons remained fully asymptomatic during a 36-month follow-up. Such an endoscopic appearance would be previously evaluated as “pathological”. This is a principal report alerting that all findings of any control group of wireless capsule endoscopic studies must be evaluated with caution.

  12. Can we reduce capsule endoscopy reading times?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Jessie; Koornstra, Jan J.; Weersma, Rinse K.

    Background: Analyzing small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE) images is time Consuming. Objective: To determine the effect of reducing the number Of images on reacting time and interpretation of CE procedures. Design: Two techniques aimed at reducing the number of images to he viewed were Studied. The

  13. Biosorption of lead by Gram-ve capsulated and non-capsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrobacter freundii ) or capsulated (Klebsiella pneumoniae) was characterised. Lead biosorption was found to be influenced by the pH of the solution, initial metal concentration, and amount of the dried powdered cells and contact time. Thus, the ...

  14. Is there an application for wireless capsule endoscopy in horses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Julia B; Bracamonte, Jose L; Alam, Mohammad Wajih; Khan, Alimul H; Mohammed, Shahed K; Wahid, Khan A

    2017-12-01

    This pilot study assessed wireless capsule endoscopy in horses. Image transmission was achieved with good image quality. Time to exit the stomach was variable and identified as one limitation, together with gaps in image transmission, capsule tumbling, and inability to accurately locate the capsule. Findings demonstrate usefulness and current limitations.

  15. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with mercury...

  16. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical

  17. Utility of MR arthrography in the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manton, G.L.; Schweitzer, M.E.; Weishaupt, D.; Karasick, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Objective. Arthrographically, adhesive capsulitis is characterized by decreased joint volume; histologically, the capsule and synovium are thickened. We therefore compared using MR arthrography the joint volumes and capsule/synovial thickness of patients with and without adhesive capsulitis in order to assess the utility of MR arthrography in diagnosing adhesive capsulitis.Design and patients. The 1.5 T MR arthrography images of 28 subjects with (n=9) and without (n=19) adhesive capsulitis were compared. Adhe- sive capsulitis was diagnosed when there was an injected glenohumeral joint volume of less than 10 ml. Two masked observers working in consensus assessed the images for the relative amount of fluid in the biceps tendon sheath and axillary recess, corrugation at the margin of the capsule, capsule/synovial thickness, abnormalities of the rotator interval capsule, and for the presence of a cuff tear.Results. There was a trend towards differences in capsular and synovial thickness (P>0.07) between the subjects with and without adhesive capsulitis; however, the controls had thicker synovium/capsules. Surprisingly, the amount of fluid in the axillary recess and biceps tendon sheath was not significantly different between the groups (P>0.25). There were more tears of the rotator cuff in controls than in patients with adhesive capsulitis (6, 3 vs 1, 1: complete, partial). Also, both corrugation (7 vs 0) and interval abnormalities (7 vs 0) were more common in the controls.Conclusion. There appear to be no useful MR arthrographic signs of adhesive capsulitis. Capsular/synovial thickness, static fluid volume, and the presence of corrugation are inconclusive as MR arthrographic signs for distinguishing shoulders with adhesive capsulitis from those without. (orig.)

  18. A wireless capsule endoscopy steering mechanism using magnetic field platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunaydih, Fahad N; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet R

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a new steering mechanism for wireless capsule devices is presented. The proposed system consists of a platform generating a magnetic field to direct and control the motion of a capsule. The platform contains an upper and a lower set of electromagnets. A permanent magnet is implanted inside the capsule to initiate the movement, which is set by the magnetic field delivered by the electromagnets. The total magnetic field at the capsule's location is the sum of the contributions of each electromagnet. An experimental setup has been designed for testing and comparing between the performance of the capsule mobility in practice and simulations.

  19. Symptomatic Patency Capsule Retention in Suspected Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjørn; Nathan, Torben; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2016-01-01

    The main limitation of capsule endoscopy is the risk of capsule retention. In patients with suspected Crohn's disease, however, this complication is rare, and if a small bowel stenosis is not reliably excluded, small bowel patency can be confirmed with the Pillcam patency capsule. We present two...... patients examined for suspected Crohn's disease who experienced significant symptoms from a retained patency capsule. Both patients had Crohn's disease located in the terminal ileum. In one patient, the patency capsule caused abdominal pain and vomiting and was visualized at magnetic resonance enterography...

  20. Wireless capsule endoscopy years after Michelassi stricturoplasty for Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaudone, G; Pellino, G; Guadagni, I; Pezzullo, A; Selvaggi, F

    2010-01-01

    The use of wireless capsule endoscopy in Crohn's disease has been a matter of debate. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman operated for Crohn's disease with a Michelassi stricturoplasty presenting with anaemia. We tested the patient with a patency capsule before undertaking a wireless capsule endoscopy. Although the absorbable capsule was successfully expelled, the wireless capsule was retained next to the distal edge of the Michelassi stricturoplasty, where it revealed an otherwise undetected stenotic recurrence. We successfully treated the recurrence with a Heineke-Mikulicz stricturoplasty on the stenotic outlet of the previous Michelassi, extracting the capsule. We found our treatment effective. We believe that capsule endoscopy can be performed in patients operated on for Crohn's disease, although further studies are needed to clarify its role in patients with long-stricturoplasties and to establish which examination could be the most effective in selecting patients.

  1. Challenges and opportunities in the encapsulation of liquid and semi-solid formulations into capsules for oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ewart T; Cadé, Dominique; Benameur, Hassan

    2008-03-17

    The encapsulation of liquids and semi-solids provides solutions for convenient delivery through improved oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. In addition, low dose (content uniformity), highly potent (containment), low melting point drugs, those with a critical stability profile and those for which a delayed release is required are candidates for liquid or semi-solid formulations. Both hard and soft capsules can be considered and in each case the capsule wall may comprise gelatin or some other suitable polymer such as hypromellose. The choice of a hard or soft capsule will depend primarily on the components of the formulation which provides the best absorption characteristics as well as on the physical characteristics, such as the viscosity of the formulation and the temperature at which the product needs to be filled. Numerous excipients are available for formulation of lipid-based systems and their compatibilities with hard gelatin capsules have been tested. The availability of new enhanced manufacturing equipment has brought new opportunities for liquid-filled hard capsules. Filling and sealing technologies for hard capsules, provides the formulator with the flexibility of developing formulations in-house from small scale, as required for Phase I studies, up to production.

  2. 3D Surface Mapping of Capsule Fill-Tube Assemblies used in Laser-Driven Fusion Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buice, E.S.; Alger, E.T.; Antipa, N.A.; Bhandarkar, S.D.; Biesiada, T.A.; Conder, A.D.; Dzenitis, E.G.; Flegel, M.S.; Hamza, A.V.; Heinbockel, C.L.; Horner, J.; Johnson, M.A.; Kegelmeyer, L.M.; Meyer, J.S.; Montesanti, R.C.; Reynolds, J.L.; Taylor, J.S.; Wegner, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a 3D surface mapping system used to measure the surface of a fusion target Capsule Fill-Tube Assembly (CFTA). The CFTA consists of a hollow Ge-doped plastic sphere, called a capsule, ranging in outer diameter between 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm and an attached 150 (micro)m diameter glass-core fill-tube that tapers down to a 10(micro) diameter at the capsule. The mapping system is an enabling technology to facilitate a quality assurance program and to archive 3D surface information of each capsule used in fusion ignition experiments that are currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The 3D Surface Mapping System is designed to locate and quantify surface features with a height of 50 nm and 300 nm in width or larger. Additionally, the system will be calibrated such that the 3D measured surface can be related to the capsule surface angular coordinate system to within 0.25 degree (1σ), which corresponds to approximately 5 (micro)m linear error on the capsule surface.

  3. 3D Surface Mapping of Capsule Fill-Tube Assemblies used in Laser-Driven Fusion Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buice, E S; Alger, E T; Antipa, N A; Bhandarkar, S D; Biesiada, T A; Conder, A D; Dzenitis, E G; Flegel, M S; Hamza, A V; Heinbockel, C L; Horner, J; Johnson, M A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Meyer, J S; Montesanti, R C; Reynolds, J L; Taylor, J S; Wegner, P J

    2011-02-18

    This paper presents the development of a 3D surface mapping system used to measure the surface of a fusion target Capsule Fill-Tube Assembly (CFTA). The CFTA consists of a hollow Ge-doped plastic sphere, called a capsule, ranging in outer diameter between 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm and an attached 150 {micro}m diameter glass-core fill-tube that tapers down to a 10{micro} diameter at the capsule. The mapping system is an enabling technology to facilitate a quality assurance program and to archive 3D surface information of each capsule used in fusion ignition experiments that are currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The 3D Surface Mapping System is designed to locate and quantify surface features with a height of 50 nm and 300 nm in width or larger. Additionally, the system will be calibrated such that the 3D measured surface can be related to the capsule surface angular coordinate system to within 0.25 degree (1{sigma}), which corresponds to approximately 5 {micro}m linear error on the capsule surface.

  4. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  5. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Colin G; Raynor, Brett; Lowe, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Adhesive capsulitis of the hip (ACH) is a rare clinical entity. Similar to adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, ACH is characterized by a painful decrease in active and passive range of motion as synovial inflammation in the acute stages of the disease progresses to capsular fibrosis in the chronic stages. Once other diagnoses have been ruled out, management of ACH is tailored to reduce inflammation in the acute stages with NSAIDs, intra-articular steroid injections, and targeted physical therapy while biomechanical dysfunction in the spine, hip, sacroiliac joint, or lower limb joints is addressed. In chronic stages of the disease, intervention should focus on decreasing the progression of fibrotic changes and regaining range of motion through aggressive physical therapy. Interventions described for chronic ACH include manipulation under anesthesia; pressure dilatation; and open or arthroscopic synovectomy, lysis of adhesions, and capsular release. Surgical intervention should be considered only after failure of a minimum 3-month course of nonsurgical treatment.

  6. Polymeric multilayer capsules in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Liesbeth J; De Koker, Stefaan; De Geest, Bruno G; Grooten, Johan; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Antipina, Maria N

    2010-09-17

    Recent advances in medicine and biotechnology have prompted the need to develop nanoengineered delivery systems that can encapsulate a wide variety of novel therapeutics such as proteins, chemotherapeutics, and nucleic acids. Moreover, these delivery systems should be "intelligent", such that they can deliver their payload at a well-defined time, place, or after a specific stimulus. Polymeric multilayer capsules, made by layer-by-layer (LbL) coating of a sacrificial template followed by dissolution of the template, allow the design of microcapsules in aqueous conditions by using simple building blocks and assembly procedures, and provide a previously unmet control over the functionality of the microcapsules. Polymeric multilayer capsules have recently received increased interest from the life science community, and many interesting systems have appeared in the literature with biodegradable components and biospecific functionalities. In this Review we give an overview of the recent breakthroughs in their application for drug delivery.

  7. Adhesive capsulitis. Is it possible in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Modesto, C. (C.); Crespo, E. (Eduardo); Villas, C. (Carlos); Aquerreta, D. (Dámaso)

    1995-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis affecting shoulders has been extensively studied by orthopedic surgeons, but few reports have been published on this condition when it affects other joints (hips, ankles). To our knowledge no pediatric cases have been reported. As its treatment requires prolonged physiotherapy and sometimes manipulation, a correct diagnosis is essential. We would like to emphasize the importance of having this condition in mind when one is regarding a differential diagnosis, also in children.

  8. Automatic blood detection in capsule endoscopy video

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novozámský, Adam; Flusser, Jan; Tachecí, I.; Sulík, L.; Bureš, J.; Krejcar, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 12 (2016), s. 1-8, č. článku 126007. ISSN 1083-3668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Automatic blood detection * capsule endoscopy video Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 2.530, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0466936.pdf

  9. Constraints on oxygen fugacity within metal capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Ulrich H.; Cline, Christopher J., II; Berry, Andrew; Jackson, Ian; Garapić, Gordana

    2017-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with olivine encapsulated or wrapped in five different metals (Pt, Ni, Ni_{70}Fe_{30} , Fe, and Re) to determine the oxygen fugacity in the interior of large capsules used for deformation and seismic property experiments. Temperature (1200°C ), pressure (300 MPa), and duration (24 h) were chosen to represent the most common conditions in these experiments. The oxygen fugacity was determined by analysing the Fe content of initially pure Pt particles that were mixed with the olivine powder prior to the experiments. Oxygen fugacities in the more oxidizing metal containers are substantially below their respective metal-oxide buffers, with the fO_2 of sol-gel olivine in Ni about 2.5 orders of magnitude below Ni-NiO. Analysis of olivine and metal blebs reveals three different length-, and hence diffusive time scales: (1) Fe loss to the capsule over ˜ 100 μm, (2) fO_2 gradients at the sample-capsule interface up to 2 mm into the sample, and (3) constant interior fO_2 values with an ordering corresponding to the capsule material. The inferred diffusive processes are: Fe diffusion in olivine with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-14} m^2/s , diffusion possibly of oxygen along grain boundaries with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-12} m^2/s , and diffusion possibly involving pre-existing defects with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-10} m^2/s . The latter, fast adjustment to changing fO_2 may consist of a rearrangement of pre-existing defects, representing a metastable equilibrium, analogous to decoration of pre-existing defects by hydrogen. Full adjustment to the external fO_2 requires atomic diffusion.

  10. Hemispherical Capsule Implosions for Fast Ignition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D. L.; Vesey, R. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Adams, R. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Porter, J. L.; Slutz, S. A.; Johnston, R. R.; Wenger, D. F.; Schroen, D. G.

    2003-10-01

    The fast ignitor approach to ICF ignition separates the fuel assembly and fast heating processes. After compressing the fuel with the main driver, the fuel is ignited using a focused electron or ion beam generated by a fast, ultra-high power laser pulse. This significantly relaxes the drive symmetry, energy, and shock timing requirements compared to hot spot ignition. A hemispherical capsule target is a fast ignitor geometry well-adapted to symmetric fuel compression by a single-ended z-pinch radiation drive. The hemispherical capsule implodes radially, constrained at its equator by a flat high-density surface (a special case of the spherical capsule "cone-focus" geometry). This glide plane is mounted on a hollow pedestal that provides a plasma-free, short-pulse laser path to the compressed fuel core region. In experiments on the Z accelerator at Sandia, we are studying implosions of 2.0-mm-diameter, 60-micron-thick hemispherical capsules in cylindrical secondary hohlraums heated to 90-100 eV from one end by a 120 TW wire-array z-pinch. Analysis of ZBL 6.7 keV point-projection backlighter images of pole-hot implosions in a tall secondary and 6.18 keV monochromatic crystal backlighter images of more symmetric implosions in a short secondary will be presented. We will also discuss progress on the development of a cryogenic liquid fuel target for this fast ignitor compression geometry. * Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule and HANARO capsule in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Oh, Wan Ho; Yoo, Byung Ok; Jung, Yang Hong; Ahn, Sang Bok; Baik, Seung Je; Song, Wung Sup; Hong, Kwon Pyo

    2000-01-01

    For the maintenance of integrity and safety of pressurizer of commercial power plant until its life span, it is required by US NRC 10CFR50 APP. G and H and ASTM E185-94 to periodically monitor irradiation embrittlement by neutron irradiation. In order to accomplished the requirement reactor operator has been carrying out the test by extracting the monitoring capsule embeded in reactor during the period of planned preventive maintenance. In relation to this irradiation samples are being used for prediction of reactor vessel life span and reactor vessel's adjusted reference temperature by irradiation of neutron flux enough to reach to end of life span. And also irradiation capsules with and without instrumentation are used for R and D on nuclear materials. Each capsule contains high radioactivity, therefore, post irradiation examination has to be handled by all means in the hot cell. The facility available for this purpose is Irradiated material examination facility (IMEF) to handle such works as capsule receiving, capsule cut and dismantling, sample classification, various examination, and finally development and improvement of examination equipment and instrumentation. (Hong, J. S.)

  12. Effects of food on a gastrically degraded drug: azithromycin fast-dissolving gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, William; Liu, Ping; Johnson, Barbara A; Hausberger, Angela; Quan, Ernest; Vendola, Thomas; Vatsaraj, Neha; Foulds, George; Vincent, John; Chandra, Richa

    2011-07-01

    Commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules (Zithromax®) are known to be bioequivalent to commercial azithromycin tablets (Zithromax®) when dosed in the fasted state. These capsules exhibit a reduced bioavailability when dosed in the fed state, while tablets do not. This gelatin capsule negative food effect was previously proposed to be due to slow and/or delayed capsule disintegration in the fed stomach, resulting in extended exposure of the drug to gastric acid, leading to degradation to des-cladinose-azithromycin (DCA). Azithromycin gelatin capsules were formulated with "superdisintegrants" to provide fast-dissolving capsules, and HPMC capsule shells were substituted for gelatin capsule shells, in an effort to eliminate the food effect. Healthy volunteers were dosed with these dosage forms under fasted and fed conditions; pharmacokinetics were evaluated. DCA pharmacokinetics were also evaluated for the HPMC capsule subjects. In vitro disintegration of azithromycin HPMC capsules in media containing food was evaluated and compared with commercial tablets and commercial gelatin capsules. When the two fast-dissolving capsule formulations were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 38.9% and 52.1% lower than after fasted-state dosing. When HPMC capsules were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 65.5% lower than after fasted-state dosing. For HPMC capsules, the absolute fasting-state to fed-state decrease in azithromycin AUC (on a molar basis) was similar to the increase in DCA AUC. In vitro capsule disintegration studies revealed extended disintegration times for commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules in media containing the liquid foods milk and Ensure®. Interaction of azithromycin gelatin and HPMC capsules with food results in slowed disintegration in vitro and decreased bioavailability in vivo. Concurrent measurement of serum azithromycin and the acid-degradation product DCA demonstrates that the loss of azithromycin

  13. Tethered SECM endoscopic capsule for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Dukho; Kang, DongKyun; Tabatabaei, Nima; Grant, Catriona N.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Hesterberg, Paul E.; Yuan, Qian; Garber, John J.; Katz, Aubrey J.; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disease caused by inhaled or ingested food allergies, and characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils in the esophagus. The gold standard for diagnosing EoE is to conduct endoscopy and obtain multiple biopsy specimens from different portions of the esophagus; an exam is considered positive if more than 15 eosinophils per high power field (HPF) in any of the biopsies. This method of diagnosis is problematic because endoscopic biopsy is expensive and poorly tolerated and the esophageal eosinophil burden needs to be monitored frequently during the course of the disease. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed confocal microscopy technology that can visualize individual eosinophils in large microscopic images of the human esophagus, equivalent to more than 30,000 HPF. Previously, we have demonstrated that tethered capsule SECM can be conducted in unsedated subjects with diagnosed EoE. However, speckle noise and the relatively low resolution in images obtained with the first capsule prototypes made it challenging to distinguish eosinophils from other cells. In this work, we present a next-generation tethered SECM capsule, which has been modified to significantly improve image quality. First, we substituted the single mode fiber with a dual-clad fiber to reduce speckle noise. A gradient-index multimode fiber was fusion spliced at the tip of the dual-clad fiber to increase the effective numerical aperture of the fiber from 0.09 to 0.15, expanding the beam more rapidly to increase the illumination aperture at the objective. These modifications enabled the new SECM capsule to achieve a lateral resolution of 1.8 µm and an axial resolution of 16.1 µm, which substantially improves the capacity of this probe to visualize cellular features in human tissue. The total size of the SECM capsule remained 6.75 mm in diameter and 31 mm in length. We are now in the process of testing this new SECM capsule in

  14. A robust real-time abnormal region detection framework from capsule endoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanfen; Liu, Xu; Li, Huiping

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present a novel method to detect abnormal regions from capsule endoscopy images. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a recent technology where a capsule with an embedded camera is swallowed by the patient to visualize the gastrointestinal tract. One challenge is one procedure of diagnosis will send out over 50,000 images, making physicians' reviewing process expensive. Physicians' reviewing process involves in identifying images containing abnormal regions (tumor, bleeding, etc) from this large number of image sequence. In this paper we construct a novel framework for robust and real-time abnormal region detection from large amount of capsule endoscopy images. The detected potential abnormal regions can be labeled out automatically to let physicians review further, therefore, reduce the overall reviewing process. In this paper we construct an abnormal region detection framework with the following advantages: 1) Trainable. Users can define and label any type of abnormal region they want to find; The abnormal regions, such as tumor, bleeding, etc., can be pre-defined and labeled using the graphical user interface tool we provided. 2) Efficient. Due to the large number of image data, the detection speed is very important. Our system can detect very efficiently at different scales due to the integral image features we used; 3) Robust. After feature selection we use a cascade of classifiers to further enforce the detection accuracy.

  15. Pharmaceutical 3D printing: Design and qualification of a single step print and fill capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derrick M; Kapoor, Yash; Klinzing, Gerard R; Procopio, Adam T

    2018-03-29

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing (3DP) has a potential to change how we envision manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry. A more common utilization for FDM 3DP is to build upon existing hot melt extrusion (HME) technology where the drug is dispersed in the polymer matrix. However, reliable manufacturing of drug-containing filaments remains a challenge along with the limitation of active ingredients which can sustain the processing risks involved in the HME process. To circumvent this obstacle, a single step FDM 3DP process was developed to manufacture thin-walled drug-free capsules which can be filled with dry or liquid drug product formulations. Drug release from these systems is governed by the combined dissolution of the FDM capsule 'shell' and the dosage form encapsulated in these shells. To prepare the shells, the 3D printer files (extension '.gcode') were modified by creating discrete zones, so-called 'zoning process', with individual print parameters. Capsules printed without the zoning process resulted in macroscopic print defects and holes. X-ray computed tomography, finite element analysis and mechanical testing were used to guide the zoning process and printing parameters in order to manufacture consistent and robust capsule shell geometries. Additionally, dose consistencies of drug containing liquid formulations were investigated in this work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e., small, moderate, and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross section in the upstream portion of large capsules is nonaxisymmetric (i.e., square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a(-2) for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux-U ~ h ~ a(-2

  17. Superpixel Based Segmentation and Classification of Polyps in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoudi, Omid Haji

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology to record the entire GI trace, in vivo. The large amounts of frames captured during an examination cause difficulties for physicians to review all these frames. The need for reducing the reviewing time using some intelligent methods has been a challenge. Polyps are considered as growing tissues on the surface of intestinal tract not inside of an organ. Most polyps are not cancerous, but if one becomes larger than a centimeter, it...

  18. Accuracy and safety of second-generation PillCam COLON capsule for colorectal polyp detection

    OpenAIRE

    Spada, Cristiano; De Vincentis, Fabio; Cesaro, Paola; Hassan, Cesare; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Minelli Grazioli, Leonardo; Bolivar, Santiago; Zurita, Andrade; Costamagna, Guido

    2012-01-01

    PillCam COLON capsule endoscopy (CCE) (Given Imaging Ltd, Yoqneam, Israel) is one of the most recent diagnostic, endoscopic technologies designed to explore the colon. CCE is a noninvasive, patient-friendly technique that is able to explore the colon without requiring sedation and air insufflation. The first generation of CCE was released onto the market in 2006 and although it generated great enthusiasm, it showed suboptimal accuracy. Recently, a second-generation system (PillCam COLON 2) (C...

  19. The influence of size on the toxicity of an encapsulated pesticide: a comparison of micron- and nano-sized capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Alicea N; Harper, Bryan; Harper, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation technology involves entrapping a chemical active ingredient (a.i.) inside a hollow polymeric shell and has been applied to commercial pesticide manufacturing for years to produce capsule suspension (CS) formulations with average particle sizes in the micron-scale. The few literature sources that investigate the environmental fate and toxicity to non-target organisms of encapsulated commercially available pesticide products with regard to capsule size report on average sizes between 20 and 50 μm. Here, we have identified a CS formulation with an average capsule size of approximately 2 μm with some capsules extending into the nanometer scale (~200 nm). Determining how carrier size influences toxicity is important to understanding if current pesticide risk assessments are sufficient to protect against products that incorporate encapsulation technology. Here, a commercial pyrethroid CS pesticide with lambda-cyhalothrin (λ-Cy) as the a.i. was separated into two suspensions, a fraction consisting of nano-sized capsules (~250 nm) and a fraction of micron-sized capsules (~2200 nm) in order to investigate the influence of capsule size on toxicity to embryonic zebrafish, Danio rerio. Toxicity was evaluated 24h after exposure to equivalent amounts of a.i. by the presence and severity of pyrethroid-specific tremors, 14 sublethal developmental impacts and mortality. Fish exposed to greater than 20 μg a.i. L(-1) technical λ-Cy or formulated product experienced curvature of the body axis, pericardial edema, craniofacial malformations, and mortality. Exposure to the unfractionated formulation, micro fraction, nano fraction and technical a.i. resulted in no significant differences in the occurrence of sublethal impacts or mortality; however, the technical a.i. exposure resulted in significantly less fish experiencing tremors and shorter tremors compared to any of the formulated product exposures. This suggests that the capsule size does not influence the toxic

  20. Wireless communication link for capsule endoscope at 600 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, A; Balasingham, I

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of a wireless communication link for a capsule endoscopy is presented for monitoring of small intestine in humans. The realized communication link includes the transmitting capsule antenna, the outside body receiving antenna and the model of the human body. The capsule antenna is designed for operating at the frequency band of 600 MHz with an impedance bandwidth of 10 MHz and omnidirectional radiation pattern. The quality of the communication link is improved by using directive antenna outside body inside matching layer for electromagnetic wave tuning to the body. The outside body antenna has circular polarization that guaranteeing the communication link for different orientations of the capsule inside intestine. It is shown that the path loss for the capsule in 60 mm from the abdomen surface varies between 37-47 dB in relation to the antenna orientation. This link can establish high data rate wireless communications for capsule endoscopy.

  1. Changes in biomechanical properties of glenohumeral joint capsules with adhesive capsulitis by repeated capsule-preserving hydraulic distensions with saline solution and corticosteroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun S; Chung, Sun G; Kim, Tae Uk; Kim, Hee Chan

    2012-12-01

    To investigate whether capsule-preserving hydraulic distension with saline solution and corticosteroid for adhesive capsulitis induces biomechanical alterations in glenohumeral joint capsules along with clinical improvements. A case series. University outpatient clinic of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Eighteen patients with unilateral adhesive capsulitis. INTERVENTION AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Three hydraulic distensions with saline solution and corticosteroid were performed with 1-month intervals. To avoid rupturing capsules, all distensions were monitored by using real-time pressure-volume curves. Stiffness, maximal volume capacity, and pressure at the maximal volume capacity of the capsule were measured at each intervention. Clinical parameters, such as pain and range of motion, were recorded before, 3 days after, and 1 month after each distension. Stiffness decreased (47.6 ± 27.1 mm Hg/mL to 31.7 ± 18.4 mm Hg/mL to 24.2 ± 14.0 mm Hg/mL, mean SD) and maximal volume capacity increased (18.8 ± 7.3 mL to 20.5 ± 7.5 mL to 24.2 ± 7.0 mL, mean SD) significantly (P = .001 for both) at each repeated hydraulic distension. Pressure at the maximal volume capacity tended to decrease, but the decrements were not statistically significant (P = .662). The clinical parameters were significantly improved throughout and 1 month after the 3 repeat procedures (P Capsule-preserving hydraulic distension changed the biomechanical properties of the glenohumeral joint capsule, lessening the stiffness and enlarging the volume capacity. These alterations were accompanied by improved range of motion and relief of pain. Repeated capsule-preserving hydraulic distension with saline solution and corticosteroid would be useful to treat adhesive capsulitis and to evaluate the treatment results. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Capsule Shields the Function of Short Bacterial Adhesins

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Mark A.; Dalsgaard, Dorte; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that cap...

  3. Regional Variation Is Present in Elbow Capsules after Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Germscheid, Niccole M.; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Myofibroblast numbers and α-smooth muscle actin expression are increased in anterior joint capsules of patients with posttraumatic elbow contractures. The purpose of our study was to determine whether these changes occur regionally or throughout the entire joint capsule. We hypothesized that the α-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression and the myofibroblast numbers in posterior joint capsules would be elevated in elbows obtained from patients with posttraumatic joint contractures compared with j...

  4. Myofibroblast Numbers are Elevated in Human Elbow Capsules After Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Kevin A.; Zhang, Mei; van Snellenberg, Wistara; King, Graham J. W.; Hart, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Elbow contractures, a frequent problem after injury, can be treated by excision of the joint capsule. However, the underlying changes in the joint capsule are poorly understood. Based on skin healing work, we examined the hypotheses that myofibroblast numbers and expression of a myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin, are elevated in patients with posttraumatic joint contractures. Anterior capsules were obtained from six patients who had operative release of posttraumatic contractures gre...

  5. Adhesive Capsulitis in 8 Dogs: Diagnosis and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brittany Jean Carr; Sherman Orye Canapp; Debra A Canapp; Lauri-Jo Gamble; David L Dycus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective: To describe clinical and diagnostic findings as well as management of adhesive capsulitis in dogs.Background: Adhesive capsulitis, also known as frozen shoulder, is a syndrome defined by loss of range of motion of the shoulder and may be the end-stage manifestation of several primary conditions.Evidentiary Value: This is a case report series of eight dogs with chronic forelimb lameness diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis.Methods: Medical records (June 1, 2010 to September...

  6. Adhesive Capsulitis in Eight Dogs: Diagnosis and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Brittany J.; Canapp, Sherman O.; Canapp, Debra A.; Gamble, Lauri-Jo; Dycus, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe clinical and diagnostic findings as well as management of adhesive capsulitis in dogs. Background Adhesive capsulitis, also known as frozen shoulder, is a syndrome defined by loss of range of motion of the shoulder and may be the end-stage manifestation of several primary conditions. Evidentiary Value This is a case series report of eight dogs with chronic forelimb lameness diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis. Methods Medical records (June 1, 20...

  7. Production, deformation and mechanical investigation of magnetic alginate capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwar, Elena; Kemna, Andre; Richter, Lena; Degen, Patrick; Rehage, Heinz

    2018-02-01

    In this article we investigated the deformation of alginate capsules in magnetic fields. The sensitivity to magnetic forces was realised by encapsulating an oil in water emulsion, where the oil droplets contained dispersed magnetic nanoparticles. We solved calcium ions in the aqueous emulsion phase, which act as crosslinking compounds for forming thin layers of alginate membranes. This encapsulating technique allows the production of flexible capsules with an emulsion as the capsule core. It is important to mention that the magnetic nanoparticles were stable and dispersed throughout the complete process, which is an important difference to most magnetic alginate-based materials. In a series of experiments, we used spinning drop techniques, capsule squeezing experiments and interfacial shear rheology in order to determine the surface Young moduli, the surface Poisson ratios and the surface shear moduli of the magnetically sensitive alginate capsules. In additional experiments, we analysed the capsule deformation in magnetic fields. In spinning drop and capsule squeezing experiments, water droplets were pressed out of the capsules at elevated values of the mechanical load. This phenomenon might be used for the mechanically triggered release of water-soluble ingredients. After drying the emulsion-filled capsules, we produced capsules, which only contained a homogeneous oil phase with stable suspended magnetic nanoparticles (organic ferrofluid). In the dried state, the thin alginate membranes of these particles were rather rigid. These dehydrated capsules could be stored at ambient conditions for several months without changing their properties. After exposure to water, the alginate membranes rehydrated and became flexible and deformable again. During this swelling process, water diffused back in the capsule. This long-term stability and rehydration offers a great spectrum of different applications as sensors, soft actuators, artificial muscles or drug delivery systems.

  8. Capsule Pipeline Research Center. 3-year Progress report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines so that this emerging technology can be developed for early use to transport solids including coal, grain, other agricultural products, solid wastes, etc. Important research findings and accomplishments during the first-three years include: success in making durable binderless coal logs by compaction, success in underwater extrusion of binderless coal logs, success in compacting and extruding coal logs with less than 3% hydrophobic binder at room temperature, improvement in the injection system and the pump-bypass scheme, advancement in the state-of-the-art of predicting the energy loss (pressure drop) along both stationary and moving capsules, demonstrated the effectiveness of using polymer for drag reduction in CLP, demonstrated the influence of zeta potential on coal log fabrication, improved understanding of the water absorption properties of coal logs, better understanding of the mechanism of coal log abrasion (wear), completed a detailed economic evaluation of the CLP technology and compared coal transportation cost by CLP to that by rail, truck and slurry pipelines, and completion of several areas of legal research. The Center also conducted important technology transfer activities including workshops, work sessions, company seminars, involvement of companies in CLP research, issuance of newsletters, completion of a video tape on CLP, and presentation of research findings at numerous national and international meetings.

  9. Capsule Pipeline Research Center. 3-year Progress report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines so that this emerging technology can be developed for early use to transport solids including coal, grain, other agricultural products, solid wastes, etc. Important research findings and accomplishments during the first-three years include: success in making durable binderless coal logs by compaction, success in underwater extrusion of binderless coal logs, success in compacting and extruding coal logs with less than 3% hydrophobic binder at room temperature, improvement in the injection system and the pump-bypass scheme, advancement in the state-of-the-art of predicting the energy loss (pressure drop) along both stationary and moving capsules, demonstrated the effectiveness of using polymer for drag reduction in CLP, demonstrated the influence of zeta potential on coal log fabrication, improved understanding of the water absorption properties of coal logs, better understanding of the mechanism of coal log abrasion (wear), completed a detailed economic evaluation of the CLP technology and compared coal transportation cost by CLP to that by rail, truck and slurry pipelines, and completion of several areas of legal research. The Center also conducted important technology transfer activities including workshops, work sessions, company seminars, involvement of companies in CLP research, issuance of newsletters, completion of a video tape on CLP, and presentation of research findings at numerous national and international meetings

  10. Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Dalsgaard, D.; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that capsule polysaccharides sterically prevent receptor-target recognition of short bacterial adhesins......Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can....... This negative interference has important biological consequences, such as affecting the ability of bacteria to form biofilms....

  11. Introduction to the physics of ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion is an approach to fusion which relies on the inertia of the fuel mass to provide confinement. To achieve conditions under which this confinement is sufficient for efficient thermonuclear burn, high gain ICF targets designed to be imploded directly by laser light. These capsules are generally a spherical shell which is filled with low density DT gas. The shell is composed of an outer region which forms the ablator and an inner region of frozen or liquid DT which forms the main fuel. Energy from the driver is delivered to the ablator which heats up and expands. As the ablator expands and blows outward, the rest of the shell is forced inward to conserve momentum. In this implosion process, several features are important. We define the in-flight-aspect-ratio (IFAR) as the ratio of the shell radius R as it implodes to its thickness ΔR. Hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion impose limits on this ratio which results in a minimum pressure requirement of about 100 Mbar. The convergence ratio is defined as the ratio of the initial outer radius of the ablator to the final compressed radius of the hot spot. This hot spot is the central region of the compressed fuel which is required to ignite the main fuel in high gain designs. Typical convergence ratios are 30--40. To maintain a nearly spherical shape during the implosion, when convergence ratios are this large, the flux delivered to the capsule must be uniform to a few percent. The remainder of this paper discusses the conditions necessary to achieve thermonuclear ignition in these ICF capsules

  12. Effectiveness of corticosteroid injection in adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ajda; Eksioglu, Emel; Gulec, Berna; Aydog, Ece; Gurcay, Eda; Cakci, Aytul

    2008-06-01

    To assess whether intraarticular corticosteroids improve the outcome of a comprehensive home exercise programme in patients with adhesive capsulitis. The study was undertaken in the Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Department of a Ministry of Health hospital in Turkey. Eighty patients with adhesive capsulitis were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 patients were given intraarticular corticosteroid (1 mL, 40 mg methylprednisolone acetate) followed by a 12-week comprehensive home exercise programme. Group 2 patients were given intraarticular serum physiologic (1 mL solution of 0.9% sodium chloride) followed by a 12-week comprehensive home exercise programme. The outcome parameters were Shoulder Pain and Disability Index and University of California-Los Angeles end-result scores, night pain and shoulder passive range of motion. Mean actual changes in abduction range of motion, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index-total score and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index-pain score were statistically different between the two groups at the second week, with the better scores determined in group 1. However, there were no significant differences between the groups at the 12th week. Medians of University of California-Los Angeles scores in the second week were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.02), with better scores in group 1; however, the difference in 12th week scores was insignificant. Intraarticular corticosteroids have the additive effect of providing rapid pain relief, mainly in the first weeks of the exercise treatment period. In patients with adhesive capsulitis who have pain symptom predominantly, intraarticular corticosteroid therapy could be advised concomitantly with exercise.

  13. Campylobacter polysaccharide capsules: virulence and vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eGuerry

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barre Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS. These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types.

  14. CAPSULE REPORT: HARD CHROME FUME SUPPRESSANTS & CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    All existing information which includes the information extrapolated from the Hard Chrome Pollution Prevention Demonstration Project(s) and other sources derived from plating facilities and industry contacts, will be condensed and featured in this document. At least five chromium...

  15. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4. [HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, W.J.; Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-10-01

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC/sub 2/ and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO/sub 2/ fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted.

  16. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, W.J.; Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-10-01

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC 2 and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO 2 fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted

  17. C5 capsule operation modes analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gh.; Ancuta, Mirela; Stefan, Violeta

    2008-01-01

    This paper is part of the Nuclear Research Institute Program 13 dedicated to 'TRIGA Research Reactor performance enhancing' and its objective is improving the engineering of the structural materials irradiation. The paper raises the knowledge level on C5 capsule irradiation modes and utilizes previous results in order to increase C5 performances. In the paper the irradiation modes to test zirconium yttrium sample are assessed. These tests are proposed by AECL. There are presented the C5 initial conditions and models. Also. there are presented the thermal hydraulic conditions during normal and accidental operation. The results will be used in the C5 safety report. (authors)

  18. Characterization of an aged WESF capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Schultz, F.J.

    1983-07-01

    A joint effort by SNLA and ORNL was initiated for a detailed characterization of an 18-year-old WESF 137 Cs source which has been used in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids. The study included evaluation of the inner and outer stainless steel capsules by optical metallography, electron microprobe, and physical testing. Analysis of the residual atmospheres within the two containers was also done. The CsCl was analyzed for isotopic content and impurities. No potential problem areas, including corrosion, were found

  19. Automatic blood detection in capsule endoscopy video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozámský, Adam; Flusser, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Sulík, Lukáš; Bureš, Jan; Krejcar, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    We propose two automatic methods for detecting bleeding in wireless capsule endoscopy videos of the small intestine. The first one uses solely the color information, whereas the second one incorporates the assumptions about the blood spot shape and size. The original idea is namely the definition of a new color space that provides good separability of blood pixels and intestinal wall. Both methods can be applied either individually or their results can be fused together for the final decision. We evaluate their individual performance and various fusion rules on real data, manually annotated by an endoscopist.

  20. Reducing redundancy in wireless capsule endoscopy videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Choi, Min-Kook; Shin, Byeong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Chul

    2013-07-01

    We eliminate similar frames from a wireless capsule endoscopy video of the human intestines to maximize spatial coverage and minimize the redundancy in images. We combine an intensity correction method with a method based an optical flow and features to detect and reduce near-duplicate images acquired during the repetitive backward and forward egomotions due to peristalsis. In experiments, this technique reduced duplicate image of 52.3% from images of the small intestine. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of temperature and relative humidity conditions on the pan coating of hydroxypropyl cellulose molded capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Elena; Zema, Lucia; Pandey, Preetanshu; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Felton, Linda A

    2016-03-01

    In a previous study, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-based capsular shells prepared by injection molding and intended for pulsatile release were successfully coated with 10mg/cm(2) Eudragit® L film. The suitability of HPC capsules for the development of a colon delivery platform based on a time dependent approach was demonstrated. In the present work, data logging devices (PyroButton®) were used to monitor the microenvironmental conditions, i.e. temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), during coating processes performed under different spray rates (1.2, 2.5 and 5.5g/min). As HPC-based capsules present special features, a preliminary study was conducted on commercially available gelatin capsules for comparison purposes. By means of PyroButton data-loggers it was possible to acquire information about the impact of the effective T and RH conditions experienced by HPC substrates during the process on the technological properties and release performance of the coated systems. The use of increasing spray rates seemed to promote a tendency of the HPC shells to slightly swell at the beginning of the spraying process; moreover, capsules coated under spray rates of 1.2 and 2.5g/min showed the desired release performance, i.e. ability to withstand the acidic media followed by the pulsatile release expected for uncoated capsules. Preliminary stability studies seemed to show that coating conditions might also influence the release performance of the system upon storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  3. TREATMENT PROTOCOLS OF ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS - METANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Guimbala dos Santos Araujo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The adhesive capsulitis (AC is an idiopathic disorder that affects about 3-5% of the general population, the majority being aged 50 years. It is divided into three stages: acute or hiperálgica, rigidity phase or stage of freezing and thawing. This study aimed to analyze the protocols of treatments for adhesive capsulitis. Methods: We performed literature search in electronic databases, BIREME, SciELO, LILACS and PubMed. We analyzed 20 articles of which seven met the inclusion criteria of this study. Results: Of the 20 articles analyzed, it was found that only seven had controlled clinical trials, and the articles selected for the treatment of AC were: medication and physiotherapy, manipulation, hydraulic distension, serials suprascapular nerve blocks, acupuncture, exercise, physiotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy dynasplint, deep friction massage and wave diathermy. Conclusion: As noted in the studies, there is a range of treatments that have proven effective for AC, failing to come to a conclusion of what would be the most appropriate treatment. However it was noted that physiotherapy through kinesiotherapy remains the best option, and the earlier therapeutic intervention performed, the better the results.

  4. Corticosteroid Injections for Adhesive Capsulitis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ryan C; Walley, Kempland C; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J

    2017-05-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a self-limiting condition in a majority of patients and is often treated nonoperatively. However, symptoms may take 2 to 3 years to resolve fully. A small, but significant, portion of patients require surgical intervention. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroid injections for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis (AC). A review of articles indexed by the United States National Library of Medicine was conducted by querying the PubMed database for studies involving participants with AC, frozen shoulder, stiff shoulder, or painful shoulder. Articles that included corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, steroids, and injections were included. Corticosteroid injections provide significant symptom relief for 2 to 24 weeks. Injections can be performed intra-articularly or into the subacromial space. Evidence suggests that a 20 mg dose of triamcinolone may be as effective as a 40 mg injection. It remains unclear whether image-guided injections produce a clinically significant difference in outcomes when compared with landmark-guided (blind) injections. Corticosteroids may be less beneficial for diabetic patients. Patients using protease inhibitors (antiretroviral therapy) should not receive triamcinolone because the drug-drug interaction may result in iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. Corticosteroid injections for AC demonstrate short-term efficacy, but may not provide a long-term benefit. More high quality, prospective studies are needed to determine whether corticosteroid injections using ultrasound guidance significantly improve outcomes.

  5. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Ju Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1, hydrogenated coconut oil (X2, and soybean oil (X3. The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM. Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3 showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3. An optimal predicted formulation with Y10 min, Y30 min, Y60 min, and Y90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile.

  6. Petrous bone fractures violating otic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliulo, Giuseppe; Ciniglio Appiani, Mario; Iannella, Giannicola; Artico, Marco

    2012-12-01

    This study presents our experience with a series of patients suffering from petrous bone fractures violating the otic capsule who underwent subtotal petrosectomy combined with eustachian tube, middle ear, and mastoid obliteration, with the goal of preventing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and meningitis. This study enrolled 26 patients between 1997 and 2011. The clinical symptoms, otoscopy, and preoperative and postoperative audiometry and facial function, as well as CSF leak or meningitis, were evaluated in each patient. The entire group underwent a subtotal petrosectomy using the technique described in detail by Fisch. In addition, each patient was interviewed using a questionnaire to evaluate the impact on quality of life. Intraoperatively, we found significant CSF leaks in 14 patients (42.5%). No patient reported other episodes of CSF leak or meningitis after the surgery. The patients' responses of facial nerve function were slightly worse than the House-Brackmann evaluation (50% versus 42.3%; p < 0.05). The vast majority (88.5%) of the patients experienced no social impact. Our findings suggest the importance of not underestimating the risk for CSF leak in the petrous bone fractures violating the otic capsule. Preoperative counseling regarding the various troublesome complications must adequately motivate candidates to undergo surgery by pointing out the positive impact of the proposed treatment.

  7. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions

  8. Quality evaluation of simvastatin compounded capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Dias Marques-Marinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin is commercially available as tablets and compounded capsules in Brazil. Very few reports regarding these capsules' quality, and consequently their efficacy, are available. The pharmaceutical quality of 30 batches of 20 mg simvastatin capsules from the market was evaluated by weight determination, content uniformity, disintegration (Brazilian Pharmacopeia, assay and dissolution test (USP32 tablet monograph. A HPLC method was developed for assay, content uniformity and dissolution test, and specifications were also established. Out of the 30 batches evaluated, 29 showed capsule disintegration within 45 min and individual weight variation was within ±10% or ±7.5% relative to average weight, for 300 mg, respectively. Only 27 batches met dissolution test criteria with values >80% of the labeled amount in 45 min; 21 batches showed simvastatin content between 90.0-110.0% of the labeled amount and 19 batches had at least 9 out of 10 capsules with content uniformity values between 85.0-115.0% of the labeled amount with RSDNo Brasil, a sinvastatina está comercialmente disponível na forma de comprimidos e cápsulas manipuladas. Poucos relatos estão disponíveis sobre a qualidade e, consequentemente, a eficácia dessas cápsulas. A qualidade de 30 lotes de sinvastatina 20 mg cápsulas do mercado foi avaliada através da determinação de peso, uniformidade de conteúdo, desintegração (Farmacopéia Brasileira, doseamento e teste de dissolução (monografia comprimidos USP32. Método por CLAE foi desenvolvido para o doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e teste de dissolução; além disso, especificações foram estabelecidas. Dos 30 lotes avaliados, 29 apresentaram desintegração da cápsula até 45 min e a variação do peso individual foi ± 10% ou ± 7,5% em relação ao peso médio, se 300 mg, respectivamente. Apenas 27 lotes preencheram os critérios do teste de dissolução com valores > 80% da quantidade rotulada, em 45 min, 21

  9. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-06-19

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  10. Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rubel Basar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB. To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  11. 21 CFR 520.1920 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules. 520.1920 Section 520.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... dogs in which gastrointestinal disturbances are associated with emotional stress. (2)(i) Capsules...

  12. The development of the nasal capsule of the silver carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the nasal capsule, including the procartilaginous as well as some mesenchymatous developmental stages, is described in the Chinese silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.). In the nasal capsule a primitive feature, namely the presence of a complete paraphysial bridge was observed.

  13. The development of the nasal capsule of the silver carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the nasal capsule, including the procartilaginous as well as some mesenchymatous developmental stages, is described in the chinese silver carp,. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (VaL). In the nasal capsule a primitive feature, namely the presence of a complete paraphysial bridge was observed.

  14. Evidence for an intact polysaccharide capsule in Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, YiLin; Li, Rui; Howe, Josephine; Hoo, Regina; Pant, Aakanksha; Ho, SiYing; Alonso, Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Polysaccharide capsules contribute to the pathogenesis of many bacteria species by providing resistance against various defense mechanisms. The production of a capsule in Bordetella pertussis, the etiologic agent of whooping cough, has remained controversial; earlier studies reported this pathogen as a capsulated microorganism whereas the recent B. pertussis genome analysis revealed the presence of a truncated capsule locus. In this work, using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining approaches, we provide a formal evidence for the presence of an intact microcapsule produced at the surface of both laboratory strain and clinical isolates of B. pertussis. In agreement with previous studies, we found that the capsule is optimally produced in avirulent phase. Unexpectedly, the presence of the capsule was also detected at the surface of virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Consistently, a substantial transcriptional activity of the capsule operon was detected in virulent phase, suggesting that the capsular polysaccharide may play a role during pertussis pathogenesis. In vitro assays indicated that the presence of the capsule does not affect B. pertussis adherence to mammalian cells and does not further protect the bacterium from phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing or antimicrobial peptide attack. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Temporary presence of myofibroblasts in human elbow capsule after trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornberg, Job N.; Bosse, Tjalling; Cohen, Mark S.; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Ring, David; Kloen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Elbow stiffness is a common complication after elbow trauma. The elbow capsule is often thickened, fibrotic, and contracted at the time of surgical release. The limited studies available suggest that the capsule is contracted because of fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. We hypothesize

  16. Diamagnetically stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. The focus of the present work was to develop an economical and effective real-time magnetic capsule-guiding system that can operate in the presence of naturally existing peristalsis while retaining navigational control. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA) and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50 cm diameter, 10 000-turn copper electromagnets with a 10 cm × 10 cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 A and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied. A modeled magnetic field around the diamagnetically cased permanent magnet was shown to be redistributed aligning its interaction with the external electromagnets, thus stabilizing the levitating capsule. In summary, a custom-designed diamagnetically facilitated capsule navigation system can successfully steer an intraluminal magnet-carrying capsule

  17. Material properties of the human posterior knee capsule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachmat, H. H.; Janssen, D.; Verkerke, G. J.; Diercks, R. L.; Verdonschot, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest to develop accurate subject-specific biomechanical models of the knee. Most of the existing models currently do not include a representation of the posterior knee capsule. In order to incorporate the posterior capsule in knee models, data is needed on its

  18. Material properties of the human posterior knee capsule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachmat, H.H.; Janssen, D.W.; van Tienen, T.; Diercks, R.L.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Fernandes, Paulo; Folgado, Joao; Silva, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest to develop accurate subject-specific biomechanical models of the knee. Most of the existing models currently do not include a representation of the posterior knee capsule. In order to incorporate the posterior capsule in knee models, data is needed on its

  19. Iodometric determination of ampicillin in proprietary capsules | Ejele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of ampicillin in ampicillin capsule preparations purchased in Owerri main market, Imo State of Nigeria, was determined using the iodometric titration method. The results showed that the ampicillin concentrations in the capsules contained between 250 and 260 mg/cap of ampicillin trihydrate. Statistical ...

  20. Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett films of capsules of haemoglobin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haemoglobin; capsules; Langmuir–Blodgett films; pH; multi-walled capsules; isoelectric point. 1. Introduction. Drug delivery and storage of formulations in pharma- ceutical applications require microencapsulation tech- niques. Many different methods have been used to develop encapsulation techniques for the purpose of.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Capsule-based Chronomodulated Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and determine the in vivo performance of a capsule-based pulsatile drug delivery system containing salbutamol sulphate. Methods: A controlled pulsatile release of drug after a programmed 4 h lag period was achieved from cross-linked gelatin capsule shells containing salbutamol pellets, and sealed ...

  2. Clinical effect of Resina Draconis capsules on primary dysmenorrhoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical effect of Resina Draconis capsules on primary dysmenorrhoea. Li Sun, Jia Wang. Abstract. Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of Resina Draconis capsules in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods: In total, 324 patients with primary dysmenorrhoea were randomly allocated to three groups based on ...

  3. Agile patency system eliminates risk of capsule retention in patients with known intestinal strictures who undergo capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrerias, Juan M; Leighton, Jonathan A; Costamagna, Guido; Infantolino, Anthony; Eliakim, Rami; Fischer, Doron; Rubin, David T; Manten, Howard D; Scapa, Eitan; Morgan, Douglas R; Bergwerk, Ari J; Koslowsky, Binyamin; Adler, Samuel N

    2008-05-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) of the small bowel has become a standard diagnostic tool, but there have been concerns regarding the risk of capsule retention in certain high-risk groups. The Agile patency system, an ingestible and dissolvable capsule with an external scanner, was developed to allow physicians to perform CE with greater confidence that the capsule will be safely excreted in patients at risk for capsule retention. Our purpose was to assess the ability of the device to help physicians identify which patients with known strictures may safely undergo CE. Patients with known strictures ingested the new patency capsule and underwent periodic scanning until it was excreted. The intestinal tract was considered to be sufficiently patent if the capsule was excreted intact or if the capsule was not detected by the scanner at 30 hours after ingestion. If patency was established, then standard CE was performed. International multicenter study. A total of 106 patients with known strictures. Agile patency system. Performance and safety of Agile patency system. A total of 106 patients ingested the patency capsule. Fifty-nine (56%) excreted it intact and subsequently underwent CE. There were no cases of capsule retention. Significant findings on CE were found in 24 (41%). There were 3 severe adverse events. These results suggest that the Agile patency system is a useful tool for physicians to use before CE in patients with strictures to avoid retention. This group of patients may have a high yield of clinically significant findings at CE. This capsule may determine whether patients who have a contraindication to CE may safely undergo CE and obtain useful diagnostic information.

  4. No stabilizing effect of the elbow joint capsule. A kinematic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K K; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1999-01-01

    We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule.......We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule....

  5. Analysis of Fission Products on the AGR-1 Capsule Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Jason M. Harp; Philip L. Winston; Scott A. Ploger

    2013-03-01

    The components of the AGR-1 irradiation capsules were analyzed to determine the retained inventory of fission products in order to determine the extent of in-pile fission product release from the fuel compacts. This includes analysis of (i) the metal capsule components, (ii) the graphite fuel holders, (iii) the graphite spacers, and (iv) the gas exit lines. The fission products most prevalent in the components were Ag-110m, Cs 134, Cs 137, Eu-154, and Sr 90, and the most common location was the metal capsule components and the graphite fuel holders. Gamma scanning of the graphite fuel holders was also performed to determine spatial distribution of Ag-110m and radiocesium. Silver was released from the fuel components in significant fractions. The total Ag-110m inventory found in the capsules ranged from 1.2×10 2 (Capsule 3) to 3.8×10 1 (Capsule 6). Ag-110m was not distributed evenly in the graphite fuel holders, but tended to concentrate at the axial ends of the graphite holders in Capsules 1 and 6 (located at the top and bottom of the test train) and near the axial center in Capsules 2, 3, and 5 (in the center of the test train). The Ag-110m further tended to be concentrated around fuel stacks 1 and 3, the two stacks facing the ATR reactor core and location of higher burnup, neutron fluence, and temperatures compared with Stack 2. Detailed correlation of silver release with fuel type and irradiation temperatures is problematic at the capsule level due to the large range of temperatures experienced by individual fuel compacts in each capsule. A comprehensive Ag 110m mass balance for the capsules was performed using measured inventories of individual compacts and the inventory on the capsule components. For most capsules, the mass balance was within 11% of the predicted inventory. The Ag-110m release from individual compacts often exhibited a very large range within a particular capsule.

  6. Adsorption and desorption of phosphorus in ceramic capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, J.R.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to analyse the capacity of adsorving P from water using ceramic capsules with 32P, in the presence and absence of water flow through the capsule. Also studied was the desorption of 32 P from the capsule in water, with and without water flow. The desorption of residual 32 P was analysed by isotopic exchange with 31 P, also with and without water flow. It was observed that, in the presence of a flow, the capsule retained 32 P from the solution, which was weakly desorbed by water but was isotopically exchanged with 31 P. In the absence of a flow, the capsule was not an efficient P adsorber. (Author) [pt

  7. [Wireless capsule endoscopy: basic principles and clinical utility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Suárez, Begoña; Galter, Sara; Balanzó, Joaquín

    2007-06-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (PillCam) represents a major advance in the study of small bowel disease since this procedure allows images of hitherto unreachable areas to be obtained. Approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration in August 2000, capsule endoscopy is currently a first line procedure in the study of small bowel disease. This technique consists of a non-reusable swallowable capsule (length 26 x 11 mm) that acquires video images while moving through the gastrointestinal tract propelled by natural peristalsis. The main indications of capsule endoscopy are evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, chronic anemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. Contraindications are swallowing disorders and known or suspected small bowel strictures of any etiology. Consequently, small bowel follow through is useful prior to capsule endoscopy when these lesions are suspected.

  8. Multi-modal imaging of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappia, Marcello; Di Pietto, Francesco; Aliprandi, Alberto; Pozza, Simona; De Petro, Paola; Muda, Alessandro; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-06-01

    Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a clinical condition characterized by progressive limitation of active and passive mobility of the glenohumeral joint, generally associated with high levels of pain. Although the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis is based mainly on clinical examination, different imaging modalities including arthrography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance arthrography may help to confirm the diagnosis, detecting a number of findings such as capsular and coracohumeral ligament thickening, poor capsular distension, extracapsular contrast leakage, and synovial hypertrophy and scar tissue formation at the rotator interval. Ultrasound can also be used to guide intra- and periarticular procedures for treating patients with adhesive capsulitis. • Diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis is mainly based on clinical findings. • Imaging may be used to exclude articular or rotator cuff pathology. • Thickening of coracohumeral and inferior glenohumeral ligaments are common findings. • Rotator interval fat pad obliteration has 100 % specificity for adhesive capsulitis. • Ultrasound can be used to guide intra- and periarticular treatments.

  9. Integrated Diagnostic Analysis of ICF Capsule Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerjan, Charles

    2012-10-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of imploding Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules is crucial to achieve high convergence and gain. The relative roles of laser irradiation, hohlraum drive, and capsule response are intertwined and will be difficult to disentangle unless appropriate diagnostic probes are fielded and their results correlated. In the case of capsule implosions, several currently deployed diagnostics provide important information about the size and shape of the developing hot spot through x-ray self-emission, neutron production and average ion temperature by neutron time-of-flight signals, shell material mix into the hot spot by high-resolution x-ray spectra, and remaining mass during convergent ablation by x-ray backlighting. Obtaining a physically consistent picture of the implosion dynamics requires an integration of these disparate experimental data. This talk describes a three-dimensional model that attempts this integration. Assuming pressure equilibrium at peak compression and invoking simple radiative and equation-of-state relations, the pressure, density and electron temperature are obtained by optimized fitting of the experimental output to simple, global functional forms. The fitting procedure is sufficiently flexible to incorporate typical observational data such as x-ray self-emission, neutron time-of-flight signals, neutron yield, high-resolution x-ray spectra and radiographic images. Once consistency is obtained, many important secondary quantities can be derived such as the fuel areal density, high energy x-ray emission, neutron images, and nuclear activation. This approach has been validated by comparison with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, producing semi-quantitative agreement and is now routinely used to characterize cryogenic implosion experiments. This talk will provide an overview of the implementation of the model and describe its application to recent experimental data.[4pt] In addition to my collaborators Paul

  10. Conventional MRI Finding in a Case of Adhesive Shoulder Capsulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hak Hoon [Yeosu Hanyeoexpo Hospital, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Back, Chang Hee [Yeosu Baek Hospital, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the conventional magnetic resonance image findings in patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis. The preoperative MR images of 76 patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis that was also treated by arthroscopic capsule release. In contrast to the MR images of 25 control patients without adhesive shoulder capsulitis, the thickness and area of hyposignal intensity around the coracohumeral ligament (CHL), subcoracoidal fat, capsular thickness of the rotator interval, capsular thickness, and height of the axillary recess were measured. The existence of fluid in the axillary recess was also verified. Patients with adhesive capsulitis showed a significant increase in the thickness (average 10.57 mm vs. 5.88 mm, T=8.289, p<0.001), area (average 3.49 point vs. 0.96 point Z=7.775, p< 0.001) of hyposignal intensity around CHL, and a thickened joint capsule in the rotator interval (average 5.93 mm vs. 2.15 mm, Z=6.472, p< 0.001). The thickness of the hyposignal intensity around the CHL is about 10 mm or more and has a specificity of 96%, a sensitivity of about 55% in the area of hyposignal intensity from around the CHL, Seventy-five percent or more of cases, showed a 100%, 95%, complete obliteration of the subcoracoidal fat that was 96%, and a 50% thickness of the capsule. A rotator interval of 6mm or more had a 96%, 50% for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. The capsular thickness and maximal height of axillary recess and the presence of fluid in the axillary recess was not significant in patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis. Thickening of the hyposignal intensity around the CHL, subcoracoidal fat obliteration, and capsular thickening at the rotator interval, are characteristic MRI findings in adhesive shoulder capsulitis

  11. Tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for upper gastrointestinal tract imaging by using ball lens probe (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Reddy, Rohith; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Poupart, Oriane; Lu, Weina; Carruth, Robert W.; Grant, Catriona N.; Soomro, Amna R.; Tiernan, Aubrey R.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Nishioka, Norman S.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    While endoscopy is the most commonly used modality for diagnosing upper GI tract disease, this procedure usually requires patient sedation that increases cost and mandates its operation in specialized settings. In addition, endoscopy only visualizes tissue superfically at the macroscopic scale, which is problematic for many diseases that manifest below the surface at a microscopic scale. Our lab has previously developed technology termed tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) to overcome these diagnostic limitations of endoscopy. The TCE device is a swallowable capsule that contains optomechanical components that circumferentially scan the OCT beam inside the body as the pill traverses the organ via peristalsis. While we have successfully imaged ~100 patients with the TCE device, the optics of our current device have many elements and are complex, comprising a glass ferrule, optical fiber, glass spacer, GRIN lens and prism. As we scale up manufacturing of this device for clinical translation, we must decrease the cost and improve the manufacturability of the capsule's optical configuration. In this abstract, we report on the design and development of simplificed TCE optics that replace the GRIN lens-based configuration with an angle-polished ball lens design. The new optics include a single mode optical fiber, a glass spacer and an angle polished ball lens, that are all fusion spliced together. The ball lens capsule has resolutions that are comparable with those of our previous GRIN lens configuration (30µm (lateral) × 7 µm (axial)). Results in human subjects show that OCT-based TCE using the ball lens not only provides rapid, high quality microstructural images of upper GI tract, but also makes it possible to implement this technology inexpensively and on a larger scale.

  12. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  13. Electromagnetic Control System for Capsule Navigation: Novel Concept for Magnetic Capsule Maneuvering and Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Gioia; Mura, Marco; Ciuti, Gastone; Rizzo, Rocco; Menciassi, Arianna

    The gastrointestinal tract is home of some of the most deadly human diseases. The main problems are related to the difficulty of accessing it for diagnosis or intervention and concomitant patient discomfort. The flexible endoscopy technique has established itself in medical practice due to its high diagnostic accuracy and reliability; however, several technical limitations still remain and the procedure is poorly tolerated by patients. The use of magnetic fields to control and steer endoscopic capsules is increasing in minimally invasive procedures. In fact, magnetic coupling is one of the few physical phenomena capable of transmitting motion beyond a physical barrier, allowing for the compact design of the device itself. In this framework, the authors present the preliminary design and assessment of a magnetic coupling for magnetic endoscopic capsules considering an electromagnetic approach. In particular, a novel toroidal electromagnet is proposed as the control and driving system. The system concept, design, and preliminary results are reported.

  14. Photophysics Applied to Cavitands and Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B; Dube, Henry; Rebek, Julius

    2011-07-01

    The use of light as a stimulus to control functional materials or nano-devices is appealing as it provides convenient control of triggering events where and when they are desired without introducing extra components to the system. Many photophysical and photochemical processes are extremely fast, giving rise to nearly instantaneous onset of events. However, these fast processes can be challenging to engineer into chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry offers a convenient way to study and control photoprocesses. Given the reversible and self-programmed nature of modern host-guest systems, a modular approach can be considered in which different photoprocesses are coupled to obtain complex functions that emerge and are controlled solely by light inputs. In this review, we highlight recent examples of photoswitching and photophysics applied in the context of supramolecular host-guest systems, with a particular emphasis on resorcinarene based cavitands and hydrogen bonded capsules.

  15. Capsule HRB-15B postirradiation examination report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterer, J.W.; Bullock, R.E.

    1981-06-01

    Capsule HRB-15B design tested 184 thin graphite trays containing unbonded fuel particles to peak exposures of 6.6 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ fast fluence, approx. 27% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) fissile burnup, and 6% FIMA fertile burnup at nominal time-averaged temperatures of 815 to 915/sup 0/C. The capsule tested a variety of low-enriched uranium (approx. 19.5% U-235) fissile particle types, including UC/sub 2/, UC/sub x/O/sub y/, UO/sub 2/, zirconium-buffered UO/sub 2/ (referred to in this report as UO/sub 2//sup *), and 1:1(Th,U)O/sub 2/ with both TRISO and silicon-BISO coatings. All fertile particles were ThO/sub 2/ with BISO, silicon-BISO, or TRISO coatings. The findings indicated that all TRISO particles retained virtually all of their fission product inventories, except small quantities of silver, at these irradiation temperatures, while some of the silicon-BISO particles released significant amounts of both silver and cesium. No kernel migration, pressure vessel, or outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) failures were observed in the fuel particles, which had total diameters of < 900 ..mu..m; however, the incidence of failed OPyC coatings was found to increase with particle size in the TRISO inert particles, which had diameters of 1000 to 1200 ..mu..m. UO/sub 2//sup */ particles exhibited no detrimental irradiation effects, but they contained pure carbon precipitates in the kernels after irradiation which were not observed in the undoped UO/sub 2/ particles. Postirradiation examination revealed no differences in the irradiation performance of three UC/sub x/O/sub y/ kernel types with varying oxygen/uranium ratios.

  16. Adhesion and detachment of a capsule in axisymmetric flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keh, M. P.; Leal, L. G.

    2016-05-01

    The adhesion and detachment of a capsule on a solid boundary surface is studied via a combination of scaling theory and numerical simulation and the behavior is compared and contrasted with a vesicle. It is shown that the dominant physical property for both capsules and vesicles is the area dilation modulus Ks of the membrane. The nonzero shear modulus Gs for capsules increases the resistance to deformation and thus decreases slightly the equilibrium contact radius for an adhered capsule compared to an adhered vesicle. The detachment process in this study is due to an external axisymmetric flow. Unlike a rigid body that must be pulled away without change of shape, capsules (and vesicles) almost always detach dominantly by peeling in which the contact radius decreases but the minimum separation distance does not change until the final moments of detachment. Compared to a vesicle with the same Ks, a capsule maintains a more compact shape and is harder to elongate under a given external flow. Hence, the detachment process is slower for capsules compared to vesicles with the same Ks.

  17. Closed Loop Control of a Tethered Magnetic Capsule Endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddese, Addisu Z; Slawinski, Piotr R; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic field gradients have repeatedly been shown to be the most feasible mechanism for gastrointestinal capsule endoscope actuation. An inverse quartic magnetic force variation with distance results in large force gradients induced by small movements of a driving magnet; this necessitates robotic actuation of magnets to implement stable control of the device. A typical system consists of a serial robot with a permanent magnet at its end effector that actuates a capsule with an embedded permanent magnet. We present a tethered capsule system where a capsule with an embedded magnet is closed loop controlled in 2 degree-of-freedom in position and 2 degree-of-freedom in orientation. Capitalizing on the magnetic field of the external driving permanent magnet, the capsule is localized in 6-D allowing for both position and orientation feedback to be used in a control scheme. We developed a relationship between the serial robot's joint parameters and the magnetic force and torque that is exerted onto the capsule. Our methodology was validated both in a dynamic simulation environment where a custom plug-in for magnetic interaction was written, as well as on an experimental platform. The tethered capsule was demonstrated to follow desired trajectories in both position and orientation with accuracy that is acceptable for colonoscopy.

  18. Polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules as vehicles with tunable permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, Alexei A; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2004-11-29

    This review is devoted to a novel type of polymer micro- and nanocapsules. The shell of the capsule is fabricated by alternate adsorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (PEs) onto the surface of colloidal particles. Cores of different nature (organic or inorganic) with size varied from 0.1 to 10 mum can be used for templating such PE capsules. The shell thickness can be tuned in nanometer range by assembling of defined number of PE layers. The permeability of capsules depends on the pH, ionic strength, solvent, polymer composition, and shell thickness; it can be controlled and varied over wide range of substances regarding their molecular weight and charge. Including functional polymers into capsule wall, such as weak PEs or thermosensitive polymers, makes the capsule permeability sensitive to correspondent external stimuli. Permeability of the capsules is of essential interest in diverse areas related to exploitation of systems with controlled and sustained release properties. The envisaged applications of such capsules/vesicles cover biotechnology, medicine, catalysis, food industry, etc.

  19. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  20. Detection of small colon bleeding in wireless capsule endoscopy videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad Arslan; Satrya, G B; Usman, Muhammad Rehan; Shin, Soo Young

    2016-12-01

    In the recent years, wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) technology has played a very important role in diagnosing diseases within the gastro intestinal (GI) tract of human beings. The WCE device captures images of the GI tract of patient with a certain frame rate. Physicians examine these images in order to find abnormalities in the GI tract. This examination process is very time consuming and hectic for the physician as a WCE device captures around 60,000 images on the average. At present, there are no standards defined for the WCE image classification. Computer aided methods help reducing the burden on the physicians by automatically detecting the abnormalities in the GI tract such as small colon bleeding. In this paper, a pixel based approach to detect bleeding regions in the WCE videos by using a support vector classifier is proposed. Threshold analysis in HSV color space is performed to compute the features for training an optimal support vector machine. The HSV features of the WCE images are fed to the trained support vector classifier for classification. Also, our method includes image enhancement and edge removal in WCE images, which is done prior to classification, for robust results. The method offers high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in terms of correctly classifying images that contain bleeding regions as compared to another contemporary method. A detailed experimental analysis is also provided for the purpose of method evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stomach, intestine, and colon tissue discriminators for wireless capsule endoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, Jeff; Mackiewicz, Michal; Bell, Duncan

    2005-04-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a new colour imaging technology that enables close examination of the interior of the entire small intestine. Typically, the WCE operates for ~8 hours and captures ~40,000 useful images. The images are viewed as a video sequence, which generally takes a doctor over an hour to analyse. In order to activate certain key features of the software provided with the capsule, it is necessary to locate and annotate the boundaries between certain gastrointestinal (GI) tract regions (stomach, intestine and colon) in the footage. In this paper we propose a method of automatically discriminating stomach, intestine and colon tissue in order to significantly reduce the video assessment time. We use hue saturation chromaticity histograms which are compressed using a hybrid transform, incorporating the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The performance of two classifiers is compared: k-nearest neighbour (kNN) and Support Vector Classifier (SVC). After training the classifier, we applied a narrowing step algorithm to converge to the points in the video where the capsule firstly passes through the pylorus (the valve between the stomach and the intestine) and later the ileocaecal valve (IV, the valve between the intestine and colon). We present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  2. OdoCapsule: next-generation wireless capsule endoscopy with accurate lesion localization and video stabilization capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karargyris, Alexandros; Koulaouzidis, Anastastios

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a platform to achieve accurate localization of small-bowel lesions and endoscopic video stabilization in wireless capsule endoscopy. Current research modules rely on the use of external magnetic fields and triangulation methods to calculate the position vector of the capsule, leading to considerable error margins. Our platform, entitled OdoCapsule (a synthesis of the words Odometer and Capsule), provides real-time distance information from the point of duodenal entry to the point of exit from the small bowel. To achieve this, OdoCapsule is equipped with three miniature legs. Each leg carries a soft rubber wheel, which is made with human-compliant material. These legs are extendable and retractable thanks to a micromotor and three custom-made torsion springs. The wheels are specifically designed to function as microodometers: each rotation they perform is registered. Hence, the covered distance is measured accurately in real time. Furthermore, with its legs fully extended, OdoCapsule can stabilize itself inside the small-bowel lumen thus offering smoother video capture and better image processing. Recent ex vivo testing of this concept, using porcine small bowel and a commercially available (custom-modified) capsule endoscope, has proved its viability.

  3. Infrared Observations of the Orion Capsule During EFT-1 Hypersonic Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Rufer, Shann J.; Schuster, David M.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Schwartz, Richard J.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Mercer, C. David; Tack, Steven; Ingram, Ben; hide

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution infrared observations of the Orion capsule during its atmospheric reentry on December 5, 2015 were made from a US Navy NP-3D. This aircraft, equipped with a long-range optical sensor system, tracked the capsule from Mach 10 to 7 from a distance of approximately 60 nmi. Global surface temperatures of the capsule's thermal heatshield were derived from near infrared intensity measurements. The global surface temperature measurements complemented onboard instrumentation and were invaluable to the interpretation of the in-depth thermocouple measurements which rely on inverse heat transfer methods and material response codes to infer the desired surface temperature from the sub-surface measurements. The full paper will address the motivations behind the NASA Engineering Safety Center sponsored observation and highlight premission planning processes with an emphasis on aircraft placement, optimal instrument configuration and sensor calibrations. Critical aspects of mission operations coordinated from the NASA Johnson Spaceflight Center and integration with the JSC Flight Test Management Office will be discussed. A summary of the imagery that was obtained and processed to global surface temperature will be presented. At the capsule's point of closest approach relative to the imaging system, the spatial resolution was estimated to be approximately 15-inches per pixel and was sufficient to identify localized temperature increases associated with compression pad support hardware on the heatshield. The full paper will discuss the synergy of the quantitative imagery derived temperature maps with in-situ thermocouple measurements. Comparison of limited onboard surface thermocouple data to the image derived surface temperature will be presented. The two complimentary measurements serve as an example of the effective leveraging of resources to advance the understanding of high Mach number environments associated with an ablated heatshield and provide unique data

  4. SATCAP-C : a program for thermal hydraulic design of pressurized water injection type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Someya, Hiroyuki; Asoh, Tomokazu; Niimi, Motoji

    1992-10-01

    There are capsules called 'Pressure Water Injection Type Capsule' as a kind of irradiation devices at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). A type of the capsules is a 'Boiling Water Capsule' (usually named BOCA). The other type is a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' (named SATCAP). When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature so far as the water does not fully change to steam. These type capsules are designed on the basis of the conception of applying the water characteristic to the control of irradiation temperature of specimens in the capsules. In designing of the capsules in which the pressurized water is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. It is not easy however to predict thermal performances such as axially temperature distribution of water injected in the capsule, because there are heat-sinks at both side of inner and outer of capsule casing as the result that the water is fluid. Then, a program (named SATCAP-C) for the BOCA and SATCAP was compiled to grasp the thermal performances in the capsules and has been used the design of the capsules and analysis of the data obtained from some actual irradiation capsules. It was confirmed that the program was effective in thermal analysis for the capsules. The analysis found out the values for heat transfer coefficients at various surfaces of capsule components and some thermal characteristics of capsules. (author)

  5. Application and improvement of capsule system for penstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matstuda, S.; Fujishiro, Y.; Yamagucki, T.; Okubo, M.; Miyabe, N.; Sakagami, H.; Ikeda, M.; Kurose, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. has succeeded in applying an all-position, narrow-gap MIG automatic welding method using a Capsule System for both penstocks of the Electric Power Development Company's Okukiyotsu and the Kansai Electric Power Company's Okuyoshino Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Stations. The application and development of the capsule system and MIG welding method have been officially commended this year by the Japan Society of Steel Construction (JSSC). The KHI-development capsule system has been improved by the study of various data rendered by the aforesaid two projects. Based on past experience, KHI is now involved in the construction of another penstock, this one for the Tokoku Electric Power Company's No. 2 Numazawa Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Station. The design and improvements of the capsule system, and its application to Numazawa Penstock are discussed.

  6. Positron radiography of ignition-relevant ICF capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. J.; Chen, Hui; Field, J. E.; Landen, O. L.; Strozzi, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Laser-generated positrons are evaluated as a probe source to radiograph in-flight ignition-relevant inertial confinement fusion capsules. Current ultraintense laser facilities are capable of producing 2 × 1012 relativistic positrons in a narrow energy bandwidth and short time duration. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the unique characteristics of such positrons allow for the reconstruction of both capsule shell radius and areal density between 0.002 and 2 g/cm2. The energy-downshifted positron spectrum and angular scattering of the source particles are sufficient to constrain the conditions of the capsule between preshot and stagnation. We evaluate the effects of magnetic fields near the capsule surface using analytic estimates where it is shown that this diagnostic can tolerate line integrated field strengths of 100 T mm.

  7. The mechanical properties of the human hip capsule ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John D; Glisson, Richard R; Guilak, Farshid; Vail, T Parker

    2002-01-01

    The human hip capsule is adapted to facilitate upright posture, joint stability, and ambulation, yet it routinely is excised in hip surgery without a full understanding of its mechanical contributions. The objective of this study was to provide information about the mechanical properties of the ligaments that form the hip capsule. Cadaver bone-ligament-bone specimens of the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and femoral arcuate ligaments were tested to failure in tension. The hip capsule was found to be an inhomogeneous structure and should be recognized as being composed of discrete constituent ligaments. The anterior ligaments, consisting of the 2 arms of the iliofemoral ligament, were much stronger than the posterior ischiofemoral ligament, withstanding greater force at failure and exhibiting greater stiffness. Knowledge of the anatomy and mechanical properties of the capsule may help the hip surgeon choose an appropriate surgical approach or repair strategy.

  8. Informative frame detection from wireless capsule video endoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar, Md. Khayrul; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mekada, Yoshito

    2008-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a new clinical technology permitting the visualization of the small bowel, the most difficult segment of the digestive tract. The major drawback of this technology is the high amount of time for video diagnosis. In this study, we propose a method for informative frame detection by isolating useless frames that are substantially covered by turbid fluids or their contamination with other materials, e.g., faecal, semi-processed or unabsorbed foods etc. Such materials and fluids present a wide range of colors, from brown to yellow, and/or bubble-like texture patterns. The detection scheme, therefore, consists of two stages: highly contaminated non-bubbled (HCN) frame detection and significantly bubbled (SB) frame detection. Local color moments in the Ohta color space are used to characterize HCN frames, which are isolated by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in Stage-1. The rest of the frames go to the Stage-2, where Laguerre gauss Circular Harmonic Functions (LG-CHFs) extract the characteristics of the bubble-structures in a multi-resolution framework. An automatic segmentation method is designed to extract the bubbled regions based on local absolute energies of the CHF responses, derived from the grayscale version of the original color image. Final detection of the informative frames is obtained by using threshold operation on the extracted regions. An experiment with 20,558 frames from the three videos shows the excellent average detection accuracy (96.75%) by the proposed method, when compared with the Gabor based- (74.29%) and discrete wavelet based features (62.21%).

  9. The power of product innovation: Smokers' perceptions of capsule cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Ford, Allison; Dobbie, Fiona; Thrasher, James F; McKell, Jennifer; Purves, Richard

    2017-08-30

    Since being brought to market in 2007, cigarettes with capsules in the filter that can be burst to change the flavour have had remarkable global success, highlighting the importance of product innovation for tobacco companies. Very few studies have explored how these products are perceived by smokers however. This paper sought to address this gap by exploring smokers' awareness of cigarettes with one or two flavour-changing capsules in the filter and the appeal of these products. Twenty focus groups were conducted in Glasgow and Edinburgh in 2015 with current smokers (N=120), segmented by age (16-17, 18-24, 25-35, 36-50, >50), gender and social grade. Awareness, use and appeal of capsule cigarettes was greater among younger adults (16-35 years), who showed most interest in these products. Those who perceived capsules positively mentioned multiple benefits: the ability to burst the capsule, convenience of being able to share cigarettes among menthol and non-menthol smokers, better taste, fresher breath, reduced smell and greater discretion. It was suggested that capsule cigarettes, particularly the double capsule cigarette (which had two differently flavoured capsules in the filter), would encourage non-smokers to experiment with smoking and discourage smokers from quitting. The findings offer some reasons behind the global growth of the capsule cigarette segment. Cigarettes with flavour-changing capsules in the filter have been one of the most successful product innovations of the last decade for tobacco companies. They have received very little academic attention however. Employing focus groups with 120 smokers aged 16 and over, we found that capsule cigarettes held most appeal to, and were considered to be targeted at, younger people, with it suggested that these products would encourage initiation and discourage cessation. This study provides some understanding of how these products are viewed by smokers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press

  10. Postirradiation examination of capsule P13Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, C.A.; Scott, C.B.

    1977-09-01

    Capsule P13Q was the sixth in a series of irradiation tests conducted under the HTGR Fuels and Core Development Program. It was the first accelerated irradiation test of large-diameter graphite-fuel bodies irradiated to peak LHTGR fast fluences. The primary purpose of the test was to evaluate the irradiation performance of the integral bodies and cured-in-place fuel rods. One TRISO UC 2 and two BISO ThO 2 coated particle batches were used in the fuel rods. The postirradiation examination revealed that the performance of the H-451 graphite bodies and fuel rods irradiated to a peak fluence of 9.5 x 10 25 n/m 2 (E greater than 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ and to an average peak fuel rod temperature of 1175 0 C was acceptable. A range of fuel rod variables was tested and none were detrimental to the integrity of the rods. The coated fuel particles behaved in a manner predicted by previous irradiation data

  11. 131-iodine capsules in thyroid therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulthess, G.K. von; Bekier, A.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of therapeutic doses of 131-Iodine in a capsular form which were given to 16 patients with benign thyroid disease, and compared it to the uptake of a dose of a liquid diagnostic sodium iodide I-131 ( 131 I) given to the same patients. The aim of this study was to determine the additional radiation dose sustained by the gastric mucosa, and thus, to establish the safety of this galenic form of 131 I. It was found that the average capsule-dissolution time was about 12 min, with a large standard deviation of about 7 min. Using these data and a theoretical radiation-dose calculation, we estimated that the maximum dose to the gastric mucosa was approximately 250 rad (250 cGy) for a therapeutic activity of 5 mCi (185 MBq), which is the maximum dose which may be given as single application to out-patients in Switzerland. Thus, 131 I administered in a capsular form is a safe galenic form for therapeutic use in patients with thyroid disease. (orig.)

  12. A UWB wireless capsule endoscopy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thotahewa, Kasun M S; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) presents many advantages over traditional wired endoscopic methods. The performance of WCE devices can be improved using high-frequency communication systems such as Impulse Radio-Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) to enable a high data rate transmission with low-power consumption. This paper presents the hardware implementation and experimental evaluation of a WCE device that uses IR-UWB signals in the frequency range of 3.5 GHz to 4.5 GHz to transmit image data from inside the body to a receiver placed outside the body. Key components of the IR-UWB transmitter, such as the narrow pulse generator and up-conversion based RF section are described in detail. This design employs a narrowband receiver in the WCE device to receive a control signal externally in order to control and improve the data transmission from the device in the body. The design and performance of a wideband implantable antenna that operates in the aforementioned frequency range is also described. The operation of the WCE device is demonstrated through a proof-of-concept experiment using meat.

  13. Capsule Endoscopy for Portal Hypertensive Enteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Ran Jeon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal hypertensive enteropathy (PHE is a mucosal abnormality of the small bowel that is observed in patients with portal hypertension (PH and can lead to gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia. The pathogenesis is still not completely understood. The introduction of new endoscopic methods, including capsule endoscopy (CE or balloon-assisted enteroscopy, has increased the detection of these abnormalities. CE can also serve as a road map for deciding subsequent interventions and evaluating the treatment effect. The prevalence of PHE is reportedly 40–70% in patients with PH. Endoscopic findings can be roughly divided into vascular and nonvascular lesions such as inflammatory-like lesions. Traditionally, PHE-associated factors include large esophageal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy or colopathy, Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B or C, a history of variceal treatment, and acute gastrointestinal bleeding. More recently, on using scoring systems, a high computed tomography or transient elastography score was reportedly PHE-related factors. However, the prevalence of PHE and its related associated factors remain controversial. The management of PHE has not yet been standardized. It should be individualized according to each patient’s situation, the availability of therapy, and each institutional expertise.

  14. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  15. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  16. Polysaccharide capsule-mediated resistance to opsonophagocytosis in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico, P; Salo, R J; Cross, A S; Cunha, B A

    1994-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important virulence factor that confers resistance to phagocytosis. The treatment of encapsulated bacteria with salicylate to inhibit capsule expression was found to enhance the phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria by human neutrophils only in the presence of cell surface-specific antibodies. Both type-specific rabbit antisera and anticapsular human hyperimmune globulin were employed as opsonins. Salicylate significantly enhanced phag...

  17. The association of metabolic syndrome markers with adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Daniel C; Gans, Itai; Park, Min Jung; Carey, James L; Kelly, John D

    2014-07-01

    Research has associated adhesive capsulitis with diabetes mellitus but suggests that glucose-mediated injury may begin before diabetes is diagnosed. The period preceding diabetes is often marked by metabolic syndrome. We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome components (insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity) and the development of adhesive capsulitis using a case-control study. We retrospectively reviewed 150 consecutive adhesive capsulitis patient charts to determine the prevalence of obesity and of medications used for treating metabolic syndrome elements and compared these with previously reported nationwide values. The prevalence of anti-hyperglycemia medications in the adhesive capsulitis cohort was 18.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.9%-25.7%), twice the national rate of diagnosed diabetes of 7.6% (95% CI, 6.7%-8.5%). In the 20- to 39-year-old group, the prevalence of anti-hyperglycemic medications, 26.3% (95% CI, 11.8%-48.8%), was over 10 times the nationwide rate. The overall prevalence of hypertensive medication use in the adhesive capsulitis group, 33.1% (95% CI, 25.9%-41.2%), was notably higher than the nationwide rate, 21.6% (95% CI, 19.8%-23.4%). In the 40- to 64-year-old group, the prevalence of hypertensive medication use, 36.8% (95% CI, 28.6%-46.0%), was notably higher than the nationwide rate of 24.5% (95% CI, 22.2%-27.0%). The prevalence of anti-lipid medications and obesity was similar between the groups. The relationship between adhesive capsulitis and metabolic syndrome remains unclear. Our results confirm previous work associating hyperglycemia with adhesive capsulitis. We have also shown a possible association of hypertension, part of metabolic syndrome and a proinflammatory condition, with adhesive capsulitis, which has not been previously described. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Editorial Commentary: Recalcitrant Idiopathic Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Chul

    2017-03-01

    An investigation of recalcitrant idiopathic adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder showed good outcomes with arthroscopic capsular release. However, it is critical that future authors carefully define the term "recalcitrant idiopathic adhesive capsulitis" so that we are speaking the same language and that future authors include a control (nonsurgical) treatment group to better determine whether surgery is truly superior to nonsurgical treatment. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PHYSIOTHERAPY INTERVENTIONS FOR ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS OF SHOULDER: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Isaac Jason; Ganesh Sundaram S; Vengata Subramani M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review on various physiotherapy management for adhesive capsulitis of shoulder. Methods: A search of the literature was conducted using Clinical Key, ProQuest and PEDro databases up to September 2015. Search limits included the English language and human studies. Search terms included adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder, Physical therapy, Physiotherapy etc. Inclusion criteria: Systematic reviews and randomised controlled ...

  20. Arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Marcos Rassi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the results of arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder associated as for improved range of motion after a minimum follow up of six years. METHODS: from August 2002 to December 2004, ten patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment underwent arthroscopic surgery. One interscalene catheter was placed for postoperative analgesia before the procedure. All were in Phase II, with a minimum follow up o...

  1. Effectiveness of Maitland Techniques in Idiopathic Shoulder Adhesive Capsulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Abhay; Kumar, Suraj; Aggarwal, Anoop; Kumar, Ratnesh; Das, Pooja Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study the effectiveness of Maitland techniques in the treatment of idiopathic shoulder adhesive capsulitis. Methods. total of 40 patients diagnosed with idiopathic shoulder adhesive capsulitis were recruited and randomly allocated into two groups. In Group A ( ) subjects were treated with Maitland mobilization technique and common supervised exercises, whereas subjects in Group B ( ) only received common supervised exercises. Variables. Shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI)...

  2. The external rotation test in the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eugene M; Cox, Wesley K

    2010-05-12

    This article evaluates the effectiveness of the external rotation test in diagnosing capsulitis. The test is performed with the upper arm in a neutral position at the patient's side and the elbow in 90 degrees of flexion. The test is positive when pain is produced with this maneuver. All patients (379) evaluated for atraumatic shoulder pain during 1 calendar year were studied. The patients were divided into external rotation positive (91 patients) and external rotation negative (311 patients) groups. Patients with atraumatic shoulder pain with a positive external rotation test were presumed to have adhesive capsulitis in the absence of glenohumeral arthritis. Patients diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis received an intra-articular steroid injection and a home therapy program. Patients were contacted 10 to 19 months following treatment to determine their status and need for any further care. A diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis was made in 75% of external rotation positive patients (68 patients). Glenohumeral arthritis evidenced by radiographs was the only other diagnosis that produced a positive external rotation test (23 patients) in this group of atraumatic shoulders. Only 1 of 68 patients (1.4%) with a diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis (external rotation positive) had surgery during the follow-up period. However, 86 of 311 (27.7%) patients in the external rotation negative group underwent surgery (Padhesive capsulitis in the absence of glenohumeral arthritis. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Colloidal capsules: nano- and microcapsules with colloidal particle shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhorst, Tobias; Rezwan, Kurosch; Maas, Michael

    2017-04-18

    Utilizing colloidal particles for the assembly of the shell of nano- and microcapsules holds great promise for the tailor-made design of new functional materials. Increasing research efforts are devoted to the synthesis of such colloidal capsules, by which the integration of modular building blocks with distinct physical, chemical, or morphological characteristics in a capsule's shell can result in novel properties, not present in previous encapsulation structures. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the synthesis strategies and the progress made so far of bringing nano- and microcapsules with shells of densely packed colloidal particles closer to application in fields such as chemical engineering, materials science, or pharmaceutical and life science. The synthesis routes are categorized into the four major themes for colloidal capsule formation, i.e. the Pickering-emulsion based formation of colloidal capsules, the colloidal particle deposition on (sacrificial) templates, the amphiphilicity driven self-assembly of nanoparticle vesicles from polymer-grafted colloids, and the closely related field of nanoparticle membrane-loading of liposomes and polymersomes. The varying fields of colloidal capsule research are then further categorized and discussed for micro- and nano-scaled structures. Finally, a special section is dedicated to colloidal capsules for biological applications, as a diverse range of reports from this field aim at pharmaceutical agent encapsulation, targeted drug-delivery, and theranostics.

  4. Capsule colonoscopy increases uptake of colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groth Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening colonoscopy effectiveness is hampered by limited adherence by the general population. The present prospective study was performed to evaluate whether adding capsule colonoscopy to the endoscopic screening options increases uptake. Methods Invitation letters were sent to 2150 persons above the age of 55 insured with a German medical insurance company in the area of Rinteln, Lower Saxony with a baseline spontaneous annual screening colonoscopy uptake of 1 %. Both capsule or conventional colonoscopy were offered. Interested persons were given information about the two screening options by four local gastroenterologists and examinations were then performed according to screenees’ final choice. Results 154 persons sought further information, and 34 and 90 underwent conventional and capsule colonoscopy, respectively. Colonoscopy uptake was thus increased by the invitation process by 60 % (1.6 % vs. 1 %; p = 0.075, while the option of capsule endoscopy led to a fourfold increase of screening uptake (4.2 % vs. 1 %, p  Conclusions The present study suggests that offering the option of capsule colonoscopy increases uptake of endoscopic colorectal cancer screening. However, capsule endoscopy sensitivity for adenoma detection needs to be improved.

  5. Failure of the capsule for coated particles irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Jikei; Nomura, Yasushi; Nagamatsuya, Takaaki; Yamahara, Takeshi; Sakai, Haruyuki

    1975-10-01

    During operation cycle No. 27 of the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) on May 20, 1974, leakage of the fission product gas occurred from the capsule 72F-7A, which contained coated particles for the irradiation; the coated particles are for the development of a multi-purpose high temperature gas cooled reactor. The capsule was designed for heat 1600 0 C. Three nickel plates as the heat reflector were sandwiched in between the plates of titanium and zirconium, which were adsorbents for the impurity gases in the cladding tube (Nb-1%Zr). Temperatures of the plates were about 1000 0 C under the irradiation, so one metal diffused into the other metal through interfaces, resulting in the formation of an alloy. Its melting point was lower than those of metals in the capsule. The cladding material Nb-1%Zr was melted by the alloy and finally a pin hole developed through the cladding. The process of failure, design of the capsule, post-irradiation test of the capsule and the failure-reproducing experiment with a mock-up capsule are described. (auth.)

  6. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility.

  7. [LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE COMPLEX PROBIOTIC PREPARATION "BIFILACT-BILS" IN CAPSULATED FORM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neschislyaev, V A; Stolbova, M G; Mokin, P A; Orlova, E V; Ershov, A E

    2016-01-01

    The composition and technology of complex probiotic in hard gelatin capsules was developed in Perm Branch "Biomed" of "Microgen" State Company. The preparation contains three production strains: Lactobacillus plantarum 8P-A3, L. acidophilus K3W24 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 1. Laboratory and experimental (preclinical) study of the probiotic included investigation of the antagonistic activity, "acute" and "chronic" toxicity, the effect of the preparation on histology and hematology of laboratory animals. The result of these studies suggested of the probiotic had high inhibitory activity against pathogenic microflora when compared with probiotic monopreparations and had no toxic effects on laboratory animals.

  8. Cubesat Application for Planetary Entry (CAPE) Missions: Micro-Reentry Capsule (MIRCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The Cubesat Application for Planetary Entry Missions (CAPE) concept describes a high-performing Cubesat system which includes a propulsion module and miniaturized technologies capable of surviving atmospheric entry heating, while reliably transmitting scientific and engineering data. The Micro Return Capsule (MIRCA) is CAPEs first planetary entry probe flight prototype. Within this context, this paper briefly describes CAPEs configuration and typical operational scenario, and summarizes ongoing work on the design and basic aerodynamic characteristics of the prototype MIRCA vehicle. CAPE not only opens the door to new planetary mission capabilities, it also offers relatively low-cost opportunities especially suitable to university participation.

  9. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  10. A review of solute encapsulating nanoparticles used as delivery systems with emphasis on branched amphipathic peptide capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Sheila M; Whitaker, Susan K; Sukthankar, Pinakin; Avila, L Adriana; Gudlur, Sushanth; Warner, Matt; Beltrão, Eduardo I C; Tomich, John M

    2016-04-15

    Various strategies are being developed to improve delivery and increase the biological half-lives of pharmacological agents. To address these issues, drug delivery technologies rely on different nano-sized molecules including: lipid vesicles, viral capsids and nano-particles. Peptides are a constituent of many of these nanomaterials and overcome some limitations associated with lipid-based or viral delivery systems, such as tune-ability, stability, specificity, inflammation, and antigenicity. This review focuses on the evolution of bio-based drug delivery nanomaterials that self-assemble forming vesicles/capsules. While lipid vesicles are preeminent among the structures; peptide-based constructs are emerging, in particular peptide bilayer delimited capsules. The novel biomaterial-Branched Amphiphilic Peptide Capsules (BAPCs) display many desirable properties. These nano-spheres are comprised of two branched peptides-bis(FLIVI)-K-KKKK and bis(FLIVIGSII)-K-KKKK, designed to mimic diacyl-phosphoglycerides in molecular architecture. They undergo supramolecular self-assembly and form solvent-filled, bilayer delineated capsules with sizes ranging from 20 nm to 2 μm depending on annealing temperatures and time. They are able to encapsulate different fluorescent dyes, therapeutic drugs, radionuclides and even small proteins. While sharing many properties with lipid vesicles, the BAPCs are much more robust. They have been analyzed for stability, size, cellular uptake and localization, intra-cellular retention and, bio-distribution both in culture and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrotherapy modalities for adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Matthew J; Green, Sally; Kramer, Sharon; Johnston, Renea V; McBain, Brodwen; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-10-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (also termed frozen shoulder) is a common condition characterised by spontaneous onset of pain, progressive restriction of movement of the shoulder and disability that restricts activities of daily living, work and leisure. Electrotherapy modalities, which aim to reduce pain and improve function via an increase in energy (electrical, sound, light, thermal) into the body, are often delivered as components of a physical therapy intervention. This review is one in a series of reviews which form an update of the Cochrane review 'Physiotherapy interventions for shoulder pain'. To synthesise the available evidence regarding the benefits and harms of electrotherapy modalities, delivered alone or in combination with other interventions, for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus and the ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) clinical trials registries up to May 2014, unrestricted by language, and reviewed the reference lists of review articles and retrieved trials to identify any other potentially relevant trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials using a quasi-randomised method of allocation that included adults with adhesive capsulitis and compared any electrotherapy modality to placebo, no treatment, a different electrotherapy modality, or any other intervention. The two main questions of the review focused on whether electrotherapy modalities are effective compared to placebo or no treatment, or if they are an effective adjunct to manual therapy or exercise (or both). The main outcomes of interest were participant-reported pain relief of 30% or greater, overall pain, function, global assessment of treatment success, active shoulder abduction, quality of life, and the number of participants experiencing any adverse event. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion

  12. Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali, M.; Abedi, D.; Varshosaz, J.; Najjarzadeh, M.; Mirlohi, M.; Tavakoli, N.

    2012-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. toleranc...

  13. The effect of myofibroblasts and corticosteroid injections in adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettrich, Carolyn M; DiCarlo, Edward F; Faryniarz, Deborah; Vadasdi, Katherine B; Williams, Riley; Hannafin, Jo A

    2016-08-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a condition that results in restricted glenohumeral motion. Fibroblasts have been implicated in the disease process; however, their role as a contractile element in the development of fibrosis and capsular contracture is not well understood. We hypothesized (1) that myofibroblast prevalence in capsular biopsy specimens from patients with adhesive capsulitis would be increased compared with controls and (2) that patients treated with an intra-articular injection of corticosteroid would have fewer myofibroblasts. The study prospectively enrolled 20 consecutive patients with adhesive capsulitis scheduled for capsular release and matched controls. Tissue samples were collected from the posterior and anterior capsule for histomorphologic and immunohistologic analyses. Identical sectioning and preparation was performed in 14 additional adhesive capsulitis specimens from patients who had not received corticosteroid injections. Patients with adhesive capsulitis not treated with preoperative corticosteroid demonstrated more histologic evidence of fibromatosis, synovial hyperplasia, and an increase in positive staining for α-smooth muscle actin than patients who had received intra-articular injections of steroid. No specimens obtained from control patients demonstrated positive staining for α-smooth muscle actin. There was a higher prevalence of myofibroblast staining in patients with adhesive capsulitis, implicating activation of the myofibroblast in the pathophysiology of capsular contracture. Intra-articular steroid injection decreases the presence and amount of fibromatosis, vascular hyperplasia, fibrosis, and the presence of fibroblasts staining for α-smooth muscle actin. This supports the use of steroid injections to alter the disease process by decreasing the pathologic changes found in the capsular tissue. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: evaluation with MR arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon-Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Chun, Ho Jong [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Yang-Soo; Chung, Yang Guk; Kim, Jung-Man [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography for diagnosing adhesive capsulitis. Shoulder MR images of 28 patients with (n=14) and without (n=14) adhesive capsulitis were retrospectively analyzed. MR images were assessed for capsule and synovium thickness as well as the width of the axillary recess on oblique coronal fat-suppressed T1-weighted images and T2-weighted images, respectively. On oblique sagittal fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, the width of the rotator interval and the presence of abnormal tissue in the interval were evaluated. Significant differences were found between the two groups in capsule and synovium thickness on both sides of the recess on oblique coronal T2-weighted images (P=0.000), whereas thickness on the humeral aspect showed no significant difference on oblique coronal fat-suppressed T1-weighted images (P=0.109). On oblique coronal T2-weighted images, a cut-off value of 3-mm thickness gave the highest diagnostic accuracy for adhesive capsulitis with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 79% (11/14), 100% (14/14), and 89% (25/28) at the humeral side and 93% (13/14), 86% (12/14), and 89% (25/28) at the glenoid side, respectively. There were significant differences in rotator interval width, presence of abnormal tissue in the rotator interval, and axillary recess width between the two groups (P<0.05). Thickness of capsule and synovium of the axillary recess greater than 3 mm is a practical MR criterion for diagnosing adhesive capsulitis when measured on oblique coronal T2-weighted MR arthrography images without fat suppression. The presence of abnormal tissue in the rotator interval showed high sensitivity but rather low specificity. (orig.)

  15. Novel anti-biofilm mechanism for wireless capsule endoscopy in the urinary tract: preliminary study in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neheman, Amos; Schulman, Claude; Yossepowitch, Ofer

    2013-06-01

    To develop and test the safety and feasibility of a novel anti-biofilm mechanism configured for wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in a sheep bladder model. A WCE mechanism, designed for long-term bladder monitoring, was developed and introduced into a sheep bladder for 5 months. The transparency of the surface was assessed by evaluating a resolution target placed inside the capsule at serial intervals using cystoscopy under general anaesthesia. Animal behaviour, voiding patterns and urine cultures were monitored throughout the study. At study termination, the capsule was extracted and assessed using scanning electron microscopy. The resolution target was visualized clearly at all investigation points. No notable adverse effects were noted during the entire follow-up period and no urinary tract infection occurred. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the efficacy of the technology to prevent biofilm formation and surface encrustation. We report a novel technology that effectively prevents biofilm formation on the outer surface of foreign objects in the urinary tract. Further studies are under way to test the applicability of this technology in bladder WCE to enable high-quality wireless image transmission. © 2013 BJU International.

  16. Effect of Subsurface Irrigation with Porous Clay Capsules on Quantitative and Quality of Grape Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghorbani Vaghei

    2016-02-01

    characteristics showed that cluster weight, cluster length, solid solution and pH content has not significant different at 5% level in two system irrigation. Also, the foliar analysis showed that chlorophyll content and relative humidity of leaf has not been affected in two irrigation systems. Meanwhile, irrigation types were significantly effect on water consumption and water use efficiency. The average water consumption and yield production with buried clay capsules and drip irrigation methods on grapevine plant were 4050 and 6668 M3.ha-1 and 14.2 and 14.8 Ton.ha-1 respectively. The reducing water consumption with buried clay capsules irrigation method in related to drip irrigation was 39% on grapevine plants. Meanwhile, the average yield production with buried clay capsules and drip irrigation methods on grapevine plant was 14.2 and 14.8 Ton.ha-1 respectively. Also, the statistics analysis show that the yield and component yield have not significant different at 5% level in the surface and subsurface irrigation. According to the water consumption and yield production, using buried porous clay capsules created a better water use efficiency than drip irrigation method. In other words, Iran has been localized at arid and semi arid and have huge water consumption in agriculture, and therefore it is necessary to optimize water consumption especially in agriculture using new technology. According to the results of this research, using buried porous clay capsules is recommended in order to optimize water consumption for grape plants in different place in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Conclusion: The purpose of an efficient irrigation system is to apply the water in such a way that the largest fraction thereof is available for beneficial use by the plant. According to the experimental results reported here, it could be concluded that the reducing water consumption with buried clay capsules irrigation method in related to drip irrigation was 39% on grapevine plants. Meanwhile

  17. Development of in-pile test and evaluation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yung Hwan; Park, Jong Man; Joo, Kee Nam; Park, Duk Keun; Park, Se Jin; Oh, Jong Myung; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park Jin Suk; Lee, Jae Han [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-01

    To develop the in-pile test and evaluation technologies using KMRR, basic design of instrumented capsule and auxiliary system for material irradiation test and the related studies are performed. First, reactor and test hole characteristics are summarized, and conceptual design requirements of capsule to KMRR are reviewed. And fundamental principles and criteria for the instrumented capsule design are summarized. Basic design and analysis of instrumented capsule are performed, and design of capsule supporting system are also performed and structural integrity of the system is analyzed. Based on the prior studies, test mock-ups are designed and manufactured, and thermohydraulic and vibration tests are prepared. And, as in-pile test evaluation technologies, KMRR neutron dosimetry and mechanical tests related to material irradiation are investigated. 67 figs, 30 tabs, 41 refs. (Author).

  18. The double capsules in macro-textured breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giot, Jean-Philippe; Paek, Laurence S; Nizard, Nathanael; El-Diwany, Mostafa; Gaboury, Louis A; Nelea, Monica; Bou-Merhi, Joseph S; Harris, Patrick G; Danino, Michel A

    2015-10-01

    Breast implants are amongst the most widely used types of permanent implants in modern medicine and have both aesthetic and reconstructive applications with excellent biocompatibility. The double capsule is a complication associated with textured prostheses that leads to implant displacement; however, its etiology has yet to be elucidated. In this study, 10 double capsules were sampled from breast expander implants for in-depth analysis; histologically, the inner capsular layer demonstrated highly organized collagen in sheets with delamination of fibers. At the prosthesis interface (PI) where the implant shell contacts the inner capsular layer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a thin layer which mirrored the three-dimensional characteristics of the implant texture; the external surface of the inner capsular layer facing the intercapsular space (ICS) was flat. SEM examination of the inner capsule layer revealed both a large bacterial presence as well as biofilm deposition at the PI; a significantly lower quantity of bacteria and biofilm were found at the ICS interface. These findings suggest that the double capsule phenomenon's etiopathogenesis is of mechanical origin. Delamination of the periprosthetic capsule leads to the creation of the ICS; the maintained separation of the 2 layers subsequently alters the biostability of the macro-textured breast implant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A legged anchoring mechanism for capsule endoscopes using micropatterned adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Paul; Cheung, Eugene; Sitti, Metin

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a new concept for an anchoring mechanism to enhance existing capsule endoscopes. The mechanism consists of three actuated legs with compliant feet lined with micropillar adhesives to be pressed into the intestine wall to anchor the device at a fixed location. These adhesive systems are inspired by gecko and beetle foot hairs. Single-leg and full capsule mathematical models of the forces generated by the legs are analyzed to understand capsule performance. Empirical friction models for the interaction of the adhesives with an intestinal substrate were experimentally determined in vitro using dry and oil-coated elastomer micropillar arrays with 140 microm pillar diameter, 105 microm spacing between pillars, and an aspect ratio of 1:1 on fresh porcine small intestine specimens. Capsule prototypes were also tested in a simulated intestine environment and compared with predicted peristaltic loads to assess the viability of the proposed design. The experimental results showed that a deployed 10 gr capsule robot can withstand axial peristaltic loads and anchor reliably when actuation forces are greater than 0.27 N using dry micropillars. Required actuation forces may be reduced significantly by using micropillars coated with a thin silicone oil layer.

  20. Controlled release from stimuli-sensitive microgel capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Hassan; Alexeev, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    We introduce a mesoscale computational model for responsive gels, i.e. chemically cross-linked polymer networks immersed in Newtonian fluids, and use it to probe the release of nanoparticles from hollow microgel capsules that swell and deswell in response to external stimuli. Our model explicitly describes the transport of nanoparticles in swelling/deswelling polymer networks with complex geometries and associated fluid flows. Our simulations reveal that responsive microcapsules can be effectively utilized for steady and pulsatile release of encapsulated solutes. Steady, diffusive release of nanoparticle takes place from swollen gel capsules, whereas capsule deswelling cause burst-like discharge of solutes driven by a flow from the shrinking capsule interior. We demonstrate that this hydrodynamic release can be regulated by introducing rigid microscopic rods inside the capsule. Our calculations indicate that the rods stretch the deswelling membrane and promote the formation of large pores in the shell, which allow massive flow-driven release of nanoparticles. Thus, our findings unveil a new approach for regulating the release from stimulus responsive micro-carriers that will be especially useful for designing new drug delivery systems.

  1. A novel release mechanism from responsive microgel capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Hassan; Alexeev, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    We use a mesoscale computational model for responsive gels to study the release of nanoparticles from hollow microcapsules. Our model explicitly describes the transport of nanoparticles in swelling/deswelling polymer networks with complex geometries and associated fluid flows. Our simulations show that capsule swelling results in a steady release of encapsulated nanoparticle, which is set by the ability of particles to diffuse through the capsule network. For deswelling capsules, we show that a fluid flow induced by capsule shrinking leads to rapid nanoparticle release. This release, however, is limited due to decreasing mesh size of the deswelling shell. We show that by introducing solid microrods inside deswelling capsules, we can control the rapid release. Our calculations reveal that the rods stretch the deswelling membrane and promote the formation of large pores in the shell, which allow massive flow-driven release of nanoparticles. Thus, our findings reveal a new approach for regulating the release from stimulus responsive micro-carriers that may be useful for designing new drug delivery systems. Financial support from the Donors of the PetroleumResearchFund, administered by theACS, is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  3. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  4. Wireless powered capsule endoscopy for colon diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenwen; Yan, Guozheng; He, Shu; Ke, Quan; Wang, Zhiwu; Liu, Hua; Jiang, Pingping

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a wireless power transfer system integrated with an active locomotion and biopsy module in an endoscopic capsule for colon inspection. The capsule, which can move automatically, is designed for non-invasive biopsy and visual inspection of the intestine. To supply enough power for multiple functions and ensure safety for the human body, the efficiency of the current power transmission system needs to be improved. To take full advantage of the volume in the capsule body, a novel structure of receiving coils wound on a multi-core of MnZn ferrite hollow cylinder was used; with this new core, the efficiency increased to more than 7.98%. Up to 1.4 W of dc power can be delivered to the capsule as it travels along the gastrointestinal tract. Three micro motors were integrated for pumping, anchoring, locomotion and biopsy. A user interface and RF communication enables the operator to drive the capsule in an intuitive manner. To gauge the efficacy of the wireless power supply in a simulated real-world application, the biopsy and locomotion capabilities of the device were successfully tested in a slippery, soft tube and gut environment in vitro.

  5. Regional material properties of the human hip joint capsule ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, J; Guilak, F; Glisson, R; Vail, T P

    2001-05-01

    The hip joint capsule functions to constrain translation between the femur and acetabulum while allowing rotational and planar movements. Despite the crucial role it plays in the pathogenesis of hip instability, little is known about its biomechanical properties. The goal of this study was to determine the regional material properties of the iliofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments of the capsule. Ten human cadaveric specimens of each ligament were tested to failure in tension. The stress at failure, strain at failure, strain energy density at failure, toe- and linear-region elastic moduli, and the Poisson's ratio were measured for each ligament. The strain to failure was greatest in the ischiofemoral ligament, while no significant difference was noted in failure stress by region or ligament. The Young's moduli of elasticity ranged from 76.1 to 285.8 MPa among the different ligaments, and were generally consistent with properties previously reported for the shoulder capsule. The elastic moduli and strain energy density at failure differed by region. No significant differences in Poisson's ratio were found by region or ligament. The average Poisson's ratio was approximately 1.4, consistent with anisotropic behavior of ligamentous tissues. Understanding the material properties of the hip capsule may help the orthopaedic surgeon better understand normal ligament function, and thereby choose a surgical approach or strategy of repair. Furthermore, knowledge of the normal mechanical function of the hip capsule ligaments could assist in the evaluation of the success of a repair.

  6. Computer aided wireless capsule endoscopy video segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baopu; Xu, Guoqing; Zhou, Ran; Wang, Tianfu

    2015-02-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) opens a new door for the digestive tract examination and diagnosis. However, the examination of its video data is tedious. This study aims to assist a physician to interpret a WCE video by segmenting it into different anatomic parts in the digestive tract. A two level WCE video segmentation scheme is proposed to locate the boundary between the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. In the rough level, the authors utilize color feature to draw a dissimilarity curve for a WCE video and obtain an approximate boundary. Meanwhile, training data for the fine level segmentation can be collected automatically between the two approximate boundaries of organs to overcome the difficulty of training data collection in traditional approaches. In the fine level, color histogram in the HSI color space is used to segment the stomach and small intestine. Then, color uniform local binary pattern (CULBP) algorithm is applied for discrimination of the small intestine and large intestine, which includes two patterns, namely, color norm and color angle pattern. The CULBP feature is robust to variation of illumination and discriminative for classification. In order to increase the performance of support vector machine, the authors integrate it with the Adaboost approach. Finally, the authors refine the classification results to segment a WCE video into different parts, that is, the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The average precision and recall are 91.2% and 90.6% for the stomach/small intestine classification, 89.2% and 88.7% for the small/large intestine discrimination. Paired t-test also demonstrates a significant better performance of the proposed scheme compared to some traditional methods. The average segmentation error is 8 frames for the stomach/small intestine discrimination, and 14 frames for the small/large intestine segmentation. The results have demonstrated that the new video segmentation method can accurately locate

  7. Biomechanics of the Hip Capsule and Capsule Management Strategies in Hip Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Smith, Matthew V

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the function of the hip capsule have clarified its importance to normal hip function and kinematics. The iliofemoral ligament is the primary stabilizing structure for controlling anterior translation and external rotation of the hip, and is violated by the arthroscopic interportal capsulotomy. Microinstability of the hip occurring after surgical trauma remains a poorly defined clinical entity. In certain at-risk populations, capsular repair should be considered as part of an arthroscopic hip procedure to achieve optimal outcomes and avoid iatrogenic instability (dislocation or microinstability). Despite a lack of conclusive evidence-based indications, we recommend capsular repair in the settings of borderline hip dysplasia (or dysplastic variants such as increased femoral anteversion), hip hypermobility, connective tissue disorders, and traumatic or atraumatic instability. With careful attention to arthroscopic capsular management, adequate exposure can be achieved and reproducibly allow for an effective capsular repair when indicated.

  8. Acoustic Sensing and Ultrasonic Drug Delivery in Multimodal Theranostic Capsule Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fraser R.; Qiu, Yongqiang; Newton, Ian P.; Cox, Benjamin F.; Al-Rawhani, Mohammed A.; Beeley, James; Liu, Yangminghao; Huang, Zhihong; Cumming, David R. S.; Näthke, Inke

    2017-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is now a clinically accepted diagnostic modality in which miniaturized technology, an on-board power supply and wireless telemetry stand as technological foundations for other capsule endoscopy (CE) devices. However, VCE does not provide therapeutic functionality, and research towards therapeutic CE (TCE) has been limited. In this paper, a route towards viable TCE is proposed, based on multiple CE devices including important acoustic sensing and drug delivery components. In this approach, an initial multimodal diagnostic device with high-frequency quantitative microultrasound that complements video imaging allows surface and subsurface visualization and computer-assisted diagnosis. Using focused ultrasound (US) to mark sites of pathology with exogenous fluorescent agents permits follow-up with another device to provide therapy. This is based on an US-mediated targeted drug delivery system with fluorescence imaging guidance. An additional device may then be utilized for treatment verification and monitoring, exploiting the minimally invasive nature of CE. While such a theranostic patient pathway for gastrointestinal treatment is presently incomplete, the description in this paper of previous research and work under way to realize further components for the proposed pathway suggests it is feasible and provides a framework around which to structure further work. PMID:28671642

  9. Sensitive Detection of Deliquescent Bacterial Capsules through Nanomechanical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden K

    2015-10-20

    Encapsulated bacteria usually exhibit strong resistance to a wide range of sterilization methods, and are often virulent. Early detection of encapsulation can be crucial in microbial pathology. This work demonstrates a fast and sensitive method for the detection of encapsulated bacterial cells. Nanoindentation force measurements were used to confirm the presence of deliquescent bacterial capsules surrounding bacterial cells. Force/distance approach curves contained characteristic linear-nonlinear-linear domains, indicating cocompression of the capsular layer and cell, indentation of the capsule, and compression of the cell alone. This is a sensitive method for the detection and verification of the encapsulation status of bacterial cells. Given that this method was successful in detecting the nanomechanical properties of two different layers of cell material, i.e. distinguishing between the capsule and the remainder of the cell, further development may potentially lead to the ability to analyze even thinner cellular layers, e.g. lipid bilayers.

  10. Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Paul D; Willis, F Buck

    2009-01-01

    Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with Stage II Adhesive Capsulitis were grouped by intervention. The intervention categories were as follows: Group I (Control); Group II (Physical Therapy exclusively with standardized protocols); Group III; (Shoulder Dynasplint system exclusively); Group IV (Combined treatment with Shoulder Dynasplint and standardized Physical Therapy). The duration of this study was 90 days for all groups, and the main outcome measures were change in active, external rotation. Results Significant difference was found for all treatment groups (p adhesive Capsulitis. Trial Registration Trial Number: NCT00873158 PMID:19735563

  11. Evaluation of hard gelatin capsules and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Gonçalves Weigert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop and evaluate formulations containing ampicillin in capsules of gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC. Two formulations (A and B were developed. The final product quality was evaluated by testing for quality control and the results were in agreement with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The formulations with HPMC capsules showed lower percentages of drug dissolved (99.67%, HPMC-A and 87.70%, HPMC-B than the gelatin (100.18%, GEL-A and 101.16% GEL-B. Because of the delay of the ampicillin release observed in the dissolution profiles, it becomes necessary to evaluate the drugs that can be conditioned in the HPMC capsules.

  12. Validating Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) predictive capability using perturbed capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mark; Magelssen, Glenn; Tregillis, Ian; Hsu, Scott; Bradley, Paul; Dodd, Evan; Cobble, James; Flippo, Kirk; Offerman, Dustin; Obrey, Kimberly; Wang, Yi-Ming; Watt, Robert; Wilke, Mark; Wysocki, Frederick; Batha, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Achieving ignition on NIF is a monumental step on the path toward utilizing fusion as a controlled energy source. Obtaining robust ignition requires accurate ICF models to predict the degradation of ignition caused by heterogeneities in capsule construction and irradiation. LANL has embarked on a project to induce controlled defects in capsules to validate our ability to predict their effects on fusion burn. These efforts include the validation of feature-driven hydrodynamics and mix in a convergent geometry. This capability is needed to determine the performance of capsules imploded under less-than-optimum conditions on future IFE facilities. LANL's recently initiated Defect Implosion Experiments (DIME) conducted at Rochester's Omega facility are providing input for these efforts. Recent simulation and experimental results will be shown.

  13. Ingestible wireless capsules for enhanced diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Huynh, Van An; Ting, Eng Kiat; Lai, Joshua Chong Yue; Wong, Kai Juan; Tan, Su Lim; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become a common procedure for diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a less-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy by eliminating uncomfortable procedures of the traditional endoscopy. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for exploring inaccessible areas of the small intestine. Current capsule endoscopes, however, move by peristalsis and are not capable of detailed and on-demand inspection of desired locations. Here, we propose and develop two wireless endoscopes with maneuverable vision systems to enhance diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. The vision systems in these capsules are equipped with mechanical actuators to adjust the position of the camera. This may help to cover larger areas of the digestive tract and investigate desired locations. The preliminary experimental results showed that the developed platform could successfully communicate with the external control unit via human body and adjust the position of camera to limited degrees.

  14. An O antigen capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Mariaelena; Pédron, Thierry; Rossi, Omar; Goulding, David; Pickard, Derek; Citiulo, Francesco; MacLennan, Calman A; Dougan, Gordon; Thomson, Nicholas R; Saul, Allan; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-03-01

    Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg. We found that a galU mutant of S. sonnei, that is unable to produce a complete LPS with OAg attached, can still assemble OAg material on the cell surface, but a galU mutant of S. flexneri 2a cannot. High molecular weight material not linked to the LPS was purified from S. sonnei and confirmed by NMR to contain the specific sugars of the S. sonnei OAg. Deletion of genes homologous to the group 4 capsule synthesis cluster, previously described in Escherichia coli, abolished the generation of the high molecular weight OAg material. This OAg capsule strongly affects the virulence of S. sonnei. Uncapsulated knockout bacteria were highly invasive in vitro and strongly inflammatory in the rabbit intestine. But, the lack of capsule reduced the ability of S. sonnei to resist complement-mediated killing and to spread from the gut to peripheral organs. In contrast, overexpression of the capsule decreased invasiveness in vitro and inflammation in vivo compared to the wild type. In conclusion, the data indicate that in S. sonnei expression of the capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis resulting in balanced capabilities to invade and persist in the host environment.

  15. An O antigen capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaelena Caboni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg. We found that a galU mutant of S. sonnei, that is unable to produce a complete LPS with OAg attached, can still assemble OAg material on the cell surface, but a galU mutant of S. flexneri 2a cannot. High molecular weight material not linked to the LPS was purified from S. sonnei and confirmed by NMR to contain the specific sugars of the S. sonnei OAg. Deletion of genes homologous to the group 4 capsule synthesis cluster, previously described in Escherichia coli, abolished the generation of the high molecular weight OAg material. This OAg capsule strongly affects the virulence of S. sonnei. Uncapsulated knockout bacteria were highly invasive in vitro and strongly inflammatory in the rabbit intestine. But, the lack of capsule reduced the ability of S. sonnei to resist complement-mediated killing and to spread from the gut to peripheral organs. In contrast, overexpression of the capsule decreased invasiveness in vitro and inflammation in vivo compared to the wild type. In conclusion, the data indicate that in S. sonnei expression of the capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis resulting in balanced capabilities to invade and persist in the host environment.

  16. Shoulder activity level in patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Lillegraven, Olivia; Brophy, Robert H

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis is a common condition resulting in painful multidirectional restriction of motion. Adhesive capsulitis may inhibit shoulder activity level, but this relationship has not been previously studied. This study tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis have lower shoulder activity than sex- and age-matched controls. Seventy-two eligible patients (37 men and 35 women) with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis completed a validated shoulder activity scale that was compared with sex- and age-matched norms from a healthy population with no history of shoulder disorders. The association of shoulder activity level with patient age, sex, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores was evaluated. Overall, 58% of patients actually had higher shoulder activity scores than sex- and age-matched controls. Among patients aged 51 to 70 years, 68% of patients (73% of men and 63% of women) demonstrated higher Shoulder Activity Scale scores compared with controls. The activity level was higher among all patients aged 51 to 70 years compared with controls (10.3 ± 1.48 vs. 8 ± 0.52, P = .0067). The difference was significant for men in this age group (12.2 ± 1.7 vs. 9 ± 0.75, P = .0042). There was a statistically significant positive correlation of the Shoulder Activity Scale score with the SST score (r = 0.31, P = .009). Patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis do not have a lower shoulder activity level than sex- and age-matched controls, and older men may actually have a higher level of shoulder activity than controls. Shoulder activity level is correlated with the SST score in patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  18. Factors affecting capsule size and production by lactic acid bacteria used as dairy starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A N; Frank, J F; Shalabi, S I

    2001-02-28

    The effects of sugar substrates on capsule size and production by some capsule-forming nonropy and ropy dairy starter cultures were studied. Test sugars (glucose, lactose, galactose, or sucrose) were used as a sole carbohydrate source and the presence of a capsule and its size were determined by using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Nonropy strains produced maximum capsule size when grown in milk. Strains that did not produce capsules in milk did not produce them in any other growth medium. Specific sugars required for capsule production were strain-dependent. Increasing lactose content of Elliker broth from 0.5 to 5% or adding whey protein or casein digest produced larger capsules. Whey protein concentrate stimulated production of larger capsules than did casamino acids or casitone. Some Streptococcus thermophilus strains produced capsules when grown on galactose only. Nonropy strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produced capsules on lactose, but not on glucose. A ropy strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produced a constant capsule size regardless of the growth medium. The ability of some strains of Streptococcus thermophilus to use galactose in capsule production could reduce browning of mozzarella cheese during baking by removing a source of reducing sugar. Media that do not support capsule production may improve cell harvesting.

  19. Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder Joint: Value of Glenohumeral Distance on Magnetic Resonance Arthrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Hong; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Youn, In Young; Kim, Eugene; Park, Jai Hyung; Park, Se Jin

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of glenohumeral distance (GHD) on axial images of magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography for diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis and to compare this finding with previously reported classic MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis. Our study was approved by the institutional ethical review board of our institute. We evaluated 41 patients (M-F, 35:6; mean age, 46 years; adhesive capsulitis, 21; no adhesive capsulitis, 20) who underwent MR arthrography. Two radiologists measured GHD, width of the axillary recess, and capsular thickness in consensus. The GHD was measured from the subchondral bone of the glenoid fossa to the subchondral bone of the humeral head at the level of the midline of the humeral head. Glenohumeral distance (anterior, middle, posterior, and mean), width of the axillary recess, and capsular thickness (anterior, posterior, and mean) were compared in the adhesive capsulitis and no adhesive capsulitis groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. The mean GHD of the no adhesive capsulitis group was longer than that of the adhesive capsulitis group. The length differences were statistically significant (P adhesive capsulitis group was significantly wider than that of the adhesive capsulitis group (P adhesive capsulitis group was significantly thinner than that in the adhesive capsulitis group (P = 0.001). A decreased GHD on MR arthrography can be another useful feature to diagnose adhesive capsulitis in addition to previously presented radiologic features such as capsular thickening and reduced axillary recess capacity.

  20. Preshot Predictions for Defect Induced Mix (DIME) Capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Paul A.; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S.; Tregillis, Ian L.; Schmitt, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    In this memo, we evaluate the most probable yield and other results for the Defect Induced Mix (DIME-12A) Polar Direct Drive (PDD) capsule-only shots. We evaluate the expected yield, bang time, burn averaged ion temperature, and the average electron temperature of the Ge line-emitting region. We also include synthetic images of the capsule backlit by Cu K-α emission (8.39 keV) and core self-emission synthetic images. This memo is a companion to the maximum credible yield memo (LA-UR--12-00287) published earlier.

  1. Preshot Predictions for Defect Induced Mix (DIME) Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, Mark J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-31

    In this memo, we evaluate the most probable yield and other results for the Defect Induced Mix (DIME-12A) Polar Direct Drive (PDD) capsule-only shots. We evaluate the expected yield, bang time, burn averaged ion temperature, and the average electron temperature of the Ge line-emitting region. We also include synthetic images of the capsule backlit by Cu K-{alpha} emission (8.39 keV) and core self-emission synthetic images. This memo is a companion to the maximum credible yield memo (LA-UR-12-00287) published earlier.

  2. Symptomatic retention of the Agile® patency capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea Valenzuela, Juan; Estrella Díez, Esther; Alberca de Las Parras, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The Agile® capsule has shown to be useful when evaluating the patency of the small bowel in patients prior to capsule endoscopy studies. It is a safe tool and a low rate of complications have been reported, highlighting symptomatic retention, although references in literature are scarce and it is only observed in 1.2% of the procedures. We present the case of a symptomatic retention of this device in a patient with previously known colonic Crohn's disease in who a small bowel study was indicated and was sent for prior patency test.

  3. Data package for the Turkey Point material interaction test capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogness, J.C.; Davis, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Objective of the Materials Interaction Test (MIT) is to obtain interaction information on candidate package storage materials and geologies under prototypic temperatures in gamma and low level neutron fields. Compatibility, structural properties, and chemical transformations will be studied. The multiple test samples are contained within test capsules connected end-to-end to form a test train. Only passive instrumentation has been used to monitor temperatures and record neutron fluence. The test train contains seven capsules: three to test compatibility, two for structural tests, and two for chemical transformation studies. The materials tested are potential candidates for the spent fuel package canister and repository geologies

  4. Welding iridium heat-source capsules for space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    A remote computer-controlled welding station was developed to encapsulate radioactive PuO 2 in iridium. Weld quench cracking caused an interruption in production of capsules for upcoming space missions. Hot crack sensitivity of the DOP-26 iridium alloy was associated with low melting constituents in the grain boundaries. The extent of cracking was reduced but could not be eliminated by changes to the welding operation. An ultrasonic test was developed to detect underbead cracks exceeding a threshold size. Production was continued using the ultrasonic test to reject capsules with detectable cracks

  5. Colon capsule endoscopy: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Andrea O; Vermehren, Johannes; Albert, Jörg G

    2014-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE; PillCam Colon; Given Imaging; Yoqneam, Israel) is a minimally invasive wireless technique for the visualization of the colon. With the recent introduction of the second generation colon capsule the diagnostic accuracy of CCE for polyp detection has significantly improved and preliminary data suggest it may be useful to monitor mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Limitations include the inability to take biopsies and the procedural costs. However, given the potentially higher acceptance within an average risk colorectal cancer (CRC) screening population, its usefulness as a screening tool with regard to CRC prevention should be further evaluated. PMID:25469027

  6. Wireless endoscopy in 2020: Will it still be a capsule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Iakovidis, Dimitris K; Karargyris, Alexandros; Rondonotti, Emanuele

    2015-05-07

    Currently, the major problem of all existing commercial capsule devices is the lack of control of movement. In the future, with an interface application, the clinician will be able to stop and direct the device into points of interest for detailed inspection/diagnosis, and therapy delivery. This editorial presents current commercially-available new designs, European projects and delivery capsule and gives an overview of the progress required and progress that will be achieved -according to the opinion of the authors- in the next 5 year leading to 2020.

  7. Advances in pediatric gastroenterology: introducing video camera capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Emmanuel O

    2006-04-01

    The video camera capsule endoscope is a gastrointestinal endoscope approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2001 for use in diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders in adults. In 2003, the agency approved the device for use in children ages 10 and older, and the endoscope is currently in use at Arkansas Children's Hospital. A capsule camera, lens, battery, transmitter and antenna together record images of the small intestine as the endoscope makes its way through the bowel. The instrument is used with minimal risk to the patient while offering a high degree of accuracy in diagnosing small intestine disorders.

  8. On the Application of a Response Surface Technique to Analyze Roll-over Stability of Capsules with Airbags Using LS-Dyna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.

    2008-01-01

    As NASA moves towards developing technologies needed to implement its new Exploration program, studies conducted for Apollo in the 1960's to understand the rollover stability of capsules landing are being revisited. Although rigid body kinematics analyses of the roll-over behavior of capsules on impact provided critical insight to the Apollo problem, extensive ground test programs were also used. For the new Orion spacecraft being developed to implement today's Exploration program, new air-bag designs have improved sufficiently for NASA to consider their use to mitigate landing loads to ensure crew safety and to enable re-usability of the capsule. Simple kinematics models provide only limited understanding of the behavior of these air bag systems, and more sophisticated tools must be used. In particular, NASA and its contractors are using the LS-Dyna nonlinear simulation code for impact response predictions of the full Orion vehicle with air bags by leveraging the extensive air bag prediction work previously done by the automotive industry. However, even in today's computational environment, these analyses are still high-dimensional, time consuming, and computationally intensive. To alleviate the computational burden, this paper presents an approach that uses deterministic sampling techniques and an adaptive response surface method to not only use existing LS-Dyna solutions but also to interpolate from LS-Dyna solutions to predict the stability boundaries for a capsule on airbags. Results for the stability boundary in terms of impact velocities, capsule attitude, impact plane orientation, and impact surface friction are discussed.

  9. Sub-Scale Re-entry Capsule Drop via High Altitude Balloons

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project objective is to develop and test a sub-scale version of the Maraia Entry Capsule on a high altitude balloon. The capsule is released at 100,000 ft. The...

  10. Self collision avoidance for humanoids using circular and elliptical capsule bounding volumes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a self collision avoidance scheme for humanoid robots using elliptical and circular capsules as collision bounding volumes. A capsule is defined as an elliptical or circular cylinder capped with ellipsoids or spheres respectively...

  11. Model of the humanoid body for self collision detection based on elliptical capsules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a self collision detection scheme for humanoid robots using elliptical and circular capsules as bounding volumes. A capsule is defined as an elliptical or circular cylinder capped with ellipsoids or spheres respectively...

  12. The application value of capsule endoscopy in diagnosing small intestinal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Li

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Capsule endoscopy demonstrated a high diagnostic value for various small bowel diseases, including both tumor and inflammatory lesions. Given its simplicity, safety, and reliability, capsule endoscopy was an important examination tool for the diagnosis of small bowel diseases.

  13. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests; study on the in-pile creep measuring method of zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong; Lee, Byung Kee; Lee, Jong Jea; Kim, Chang Sik; Kim, B. Hun; Cho, I. Sik [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The final objective of this project is to obtain a design and fabrication technology of an in-pile creep test machine of zirconium alloys. First, design concepts of the in-pile creep test machines of various foreign countries were reviewed and a preliminary design of the equipment was carried. Second, the mock-up of the in-pile creep test machine was fabricated based on the preliminary design. The mock-up consisted of upper and lower grips, a yoke, a pressure chamber including a bellows, a push rod and LVDT. Each part was made of 304 L stainless steel. The average surface roughness of the parts was 1.0-14.7 {mu}m. The mock-up precisely determined an extension of a specimen by gas pressure. Finally, in-pile creep capsule was designed, fabricated and modified. High pure aluminum blocks were put in the capsule. Considering heat transfer coefficients of helium and nitrogen gases, the cooling efficiency is about 4 .deg. C at the condition of 300 .deg. C creep test. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation at 300 .deg. C were 335 MPa, 591 MPa, 19.8%, respectively. which were lower than the values at room temperature, 353 MPa, 740 MPa, 12.5%. This study gave an important technology related to design, fabrication and performance tests of the in-pile creep test machine, which is applied to the fabrication of a special capsule and also used for the fundamental data for the fabrication of various in-pile creep capsules. 6 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  14. Resin Capsules: Permeable Containers for Parallel/Combinatorial Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bouillon, Isabelle; Soural, Miroslav; Krchňák, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    A resin capsule is a permeable container for resin beads designed for multiple/combinatorial solid-phase organic synthesis. Resin capsules consist of a high density polyethylene ring sealed with peek mesh on both sides. The cylindrical shape of resin capsules enabled space-saving packing into plastic column-like reaction vessels commonly used for solid-phase organic synthesis. Resin capsules have been evaluated for their use in combinatorial synthesis, and a set of model compounds with excell...

  15. A simple method for preparing radioactive capsules in colon transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shyhjen; Lin Wanyu; Tsai Shihchuan; Chen Granhun

    2000-01-01

    Colon transit study is currently performed by delivering technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled activated charcoal to the colon in a methacrylate-coated capsule (coated capsule). However, the coating procedure is complicated and methacrylate has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore, a simpler method is needed for the clinical routine use of colon transit study. In this study, we used a commercial empty enteric capsule and a coated capsule for the measurement of colon transit time. We compared the in vitro stability and in vivo scintigraphy of 99m Tc-labelled activated charcoal in the coated capsule and the enteric capsule to evaluate the possibility of clinical usage of the enteric capsule for colon transit time study. Activated charcoal powder was mixed with 99m Tc-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) and vaporized to dryness. The dry 99m Tc-DTPA activated charcoal was loaded into the coated capsule and the enteric capsule. In vitro stability study was performed by immersing these capsules in a colourless buffer of variable pH which mimicked the conditions in the stomach and the small bowel. Capsule disruption was determined. Colon transit scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DTPA charcoal was performed in five normal volunteers using these two capsules. The in vitro stability of these two types of capsule was similar and the colon transit scintigraphy findings were almost identical. Most capsules dissolved in the ascending colon and very few in the terminal ileum. It is concluded that enteric capsule is a suitable alternative to coated capsule for measurement of colon transit. (orig.)

  16. A Pilot Trial of Ambulatory Monitoring of Gastric Motility Using a Modified Magnetic Capsule Endoscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Man; Choi, Ja Sung; Cho, Jae Hee

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic capsule endoscope has been modified to be fixed inside the stomach and to monitor the gastric motility. This pilot trial was designed to investigate the feasibility of the magnetic capsule endoscope for monitoring gastric motility. The magnetic capsule endoscope was swallowed by the healthy volunteer and maneuvered by the external magnet on his abdomen surface inside the stomach. The magnetic capsule endoscope transmitted image of gastric peristalsis. This simple trial suggested ...

  17. Trismus as manifestation of bilateral internal capsule genu infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, M.J.H.; Vroomen, Patrick C. A. J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; De Keyser, Jacques

    Acute trismus can have different causes. We describe the presentation, course and radiological findings of a 34-year-old man who developed acute trismus and MRI findings consistent with the combination of an old and fresh infarction in the genu of the internal capsule. We believe it is important to

  18. Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of capsules of haemoglobin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organized assemblies of capsules of haemoglobin (Hb), in the size range of 0.1 to 0.3 in Langmuir films have been studied at air/water interface below and above the isoelectric point. Spread films of these organizates suggest that there is no expulsion of individual particles or particle assemblies at the interface and the ...

  19. Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett films of capsules of haemoglobin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Organized assemblies of capsules of haemoglobin (Hb), in the size range of 0.1 to 0.3 μ in Lang- muir films have been studied at air/water interface below and above the isoelectric point. Spread films of these organizates suggest that there is no expulsion of individual particles or particle assemblies at the interface ...

  20. Adhesive capsulitis: role of MR imaging in differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, David; Padmanabhan, Ravi; Buchbinder, Rachelle [Department of MRI, St. Frances Xavier Cabrini Hospital, 183 Wattletree Road, Malvern, Victoria 3144 (Australia)

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the MR imaging findings in a group of patients who underwent surgery for adhesive capsulitis. Twenty-four MR imaging studies in 24 consecutive patients with clinical evidence of adhesive capsulitis were performed prior to arthroscopic capsulotomy. There were 17 women and 7 men with a mean age of 53.5 years. Images were scrutinised for changes in the synovium particularly in the rotator interval, around the biceps anchor and axillary pouch. Intravenous gadolinium was given routinely. We also examined a control group of 22 patients who underwent the same MR imaging protocol after referral for rotator cuff pathology. Soft tissue density showing variable enhancement after gadolinium administration was visible in the rotator interval in 22 of 24 studies on MR imaging. Seventeen patients showed soft tissue density partially encasing the biceps anchor. Ten patients showed thickening and gadolinium enhancement of the axillary pouch. Three patients from the study cohort had partial tears of the supraspinatus tendon. All the patients subsequently had surgery which confirmed fibrovascular scar tissue in the rotator interval, around the biceps anchor and a variable degree of synovial inflammation of the glenohumeral capsule. Two patients from a control group with suspected rotator cuff pathology showed abnormal intensity in the rotator interval on MR imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging can identify changes in the shoulder joint that correspond to abnormalities seen at surgery. This may be useful for discriminating adhesive capsulitis from other causes of shoulder pain. (orig.)

  1. Arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcos Rassi

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate the results of arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder associated as for improved range of motion after a minimum follow up of six years. from August 2002 to December 2004, ten patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment underwent arthroscopic surgery. One interscalene catheter was placed for postoperative analgesia before the procedure. All were in Phase II, with a minimum follow up of two years. The mean age was 52.9 years (39-66), predominantly female (90%), six on the left shoulder. The time between onset of symptoms and surgical treatment ranged from six to 20 months. Four adhesive capsulitis were found to be primary (40%) and six secondary (60%). the preoperative mean of active anterior elevation was 92°, of external rotation was 10.5° of the L5 level internal rotation; the postoperative ones were 149°, 40° and T12 level, respectively. Therefore, the average gain was 57° for the anterior elevation, 29.5° for external rotation in six spinous processes. There was a significant difference in movements' gains between the pre and post-operative periods (padhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment, improving the range of joint movements of patients evaluated after a minimum follow up of six years.

  2. Regional gastrointestinal contractility parameters using the wireless motility capsule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, A D; Wegeberg, A-M L; Brock, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The wireless motility capsule concurrently measures temperature, pH and pressure as it traverses the gastrointestinal tract. AIMS: To describe normative values for motility/contractility parameters across age, gender and testing centres. METHODS: Healthy participants underwent a stand...

  3. Are Social Networking Websites Educational? Information Capsule. Volume 0909

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    More and more school districts across the country are joining social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using social networking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…

  4. Computer-Based Assessments. Information Capsule. Volume 0918

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    This Information Capsule reviews research conducted on computer-based assessments. Advantages and disadvantages associated with computer-based testing programs are summarized and research on the comparability of computer-based and paper-and-pencil assessments is reviewed. Overall, studies suggest that for most students, there are few if any…

  5. Characterization and identification of suspected counterfeit miltefosine capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Eggelte, Teunis A.; de Vries, Peter J.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it was revealed that generic miltefosine capsules for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, a fatal parasitic disease, were possibly counterfeit products. Here we report on the methods to characterize and identify miltefosine in pharmaceutical products and the procedures that were used

  6. Conservative integrated treatment of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Adriano; Arrighi, Annalisa; Vignale, Luigi; Molfetta, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    the aim of this study was to present the results of a conservative treatment for adhesive capsulitis based on an original protocol of combined pharmacological and rehabilitation treatment. fifty-two patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis were enrolled in the present study. The treatment protocol included the use of hyaluronic acid and anaesthetic periarticular and intra-articular injections followed by a specific program of capsule and muscle stretching. the results of this treatment showed complete recovery of range of motion (ROM) in 50 of the 52 cases. The mean pre-treatment ROM values were: 85° for forward elevation, 75° for abduction, 25° for external rotation, and 15° for internal rotation. The post-treatment mean ROM values showed marked improvements: 175° for forward elevation, 175° for abduction, 87.5° for external rotation and 75° for internal rotation. conservative treatment of adhesive capsulitis based on a combined pharmacological and rehabilitation approach was found to be effective in resolving pain and stiffness in 96% of the patients. level IV, therapeutic case series.

  7. Assessment of colorectal length using the electromagnetic capsule tracking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, E B; Poulsen, J L; Haase, A M

    2017-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to determine colorectal length with the 3D-Transit system by describing a 'centerline' of capsule movement and compare it to known anatomy, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we aimed to test the day-to-day variation of colorectal length assessed with the sy...

  8. Anion binding in covalent and self-assembled molecular capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Pablo

    2010-10-01

    This critical review describes selected examples extracted from the extensive literature generated during the past 42 years on the topic of anion binding in molecular capsules. The goal of including anions in molecular capsules emerges from the idea of incorporating the traits exhibited by biological receptors into synthetic ones. At the outset of this research area the capsules were unimolecular. The scaffold of the receptor was designed to covalently link a series of functional groups that could converge into a cavity and to avoid its collapse. The initial examples involved the encapsulation of one monoatomic spherical anion. With time, the cavity size of the receptor was increased and encapsulation of polyatomic anions and co-encapsulation became a reality. Synthetic economy fueled the use of aggregates of self-complementary molecules rather than one large molecule as capsules. The main purpose of this review is to give a general overview of the topic which might be of interest to supramolecular or non supramolecular chemists alike (149 references).

  9. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    structure, responsive to microwave electromagnetic radiation, is attached to a first wall portion of the capsule wall structure which comprises a lossy dielectric material. At least a predetermined segment of the first wall portion is heated by received microwave electromagnetic radiation to trigger...

  10. A magnetically actuated anchoring system for a wireless endoscopic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Alici, Gursel; Munoz, Fredy

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we propose a new magnetically actuated anchoring system for wireless capsule endoscopes (WCE) by employing the principle of a switchable magnetic spring. A force model is derived to predict the magnetic force needed to support the interaction between the anchors and the intestinal lumen. The theoretical and experimental analysis conducted shows that the magnetic spring is capable of providing the force needed to activate the anchoring mechanism, which consists of four foldable legs. A prototype capsule with a size comparable with the size of a commercial WCE was designed, fabricated, and tested. The in-vitro tests with a real small intestine show that the proposed anchoring mechanism is able to raise the friction force between the anchoring legs and inner wall of the intestine by more than two times after its activation using an external magnetic field. Experimental results presented demonstrate that the proposed anchoring system, which has a low foot-print not taking up too much space on the capsule, can provide a reliable anchoring capability with the capsule inside the intestinal lumen.

  11. Watermelon stomach seen by wireless‐capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    MASCARENHAS‐SARAIVA, M.; LOPES, L.; MASCARENHAS‐SARAIVA, A.

    2003-01-01

    Endoscopy. 2003 Jan;35(1):100. Watermelon stomach seen by wireless-capsule endoscopy. Mascarenhas-Saraiva M, Lopes L, Mascarenhas-Saraiva A. SourceDigestive Endoscopy and Motility Unit, Trindade Hospital, Rua Trinidade 115, 4000-541 Porto, Portugal. PMID:12510242[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

  12. Fuel capsule HRB-21 postirradiation examination data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, C A; Bell, G L; Emerson, L C [and others

    1995-04-01

    HRB-21 was carried out in HFIR to demonstrate the performance capability of reference Nuclear Energy Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel, which consisted of uranium oxycarbide fissile and ThO{sub 2} fertile TRISO particles bonded into compacts. Long before the capsule was removed from the reactor, it was obvious that the fuel was suffering early failure. After 5 of the planned 6 HFIR cycles, the peak fuel test temperature could not be controlled and the irradiation was terminated. The PIE information will be useful to fuel designers for product improvement. Irradiation-induced failure of the protective PyC layers may have led to the failure of outer PyC coatings. Coating failure fraction was determined by several means to be <1% for both fertile and fissile particles at the ends of the capsule, increasing to 6% for fissile particles and 2.5% for fertile particles at the center of the capsule. More study of SiC microstructure vs fission product release is needed. The work on capsule HRB-21 has identified a set of lessons learned that would benefit future programs.

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Supersonic Wake of a Reentry Capsule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijer, F.F.J.; Walpot, L.M.G.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    The wake behind an Apollo shaped capsule is investigated in the framework of the ’afterbody heating’ topic in the RTO WG043 working group. Measurements are performed by means of schlieren, shadowgraphy and stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) and are used for CFD validation purposes. The model

  14. 21 CFR 520.2605 - Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2605...) Amount. Administer either capsule orally once daily to dogs as follows: Animal weight (pounds) Number of... dermatitis (allergic, parasitic, pustular, and nonspecific). It is also used in dogs as adjunctive therapy in...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF VALUE ADDED TEA BAGS AND CAPSULES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    powdered dried leaves based on Anamed International dosage recommendations. Several studies supported the use of artemisia annua tea and capsules for the treatment of malaria pointing out that flavonoids existing in the leaves and stem considerably enhance the interest of its tea preparation and powdered leave ...

  16. Biosorption of mercury by capsulated and slime layer- forming Gram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... The biosorption of mercury by two locally isolated Gram-ve bacilli: Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumonia (capsulated) and slime layer forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was characterized. Mercury adsorption was found to be influenced by the pH value of the biosorption solution, initial metal.

  17. Improved sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood consists of a measured section of polytetrafluoroethylene tubing equipped at each end with a connector and a stopcock valve. This method eliminates errors from air entrainment or from the use of mercury or syringe lubricant.

  18. Hydro-dissection and posterior capsule opacifi | Bekibele | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It may however be associated with early post operative complications presumably due to increased manipulation during the procedure. Its use is therefore encouraged but with generous use of viscoelastic material to reduce effect of manipulation on the eye. Keywords: hydrodissection, posterior capsule opacity, cataract ...

  19. Biosorption of mercury by capsulated and slime layerforming Gram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of mercury by two locally isolated Gram-ve bacilli: Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumonia (capsulated) and slime layer forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was characterized. Mercury adsorption was found to be influenced by the pH value of the biosorption solution, initial metal concentration, amount of the ...

  20. Video-based measurements for wireless capsule endoscope tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K

    2014-01-01

    The wireless capsule endoscope is a swallowable medical device equipped with a miniature camera enabling the visual examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It wirelessly transmits thousands of images to an external video recording system, while its location and orientation are being tracked approximately by external sensor arrays. In this paper we investigate a video-based approach to tracking the capsule endoscope without requiring any external equipment. The proposed method involves extraction of speeded up robust features from video frames, registration of consecutive frames based on the random sample consensus algorithm, and estimation of the displacement and rotation of interest points within these frames. The results obtained by the application of this method on wireless capsule endoscopy videos indicate its effectiveness and improved performance over the state of the art. The findings of this research pave the way for a cost-effective localization and travel distance measurement of capsule endoscopes in the GI tract, which could contribute in the planning of more accurate surgical interventions. (paper)

  1. Video-based measurements for wireless capsule endoscope tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K.

    2014-01-01

    The wireless capsule endoscope is a swallowable medical device equipped with a miniature camera enabling the visual examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It wirelessly transmits thousands of images to an external video recording system, while its location and orientation are being tracked approximately by external sensor arrays. In this paper we investigate a video-based approach to tracking the capsule endoscope without requiring any external equipment. The proposed method involves extraction of speeded up robust features from video frames, registration of consecutive frames based on the random sample consensus algorithm, and estimation of the displacement and rotation of interest points within these frames. The results obtained by the application of this method on wireless capsule endoscopy videos indicate its effectiveness and improved performance over the state of the art. The findings of this research pave the way for a cost-effective localization and travel distance measurement of capsule endoscopes in the GI tract, which could contribute in the planning of more accurate surgical interventions.

  2. Wireless capsule endoscopy in adolescents with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Debora; Ballardini, Giovanni; Ferrari, Andrea; Delconte, Gabriele; Signoroni, Stefano; Sala, Paola; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Bertario, Lucio; Vitellaro, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for surveillance in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) recommend mutation carriers to undergo periodic colorectal examination starting in the early teens. Performing colonoscopy in children may lead to complications. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been introduced recently to evaluate both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, and seems suitable as a first screening examination for adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pros and cons of WCE. This was a retrospective review of a single institution database of adolescent patients with FAP identified through the Hereditary Colorectal Tumor Registry between 2007 and 2013. The main outcomes were identification of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract polyps, tolerance of the examination, and number and size of polyps. Of 46 adolescent patients with FAP, 14 (30.4%) patients carrying adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) mutation, 6 male and 8 female, age (median, range) 12 (10-17) years, body mass index 19 (13-24), underwent WCE as first screening examination. The examination was completed in 13 patients (93.3%). Wireless capsule endoscopy identified the duodenal papilla in 4 patients and colonic and rectal polyps in all 13 patients. In 7 patients, fewer than 25 polyps were identified. No complications were recorded related to the use of the video capsule. Wireless capsule endoscopy is feasible and well-tolerated as a first screening examination in adolescent patients. It cannot be used as alternative to the colonoscopy, but could improve compliance with colonoscopy, and increase early adherence to a surveillance program.

  3. 77 FR 53892 - Determination That ALOXI (Palonosetron Hydrochloride) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ...] Determination That ALOXI (Palonosetron Hydrochloride) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not Withdrawn From...)) Capsules, 0.5 milligram (mg) (base), were not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness... HCl capsules, 0.5 mg (base), if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR FURTHER...

  4. Fabrication, characterization and evaluation of bacterial cellulose-based capsule shells for oral drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Hanif; Badshah, Munair; Mäkilä, Ermei

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained release of drugs. The prepared capsule shells were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The BC...... to gelatin capsules with both immediate and sustained drug release properties depending upon the compositions of the encapsulated materials....

  5. Adhesive Capsulitis in Eight Dogs: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Brittany J; Canapp, Sherman O; Canapp, Debra A; Gamble, Lauri-Jo; Dycus, David L

    2016-01-01

    To describe clinical and diagnostic findings as well as management of adhesive capsulitis in dogs. Adhesive capsulitis, also known as frozen shoulder, is a syndrome defined by loss of range of motion of the shoulder and may be the end-stage manifestation of several primary conditions. This is a case series report of eight dogs with chronic forelimb lameness diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis. Medical records (June 1, 2010-September 1, 2015) including, physical examination findings, radiographic findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, arthroscopy findings, and treatment plans were reviewed. All dogs presented with a chronic, grade III-VI/VI forelimb lameness. On orthopedic examination, all dogs had moderate to significant discomfort on shoulder extension and flexion and severe restriction of range of motion. Six of the eight dogs had evidence of bone remodeling and sclerosis in the affected shoulder on radiographs. Six of the dogs had an initial diagnostic ultrasound performed, which revealed evidence of fibrous scar tissue. Five dogs had MRI performed that revealed moderate shoulder effusion and enhancement of the synovial lining of the shoulder. Arthroscopy was performed in five of the eight patients. Three were noted to have significant contracture, adhesions, and fibrous scar tissue of the joint capsule. Severe inflammation was noted throughout the synovium of two patients. All eight patients tried conservative management consisting of oral medications and rehabilitation therapy. Five of the eight patients received extracorporeal shockwave therapy. Three patients received regenerative medicine treatment in the affected supraspinatus and shoulder. Regardless of the treatment elected, none of the dogs were reported to have significant improvement. Adhesive capsulitis is an uncommon cause of chronic forelimb lameness. Further investigation is needed to describe the etiology and pathogenesis of adhesive capsulitis in dogs to evaluate the effectiveness

  6. Adhesive Capsulitis in 8 Dogs: Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Jean Carr

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Objective: To describe clinical and diagnostic findings as well as management of adhesive capsulitis in dogs.Background: Adhesive capsulitis, also known as frozen shoulder, is a syndrome defined by loss of range of motion of the shoulder and may be the end-stage manifestation of several primary conditions.Evidentiary Value: This is a case report series of eight dogs with chronic forelimb lameness diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis.Methods: Medical records (June 1, 2010 to September 1, 2015 including, physical examination findings, radiographic findings, magnetic resonance imaging findings, arthroscopy findings, and treatment plans were reviewed. Results: All dogs presented with a chronic, grade III-VI/VI forelimb lameness. On orthopedic examination all dogs had moderate to significant discomfort on shoulder extension and flexion and severe restriction of range of motion. Six of the eight dogs had evidence of bone remodeling and sclerosis in the affected shoulder on radiographs. Six of had an initial diagnostic ultrasound performed, which revealed evidence of fibrous scar tissue. Five dogs had magnetic resonance imaging performed that revealed moderate shoulder effusion and enhancement of the synovial lining of the shoulder. Arthroscopy was performed in five of the eight patients. Three were noted to have significant contracture, adhesions and fibrous scar tissue of the joint capsule. Severe inflammation was noted throughout the synovium of two patients. All eight patients tried conservative management consisting of oral medications and rehabilitation therapy. Five of the eight patients received extracorporeal shockwave therapy. Three patients received regenerative medicine treatment in the affected supraspinatus and shoulder. Regardless of the treatment elected, none of the dogs were reported to have significant improvement. Conclusion: Adhesive capsulitis is an uncommon cause of chronic forelimb lameness. Further investigation is

  7. Noncontact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Noel M.; Manns, Fabrice; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To design a non-contact optical system to measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes. Methods: The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused onto the tissue using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a motorized translation stage. Light reflected from the sample is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a silicon photodiode connected to a power meter. Peaks in the power signal are detected when the focal point of the aspheric lens coincides with the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is proportional to the distance between successive peaks. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 13 human, 10 monkey, and 34 New Zealand white rabbit lenses. The cadaver eyes were prepared for optical measurements by bonding a PMMA ring on the sclera. The posterior pole was sectioned, excess vitreous was removed, and the eye was placed on a Teflon slide. The cornea and iris were then sectioned. After the experiments, the lenses were excised, placed in 10% buffered formalin, and prepared for histology. Results: Central anterior lens capsule thickness was 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 11.2+/-6.6μm (monkey), and 10.3+/-3.6μm (rabbit) optically and 14.9+/-1.6μm (human), 17.7+/-4.9μm (monkey), and 12.6+/-2.3μm (rabbit) histologically. The values for the central posterior capsule were 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 6.6+/-2.5μm (monkey), and 7.9+/-2.3μm (rabbit) optically and 4.6+/-1.4μm (human), 4.5+/-1.2μm (monkey), and 5.7+/-1.7μm (rabbit) histologically. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a non-contact optical system can successfully measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes.

  8. Effect of Morinda officinalis capsule on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Lü, Shan-Shan; Tang, Gui-Ying; Hou, Min; Tang, Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Chen, Wei-Hai; Chen, Gang; Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Ji-Fen; Chen, Yi; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2014-03-01

    To explore the therapeutic effects of Morinda officinalis capsules (MOP) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Six-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were induced for postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) by bilateral ovariectomy and divided into seven groups as follows: sham-operated group, ovariectomized (OVX) control group, OVX treated with xianlinggubao (XLGB) (270 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹), OVX treated with alendronate sodium (ALN) (3 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹), and OVX treated with Morinda officinalis capsule (MOP) of graded doses (90, 270 and 810 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹) groups. Oral treatments were administered daily on the 4(th) week after ovariectomy and lasted for 12 weeks. The bone mineral density was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and osteocalcin (OC) levels in the serum and plasma were determined by standard colorimetric and enzyme immunoassays methods. Bone biomechanical properties and morphological parameters were analyzed by three-point bending test and histomorphometry respectively. Morinda officinalis capsules at all doses were able to significantly prevent the OVX-induced loss of bone mass due to diminishing serum AKP and TRAP levels while elevating OC level in the plasma. Morinda officinalis capsules also enhanced the bone strength and prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture. Morinda officinalis capsules possess potent anti-osteoporotic activity in OVX rats which could be an effective treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Systematic review on safety of Xianling Gubao capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Li; Liao, Xing; Liu, Fu-Mei; Wang, Gui-Qian; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2017-08-01

    To systemically evaluate the safety of Xianling Gubao capsule after launching. Computer retrieval of Medline, EMbase, the Web of Science, Clinical Trials. gov, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, WanFang Data and CBM was conducted to collect information on all the research types of Xianling Gubao capsule. The literature was screened according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of the studies was assessed according to the internationally accepted quality evaluation standards for data extraction and analysis. A total of 156 papers were included in this study, including 117 randomized control trials, 11 quasi-randomized control trials, 10 non-randomized control trials, 11 case report series, and 7 individual case reports; a total of 167 studies were analyzed. Xianling Gubao capsules were used in 7 496 patients, with an accumulative 377 cases of adverse reactions (ADR) and 4 cases of severe adverse reactions, including 1 death, 1 cerebrovascular accident, 1 case of skin allergy reaction, and 1 case of gastrointestinal discomfort; gastrointestinal system damage was most common in mild ADRs. In this study, we found that the overall safety of Xianling Gubao capsule was acceptable, but it lacked the mechanism study on the safety of the drug after marketing or the prospective long-term clinical observation study, so the further studies on the safety of drug use should be conducted. Meanwhile, the application scope of Xianling Gubao capsules was beyond the manual, in urgent needs of the relevant departments to formulate norms and provide better guidance for clinical medication. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. An ultra-low-power image compressor for capsule endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Ping-Kuo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy has been popularly applied for the diagnosis of diseases of the alimentary canal including Crohn's Disease, Celiac disease and other malabsorption disorders, benign and malignant tumors of the small intestine, vascular disorders and medication related small bowel injury. The wireless capsule endoscope has been successfully utilized to diagnose diseases of the small intestine and alleviate the discomfort and pain of patients. However, the resolution of demosaicked image is still low, and some interesting spots may be unintentionally omitted. Especially, the images will be severely distorted when physicians zoom images in for detailed diagnosis. Increasing resolution may cause significant power consumption in RF transmitter; hence, image compression is necessary for saving the power dissipation of RF transmitter. To overcome this drawback, we have been developing a new capsule endoscope, called GICam. Methods We developed an ultra-low-power image compression processor for capsule endoscope or swallowable imaging capsules. In applications of capsule endoscopy, it is imperative to consider battery life/performance trade-offs. Applying state-of-the-art video compression techniques may significantly reduce the image bit rate by their high compression ratio, but they all require intensive computation and consume much battery power. There are many fast compression algorithms for reducing computation load; however, they may result in distortion of the original image, which is not good for use in the medical care. Thus, this paper will first simplify traditional video compression algorithms and propose a scalable compression architecture. Conclusion As the result, the developed video compressor only costs 31 K gates at 2 frames per second, consumes 14.92 mW, and reduces the video size by 75% at least.

  11. An ultra-low-power image compressor for capsule endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Chun; Dung, Lan-Rong; Weng, Ping-Kuo

    2006-02-25

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has been popularly applied for the diagnosis of diseases of the alimentary canal including Crohn's Disease, Celiac disease and other malabsorption disorders, benign and malignant tumors of the small intestine, vascular disorders and medication related small bowel injury. The wireless capsule endoscope has been successfully utilized to diagnose diseases of the small intestine and alleviate the discomfort and pain of patients. However, the resolution of demosaicked image is still low, and some interesting spots may be unintentionally omitted. Especially, the images will be severely distorted when physicians zoom images in for detailed diagnosis. Increasing resolution may cause significant power consumption in RF transmitter; hence, image compression is necessary for saving the power dissipation of RF transmitter. To overcome this drawback, we have been developing a new capsule endoscope, called GICam. We developed an ultra-low-power image compression processor for capsule endoscope or swallowable imaging capsules. In applications of capsule endoscopy, it is imperative to consider battery life/performance trade-offs. Applying state-of-the-art video compression techniques may significantly reduce the image bit rate by their high compression ratio, but they all require intensive computation and consume much battery power. There are many fast compression algorithms for reducing computation load; however, they may result in distortion of the original image, which is not good for use in the medical care. Thus, this paper will first simplify traditional video compression algorithms and propose a scalable compression architecture. As the result, the developed video compressor only costs 31 K gates at 2 frames per second, consumes 14.92 mW, and reduces the video size by 75% at least.

  12. Semantic and topological classification of images in magnetically guided capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, P. W.; Rennert, P.; Juloski, A. L.; Lalande, A.; Angelopoulou, E.; Kuth, R.; Hornegger, J.

    2012-03-01

    Magnetically-guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) is a nascent technology with the goal to allow the steering of a capsule endoscope inside a water filled stomach through an external magnetic field. We developed a classification cascade for MGCE images with groups images in semantic and topological categories. Results can be used in a post-procedure review or as a starting point for algorithms classifying pathologies. The first semantic classification step discards over-/under-exposed images as well as images with a large amount of debris. The second topological classification step groups images with respect to their position in the upper gastrointestinal tract (mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum). In the third stage two parallel classifications steps distinguish topologically different regions inside the stomach (cardia, fundus, pylorus, antrum, peristaltic view). For image classification, global image features and local texture features were applied and their performance was evaluated. We show that the third classification step can be improved by a bubble and debris segmentation because it limits feature extraction to discriminative areas only. We also investigated the impact of segmenting intestinal folds on the identification of different semantic camera positions. The results of classifications with a support-vector-machine show the significance of color histogram features for the classification of corrupted images (97%). Features extracted from intestinal fold segmentation lead only to a minor improvement (3%) in discriminating different camera positions.

  13. A Wireless Capsule Endoscope System With Low-Power Controlling and Processing ASIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinkai Chen; Xiaoyu Zhang; Linwei Zhang; Xiaowen Li; Nan Qi; Hanjun Jiang; Zhihua Wang

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule endoscope system. The proposed system is mainly composed of a CMOS image sensor, a RF transceiver and a low-power controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Several design challenges involving system power reduction, system miniaturization and wireless wake-up method are resolved by employing optimized system architecture, integration of an area and power efficient image compression module, a power management unit (PMU) and a novel wireless wake-up subsystem with zero standby current in the ASIC design. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS technology with a die area of 3.4 mm * 3.3 mm. The digital baseband can work under a power supply down to 0.95 V with a power dissipation of 1.3 mW. The prototype capsule based on the ASIC and a data recorder has been developed. Test result shows that proposed system architecture with local image compression lead to an average of 45% energy reduction for transmitting an image frame.

  14. A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guobing; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Jiaoliao

    2011-06-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic.

  15. A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Guobing; Chen, Jiaoliao; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic

  16. Residual mercury content and leaching of mercury and silver from used amalgam capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M E; Pederson, E D; Cohen, M E; Ragain, J C; Karaway, R S; Auxer, R A; Saluta, A R

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to carry out residual mercury (Hg) determinations and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis of used amalgam capsules. For residual Hg analysis, 25 capsules (20 capsules for one brand) from each of 10 different brands of amalgam were analyzed. Total residual Hg levels per capsule were determined using United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 7471. For TCLP analysis, 25 amalgam capsules for each of 10 brands were extracted using a modification of USEPA Method 1311. Hg analysis of the TCLP extracts was done with USEPA Method 7470A. Analysis of silver (Ag) concentrations in the TCLP extract was done with USEPA Method 6010B. Analysis of the residual Hg data resulted in the segregation of brands into three groups: Dispersalloy capsules, Group A, retained the most Hg (1.225 mg/capsule). These capsules were the only ones to include a pestle. Group B capsules, Valliant PhD, Optaloy II, Megalloy and Valliant Snap Set, retained the next highest amount of Hg (0.534-0.770 mg/capsule), and were characterized by a groove in the inside of the capsule. Group C, Tytin regular set double-spill, Tytin FC, Contour, Sybraloy regular set, and Tytin regular set single-spill retained the least amount of Hg (0.125-0.266 mg/capsule). TCLP analysis of the triturated capsules showed Sybraloy and Contour leached Hg at greater than the 0.2 mg/l Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit. This study demonstrated that residual mercury may be related to capsule design features and that TCLP extracts from these capsules could, in some brands, exceed RCRA Hg limits, making their disposal problematic. At current RCRA limits, the leaching of Ag is not a problem.

  17. Crosslinking studies in gelatin capsules treated with formaldehyde and in capsules exposed to elevated temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, C M; Zhang, Y E; Jobeck, V C; Bowman, B J

    2001-01-01

    Incomplete in vitro capsule shell dissolution and subsequent drug release problems have recently received attention. A modified USP dissolution method was used to follow capsule shell dissolution, and a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) assay was used to follow loss of epsilon-amino groups to study this shell dissolution problem postulated to be due to gelatin crosslinking. The dissolution problems were simulated using hard gelatin capsule (HGC) shells previously treated with formaldehyde to crosslink the gelatin. These methods were also used to study the effect of uncrosslinked HGC stored under stressed conditions (37 degrees C and 81% RH) with or without the presence of soft gelatin capsule shells (SGC). A 120 ppm formaldehyde treatment reduced gelatin shell dissolution to 8% within 45 min in water at 37 degrees C. A 200 ppm treatment reduced gelatin epsilon-amino groups to 83% of the original uncrosslinked value. The results also support earlier reports of non-amino group crosslinking by formaldehyde in gelatin. Under stressed conditions, HGC stored alone showed little change over 21 weeks. However, by 12 to 14 weeks, the HGC exposed to SGC showed a 23% decrease in shell dissolution and an 8% decrease in the number of epsilon-amino groups. These effects on the stressed HGC are ascribed to a volatile agent from SGC shells, most likely formaldehyde, that crosslinked nearby HGC shells. This report also includes a summary of the literature on agents that reduce gelatin and capsule shell dissolution and the possible mechanisms of this not-so-simple problem. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 90: 79-88, 2001

  18. Cellulose nanofiber/nanocrystal reinforced capsules: a fast and facile approach toward assembly of liquid-core capsules with high mechanical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svagan, Anna J; Musyanovych, Anna; Kappl, Michael; Bernhardt, Max; Glasser, Gunnar; Wohnhaas, Christian; Berglund, Lars A; Risbo, Jens; Landfester, Katharina

    2014-05-12

    Liquid-core capsules of high mechanical stability open up for many solid state-like applications where functionality depending on liquid mobility is vital. Herein, a novel concept for fast and facile improvement of the mechanical properties of walls of liquid-core capsules is reported. By imitating nature's own way of enhancing the mechanical properties in liquid-core capsules, the parenchyma plant cells found in fruits and vegetables, a blend of short cellulose nanofibers (wood pulp hydrolysis. The capsule shell consisted of a covalently (by aromatic diisocyanate) cross-linked NFC/CNC structure at the outer capsule wall and an inner layer dominated by aromatic polyurea. The mechanical properties revealed an effective capsule elastic modulus of 4.8 GPa at 17 wt % NFC/CNC loading, about six times higher compared to a neat aromatic polyurea capsule (0.79 GPa) and 3 orders of magnitude higher than previously reported capsules from regenerated cellulose (0.0074 GPa). The outstanding mechanical properties are ascribed to the dense nanofiber structure, present in the outer part of the capsule wall, that is formed by oriented NFC/CNC of high average aspect ratio (L/d ∼ 70) and held together by both covalent (urethane bonds) and physical bonds (hydrogen bonds).

  19. Buckling and its effect on the confined flow of a model capsule suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryngelson, Spencer; Freund, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The rheology of confined flowing suspensions, such as blood, depend upon the dynamics of the components, which can be particularly rich when they are elastic capsules. Using boundary integral methods, we simulate a two-dimensional model channel through which flows a dense suspension of fluid-filled capsules. A parameter of principal interest is the equilibrium membrane perimeter, which ranges from round capsules to capsules with an elongated dog-bone-like equilibrium shape. It is shown that the minimum effective viscosity occurs for capsules with a biconcave equilibrium shape, similar to that of a red blood cell. The rheological behavior changes significantly over this range; transitions are linked to specific changes in the capsule dynamics. Most noteworthy is an abrupt change in behavior when capsules transition to a dog-bone-like equilibrium shape, which correlates with the onset of capsule buckling. The buckled capsules have a more varied orientation and make significant rotational (rotlet) contributions to the capsule-capsule interactions. Supported under NSF Grant No. CBET 13-36972.

  20. Comparative assessment of hepatic Glisson's capsule and bovine pericardium in heart valve bioprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagramanov, I I; Kokshenev, I V; Dobrova, N B; Kastava, V T; Serov, R A; Zaets, S B

    1998-05-01

    The optimal material for heart valve bioprostheses remains disputable. This investigation was initiated to compare the properties of hepatic Glisson's capsule, clinical experience of which in cardiovascular surgery is minimal, with those of bovine pericardium. Hepatic Glisson's capsule was harvested from bull calves and used to create composite pulmonary arterial monocusp grafts and bioprostheses. Comparison of the strength and elastic properties of Glisson's capsule and bovine pericardium, as well as the hydrodynamic characteristics of valves made from these materials, was performed. Late results of operations using these materials were estimated echocardiographically. Although Glisson's capsule tissue is thinner than the bovine pericardium, its elasticity modulus is greater. However, the hydrodynamic characteristics of heart valves made from either tissue are similar. Moreover, valves made from Glisson's capsule have a lower systolic pressure gradient on the prosthesis and a higher effective orifice area. Composite pulmonary arterial xenopericardial grafts with a monocusp of Glisson's capsule were used in 30 patients during tetralogy of Fallot repair. Glisson's capsule was also used for tricuspid valve reconstruction and as a bioprosthesis in six patients with Ebstein's anomaly. At 1-2 years after surgery, the Glisson's capsule tissue remained thin and flexible, with no calcification. Although the hydrodynamic properties of hepatic Glisson's capsule and the bovine pericardium are similar, the capsule tissue is thinner and has a greater elasticity modulos. Thus, Glisson's capsule may be used for bioprosthesis construction both independently and in combination with bovine pericardium.

  1. Wireless capsule endoscopy of the small intestine: a review with future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Helmut; Fry, Lucía C; Nägel, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F

    2014-09-01

    Here, we review the clinical applications of small bowel capsule endoscopy. Moreover, we provide an outlook on the exceptional future developments of small bowel capsule endoscopy. We discuss clinical algorithms for diagnosis of small bowel diseases. Multiple studies have shown the potential of capsule endoscopy for identification of the bleeding source located in the small bowel and the increased diagnostic yield over radiographic studies. Capsule endoscopy could detect villous atrophy and severe complications in patients with nonresponsive celiac disease. In addition, small bowel capsule endoscopy was proven as a valid tool to diagnose polyps and tumors and Crohn's disease. Major current clinical indications of capsule endoscopy in the small bowel include evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, diagnosis and surveillance of small bowel polyps and tumors, celiac disease and Crohn's disease. Recent developments have also passed the way for small bowel capsule endoscopy to become a therapeutic instrument.

  2. A novel holding mechanism for next generation active wireless capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen P; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes that next generation wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) technology will feature active mechanical components (i.e. actuated) as opposed to current systems that are predominantly passive (e.g. for imaging purposes). Future systems will integrate microsystems that use micro-actuators to, for example, perform micro-surgery, take tissue samples, deliver medication, etc. In this paper we detail a novel, ultra-compact integrated mechanism for resisting peristalsis and describe how this can be fabricated in Nylon 6 using CNC milling. The holding action is achieved by extending an "anchor" spanning an effective 60.4mm circumference, for a 11.0mm diameter WCE. This function is achieved by a mechanism that occupies only 347.0mm(3) volume, including mechanics and actuator. This shows how exploiting conventional manufacturing processes can result in a radical change in the capabilities of WCE systems and empower the next generation of active devices.

  3. Polyp Detection and Segmentation from Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Surya Prasath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Video capsule endoscopy (VCE is used widely nowadays for visualizing the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Capsule endoscopy exams are prescribed usually as an additional monitoring mechanism and can help in identifying polyps, bleeding, etc. To analyze the large scale video data produced by VCE exams, automatic image processing, computer vision, and learning algorithms are required. Recently, automatic polyp detection algorithms have been proposed with various degrees of success. Though polyp detection in colonoscopy and other traditional endoscopy procedure based images is becoming a mature field, due to its unique imaging characteristics, detecting polyps automatically in VCE is a hard problem. We review different polyp detection approaches for VCE imagery and provide systematic analysis with challenges faced by standard image processing and computer vision methods.

  4. Compounding of slow-release niacinamide capsules: feasibility and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojkovic, Branko; Milić, Jela; Calija, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of extemporaneous compounding of slow-release oral dosage form of niacinamide and to evaluate its release kinetics. The model formulation (preparation) was developed in the form of powder-filled hard gelatin capsules. Two slow-release preparations with different ratios of hypromellose have been prepared and evaluated in comparison with an immediate-release preparation. The dissolution tests were performed as per United States Pharmacopoeia requirements: Type I Apparatus, over 7 hours. Both slow-release preparations, containing 40% and 60% v/v hypromellose, respectively, have showed slow release kinetics. The dissolution profiles were significantly different, with similarity factor f2niacinamide capsules can be successfully compounded using hypromellose as a sole release rate modifier, and that the release mechanism is comparable to hydrophilic polymer matrix-based systems.

  5. Capsule physics comparison of different ablators for NIF implosion designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel; Kritcher, Andrea; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Haan, Steven; Ralph, Joseph; Weber, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the Naitonal Ignition Facility (NIF) have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) plastic, high density carbon (HDC), and beryllium. How do these different ablator choices compare in current and future implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This talk compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and proposed future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. A Prototype Design of a Wireless Capsule Endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as intestinal bleeding and ulceration, are very common. To determine the location of the disease, as well as to diagnose the problem, endoscopy is performed. A wireless capsule endoscope is a pill-sized device that is easily swallowed by the patient. It is equipped with a camera and a wireless transmitter so that as it travels through the patient's gastrointestinal tract, it takes pictures or video images of the tract and transmits the information out of the patient's body. This article discusses the possible solutions and challenges of a wireless capsule endoscope in terms of the choice of wireless frequency and circuit components. A prototype is built with commercially available components to demonstrate the concept of the device.

  7. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fork, Frans-Thomas; Aabakken, Lars

    2007-01-01

    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology. The limitations of capsule endoscopy include difficulty in localising mucosal lesions anatomically and its restricted use in patients with dysphagia, strictures or motor dysfunction. Strictures, transmural and extra-mural lesions in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease are evaluated by MRI- enterography and CT-enterography. (orig.)

  8. Deep Reinforcement Learning using Capsules in Advanced Game Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Per-Arne

    2018-01-01

    Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a research area that has blossomed tremendously in recent years and has shown remarkable potential for artificial intelligence based opponents in computer games. This success is primarily due to vast capabilities of Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNet), enabling algorithms to extract useful information from noisy environments. Capsule Network (CapsNet) is a recent introduction to the Deep Learning algorithm group and has only barely begun to be explored. The ...

  9. Arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the results of arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder associated as for improved range of motion after a minimum follow up of six years. METHODS: from August 2002 to December 2004, ten patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment underwent arthroscopic surgery. One interscalene catheter was placed for postoperative analgesia before the procedure. All were in Phase II, with a minimum follow up of two years. The mean age was 52.9 years (39-66, predominantly female (90%, six on the left shoulder. The time between onset of symptoms and surgical treatment ranged from six to 20 months. Four adhesive capsulitis were found to be primary (40% and six secondary (60%. RESULTS: the preoperative mean of active anterior elevation was 92°, of external rotation was 10.5° of the L5 level internal rotation; the postoperative ones were 149°, 40° and T12 level, respectively. Therefore, the average gain was 57° for the anterior elevation, 29.5° for external rotation in six spinous processes. There was a significant difference in movements' gains between the pre and post-operative periods (p<0.001. By the Constant Score (range of motion, there was an increase of 13.8 (average pre to 32 points (average post. CONCLUSION: the arthroscopic treatment proved effective in refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment, improving the range of joint movements of patients evaluated after a minimum follow up of six years.

  10. Myofibroblast Upregulators are Elevated in Joint Capsules in Posttraumatic Contractures

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Kevin A.; Zhang, Mei; Hart, David A.

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized specific growth factors are increased in the elbow capsules of patients with post traumatic elbow contractures. A model of surgically induced joint contracture in rabbit knees was developed to study the growth factor expression in joint contractures. This study demonstrates this model mimics the human condition and analyzes how the growth factor levels decrease with time in rabbit knees with contractures. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA...

  11. An Innovative Wireless Endoscopic Capsule With Spherical Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Rossella; Mulana, Francesca; Cavallotti, Carmen; Tortora, Giuseppe; Vigliar, Mario; Vatteroni, Monica; Menciassi, Arianna

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the advancement of the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) field for ColoRectal Cancer (CRC) screening, by developing all electronic circuits to build an innovative wireless endoscopic capsule with a spherical shape, conceived to reduce the friction during its locomotion and thus improving patient's acceptability. The proposed capsule embeds an image sensor with optics and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), a control unit with a telemetry module, an actuation system, a battery with a smart recharging circuit able to recharge in 20 minutes, a smart power-on circuit and a localization module. Everything is devised to fit in a small spherical shape with a diameter of 26 mm and a weight of 12.70 g. The authors present a description of the sub-modules involved in the capsule development, together with the firmware and hardware integration. In order to reduce the bandwidth for matching the specifications of the target commercial telemetry, the firmware interfacing of a custom encoder was performed, which is able to compress the incoming images with a negligible loss of information and occupying a number of Look Up-Tables (LUTs) less than 1780. As a preliminary work, a versatile Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based demo-board system has been developed in order to test and optimize the functionalities and the performance of the single sub-modules and wireless vision chain system. This work allows to demonstrate the feasibility of a complex biomedical system, with severe constraints by highlighting the necessity to enhance the frame rate in the future.

  12. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl acid... of vitamin E (17 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl acid succinate.) (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510...

  13. Analysis of Bead Sizes for MR Capsules Labeled for Sprinkle

    OpenAIRE

    Nagavelli, Laxma R.; Lionberger, Robert A.; Sayeed, Vilayat A.; Yu, Lawrence; Allgire, James; Smith, Anjanette; Wokovich, Anna; Westenberger, Benjamin J.; Buhse, Lucinda

    2010-01-01

    The bead sizes used in approved modified release capsules labeled for sprinkling on food was investigated to generate bead size guidelines for generic products labeled for sprinkling. The conclusions from a survey of FDA databases were corroborated with experimental data obtained by measuring the bead sizes of several reference-listed drugs on the market labeled for administration by sprinkling on food. The experimental data show that majority of the marketed products were found to have bead ...

  14. An ultra-low-power image compressor for capsule endoscope

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Meng-Chun; Dung, Lan-Rong; Weng, Ping-Kuo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has been popularly applied for the diagnosis of diseases of the alimentary canal including Crohn's Disease, Celiac disease and other malabsorption disorders, benign and malignant tumors of the small intestine, vascular disorders and medication related small bowel injury. The wireless capsule endoscope has been successfully utilized to diagnose diseases of the small intestine and alleviate the discomfort and pain of patients. However, the res...

  15. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Fork, Thomas; Aabakken, Lars

    2007-01-01

    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology....

  16. Shock Timing and Yield Sensitivity Studies for NIF Ignition Capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Richard E.

    1999-01-01

    A cryogenic, β-layered NIF ignition capsule with a beryllium ablator that employs a BeO dopant (2% O) for opacity control is described. The design has an optimized yield of 12 MJ and uses a reduced drive hohlraum temperature pulse shape that peaks at ∼ 250 eV. Shock timing sensitivity calculations have been performed for this capsule design. Individual uncertainties of: (1) ∼200 ps in the timing of the foot pulse; (2) ∼5% in the x-ray flux of the foot pulse and first step; (3) ∼10% in the ablator EOS; or (4) ∼ 5 microm in the DT ice layer thickness each have a significant impact on thermonuclear yield. Combined uncertainties have greater impact than isolated, individual issues. For example, a combination of uncertainties of 200 ps in the foot + 2 eV in the foot + 5 microm in the DT thickness results in a calculation that produces only ∼ 1% of the original design yield. A second, more speculative, capsule concept utilizing a liquid DT ablator is also discussed. This design produces a 5 MJ yield in a 250 eV peak drive calculation

  17. Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis F Buck

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with Stage II Adhesive Capsulitis were grouped by intervention. The intervention categories were as follows: Group I (Control; Group II (Physical Therapy exclusively with standardized protocols; Group III; (Shoulder Dynasplint system exclusively; Group IV (Combined treatment with Shoulder Dynasplint and standardized Physical Therapy. The duration of this study was 90 days for all groups, and the main outcome measures were change in active, external rotation. Results Significant difference was found for all treatment groups (p Conclusion The difference for the combined treatment group was attributed to patients' receiving the best PT combined with structured "home therapy" that contributed an additional 90 hours of end-range stretching. This adjunct should be included in the standard of care for adhesive Capsulitis. Trial Registration Trial Number: NCT00873158

  18. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joassin, R; Vandemeulebroucke, M; Nisolle, J-F; Hanson, P; Deltombe, T

    2008-05-01

    To describe the diagnosis and treatment of adhesive capsulitis of the hip (ACH). A literature review and consideration of three case reports. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip is a supposedly rare but probably underestimated condition which predominantly affects middle-aged women. Clinical assessment reveals a painful limitation of joint mobility. The diagnosis is confirmed by arthrography, where the crucial factor is a joint capacity below 12ml. Osteoarthritis and complex regional pain syndrome type 1 are the two main differential diagnoses. Whether the treatment is pharmacological, physical or surgical depends on the aetiology of the condition. Physiotherapy is essential for limiting residual deficits and functional impairments. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip is probably more common than suggested by the limited medical literature. The condition is frequently idiopathic but can be secondary to another joint pathology. The first-line treatment consists of sustained-release corticosteroid intra-articular injections and physical therapy. Arthroscopy and manipulation under anaesthesia may be useful in cases of ACH which are refractory to treatment.

  19. Benchmarking uranyl peroxide capsule chemistry in organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, Harrison A.; Nyman, May; Szymanowski, Jennifer; Fein, Jeremy B.; Burns, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Uranyl peroxide capsules are a recent addition to polyoxometalate (POM) chemistry. Ten years of development has ensued only in water, while transition metal POMs are commonly exploited in aqueous and organic media, controlled by counterions or ligation to render the clusters hydrophilic or hydrophobic. Here, new uranyl POM behavior is recognized in organic media, including (1) stabilization and immobilization of encapsulated hydrophilic countercations, identified by Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, (2) formation of new cluster species upon phase transfer, (3) extraction of uranyl clusters from different starting materials including simulated spent nuclear fuel, (4) selective phase transfer of one cluster type from a mixture, and (5) phase transfer of clusters from both acidic and alkaline media. The capsule morphology of the uranyl POMs renders accurate characterization by X-ray scattering, including the distinction of geometrically similar clusters. Compositional analysis of the aqueous phase post-extraction provided a quantitative determination of the ion exchange process that enables transfer of the clusters into the organic phase. Preferential partitioning of uranyl POMs into organic media presents new frontiers in metal ion behavior and chemical reactions in the confined space of the cluster capsules in hydrophobic media, as well as the reactivity of clusters at the organic/aqueous interface. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Benchmarking uranyl peroxide capsule chemistry in organic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Harrison A.; Nyman, May [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Szymanowski, Jennifer; Fein, Jeremy B.; Burns, Peter C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Uranyl peroxide capsules are a recent addition to polyoxometalate (POM) chemistry. Ten years of development has ensued only in water, while transition metal POMs are commonly exploited in aqueous and organic media, controlled by counterions or ligation to render the clusters hydrophilic or hydrophobic. Here, new uranyl POM behavior is recognized in organic media, including (1) stabilization and immobilization of encapsulated hydrophilic countercations, identified by Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, (2) formation of new cluster species upon phase transfer, (3) extraction of uranyl clusters from different starting materials including simulated spent nuclear fuel, (4) selective phase transfer of one cluster type from a mixture, and (5) phase transfer of clusters from both acidic and alkaline media. The capsule morphology of the uranyl POMs renders accurate characterization by X-ray scattering, including the distinction of geometrically similar clusters. Compositional analysis of the aqueous phase post-extraction provided a quantitative determination of the ion exchange process that enables transfer of the clusters into the organic phase. Preferential partitioning of uranyl POMs into organic media presents new frontiers in metal ion behavior and chemical reactions in the confined space of the cluster capsules in hydrophobic media, as well as the reactivity of clusters at the organic/aqueous interface. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Dumbbell formation for elastic capsules in nonlinear extensional Stokes flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2017-06-01

    Cross-slot and four-roll-mill microdevices are commonly used for particle manipulation and characterization owing to the stagnation-point flow at the device center. Because of the solid boundaries, these devices may generate extensional Stokes flows where the velocity is a nonlinear function of position associated with a decreased pressure at the particle edges and an increased pressure at the particle middle. Our computational investigation shows that in this class of Stokes flows, an elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane develops two distinct steady-state conformations at strong flows, i.e., an elongated weak dumbbell shape with rounded edges at low flow nonlinearity and a laterally extended dumbbell shape at high flow nonlinearity. These effects are more pronounced for the less strain-hardening capsules which develop a flat extended middle where the two sides of the membrane approach each other. The strong stability properties of the strain-hardening capsules (owing to the development of strong membrane tensions) contrast significantly with the behavior of droplets in these nonlinear flows which are unable to achieve highly deformed steady-state dumbbell shapes owing to their constant surface tension.

  2. Reduced anterior internal capsule white matter integrity in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Prem, Martin; Baglioni, Chiara; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Schnell, Susanne; Kiselev, Valerij G; Hennig, Jürgen; Riemann, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    Chronic insomnia is one of the most prevalent central nervous system diseases, however, its neurobiology is poorly understood. Up to now, nothing is known about the integrity of white matter tracts in insomnia patients. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used in a well-characterized sample of primary insomnia (PI) patients and good sleeper controls to fill this void. Voxelwise between-group comparisons of fractional anisotropy (FA) were performed in 24 PI patients (10 males; 14 females; 42.7 ± 14.5 years) and 35 healthy good sleepers (15 males; 20 females; 40.1 ± 9.1 years) with age and sex as covariates. PI patients showed reduced FA values within the right anterior internal capsule and a trend for reduced FA values in the left anterior internal capsule. The results suggest that insomnia is associated with a reduced integrity of white matter tracts in the anterior internal capsule indicating that disturbed fronto-subcortical connectivity may be a cause or consequence of the disorder.

  3. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Media gather at the KSC Visitor Complex for the kickoff of the Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which will open to the public on Saturday, June 17. At the podium is Mike Quattrone, executive vice president and general manager, Discovery Channel. Standing to the left of the podium is Rick Abramson, president and chief operating officer of Delaware North Parks Services of Spaceport, Inc., and far left, Jim Jennings, deputy director of Kennedy Space Center. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil '''Gus''' Grissom July 21, 1961 on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking to the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, three miles deep. It lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. The space capsule is now restored and preserved, and part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  4. Lateral migration of a capsule in a parabolic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, S; Imai, Y; Ishikawa, T

    2016-07-26

    Red blood cells migrate to the center of the blood vessel in a process called axial migration, while other blood cells, such as white blood cells and platelets, are disproportionately found near the blood vessel wall. However, much is still unknown concerning the lateral migration of cells in the blood; the specific effect of hydrodynamic factors such as a wall or a shear gradient is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the lateral migration of a capsule using the boundary integral method, in order to compute exactly an infinite computational domain for an unbounded parabolic flow and a semi-infinite computational domain for a near-wall parabolic flow in the limit of Stokes flow. We show that the capsule lift velocity in an unbounded parabolic flow is linear with respect to the shear gradient, while the lift velocity in a near-wall parabolic flow is dependent on the distance to the wall. Then, using these relations, we give an estimation of the relative effect of the shear gradient as a function of channel width and distance between the capsule and the wall. This estimation can be used to determine cases in which the effect of the shear gradient or wall can be neglected; for example, the formation of the cell-free layer in blood vessels is determined to be unaffected by the magnitude of the shear gradient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MRI diagnosis of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaofeng; Zhou Chengtao; Mu Renqi; Zhang Guanghui; Xu Yongzhong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MR imaging of reverse and separation of meniscal articular capsule. Methods: MR imaging of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule confirmed by surgery and arthroscope were analyzed retrospectively in 8 cases. Results: The 'Butterfly knot sign' disappeared and was replaced with fluid signal on the sagittal slice of meniscal body in 8 cases. Part of back angle remained in 3 cases. 'Double anterior cruciate ligament sign' was showed on one side of middle sagittal slice in 7 cases. 'Reverse meniscus sign' was revealed in intercondylar fossa on the coronary view in 8 cases. Abnormal high signal was showed in the injured meniscus in 6 cases. Abnormal high signal was detected in the opposite meniscus in 5 cases. Conclusion: The MR findings of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule include disappearance of 'butterfly knot sign', appearance of 'reverse meniscus sign' and 'double anterior cruciate ligament sign'. The diagnosis would be established if the former 2 signs were present or all the 3 signs were present simultaneously. (authors)

  6. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-07-08

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms.

  7. In-Situ Preparation of Radioactive Tracers in NIF Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, Mark

    2011-04-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will probe fundamental high energy density physics of plasmas. Radiochemical diagnostics will provide information on ablator and fuel rho-R, yield, asymmetry, and mix by collecting both gaseous and solid debris samples following an implosion. Many experiments utilize ratios of produced activities, but full utilization of the technique requires knowledge of sample collection efficiencies. Gaseous samples are expected to be collected with high efficiency, but solid sample collection is typically limited by location of the collecting apparatus. Activation of ICF capsules has been utilized at other laser facilities [1-2] to produce a radioactive tracer in the ablator of the capsule that can be used to measure the solid collection efficiency. This talk will describe preliminary experiments activating CH(Ge) NIF capsules and Au hohlraums in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL in order to produce Ge, As, and Au isotopes for determination of collection efficiency, spatial distribution of the debris, efficacy of various collectors, and if there are preferred locations for debris collection. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. S.M. Lane and M.B. Nelson, Rev. Sci. Inst. 61 (1990) 3298.

  8. Bowman Capsulitis Predicts Poor Kidney Allograft Outcome in T Cell-Mediated Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallan, Alexander J; Chon, W James; Josephson, Michelle A; Cunningham, Patrick N; Henriksen, Kammi J; Chang, Anthony

    2018-02-28

    Acute T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) is an important cause of renal allograft loss. The Banff classification for tubulointerstitial (type I) rejection is based on the extent of both interstitial inflammation and tubulitis. Lymphocytes may also be present between parietal epithelial cells and Bowman capsules in this setting, which we have termed "capsulitis." We conducted this study to determine the clinical significance of capsulitis. We identified 42 patients from the pathology archives at the University of Chicago with isolated Banff type I TCMR from 2010-2015. Patient demographic data, Banff classification, and graft outcome measurements were compared between capsulitis and non-capsulitis groups using Mann-Whitney U test. Capsulitis was present in 26 (62%), and was more frequently seen in Banff IB than IA TCMR (88% vs 44%, P=.01). Patients with capsulitis had a higher serum creatinine at biopsy (4.6 vs 2.9mg/dL, P=.04) and were more likely to progress to dialysis (42% vs 13%, P=.06) with fewer recovering their baseline serum creatinine (12% vs 38%, P=.08). Patients with both Banff IA TCMR and capsulitis have clinical outcomes similar or possibly worse than Banff IB TCMR compared to those with Banff IA and an absence of capsulitis. Capsulitis is an important pathologic parameter in the evaluation of kidney transplant biopsies with potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications in the setting of TCMR. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The roles of Tenascin C and Fibronectin 1 in adhesive capsulitis: a pilot gene expression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carina; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Cohen, Moises; Ejnisman, Benno; Faloppa, Flávio

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who had not shown improvement in symptoms after 5 months of physiotherapy. Adhesive capsulitis was confirmed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging. We also obtained specimens from 8 control patients who had underwent surgery for acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation and who had radiological indication of glenohumeral capsule alteration based on arthroscopic evaluation. mRNA expression in the synovium/capsule specimens was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The B2M and HPRT1 genes were used as references to normalize target gene expression in the shoulder tissue samples. The synovium/capsule samples from the patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly higher TNC and FN1 expression than those from the controls. Additionally, symptom duration directly correlated with expression of TGFβ1 receptor I. Elevated levels of TNC and FN1 expression may be a marker of capsule injury. Upregulation of TGFβ1 receptor I seems to be dependent on symptom duration; therefore, TGFβ signaling may be involved in adhesive capsulitis. As such, TNC, FN1 and TGFβ1 receptor I may also play roles in adhesive capsulitis by contributing to capsule inflammation and fibrosis.

  10. The roles of Tenascin C and Fibronectin 1 in adhesive capsulitis: a pilot gene expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cohen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. METHODS: We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who had not shown improvement in symptoms after 5 months of physiotherapy. Adhesive capsulitis was confirmed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging. We also obtained specimens from 8 control patients who had underwent surgery for acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation and who had radiological indication of glenohumeral capsule alteration based on arthroscopic evaluation. mRNA expression in the synovium/capsule specimens was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The B2M and HPRT1 genes were used as references to normalize target gene expression in the shoulder tissue samples. RESULTS: The synovium/capsule samples from the patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly higher TNC and FN1 expression than those from the controls. Additionally, symptom duration directly correlated with expression of TGFβ1 receptor I. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of TNC and FN1 expression may be a marker of capsule injury. Upregulation of TGFβ1 receptor I seems to be dependent on symptom duration; therefore, TGFβ signaling may be involved in adhesive capsulitis. As such, TNC, FN1 and TGFβ1 receptor I may also play roles in adhesive capsulitis by contributing to capsule inflammation and fibrosis.

  11. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: review of pathophysiology and current clinical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hai V; Lee, Stella J; Nazarian, Ara; Rodriguez, Edward K

    2017-04-01

    Adhesive shoulder capsulitis, or arthrofibrosis, describes a pathological process in which the body forms excessive scar tissue or adhesions across the glenohumeral joint, leading to pain, stiffness and dysfunction. It is a debilitating condition that can occur spontaneously (primary or idiopathic adhesive capsulitis) or following shoulder surgery or trauma (secondary adhesive capsulitis). Here, we review the pathophysiology of adhesive shoulder capsulitis, highlighting its clinical presentation, natural history, risk factors, pathoanatomy and pathogenesis. Both current non-operative and operative treatments for adhesive capsulitis are described, and evidence-based studies are presented in support for or against each corresponding treatment. Finally, the review also provides an update on the gene expression profile of adhesive capsulitis and how this new understanding can help facilitate development of novel pharmacological therapies.

  12. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE AGR-1 CAPSULE TO FPMS SPECTROMETER TRANSPORT VOLUMES FROM LEADOUT FLOW TEST DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Hartwell; J. B. Walter; D. M. Scates; M. W. Drigert

    2007-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a fueled multiple-capsule irradiation experiment being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. A flow experiment conducted during the AGR-1 irradiation provided data that included the effect of flow rate changes on the decay of a short-lived radionuclide (23Ne). This data has been analyzed to determine the capsule-specific downstream transport volume through which the capsule effluents must pass before arrival at the fission product monitoring system spectrometers. These resultant transport volumes when coupled with capsule outlet flow rates determine the transport times from capsule-to-detector. In this work an analysis protocol is developed and applied in order to determine capsule-specific transport volumes to precisions of better than +/- 7%.

  14. Structure of capsule around acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum from uncommon paratenic hosts-lizards of two species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobrechova, Ekaterina M; Nikishin, Vladimir P; Lisitsyna, Olga I

    2012-01-01

    Micromorphology and ultrastructure of capsule forming around acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum in uncommon paratenic hosts-lizards Lacerta agilis and Lacerta viridis-have been studied. Experimental infestation of the lizards by acanthocephalans obtained from naturally infested sea fishes showed that only small amount of parasites occurred in the intestine of the host was able to migrate into body cavity and to be encapsulated. Micromorphology of capsules of different ages from different species of lizards and micromorphology and ultrastructure of capsules at the age of 1.5 and 10 days appeared to be similar. In the capsule's structure cells of inflammatory rank were prevailing: mononuclear and multinuclear macrophages, eosinophils, and basophils. Fibroblasts were not numerous and were located only in the outer part of a capsule; exocellular collagen fibers were absent. Inflammatory character of capsule confirms the idea that lizards are unsuitable paratenic hosts for corynosomes.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Spiral Structure of a Magnetic Capsule Endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanan Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fitting a wireless capsule endoscope (WCE with a navigation feature can maximize its functional benefits. The rotation of a spiral-type capsule can be converted to translational motion. The study investigated how the spiral structure and rotational speed affected the capsule's translation speed. A hand-held instrument, including two permanent magnets, a stepper motor, a controller and a power supplier, were designed to generate rotational magnetic fields. The surfaces of custom-built permanent magnet rings magnetized radially were mounted in spiral lines with different lead angles and diameters, acting as mock-up capsules. The experimental results demonstrate that the rotational speed of the magnetic field and the spiral have significant effects on the translational speed of a capsule. The spiral line with a larger lead angle and the rotating magnetic field with a higher speed can change the capsule's rotation into a translational motion more efficiently in the intestine.

  16. Medical capsule robots: A renaissance for diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapara, Sanyat S; Patravale, Vandana B

    2017-09-10

    The advancements in electronics and the progress in nanotechnology have resulted in path breaking development that will transform the way diagnosis and treatment are carried out currently. This development is Medical Capsule Robots, which has emerged from the science fiction idea of robots travelling inside the body to diagnose and cure disorders. The first marketed capsule robot was a capsule endoscope developed to capture images of the gastrointestinal tract. Today, varieties of capsule endoscopes are available in the market. They are slightly larger than regular oral capsules, made up of a biocompatible case and have electronic circuitry and mechanisms to capture and transmit images. In addition, robots with diagnostic features such as in vivo body temperature detection and pH monitoring have also been launched in the market. However, a multi-functional unit that will diagnose and cure diseases inside the body has not yet been realized. A remote controlled capsule that will undertake drug delivery and surgical treatment has not been successfully launched in the market. High cost, inadequate power supply, lack of control over drug release, limited space for drug storage on the capsule, inadequate safety and no mechanisms for active locomotion and anchoring have prevented their entry in the market. The capsule robots can revolutionize the current way of diagnosis and treatment. This paper discusses in detail the applications of medical capsule robots in diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment. In diagnostics, detailed analysis has been presented on wireless capsule endoscopes, issues associated with the marketed versions and their corresponding solutions in literature. Moreover, an assessment has been made of the existing state of remote controlled capsules for targeted drug delivery and surgical treatment and their future impact is predicted. Besides the need for multi-functional capsule robots and the areas for further research have also been

  17. Moisture diffusion and permeability characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and hard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Ahmad S; Tewes, Frederic; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-01-30

    The primary objective of this paper is to compare the sorption characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hard gelatin (HG) capsules and their ability to protect capsule contents. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms for empty HPMC and HG capsules have been investigated using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) at 25°C. All sorption studies were analysed using the Young-Nelson model equations which distinguishes three moisture sorption types: monolayer adsorption moisture, condensation and absorption. Water vapour diffusion coefficients (D), solubility (S) and permeability (P) parameters of the capsule shells were calculated. ANOVA was performed with the Tukey comparison test to analyse the effect of %RH and capsule type on S, P, and D parameters. The moisture uptake of HG capsules were higher than HPMC capsules at all %RH conditions studied. It was found that values of D and P across HPMC capsules were greater than for HG capsules at 0-40 %RH; whereas over the same %RH range S values were higher for HG than for HPMC capsules. S values decreased gradually as the %RH was increased up to 60% RH. To probe the effect of moisture ingress, spray dried lactose was loaded into capsules. Phase evolution was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The capsules under investigation are not capable of protecting spray dried lactose from induced solid state changes as a result of moisture uptake. For somewhat less moisture sensitive formulations, HPMC would appear to be a better choice than HG in terms of protection of moisture induced deterioration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Work plan for testing silicone impression material and fixture on pool cell capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work plan is to provide a safe procedure to test a cesium capsule impression fixture at Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The impression will be taken with silicone dental impression material pressed down upon the capsule using the impression fixture. This test will evaluate the performance of the fixture and impression material under high radiation and temperature conditions on a capsule in a WESF pool cell

  19. Photostability of Mecobalamin in Tablet and Capsule at the Dispensing Level

    OpenAIRE

    Saeki, Takao; Katagiri, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Hidenari; Naora, Kohji

    1984-01-01

    Photostability of mecobalamin in solid dosage forms was investigated at dispensing level. Commercial products of one tablet and five capsules were used in packaged and bared conditions. The sample products were exposed to light for 20 days at 1500 lux. Assay was by high-performance liquid chromatography. The amount of mecobalamin in tablet and capsules decreased with lapse of photoirradiation time. Significant difference in the rate of photodegradation was observed between the capsule dosage ...

  20. The roles of Tenascin C and Fibronectin 1 in adhesive capsulitis: a pilot gene expression study

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Carina; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Cohen, Moises; Ejnisman, Benno; Faloppa, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. METHODS: We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with ...

  1. Patient-reported measures of quality of life and functional capacity in adhesive capsulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Marcos Rassi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective: To evaluate patient-reported measures of quality of life and functional capacity in adhesive capsulitis before and after suprascapular nerve block treatment; to analyze the influence of clinical and sociodemographic variables on both the outcome and correlation between the respective instruments. Method: A prospective clinical study was performed with adhesive capsulitis patients. Inclusion criteria were clinical diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis and a shoulder imaging tes...

  2. Role of wireless capsule endoscopy in reclassifying inflammatory bowel disease in children

    OpenAIRE

    Jodie Ouahed; Mohammad Shagrani; Ana Sant’Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of wireless capsule endoscopy in identifying small bowel lesions in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) type unclassified (IBDU), and to assess whether capsule endoscopy findings result in altered patient management. Methods: Ten pediatric patients recently diagnosed with IBDU through standard investigations were recruited from the pediatric gastroenterology clinic at McMaster Children's Hospital to undergo capsul...

  3. Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Expression of the K1 Polysaccharide Capsule of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Downregulation of the Capsule Genes during Growth in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jane E; Aal Owaif, Hasan A; Jia, Jia; Roberts, Ian S

    2015-07-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the major causative agent of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI). The K1 capsule on the surface of UPEC strains is a key virulence factor, and its expression may be important in the onset and progression of UTI. In order to understand capsule expression in more detail, we analyzed its expression in the UPEC strain UTI89 during growth in rich medium (LB medium) and urine and during infection of a bladder epithelial cell line. Comparison of capsule gene transcription using a chromosomal gfp reporter fusion showed a significant reduction in transcription during growth in urine compared to that during growth in LB medium. When examined at the single-cell level, following growth in both media, capsule gene expression appears to be heterogeneous, with two distinct green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing populations. Using anti-K1 antibody, we showed that this heterogeneity in gene expression results in two populations of encapsulated and unencapsulated cells. We demonstrated that the capsule hinders attachment to and invasion of epithelial cells and that the unencapsulated cells within the population preferentially adhere to and invade bladder epithelial cells. We found that once internalized, UTI89 starts to produce capsule to aid in its intracellular survival and spread. We propose that this observed phenotypic diversity in capsule expression is a fitness strategy used by the bacterium to deal with the constantly changing environment of the urinary tract. Copyright © 2015 King et al.

  4. CHOBS: Color Histogram of Block Statistics for Automatic Bleeding Detection in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Tonmoy; Fattah, Shaikh Anowarul; Wahid, Khan A

    2018-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is the most advanced technology to visualize whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract in a non-invasive way. But the major disadvantage here, it takes long reviewing time, which is very laborious as continuous manual intervention is necessary. In order to reduce the burden of the clinician, in this paper, an automatic bleeding detection method for WCE video is proposed based on the color histogram of block statistics, namely CHOBS. A single pixel in WCE image may be distorted due to the capsule motion in the GI tract. Instead of considering individual pixel values, a block surrounding to that individual pixel is chosen for extracting local statistical features. By combining local block features of three different color planes of RGB color space, an index value is defined. A color histogram, which is extracted from those index values, provides distinguishable color texture feature. A feature reduction technique utilizing color histogram pattern and principal component analysis is proposed, which can drastically reduce the feature dimension. For bleeding zone detection, blocks are classified using extracted local features that do not incorporate any computational burden for feature extraction. From extensive experimentation on several WCE videos and 2300 images, which are collected from a publicly available database, a very satisfactory bleeding frame and zone detection performance is achieved in comparison to that obtained by some of the existing methods. In the case of bleeding frame detection, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity obtained from proposed method are 97.85%, 99.47%, and 99.15%, respectively, and in the case of bleeding zone detection, 95.75% of precision is achieved. The proposed method offers not only low feature dimension but also highly satisfactory bleeding detection performance, which even can effectively detect bleeding frame and zone in a continuous WCE video data.

  5. Pulsed acoustic cellular expression (PACE) reduces capsule formation around silicone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Matthias A; Heimer, Sina; Lass, Ulrike; Germann, Günter; Köllensperger, Eva; Mueller, Wolf; Hirsch, Tobias; Fischer, Sebastian

    2014-02-01

    Capsular contracture remains a major complication after reconstructive or aesthetic breast augmentation. Formation of capsular fibrosis is a multifactorial process. An initial inflammatory reaction appears to be key to the development of capsular contracture. Recent studies have shown that pulsed acoustic cellular expression (PACE) has significant antiinflammatory effects. Thus, this study aimed to determine the potential of PACE to prevent or attenuate capsular contracture around silicone implants in a rodent model. For this study, 36 Lewis rats were divided into two groups, and a textured silicone implant was placed in a dorsal submuscular pocket. One group received PACE treatment, whereas the other group served as the control group and received no treatment. Follow-up evaluations were performed after 10, 35, and 100 days. Capsule thickness, collagen density, myofibroblasts, vascular density, and a semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction that addressed differential gene expression were assessed. The PACE treatment significantly reduced capsule thickness on days 10, 35, and 100 compared with the control group (day 10: 632.9 ± 164.5 vs 932.6 ± 160.8, p silicone implants. A decrease in capsular thickness after PACE treatment seems to be associated with a downregulation of proinflammatory genes and proteins. The study identifies PACE technology as a potential low-cost technique that is easy to use for reduction of capsular contracture after augmentation using silicone implants. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://www.springer.com/00266 .

  6. Learning to Diagnose Cirrhosis with Liver Capsule Guided Ultrasound Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a computer-aided cirrhosis diagnosis system to diagnose cirrhosis based on ultrasound images. We first propose a method to extract a liver capsule on an ultrasound image, then, based on the extracted liver capsule, we fine-tune a deep convolutional neural network (CNN model to extract features from the image patches cropped around the liver capsules. Finally, a trained support vector machine (SVM classifier is applied to classify the sample into normal or abnormal cases. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively extract the liver capsules and accurately classify the ultrasound images.

  7. Current evidence on physical therapy in patients with adhesive capsulitis: what are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Filip; Meeus, Mira

    2014-05-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is, in most cases, a self-limiting condition of poorly understood etiology that results in shoulder pain and large mobility deficits. The socio-economic burden will increase as with continuous aging of our population. In addition, both prevalence and incidence figures of adhesive capsulitis are increasing. No literature overview solely focuses on the physiotherapeutic options in patients with adhesive capsulitis and their scientific evidence. Moreover, although some physiotherapeutic interventions show evidence regarding reducing pain or increasing mobility, there is little evidence to suggest that the disease prognosis is affected and this raises the need for new, innovative research in the area of adhesive capsulitis and its treatment. By presenting its current evidence, we hope to retrieve several gaps in the present management of adhesive capsulitis by physiotherapists and provide us with new insights for improving the physiotherapists' policy in treating adhesive capsulitis patients, e.g., continuously increasing nociceptive impulse activity, as in early stages of adhesive capsulitis, could lead to peripheral and subsequently long-lasting central sensitization, as well as to an increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. But up to now the involvement of central sensitization in adhesive capsulitis has not been studied yet and remains speculative. Finally, when selecting a physical treatment method for adhesive capsulitis, it is extremely important to consider the patient's symptoms, stage of the condition, and recognition of different patterns of motion loss. Guidelines for clinical assessment will be presented in this scoping review.

  8. The prevalence of a diabetic condition and adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Connie B; Oakley, Ward S

    2008-06-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by a progressive and painful loss of shoulder motion of unknown etiology. Previous studies have found the prevalence of adhesive capsulitis to be slightly greater than 2% in the general population. However, the relationship between adhesive capsulitis and diabetes mellitus (DM) is well documented, with the incidence of adhesive capsulitis being two to four times higher in diabetics than in the general population. It affects about 20% of people with diabetes and has been described as the most disabling of the common musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes. Consented patients presenting with adhesive capsulitis reporting no history of DM had blood testing for diabetes and prediabetes. An anonymous database was analyzed for a diabetic condition. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with adhesive capsulitis was 38.6% (34 of 88). The prevalence of prediabetes was 32.95% (29 of 88). The total prevalence of a diabetic condition in patients with adhesive capsulitis was 71.5% (63 of 88). Previous literature fails to reveal the incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes, 2 of 88 (2%), and prediabetes, 25 of 88 (28.4%) in patients presenting with adhesive capsulitis. Early diagnosis and effective management of DM reduces the risk of microvascular complications. DM is believed to play a role in the development of musculoskeletal complications. Awareness of these findings alerts the practitioner to the risk of diabetes and prediabetes in patients presenting with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

  9. PhD Dissertation Proposal - Introduction to Dark Mix Concept: Gamma Measurements of Capsule Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meaney, Kevin Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-06

    Presentation slides: Intro to Inertial Confinement Fusion; Types of Mixture in ICF capsules; Previous mixture experiments; Dark Mix Concept; Measuring Dark Mix with Gamma Cherenkov Detector; Dissertation Outline.

  10. Inductive-Based Wireless Power Recharging System for an Innovative Endoscopic Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tortora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopic devices are adopted for painless diagnosis of cancer and other diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract as an alternative to traditional endoscopy. Although much work has been done to improve capsule performance in terms of active navigation, a major drawback is the limited available energy on board the capsule, usually provided by a battery. Another key shortcoming of active capsules is their limitation in terms of active functionalities and related costs. An inductive-based wireless recharging system for the development of an innovative capsule for colonoscopy is proposed in this paper; the aim is to provide fast off-line battery recovery for improving capsule lifecycle and thus reducing the cost of a single endoscopic procedure. The wireless recharging system has been properly designed to fit the dimensions of a capsule for colonoscopy but it can be applied to any biomedical devices to increase the number of times it can be used after proper sterilization. The current system is able to provide about 1 W power and is able to recharge the battery capsule in 20 min which is a reasonable time considering capsule operation time (10–15 min.

  11. [Exploring the clinical characters of Shugan Jieyu capsule through text mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zheng-Ping; Xia, Jiang-Ming; Xie, Wei; He, Jin-Cai

    2017-09-01

    The study was main to explore the clinical characters of Shugan Jieyu capsule through text mining. The data sets of Shugan Jieyu capsule were downloaded from CMCC database by the method of literature retrieved from May 2009 to Jan 2016. Rules of Chinese medical patterns, diseases, symptoms and combination treatment were mined out by data slicing algorithm, and they were demonstrated in frequency tables and two dimension based network. Then totally 190 literature were recruited. The outcomess suggested that SC was most frequently correlated with liver Qi stagnation. Primary depression, depression due to brain disease, concomitant depression followed by physical diseases, concomitant depression followed by schizophrenia and functional dyspepsia were main diseases treated by Shugan Jieyu capsule. Symptoms like low mood, psychic anxiety, somatic anxiety and dysfunction of automatic nerve were mainy relieved bv Shugan Jieyu capsule.For combination treatment. Shugan Jieyu capsule was most commonly used with paroxetine, sertraline and fluoxetine. The research suggested that syndrome types and mining results of Shugan Jieyu capsule were almost the same as its instructions. Syndrome of malnutrition of heart spirit was the potential Chinese medical pattern of Shugan Jieyu capsule. Primary comorbid anxiety and depression, concomitant comorbid anxiety and depression followed by physical diseases, and postpartum depression were potential diseases treated by Shugan Jieyu capsule.For combination treatment, Shugan Jieyu capsule was most commonly used with paroxetine, sertraline and fluoxetine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Effectiveness of corticosteroid injections in adhesive capsulitis of shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Mingmin; Zhou, Chenhe; Shi, Zhongli; Cai, Xunzi; Lin, Tiao; Yan, Shigui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Primary adhesive capsulitis is mainly characterized by spontaneous chronic shoulder pain and the gradual loss of shoulder motion. The main treatment for adhesive capsulitis is a trial of conservative therapies, including analgesia, exercise, physiotherapy, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammation drugs, and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Previously, it was reported that intra-articular corticosteroid lead to fast pain relief and improvement of range of motion (ROM). The objective of this study was to determine whether corticosteroid injections would lead to better pain relief and greater improvement in ROM. Methods: We searched PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane library. We included 5 articles of the 1166 articles identified. Totally injection group included 115 patients and placebo group included 110 patients. We calculated the weighted mean differences to evaluate the pain relief as the primary outcome. We determined the ROM as the secondary outcome. Study quality was evaluated using the 12-item scale. We also used the criteria of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation to evaluate the quality of evidence. Results: In total, 5 studies were included, 4 of which were randomized clinical trials, with a sample size of 225 patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulders. The overall pooled data demonstrated that, compared with placebo as control treatment, intra-articular corticosteroid injections were more effective in reducing the pain score at 0 to 8 weeks, but there was no difference between the injection group and the control group at 9 to 24 weeks. Improvement of ROM in the injection group was greater than that of the control group both at 0 to 8 and 9 to 24 weeks. Conclusions: Intra-articular corticosteroid injections were more effective in pain relief in the short term, but this pain relief did not sustain in the long term. Intra-articular corticosteroid injection resulted in greater improvement in

  13. Numerical simulation of weakly ionized hypersonic flow over reentry capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalabrin, Leonardo C.

    The mathematical and numerical formulation employed in the development of a new multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code for the simulation of weakly ionized hypersonic flows in thermo-chemical non-equilibrium over reentry configurations is presented. The flow is modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations modified to include finite-rate chemistry and relaxation rates to compute the energy transfer between different energy modes. The set of equations is solved numerically by discretizing the flowfield using unstructured grids made of any mixture of quadrilaterals and triangles in two-dimensions or hexahedra, tetrahedra, prisms and pyramids in three-dimensions. The partial differential equations are integrated on such grids using the finite volume approach. The fluxes across grid faces are calculated using a modified form of the Steger-Warming Flux Vector Splitting scheme that has low numerical dissipation inside boundary layers. The higher order extension of inviscid fluxes in structured grids is generalized in this work to be used in unstructured grids. Steady state solutions are obtained by integrating the solution over time implicitly. The resulting sparse linear system is solved by using a point implicit or by a line implicit method in which a tridiagonal matrix is assembled by using lines of cells that are formed starting at the wall. An algorithm that assembles these lines using completely general unstructured grids is developed. The code is parallelized to allow simulation of computationally demanding problems. The numerical code is successfully employed in the simulation of several hypersonic entry flows over space capsules as part of its validation process. Important quantities for the aerothermodynamics design of capsules such as aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates are compared to available experimental and flight test data and other numerical results yielding very good agreement. A sensitivity analysis of predicted radiative

  14. Wireless capsule endoscopy as a tool in diagnosing autoimmune enteropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Kampmann, Eva-Marie; Lillevang, Søren T; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune enteropathy (AE) is an immune mediated illness of the intestinal mucosa. The cause is unknown, and the diagnosis is based on typical characteristics displayed. There is no gold standard for treatment. We present two adult cases of AE and demonstrate the challenges in establishing...... the diagnosis. The extensive diagnostic work up excluded other more common causes of protracted diarrhoea. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) displayed universal small intestinal mucosal damage with shortened villi that led to the suspicion of AE in both patients. The diagnosis was confirmed with microscopy....... Use of WCE as a diagnostic tool was invaluable in establishing the diagnosis of AE....

  15. Clinical evaluation of arthroscopic treatment of shoulder adhesive capsulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Santos, Pedro Doneux; Silva, Luciana Andrade; Sella, Guilherme do Val; Carrenho, Leonardo; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of arthroscopic releases performed in patients with adhesive capsulitis refractory to conservative treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, conducted between 1996 and 2012, which included 56 shoulders (52 patients) that underwent surgery; 38 were female, and 28 had the dominant side affected. The mean age was 51 (29-73) years. The mean follow-up was 65 (12-168) months and the mean preoperative time was 8.9 (2-24) months. According to ...

  16. A reflux capsule steam generator for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantz, E.

    Pressurized water reactor plants at numerous sites have sustained significant leakage through their steam generators. The consequent shutdowns for repairs and replacements have damaged their economics. This experience suggests that if steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) continue to be built as presently designed some of them will have similar problems. Because of their larger capital investment, the consequent damage to the economics of LMFBR's could be more serious. Reflux capsules provide a way to separate sodium from water and to reduce thermal stresses in steam generators for sodium cooled reactors. Their use would also eliminate the need for a primary heat exchanger and a secondary sodium loop pump. (author)

  17. Small-bowel neoplasms in patients undergoing video capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rondonotti, E; Pennazio, M; Toth, E

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Small-bowel tumors account for 1% - 3% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Recent studies with video capsule endoscopy (VCE) suggest that the frequency of these tumors may be substantially higher than previously reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency...... of the neoplasm seen in 29 centers of 10 European Countries. RESULTS: Of 5129 patients undergoing VCE, 124 (2.4%) had small-bowel tumors (112 primary, 12 metastatic). Among these patients, indications for VCE were: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (108 patients), abdominal pain (9), search for primary neoplasm...

  18. Analysis of lomustine drug content in FDA-approved and compounded lomustine capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuKanich, Butch; Warner, Matt; Hahn, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the lomustine content (potency) in compounded and FDA-approved lomustine capsules. DESIGN Evaluation study. SAMPLE 2 formulations of lomustine capsules (low dose [7 to 11 mg] and high dose [40 to 48 mg]; 5 capsules/dose/source) from 3 compounders and from 1 manufacturer of FDA-approved capsules. PROCEDURES Lomustine content was measured by use of a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. An a priori acceptable range of 90% to 110% of the stated lomustine content was selected on the basis of US Pharmacopeia guidelines. RESULTS The measured amount of lomustine in all compounded capsules was less than the stated content (range, 59% to 95%) and was frequently outside the acceptable range (failure rate, 2/5 to 5/5). Coefficients of variation for lomustine content ranged from 4.1% to 16.7% for compounded low-dose capsules and from 1.1% to 10.8% for compounded high-dose capsules. The measured amount of lomustine in all FDA-approved capsules was slightly above the stated content (range, 104% to 110%) and consistently within the acceptable range. Coefficients of variation for lomustine content were 0.5% for low-dose and 2.3% for high-dose FDA-approved capsules. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Compounded lomustine frequently did not contain the stated content of active drug and had a wider range of lomustine content variability than did the FDA-approved product. The sample size was small, and larger studies are needed to confirm these findings; however, we recommend that compounded veterinary formulations of lomustine not be used when appropriate doses can be achieved with FDA-approved capsules or combinations of FDA-approved capsules.

  19. Magnesium ion acts as a signal for capsule induction in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Singh Rathore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, is a common opportunistic neural infection in immunocompromised individuals. Cryptococcus meningitis is associated with fungal burden with larger capsule size in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. To understand the role of CSF constituents in capsule enlargement, we have evaluated the effect of artificial CSF on capsule induction in comparison with various other capsule inducing media. Two different strains of C.neoformans, an environmental and a clinical isolates were used in the present study. While comparing the various capsule inducing media for the two different strains of C.neoformans, it was observed that the capsule growth was significantly increased when grown in artificial CSF at pH 5.5, temperature 34°C for ATCC C.neoformans and 37°C for Clinical C.neoformans and with an incubation period of 72 h. In addition, artificial CSF supports biofilm formation in C.neoformans. While investigating the individual components of artificial CSF, we found that Mg2+ ions influence the capsule growth in both environmental and clinical strains of C.neoformans. To confirm our results we studied the expression of four major CAP genes namely, CAP10, CAP59, CAP60 and CAP64 in various capsule inducing media and in different concentrations of Mg 2+ and Ca2+. Our results on gene expression suggest that, Mg2+ does have an effect on CAP gene expression, which are important for capsule biosynthesis and virulence. Our findings on the role of Mg2+ ion as a signal for capsule induction will promote a way to elucidate the control mechanisms for capsule biosynthesis in C.neoformans.

  20. Capsule endoscopy in acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralnek, I M; Ching, J Y L; Maza, I; Wu, J C Y; Rainer, T H; Israelit, S; Klein, A; Chan, F K L; Ephrath, H; Eliakim, R; Peled, R; Sung, J J Y

    2013-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy may play a role in the evaluation of patients presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the emergency department. We evaluated adults with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage presenting to the emergency departments of two academic centers. Patients ingested a wireless video capsule, which was followed immediately by a nasogastric tube aspiration and later by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). We compared capsule endoscopy with nasogastric tube aspiration for determination of the presence of blood, and with EGD for discrimination of the source of bleeding, identification of peptic/inflammatory lesions, safety, and patient satisfaction. The study enrolled 49 patients (32 men, 17 women; mean age 58.3 ± 19 years), but three patients did not complete the capsule endoscopy and five were intolerant of the nasogastric tube. Blood was detected in the upper gastrointestinal tract significantly more often by capsule endoscopy (15 /18 [83.3 %]) than by nasogastric tube aspiration (6 /18 [33.3 %]; P = 0.035). There was no significant difference in the identification of peptic/inflammatory lesions between capsule endoscopy (27 /40 [67.5 %]) and EGD (35 /40 [87.5 %]; P = 0.10, OR 0.39 95 %CI 0.11 - 1.15). Capsule endoscopy reached the duodenum in 45 /46 patients (98 %). One patient (2.2 %) had self-limited shortness of breath and one (2.2 %) had coughing on capsule ingestion. In an emergency department setting, capsule endoscopy appears feasible and safe in people presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Capsule endoscopy identifies gross blood in the upper gastrointestinal tract, including the duodenum, significantly more often than nasogastric tube aspiration and identifies inflammatory lesions, as well as EGD. Capsule endoscopy may facilitate patient triage and earlier endoscopy, but should not be considered a substitute for EGD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Hydrocolloid liquid-core capsules for the removal of heavy-metal cations from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussinovitch, A., E-mail: amos.nussi@mail.huji.ac.il; Dagan, O.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Novel liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate core were produced. • Capsules demonstrated highest efficiency adsorption of ∼300 mg Pb{sup 2+}/g alginate. • Regeneration was carried out by suspending capsules in 1 M HNO{sub 3} for 24 h. • Adsorption capacities of the capsules followed the order: Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+}. - Abstract: Liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate fluidic core surrounded by a gellan membrane were produced in a single step to investigate their ability to adsorb heavy metal cations. The liquid-core gellan–alginate capsules, produced by dropping alginate solution with magnesium cations into gellan solution, were extremely efficient at adsorbing lead cations (267 mg Pb{sup 2+}/g dry alginate) at 25 °C and pH 5.5. However, these capsules were very weak and brittle, and an external strengthening capsule was added by using magnesium cations. The membrane was then thinned with the surfactant lecithin, producing capsules with better adsorption attributes (316 mg Pb{sup +2}/g dry alginate vs. 267 mg Pb{sup +2}/g dry alginate without lecithin), most likely due to the thinner membrane and enhanced mass transfer. The capsules’ ability to adsorb other heavy-metal cations – copper (Cu{sup 2+}), cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) and nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) – was tested. Adsorption efficiencies were 219, 197 and 65 mg/g, respectively, and were correlated with the cation’s affinity to alginate. Capsules with the sorbed heavy metals were regenerated by placing in a 1 M nitric acid suspension for 24 h. Capsules could undergo three regeneration cycles before becoming damaged.

  2. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-04-16

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world's population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumbricoides infection, potentially leading to even more serious consequences such as small bowel perforation and peritonitis. Diagnosis is based primarily on stool samples and the patient's history. Early diagnosis, aided in part by knowledge of the local prevalence, can result in early treatment, thereby preventing surgical complications associated with intestinal obstruction. Further, delay in diagnosis may have fatal consequences. Capsule endoscopy can serve as a crucial, non-invasive diagnostic tool for A. lumbricoides infection, especially when other diagnostic methods have failed to detect the parasite. We report a case of A. lumbricoides infection that resulted in intestinal obstruction at the level of the ileum. Both stool sample examination and open surgery failed to indicate the presence of A. lumbricoides, and the cause of the obstruction was only revealed by capsule endoscopy. The patient was treated with anthelmintics.

  3. Theoretical study of symmetry of flux onto a capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hao; Wu, Changshu; Zou, Shiyang, E-mail: duan-hao@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Pei, Wenbing [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-09-15

    An analytic model to describe the flux asymmetry onto a capsule based on the viewfactor approximation is developed and verified with numerical simulations. By using a nested spheres technique to represent the various sources of flux asymmetry, the model can treat spherically and cylindrically symmetric hohlraums, e.g., cylinder, elliptic, and rugby. This approach includes the more realistic case of frequency-dependent flux asymmetry compared with the more standard frequency-integrated or single-frequency approaches [D. W. Phillion and S. M. Pollaine, Phys. Plasmas 1, 2963 (1994)]. Correspondingly, the approach can be used to assess x-ray preheat asymmetry generated from localized laser absorption in the high-Z hohlraum wall. For spherical hohlraums with 4, 6, or 8 laser entrance holes (LEHs), an optimal configuration of LEHs, laser spot placement, and angle-of-incidence of the single-ringed laser beams is defined. An analogy between minimizing the flux asymmetry onto a capsule and the Thomson problem of point charge placement on a sphere for minimized energy is shown.

  4. Theoretical study of symmetry of flux onto a capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Hao; Wu, Changshu; Zou, Shiyang; Pei, Wenbing

    2015-01-01

    An analytic model to describe the flux asymmetry onto a capsule based on the viewfactor approximation is developed and verified with numerical simulations. By using a nested spheres technique to represent the various sources of flux asymmetry, the model can treat spherically and cylindrically symmetric hohlraums, e.g., cylinder, elliptic, and rugby. This approach includes the more realistic case of frequency-dependent flux asymmetry compared with the more standard frequency-integrated or single-frequency approaches [D. W. Phillion and S. M. Pollaine, Phys. Plasmas 1, 2963 (1994)]. Correspondingly, the approach can be used to assess x-ray preheat asymmetry generated from localized laser absorption in the high-Z hohlraum wall. For spherical hohlraums with 4, 6, or 8 laser entrance holes (LEHs), an optimal configuration of LEHs, laser spot placement, and angle-of-incidence of the single-ringed laser beams is defined. An analogy between minimizing the flux asymmetry onto a capsule and the Thomson problem of point charge placement on a sphere for minimized energy is shown

  5. Isokinetic characteristics of shoulder rotators in patients with adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Li, Jing-Sheng; Lo, Sui-Foon; Shih, Yi-Fen; Lo, Chen-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ya

    2009-06-01

    To demonstrate the muscle strength characteristics of shoulder internal and external rotators and the effects of isokinetic exercise on muscle activity in patients with adhesive capsulitis. Cohort study with control subjects. Eight patients with adhesive capsulitis and 8 controls. Maximal isometric and isokinetic strength tests of shoulder internal and external rotators in the scapular plane were carried out. Muscle activities of the rotators were recorded in resting and during maximal isometrics. Muscle strength variables (peak torque, total work and power) and myoelectric variables (resting root-mean-square amplitude pre- and post-tests and the external-internal rotator co-activity in resting and during isometric contractions) were recorded. A mixed repeated-measure analysis of variance test was used to examine the within-group and between-group differences. For affected shoulders, smaller isometric average torque of internal rotators and high-speed peak torque, total work and power of external rotator were observed. The external/internal rotator ratio of peak torque in high-speed testing also exhibited significant decrease. The myoelectric variables showed no significant changes. High-speed external rotator strength and isometric internal rotator strength of the affected shoulders were decreased significantly. Isokinetic exercise may not increase the resting muscle activities and co-activity. These results provide a reference in planning muscle strengthening programmes and goals for these patients.

  6. Simulation of instability growth on ICF capsule ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niasse, Nicolas; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    It is believed that the ablation-front instabilities are mainly responsible for the hot-spot mix that impacts the performance of ICF capsules. Understanding the formation of these instabilities is therefore a first step towards a better control of the implosion dynamics and the optimization of the fusion yield. Using the Chimera code currently in development at Imperial College, we have performed several spherical wedge simulations of the low and high adiabat ablation phase pre-imposing different single-mode 2D and 3D perturbations on the capsule surface. Synthetic Sc, Fe and V X-ray backlighter images are generated by the Spk code and used to measure the growth of modes 30-160 with initial amplitude <= 3.4 μm PTV. The growth of imposed 2D perturbations is assessed for both low-foot and high-foot radiation pulse shapes on the National Ignition Facility. Results showing the merger of spike and bubble structures in multi-mode perturbations in both 2D and 3D simulations are explored and preliminary assessments of the difference between 2D and 3D non-linear behaviour is discussed. The sensitivity of shock timing to NLTE changes in opacity is also assessed.

  7. Theoretical study of symmetry of flux onto a capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hao; Wu, Changshu; Pei, Wenbing; Zou, Shiyang

    2015-09-01

    An analytic model to describe the flux asymmetry onto a capsule based on the viewfactor approximation is developed and verified with numerical simulations. By using a nested spheres technique to represent the various sources of flux asymmetry, the model can treat spherically and cylindrically symmetric hohlraums, e.g., cylinder, elliptic, and rugby. This approach includes the more realistic case of frequency-dependent flux asymmetry compared with the more standard frequency-integrated or single-frequency approaches [D. W. Phillion and S. M. Pollaine, Phys. Plasmas 1, 2963 (1994)]. Correspondingly, the approach can be used to assess x-ray preheat asymmetry generated from localized laser absorption in the high-Z hohlraum wall. For spherical hohlraums with 4, 6, or 8 laser entrance holes (LEHs), an optimal configuration of LEHs, laser spot placement, and angle-of-incidence of the single-ringed laser beams is defined. An analogy between minimizing the flux asymmetry onto a capsule and the Thomson problem of point charge placement on a sphere for minimized energy is shown.

  8. Performance of HTGR fuel in HFIR capsule HT-33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Robbins, J.M.

    1979-06-01

    Irradiation capsule HT-33 was a cooperative effort between General Atomic Company (GA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this capsule ThO 2 particles (fabricated by GA), low-enriched uranium particles, inert carbon particles, and various fuel rod matrices were tested under accelerated irradiation in the High-Flux Isotope Reactor. Visual examination showed good irradiation behavior for fuel rods with slug-injected matrices (using a pitch binder) and warm-molded matrices (using a thermosetting resin binder). Rod debonding improved somewhat with fuel rods that used GLCC H-451 ground graphite shim particles rather than Speer fluid coke shim particles. Measurements of permeability (by inert gas intrusion) of the pyrocarbon on the inert particles showed that the disorder created by the neutron flux did not increase the inert gas permeability. Metallographic examination of Triso-coated particles irradiated both with and without an outer pyrocarbon coating revealed that the outer coating is necessary to suppress SiC degradation at temperatures above approximately 1375 0 C. The fission product behavior (determined by the electron microprobe) was similar in both low-enriched and high-enriched uranium particles made from weak-acid resins. Furthermore, fission product palladium caused severe SiC corrosion at time-averaged temperatures above 1400 0 C

  9. Generic feature learning for wireless capsule endoscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí, Santi; Drozdzal, Michal; Pascual, Guillem; Radeva, Petia; Malagelada, Carolina; Azpiroz, Fernando; Vitrià, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    The interpretation and analysis of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) recordings is a complex task which requires sophisticated computer aided decision (CAD) systems to help physicians with video screening and, finally, with the diagnosis. Most CAD systems used in capsule endoscopy share a common system design, but use very different image and video representations. As a result, each time a new clinical application of WCE appears, a new CAD system has to be designed from the scratch. This makes the design of new CAD systems very time consuming. Therefore, in this paper we introduce a system for small intestine motility characterization, based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks, which circumvents the laborious step of designing specific features for individual motility events. Experimental results show the superiority of the learned features over alternative classifiers constructed using state-of-the-art handcrafted features. In particular, it reaches a mean classification accuracy of 96% for six intestinal motility events, outperforming the other classifiers by a large margin (a 14% relative performance increase). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Positron Radiography of Ignition-Relevant ICF Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jackson; Chen, Hui; Field, John; Landen, Nino; Strozzi, David

    2017-10-01

    X-ray and neutron radiography are currently used to infer residual ICF shell and fuel asymmetries and areal density non-uniformities near and at peak compression that can impede ignition. Charged particles offer an alternative probe source that, in principle, are capable of radiographing the shell shape and areal density at arbitrary times, even in the presence of large x-ray self-emission. Laser-generated positrons are evaluated as a source to radiograph ICF capsules where current ultraintense laser facilities are capable of producing 2 ×1012 relativistic positrons in a narrow energy bandwidth and short duration. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that both the areal density and shell radius can be reconstructed for ignition-relevant capsules conditions between 0.002-2 g/cm2, and that this technique might be better suited to direct-drive. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LDRD Program under project tracking code 17-ERD-010.

  11. Gamma-based Measurement of ``Dark Mix'' in ICF Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Kevin; Herrmann, H.; Kim, Yh; Zylstra, Ab; Geppert-Kleinrath, H.; Hoffman, Nm; Yi, As

    2017-10-01

    Mix of capsule ablator material into the fusion fuel is a source of yield degradation in inertial confinement fusion. Jetting or chunk mix, such as the elusive ``meteors'' that have been observed at NIF, can be difficult to diagnose because the chunks may not get hot enough to excite dopant x-rays, nor atomized enough for separated-reactants to fuse. Using the gamma reaction history (GRH-6m) diagnostic, (n,n') gammas from strategically placed carbon layer within a beryllium capsule gives a measure of the time-resolved areal density of this carbon during the burn and hence an indication of the compression and spatial distribution of this layer. As the carbon moves further from the fuel, the areal density nominally decreases as 1/r2 for unablated material. However, mix of this carbon into the cold dense fuel layer or hot spot will have a significant effect on the carbon gamma signal. Different types of mix (e.g., jetting, Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, diffusive, ...) as well as features that can seed this mix (eg., tents, fill,...) will be discussed along with their expected effect on the carbon signal. The design for upcoming OMEGA shots, which will demonstrate this technique, and the potential for use on the NIF will be presented.

  12. Reduction of capsule endoscopy reading times by unsupervised image mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovidis, D K; Tsevas, S; Polydorou, A

    2010-09-01

    The screening of the small intestine has become painless and easy with wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) that is a revolutionary, relatively non-invasive imaging technique performed by a wireless swallowable endoscopic capsule transmitting thousands of video frames per examination. The average time required for the visual inspection of a full 8-h WCE video ranges from 45 to 120min, depending on the experience of the examiner. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to WCE reading time reduction by unsupervised mining of video frames. The proposed methodology is based on a data reduction algorithm which is applied according to a novel scheme for the extraction of representative video frames from a full length WCE video. It can be used either as a video summarization or as a video bookmarking tool, providing the comparative advantage of being general, unbounded by the finiteness of a training set. The number of frames extracted is controlled by a parameter that can be tuned automatically. Comprehensive experiments on real WCE videos indicate that a significant reduction in the reading times is feasible. In the case of the WCE videos used this reduction reached 85% without any loss of abnormalities.

  13. Light-Responsive Polymer Micro- and Nano-Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marturano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant amount of academic and industrial research efforts are devoted to the encapsulation of active substances within micro- or nanocarriers. The ultimate goal of core–shell systems is the protection of the encapsulated substance from the environment, and its controlled and targeted release. This can be accomplished by employing “stimuli-responsive” materials as constituents of the capsule shell. Among a wide range of factors that induce the release of the core material, we focus herein on the light stimulus. In polymers, this feature can be achieved introducing a photo-sensitive segment, whose activation leads to either rupture or modification of the diffusive properties of the capsule shell, allowing the delivery of the encapsulated material. Micro- and nano-encapsulation techniques are constantly spreading towards wider application fields, and many different active molecules have been encapsulated, such as additives for food-packaging, pesticides, dyes, pharmaceutics, fragrances and flavors or cosmetics. Herein, a review on the latest and most challenging polymer-based micro- and nano-sized hollow carriers exhibiting a light-responsive release behavior is presented. A special focus is put on systems activated by wavelengths less harmful for living organisms (mainly in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared range, as well as on different preparation techniques, namely liposomes, self-assembly, layer-by-layer, and interfacial polymerization.

  14. Motion analysis for duplicate frame removal in wireless capsule endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Choi, Min-Kook; Lee, Sang-Chul

    2011-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been intensively researched recently due to its convenience for diagnosis and extended detection coverage of some diseases. Typically, a full recording covering entire human digestive system requires about 8 to 12 hours for a patient carrying a capsule endoscope and a portable image receiver/recorder unit, which produces 120,000 image frames on average. In spite of the benefits of close examination, WCE based test has a barrier for quick diagnosis such that a trained diagnostician must examine a huge amount of images for close investigation, normally over 2 hours. The main purpose of our work is to present a novel machine vision approach to reduce diagnosis time by automatically detecting duplicated recordings caused by backward camera movement, typically containing redundant information, in small intestine. The developed technique could be integrated with a visualization tool which supports intelligent inspection method, such as automatic play speed control. Our experimental result shows high accuracy of the technique by detecting 989 duplicate image frames out of 10,000, equivalently to 9.9% data reduction, in a WCE video from a real human subject. With some selected parameters, we achieved the correct detection ratio of 92.85% and the false detection ratio of 13.57%.

  15. Capsule-type pe biogas digester: low-cost and environment friendly system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Khan, M.A.; Aslam, M.; Hussain, Z.

    2005-01-01

    production. The other prevailing problem with the commonly used biogas digester is that the gas pressure is low. In the PE Capsule-type digester, gas is stored in the used rubber tubes, where putting load on the tubes can easily increase the gas pressure. Thus pressure of the gas can be maintained very effectively. Adding inoculums of the methogenic bacteria can increase the production of the gas. Lime has to be added to increase the pH, because methogenic bacteria are effective in neutral to alkaline environment, instead of the acidic environment, which is commonly experienced after adding solid waste into the digester. Temperature is another important parameter for enhancing productivity of biogas. The system is cost-effective, as the total cost is around Rs. 10,000 for a unit producing gas to light a single burner for 40-100 hours. The technology transfer will be easy, as the private plastic companies can market such systems more effectively than the public sector. Four modules of this system more can be installed with the cost of one Indian-type model. (author)

  16. Microencapsulation: concepts, mechanisms, methods and some applications in food technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Teixeira da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a process in which active substances are coated by extremely small capsules. It is a new technology that has been used in the cosmetics industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and food industries, being used in flavors, acids, oils, vitamins, microorganisms, among others. The success of this technology is due to the correct choice of the wall material, the core release form and the encapsulation method. Therefore, in this review, some relevant microencapsulation aspects, such as the capsule, wall material, core release forms, encapsulation methods and their use in food technology will be briefly discussed.

  17. Developing assessment system for wireless capsule endoscopy videos based on event detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-ju; Yasen, Wisam; Lee, Jeongkyu; Lee, Dongha; Kim, Yongho

    2009-02-01

    Along with the advancing of technology in wireless and miniature camera, Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE), the combination of both, enables a physician to diagnose patient's digestive system without actually perform a surgical procedure. Although WCE is a technical breakthrough that allows physicians to visualize the entire small bowel noninvasively, the video viewing time takes 1 - 2 hours. This is very time consuming for the gastroenterologist. Not only it sets a limit on the wide application of this technology but also it incurs considerable amount of cost. Therefore, it is important to automate such process so that the medical clinicians only focus on interested events. As an extension from our previous work that characterizes the motility of digestive tract in WCE videos, we propose a new assessment system for energy based events detection (EG-EBD) to classify the events in WCE videos. For the system, we first extract general features of a WCE video that can characterize the intestinal contractions in digestive organs. Then, the event boundaries are identified by using High Frequency Content (HFC) function. The segments are classified into WCE event by special features. In this system, we focus on entering duodenum, entering cecum, and active bleeding. This assessment system can be easily extended to discover more WCE events, such as detailed organ segmentation and more diseases, by using new special features. In addition, the system provides a score for every WCE image for each event. Using the event scores, the system helps a specialist to speedup the diagnosis process.

  18. Ultrasound-guided interventional release of rotator interval and posteroinferior capsule for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder using a specially designed needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kang; Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Choi, Kyung-Man; Lee, Yong-Seung

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a common but poorly understood disorder of the shoulder. Various treatments have been developed to manage this condition, but the efficacy of these treatments is controversial. We developed an ultrasound-guided, minimally invasive interventional technique to manage adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder using a specially designed needle. To describe the methodological approach of our intervention. Technical report. Pain management clinic. Thirteen participants with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder underwent ultrasound-guided interventional release of the rotator interval and posteroinferior capsule using a specially designed curved Round Needle. A convex ultrasound probe was placed along the oblique coronal plane over the supraspinatus muscle and acromion. Under ultrasonographic guidance, the needle was passed through the supraspinatus muscle and superior labrum and reached the rotator interval. It was moved forward and backward until no resistance was felt. After finishing the rotator interval release, the needle was inserted toward the posteroinferior capsule. While the operator released the adhesion in the posteroinferior capsule by moving the needle forward and backward, an assistant gradually abducted the shoulder. When full abduction of the affected shoulder was achieved, the intervention was completed.   Following our intervention, significant improvements in pain levels, glenohumeral range of motion, and Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores were attained at follow-up. Technical report only. Efficacy of this technique is beyond the scope of the article. Ultrasound-guided interventional release of the rotator interval and posteroinferior capsule appears to have clinical significance in the management of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

  19. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a barrier...

  20. Improved Water Barrier Properties of Calcium Alginate Capsules Modified by Silicone Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Zukas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium alginate films generally offer poor diffusion resistance to water. In this study, we present a technique for encapsulating aqueous drops in a modified calcium alginate membrane made from an emulsion of silicone oil and aqueous alginate solution and explore its effect on the loss of water from the capsule cores. The capsule membrane storage modulus increases as the initial concentration of oil in the emulsion is increased. The water barrier properties of the fabricated capsules were determined by observing the mass loss of capsules in a controlled environment. It was found that capsules made with emulsions containing 50 wt% silicone oil were robust while taking at least twice the time to dry completely as compared to capsules made from only an aqueous alginate solution. The size of the oil droplets in the emulsion also has an effect on the water barrier properties of the fabricated capsules. This study demonstrates a facile method of producing aqueous core alginate capsules with a modified membrane that improves the diffusion resistance to water and can have a wide range of applications.

  1. Effects of plasma physics on capsule implosions in gas-filled hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindman, E.L.; Delamater, N.D.; Magelssen, G.R.; Hauer, A.

    1994-10-01

    Initial experiments on capsule implosions in gas-filled hohlraums have been carried out on the NOVA Laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Observed capsule shapes from preliminary experiments are more oblate than predicted. Improvements in modeling required to calculate these experiments and additional experiments are being pursued.

  2. Deformation of ovalbumin-alginate capsules in a T-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häner, Edgar; Juel, Anne

    2015-11-01

    We study experimentally the flow-induced deformation of liquid-filled ovalbumin-alginate capsules in a T-junction. In applications, capsules/cells often negotiate branched networks with junctions thus experiencing large deformations. We investigate the constant volume-flux viscous flow of buoyancy-neutral thin-walled capsules close to the centreline of rectangular channels, by comparison to near-rigid gelled beads. The motion of the capsules in straight channels scales with the capillary number - the ration of viscous to elastic forces. However, the effect of elastic deformation on the motion is sufficiently weak that a rigid sphere model predicts the velocity of capsules with diameters of up to 70% of that of the channel to within 5%. In the T-junction, systematic selection of daughter channel (right-left) occurs outside a finite region around the channel centreline, by contrast with near-rigid gelled beads, where the actual centreline is the separator. We quantify the behaviour of capsules in terms of their longitudinal stretching (up to a factor of three without rupture). We show the large range of deformations encountered can be applied to the measurement of the elastic properties of capsules as well as to the geometric-induced sorting and manipulation of capsules.

  3. Acromioclavicular joint pain in patients with adhesive capsulitis: a prospective outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anakwenze, Oke A; Hsu, Jason E; Kim, Jae S; Abboud, Joseph A

    2011-09-09

    Diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis is a clinical diagnosis based on history and physical examination. Afflicted patients exhibit active and passive loss of motion in all planes and a positive capsular stretch sign. The effect of adhesive capsulitis on acromioclavicular biomechanics leading to tenderness has not been documented in the literature. This study reports on the incidence of acromioclavicular tenderness in the presence of adhesive capsulitis. Furthermore, we note the natural history of such acromioclavicular joint pain in relation to that of adhesive capsulitis. Over a 2-year period (2005-2007), 84 patients undergoing initial evaluation for adhesive capsulitis were prospectively examined with the use of validated outcome measures and physical examination. Acromioclavicular joint tenderness results were compared and analyzed on initial evaluation and final follow-up of at least 1 year. Forty-eight patients (57%) with adhesive capsulitis had acromioclavicular joint pain on examination. At final follow-up, as range of motion improved, a significant increase in American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons/Penn shoulder score and decrease in number of patients with acromioclavicular pain was noted with only 6 patients with residual pain (Padhesive capsulitis, there is not only compensatory scapulothoracic motion but also acromioclavicular motion. This often results in transient symptoms at the acromioclavicular joint, which abate as the frozen shoulder resolves and glenohumeral motion improves. This is important to recognize to avoid unnecessary invasive treatment of the acromioclavicular joint when the patient presents with adhesive capsulitis. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Visual quality inspection of capsule heads utilizing shape and gray information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Tie; Cai, Zhenlin; Jiang, Nan; Wu, Jiamei; Zhang, Xiangde

    2015-11-01

    Capsule quality inspection is important and necessary in the pharmaceutical industry. The popular methods often mis-detect capsule head defects. To solve this problem, we propose a high-quality visual defect inspection method for capsule heads. In detail, first, capsule head images are captured by high-speed cameras with ring illuminators. Then, radial symmetry transform (RST) is employed to locate region of interest (ROI). Next, the ROI image is enhanced by homomorphic filter and binarized by basic global thresholding. After that, six discriminative features of ROI are extracted, which are skeleton feature, binary density, number of connected boundaries, RST power, mean, and variance. Finally, these features are classified by support vector machine to inspect the quality of the capsule head. The experiment is carried out on a self-established capsule image database, Northeastern University Capsule Image Database Version 1.0. According to our experiment, the proposed method can detect ROI correctly for all of the capsule head images and inspection accuracy achieves a true positive rate of 100.00% and true negative rate of 100.00%.

  5. TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan as appliance for the preparation of hard capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yuying; Zhao, Huiying; Liu, Xianwu; Li, Zusen; Liu, Bin; Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan (OKGM) was developed as new material for preparing vegetarian hard capsules. OKGM of different degrees of oxidation: DO30%, DO50%, and DO80% were prepared to select optimum DO for capsule formation. FT-IR results proved that the primary alcohol groups on KGM were

  6. Development and Testing of a Magnetically Actuated Capsule Endoscopy for Obesity Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Nho Do

    Full Text Available Intra-gastric balloons (IGB have become an efficient and less invasive method for obesity treatment. The use of traditional IGBs require complex insertion tools and flexible endoscopes to place and remove the balloon inside the patient's stomach, which may cause discomfort and complications to the patient. This paper introduces a new ingestible weight-loss capsule with a magnetically remote-controlled inflatable and deflatable balloon. To inflate the balloon, biocompatible effervescent chemicals are used. As the source of the actuation is provided via external magnetic fields, the magnetic capsule size can be significantly reduced compared to current weight-loss capsules in the literature. In addition, there are no limitations on the power supply. To lose weight, the obese subject needs only to swallow the magnetic capsule with a glass of water. Once the magnetic capsule has reached the patient's stomach, the balloon will be wirelessly inflated to occupy gastric space and give the feeling of satiety. The balloon can be wirelessly deflated at any time to allow the magnetic capsule to travel down the intestine and exit the body via normal peristalsis. The optimal ratio between the acid and base to provide the desired gas volume is experimentally evaluated and presented. A prototype capsule (9.6mm x 27mm is developed and experimentally validated in ex-vivo experiments. The unique ease of delivery and expulsion of the proposed magnetic capsule is slated to make this development a good treatment option for people seeking to lose excess weight.

  7. Evaluation of capsule endoscopy to detect mucosal lesions associated with gastrointestinal bleeding in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davignon, D L; Lee, A C Y; Johnston, A N; Bowman, D D; Simpson, K W

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the utility of capsule endoscopy to detect mucosal abnormalities in dogs with gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Capsules were administered to 2 healthy controls and 8 patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Images were evaluated for quality, gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time and presence of lesions. There were no adverse effects of capsule endoscopy in dogs weighing from 7·7 to 58 kg. The capsule traversed the entire gastrointestinal tract in 5 of 8 patients, with high quality images obtained in the stomach and small intestine. Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time ranged from 1 to 270 and 15 to 180 minutes, respectively. In 3 of 8 patients, the capsule remained in the stomach despite pro-kinetics. Gastric lesions included mild haemorrhage and pinpoint erosion (4 of 8), a mass (1) and thickened bleeding pyloric mucosa (2). Two of 3 dogs with capsule retention had gastric lesions. Intestinal lesions included a healing duodenal ulcer, abnormal villi, ileal ulceration and colonic bleeding. Lesions identified by capsule endoscopy were considered a significant source of haemorrhage in 4 of 7 dogs with active bleeding. The relevance of pinpoint gastric mucosal erosions to blood loss is unclear. Capsule endoscopy can enable the non-invasive detection of gastric and small intestinal mucosal lesions in dogs presenting for evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Potential of sago starch/carrageenan mixture as gelatin alternative for hard capsule material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana Dewi; Pranoto, Yudi; Anggraheni, Frida Dwi; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso

    2017-03-01

    In order to replace gelatin in capsule shell production, blends of sago starch and carrageenan were developed. Films and capsules were prepared with 10% (w/v) of sago starch, 25% (w/w starch) of glycerol and various carrageenan concentration (1, 2, 3% w/w starch) in two different kappa/iota-carrageenan ratio (1:3 and 3:1). The resulted films and capsules were characterized by mechanical property, water vapor and oxygen permeability. In addition, moisture absorption and solubility of capsule in acid solution were investigated. The results reveal that addition of carrageenan makes the films stronger and less permeable. Higher kappa-carrageenan content improved tensile strength and barrier properties of the films, whereas higher iota-carrageenan content produced films with higher elongation, moisture absorption and capsule solubility in acid solution. Capsule with 2% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa-/iota-ratio 3:1 had the lowest moisture absorption, whereas capsule with 3% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa/iota ratio 1:3 had the highest solubility. It is illustrated that sago starch/carrageenan blends can be used as hard capsule material.

  9. Wireless Capsule Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Based Localization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Shi, Fuqian; Sherratt, R Simon

    2017-01-01

    One of the significant challenges in capsule endoscopy (CE) is to precisely determine the pathologies location. The localization process is primarily estimated using the received signal strength (RSS) from sensors in the capsule system through its movement in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Consequently, the wireless CE (WCE) system requires improvement to handle the lack of the capsule instantaneous localization information and to solve the relatively low transmission data rate challenges. Furthermore, the association among the capsule's transmitter position, capsule location, signal reduction, and the capsule direction should be assessed. These measurements deliver significant information for the instantaneous capsule localization systems based on time-of-arrival approach, phase difference of arrival, RSS, electromagnetic, direction of arrival (DOA), and video tracking approaches are developed to locate the WCE precisely. This review introduces the acquisition concept of the GI medical images using the endoscopy with a comprehensive description of the endoscopy system components. Capsule localization and tracking are considered to be the most important features of the WCE system, thus this paper emphasizes the most common localization systems generally, highlighting the DOA-based localization systems and discusses the required significant research challenges to be addressed.

  10. Role of wireless capsule endoscopy in reclassifying inflammatory bowel disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouahed, Jodie; Shagrani, Mohammad; Sant'Anna, Ana

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of wireless capsule endoscopy in identifying small bowel lesions in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) type unclassified (IBDU), and to assess whether capsule endoscopy findings result in altered patient management. Ten pediatric patients recently diagnosed with IBDU through standard investigations were recruited from the pediatric gastroenterology clinic at McMaster Children's Hospital to undergo capsule endoscopy using the Pillcam SB(TM) (Given Imaging) capsule. Findings consistent with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease required the identification of at least three ulcerations. Three out of ten patients had newly identified findings on capsule endoscopy that met criteria for Crohn's disease. Three more patients had findings suspicious for Crohn's disease, but failed to meet the diagnostic criteria. Three additional patients had findings most consistent with ulcerative colitis, and one had possible gastritis with a normal intestine. Findings from capsule endoscopy allowed for changes in the medical management of three patients. In all ten cases, capsule endoscopy allowed for a better characterization of the type and extent of disease. No adverse outcomes occurred in the present cohort. This prospective study reveals that wireless capsule endoscopy is feasible, valuable, and non-invasive, offering the ability to potentially better characterize newly diagnosed pediatric IBDU cases by identifying lesions in the small bowel and reclassifying these as Crohn's disease. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of preparation conditions on properties and permeability of chitosan-sodium hexametaphosphate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, N; Hunkeler, D

    2001-01-01

    Capsules were obtained by interpolymer complexation between chitosan (polycation) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SMP, oligoanion). The effect of the preparation conditions on the capsule characteristics was evaluated. Specifically, the influence of variables such as pH, ionic strength, reagent concentration, and additives on the capsule permeability properties was investigated using dextran as a model permeant. The capsule membrane permeability was found to increase by decreasing the chitosan/SMP ratio as well as adding mannitol to the oligoanion recipient bath. Increasing the ionic strength or the pH of the initial chitosan solution was also found to enhance the membrane permeability, moving the membrane exclusion limit to higher values. Generally, the capsules prepared tinder all tested conditions had a relatively low permeability which rarely exceeded a molecular cut-off of 40 kD based on dextran standards. Furthermore, the diffusion rate showed a strong temporal dependence, indicating that the capsules prepared under various conditions exhibit different apparent pore size densities on the surface. The results indicated that, in order to obtain the desired capsule mass-transfer properties, the preparation conditions should be carefully considered and adjusted. Adding a polyol as well as low salt amount (less than 0.15%) is preferable as a means of modulating the diffusion characteristics, without disturbing the capsule mechanical stability.

  12. Summary of the irradiation history of the TRIST-ER1 capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Eatherly, W.S.; Heatherly, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The TRIST-ERI capsule was assembled and irradiated in a large Removable Beryllium (RB{star}) position of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) during this reporting period. Irradiation began on March 8, 1996, was completed on June 20, 1996, during operating cycles 344, 345, and 346. This report describes the thermal operation of the capsule.

  13. Effects of posterior capsule tightness on subacromial contact behavior during shoulder motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Zhao, Kristin D; Sperling, John W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cofield, Robert H; An, Kai-Nan

    2012-09-01

    Although posterior capsule tightness is believed to cause abnormal contact in the subacromial space, it is not clear whether this tightness changes the contact between the acromion and humeral head. Nine fresh, frozen cadaveric shoulders were used to measure contact pressure on the coracoacromial arch during passive flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation at 90° of elevation in the scapular plane, as well as horizontal adduction and abduction. The site where the peak contact pressure occurred was also observed. The posterior capsule in the region from 8 to 10 o'clock in the right shoulder was plicated to simulate posterior capsule tightness. Peak contact pressure significantly increased with the tightened posterior capsule during flexion. Although peak contact pressure on the coracoacromial ligament during internal rotation significantly increased after capsule tightening, there was no significant increase in pressure when considering the entire coracoacromial arch. The angle where the peak contact pressure occurred during flexion was not significantly far from the end range. The site of the peak contact pressure in 7 of 9 shoulders was on the lesser tuberosity during flexion, regardless of the posterior capsule tightness. Posterior capsule tightness increased contact pressure mainly on the lesser tuberosity during flexion. The peak contact pressure occurred close to the end range of flexion, mainly on the lesser tuberosity. These findings are useful to understand the contribution of posterior capsule tightness to subacromial contact. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assembly of a tri-silver metallo-capsule incorporating a tripodal tris-pyridyl ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, David J; Liao, Li-Ling; Antonioli, Bianca; Gloe, Karsten; Lindoy, Leonard F; McMurtrie, John C; Wei, Gang; Zhang, Xiao-Yi

    2005-06-21

    A trinuclear metallo-capsule has been assembled from a new tripodal pyridyl ligand and three silver(I) ions; the X-ray structure shows the presence of a Ag-Ag interaction in the solid state giving rise to a non-symmetric capsule arrangement while NMR evidence indicates that the structure in solution is symmetrical.

  15. Gastrointestinal motility during sleep assessed by tracking of telemetric capsules combined with polysomnography – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase AM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Mette Haase,1 Sibylle Fallet,2 Marit Otto,3 S Mark Scott,4 Vincent Schlageter,5 Klaus Krogh1 1Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland; 3Department of Neurophysiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Neurogastroenterology Group, Gastrointestinal Physiology Unit, Queen Mary University, London, UK; 5Motilis Medica SA, Lausanne, Switzerland Abstract: Studies of gastrointestinal function during sleep are hampered by lack of applicable techniques. Recent development of a novel ambulatory telemetric capsule system, which can be used in conjunction with polysomnography, offers a solution to this problem. The 3D-Transit system consists of ingestible electromagnetic capsules traceable through a portable extracorporeal receiver while traversing the gut. During sleep monitored by polysomnography, gastrointestinal motility was concurrently investigated using 3D-Transit in nine healthy subjects. Overall, the amplitude of gastric contractions decreased with depth of sleep (light sleep, N2 versus deep sleep, N3; P<0.05. Progression through the small intestine did not change with depth of sleep (Kruskal–Wallis probability =0.1, and there was no association between nocturnal awakenings or arousals and the occurrence of colonic or small intestinal propagating movements. Basal colonic activity was suppressed during both deep sleep (P<0.05 and light sleep (P<0.05 when compared with nocturnal wake periods. In conclusion, the novel ambulatory 3D-Transit system combined with polysomnography allows minimally invasive and completely ambulatory investigation of associations between sleep patterns and gastrointestinal motility. Keywords: colonic movement, gastric contractions, sleep assessment, ingestible capsule, circadian motility, sleep stage

  16. Morpho-functional evaluation of small bowel using wireless motility capsule and video capsule endoscopy in patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Diana; Douglas, Sarah; Hobson, Anthony R; Giannakou, Andry; Plevris, John N; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2016-04-01

    SmartPill(®) (Given Imaging Corp.,Yoqneam,Israel) is an ingestible, non-imaging capsule that records physiological data including contractions and pH throughout the gastrointestinal tract. There are scarce data looking at SmartPill(®) assessment of patients with known/suspected small-bowel Crohn's Disease (CD). This pilot study aims to investigate feasibility and safety of SmartPill(®) to assess gut motility in this group.  Over 1 year, patients with known/suspected CD, referred for small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE), were invited to participate and 12 were recruited (7 female, 5 male, mean age 44.2 ± 16.6 years). They underwent hydrogen breath test to exclude small-bowel bacterial overgrowth, patency capsule (Agile(®)), and provided stool samples for fecal calprotectin (FC). Patients ingested PillCam(®)SB2 and SmartPill(®) 4 hours apart. Using unpublished data, 33 healthy controls also were identified for the study. P capsules. Limitations included transient Smartpill(®) signal loss (5/10 studies). This is the first pilot to attempt combining SBCE and SmartPill(®) to assess small-bowel CD. Data on motility in CD are scarce. Multimodal information can provide a clearer clinical picture. Despite concerns about capsule retention in CD patients, SmartPill(®) seems safe for use if a patency capsule is employed beforehand.

  17. Genome-Wide Discovery of Genes Required for Capsule Production by UropathogenicEscherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kelvin G K; Phan, Minh-Duy; Forde, Brian M; Chong, Teik Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ulett, Glen C; Sweet, Matthew J; Beatson, Scott A; Schembri, Mark A

    2017-10-24

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a major cause of urinary tract and bloodstream infections and possesses an array of virulence factors for colonization, survival, and persistence. One such factor is the polysaccharide K capsule. Among the different K capsule types, the K1 serotype is strongly associated with UPEC infection. In this study, we completely sequenced the K1 UPEC urosepsis strain PA45B and employed a novel combination of a lytic K1 capsule-specific phage, saturated Tn 5 transposon mutagenesis, and high-throughput transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to identify the complement of genes required for capsule production. Our analysis identified known genes involved in capsule biosynthesis, as well as two additional regulatory genes ( mprA and lrhA ) that we characterized at the molecular level. Mutation of mprA resulted in protection against K1 phage-mediated killing, a phenotype restored by complementation. We also identified a significantly increased unidirectional Tn 5 insertion frequency upstream of the lrhA gene and showed that strong expression of LrhA induced by a constitutive Pcl promoter led to loss of capsule production. Further analysis revealed loss of MprA or overexpression of LrhA affected the transcription of capsule biosynthesis genes in PA45B and increased sensitivity to killing in whole blood. Similar phenotypes were also observed in UPEC strains UTI89 (K1) and CFT073 (K2), demonstrating that the effects were neither strain nor capsule type specific. Overall, this study defined the genome of a UPEC urosepsis isolate and identified and characterized two new regulatory factors that affect UPEC capsule production. IMPORTANCE Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans and are primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Many UPEC strains express a polysaccharide K capsule that provides protection against host innate immune factors and contributes to survival

  18. Effects of lipophilic components on the compatibility of lipid-based formulations with hard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Jing; Etzler, Frank M; Ubben, Johanna; Birch, Amy; Zhong, Li; Schwabe, Robert; Dudhedia, Mayur S

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of lipophilic components on the compatibility of propylene glycol (PG)-containing lipid-based drug delivery system (LBDDS) formulations with hard gelatin capsules. The presence of a lipophilic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) (log P approximately 6.1) and an additional lipophilic excipient (Capmul MCM) significantly affected the activity of PG in the fills and the equilibrium of PG between capsule shells and fills. These changes in activity and equilibrium of PG were furthermore correlated to the mechanical and thermal properties of the liquid-filled capsules and subsequently linked to the shelf-life of the capsules on stability with respect to capsule deformation. The present study also investigated the mechanism by which lipophilic component(s) might affect the activity of PG in the fill formulations and the equilibrium of PG between capsule shells and fills. The activities of PG in two series of "binary" mixtures with Capmul MCM and with Cremophor EL were measured, respectively. The mixtures of PG containing Capmul MCM were found to be more nearly ideal than those containing Cremophor EL. The observed negative deviation from Rauolt's law indicates that the excess free energies of mixing are less then zero indicating favorable interaction between PG and the other component. It is speculated that enhanced hydrogen bonding opportunities with Cremophor EL are responsible for the decreased excess free energy of mixing. Replacement of Cremophor EL with lipophilic API also reduces the hydrogen bonding opportunities for PG in the mixtures. This hypothesis may further explain the increased activity of PG in the fills and the shifted equilibrium of PG toward the capsule shells. Activity determination utilizing headspace gas chromatography (GC) using short 30 min incubation time seems to be a time-efficient approach for assessing capsule-fill compatibility. Direct measurements of PG migration and other physical properties of

  19. Use of atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for correlative studies of bacterial capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukalov, Oleg; Korenevsky, Anton; Beveridge, Terry J; Dutcher, John R

    2008-09-01

    Bacteria can possess an outermost assembly of polysaccharide molecules, a capsule, which is attached to their cell wall. We have used two complementary, high-resolution microscopy techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to study bacterial capsules of four different gram-negative bacterial strains: Escherichia coli K30, Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1, Shewanella oneidensis MR-4, and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. TEM analysis of bacterial cells using different preparative techniques (whole-cell mounts, conventional embeddings, and freeze-substitution) revealed capsules for some but not all of the strains. In contrast, the use of AFM allowed the unambiguous identification of the presence of capsules on all strains used in the present study, including those that were shown by TEM to be not encapsulated. In addition, the use of AFM phase imaging allowed the visualization of the bacterial cell within the capsule, with a depth sensitivity that decreased with increasing tapping frequency.

  20. Modeling the motion of non-adhesive and adhesive capsules through channels with posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Alexeev, Alexander; Balazs, Anna

    2007-03-01

    We study numerically the motion of compliant microcapsules in microchannels. These microchannels have two adhesive posts on the walls that form an orifice with a separation distance roughly comparable in size to the diameter of the capsules. Each microcapsule consists of an elastic shell that is filled with a viscous fluid. The capsules model synthetic polymeric microcapsules or biological cells, such as leukocytes. The microcapsules are driven to move through the channels by an imposed pressure gradient. To model this multi-component system, we combine the lattice Boltzmann model for fluid dynamics and the lattice spring model for the micromechanics of elastic solids. We probe the effect of capsule stiffness and adhesion between the posts and capsule on the motion of capsules within the channel.

  1. Analysis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in invasive disease reveals lack of the capsule locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lâm, T-T; Claus, H; Frosch, M; Vogel, U

    2016-01-01

    Among invasive Haemophilus influenzae, unencapsulated strains have largely surpassed the previously predominant serotype b (Hib) because of Hib vaccination. Isolates without the genomic capsule (cap) locus are designated non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi). They are different from capsule-deficient variants that show deletion of the capsule transport gene bexA within the cap locus. The frequency of capsule-deficient variants in invasive disease is unknown. We analysed 783 unencapsulated invasive isolates collected over 5 years in Germany and found no single capsule-deficient isolate. Invasive unencapsulated strains in Germany were exclusively NTHi. A negative serotyping result by slide agglutination was therefore highly predictive for NTHi. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Method and apparatus for dispensing small quantities of mercury from evacuated and sealed glass capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for opening an evacuated and sealed glass capsule containing a material that is to be dispensed which has a relatively high vapor pressure such as mercury. The capsule is typically disposed in a discharge tube envelope. The technique involves the use of a first light source imaged along the capsule and a second light source imaged across the capsule substantially transversely to the imaging of the first light source. Means are provided for constraining a segment of the capsule along its length with the constraining means being positioned to correspond with the imaging of the second light source. These light sources are preferably incandescent projection lamps. The constraining means is preferably a multiple looped wire support.

  3. Criteria for cesium capsules to be shipped as special form radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile all the documentation which defines the criteria for Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium capsules at the IOTECH facility and Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO) to be shipped as special form radioactive material in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask. The capsules were originally approved as special form in 1975, but in 1988 the integrity of the capsules came into question. WHC developed the Pre-shipment Acceptance Test Criteria for capsules to meet in order to be shipped as special form material. The Department of Energy approved the criteria and directed WHC to ship the capsules at IOTECH and ARECO meeting this criteria to WHC as special form material

  4. Safety Analysis Report for Primary Capsule of Ir-192 Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Choi, W. S.; Seo, K. S.; Son, K. J.; Park, W. J.

    2008-12-01

    All of the source capsules to transport a special form radioactive material should be designed and fabricated in accordance with the design criteria prescribed in IAEA standards and domestic regulations. The objective of this project is to prove the safety of a primary capsule for Ir-192 radiation source which produced in the HANARO. The safety tests of primary capsules were carried out for the impact, percussion and heat conditions. And leakage tests were carried out before and after the each tests. The capsule showed slight scratches and their deformations were not found after each tests. It also met the allowable limits of leakage rate after each test. Therefore, it has been verified that the capsule was designed and fabricated to meet all requirements for the special form radioactive materials

  5. Back-to-back colon capsule endoscopy and optical colonoscopy in colorectal cancer screening individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; Kroijer, Rasmus; Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine

    2018-01-01

    mm polyps in colon capsule endoscopy (97%; 95% CI: 94-100) was superior to colonoscopy (89%; 95% CI: 84-94). A complete capsule endoscopy examination (N=134) could detect patients with intermediate or greater risk (according to the European guidelines) with an accuracy, sensitivity, specificity......AIM: To determine the polyp detection rate and per-patient sensitivity for polyps >9 mm of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) compared with colonoscopy as well as the diagnostic accuracy of CCE. METHOD: Individuals who had positive immunochemical faecal occult blood test during screening had...... investigator blinded colon capsule endoscopy and colonoscopy. Participants underwent repeat endoscopy if significant lesions detected by colon capsule endoscopy were considered to have been missed by colonoscopy. RESULTS: There were 253 participants. The polyp detection rate was significantly higher in colon...

  6. Ignition capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel for the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho D.D.-M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to β-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65 – 75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  7. The posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its anatomic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida-Velasco, J Ramón; Rodríguez, J Francisco; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Peces, M Dolores; Mérida, J Antonio; Sánchez, Indalecio

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the arrangement of the posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its pertinent relationships. The temporomandibular region was dissected bilaterally in 20 adult cadavers. Natural stained latex was injected into 16 cadavers through the external carotid artery to facilitate the dissection of the arterial vessels. The posterior segment of the joint capsule is made up of the so-called "bilaminar zone" of the articular disc. The upper internal portion of the posterior segment of the capsule was reinforced by the discomalleolar ligament. The retroarticular space was filled with loose connective tissue and the anterior branches of the anterior tympanic artery were distributed throughout the posterior segment of the joint capsule. The posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule corresponds to the bilaminar zone of the articular disc. The structures of the retroarticular space are extracapsular.

  8. Dual-head wireless powered video capsule based on new type of receiving coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yan, Guozheng; Xu, Wenming; Kuang, Shuai

    2015-05-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been a great breakthrough in visually detecting the pathological changes of gastrointestinal (GI) wall, but the limit of viewing angle and power by batteries still hinder the wide application of WCE. In order to address these shortcomings, a dual-head video capsule system based on new type of receiving coils is presented. First, the dual-head video capsule system is designed, which could capture images of the whole GI tract in two channels, transforming the images into NTSC videos at a frame rate of 30 f s(-1) and transmitting the signals outside the body. Second, the wireless power transmission platform with new type of receiving coils is established to provide at least 108 mW of continuous, stable energy for the capsule. Then a prototype was fabricated and applied in animal experiments. The designed dual-head video capsule system is proved to be feasible and a potential solution for future clinical application.

  9. Safety Analysis Report for Primary Capsule of Ir-192 Radiation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Choi, W. S.; Seo, K. S.; Son, K. J.; Park, W. J

    2008-12-15

    All of the source capsules to transport a special form radioactive material should be designed and fabricated in accordance with the design criteria prescribed in IAEA standards and domestic regulations. The objective of this project is to prove the safety of a primary capsule for Ir-192 radiation source which produced in the HANARO. The safety tests of primary capsules were carried out for the impact, percussion and heat conditions. And leakage tests were carried out before and after the each tests. The capsule showed slight scratches and their deformations were not found after each tests. It also met the allowable limits of leakage rate after each test. Therefore, it has been verified that the capsule was designed and fabricated to meet all requirements for the special form radioactive materials.

  10. Development of capsule design support subprograms for 3-dimensional temperature calculation using FEM Code NISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobita, Masahiro; Matsui, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Prediction of irradiation temperature is one of the important issues in the design of the capsule for irradiation test. Many kinds of capsules with complex structure have been designed for recent irradiation requests, and three-dimensional (3D) temperature calculation becomes inevitable for the evaluation of irradiation temperature. For such 3D calculation, however, many works are usually needed for input data preparation, and a lot of time and resources are necessary for parametric studies in the design. To improve such situation, JAERI introduced 3D-FEM (finite element method) code NISA (Numerically Integrated elements for System Analysis) and developed several subprograms, which enabled to support input preparation works in the capsule design. The 3D temperature calculation of the capsule are able to carried out in much easier way by the help of the subprograms, and specific features in the irradiation tests such as non-uniform gamma heating in the capsule, becomes to be considered. (author)

  11. Design improvement of the bottom guide of a material irradiation capsule : dowel pin type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, K. N.; Choi, M. H.; Cho, M. S.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Kim, B. G.

    2005-01-01

    A material capsule system was developed for an irradiation test of non fissile materials in HANARO. The capsule system has been actively utilized for the various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and the industries. 12 instrumented and 2 non-instrumented capsules have been designed, fabricated and successfully irradiated in HANARO CT and IR test holes since 1995. Because of the up-stream of the coolant in HANARO, the instrumented capsule is supported or fixed at 4 points of the capsule main body and protection tube to satisfy the seismic requirements of the reactor. The instrumented capsule is fixed to the reactor flow tube by a bottom guide assembly of the main body. First bottom guide assembly of an instrumented capsule that was used in a high pressure and velocity of the coolant was designed and fabricated on the basis of the design of the HANARO drive fuel and has been partially modified due to various undesirable matters which occurred during the irradiation tests of the capsules. From the 03M-06U capsule, a new type of bottom guide assembly (B(bolt) type) was designed and applied to solve these problems and it's integrity was proven through in- and out-pile tests. However, several undesirable technical points about the bolt type bottom guide were discussed at a specialist committee. Therefore, another type of bottom guide assembly (C(dowel pin) type) was designed and fabricated according to the committee's suggestion to solve the technical points. The new design will be applied to all of the material and creep capsules in HANARO

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seoyon; Park, Dae Hwan; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Jong Won; Han, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jeon, Jae Yong; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Kim, Won

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder in breast cancer patients between 13 and 18 months after surgery. This study included 271 women who underwent surgery for breast cancer with a postoperative period of 13-18 months. Current adhesive capsulitis was defined as restriction of external rotation and one or more additional directional restrictions with history of shoulder pain. Cumulative adhesive capsulitis was defined as current adhesive capsulitis or a previous history of adhesive capsulitis after breast cancer surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine associations between current or cumulative adhesive capsulitis and potential risk factors. Among the 271 study patients, 28 (10.3%) and 21 (7.7%) had cumulative or current adhesive capsulitis, respectively. The incidences of cumulative and current adhesive capsulitis were higher in those aged 50-59 years (odds ratio [OR], 9.912; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.790-54.880; and OR, 12.395; 95% CI, 1.187-129.444, respectively) and those who underwent mastectomy (OR, 6.805; 95% CI, 1.800-25.733; and OR, 9.645; 95% CI, 2.075-44.829, respectively) or mastectomy with reconstruction (OR, 13.122; 95% CI, 2.488-69.218; and OR, 20.075; 95% CI, 2.873-140.261, respectively). Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a common problem after breast cancer treatment. An age of 50-59 years and mastectomy are major risk factors for adhesive capsulitis, and breast reconstruction additionally increases the risk. Patients with these risk factors require greater attention for early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  13. Head capsule stacking by caterpillars: morphology complements behaviour to provide a novel defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petah A. Low

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores employ a variety of chemical, behavioural and morphological defences to reduce mortality from natural enemies. In some caterpillars the head capsules of successive instars are retained and stacked on top of each other and it has been suggested that this could serve as a defence against natural enemies. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the survival of groups of the gumleaf skeletoniser Uraba lugens Walker caterpillars, allocated to one of three treatments: “−HC,” where stacked head capsules were removed from all individuals, “+HC,” where the caterpillars retained their stacked head capsules, and “mixed,” where only half of the caterpillars in a group had their stacked head capsules removed. We found no difference in predation rate between the three treatments, but within the mixed treatment, caterpillars with head capsules were more than twice as likely to survive. During predator choice trials, conducted to observe how head capsule stacking acts as a defence, the predatory pentatomid bug attacked the −HC caterpillar in four out of six trials. The two attacks on +HC caterpillars took over 10 times longer because the bug would poke its rostrum through the head capsule stack, while the caterpillar used its head capsule stack to deflect the bug’s rostrum. Our results support the hypothesis that the retention of moulted head capsules by U. lugens provides some protection against their natural enemies and suggest that this is because stacked head capsules can function as a false target for natural enemies as well as a weapon to fend off attackers. This represents the first demonstration of a defensive function.

  14. Head capsule stacking by caterpillars: morphology complements behaviour to provide a novel defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Petah A; McArthur, Clare; Hochuli, Dieter F

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores employ a variety of chemical, behavioural and morphological defences to reduce mortality from natural enemies. In some caterpillars the head capsules of successive instars are retained and stacked on top of each other and it has been suggested that this could serve as a defence against natural enemies. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the survival of groups of the gumleaf skeletoniser Uraba lugens Walker caterpillars, allocated to one of three treatments: "-HC," where stacked head capsules were removed from all individuals, "+HC," where the caterpillars retained their stacked head capsules, and "mixed," where only half of the caterpillars in a group had their stacked head capsules removed. We found no difference in predation rate between the three treatments, but within the mixed treatment, caterpillars with head capsules were more than twice as likely to survive. During predator choice trials, conducted to observe how head capsule stacking acts as a defence, the predatory pentatomid bug attacked the -HC caterpillar in four out of six trials. The two attacks on +HC caterpillars took over 10 times longer because the bug would poke its rostrum through the head capsule stack, while the caterpillar used its head capsule stack to deflect the bug's rostrum. Our results support the hypothesis that the retention of moulted head capsules by U. lugens provides some protection against their natural enemies and suggest that this is because stacked head capsules can function as a false target for natural enemies as well as a weapon to fend off attackers. This represents the first demonstration of a defensive function.

  15. Developmental anatomy in the zonular connection with lens capsule in macaque eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Mari; Kuroda, Teiko; Inoue, Kenichi; Senoo, Haruki; Takada, Masahiko

    2013-05-01

    Morphological analyses of zonule conjugated with lens capsule were performed on the developmental change in eyes from the age of fetus to 7 years old of the rhesus macaques (Macaca fuscata). The zonule was filamentous network in late fetus. After birth, the zonular microfibrils originated from the nonpigmented epithelium of the ciliary process. On the extending path toward the lens capsule through the chamber, microfibril assembled with neighbor fibril and also cohered with one another forming bundle. With growth, these bundles bifurcated into anterior and posterior groups on the equatorial region of capsule. The developmental distribution of bundles in the capsule was characteristic on anterior group, that is, bifurcation into radial and circumferential extension. On the other hand, the posterior bundle undivided but radially extended within short distance from the equator. In the process of fixating with capsule, bundles untangled into fibrils and penetrated circumferentially into the superficial layer and radially into deep apical layer of the capsule. Zonule was composed fibrillin 1 microfibrils and on the extending path toward the lens capsule through the chamber, microfibril self-assembled with neighbored fibril in composition of fascicle and also cohered with one another forming bundle. Each bundle had alternating pale and dense horizontal bands in the intracapsular extension and the stripe pattern changed in flaccid or extensive tension of zonule between capsule and process. Zonular fibril intermingled with collagen fibril of capsule with interlacing molecule of laminin. At the base of ciliary muscle, elastin-positive connective tissue intercalated circumferentially between ciliary processes. The developmental changes of the intralamellar distribution and extension of zonule with striped pattern informed the functional role upon the elasticity in coordination with the lens capsule micromolecules. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Application of Bio-digestion for Capsule Gelatin-- From the Pharmaceutical Wastes to the Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C.; Huang, S.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to bio-digest the capsule gelatin from the waste of pharmaceutical processes such as cutting and stamping for capsule shells producing. We screened soil bacterial flora for capsule gelatin biolysis, and found the most competent one named Yuntech-7. A 15% (w/w) of capsule gelatin could fully digested by Yuntech-7 for 3 days growth with an N-limited medium in a 37°C incubator. In order to recycle and reuse the gelatin waste, the different percentages of capsule gelatin were co-composted with the vegetable residues to produce manure in an anaerobic fermentation by an extra Yuntech-7 inoculation. After 14 days incubation, we collected the filtrate to examine the contents of N, P, and K. The data shows that the P and K keep the same value by roughly between the blank and the control sets, but the total N values were approximately a 5-fold increase in 20% and a 10-fold increase in 40% of capsule gelatin integrated. We suggested that the capsule gelatin was majorly decomposed by Yuntech-7, because the total N value was no observable change in the capsule gelatin and vegetable residues co-compost with a Yuntech-7-free condition. We also performed some field tests using the capsule gelatin generated liquid manure, and the preliminary test shows the plants got great benefits on culture size and in environmental resistance. In conclusion, the process in bio-digestion of waste capsule gelatin by soil bacteria, Yuntech-7, was produced a valuable manure not only aliment the plants but also complement the soil bacterial populations.

  17. Influence of different excipients on the properties of hard gelatin capsules with metamizole sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogowska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metamizole is an effective non-opioid analgesic drug used in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Due to induced potentially life-threatening blood disorders, metamizole was withdrawn from market in many parts of the world, however, it is one of the most popular analgesics in Poland that is available as an over the counter drug. Patients tend to prefer capsules over tablets, as they are easier to swallow and taste better. The powder-filled capsules also have greater bioavailability and require less excipients, as compared to tablets. Polymic excipients are mainly used in capsule filling, and have influence upon the physico-chemical properties of the hard gelatin capsules and the powder formulation. The aim of the study was to determine whether various combinations of polymers impact the disintegration time and pharmaceutical availability of hard gelatin capsules with metamizole sodium. The results of our work demonstrated that the 80% of all active substance was released in all tested formulations within 15 minutes. Herein, the capsule containing lactose monohydrate had the longest release (4% after 2 min., while capsules containing mannitol had the fastest release (81.2% after 2 min.. Moreover, the addition of HPMC to capsules with lactose brought about a slight increase in the metamizole release rate, while the addition of PVP 30 to capsules with microcrystalline cellulose slightly accelerated release. This data suggests that the use of different polymers in capsules formulation brings about changes in the physical properties of powders and modifies the release profile of metamizole. In our study, the most preferred formulation was one containing microcrystalline cellulose (good powder properties and fairly fast release.

  18. Liquid-core nanocellulose-shell capsules with tunable oxygen permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svagan, A J; Bender Koch, C; Hedenqvist, M S; Nilsson, F; Glasser, G; Baluschev, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-01-20

    Encapsulation of oxygen sensitive components is important in several areas, including those in the food and pharmaceutical sectors, in order to improve shelf-life (oxidation resistance). Neat nanocellulose films demonstrate outstanding oxygen barrier properties, and thus nanocellulose-based capsules are interesting from the perspective of enhanced protection from oxygen. Herein, two types of nanocellulose-based capsules with liquid hexadecane cores were successfully prepared; a primary nanocellulose polyurea-urethane capsule (diameter: 1.66 μm) and a bigger aggregate capsule (diameter: 8.3 μm) containing several primary capsules in a nanocellulose matrix. To quantify oxygen permeation through the capsule walls, an oxygen-sensitive spin probe was dissolved within the liquid hexadecane core, allowing non-invasive measurements (spin-probe oximetry, electron spin resonance, ESR) of the oxygen concentration within the core. It was observed that the oxygen uptake rate was significantly reduced for both capsule types compared to a neat hexadecane solution containing the spin-probe, i.e. the slope of the non-steady state part of the ESR-curve was approximately one-third and one-ninth for the primary nanocellulose capsule and aggregated capsule, respectively, compared to that for the hexadecane sample. The transport of oxygen was modeled mathematically and by fitting to the experimental data, the oxygen diffusion coefficients of the capsule wall was determined. These values were, however, lower than expected and one plausible reason for this was that the ESR-technique underestimate the true oxygen uptake rate in the present systems at non-steady conditions, when the overall diffusion of oxygen was very slow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Abundance and co-occurrence of extracellular capsules increase environmental breadth: Implications for the emergence of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendueles, Olaya; Garcia-Garcerà, Marc; Néron, Bertrand; Touchon, Marie; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2017-07-01

    Extracellular capsules constitute the outermost layer of many bacteria, are major virulence factors, and affect antimicrobial therapies. They have been used as epidemiological markers and recently became vaccination targets. Despite the efforts to biochemically serotype capsules in a few model pathogens, little is known of their taxonomic and environmental distribution. We developed, validated, and made available a computational tool, CapsuleFinder, to identify capsules in genomes. The analysis of over 2500 prokaryotic genomes, accessible in a database, revealed that ca. 50% of them-including Archaea-encode a capsule. The Wzx/Wzy-dependent capsular group was by far the most abundant. Surprisingly, a fifth of the genomes encode more than one capsule system-often from different groups-and their non-random co-occurrence suggests the existence of negative and positive epistatic interactions. To understand the role of multiple capsules, we queried more than 6700 metagenomes for the presence of species encoding capsules and showed that their distribution varied between environmental categories and, within the human microbiome, between body locations. Species encoding capsules, and especially those encoding multiple capsules, had larger environmental breadths than the other species. Accordingly, capsules were more frequent in environmental bacteria than in pathogens and, within the latter, they were more frequent among facultative pathogens. Nevertheless, capsules were frequent in clinical samples, and were usually associated with fast-growing bacteria with high infectious doses. Our results suggest that capsules increase the environmental range of bacteria and make them more resilient to environmental perturbations. Capsules might allow opportunistic pathogens to profit from empty ecological niches or environmental perturbations, such as those resulting from antibiotic therapy, to colonize the host. Capsule-associated virulence might thus be a by-product of environmental

  20. Abundance and co-occurrence of extracellular capsules increase environmental breadth: Implications for the emergence of pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaya Rendueles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular capsules constitute the outermost layer of many bacteria, are major virulence factors, and affect antimicrobial therapies. They have been used as epidemiological markers and recently became vaccination targets. Despite the efforts to biochemically serotype capsules in a few model pathogens, little is known of their taxonomic and environmental distribution. We developed, validated, and made available a computational tool, CapsuleFinder, to identify capsules in genomes. The analysis of over 2500 prokaryotic genomes, accessible in a database, revealed that ca. 50% of them-including Archaea-encode a capsule. The Wzx/Wzy-dependent capsular group was by far the most abundant. Surprisingly, a fifth of the genomes encode more than one capsule system-often from different groups-and their non-random co-occurrence suggests the existence of negative and positive epistatic interactions. To understand the role of multiple capsules, we queried more than 6700 metagenomes for the presence of species encoding capsules and showed that their distribution varied between environmental categories and, within the human microbiome, between body locations. Species encoding capsules, and especially those encoding multiple capsules, had larger environmental breadths than the other species. Accordingly, capsules were more frequent in environmental bacteria than in pathogens and, within the latter, they were more frequent among facultative pathogens. Nevertheless, capsules were frequent in clinical samples, and were usually associated with fast-growing bacteria with high infectious doses. Our results suggest that capsules increase the environmental range of bacteria and make them more resilient to environmental perturbations. Capsules might allow opportunistic pathogens to profit from empty ecological niches or environmental perturbations, such as those resulting from antibiotic therapy, to colonize the host. Capsule-associated virulence might thus be a by

  1. Intermittent Bowel Obstruction Due to a Retained Wireless Capsule Endoscope in a Patient with a Small Bowel Carcinoid Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Strosberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old man with a history of metastatic carcinoid disease is presented. The patient had symptoms of chronic intermittent abdominal pain two years after undergoing a wireless capsule endoscopy procedure. Radiological examinations revealed a retained capsule endoscope, and the patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with capsule retrieval. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case presentation of chronic, partial small bowel obstruction caused by unrecognized retention of a capsule endoscope.

  2. Complex motions of vesicles and capsules in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovska, Petia; Young, Yuan-Nan; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2009-11-01

    Membrane-bound particles exhibit rich dynamics when placed in flow. For example, in simple shear flow, vesicles made of lipid bilayers tank-tread or tumble. Capsules and red blood cells also show oscillations in the tank-treading inclination angle, called swinging. This motion originates from membrane shear--elasticity and non--spherical unstressed shape. We develop an analytical theory that quantitatively describes the swinging dynamics. Our analysis takes into account that the membrane is deformable, incompressible, and resists bending and shearing. Analytical results for the shape evolution are derived by considering a nearly-spherical particle shape. The phase diagram is constructed and compared to previous models which assume fixed ellipsoidal shape. Dynamics in quadratic and time-dependent flows is also discussed. Floquet analysis is conducted to investigate the vesicle dynamics and conditions for chaotic shape and flow dynamics are established.

  3. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  4. Wireless capsule endoscopy as a tool in diagnosing autoimmune enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram-Kampmann, Eva-Marie; Lillevang, Søren T; Detlefsen, Sönke; Laursen, Stig Borbjerg

    2015-07-06

    Autoimmune enteropathy (AE) is an immune mediated illness of the intestinal mucosa. The cause is unknown, and the diagnosis is based on typical characteristics displayed. There is no gold standard for treatment. We present two adult cases of AE and demonstrate the challenges in establishing the diagnosis. The extensive diagnostic work up excluded other more common causes of protracted diarrhoea. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) displayed universal small intestinal mucosal damage with shortened villi that led to the suspicion of AE in both patients. The diagnosis was confirmed with microscopy, showing shortened villi, villous blunting and hyperplasia of crypts in both patients. In one patient, deep crypt lymphocytosis with minimal intraepithelial lymphocytosis was found as well. Both patients were successfully treated with high-dose immunosuppressant therapy to induce and maintain remission. Use of WCE as a diagnostic tool was invaluable in establishing the diagnosis of AE. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Saliency-Based Bleeding Localization for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongda Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomach bleeding is a kind of gastrointestinal disease which can be diagnosed noninvasively by wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE. However, it requires much time for physicians to scan large amount of WCE images. Alternatively, computer-assisted bleeding localization systems are developed where color, edge, and intensity features are defined to distinguish lesions from normal tissues. This paper proposes a saliency-based localization system where three saliency maps are computed: phase congruency-based edge saliency map derived from Log-Gabor filter bands, intensity histogram-guided intensity saliency map, and red proportion-based saliency map. Fusing the three maps together, the proposed system can detect bleeding regions by thresholding the fused saliency map. Results demonstrate the accuracy of 98.97% for our system to mark bleeding regions.

  6. Analysis of bead sizes for MR capsules labeled for sprinkle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagavelli, Laxma R; Lionberger, Robert A; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Yu, Lawrence; Allgire, James; Smith, Anjanette; Wokovich, Anna; Westenberger, Benjamin J; Buhse, Lucinda

    2010-12-01

    The bead sizes used in approved modified release capsules labeled for sprinkling on food was investigated to generate bead size guidelines for generic products labeled for sprinkling. The conclusions from a survey of FDA databases were corroborated with experimental data obtained by measuring the bead sizes of several reference-listed drugs on the market labeled for administration by sprinkling on food. The experimental data show that majority of the marketed products were found to have bead sizes of less than 1,500 microm (1.5 mm). Based on this information, a bead size of less than 1,500 microm should generally be considered acceptable for use in generic products labeled for sprinkling.

  7. Wireless capsule endoscopy for obscure small-bowel disorders: final results of the first pediatric controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhon de Araujo Sant'Anna, Ana Maria; Dubois, Josée; Miron, Marie-Claude; Seidman, Ernest G

    2005-03-01

    Obscure small-bowel disorders are jejunal and ileal lesions undiagnosed by traditional imaging techniques (endoscopic, radiologic). We evaluated the diagnostic usefulness and safety of capsule endoscopy for obscure small-bowel disorders in children and adolescents. Comparative, prospective, self-controlled trials in patients (age, 10-18 y) suspected to have either small-bowel Crohn's disease, polyps, or obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Capsule results were compared with the diagnostic imaging studies normally used in this age group. Among 20 patients suspected of Crohn's disease, multiple lesions consistent with this diagnosis were observed by capsule endoscopy in 50%. Small-bowel Crohn's disease was ruled out in 8 patients. Eosinophilic enteropathy was found in 2 others. For polyp detection (n = 6), capsule endoscopy yielded 100% concordance with the control studies when analyzed per patient. However, capsule endoscopy revealed a greater number (50%) of polyps. Among patients with obscure bleeding (n = 4), the capsule examination confirmed a diagnosis of vascular malformations in 3. Capsule endoscopy more accurately identified the precise source of bleeding compared with angiography. All 30 capsule studies were well tolerated, although 1 capsule was retained owing to an inflammatory stenosis. The capsule eventually was expelled after corticosteroid therapy. Capsule endoscopy correctly diagnosed or excluded a bleeding source, small-bowel polyps, or Crohn's disease of the small bowel in 29 of 30 patients. Capsule endoscopy permits an accurate, noninvasive approach for diagnosing obscure small bowel lesions in children over the age of 10.

  8. Multiresponsive hybrid microgels and hollow capsules with a layered structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeyre, Véronique; Renaudie, Natacha; Dechezelles, Jean-François; Saadaoui, Hassan; Ravaine, Serge; Ravaine, Valérie

    2009-04-21

    Various stimuli-responsive composite particles with a high control of their internal structure and their corresponding hollow capsules are synthesized and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, TEM, and AFM. Core-shell particles with a silica core and a thermoresponsive shell are obtained by polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) in the presence of silica seeds grafted with a high density of gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). The influence of the synthesis conditions is studied. The shell thickness increases when the monomer concentration increases in a limited range where uniform composite particles with a single core are obtained. At constant monomer concentration, the shell thickness does not depend on the size of the silica seeds, but the presence of free unbound microgels is observed when the silica surface area decreases. A range of particle diameters and shell thicknesses is thus obtained, which can lead to the corresponding hollow capsules by exposure to hydrofluoric acid solution. The volume phase transition temperature of these materials can be easily tuned by replacing the NIPAM monomer by another N-alkylacrylamide derivative. However, the incorporation of comonomers such as acrylic acid (AA) and a phenylboronic acid (PBA) derivative inhibits the formation of core-shell structures. In order to get pH or glucose responsiveness, these functional groups can be incorporated in the outer shell of a core-double shell structure, with pNIPAM as intermediate shell. pH-responsive and glucose-responsive composite particles are obtained by this method with a high control of their internal structure.

  9. Clinical evaluation of arthroscopic treatment of shoulder adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of arthroscopic releases performed in patients with adhesive capsulitis refractory to conservative treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, conducted between 1996 and 2012, which included 56 shoulders (52 patients that underwent surgery; 38 were female, and 28 had the dominant side affected. The mean age was 51 (29-73 years. The mean follow-up was 65 (12-168 months and the mean preoperative time was 8.9 (2-24 months. According to Zukermann's classification, 23 cases were considered primary and 33 secondary. With the patient in the lateral decubitus position, circumferential release of the joint capsule was performed: joint debridement; rotator interval opening; coracohumeral ligament release; anterior, posterior, inferior, and finally antero-inferior capsulotomy. A subscapularis tenotomy was performed when necessary. All patients underwent intense physical therapy in the immediate postoperative period. In 33 shoulders, an interscalene catheter was implanted for anesthetic infusion. Functional results were evaluated by the UCLA criteria. RESULTS: Improved range of motion was observed: mean increase of 45° of elevation, 41° of external rotation and eight vertebral levels of medial rotation. According to the UCLA score excellent results were obtained in 25 (45% patients; good, in 24 (45%; fair, in two (3%; and poor, in two (7%. Patients who had undergone inferior capsulotomy achieved better results. Only 8.8% of patients who used the anesthetic infusion catheter underwent postoperative manipulation. Seven patients had complications. CONCLUSION: There was improvement in pain and range of motion. Inferior capsulotomy leads to better results. The use of the interscalene infusion catheter reduces the number of re-approaches.

  10. Analysis of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Images using Local Binary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Florentina CONSTANTINESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy, the gold standard in the screening and diagnosis of small bowel diseases, is one of the most recent investigations for gastrointestinal pathology. This examination has the advantages of being non-invasive, painless, with a large clinical yield, especially for small bowel diseases, but also some disadvantages. The long time necessary for reading and interpreting all frames acquired is one of these disadvantages. This inconvenient could be improved through different methods by using software applications. In this study we have used a software application for texture analysis based on local binary pattern (LBP operator. This operator detects and removes non-informative frames in a first step, then identifies potential lesions. Our study group consisted of 33 patients from the Gastroenterology and Hepatology Centre Craiova and from the 1st Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology Clinic from the Emergency County Hospital of Craiova. The patients included in the study have corresponded to our inclusion criteria established. The exclusion criteria were represented by the contraindications of the capsule endoscopy. In the first phase of the study, we have removed the non-informative frames from the original videos obtained, and we have acquired an average reduction of 6.96% from the total number of images. In the second phase, using the same LBP operator, we have correctly identified 93.16% of telangiectasia lesions. Our study demonstrated that software applications based on LBP operator can lead to a shorter analysis time, by reducing the overall frames number, and can also provide support in diagnosis.

  11. Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kathryn S.

    Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals

  12. Non-contact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness during simulated accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Noel; Manns, Fabrice; Acosta, Ana-Carolina; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To non-invasively measure the thickness of the anterior and posterior lens capsule, and to determine if it significantly changes during accommodation. Methods: Anterior and posterior capsule thickness was measured on post-mortem lenses using a non-contact optical system using a focus-detection technique. The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused on the tissue surface using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a translation stage with a motorized actuator. Light reflected from the sample surface is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a photoreceiver connected to a computer-controlled data acquisition system. Optical intensity peaks are detected when the aspheric lens is focused on the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is equal to the distance traveled between two peaks multiplied by the capsule refractive index. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 18 cynomolgus (age average: 6+/-1 years, range: 4-7 years) eyes, 1 rhesus (age: 2 years) eye, and 12 human (age average: 65+/-16, range: 47-92) eyes during simulated accommodation. The mounted sample was placed under the focusing objective of the optical system so that the light was incident on the center pole. Measurements were taken of the anterior lens capsule in the unstretched and the stretched 5mm states. The lens was flipped, and the same procedure was performed for the posterior lens capsule. Results: The precision of the optical system was determined to be +/-0.5um. The resolution is 4um and the sensitivity is 52dB. The human anterior lens capsule thickness was 6.0+/-1.2um unstretched and 4.9+/-0.9um stretched (p=0.008). The human posterior lens capsule was 5.7+/-1.2um unstretched and 5.7+/-1.4um stretched (p=0.974). The monkey anterior lens capsule thickness was 5.9+/-1.9um unstretched and 4.8+/-1.0um stretched (p=0.002). The monkey posterior lens capsule was 5

  13. Stability evaluation of freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in oral capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, M; Abedi, D; Varshosaz, J; Najjarzadeh, M; Mirlohi, M; Tavakoli, N

    2012-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a common preservation technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Various studies have investigated the effect of different cryoprotectants on probiotics during freeze-drying. However, information on the effect of cryoprotectants on the stability of some Lactobacillus strains during freeze-drying seems scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish production methods for preparation of oral capsule probiotics containing Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerance and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. It was also of interest to examine the effect of various formulations of cryoprotectant media containing skim milk, trehalose and sodium ascorbate on the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during freeze-drying at various storage temperatures. Without any cryoprotectant, few numbers of microorganisms survived. However, microorganisms tested maintained higher viability after freeze-drying in media containing at least one of the cryoprotectants. Use of skim milk in water resulted in an increased viability after lyophilization. Media with a combination of trehalose and skim milk maintained a higher percentage of live microorganisms, up to 82%. In general, bacteria retained a higher number of viable cells in capsules containing freeze-dried bacteria with sodium ascorbate after three months of storage. After this period, a marked decline was observed in all samples stored at 23°C compared to those stored at 4°C. The maximum survival rate (about 72-76%) was observed with media containing 6% skim milk, 8% trehalose and 4% sodium ascorbate.

  14. Genetic organisation of the capsule transport gene region from Haemophilus paragallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. De Smidt

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The region involved in export of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface of Haemophilus paragallinarum was cloned and the genetic organisation determined. Degenerate primers designed from sequence alignment of the capsule transport genes of Haemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were used to amplify a 2.6 kb fragment containing a segment of the H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus. This fragment was used as a digoxigenin labelled probe to isolate the complete H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus from genomic DNA. The sequence of the cloned DNA was determined and analysis revealed the presence of four genes, each showing high homology with known capsule transport genes. The four genes were designated hctA, B, C and D (for H. paragallinarum capsule transport genes and the predicted products of these genes likely encode an ATP-dependent export system responsible for transport of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface, possibly a member of a super family designated ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters.

  15. Magnetic resonance arthrographic findings of presumed stage-2 adhesive capsulitis: focus on combined rotator cuff pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Chul; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Lee, Yong Seuk; Koh, Kyoung Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) findings of patients considered to have stage-2 idiopathic adhesive capsulitis and to identify differences in rotator cuff pathologies between 2 age groups (ie, =or60 years). Eighty-one patients, considered to have stage-2 idiopathic adhesive capsulitis based on medical history and a physical examination underwent MRA. Magnetic resonance evaluations focused on combined pathologies other than adhesive capsulitis, especially on the supraspinatus tendon. The pathologies of supraspinatus tendon were divided into 4 categories: normal, tendinosis, partial-tears, and full-thickness tears. Mean patient age was 66 years and mean symptom duration was 8.9 months. There were 38 men and 43 women. Overall, 50 patients (61.7%) showed some form of supraspinatus tendon pathology [small full-thickness tears 6 (7.4%), partial-thickness tears 25 (30.9%), and supraspinatus tendon tendinosis 19 (23.5%)]. The most common MRA finding, other than rotator cuff pathology, was the impression of adhesive capsulitis in 58 patients (71.6%). Group 2 (>60 years) showed a higher prevalence of full and partial-thickness tears (Padhesive capsulitis patients showed some form of supraspinatus tendon tear by MRA, and adhesive capsulitis had a full-thickness tear. Adhesive capsulitis patients older than 60 years appeared to be more likely to have a supraspinatus tendon tear.

  16. Effects of compound amino acids capsule on the immunological function of naval servicemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-zhong ZHONG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of the compound amino acids capsule on the immunological function of the naval servicemen during military activity. Methods  The subjects included 100 officers and soldiers, whose Modified Fatigue Rating Scale (MFIS scores were >21 points. The participants were randomly divided into two groups, namely, the amino acids capsule group and placebo group (n=50. Under the condition of military operations, either amino acids capsule (8 kinds of essential amino acids and 11 kinds of vitamins were contained or placebo capsule was given for 14 days continuously. The humoral immune indices, i.e., IgG, IgA, IgM, and complements C3 and C4, were measured with immunoturbidimetry. The percentage of peripheral blood CD subsets was measured using flow cytometry on the first day and 14th day. Results  The levels of IgG, IgM, and complement C3 in the capsule group were significantly higher on the 14th day than on the first day (P+CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD3-CD19+ B lymphocytes in the capsule group on the 14th day were higher than those on the first day, whereas the CD3-CD56+ NK lymphocytes decreased significantly (PConclusion  Compound amino acids capsule can improve the humoral and cellular immunological function of naval servicemen.

  17. WESF cesium capsule behavior at high temperature or during thermal cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Gray, W.J.; Shippell, R.J.; Katayama, Y.B.

    1985-06-01

    Double-walled stainless steel (SS) capsules prepared for storage of radioactive 137 Cs from defense waste are now being considered for use as sources for commercial irradiation. Cesium was recovered at B-plant from the high-level radioactive waste generated during processing of defense nuclear fuel. It was then purified, converted to the chloride form, and encapsulated at the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The molten cesium chloride salt was encapsulated by pouring it into the inner of two concentric SS cylinders. Each cylinder was fitted with a SS end cap that was welded in place by inert gas-tungsten arc welding. The capsule configuration and dimensions are shown in Figure 1. In a recent review of the safety of these capsules, Tingey, Wheelwright, and Lytle (1984) indicated that experimental studies were continuing to produce long-term corrosion data, to reaffirm capsule integrity during a 90-min fire where capsule temperatures reached 800 0 C, to monitor mechanical properties as a function of time, and to assess the effects of thermal cycling due to periodic transfer of the capsules from a water storage pool to the air environment of an irradiator facility. This report covers results from tests that simulated the effects of the 90-min fire and from thermal cycling actual WESF cesium capsules for 3845 cycles over a period of six months. 11 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs

  18. [Design of Adjustable Magnetic Field Generating Device in the Capsule Endoscope Tracking System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chao; Guo, Xudong; Yang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    The capsule endoscope swallowed from the mouth into the digestive system can capture the images of important gastrointestinal tract regions. It can compensate for the blind spot of traditional endoscopic techniques. It enables inspection of the digestive system without discomfort or need for sedation. However, currently available clinical capsule endoscope has some limitations such as the diagnostic information being not able to correspond to the orientation in the body, since the doctor is unable to control the capsule motion and orientation. To solve the problem, it is significant to track the position and orientation of the capsule in the human body. This study presents an AC excitation wireless tracking method in the capsule endoscope, and the sensor embedded in the capsule can measure the magnetic field generated by excitation coil. And then the position and orientation of the capsule can be obtained by solving a magnetic field inverse problem. Since the magnetic field decays with distance dramatically, the dynamic range of the received signal spans three orders of magnitude, we designed an adjustable alternating magnetic field generating device. The device can adjust the strength of the alternating magnetic field automatically through the feedback signal from the sensor. The prototype experiment showed that the adjustable magnetic field generating device was feasible. It could realize the automatic adjustment of the magnetic field strength successfully, and improve the tracking accuracy.

  19. Fabrication of the Supplemental Surveillance Capsules to Construct the Data of High-dose Irradiation Embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Ki; Maeng, Young Jae; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lim, Mi Joung; Yoo, Choon Sung; Kim, Byoung Chul

    2015-01-01

    In order to monitor the neutron irradiation embrittlement of the reactor vessel material, the surveillance program should be implemented during the reactor operation through the plant life. This surveillance program requires the surveillance capsules which contain the various test specimens, thermal monitors, and neutron dosimeters. For PWRs in Korea, total six surveillance capsules are installed before plant operation and are programmed to be withdrawn and tested periodically in accordance with the surveillance program. The surveillance capsules are typically installed in the downcomer region and are located closer to the reactor core than the vessel wall in order to get more accelerated embrittlement characteristics of the vessel material. The supplemental surveillance capsules were fabricated to obtain the data of high-dose irradiation embrittlement. All test specimens in the capsules were made with the archive material of Hanbit Units 3 and 4. The supplemental capsules were designed to have the same outside dimensions as the capsules of Hanbit Unit 1 and were installed in Hanbit Unit 1. The withdrawal schedule will be calculated

  20. Design and manufacturing of 05F-01K instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation in Hanaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J. (and others)

    2007-07-15

    An instrumented capsule was developed to be able to measure fuel characteristics, such as fuel temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, fuel pellet elongation, and neutron flux, etc., during the irradiation test of nuclear fuel in Hanaro. The instrumented capsule(02F-11K) for measuring and monitoring and monitoring fuel centerline temperature and neutron flux was designed and manufactured. It was successfully irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro from March 14, 2003 to June 1, 2003 (53.84 full power days at 24 MW). In the year of 2004, 3 test fuel rods and the instrumented capsule(03F-05K) were designed and manufactured to measure fuel centerline temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, and fuel axial deformation during irradiation test. This capsule was irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro reactor from April 26, 2004 to October 1, 2004 (59.5 EFPD at 24 {approx} 30 MW). The six typed dual instrumented fuel rods, which allow for two characteristics to be measured simultaneously in one fuel rod, have been designed and manufactured to enhance the efficiency of the irradiation test using the instrumented fuel capsule. The 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule was designed and manufactured for a design verification test of the three dual instrumented fuel rods. The irradiation test of the 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule will be carried out at the OR5 vertical experimental hole of Hanaro.

  1. Interplay Between Capsule Expression and Uracil Metabolism in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrimidine nucleotides play an important role in the biosynthesis of activated nucleotide sugars (NDP-sugars. NDP-sugars are the precursors of structural polysaccharides in bacteria, including capsule, which is a major virulence factor of the human pathogen S. pneumoniae. In this work, we identified a spontaneous non-reversible mutant of strain D39 that displayed a non-producing capsule phenotype. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of this mutant revealed several non-synonymous single base modifications, including in genes of the de novo synthesis of pyrimidines and in the −10 box of capsule operon promoter (Pcps. By directed mutagenesis we showed that the point mutation in Pcps was solely responsible for the drastic decrease in capsule expression. We also demonstrated that D39 subjected to uracil deprivation shows increased biomass and decreased Pcps activity and capsule amounts. Importantly, Pcps expression is further decreased by mutating the first gene of the de novo synthesis of pyrimidines, carA. In contrast, the absence of uracil from the culture medium showed no effect on the spontaneous mutant strain. Co-cultivation of the wild-type and the mutant strain indicated a competitive advantage of the spontaneous mutant (non-producing capsule in medium devoid of uracil. We propose a model in that uracil may act as a signal for the production of different capsule amounts in S. pneumoniae.

  2. Therapeutic applications of radioactive 131iodine: Procedures and incidents with capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Aamri, Marwa; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Treatments for thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma thyroid are carried out by oral administration of radioactive iodine ( 131 I) in the form of liquid or capsules. The liquid form of 131 I has higher risk factors such as vapourization, spillage and need for management of higher activity wastes. Use of 131 I in capsule form simplify procedures of handling compared to liquid form of 131 I. The guidelines of safe handling and quality assurance aspects for therapeutic use 131 I are well outlined by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports. A few unusual incidents with I-131 capsules encountered in the past need to be highlighted from health physics point of view. In Royal Hospital, Oman, I-131 is imported in capsules, and the total activity handled/year steadily increased over 10 years. Discrete activities range from 185 MBq (5 mCi) up to 7.4 GBq (200 mCi). In four incidents deviations in standard operational procedures were recorded. Nature of incidents is described as follows: (1) After assay of activity, the capsule was directly put in the lead container with missing of inner cap. (2) Patient poured water in the Perspex tube, when the capsule was handed over to her, making an emergency situation. (3) In 3 high activity capsules (2 nos 2.96 GBq, 1 no. 4.26 GBq), observed sticky behavior in capsule holder on the 2 nd day post receipt, which were in order on the 1 st day. (4) A capsule could not be swallowed by a patient, which was taken back from the mouth. Monitoring of patient later did not show residual ingested activity. The report documents some of the unusual incidents for information to other centers engaged in such radioactive administrations

  3. Analysis of mechanical property data obtained from nuclear pressure vessel surveillance capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A typical pressure vessel surveillance capsule examination program provides mechanical property data from tensile, Charpy V-notch impact, and, in some cases, fracture mechanics specimens. This data must be analyzed in conjunction with the unirradiated baseline mechanical property data to determine the effect of irradiation on the mechanical properties. In the case of Charpy impact specimens, for example, irradiation typically causes an increase in the transition temperature, and a decrease in the upper shelf energy level. The results of the Charpy impact and other mechanical specimen tests must be evaluated to determine if property changes are occurring in the manner expected when the reactor was put into service. The large amount of data obtained from surveillance capsule examinations in recent years enables one to make fairly good predictions. After the changes in the mechanical properties of specimens from a particular surveillance capsule have been experimentally determined and evaluated, they must be related to the reactor pressure vessel. This requires a knowledge of the neutron fluence of the surveillance capsule, and the ratio of the surveillance capsule fluence to the pressure vessel wall fluence. This ratio is frequently specified by the reactor manufacturer, or can be calculated from a knowledge of the geometry and materials of the reactor components inside the pressure vessel. A knowledge of the exact neutron fluence of the capsule specimens and the capsule to vessel wall neutron fluence ratio is of great importance, since inaccuracies in these numbers cause just as serious a problem as inaccuracies in the mechanical property determinations. A further area causing analysis difficulties is problems encountered in recent capsule programs relating to capsule design, construction, operation, and dismantling. (author)

  4. Successful retrieval of retained video capsule endoscope using double balloon enteroscope: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Jagdishprasad Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Video capsule endoscopy is now the first-line tool in evaluating and diagnosing obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, inflammatory bowel disease, and small bowel neoplasms. Capsule retention is an uncommon but clinically significant complication. How to best retrieve these retained capsules is currently being debated. In this case report, we describe a retained capsule successfully retrieved using double-balloon enteroscopy. This case also highlights the fact that capsule retention can occur even in the absence of signs and symptoms suggestive of intestinal obstruction.

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  6. Biopsy applications of Ti50Ni41Cu9 shape memory films for wireless capsule endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hejun; Fu, Yongqing; Zhang, S.; Luo, Jack K.; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Milne, William I.

    2004-02-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a new technology to evaluate the patient with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. However, there is still some deficiency existing in the current WCE, for example, lack of ability to biopsy and precisely locate the pathology. This study aimed to prepare and characterize TiNiCu shape memory alloy thin films for developing microgripper for biopsy (tissue sampling and tagging) applications. Ti50Ni41Cu9 thin films were prepared by co-sputtering of TiNi and Cu targets, and their transformation temperatures were slightly above that of human body. Results from differential scanning calorimetry, in-situ X-ray diffraction, curvature and electrical resistance measurement revealed clearly martensitic transformation of the deposited TiNiCu films upon heating and cooling. The biocompatibility of the TiNiCu films in the simulated gastric and intestinal solutions was also studied. Results showed the release of Ni and Cu ions is much less than the toxic level and the film did not lose shape memory effect even after 10-day immersion in the simulated solutions. TiNiCu/Si micro-cantilevers with and without electrodes were fabricated using the conventional micromachining methods and apparent shape memory effect upon heating and cooling was demonstrated.

  7. Cubesat Application for Planetary Entry (CAPE) Missions: Micro-Return Capsule (MIRCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    The Cubesat Application for Planetary Entry Missions (CAPE) concept describes a high-performing Cubesat system which includes a propulsion module and miniaturized technologies capable of surviving atmospheric entry heating, while reliably transmitting scientific and engineering data. The Micro Return Capsule (MIRCA) is CAPE's first planetary entry probe flight prototype. Within this context, this paper briefly describes CAPE's configuration and typical operational scenario, and summarizes ongoing work on the design and basic aerodynamic characteristics of the prototype MIRCA vehicle. CAPE not only opens the door to new planetary mission capabilities, it also offers relatively low-cost opportunities especially suitable to university participation. In broad terms, CAPE consists of two main functional components: the "service module" (SM), and "CAPE's entry probe" (CEP). The SM contains the subsystems necessary to support vehicle targeting (propulsion, ACS, computer, power) and the communications capability to relay data from the CEP probe to an orbiting "mother-ship". The CEP itself carries the scientific instrumentation capable of measuring atmospheric properties (such as density, temperature, composition), and embedded engineering sensors for Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). The first flight of MIRCA was successfully completed on 10 October 2015 as a "piggy-back" payload onboard a NASA stratospheric balloon launched from Ft. Sumner, NM.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, stability evaluation and release kinetics of fiber-encapsulated carotene nano-capsules

    OpenAIRE

    Sen Gupta, S.; Ghosh, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, carotenoids were isolated (1.2%) from crude palm oil and encapsulated with isabgol fiber (Psyllium husk). The efficiency of encapsulation was 82.23±1.42%. The morphology of the capsules showed rough surface texture with minimal pores. The amorphous natures of the nano-capsules was obvious from X-ray diffraction patterns. DSC studies showed high thermal stability of the nano-capsules between 20–120 °C. In vitro release studies revealed that controlled release from the nano...

  9. Thermalhydraulic design of non-instrumented capsule for irradiation experiments in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok Hoon; Ji, Dae Young

    1999-01-01

    It has been possible that various kinds of irradiation experiments are proceeded through the construction of HANARO. The non-instrumented capsule was designed for life time evaluation of nuclear material. The thermalhydraulic design of non-instrumented capsule was divided into two parts. Firstly, pressure drop experiments was performed to satisfy allowable limits on pressure drop and coolant flow rate for experimental hole IR-1 inside HANARO core. The tube diameter and lower part design of non-instrumented capsule was decided from the experiment. Secondly, thermal design to control the maximum specimen temperature was conducted by GENGTC one dimensional program

  10. The Capsule Is a Virulence Determinant in the Pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida M1404 (B:2)

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, John D.; Adler, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Capsules from a range of pathogenic bacteria are key virulence determinants, and the capsule has been implicated in virulence in Pasteurella multocida. We have previously identified and determined the nucleotide sequence of the P. multocida M1404 (B:2) capsule biosynthetic locus (J. D. Boyce, J. Y. Chung, and B. Adler, Vet. Microbiol. 72:121–134, 2000). The cap locus consists of 15 genes, which can be grouped into three functional regions. Regions 1 and 3 contain genes proposed to encode prot...

  11. Correlation between functional disability and quality of life in patients with adhesive capsulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcos Rassi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between functional disability and quality of life of patients with adhesive capsulitis. METHODS: Two instruments (WHOQOL-BREF and DASH) were applied to evaluate the quality of life and functional capacity of patients with adhesive capsulitis. Inclusion criteria were age between 35 and 75 years old and achievement of shoulder imaging. Each domain of the WHOQOL-BREF was correlated with DASH. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for parametric variables and Spearman's correlation coefficient was used when at least one variable had a non-normal distribution. The level of significance was p adhesive capsulitis. Level of Evidence IV, Prospective Study. PMID:27069405

  12. Intestinal absorption of coenzyme Q(10) administered in a meal or as capsules to healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Christine; Bysted, Anette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1997-01-01

    A randomized cross-over study by supplementation with single doses of coenzyme Q(10) (30 mg/person), administered either as a meal consisting of cooked pork heart or as 30 mg coenzyme Q(10) capsules was performed to investigate the bioavailability of dietary coenzyme Q(10) in humans. The increase...... in serum coenzyme Q(10) concentration was used as an index of the absorption, and reached a maximum six hours after the ingestion of either meal or capsules. Following intake of coenzyme Q(10) capsules, the serum coenzyme Q(10) concentrations increased significantly (p...

  13. The Cryptococcus neoformans capsule: lessons from the use of optical tweezers and other biophysical tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Bruno; Frases, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals, representing one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients. The main virulence factor of C. neoformans is the polysaccharide capsule; however, many fundamental aspects of capsule structure and function remain poorly understood. Recently, important capsule properties were uncovered using optical tweezers and other biophysical techniques, including dynamic and static light scattering, zeta potential and viscosity analysis. This review provides an overview of the latest findings in this emerging field, explaining the impact of these findings on our understanding of C. neoformans biology and resistance to host immune defenses. PMID:26157436

  14. Evaluation of aluminum capsules according to ISO 9978 to irradiation of gaseous samples in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Osvaldo L. da.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Souza, Daiane C.B.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Souza, Carla D.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Henrique B.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gas irradiation in research nuclear reactors is an important way to produce radionuclides. Although some nuclear reactors centers offer this type of service, there are few publications about capsules to irradiation of gaseous samples. This paper describes a method to fabricate and evaluate aluminum capsules to irradiate gaseous samples in nuclear reactor. A semi-circular slotted die from a hydraulic press head was modified to seal aluminum tubes. The aluminum capsules were subjected to leak detection tests, which demonstrated the accordance with standard ISO 9978. (author)

  15. In vitro evaluation of extemporaneously compounded slow-release capsules containing morphine sulfate or oxycodone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowiak, Dana L; Green, Julie L; Bowman, Bill J

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro performance of extemporaneously compounded morphine sulfate and oxycodone hydrochloride slow-release capsules was evaluated. Capsules containing varying amoutns of morphine sulfate (15, 60, 200 mg) or oxycodone hydrochloride (10, 80, 200 mg) were prepared and provided by a Phoenix, Arizona, pharmacy. The capsules also contained 40% Methocel E4M Premium to slow the release of their active ingredient and sufficient lactose to fill the capsules. Three batches of each capsule strength were prepared, and replicates from each batch were evlauated using United Stated Pharmacopeia dissolution apparatus II. Samples were taken at regular time intervals over 24 hours. After 1 hour the pH of the dissolution medium was adjusted form 1.2 to 4.0, and after 2 hours the pH was adjusted to 6.8. The amount of drug released at each time point was determined spectrophotometrically. The compounded capsules released 14% to 23%, 67% to 85% and 93% to 98% of their active ingredient after 0.5, 4 and 12 hours, respectively. The relative standard deviations between the replicates from each batch were less than 10% for most time points. The percent of drug released over the first 4 hours was linear (r squared = 0.9409-0.9999) when plotted versus time 1/2, indicating adherence to the simplified Higuchi model. Statistical analysis of the Higuchi dissolution constants indicated a significant difference (P less than 0.05) between batch No.3 and the other two batches of 200-mg oxycodone hydrochloride capsules. There was also a statistical difference between most of the Higuchi dissolution constants for the different-strength slow-release capsules and most slow-release capsules and equivalent strength controlled-release manufactured tablets (P less than 0.05). Using 40% Methocel E4M Premium slowed the release of morphine sulfate and oxycodone hydrochloride from extemporaneously compounded capsules. The in vitro performance of the slow-release capsules showed little intrabatch variation

  16. [Clinical value of wireless capsule endoscopy in diagnosis of small bowel disease in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Zhang, Bing-ling; Chen, Chun-xiao; Li, Fu-bang; Huang, Xiao-lei; Wang, Pei-xin; Chen, Jie

    2009-10-01

    The pathological change of small bowel is difficult to examine because it is anatomically unique. The development of wireless capsule endoscopy provides an unique opportunity to visualize the entire small bowel in a minimally invasive manner. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and clinical value of wireless capsule endoscopy in children. During the last 4 years (June, 2004-June, 2008), 46 times of wireless capsule endoscopy were performed in 43 patients with suspected small bowel disease, including obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 11), recurrent abdominal pain (n = 20), chronic diarrhea (n = 9), protein losing enteropathy (n = 2), recurrent vomiting (n = 1). Of the 43 cases, 28 were male and 15 were female, the age ranged from 6 to 18 years, 8 of these cases were capsule passing through the stomach and the small intestine, the tolerance to and complication of wireless capsule endoscopy in patients, the image quality of capsule endoscopy, and the cleanliness of small intestine after fasting for 8 hours were observed and recorded. All the patients could easily swallow the capsule and had good tolerance. The overall success rate was 94% (43/46). The median time of capsule passing through the stomach and small intestine was 73 min (range, 3 - 600 min) and 246 min (range, 73 - 413 min), respectively. The diagnostic yield of pathological change in small intestine was 90% (37/41), and the diagnostic accordance rate was 84% (31/37). Based on the wireless capsule endoscopy, diagnostic findings included Crohn's diseases (15), lymph follicular hyperplasia (4), nonspecific enteritis (4), vascular malformations (3), small bowel tumour (2), primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (2), gastrointestinal motility disorders (2), Meckel's diverticulum (1), angioma (1), small intestinal worm disease (1), duodenal ulcer (1), and polyposis syndromes (1). The capsule of 1 patient remained in the stomach. The cleanliness of small intestine after 8 hours fasting was good. And

  17. Squeezing bio-capsules into a constriction: deformation till break-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Anne; Kaoui, Badr; Kurzawa, Gaetan; Haszon, Boglárka; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2017-10-25

    We study experimentally the deformation and break-up of liquid-filled capsules trapped at an axisymmetric step constriction, and subjected to increasing pressure drops. We considered biological (trout fish eggs) and bioartificial (made of ovalbumin and alginate) ones, with the objective to characterize the transition to break-up. We find that both capsule populations behave as a brittle material. They do not exhibit any plastic deformation prior to break-up. Moreover critical pressure drop exhibits a stochastic behavior as known for the fracture of disordered media. The break-up probability follows a three-parameter Weibull distribution, from which one can deduce the capsule rupture characteristics.

  18. Semisolid matrix-filled hard gelatin capsules for rapid dissolution of amlodipine besilate: Development and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to prepare semisolid capsules (SSCs of poorly water-soluble drug amlodipine besilate (AB using a combination of technologies involving solid dispersion (SD preparation and converting it into semisolid matrix filled in hard gelatin capsules (termed as SSCs with the aim of reducing lag time in drug release and to improve the dissolution rate. AB is used for its anti-arrhythmic, anti-anginal, and anti-hypertensive activity. These are the emergency activities which should be treated as fast as possible like in the case of angina attack (heart attack. Any lag time that is generated due to its poor dissolution can add on in this emergency and that can be avoided by developing a readily dissolvable formulation: SDs of AB. SD of AB was prepared by fusion method using varying combinations of Poloxamer 407 and Plasdone S630. A total of nine batches (SD1−SD9 were characterized for the in vitro dissolution behavior in phosphate buffer pH7.4. SD8 with 95.8% cumulative drug release in 60 min, t50% = 4.1 min and DE 30 Min = 84.2% were selected for the development of the semisolid matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry of SD8 revealed molecular dispersion of AB and Plasdone S630 in Poloxamer 407. SD8 was then formulated as SSCs using gelucire 44/14 and PEG 400 as semisolid components and PEG 6000 as a suspending agent to achieve the reduction in lag time for drug release. A total of seven SSC formulations were prepared and evaluated for drug release. Formulation of SSC4 showed maximum cumulative drug release (CDR of 98.9% within 20 min that was almost a threefold reduction in the time required to achieve similar CDR by SD of AB. Thus, SSCs present an excellent approach to enhance the dissolution as well as to reduce the lag time of dissolution for poor water-soluble drugs especially to those therapeutic classes that are intended for faster onset of action.

  19. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the U.S. Capsules in the AGR-2 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybeck, Nancy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Einerson, Jeffrey J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pham, Binh T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hawkes, Grant L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN-3636). The AGR-2 test was inserted in the B-12 position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in June 2010 and successfully completed irradiation in October 2013, resulting in irradiation of the TRISO fuel for 559.2 effective full power days (EFPDs) during approximately 3.3 calendar years. The AGR-2 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) (Pham and Einerson 2014). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as-run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of four AGR-2 U.S. capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in (Hawkes 2014). The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume-average fuel temperature and peak fuel temperature in each capsule. This thermal model involves complex physical mechanisms (e.g., graphite holder and fuel compact shrinkage) and properties (e.g., conductivity and density). Therefore, the thermal model predictions are affected by uncertainty in input parameters and by incomplete knowledge of the underlying physics leading to modeling assumptions. Therefore, alongside with the deterministic predictions from a set of input thermal conditions, information about prediction uncertainty is instrumental for the ART

  20. DOTD standards for GPS data collection accuracy : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), which includes GPS technologies : maintained by the United States, are used extensively throughout government : and industry. These technologies continue to revolutionize positional data : collection acti...